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1

Description of Day-to-Day Variability in IRI  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The International Reference Ionosphere (IRI) describes the monthly average behavior of Earth's ionosphere based on most of the accessible and reliable ground and space observations of ionospheric parameters. IRI is doing an excellent job in accurately representing these average conditions as countless comparisons with additional data have shown and as acknowledged by the fact that international organizations (COSPAR, URSI, ISO, ECSS) have accepted IRI as their ionosphere standard. However, with our ever-increasing dependence on space technology it has become important to go beyond the monthly averages and to provide a description of the day-to-day variability of the ionosphere. We will review past and ongoing efforts to provide IRI users with a quantitative description of ionospheric variability depending on altitude, time of day, time of year, latitude and solar and magnetic activity. We will present new results from an analysis of ISIS and Alouette topside sounder data. The IRI team is also pursuing the development of an IRI Real-Time (IRI-RT) that uses assimilative algorithms or updating procedures to combine IRI with real-time data for a more accurate picture of current ionospheric conditions. We will review the status of these activities and report on latest results.

Bilitza, Dieter; Liu, Boding; Rodriguez, Joseph E.

2013-04-01

2

Investigation of observed day-to-day variability in September mesopause region tidal-period perturbations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Simultaneous observations of the tidal-period perturbations (diurnal, semidiurnal, .etc) of temperature, zonal wind, and meridional wind in the mesopause region (80km-105km) by the CSU two-beam Na lidar system in Fort Collins, Colorado between UT day 264 and 272, September 2003 (a 9-day continuous campaign) indicate a dramatic day-to-day variability on tidal amplitudes. Further analysis on the dataset with best fit

T. Li; B. P. Williams; C. She; H. Liu

2004-01-01

3

Day-to-day ionospheric variability due to lower atmosphere perturbations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Abstract Ionospheric <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> is a ubiquitous feature, even in the absence of appreciable geomagnetic activities. Although meteorological perturbations have been recognized as an important source of the <span class="hlt">variability</span>, it is not well represented in previous modeling studies and the mechanism is not well understood. This study demonstrates that the thermosphere-ionosphere-mesosphere-electrodynamics general circulation model (TIME-GCM) constrained in the stratosphere and mesosphere by the hourly whole atmosphere community climate model (WACCM) simulations is capable of reproducing observed features of <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> in the thermosphere-ionosphere. Realistic weather patterns in the lower atmosphere in WACCM were specified by Modern Era Retrospective Reanalysis for Research and Application (MERRA). The <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> variations in mean zonal wind, migrating and nonmigrating tides in the thermosphere, vertical and zonal E × B drifts, and ionosphere F2 layer peak electron density (NmF2) are examined. The standard deviations of the drifts and NmF2 show local time and longitudinal dependence that compare favorably with observations. Their magnitudes are 50% or more of those from observations. The <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> thermosphere and ionosphere <span class="hlt">variability</span> in the model is primarily caused by the perturbations originated in lower atmosphere, since the model simulation is under constant solar minimum and low geomagnetic conditions.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Liu, H.-L.; Yudin, V. A.; Roble, R. G.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">4</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011SoPh..274..457W"> <span id="translatedtitle">Ionospheric <span class="hlt">Day-to-Day</span> <span class="hlt">Variability</span> Around the Whole Heliosphere Interval in 2008</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Ionospheric F2 peak electron densities (NmF2) measured at ten ionosonde stations have been analyzed to investigate ionospheric <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> around the Whole Heliosphere Interval (WHI) in 2008 (Day of Year (DOY) 50 - 140). The ionosonde data showed that there was significant global <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> in NmF2. This <span class="hlt">variability</span> had 5-, 7-, 9-, 11-, 13.5-, and 16 - 21-day periodicities. At middle latitudes, the ionosphere appeared to respond directly to the solar-wind and interplanetary-magnetic-field (IMF) induced geomagnetic-activity forcing, with the <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> having the same periods as those in the solar-wind/IMF and geomagnetic activity. At the geomagnetic Equator, the ionosphere had a strong 7-day periodicity, corresponding to the same periodicity in the IMF B z component. In the equatorial anomaly region, the ionosphere showed more complicated <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span>, dominated by the 9-day periodicity. In addition, there were also periodicities of 11 days and 16 - 21 days in the ionosonde data at some stations. The ionosonde data were compared with the Coupled Magnetosphere Ionosphere Thermosphere (CMIT) simulations that were driven by the observed solar-wind and IMF data during the WHI. The CMIT simulations showed similar ionospheric daily <span class="hlt">variability</span> seen in the data. They captured the positive and negative responses of the ionosphere at middle latitudes during the first corotating interaction region (CIR) event in the WHI. The response of the model to the second CIR event, however, was relatively weak.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wang, Wenbin; Lei, Jiuhou; Burns, Alan G.; Qian, Liying; Solomon, Stanley C.; Wiltberger, Michael; Xu, Jiyao</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">5</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.agu.org/journals/ja/ja0803/2007JA012661/2007JA012661.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Optical observations of the growth and <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> of equatorial plasma bubbles</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">A new narrow-field ionospheric imaging system, the Portable Ionospheric Camera and Small-Scale Observatory, has been installed at the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory near La Serena, Chile (geographic 30.17°S, 289.19°E; geomagnetic 16.72°S, 0.42°E). We present observations of the naturally occurring nightglow emission at 630.0 nm on three consecutive nights demonstrating the <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> in the occurrence of equatorial plasma bubbles or</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">J. J. Makela; E. S. Miller</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">6</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/42011650"> <span id="translatedtitle">Optical observations of the growth and <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> of equatorial plasma bubbles</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">A new narrow-field ionospheric imaging system, the Portable Ionospheric Camera and Small-Scale Observatory, has been installed at the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory near La Serena, Chile (geographic 30.17°S, 289.19°E geomagnetic 16.72°S, 0.42°E). We present observations of the naturally occurring nightglow emission at 630.0 nm on three consecutive nights demonstrating the <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> in the occurrence of equatorial plasma bubbles or</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">J. J. Makela; E. S. Miller</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">7</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AGUSMSA43C..02T"> <span id="translatedtitle">On Large-Scale Wave Structure and <span class="hlt">Day-to-day</span> <span class="hlt">Variability</span> in Equatorial Spread F</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Attempts continue to be made to uncover the source of <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> in the occurrence of equatorial spread F (ESF). Most have searched for the source (without much success) in parameters usually included in expressions of the linear growth rate of the generalized Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instability. The difficulty could be that there is still some missing physics in this description of ESF generation. A possibility could be Hall polarization produced by a perturbation displacement in the altitude of a sporadic-E (Es) layer; the polarization electric field that arises would map to the base of the equatorial F layer, where it could enhance the RT growth rate. Inclusion of a coupled response to the RT instability would seem to introduce enough <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> uncertainty into what should otherwise be a close relationship between the post-sunset rise of the F layer and ESF development.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Tsunoda, R. T.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">8</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2900433"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Day-to-Day</span> <span class="hlt">Variability</span> of Median Nerve Location within the Carpal Tunnel</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Background Carpal tunnel syndrome is a commonly encountered entrapment disorder resulting from mechanical insult to the median nerve. MRI-based investigations have documented typical locations of the median nerve within the carpal tunnel; however, it is unclear whether those locations are consistent within an individual on different days. Methods To determine the <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> of nerve location, 3.0T MRI scans were acquired from six normal volunteers over multiple sessions on three different days. Half of the scans were acquired with the wrist in neutral flexion and the fingers extended, and the other half were acquired with the wrist in 35 degrees of flexion and the fingers flexed. Prior to half of the scans (in both poses), subjects performed a preconditioning routine consisting of specified hand activities and several repetitions of wrist flexion/extension. The shape, orientation, location, and location radius of <span class="hlt">variability</span> of the median nerve and three selected flexor tendons were determined for each subject and compared between days. Findings Two of the six subjects had substantial <span class="hlt">variability</span> in nerve location when the wrist was in neutral, and four of the subjects had high <span class="hlt">variability</span> in nerve position when the wrist was flexed. Nerve <span class="hlt">variability</span> was typically larger than tendon <span class="hlt">variability</span>. The preconditioning routine did not decrease nerve or tendon location <span class="hlt">variability</span> in either the neutral or the flexed wrist positions. Interpretation The high mobility and potential for large <span class="hlt">variability</span> in median nerve location within the carpal tunnel needs to be borne in mind when interpreting MR images of nerve location.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Goetz, Jessica E.; Thedens, Daniel R.; Kunze, Nicole M.; Lawler, Ericka A.; Brown, Thomas D.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">9</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006cosp...36..753R"> <span id="translatedtitle">A study of <span class="hlt">day</span> <span class="hlt">to</span> <span class="hlt">day</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> in geomagnetic field variations at the electrojet zone of Addis Ababa, East Africa</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Magnetic records obtained at low latitude geomagnetic observatory of Addis Ababa in Africa for the sunspot minimum year 1986 are analysed for <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> of the hourly amplitudes of Solar daily variation Direct measurement of the <span class="hlt">day</span> <span class="hlt">to</span> <span class="hlt">day</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> were measured using a proven differential expression The <span class="hlt">variability</span> was studied under quiet and disturbed conditions Quiet day <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> has consistent smooth and explicable diurnal and seasonal variation <span class="hlt">Day</span> <span class="hlt">to</span> <span class="hlt">day</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> in the elements H and Z have certain degrees of correlation with one another on both quiet and disturbed conditions It is suggested that <span class="hlt">day</span> <span class="hlt">to</span> <span class="hlt">day</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> is a reflection of solar daily variation and thus suggesting common cause for the two phenomena</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Rabiu, A. B.; Nagarajan, N.; Ariyibi, E. A.; Olayanju, G. M.; Joshua, E. O.; Chukwuma, V. U.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">10</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009JGRA..114.4304A"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Day-to-day</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> in the development of plasma bubbles associated with geomagnetic disturbances</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The development of equatorial ionospheric irregularities into large-scale ionospheric plasma bubbles continues to be an active area for scientific investigations. In this paper, we present simultaneous OI 630.0-nm emission all-sky imaging observations carried out at the Astrophysics National Laboratory (LNA), Brazopolis (22.5°S, 45.6°W, altitude 1860 m) and ionospheric sounding observations carried out at Palmas (10.2°S, 48.2°W located close to the magnetic equator) and Sao Jose dos Campos (23.2°S, 45.9°W located under the southern crest of equatorial ionospheric anomaly, close to Brazopolis), Brazil, to study the <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> in the development of ionospheric plasma bubbles during both geomagnetically disturbed and quiet periods in September-October 2002. Also, we present simultaneous complementary phase fluctuation (ROT) data obtained from the global position system (GPS) meridional chain operated by the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistic (IBGE). On the three nights studied in the present investigation (one geomagnetically quiet and two geomagnetically disturbed), it has been observed that the geomagnetic disturbances, during this spring equinox period, have a strong effect on the generation and development of ionospheric plasma bubbles.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Abalde, J. R.; Sahai, Y.; Fagundes, P. R.; Becker-Guedes, F.; Bittencourt, J. A.; Pillat, V. G.; Lima, W. L. C.; Candido, C. M. N.; de Freitas, T. F.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">11</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008cosp...37....5A"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Day-to-day</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> in the development of plasma bubbles associated with geomagnetic disturbances</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The development of equatorial ionospheric irregularities into large-scale ionospheric plasma bubbles continues to be an active area for scientific investigations. In this paper we present simultaneous ionospheric sounding observations carried out at Palmas (10.2 S, 48.2 W; located close to the magnetic equator) and Sao Jose dos Campos (23.2 S, 45.9 W; located under the southern crest of equatorial ionospheric anomaly), and OI 630.0 nm emission all-sky imaging observations carried out at the Astrophysics National Laboratory (LNA), Brazopolis (22.5 S, 45.6 W, altitude 1860 m; located close to Sao Jose dos Campos), Brazil, to study the <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> in the development of ionospheric plasma bubbles during geomagnetic disturbance in September - October, 2002. Also, we present simultaneous complementary vertical total electron content (VTEC) and phase fluctuation data obtained from the GPS (Global Position System) meridional chain operated by Brazilian Network for Continuous Monitoring (RBMC). On the four nights studied in the present investigation (one geomagnetically quiet and three geomagnetically disturbed) it has been observed that the geomagnetic disturbances, during this spring-equinox period, show strong effect on the generation and development of ionospheric plasma bubbles.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Abalde Guede, Jose Ricardo; Abalde Guede, Jose Ricardo; Sahai, Yogeshwar; Fagundes, Paulo Roberto; Becker-Guedes, Fabio; Bittencourt, Jose A.; Pillat, Valdir G.; Lima, Washington L. C.; Nicoli Candido, Claudia Maria</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">12</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.agu.org/journals/ja/v101/iA11/96JA02332/96JA02332.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Nonlinear evolution of equatorial spread F 4. Gravity waves, velocity shear, and <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Production and evolution of plasma bubbles seeded by gravity waves in the equatorial F region are studied under different conditions using a computer simulation. The problem of <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> in the occurrence of equatorial spread F (ESF) is discussed. It is shown that gravity waves over a wide range of amplitude and wavelength are a very effective seed mechanism for</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Chao-Song Huang</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1996-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">13</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20181995"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Day-to-day</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> of physical activity of older adults living in the community.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The purpose of the study was to investigate whether a 24-hr recording period is sufficient to describe physical activity (PA) of 1 week for intraindividual comparison in older adults. Furthermore, the authors analyzed whether physical performance can be used as a surrogate marker of PA. PA was captured on 7 consecutive days by a body-fixed sensor in 44 community-dwelling older adults (80.75 +/- 4.05 yr). Mean times of walking and of "time on feet" of the group were 10.2 hr (+/- 3.5) and 35.1 hr (+/- 9.43), respectively. Intraindividual <span class="hlt">variabilities</span> of walking and of time on feet were 31.9% +/- 10.79% and 19.4% +/- 8.76%, respectively. Accumulated time of <span class="hlt">variables</span> of PA showed no differences between weekdays, with <span class="hlt">variabilities</span> of 3.8% and 1.8% for walking and time on feet, respectively. Association between Short Physical Performance Battery and PA was limited (walking r = .397, time on feet r = .41). PMID:20181995</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Nicolai, Simone; Benzinger, Petra; Skelton, Dawn A; Aminian, Kamiar; Becker, Clemens; Lindemann, Ulrich</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">14</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://sirius.bu.edu/aeronomy/2000JA000148_mendillo.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Testing the thermospheric neutral wind suppression mechanism for <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> of equatorial spread F</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The determination of the physical processes that cause the <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> of equatorial spread F (ESF) has long been one of the outstanding problems in terrestrial space physics. Within the context of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability model for ESF, mechanisms that either enhance or inhibit the growth of a seed perturbation offer potential sources of <span class="hlt">variability</span> that can be tested. In</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Michael Mendillo; John Meriwether; Manfred Biondi</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2001-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">15</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/41225634"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Day-to-day</span> body-image states: Prospective predictors of intra-individual level and <span class="hlt">variability</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Most body-image research has focused on the trait level of body-image evaluation, often neglecting the momentary fluctuations many people experience in everyday life. The present prospective study investigated whether theory-relevant body-image measures, perfectionistic self-presentation, and eating attitudes would predict average <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> body-image levels and their intra-individual <span class="hlt">variability</span>. A convenience sample consisted of 121 women from two universities. In Phase 1</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jonathan A. Rudiger; Thomas F. Cash; Megan Roehrig; J. Kevin Thompson</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">16</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AnGeo..25.1815Y"> <span id="translatedtitle">Statistical analysis on spatial correlation of ionospheric <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> by using GPS and Incoherent Scatter Radar observations</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this paper, the spatial correlations of ionospheric <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> are investigated by statistical analysis on GPS and Incoherent Scatter Radar observations. The meridional correlations show significant (>0.8) correlations in the latitudinal blocks of about 6 degrees size on average. Relative larger correlations of TEC's <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> <span class="hlt">variabilities</span> can be found between magnetic conjugate points, which may be due to the geomagnetic conjugacy of several factors for the ionospheric <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span>. The correlation coefficients between geomagnetic conjugate points have an obvious decrease around the sunrise and sunset time at the upper latitude (60°) and their values are bigger between the winter and summer hemisphere than between the spring and autumn hemisphere. The time delay of sunrise (sunset) between magnetic conjugate points with a high dip latitude is a probable reason. Obvious latitude and local time variations of meridional correlation distance, latitude variations of zonal correlation distance, and altitude and local time variations of vertical correlation distance are detected. Furthermore, there are evident seasonal variations of meridional correlation distance at higher latitudes in the Northern Hemisphere and local time variations of zonal correlation distance at higher latitudes in the Southern Hemisphere. These variations can generally be interpreted by the variations of controlling factors, which may have different spatial scales. The influences of the occurrence of ionospheric storms could not be ignored. Further modeling and data analysis are needed to address this problem. We suggest that our results are useful in the specific modeling/forecasting of ionospheric <span class="hlt">variability</span> and the constructing of a background covariance matrix in ionospheric data assimilation.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Yue, X.; Wan, W.; Liu, L.; Mao, T.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">17</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18089247"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Day-to-day</span> body-image states: prospective predictors of intra-individual level and <span class="hlt">variability</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Most body-image research has focused on the trait level of body-image evaluation, often neglecting the momentary fluctuations many people experience in everyday life. The present prospective study investigated whether theory-relevant body-image measures, perfectionistic self-presentation, and eating attitudes would predict average <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> body-image levels and their intra-individual <span class="hlt">variability</span>. A convenience sample consisted of 121 women from two universities. In Phase 1 of the study, participants completed an online battery of selected body-image and personality questionnaires. In Phase 2, participants went online to complete the dependent measure, the Body Image States Scale, once per evening over 10 days. As hypothesized, more favorable body-image state levels were associated with less investment in appearance for self-worth, less body-image disturbance, fewer body-image cognitive distortions, less disturbed eating attitudes, and lower body mass. Moreover, greater <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> body-image <span class="hlt">variability</span> was predicted by greater psychological investment in appearance, more body-image cognitive distortions, and higher perfectionistic self-presentation. Implications and future directions for research are discussed. PMID:18089247</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Rudiger, Jonathan A; Cash, Thomas F; Roehrig, Megan; Thompson, J Kevin</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-12-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">18</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JGRA..118.1813P"> <span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> longitudinal <span class="hlt">variability</span> of the global ionospheric density distribution at low latitudes during low solar activity</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">One important characteristic of longitudinal <span class="hlt">variability</span> of the ionosphere is the global wavenumber-4 signature. Recent investigations have focused mainly on the climatological pattern during daytime and evening sectors. We investigate the <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> of the wavenumber-4 structure of the longitudinal ionospheric density distribution using the global total electron content (TEC) measurements from Global Positioning Systems receivers on the ground. The quiet time (Kp ? 3) <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> occurrence of the wavenumber-4 is obtained during periods of low solar flux conditions for the years 2008 and 2009. We find that the wavenumber-4 structure occurs at all local time sectors; however, the daytime TEC wavenumber-4 structures are clearer and can persist until the midnight hours. The most significant occurrence is observed during the 1000-2400 LT sector while the minimum number of wavenumber-4 structure is observed between the 0400 and 0600 LT sector. Around the nighttime sector, more wavenumber-4 occurrence is observed during the premidnight sector than the postmidnight hours. The seasonal occurrence probability of the wavenumber-4 pattern is at a maximum during the March-April equinox and June-July solstice. December-January is the period when the wavenumber-4 occurrence is less dominant than the rest of the year.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Pacheco, E. E.; Yizengaw, E.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">19</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008GeoRL..3520804A"> <span id="translatedtitle">Total ozone and solar erythemal irradiance in southwestern Spain: <span class="hlt">Day-to-day</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> and extreme episodes</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper focuses on the influence of short-term changes in total ozone column (TOC) on the <span class="hlt">variability</span> of ultraviolet erythemal irradiance (UVER) at Badajoz (southwestern Spain). The study is performed on clear sky cases when the contribution of cloudiness and aerosols can be neglected. The period of study extends from 2001 to 2005. The results show that a reduction of 5% in TOC between two consecutive days may cause an increase of about 10% in UVER. The UVER <span class="hlt">variability</span> associated to <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> changes in TOC presents a clear seasonal cycle with minimum values in summer and maximum in winter. Considering the monthly mean TOC value plus/minus two standard deviation as thresholds for identifying extreme events, the number of episodes with extreme low and high ozone amount was 54 and 9, respectively. The low ozone events occurred mainly in winter, causing a maximum increase of 30% in UVER.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Antón, M.; Serrano, A.; Cancillo, M. L.; García, J. A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">20</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.npr.org/templates/rundowns/rundown.php?prgId=17"> <span id="translatedtitle">NPR: <span class="hlt">Day</span> <span class="hlt">to</span> <span class="hlt">Day</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Hosted by award-winning National Public Radio (NPR) correspondent Alex Chadwick, <span class="hlt">Day</span> <span class="hlt">to</span> <span class="hlt">Day</span> is a way for regular NPR listeners to listen to smart news coverage during the middle of the day or during their lunch-hour. Fortunately, <span class="hlt">Day</span> <span class="hlt">to</span> <span class="hlt">Day</span> is available online, complete with an archive dating back to January 2003. Produced in the NPR West office in Los Angeles, and includes a number of NPR regulars and contributors from the online publication Slate. <span class="hlt">Day</span> <span class="hlt">to</span> <span class="hlt">Day</span> also features the helpful daily reports from the Minnesota Public Radio show, Marketplace, which is "an informative conversation about business and economic news". Other regular features on <span class="hlt">Day</span> <span class="hlt">to</span> <span class="hlt">Day</span> include commentaries on recent music releases from independent music critic Christian Bordal and curious and novel exposes and reports on the "odd underbelly" of the City of Angels, direct from Southern California.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" 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showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">21</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013GeoRL..40.4469P"> <span id="translatedtitle">Application of data assimilation in the Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model to the study of <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> in the middle and upper atmosphere</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Data Assimilation Research Testbed (DART) ensemble adjustment Kalman filter (EAKF) is employed to perform data assimilation in the Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model (WACCM). To demonstrate the potential of the WACCM+DART for studying short-term <span class="hlt">variability</span> in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere (MLT), results are presented based on the assimilation of synthetic observations that are sampled from a known model truth. We assimilate <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and wind from radiosondes and aircraft, satellite drift winds, and COSMIC refractivity in the lower atmosphere, and SABER <span class="hlt">temperature</span> observations in the middle/upper atmosphere. Relative to an unconstrained WACCM simulation, the assimilation of only lower atmosphere observations reduces the global root mean square error (RMSE) in zonal wind by up to 40% at MLT altitudes. Using data assimilation to constrain the lower atmosphere can therefore provide significant insight into MLT <span class="hlt">variability</span>. The RMSE in the MLT is reduced by an additional 10-15% when SABER observations are also assimilated. The WACCM+DART is shown to be able to reproduce the large-scale features of the <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> in the zonal mean, migrating, and nonmigrating tides in the MLT. Though our simulation results are based on idealized conditions, they demonstrate that the WACCM+DART can reproduce the <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> in the MLT. Assimilation of real observations in the WACCM+DART will therefore enable significant insight into the real <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> dynamical <span class="hlt">variability</span> from the surface to the lower thermosphere.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Pedatella, N. M.; Raeder, K.; Anderson, J. L.; Liu, H.-L.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">22</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001JGR...106.3655M"> <span id="translatedtitle">Testing the thermospheric neutral wind suppression mechanism for <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> of equatorial spread F</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The determination of the physical processes that cause the <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> of equatorial spread F (ESF) has long been one of the outstanding problems in terrestrial space physics. Within the context of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability model for ESF, mechanisms that either enhance or inhibit the growth of a seed perturbation offer potential sources of <span class="hlt">variability</span> that can be tested. In this study the hypothesis that enhanced thermospheric meridional winds play a critical role in suppressing ESF is examined during the Multi-Instrumented Studies of Equatorial Thermospheric Aeronomy (MISETA) campaign of September 1998. New, high-time-resolution Fabry-Perot interferometer (FPI) observations at 6300-Å nightglow made at Arequipa (Peru) provided the neutral wind measurements during the critical postsunset hours that had been sampled only sparsely in earlier morphology studies. Evidence of local ESF activity was obtained using GPS-based observations of phase fluctuations (Fp) and 6300-Å all-sky optical images from the same site. Additional GPS measurements of Fp and total electron content (TEC) from Bogota (Colombia) and Santiago (Chile) were used to determine the full flux tube development of ESF plumes and to characterize the F region morphology of the interhemispheric Appleton anomaly. Correlative studies between the nightly magnitudes of the meridional winds (Um), ESF activity (Fp), and indices describing the strength (Is) and asymmetry (Ia) of the Appleton anomaly offered no convincing evidence for the wind suppression mechanism. The best available precursor for premidnight ESF appeared to be the strength of the electrodynamically driven Appleton anomaly pattern at sunset. If one assumes that the required seed perturbation for ESF onset is essentially always available, then for all practical purposes, the magnitude of the eastward electric field that causes upward drift is both the necessary and sufficient parameter to forecast ESF with reasonable success. These results reconfirm 60 years of study pointing to the dominance of electrodynamical processes in the onset and growth of plasma instabilities at low latitudes.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Mendillo, Michael; Meriwether, John; Biondi, Manfred</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2001-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">23</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1991AnGeo...9..407H"> <span id="translatedtitle">Observations of <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> in the meridional semi-diurnal tide at 70 deg N</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Measurements of plasma velocity along the magnetic field line by EISCAT provide an estimate of the meridional neutral wind in the E-region. During March and April 1988 such observations were made during the pre-midnight period on fourteen separate evenings and the results were used to fit the amplitude and phase of the semidiurnal component of neutral velocity between 100 and 160 km altitude. Large variations in the dominating tidal modes were observed from <span class="hlt">day</span> <span class="hlt">to</span> <span class="hlt">day</span>, during geomagnetically active periods. Smaller changes were observed during five successive days of quiet geomagnetic conditions. The most stable feature was found to be the phase at 110 km; on 10 out of 14 cases studied the maximum southward velocity was encountered at 1800 LT to within 30 minutes. On three successive days a phase-height variation corresponding to the (2,4) tidal mode dominated below 130 km with phase varying less than ten minutes from <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span>, and the phase-height variation of the (2,2) mode was observed above 130 km. These observations indicate the presence of a stable tidal oscillation. However, even then the amplitude changed from <span class="hlt">day</span> <span class="hlt">to</span> <span class="hlt">day</span>, which is explained as a modulation produced by a planetary wave having a two-day period.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Huuskonen, A.; Virdi, T. S.; Jones, G. O. L.; Williams, P. J. S.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1991-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">24</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22349917"> <span id="translatedtitle">Individual differences in the <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> of pain, fatigue, and well-being in patients with rheumatic disease: associations with psychological <span class="hlt">variables</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This report examines <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> in rheumatology patients' ratings of pain and related quality-of-life <span class="hlt">variables</span> as well as predictors of that <span class="hlt">variability</span>. Data from 2 studies were used. The hypothesis was that greater psychological distress (i.e., depression and anxiety) and poorer coping appraisals (i.e., higher pain catastrophizing and lower self-efficacy) are associated with more <span class="hlt">variability</span>. Electronic daily diary ratings were collected from 106 patients from a community rheumatology practice across 28 days (study 1) and from 194 osteoarthritis patients across 7 days (study 2). In multilevel modeling analyses, substantial <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> was evident for all <span class="hlt">variables</span> in both studies, and individual patients differed considerably and somewhat reliably in the magnitude of their <span class="hlt">variability</span>. Higher levels of depression significantly predicted greater <span class="hlt">variability</span> in pain, as well as in happiness and frustration (study 1). Lower self-efficacy was associated with more <span class="hlt">variability</span> in patients' daily satisfaction with accomplishments and in the quality of their day (study 2). Greater pain catastrophizing and higher depression predicted more <span class="hlt">variability</span> in interference with social relationships (study 2). Anxiety was not significantly associated with <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span>. The results of these studies suggest that individual differences in the magnitude of symptom fluctuation may play a vital role in understanding patients' adjustment to pain. Future research will be needed to examine the clinical utility of measuring <span class="hlt">variability</span> in patients' pain and well-being, and to understand whether reducing <span class="hlt">variability</span> may be an important treatment target. PMID:22349917</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Schneider, Stefan; Junghaenel, Doerte U; Keefe, Francis J; Schwartz, Joseph E; Stone, Arthur A; Broderick, Joan E</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-02-19</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">25</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFMAE31A0261M"> <span id="translatedtitle">On <span class="hlt">Day-to-Day</span> <span class="hlt">Variability</span> of Global Lightning Activity as Quantified from Background Schumann Resonance Observations</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Among the palette of methods (satellite, VLF, ELF) for monitoring global lightning activity, observations of the background Schumann resonances (SR) provide a unique prospect for estimating the integrated activity of global lightning activity in absolute units (coul2 km2/sec). This prospect is ensured by the SR waves' low attenuation, with wavelengths commensurate with the dimensions of dominant regional lightning "chimneys", and by the accumulating methodology for background SR techniques. Another benefit is the reduction of SR measurements into a compact set of resonance characteristics (modal frequencies, intensities, and quality factors). Suggested and tested in numerical simulations by T.R. Madden in the 1960s, the idea to invert the SR characteristics for the global lightning source has been farther developed, statistically substantiated, and practically realized here on the basis of the computing power and the quantity of experimental material way beyond what the SR pioneers had at their disposal. The critical issue of the quality of the input SR parameters is addressed by implementing a statistically substantiated sanitizing procedure to dispose of the fragments of the observed time series containing unrepresentative elements - local interference of various origin and strong ELF transients originating outside the major "chimneys" represented in the source model. As a result of preliminary research, a universal empirical sanitizing criterion has been established. Due to the fact that the actual observations have been collected from a set of individually organized ELF stations with various equipment sets and calibration techniques, the relative parameters in both input (the intensities) and output (the "chimney" activities) are being used as far as possible in the inversion process to avoid instabilities caused by calibration inconsistencies. The absolute regional activities - and so the sought for global activity in absolute units - is determined in the final stage from the estimated positions and relative activities of the modeled "chimneys" using SR power spectra at the stations with the most reliable calibrations. Additional stabilization in the procedure has been achieved by exploiting the Le Come/Goltzman inversion algorithm that uses the empirically estimated statistical characteristics of the input parameters. When applied to electric and/or magnetic observations collected simultaneously in January 2009 from six ELF stations in Poland (Belsk), Japan (Moshiri), Hungary (Nagycenk), USA (Rhode Island), India (Shillong), and Antarctica (Syowa), the inversion procedure reveals a general repeatability of diurnal lightning scenarios with variations of "chimney" centroid locations by a few megameters, while the estimated regional activity has been found to vary from <span class="hlt">day</span> <span class="hlt">to</span> <span class="hlt">day</span> by up to several tens of percent. A combined empirical-theoretical analysis of the collected data aimed at selecting the most reliably calibrated ELF stations is presently in progress. All the effort is being made to transform the relative lightning activity into absolute units by the time of this meeting. The authors are greatly thankful to all the experimentalists who generously provided their observations and related information for this study.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Mushtak, V. C.; Williams, E. R.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">26</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/10606270"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Day-to-day</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> of equatorial and low latitude F-region ionosphere in the Indian zone</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The F-region <span class="hlt">variability</span> of the ionosphere during high solar activity periods have been studied using different hourly foF2 data from Indian stations, Thiruvananthapuram (8.5°N, 76.8°E), Kodaikanal (10.2°N, 77.5°E) near the Dip equator and Delhi (28.6°N, 77.2°E) located north of the equatorial ionization anomaly (EIA). During the study three types of changes have been observed, viz., single day abnormality, alternate day</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">R. S. Dabas; Neerja Sharma; M. G. K. Pillaii; A. K. Gwal</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">27</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011JASTP..73.1915S"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Day</span> <span class="hlt">to</span> <span class="hlt">day</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> of h?F and foF2 during some solar cycle epochs</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Comparison of the diurnal and seasonal changes of the <span class="hlt">variability</span> (VR) of the virtual height of reflection (h?F) and those of critical frequency of the F layer (foF2) is carried out at Ibadan (7.4°N, 3.9°E, 6°S dip) in the African sector. The effect of latitude on both characteristics is investigated by combining data from Singapore (1.3°N,103.8°E, 17.6°S dip) in the East Asian sector and Slough (51.5°N, 359.4°E, 66.5°S dip) in the European sector. The <span class="hlt">variability</span> of foF2 is found greater than that of h?F except during high solar activity when night-time h?F VR is about the same as night-time foF2 VR possibly due to high post-sunset rise in F region heights at this epoch. Both characteristics have pre-midnight and post-midnight peaks with the latter being the greater one at all epochs with the exception of all the seasons of 1958 but June Solstice, very likely because of the same greater F region height during maximum solar activity. Night-time foF2 VR is greater in September Equinox and June Solstice at all epochs while night-time h?F VR is greater in June Solstice during the three epochs, on a general note. No seasonal trend is observed in the daytime <span class="hlt">variability</span> of both characteristics during the three epochs except for h?F VR of December Solstice during high solar activity, which is greater than those of other seasons. VR of both parameters are found to increase and decrease alternately with Zurich sunspot number (Rz) at Ibadan and Singapore throughout the day. VR of foF2 at Slough is found to increase from midnight to 1300 h after which it alternates. Generally, post-midnight VR of both characteristics are greater than those of pre-midnight at low latitudes during all epochs while daytime VR are the least. At the mid-latitude station of Slough, foF2 VR is about the same throughout the hours of the day during 1968 and 1971, its post-midnight value is however greater than those of pre-midnight and daytime during 1970. Daytime h?F VR is greater than post- and pre-midnight values during 1968, but about the same throughout the hours of the day during 1971.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Somoye, E. O.; Akala, A. O.; Ogwala, A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">28</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007EP%26S...59.1197A"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Day-to-day</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> in the occurrence characteristics of Sq focus during d-months and its association with diurnal changes in the Declination component</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Scrutiny of the geomagnetic observations of the Declination component 'D' from equatorial and low-latitude locations in the Indian longitude revealed anomalous variations during d-months. Examination of the Quiet day (Ap?7) variations in the Declination component (Y in nT = H sin D) and Horizontal component (H) during the d-months (November, December, January, February) of the low solar activity year 1977 revealed the salient features associated with the <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> changes observed in Sq current system over the latitude chain in the Indo-Russian longitude. Diurnal variations in the east-west component Y and north-south component H were used to depict the effect of changes in the Sq current pattern for a selected set of Quiet days, which are classified into normal and abnormal days based on the trend in the variation of the Declination component. Normal days designated in the study clearly showed the expected pattern of variation in ? Y (eastward-directed field) in the morning hours and westward-directed field in the afternoon hours, and diurnal variation of ? H simultaneously showed the presence of northern Sq focus within the low-latitude range. In contrast, the abnormal days projected by the variation in ? Y and ? H on certain days of d-months showed an almost complete absence of the focus formation within the expected latitude extent. <span class="hlt">Day-to-day</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> characteristics of the Declination component discussed in the study are illustrated in relation to modifications in the expected Sq current system by the invasion of the prevalent southern hemisphere current whorl to the northern hemisphere during the winter months. Some of the anomalous changes observed in the <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> variation in the latitudinal pattern of ? Y and ? H components are also interpreted as suggesting an influence of high-latitude magnetospheric current systems on certain quiet days.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Alex, S.; Jadhav, M. M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">29</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009JGRA..114.4302B"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Day-to-day</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> of the equatorial ionization anomaly and scintillations at dusk observed by GUVI and modeling by SAMI3</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> in ionospheric irregularity generation giving rise to equatorial scintillation has remained an unresolved issue over many decades. We take a fresh look at the problem utilizing the global imagery provided by the Global Ultraviolet Imager (GUVI) instrument on NASA's Thermosphere, Ionosphere, Mesosphere Energetics and Dynamics satellite. GUVI has been acquiring images of 135.6-nm emission in the Earth's ionosphere-thermosphere system since 2001. These GUVI disk images at dusk have been used to identify cases where the equatorial ionization anomaly (EIA) crests lie near the magnetic equator over a relatively narrow longitude range, so that the anomaly looks collapsed. A 16-month period of GUVI data collected during evening at solar maximum is used to study the morphology of these so-called collapses, since the EIA collapse is shown to be linked to the suppression of equatorial plasma bubbles and scintillations. In particular, we look at the June solstice, during which the Atlantic and Pacific show very different climatology and EIA collapses are most frequent in the GUVI data. On the other hand, EIA collapses are a relatively rare occurrence during the equinox period when scintillations are most prevalent globally. We obtained a few dramatic examples of <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> in EIA behavior and scintillations over India. The Sami3 is Also a Model of the Ionosphere (SAMI3) model was used to investigate the conditions during the evening collapse of the anomaly in the Indian longitude sector, where measurements of total electron content (TEC) and scintillations and estimates of the daytime vertical drifts and those at dusk were available. Results from SAMI3 show that the observed collapse of the anomaly at dusk can be simulated by a reversal of the upward vertical drift in midafternoon in agreement with the drift estimates from magnetometer observations. Such reversed vertical drifts at this time of the day are generally seen during counterelectrojet events. Introduction of neutral winds into SAMI3 better approximates the dusk behavior of TEC at low-latitude stations in India. This study reveals that the longitudinally confined EIA collapse may explain some of the differences in <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> of scintillations at different locations around the globe.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Basu, Su.; Basu, S.; Huba, J.; Krall, J.; McDonald, S. E.; Makela, J. J.; Miller, E. S.; Ray, S.; Groves, K.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">30</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFMOS21B1501B"> <span id="translatedtitle">Evaluation of the new Mercator Global Eddy-Resolving (1/12) Ocean Model: Mean State and <span class="hlt">Day-to-Day</span> <span class="hlt">Variability</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Mercator Ocean has developed for operational oceanography application a global ocean high-resolution model (1/12), coupled with a sea ice model, based on the NEMO3.2 OGCM (OPA9 for the ocean part and LIM2 for the ice one). An inter annual experiment, performed with this configuration and driven by atmospheric ECMWF analyses over the period 1999 to 2007, has already shown promising results in terms of major currents pathways and the levels of their eddy kinetic energy. We have developed a new 1/12 configuration including an updated bathymetry from ETOPO1 and GEBCO08, new parameterizations (light penetration depending on Chlorophyll climatology, tidal mixing in the Indonesian through flow, CORE bulk formulae for air/sea exchanges), and an upgrade of the sea ice model with the EVP rheology. A new experiment with all these changes is then performed over the period 1999-2009 and driven by the ERAinterim reanalysis. Also, in order to better capture high frequency <span class="hlt">variability</span>, the atmospheric forcing is sampled to 3H conjointly with a diurnal cycle applied to the radiative atmospheric forcing. A new method of correction towards the satellite GEWEX dataset has been applied to reduce the warm bias present in the downwelling ERAinterim radiative fluxes. After a comparison between the previous and the new experiment, a validation with available datasets (in situ <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and salinity, altimetry, sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and sea ice satellite measurements) is presented. A particular focus is made on the impact of the diurnal cycle on the vertical mixing and mesoscale <span class="hlt">variability</span> resolved by the new 1/12 configuration.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bourdalle-Badie, R.; Bricaud, C.; Derval, C.; Drillet, Y.; Garric, G.; Le Galloudec, O.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">31</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/30229162"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Day-to-day</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> of global left ventricular functional and perfusional measurements by quantitative gated SPECT using Tc99m tetrofosmin in patients with heart failure due to coronary artery disease</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Background  Although myocardial gated single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) is routinely used for functional measurements\\u000a in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) and heart failure, <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> of left ventricular ejection fraction\\u000a (LVEF), left ventricular (LV) volumes, and global perfusion scoring has not yet been investigated.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods and Results  In 20 consecutive patients with CAD and an LVEF lower than 40%</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Olivier De Winter; Pieter De Bondt; Christophe Van De Wiele; Guy De Backer; Rudi A. Dierckx; Johan De Sutter</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">32</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=DE87751491"> <span id="translatedtitle">Procedures and Practices for <span class="hlt">Day-to-Day</span> Operation.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This lecture deals with problems of safe plant operation under <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> conditions. Operation, maintenance and surveillance have to be organized in a preventive manner. It will be shown that nearly all expected jobs and proceedings can be done rule-base...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">K. Distler</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1986-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">33</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/49483080"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Day-to-day</span> consistency of lower extremity kinematics during stair ambulation in 24–45 years old athletes</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Before making interpretations on the effects of interventions or on the features of pathological gait patterns during stair ambulation, the <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> consistency of the investigated <span class="hlt">variables</span> must be established. In this article, the <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> consistency was determined for kinematic <span class="hlt">variables</span> during barefoot stair ambulation. Ten healthy athletes performed two gait analysis sessions, at least one week apart, utilizing a marker</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Johanna Husa-Russell; Thomas Ukelo; Renate List; Silvio Lorenzetti; Peter Wolf</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">34</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=tobacco+AND+young+AND+adults&id=EJ999294"> <span id="translatedtitle">An Idiographic Examination of <span class="hlt">Day-to-Day</span> Patterns of Substance Use Craving, Negative Affect, and Tobacco Use among Young Adults in Recovery</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">|Psychological constructs, such as negative affect and substance use cravings that closely predict relapse, show substantial intraindividual <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span>. This intraindividual <span class="hlt">variability</span> of relevant psychological states combined with the "one day at a time" nature of sustained abstinence warrant a <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> investigation of substance…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Zheng, Yao; Wiebe, Richard P.; Cleveland, H. Harrington; Molenaar, Peter C. M.; Harris, Kitty S.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">35</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=media+AND+influence+AND+in+AND+gender+AND+roles&pg=7&id=ED400579"> <span id="translatedtitle">The Role of Books, Television, Computers and Video Games in Children's <span class="hlt">Day</span> <span class="hlt">to</span> <span class="hlt">Day</span> Lives.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">|A study assessed the role of various mass media in the <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> lives of school-aged children. Research questions dealt with the nature of children's media experiences at home, how use of media impacts school activities, the social context of media use, interior responses to different media, and whether gender or socioeconomic differences among…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Welch, Alicia J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">36</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=ADA582424"> <span id="translatedtitle">Effects of <span class="hlt">Day-to-Day</span> <span class="hlt">Variability</span> of Physiological Data on Operator Functional State Classification.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The application of pattern classification techniques to physiological data has undergone rapid expansion. Tasks as varied as the diagnosis of disease from magnetic resonance images, brain-computer interfaces for the disabled, and the decoding of brain fun...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">C. A. Russell G. F. Wilson J. C. Christensen J. R. Estepp K. M. Thomas</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">37</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ku.ac.ke/images/stories/docs/publications/enviromental_human/Elite-Kenyan-Endurance-Runners.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Elite Kenyan Endurance Runners are Hydrated <span class="hlt">Day-To-Day</span> with Ad Libitum Fluid Intake</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">FUDGE, B. W., C. EASTON, D. KINGSMORE, F. K. KIPLAMAI, V. O. ONYWERA, K. R. WESTERTERP, B. KAYSER, T. D. NOAKES, and Y. P. PITSILADIS. Elite Kenyan Endurance Runners are Hydrated <span class="hlt">Day-To-Day</span> with Ad Libitum Fluid Intake. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc., Vol. 40, No. 6, pp. 000-000, 2008. Previous studies of elite Kenyan endurance runners reported that athletes did not</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">BARRY W. FUDGE; CHRIS EASTON; DAVID KINGSMORE; FESTUS K. KIPLAMAI; VINCENT O. ONYWERA; KLAAS R. WESTERTERP; BENGT KAYSER; TIMOTHY D. NOAKES; YANNIS P. PITSILADIS</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">38</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.springerlink.com/index/mn3v52206202g8q2.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Effect of <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> variations in adrenal cortex hormone levels on abdominal symptoms</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Introduction  The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis is known to be related to abdominal symptoms, and the relationship between abdominal\\u000a pain and cortisol secretory patterns has been previously investigated using a cross-sectional approach. Here, we investigated\\u000a the effect of <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> variations in salivary cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate levels on abdominal symptoms in\\u000a healthy individuals.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Eleven college students (4 males and 7 females) participated in this</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Nagisa Sugaya; Shuhei Izawa; Namiko Ogawa; Kentaro Shirotsuki; Hitomi Kobayashi; Kosuke C Yamada; Hideki Tsumura; Shinobu Nomura; Hironori Shimada</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">39</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15603045"> <span id="translatedtitle">Intra-specimen and <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> variations of Fasciola egg counts in human stools.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Intra-specimen and <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> variations of Fasciola egg counts in stools were investigated for 16 cases of established fascioliasis. For each case six Kato slides from a single stool sample were examined daily for 5 consecutive days. The results indicated the presence of significant intra-specimen variations in more than one-third of the examined series, while the inter-specimen variation was almost negligible. The sensitivity of the Kato-Katz test for diagnosing Fasciola infection with three Kato slides from the same specimen or on different days ranged from 96.0%-99.1%. The examination of three Kato smears from a single stool specimen, which is more feasible in field studies, would give an accurate diagnosis of fascioliasis. Used as such, the Kato-Katz technique is highly sensitive in the diagnosis of fascioliasis. PMID:15603045</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">el-Morshedy, H; Shehab, A Y; Zaki, A; Farag, H F</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">40</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3172089"> <span id="translatedtitle">Assessment of <span class="hlt">Day-to-Day</span> Functioning in Prodromal and Early Huntington Disease</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Functional Rating Scale Taskforce for pre-Huntington Disease (FuRST-pHD) is a multinational, multidisciplinary initiative with the goal of developing a data-driven, comprehensive, psychometrically sound, rating scale for assessing symptoms and functional ability in prodromal and early Huntington disease (HD) gene expansion carriers. The process involves input from numerous sources to identify relevant symptom domains, including HD individuals, caregivers, and experts from a variety of fields, as well as knowledge gained from the analysis of data from ongoing large-scale studies in HD using existing clinical scales. This is an iterative process in which an ongoing series of field tests in prodromal (prHD) and early HD individuals provides the team with data on which to make decisions regarding which questions should undergo further development or testing and which should be excluded. We report here the development and assessment of the first iteration of interview questions aimed to assess functional impact in <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> activities in prHD and early HD individuals.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Vaccarino, Anthony L; Sills, Terrence; Anderson, Karen E.; Endicott, Jean; Giuliano, Joseph; Guttman, Mark; Ho, Aileen K; Kupchak, Peter; Paulsen, Jane S.; Warner, John H.; Williams, Janet; Evans, Ken</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" 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onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">41</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFMSA51D1654D"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Day-to-day</span> longitudinal variation of bubble occurrence over South America</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">VTEC GPS data from LISN Network from 2008 is being analyzed to get the ionospheric conditions that generate spread F irregularities, like bubbles, in the South American (SA) continent. Using Automatic Bubble Detection Algorithm (ABDA), it was possible to find bubble signatures (hundreds of kilometers scale size) between September and December months. The bubble occurrence pattern over SA in general follows the characteristics of bubbles detected previously with digisonde and satellite (e.g. DMSP, CHAMP) that are September-October in the west and November-December in the east. However we have observed bubbles signatures all over the continent among September to December period. Digisonde ionospheric parameters (NmF2, h'F and foF2) were measured to describe the ionospheric local conditions over Fortaleza (Brazil) and Jicamarca (Peru) that can help us to understand the characteristics of the phenomena described here. Digisonde data from Fortaleza located at 3.8S, 38W and 9S dip latitude, and Jicamarca located at 12S, 76.9W and 1N dip latitude were used to measure the <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> longitudinal variation. We will show the variation of NmF2, h'F and foF2 in these two stations when spread F (bubble) presence is in the east, in the west and all over the continent.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">de La Cruz Cueva, R.; Valladares, C. E.; Batista, I. S.; de Paula, E. R.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">42</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16757986"> <span id="translatedtitle">Destigmatizing <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> practices: what developed countries can learn from developing countries.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The nature of and threshold for stigma associated with mental disorders appears to be different between developed and developing countries. Decreasing stigma can be achieved through a combination of the best Western educational and media strategies and the systematization of some important lessons from developing countries. At the macro-level, this involves: societal changes leading to being more inclusive and re-integrating people with mental illness into our communities; finding socially useful and culturally valued work roles for such marginalized people; re-extending our kinship networks, and re-valuing contact with people with mental illness and learning from their experiences. At the micro-level, this involves developing more destigmatizing <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> clinical practices, including: more holistic appraisal of disorder, abilities and needs; therapeutic optimism; a strengths orientation; engaging family and redeveloping an extended support network; celebration of age appropriate rites of passage; invoking the language of recovery; valuing veterans of mental illness as "spirit guides"; promoting consumers' community living as full citizens; engaging and involving the local community in taking responsibility for their own mental health. PMID:16757986</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Rosen, Alan</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">43</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2811605"> <span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">Day-to-Day</span> Impact of Urogenital Aging: Perspectives from Racially/Ethnically Diverse Women</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">ABSTRACT BACKGROUND Urogenital symptoms affect up to half of women after menopause, but their impact on women’s <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> functioning and wellbeing is poorly understood. METHODS Postmenopausal women aged 45 to 80 years reporting urogenital dryness, soreness, itching, or pain during sex were recruited to participate in in-depth focus groups to discuss the impact of their symptoms. Focus groups were homogenous with respect to race/ethnicity and stratified by age (for White or Black women) or language (for Latina women). Transcripts of sessions were analyzed according to grounded theory. RESULTS Six focus groups were conducted, involving 44 women (16 White, 14 Black, 14 Latina). Five domains of functioning and wellbeing affected by symptoms were identified: sexual functioning, everyday activities, emotional wellbeing, body image, and interpersonal relations. For some participants, symptoms primarily affected their ability to have and enjoy sex, as well as be responsive to their partners. For others, symptoms interfered with everyday activities, such as exercising, toileting, or sleeping. Participants regarded their symptoms as a sign that they were getting old or their body was deteriorating; women also associated symptoms with a loss of womanhood or sexuality. Additionally, participants reported feeling depressed, embarrassed, and frustrated about their symptoms, and expressed reluctance to discuss them with friends, family, or health care providers. CONCLUSIONS Urogenital symptoms can have a marked impact on sexual functioning, everyday activities, emotional wellbeing, body image, and interpersonal relations after menopause. Clinicians may need to question women actively about these symptoms, as many are reluctant to seek help for this problem.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Luft, Janis; Grady, Deborah; Kuppermann, Miriam</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">44</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1996SPIE.2680..341M"> <span id="translatedtitle">High-throughput genotyping: practical considerations concerning the <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> application</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Advances in high throughput genotyping protocols over the past few years have been remarkable. Most protocols developed to increase the throughput of genotyping rely on fluorescent based technologies for data acquisition and capture. In general, the number of genotypes per day quoted for these protocols are the result of extrapolations based on ideal situations. Here we present our experience with respect to the <span class="hlt">day</span> <span class="hlt">to</span> <span class="hlt">day</span> problems of high throughput genotyping. Our laboratory is currently working on several genetic mapping projects in both mouse and man. For example, we are looking at the genetic basis for susceptibility to rheumatoid arthritis in a local native American tribe as well as a mouse animal model for the same disease. The machines used to collect gel image data are two Li- Cor infrared DNA sequencers adapted for genotyping. During the evolution of these projects, we have addressed issues concerning the tracking and flow of information from the initial extraction of DNA to the calling of the genotypes. In particular, we have focused on designing methods that are efficient, cost effective and can be easily taught to the technical staff. Computer programs have been written that record gel specific information (e.g. ID information), archive data and capture genotypes in a simple point and click environment. Instrumentation was purchased to ease the repetitive nature of sample allocation, reagent disbursement and gel loading. Using this system, we can produce genotype data on 96 individuals for 20 loci (1920 genotypes) in one day. Solutions to the overall flow of information at each of these junctions are discussed.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">McIndoe, Richard A.; Bumgarner, R. E.; Welti, Russ; Hood, Leroy</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1996-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">45</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/36012292"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Day-to-day</span> variation in saliva cortisol—Relation with sleep, stress and self-rated health</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The objective was to examine the <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> variation in cortisol among healthy individuals and its relation to the time of saliva sampling, work, stress and fatigue. During 4 consecutive weeks, 14 office workers provided saliva samples (at awakening, 15min after awakening and at bedtime) and made diary ratings for each day. Results showed a variation in cortisol values between participants</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Anna Dahlgren; Göran Kecklund; Töres Theorell; Torbjörn Åkerstedt</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">46</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/36504603"> <span id="translatedtitle">Schistosoma japonicum: <span class="hlt">Day</span> <span class="hlt">to</span> <span class="hlt">Day</span> Variation in Excretion and Hatchability of Parasite Eggs in the Domestic Pig, Suis suis</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Giver, H., de Vlas, S. J., Johansen, M. V., Christensen, N. Ø., and Nansen, P. 2000. Schistosoma japonicum: <span class="hlt">Day</span> <span class="hlt">to</span> <span class="hlt">day</span> variation in excretion and hatchability of parasite eggs in the domestic pig, Suis suis. Experimental Parasitology95, 8–18. The aim of the present study was to describe the course of an Schistosoma japonicum infection in individual pigs over time, with</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">H. Giver; S. J. de Vlas; M. V. Johansen; N. Ø. Christensen; P. Nansen</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2000-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">47</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=energy+AND+security&pg=2&id=EJ773705"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Day</span> <span class="hlt">to</span> <span class="hlt">Day</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">|A clean, healthy and safe school provides students, faculty and staff with an environment conducive to learning and working. However, budget and staff reductions can lead to substandard cleaning practices and unsanitary conditions. Some school facility managers have been making the switch to a day-schedule to reduce security and energy costs, and…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jurecki, Dennis</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">48</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.kirkwarrenbrown.vcu.edu/wp-content/pubs/Levesque%20&%20Brown%20M&E%202007.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Mindfulness as a moderator of the effect of implicit motivational self-concept on <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> behavioral motivation</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Drawing from theories regarding the role of awareness in behavioral self-regulation, this research was designed to examine\\u000a the role of mindfulness as a moderator between implicit motivation and the motivation for <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> behavior. We hypothesized\\u000a that dispositional mindfulness (Brown and Ryan, J Pers Soc Psychol, 84, 822–848, 2003) would act to modify the expression of implicit autonomy orientation in daily</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Chantal Levesque; Kirk Warren Brown</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">49</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFMSA33B1771Z"> <span id="translatedtitle">Exospheric <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> and the solar EUV control</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Incoherent scatter radar experiments at Millstone Hill for a consecutive 30 days have been conducted in October 2002, enabling this study of the <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> thermospheric <span class="hlt">variability</span> in exospheric <span class="hlt">temperature</span> Tex. This <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> is seen as variations at fixed local times as well as those in the tidal decompositions. Solar EUV and magnetic activity influences as the main driving factors on the <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> are investigated quantitatively. The solar EUV flux is from the TIMED/SEE space weather product, allowing for detailed studies of the EUV-Tex correlation, EUV band dependency and time delay of thermospheric responses. Main findings include, (1) to precisely understand thermospheric <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span>, the daily F107 data is typically insufficient and the EUV data is essential. (2) There is a 20--60-hour time delay in the Tex response to solar EUV flux, being short in the morning and long in the afternoon and at night. (3) Tex is most sensitive, with an approximately 2-day delay, to the EUV flux at wavelengths of 27--34 nm and 30.4 nm. A model including only the EUV flux at 27--34 nm with a 2-day time delay can generate 90% of the observed <span class="hlt">variability</span> in the diurnal DC component. Tex is relatively less sensitive to the flux at 133.5 nm and 145--165 nm. (4) With a two-day time delay, the flux at 0.1--7 nm band is clearly positively correlated to the diurnal amplitude, and negatively correlated to the semidiurnal amplitude. (5) Magnetic activity control, as represented by the Dst index, tends to be weaker during the day and stronger at night, and is, in all three tidal components examined (DC, diurnal and semidiurnal amplitudes), most important for the semidiurnal amplitude and least important for the DC component.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Zhang, S.; Holt, J. M.; Erickson, P. J.; Woods, T. N.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">50</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17220382"> <span id="translatedtitle">Imposing order: a process to manage <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> activities in two-earner families with preschool children.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This study investigated how English and Canadian families with preschool children used strategies to impose varying levels of order to manage <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> activities. This grounded theory study is a secondary analysis of 55 hours of participant observation and interviews with 58 individuals and 29 couples. Constant comparative analysis and theoretical sampling were used to construct categories. To attempt to impose order, strategies used by families included organizing and planning, establishing routines, setting limits, setting standards, purchasing services and technology, and delegating tasks. Most families used these strategies successfully; costs outweighed benefits where families concentrated inflexibly on a few strategies in particular spheres of activity or had difficulty using strategies. Families using a variety of strategies flexibly were better at balancing personal and family goals, promoting fulfillment, health, and happiness for each family member, and fostering family development and commitment. Imposing order links everyday family dynamics and concerns to long-term goals. PMID:17220382</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hall, Wendy A</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">51</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24021734"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Day-to-Day</span> Variation in Food Intake and Energy Expenditure in Healthy Women: The Dietitian II Study.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Because <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> food intake varies, we tested the hypothesis that ad libitum food intake and energy expenditure show corrective responses over periods of 1 to 10 days in healthy young women. Food intake and accelerometry measurements were collected daily for 17 days in 15 young women. Total daily energy expenditure (TDEE) using doubly labeled water was also measured. The daily deviations in macronutrient and energy intake and energy expenditure from the average values were compared with the deviations observed over succeeding intervals to estimate the corrective responses. The intraindividual coefficients of variation for energy intake averaged ±25%, ranging from 16% to 34%. TDEE had a coefficient of variation of 8.3%, and accelerometry had a coefficient of variation of 8.4% (range=4.6% to 16.4%). Energy expenditure by accelerometry (2,087±191 kcal/day) was not significantly different from TDEE (2,128±177 kcal/day), but reported daily energy intake was 20.4% lower (1,693±276 kcal/day). There were significant corrective responses in energy from fat and total energy intake. This occurred from Days 3 to 6, with a peak at Day 5 that disappeared when data were randomized within each subject. Human beings show corrective responses to deviations from average energy and macronutrient intakes with a lag time of 3 to 6 days, but not 1 to 2 days. These corrective responses are likely to play a role in bringing about weight stability. PMID:24021734</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Champagne, Catherine M; Han, Hongmei; Bajpeyi, Sudip; Rood, Jennifer; Johnson, William D; Lammi-Keefe, Carol J; Flatt, Jean-Pierre; Bray, George A</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-09-08</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">52</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/48268914"> <span id="translatedtitle">Sea Surface <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> <span class="hlt">Variability</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">A weekly mean Multi-Channel Sea Surface <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> (MCSST) data set was used to study\\u000a seasonal and interannual <span class="hlt">variability</span> of SSTs averaged over four regions of the Caspian Sea individually\\u000a (Northern, Middle, and Southern Caspian, and Kara-Bogaz-Gol Bay) and SST trends during 1982--2000.\\u000a The SST fields averaged for individual months of four hydrological seasons (February, April, August,\\u000a and October) were calculated and</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Anna I. Ginzburg; Andrey G. Kostianoy; Nickolay A. Sheremet</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">53</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/41467"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Day-to-Day</span> Travel-Time Trends and Travel-Time Prediction from Loop-Detector Data</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper presents an approach to estimate future travel times on a freeway using flow and occupancy data from single loop detectors and historical travel time information. The work uses linear regression with stepwise <span class="hlt">variable</span> selection method and more advanced tree based methods. The analysis considers forecasts ranging from a few minutes into the future up to an hour ahead.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jaimyoung Kwon; Benjamin Coifman; Peter Bickel</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2000-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">54</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/55274115"> <span id="translatedtitle">Simulated Diurnal Range and <span class="hlt">Variability</span> of Surface <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> in a Global Climate Model for Present and Doubled C02 Climates</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The <span class="hlt">variability</span> of surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> simulated by a global climate model with a simple mixed-layer ocean is analyzed. The simulated diurnal and seasonal ranges of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> are compared with observation, as is the <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> and interannual <span class="hlt">variability</span> of <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. The qualitative changes in these quantities due to doubling atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration are also presented.The simulation of the seasonal cycle</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hong Xing Cao; J. F. B. Mitchell; J. R. Lavery</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1992-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">55</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21956453"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Day-to-day</span> discrimination and health among Asian Indians: a population-based study of Gujarati men and women in Metropolitan Detroit.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This study examined the relationship between experiences of <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> discrimination and two measures of health among Gujaratis, one of the largest ethnic groups of Asian Indians in the U.S. Data were collected via computer-assisted telephone interviews with a random sample of Gujarati men and women aged 18-64 in Metropolitan Detroit (N = 423). Using structural equation modeling, we tested two gender-moderated models of the relationship between <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> discrimination and health, one using the single-item general health status and the other using the 4-item emotional wellbeing measure. For both women and men, controlling for socio-demographic and other relevant characteristics, the experience of <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> discrimination was associated with worse emotional wellbeing. However, <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> discrimination was associated with the single-item self-rated general health status only for men. This study identified not only gender differences in discrimination-health associations but also the importance of using multiple questions in assessing perceived health status. PMID:21956453</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Yoshihama, Mieko; Bybee, Deborah; Blazevski, Juliane</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-09-29</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">56</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/30650215"> <span id="translatedtitle">Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy for Liver Tumors: Impact of Daily Setup Corrections and <span class="hlt">Day-to-Day</span> Anatomic Variations on Dose in Target and Organs at Risk</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Purpose: To assess <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> differences between planned and delivered target volume (TV) and organ-at-risk (OAR) dose distributions in liver stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT), and to investigate the dosimetric impact of setup corrections. Methods and Materials: For 14 patients previously treated with SBRT, the planning CT scan and three treatment scans (one for each fraction) were included in this study.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Alejandra Méndez Romero; Roel Th. Zinkstok; Wouter Wunderink; Rob M. van Os; Hans Joosten; Yvette Seppenwoolde; Peter J. C. M. Nowak; Rene P. Brandwijk; Cornelis Verhoef; Jan N. M. Ijzermans; Peter C. Levendag; Ben J. M. Heijmen</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">57</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=ADA248725"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Variable</span> <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Scanning Tunneling Microscopy.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Variable</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> STM/STS has been used over the 4.2 K to 400 K <span class="hlt">temperature</span> range to study CDW formation and spatial variations of the superconducting energy gap in Pb films. Topographic variations of the superconducting energy gap in Pb films show an ...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">J. W. Lyding</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1991-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">58</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AGUFM.A43A0865S"> <span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">Day-to-day</span> <span class="hlt">Variability</span> of Mesospheric Water Vapor at High Latitude - a Comparison Between Microwave Observations and Calculations by Means of the GCM LIMA</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Water vapor measurements in the mesosphere employing the microwave technique were carried out in high latitudes at ALOMAR (69.29 N, 16.03 E), Norway. The observed water vapor mixing ratios are marked by pronounced variations with planetary time scale. As the chemical lifetime of water vapor is very large in the mesosphere the variations reflect transport processes triggered by the planetary wave activity. A prominent signature is the quasi 5-day wave, actually having a period varying around this value. Using our real-date GCM LIMA (Leibniz-Institute Middle Atmosphere model) of the Leibniz-Institute of Atmospheric Physics in Kühlungsborn, Germany, the model output satisfactory reproduces the measured variations although in detail various differences occur between observations and calculations. In particular, the annual variation including intra-annual variations as caused by sudden stratospheric warmings is mirrored by the model. We discuss the results for different years in terms of dynamics and chemistry.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sonnemann, G. R.; Hartogh, P.; Grygalashvyly, M.; Song, L.; Berger, U.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">59</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/48909724"> <span id="translatedtitle">Conjugate Point Equatorial Experiment (COPEX) campaign in Brazil: Electrodynamics highlights on spread F development conditions and <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">A Conjugate Point Equatorial Experiment (COPEX) campaign was conducted during the October–December 2002 period in Brazil, with the objective to investigate the equatorial spread F\\/plasma bubble irregularity (ESF) development conditions in terms of the electrodynamical state of the ionosphere along the magnetic flux tubes in which they occur. A network of instruments, including Digisondes, optical imagers, and GPS receivers, was</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">M. A. Abdu; I. S. Batista; B. W. Reinisch; J. R. de Souza; J. H. A. Sobral; T. R. Pedersen; A. F. Medeiros; N. J. Schuch; E. R. de Paula; K. M. Groves</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">60</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://mtc-m18.sid.inpe.br/col/sid.inpe.br/mtc-m18%4080/2008/12.30.14.21/doc/v1.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Conjugate Point Equatorial Experiment (COPEX) Campaign in Brazil: Electrodynamics highlights on spread F development conditions and <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">A conjugate point equatorial experiment (COPEX) campaign was conducted during October - December 2002 period in Brazil, with the objective to investigate the equatorial spread F\\/plasma bubble irregularity (ESF) development conditions in terms of the electrodynamical state of the ionosphere along the magnetic flux tubes in which they occur. A network of instruments including digisondes, optical imagers, and GPS receivers,</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">M. A. Abdu; I. S. Batista; B. W. Reinisch; J. R. de Souza; J. H. A. Sobral; T. R. Pedersen; A. F. Medeiros; N. J. Schuch; E. R. de Paula; K. M. Groves</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#">4</a> <a 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onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">61</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/53659937"> <span id="translatedtitle">Conjugate Point Equatorial Experiment (COPEX) campaign in Brazil: Electrodynamics highlights on spreadFdevelopment conditions and <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">A Conjugate Point Equatorial Experiment (COPEX) campaign was conducted during the October-December 2002 period in Brazil, with the objective to investigate the equatorial spread F\\/plasma bubble irregularity (ESF) development conditions in terms of the electrodynamical state of the ionosphere along the magnetic flux tubes in which they occur. A network of instruments, including Digisondes, optical imagers, and GPS receivers, was</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">M. A. Abdu; I. S. Batista; B. W. Reinisch; J. R. de Souza; J. H. A. Sobral; T. R. Pedersen; A. F. Medeiros; N. J. Schuch; E. R. de Paula; K. M. Groves</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">62</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/48255135"> <span id="translatedtitle">Vacuum <span class="hlt">Variable</span> Medium <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Blackbody</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">This article describes the vacuum <span class="hlt">variable</span> medium-<span class="hlt">temperature</span> blackbody (VMTBB) constructed to serve as a highly stable reference\\u000a source with an aperture diameter of 20 mm in the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> range from 150 °C to 430 °C under medium-vacuum conditions (10?3 Pa) and in a reduced background environment (liquid-nitrogen-cooled shroud). The VMTBB was realized for the calibration facility\\u000a at the PTB in the field of</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">S. P. Morozova; N. A. Parfentiev; B. E. Lisiansky; U. A. Melenevsky; B. Gutschwager; C. Monte; J. Hollandt</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">63</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21367522"> <span id="translatedtitle">Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy for Liver Tumors: Impact of Daily Setup Corrections and <span class="hlt">Day-to-Day</span> Anatomic Variations on Dose in Target and Organs at Risk</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Purpose: To assess <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> differences between planned and delivered target volume (TV) and organ-at-risk (OAR) dose distributions in liver stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT), and to investigate the dosimetric impact of setup corrections. Methods and Materials: For 14 patients previously treated with SBRT, the planning CT scan and three treatment scans (one for each fraction) were included in this study. For each treatment scan, two dose distributions were calculated: one using the planned setup for the body frame (no correction), and one using the clinically applied (corrected) setup derived from measured tumor displacements. Per scan, the two dose distributions were mutually compared, and the clinically delivered distribution was compared with planning. Doses were recalculated in equivalent 2-Gy fraction doses. Statistical analysis was performed with the linear mixed model. Results: With setup corrections, the mean loss in TV coverage relative to planning was 1.7%, compared with 6.8% without corrections. For calculated equivalent uniform doses, these figures were 2.3% and 15.5%, respectively. As for the TV, mean deviations of delivered OAR doses from planning were small (between -0.4 and +0.3 Gy), but the spread was much larger for the OARs. In contrast to the TV, the mean impact of setup corrections on realized OAR doses was close to zero, with large positive and negative exceptions. Conclusions: Daily correction of the treatment setup is required to obtain adequate TV coverage. Because of <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> patient anatomy changes, large deviations in OAR doses from planning did occur. On average, setup corrections had no impact on these doses. Development of new procedures for image guidance and adaptive protocols is warranted.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Mendez Romero, Alejandra, E-mail: a.mendezromero@erasmusmc.n [Department of Radiation Oncology, Erasmus MC - Daniel den Hoed Cancer Center, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Zinkstok, Roel Th.; Wunderink, Wouter [Department of Radiation Oncology, Erasmus MC - Daniel den Hoed Cancer Center, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Os, Rob M. van [Department of Radiation Oncology, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Joosten, Hans; Seppenwoolde, Yvette; Nowak, Peter; Brandwijk, Rene P. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Erasmus MC - Daniel den Hoed Cancer Center, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Verhoef, Cornelis; Ijzermans, Jan N.M. [Department of Surgery, Erasmus MC, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Levendag, Peter C.; Heijmen, Ben J.M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Erasmus MC - Daniel den Hoed Cancer Center, Rotterdam (Netherlands)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-11-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">64</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JASTP.103...83V"> <span id="translatedtitle">Sources of <span class="hlt">variability</span> in equatorial topside ionospheric and plasmaspheric <span class="hlt">temperatures</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Jicamarca measurements of electron <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> at high altitudes (500–1500km) from the last solar minimum routinely show variations of hundreds of Kelvin from <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span>. Possible sources of these variations are explored using the SAMI2-PE is another model of the ionosphere including photoelectron transport (SAMI2-PE) model, which includes a multistream photoelectron transport model. Changes to the electric fields, meridional winds, and thermospheric densities can all change the electron densities and <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> at high altitudes. The high altitude electron <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> are primarily determined by a balance between heating from photoelectrons which travel up the field lines and thermal diffusion which carries heat back down the field lines. The winds and electric fields will change the altitude and densities of the off-equatorial F-region peaks, especially on the field lines connected to the equatorial arcs. The densities and <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> in the plasmasphere will self consistently adjust themselves to achieve diffusive equilibrium with the off-equatorial F-regions. Furthermore, decreases in the density and/or altitude of the F-region makes it easier for photoelectrons to escape to high altitudes. These connections between the equatorial plasmasphere, the off-equatorial F-regions, and the neutral thermosphere suggest that high altitude measurements at Jicamarca could be used to study thermospheric <span class="hlt">variability</span>.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Varney, Roger H.; Hysell, David L.; Huba, J. D.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">65</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23909464"> <span id="translatedtitle">Elucidating satisfaction with physical activity: An examination of the <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> associations between experiences with physical activity and satisfaction during physical activity initiation.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Satisfaction with physical activity is known to be an important factor in physical activity maintenance, but the factors that influence satisfaction are not well understood. The purpose of this study was to elucidate how ongoing experiences with recently initiated physical activity are associated with satisfaction. Participants (n?=?116) included insufficiently active volunteers who initiated a self-directed physical activity regimen and completed daily diaries about their experiences for 28?days. We used multilevel models to examine the associations between experiences with physical activity and satisfaction. Significant between-person effects demonstrated that people reporting higher average levels of positive experiences and lower levels of thinking about the negative aspects of exercise were more likely to report higher levels of satisfaction (ps?<?.05). Positive experiences and perceived progress toward goals had significant within-person effects (ps?<?.01), suggesting that <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> fluctuations in these experiences were associated with changes in satisfaction. These findings elucidate a process through which people may determine their satisfaction with physical activity. PMID:23909464</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Baldwin, Austin S; Baldwin, Scott A; Loehr, Valerie G; Kangas, Julie L; Frierson, Georita M</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-08-02</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">66</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12138788"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Day</span> <span class="hlt">to</span> <span class="hlt">day</span> use and service-related issues with the bone-anchored hearing aid: the Entific Medical Systems questionnaire.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Over a 12-year period, the Birmingham implantation otology unit has implanted more than 300 patients with bone-anchored hearing aids (BAHA). The Entific Medical Systems questionnaire was administered to these patients to evaluate the <span class="hlt">day</span> <span class="hlt">to</span> <span class="hlt">day</span> use of the BAHA, professional needs, after-care, wear and tear concerns and service related issues. Data analysis revealed that most patients used their BAHA for more than eight hours a day (90 per cent of BAHA users) and every day of the week (93 per cent of BAHA users). A high degree of satisfaction was expressed as regards sound amplification, listening to radio or television news, listening to music, speech perception in quiet conditions, during conversation with one person in noisy surroundings and conversation with family at home. Some degree of difficulty was expressed with the use of the BAHA during conversation with two or more people in noisy surroundings. A slow process of perceptual acclimatization was noticed with the majority of the patients. The majority of patients were pleased with the service as regards care of the wound, BAHA nursing clinics, device repairs and other service-related issues. PMID:12138788</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Dutt, Sunil N; McDermott, Ann-Louise; Jelbert, Anwen; Reid, Andrew P; Proops, David W</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">67</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23537499"> <span id="translatedtitle">Real-time evaluation of milk quality as reflected by clotting parameters of individual cow's milk during the milking session, between <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> and during lactation.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Real-time analysis of milk coagulation properties as performed by the AfiLab™ milk spectrometer introduces new opportunities for the dairy industry. The study evaluated the performance of the AfiLab™ in a milking parlor of a commercial farm to provide real-time analysis of milk-clotting parameters -Afi-CF for cheese manufacture and determine its repeatability in time for individual cows. The AfiLab™ in a parlor, equipped with two parallel milk lines, enables to divert the milk on-line into two bulk milk tanks (A and B). Three commercial dairy herds of 220 to 320 Israeli Holstein cows producing ?11 500 l during 305 days were selected for the study. The Afi-CF repeatability during time was found significant (P < 0.001) for cows. The statistic model succeeded in explaining 83.5% of the variance between Afi-CF and cows, and no significant variance was found between the mean weekly repeated recordings. Days in milk and log somatic cell count (SCC) had no significant effect. Fat, protein and lactose significantly affected Afi-CF and the empirical van Slyke equation. Real-time simulations were performed for different cutoff levels of coagulation properties where the milk of high Afi-CF cutoff value was channeled to tank A and the lower into tank B. The simulations showed that milk coagulation properties of an individual cow are not uniform, as most cows contributed milk to both tanks. Proportions of the individual cow's milk in each tank depended on the selected Afi-CF cutoff. The assessment of the major causative factors of a cow producing low-quality milk for cheese production was evaluated for the group that produced the low 10% quality milk. The largest number of cows in those groups at the three farms was found to be cows with post-intramammary infection with Escherichia coli and subclinical infections with streptococci or coagulase-negative staphylococci (?30%), although the SCC of these cows was not significantly different. Early time in lactation together with high milk yield >50 l/day, and late in lactation together with low milk yield<15 l/day and estrous (0 to 5 days) were also important influencing factors for low-quality milk. However, ?50% of the tested <span class="hlt">variables</span> did not explain any of the factors responsible for the cow producing milk in the low - 10% Afi-CF. PMID:23537499</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Leitner, Gabriel; Merin, Uzi; Jacoby, Shamay; Bezman, Dror; Lemberskiy-Kuzin, Liubov; Katz, Gil</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-03-28</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">68</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/doepatents/details.jsp?query_id=0&page=0&ostiID=871346"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Variable</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> semiconductor film deposition</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A method of depositing a semiconductor material on a substrate. The method sequentially comprises (a) providing the semiconductor material in a depositable state such as a vapor for deposition on the substrate; (b) depositing the semiconductor material on the substrate while heating the substrate to a first <span class="hlt">temperature</span> sufficient to cause the semiconductor material to form a first film layer having a first grain size; (c) continually depositing the semiconductor material on the substrate while cooling the substrate to a second <span class="hlt">temperature</span> sufficient to cause the semiconductor material to form a second film layer deposited on the first film layer and having a second grain size smaller than the first grain size; and (d) raising the substrate <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, while either continuing or not continuing to deposit semiconductor material to form a third film layer, to thereby anneal the film layers into a single layer having favorable efficiency characteristics in photovoltaic applications. A preferred semiconductor material is cadmium telluride deposited on a glass/tin oxide substrate already having thereon a film layer of cadmium sulfide.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Li, Xiaonan (Golden, CO); Sheldon, Peter (Lakewood, CO)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1998-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">69</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/52323349"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Variable</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> cold stage for microscope observation</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">It is considerably important to measure crystallization velocity in vitreous state for understanding of crystallization mechanism and quantitative analysis of crystallization process. For this measurement, a microscope equipped with a <span class="hlt">variable</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> cold stage is useful to regulate <span class="hlt">temperature</span> to be constant for a long period because some crystallization takes a long time around glass transition point. However, since conventional</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hirosi Yamada; Minoru Hanaya; Youichi Kanno; Takemitu Kikuchi; Shinji Onodera</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1992-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">70</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://gest.umbc.edu/faculty_publications/2008/mahanama_et_al_tdeep.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Impact of Subsurface <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> <span class="hlt">Variability</span> on Surface Air <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> <span class="hlt">Variability</span>: An AGCM Study</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Anomalous atmospheric conditions can lead to surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> anomalies, which in turn can lead to <span class="hlt">temperature</span> anomalies in the subsurface soil. The subsurface soil <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (and the associated ground heat content) has significant memory—the dissipation of a <span class="hlt">temperature</span> anomaly may take weeks to months—and thus subsurface soil <span class="hlt">temperature</span> may contribute to the low-frequency <span class="hlt">variability</span> of energy and water <span class="hlt">variables</span> elsewhere</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sarith P. P. Mahanama; Randal D. Koster; Rolf H. Reichle; Max J. Suarez</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">71</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008cosp...37.3160T"> <span id="translatedtitle">Seasonal <span class="hlt">Variability</span> in OH Mesospheric <span class="hlt">Temperatures</span> at Low-Latitudes and Comparison with Timed-Saber <span class="hlt">Temperatures</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Utah State University Mesospheric <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Mapper (MTM) is a high performance, solid state imaging system capable of determining variations in the rotational <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> of two upper mesospheric near infrared nightglow emissions: the OH (6,2) Meinel band (peak altitude 87 km) and the O2(0,1) Atmospheric band emission (peak altitude 94 km), with a precision of typically 1-2K in 3 min. For the past 5 years (November 201-December 2006), the MTM was operated near-continuously from the Air Force AMOS Facility, near the summit of Haleakala Crater, Maui, HI (24.8 N, 204 E), 2970 m). Autonomous observations were made as part of the Maui-MALT program which is a joint initiative between the National Science Foundation (NSF) and the US Air Force Office of Scientific research (AFOSR) to investigate the dynamics of the upper atmosphere in unprecedented detail. Over 1000 nights of high-quality data have been obtained, providing novel information on the nocturnal behavior of mesospheric <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and its <span class="hlt">variability</span> enabling a detailed comparative study with TIMED-SABER <span class="hlt">temperature</span> measurements at low-latitudes. Here we focus on a seasonal comparison with MTM OH <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. The <span class="hlt">variability</span> of the MTM and SABER <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> track well on <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> and seasonal time scales giving high confidence in the compatibility of the two data sets. However, there appears to be a 5 K systematic offset between these data with the MTM <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> warmer. A similar offset has been observed at mid-latitudes and this new study extends this comparison to lower latitudes where non-LTE effects are not significant. The origin and <span class="hlt">variability</span> in this offset will be investigated as a function of season.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Taylor, Michael J.; Zhao, Yucheng; Russell, J. M., III</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">72</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012ThApC.107...35S"> <span id="translatedtitle">Interpolation of climate <span class="hlt">variables</span> and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> modeling</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and modeling are becoming powerful tools in agricultural research and natural resource management. This study proposes an empirical methodology for modeling and mapping of the monthly and annual air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> using remote sensing and GIS techniques. The study area is Gangetic West Bengal and its neighborhood in the eastern India, where a number of weather systems occur throughout the year. Gangetic West Bengal is a region of strong heterogeneous surface with several weather disturbances. This paper also examines statistical approaches for interpolating climatic data over large regions, providing different interpolation techniques for climate <span class="hlt">variables</span>' use in agricultural research. Three interpolation approaches, like inverse distance weighted averaging, thin-plate smoothing splines, and co-kriging are evaluated for 4° × 4° area, covering the eastern part of India. The land use/land cover, soil texture, and digital elevation model are used as the independent <span class="hlt">variables</span> for <span class="hlt">temperature</span> modeling. Multiple regression analysis with standard method is used to add dependent <span class="hlt">variables</span> into regression equation. Prediction of mean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> for monsoon season is better than winter season. Finally standard deviation errors are evaluated after comparing the predicted <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and observed <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of the area. For better improvement, distance from the coastline and seasonal wind pattern are stressed to be included as independent <span class="hlt">variables</span>.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Samanta, Sailesh; Pal, Dilip Kumar; Lohar, Debasish; Pal, Babita</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">73</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21141660"> <span id="translatedtitle">Sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span>: patterns and mechanisms.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Patterns of sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (SST) <span class="hlt">variability</span> on interannual and longer timescales result from a combination of atmospheric and oceanic processes. These SST anomaly patterns may be due to intrinsic modes of atmospheric circulation <span class="hlt">variability</span> that imprint themselves upon the SST field mainly via surface energy fluxes. Examples include SST fluctuations in the Southern Ocean associated with the Southern Annular Mode, a tripolar pattern of SST anomalies in the North Atlantic associated with the North Atlantic Oscillation, and a pan-Pacific mode known as the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (with additional contributions from oceanic processes). They may also result from coupled ocean-atmosphere interactions, such as the El Niño-Southern Oscillation phenomenon in the tropical Indo-Pacific, the tropical Atlantic Niño, and the cross-equatorial meridional modes in the tropical Pacific and Atlantic. Finally, patterns of SST <span class="hlt">variability</span> may arise from intrinsic oceanic modes, notably the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation. PMID:21141660</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Deser, Clara; Alexander, Michael A; Xie, Shang-Ping; Phillips, Adam S</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">74</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1986umn..rept.....D"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Variable</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> superconducting magnetometer/susceptometer</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A <span class="hlt">variable</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> superconducting susceptometer has been acquired for the measurement of magnetic moments and susceptibilities of small samples over a wide range of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and magnetic field. This instrument is equipped for measurement over the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> range from 1.8K up to 400K, and in magnetic fields up to 6 Tesla. The system operates under full computer control of all of its parameters utilizing a software package which runs on a Hewlett Packard Touch Screen II Computer. The instrument will be shortly retrofitted with a second SQUID Probe configured to permit measurements of components of the magnetization and susceptibility transverse to the axis of the instrument as well as to rotate samples about the axis of the superconducting solenoid.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Dahlberg, E. D.; Muenck, E.; Goldman, A. M.; Weyhmann, W.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1986-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">75</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3696105"> <span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">Day-to-Day</span> Acute Effect of Wake Therapy in Patients with Major Depression Using the HAM-D6 as Primary Outcome Measure: Results from a Randomised Controlled Trial</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Background This paper reports <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> data for from a one-week intervention phase, part of a 9-weeks randomised parallel study with patient having major depression (data from weekly visits have been reported). Wake therapy (sleep deprivation) has an established antidepressant effect with onset of action within hours. Deterioration on the following night’s sleep is, however, common, and we used daily light therapy and sleep time stabilisation as a preventive measure. In particular, we evaluated the <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> acute effect of and tolerance to sleep deprivation and examined predictors of response. Methods Patients were assessed at psychiatric inpatient wards. In the wake group (n?=?36), patients did three wake therapies in combination with light therapy each morning together with sleep time stabilisation. In the exercise group (n?=?38), patients did daily exercise. Hamilton subscale scores were primary outcome (not blinded), secondary outcome was self-assessment data from the Preskorn scale and sleep. Results Patients in the wake therapy group had an immediate, large, stable, and statistically significant better antidepressant effect than patients in the exercise group with response rates at day5 of 75.0%/25.1% and remission rates of 58.6%/6.0%, respectively. The response and remission rates were diminished at day8 with response rates of 41.9%/10.1% and remission rates of 19.4%/4.7%, respectively. Patients and ward personnel found the method applicable with few side effects. Positive diurnal variation (mood better in the evening) predicted a larger response to wake therapy. In the wake group napping on days after intervention predicted greater deterioration on day8. Conclusions The intervention induced an acute antidepressant response without relapse between wake nights but with a diminishing effect after intervention. Development is still needed to secure maintenance of response. Avoiding napping in the days after wake therapy is important. Trial Registration Clinical trials.gov NCT00149110</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Martiny, Klaus; Refsgaard, Else; Lund, Vibeke; Lunde, Marianne; S?rensen, Lene; Thougaard, Britta; Lindberg, Lone; Bech, Per</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">76</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/52029870"> <span id="translatedtitle">Impact of Subsurface <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> <span class="hlt">Variability</span> on Meteorological <span class="hlt">Variability</span>: An AGCM Study</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Anomalous atmospheric conditions can lead to surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> anomalies, which in turn can lead to <span class="hlt">temperature</span> anomalies deep in the soil. The deep soil <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (and the associated ground heat content) has significant memory -- the dissipation of a <span class="hlt">temperature</span> anomaly may take weeks to months -- and thus deep soil <span class="hlt">temperature</span> may contribute to the low frequency <span class="hlt">variability</span> of</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">S. P. Mahanama; R. D. Koster; P. Liu</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">77</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23348196"> <span id="translatedtitle">Scanning electrochemical microscopy at <span class="hlt">variable</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">All chemical reactions are influenced by <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, however, <span class="hlt">temperature</span> is usually not considered an important parameter which has to be varied or at least controlled in SECM measurements. A precise <span class="hlt">temperature</span>-control unit was designed and integrated into a SECM setup which allows setting the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of the sample and the adjacent electrolyte in a range between 0 and 100 °C without causing convection. Data acquisition was synchronized with the current pulses through the Peltier element to decrease the noise and keep the tip-to-sample distance constant during imaging. SECM images in the feedback mode, generator collector mode and the redox competition mode for model samples such as an enzyme entrapped within a polymer spot or oxygen reduction catalysts demonstrate the importance of controlling <span class="hlt">temperature</span> as well as performing SECM experiments at predefined and constant increased <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. PMID:23348196</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Schäfer, Dominik; Puschhof, Andrea; Schuhmann, Wolfgang</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-04-14</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">78</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/50036637"> <span id="translatedtitle">Analysis of skin-<span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> compared to <span class="hlt">variability</span> of blood pressure and heart rate</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">High resolution skin-<span class="hlt">temperature</span> measurement performed in normal human subjects and in patients with coronary artery disease revealed low-amplitude <span class="hlt">temperature</span> oscillations (40×10-3°C) designated as `<span class="hlt">Temperature</span> <span class="hlt">Variability</span>' (TV). Spectral analysis of the filtered signal showed that most of the energy was in the range 0.015-0.04 Hz. Power spectra of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> and pulse pressure amplitude were compared. Both of the signals exhibited</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ofer Barnea; Vladimir Shusterman</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1995-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">79</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010JPhCS.234c2031D"> <span id="translatedtitle">8 T cryogen free magnet with <span class="hlt">variable</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> space</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A conduction cooled 8 T superconducting magnetic system with <span class="hlt">variable</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> insert is developed and tested. The cryomagnetic system is based on a commercial two-stage pulse tube cryocooler with cooling power of 1W at 4.2 K. The compact superconducting magnet is manufactured from NbTi wire and impregnated with epoxy resin by "wet" technology. The clear diameter of <span class="hlt">variable</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> space is 20 mm. The system provides <span class="hlt">temperature</span> range of 5.5-300 K. The <span class="hlt">variable</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> space is filled by low pressure helium gas. To eliminate the overheating of the magnet at high <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> the heat switch is used in thermal coupling between <span class="hlt">variable</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> space and the 4K stage. The system design, manufacturing and test results are presented.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Demikhov, E.; Kostrov, E.; Lysenko, V.; Piskunov, N.; Troitskiy, V.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">80</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012GeoRL..39.6705K"> <span id="translatedtitle">Holocene subsurface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> in the eastern Antarctic continental margin</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We reconstructed subsurface (˜45-200 m water depth) <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> in the eastern Antarctic continental margin during the late Holocene, using an archaeal lipid-based <span class="hlt">temperature</span> proxy (TEX86L). Our results reveal that subsurface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> changes were probably positively coupled to the <span class="hlt">variability</span> of warmer, nutrient-rich Modified Circumpolar Deep Water (MCDW, deep water of the Antarctic circumpolar current) intrusion onto the continental shelf. The TEX86L record, in combination with previously published climatic records, indicates that this coupling was probably related to the thermohaline circulation, seasonal <span class="hlt">variability</span> in sea ice extent, sea <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, and wind associated with high frequency climate dynamics at low-latitudes such as internal El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO). This in turn suggests a linkage between centennial ENSO-like <span class="hlt">variability</span> at low-latitudes and intrusion <span class="hlt">variability</span> of MCDW into the eastern Antarctic continental shelf, which might have further impact on ice sheet evolution.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kim, Jung-Hyun; Crosta, Xavier; Willmott, Veronica; Renssen, Hans; Bonnin, Jérôme; Helmke, Peer; Schouten, Stefan; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" 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onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">81</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.agu.org/journals/jd/jd0804/2007JD009094/2007JD009094.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Recent <span class="hlt">variability</span> and trends of Antarctic near-surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">A new monthly 1° × 1° Antarctic near-surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> reconstruction for 1960–2005 is presented. The use of numerical model fields to establish spatial relationships between fifteen continuous observational <span class="hlt">temperature</span> records and the voids to which they are interpolated inherently accounts for the effects of the atmospheric circulation and topography on <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span>. Employing a fixed observation network ensures that the</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Andrew J. Monaghan; David H. Bromwich; William Chapman; Josefino C. Comiso</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">82</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=%22heat+exchanger%22&id=EJ824930"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Variable</span> <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Equipment for a Commercial Magnetic Susceptibility Balance</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">|<span class="hlt">Variable</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> equipment for the magnetic susceptibility balance MSB-MK1 of Sherwood Scientific, Ltd., is described. The sample <span class="hlt">temperature</span> is controlled with streaming air heated by water in a heat exchanger. Whereas the balance as sold commercially can be used only for room <span class="hlt">temperature</span> measurements, the setup we designed extends the…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lotz, Albert</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">83</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23980136"> <span id="translatedtitle">Contribution of solar radiation to decadal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> over land.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Global air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> has become the primary metric for judging global climate change. The <span class="hlt">variability</span> of global <span class="hlt">temperature</span> on a decadal timescale is still poorly understood. This paper examines further one suggested hypothesis, that variations in solar radiation reaching the surface (Rs) have caused much of the observed decadal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span>. Because Rs only heats air during the day, its <span class="hlt">variability</span> is plausibly related to the <span class="hlt">variability</span> of diurnal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> range (daily maximum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> minus its minimum). We show that the <span class="hlt">variability</span> of diurnal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> range is consistent with the <span class="hlt">variability</span> of Rs at timescales from monthly to decadal. This paper uses long comprehensive datasets for diurnal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> range to establish what has been the contribution of Rs to decadal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span>. It shows that Rs over land globally peaked in the 1930s, substantially decreased from the 1940s to the 1970s, and changed little after that. Reduction of Rs caused a reduction of more than 0.2 °C in mean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> during May to October from the 1940s through the 1970s, and a reduction of nearly 0.2 °C in mean air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> during November to April from the 1960s through the 1970s. This cooling accounts in part for the near-constant <span class="hlt">temperature</span> from the 1930s into the 1970s. Since then, neither the rapid increase in <span class="hlt">temperature</span> from the 1970s through the 1990s nor the slowdown of warming in the early twenty-first century appear to be significantly related to changes of Rs. PMID:23980136</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wang, Kaicun; Dickinson, Robert E</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-08-26</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">84</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3773731"> <span id="translatedtitle">Contribution of solar radiation to decadal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> over land</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Global air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> has become the primary metric for judging global climate change. The <span class="hlt">variability</span> of global <span class="hlt">temperature</span> on a decadal timescale is still poorly understood. This paper examines further one suggested hypothesis, that variations in solar radiation reaching the surface (Rs) have caused much of the observed decadal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span>. Because Rs only heats air during the day, its <span class="hlt">variability</span> is plausibly related to the <span class="hlt">variability</span> of diurnal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> range (daily maximum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> minus its minimum). We show that the <span class="hlt">variability</span> of diurnal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> range is consistent with the <span class="hlt">variability</span> of Rs at timescales from monthly to decadal. This paper uses long comprehensive datasets for diurnal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> range to establish what has been the contribution of Rs to decadal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span>. It shows that Rs over land globally peaked in the 1930s, substantially decreased from the 1940s to the 1970s, and changed little after that. Reduction of Rs caused a reduction of more than 0.2 °C in mean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> during May to October from the 1940s through the 1970s, and a reduction of nearly 0.2 °C in mean air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> during November to April from the 1960s through the 1970s. This cooling accounts in part for the near-constant <span class="hlt">temperature</span> from the 1930s into the 1970s. Since then, neither the rapid increase in <span class="hlt">temperature</span> from the 1970s through the 1990s nor the slowdown of warming in the early twenty-first century appear to be significantly related to changes of Rs.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wang, Kaicun; Dickinson, Robert E.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">85</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/52103334"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Variable</span> <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Scanning Tunneling Spectroscopy of Inhomogeneous High <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Superconductors</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Scanning Tunneling Microscopy (STM) of the high <span class="hlt">temperature</span> superconductor Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+x (Bi-2212) long ago revealed large gap variations on nanometer length scales. In this talk I will discuss new results from our <span class="hlt">temperature</span> dependent STM studies of Bi-2201. In particular, I will focus on the effects of these variations on other observables, such as the states generated around single atom impurities,</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">E. W. Hudson; M. C. Boyer; W. D. Wise; Kamalesh Chatterjee; Yayu Wang; Takeshi Kondo; Tsunehiro Takeuchi; Hiroshi Ikuta</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">86</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5891887"> <span id="translatedtitle">High <span class="hlt">temperature</span> calorimeter performance <span class="hlt">variable</span> study</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Oak Ridge National Laboratory with funding supplied by the Department of Energy sponsored the evaluation of a water calorimeter for thermal transmission testing of refractory fiber insulation using a ruggedness test. The specimens tested were low density refractory fiber flexible blanket insulation. The factors evaluated included (1) emissivity of copper plate; (2) calorimeter to guard balance; (3) calorimeter to room <span class="hlt">temperature</span> balance; (4) calorimeter water flow rate; (5) perimeter insulation; (6) type of hot side thermocouple and (7) type of cold side thermocouple. A ruggedness test is a statistical method of evaluating step changes making multiple changes each test. Five of the seven factors were found to be significant at a minimum of one <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. One plate versus three plates, two inch thick specimen versus three inch thick specimen and a release agent were three factors that were tested independently of the ruggedness test. The specimens were also tested in a guarded hot plate for comparison purposes. Recommendations are given to improve the design and operation of the calorimeter.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Troyer, R.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1986-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">87</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1986STIN...8632713T"> <span id="translatedtitle">High <span class="hlt">temperature</span> calorimeter performance <span class="hlt">variable</span> study</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Oak Ridge National Laboratory with funding supplied by the Department of Energy sponsored the evaluation of a water calorimeter for thermal transmission testing of refractory fiber insulation using a ruggedness test. The specimens tested were low density refractory fiber flexible blanket insulation. The factors evaluated included: (1) emissivity of copper plate; (2) calorimeter to guard balance; (3) calorimeter to room <span class="hlt">temperature</span> balance; (4) calorimeter water flow rate; (5) perimeter insulation; (6) type of hot side thermocouple, and (7) type of cold side thermocouple. A ruggedness test is a statistical method of evaluating step changes making multiple changes with each test. Five of the seven factors were found to be significant at a minimum of one <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. One plate versus three plates, two inch thick specimen versus three inch thick specimen and a release agent were three factors that were tested independently of the ruggedness test. The specimens were also tested in a guarded hot plate for comparison purposes. Recommendations are given to improve the design and operation of the calorimeter.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Troyer, R.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1986-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">88</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/40167980"> <span id="translatedtitle">Rheological modelling of physiological <span class="hlt">variables</span> during <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variations at rest</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The evolution with time of cardio-respiratory <span class="hlt">variables</span>, blood pressure and body <span class="hlt">temperature</span> has been studied on six males, resting in semi-nude conditions during short (30 min) cold stress exposure (0°C) and during passive recovery (60 min) at 20°C. Passive cold exposure does not induce a change inHR but increasesVO2,VCO2Ve and core <span class="hlt">temperature</span>Tre, whereas peripheral <span class="hlt">temperature</span> is significantly lowered. The kinetic</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">P. Vogelaere; F. De Meyer</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1990-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">89</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23541233"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Day-to-day</span> cause-effect relations between cellular immune activity, fatigue and mood in a patient with prior breast cancer and current cancer-related fatigue and depression.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This study of a breast cancer patient with cancer-related fatigue (CaRF) and depression investigated the bidirectional cause-effect relations between cellular immune activity, fatigue and mood during 'life as it is lived'. The 49-year-old patient (breast cancer diagnosis 5 years earlier, severe CaRF and increase in depressiveness since then) collected her entire urine for 28 days in 12-h intervals (from 8 p.m. to 8 a.m. and from 8 a.m. to 8 p.m.; total: 55 measurements) for the determination of urinary neopterin (immune activation marker) and creatinine levels using HPLC. Furthermore, she completed questionnaires twice each day (at approx. 8 a.m. and 8 p.m.), which yielded information on mood (3-Skalen-Eigenschaftswörterliste [EWL]) and fatigue levels (visual analog scale [VAS]). Cross-correlational analyses showed complex connections between urinary neopterin concentrations and mood and fatigue in terms of direction of effect, temporal delay and response pattern. Increases in urinary neopterin levels significantly preceded increases in fatigue intensity with a temporal delay of 60-72h (lag 5: r=0.298; p=0.027), whereas increases in positive mood co-occurred with neopterin level increases (lag 0: r=+0.302; p=0.025) and preceded decreases in neopterin concentrations with a temporal delay of 132-144h (lag 11: r=-0.323; p=0.017). These results confirm and extend our previous findings and show that in order to obtain an adequate understanding of the dynamic relations among cancer-related <span class="hlt">variables</span>, the characteristics of everyday-life conditions need to be considered. PMID:23541233</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Haberkorn, Julia; Burbaum, Christina; Fritzsche, Kurt; Geser, Willi; Fuchs, Dietmar; Ocaña-Peinado, Francisco M; Schubert, Christian</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-03-26</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">90</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23883935"> <span id="translatedtitle">No increase in global <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> despite changing regional patterns.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Evidence from Greenland ice cores shows that year-to-year <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> was probably higher in some past cold periods, but there is considerable interest in determining whether global warming is increasing climate <span class="hlt">variability</span> at present. This interest is motivated by an understanding that increased <span class="hlt">variability</span> and resulting extreme weather conditions may be more difficult for society to adapt to than altered mean conditions. So far, however, in spite of suggestions of increased <span class="hlt">variability</span>, there is considerable uncertainty as to whether it is occurring. Here we show that although fluctuations in annual <span class="hlt">temperature</span> have indeed shown substantial geographical variation over the past few decades, the time-evolving standard deviation of globally averaged <span class="hlt">temperature</span> anomalies has been stable. A feature of the changes has been a tendency for many regions of low <span class="hlt">variability</span> to experience increases, which might contribute to the perception of increased climate volatility. The normalization of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> anomalies creates the impression of larger relative overall increases, but our use of absolute values, which we argue is a more appropriate approach, reveals little change. Regionally, greater year-to-year changes recently occurred in much of North America and Europe. Many climate models predict that total <span class="hlt">variability</span> will ultimately decrease under high greenhouse gas concentrations, possibly associated with reductions in sea-ice cover. Our findings contradict the view that a warming world will automatically be one of more overall climatic variation. PMID:23883935</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Huntingford, Chris; Jones, Philip D; Livina, Valerie N; Lenton, Timothy M; Cox, Peter M</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-07-24</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">91</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008AGUFMPP43B1531S"> <span id="translatedtitle">Atlantic sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> trends and <span class="hlt">variability</span> since 1552</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">North Atlantic sea-surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (SST) <span class="hlt">variability</span> can have a near global impact on climate. Observed <span class="hlt">variability</span> has been described as a natural multidecadal (65-100 year) oscillation superimposed upon a linearly-increasing, low frequency background warming. The multidecadal portion of this <span class="hlt">variability</span> may be persistent, suggesting useful decadal climate predictions may soon be possible. However, our understanding of multidecadal Atlantic SST <span class="hlt">variability</span> prior to the brief instrumental record relies almost exclusively on high latitude tree-ring proxies. No proxy SST reconstruction from the Atlantic itself has the resolution, dating accuracy and length needed to assess the behavior of multidecadal <span class="hlt">variability</span>. We present the first absolutely dated and annually-resolved multi-centennial record of Atlantic sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. Our 439- year coral-based reconstruction suggests western low-latitude Atlantic SSTs were nearly as warm as today from 1552-1570, cooled by more than 1 degree C from 1650-1730 and generally warmed to the present. Estimates of background <span class="hlt">variability</span> suggest anthropogenic forcing can account for most of the warming since 1850. Multidecadal variations superimposed upon this background disappear prior to about 1730 in favor of interdecadal (15-20 year) <span class="hlt">variability</span>. This suggests observed multidecadal <span class="hlt">variability</span> is not persistent and may be difficult to predict.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Saenger, C.; Cohen, A. L.; Oppo, D. W.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">92</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23600250"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Variable</span> intertidal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> explains why disease endangers black abalone.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Epidemiological theory suggests that pathogens will not cause host extinctions because agents of disease should fade out when the host population is driven below a threshold density. Nevertheless, infectious diseases have threatened species with extinction on local scales by maintaining high incidence and the ability to spread efficiently even as host populations decline. Intertidal black abalone (Haliotis cracherodii), but not other abalone species, went extinct locally throughout much of southern California following the emergence of a Rickettsiales-like pathogen in the mid-1980s. The rickettsial disease, a condition known as withering syndrome (WS), and associated mortality occur at elevated water <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. We measured abalone body <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> in the field and experimentally manipulated intertidal environmental conditions in the laboratory, testing the influence of mean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and daily <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> on key epizootiological processes of WS. Daily <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> increased the susceptibility of black abalone to infection, but disease expression occurred only at warm water <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> and was independent of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span>. These results imply that high thermal variation of the marine intertidal zone allows the pathogen to readily infect black abalone, but infected individuals remain asymptomatic until water <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> periodically exceed thresholds modulating WS. Mass mortalities can therefore occur before pathogen transmission is limited by density-dependent factors. PMID:23600250</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ben-Horin, Tal; Lenihan, Hunter S; Lafferty, Kevin D</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">93</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFMSA51B1933V"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Variability</span> of Rotational <span class="hlt">Temperatures</span> from Different OH Rovibrational Levels</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">TThe Meinel band emission lines from rovibrationally excited OH in its electronic ground state in the nightglow are widely used as a diagnostic tool to investigate key mesospheric <span class="hlt">variables</span> such as <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, tides, and gravity waves. The OH rotational <span class="hlt">temperature</span> has been extensively studied to ascertain both long- and short-term <span class="hlt">variability</span> in the upper atmosphere. Current controversy in the literature regarding the possible <span class="hlt">variability</span> of <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> deduced from different OH rovibrational levels limits our ability to compare data from different sources. Researchers tend to use a monitoring vibrational level for OH Meinel bands that is most convenient for their instrument. Background sky spectra captured by astronomical instruments provide detailed records of optical emissions in the upper atmosphere. For this study we utilized existing sky spectra from the Keck telescopes in Mauna Kea and the Very Large Telescope in Chile for the OH Meinel bands bound by the extremes (? = 3, 8). We compared these results with the <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> deduced from the O2 0-1 Atmospheric band at 865 nm. This latter emission, emanating from a long-lived species, should represent the true kinetic <span class="hlt">temperature</span> at the altitude of emission and therefore puts a cap on how high the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> difference can be between the nominal OH altitude (87 km) and the 95-km altitude of the O2 emission. We present the results of our analysis and discuss the implications for mesospheric <span class="hlt">temperature</span> retrievals from OH emissions. This work was supported by NSF grant ATM-0924781 from NSF CEDAR.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Vimal, D. V.; Slanger, T. G.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">94</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.cff.org/UploadedFiles/LivingWithCF/StayingHealthy/LungHealth/Exercise/Day-to-Day-Exercise-and-CF.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Day-to-Day</span>: Exercise and Cystic Fibrosis (CF)</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePLUS</a></p> <p class="result-summary">... Many sports drinks have a certain level of electrolytes to best absorb ions and fluid from the ... less able to pump blood through the lungs. Electrolytes: Chemical salts that help cells work. Electrolytes include ...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">95</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.tucson.ars.ag.gov/unit/Publications/pdffiles/1731.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Canopy <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> as an indicator of crop water stress</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Irrigation scheduling requires an operational means to quantify plant water stress. Remote sensing may offer quick measurements with regional coverage that cannot be achieved by current ground-based sam- pling techniques. This study explored the relation between <span class="hlt">variability</span> in fine-resolution measurements of canopy <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and crop water stress in cotton fields in Central Arizona, USA. Using both measure- ments and simulation</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">M. P. Gonzalez-Dugo; M. S. Moran; L. Mateos; R. Bryant</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">96</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/7036"> <span id="translatedtitle">Novel Dodecaarylporphyrins: Synthesis and <span class="hlt">Variable</span> <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> NMR Studies</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">An investigation of the synthesis of novel dodecaarylporphyrins using the Suzuki coupling reaction of arylboronic acids with octabromotetraarylporphyrins is reported. Studies of the dynamic properties of these new porphyrins using <span class="hlt">variable</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (VT) <SUP>1</SUP>H NMR spectroscopy and molecular mechanics provide interesting insights into their dynamic properties, including the first determination of {beta} aryl rotation in a porphyrin system.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Cancilla, Mark; Lebrilla, Carlito; Ma, Jian-Guo; Medforth, Craig J.; Muzzi, Cinzia M.; Shelnutt, John A.; Smith, Kevin M.; Voss, Lisa</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1999-05-05</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">97</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011epsc.conf.1706J"> <span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">variable</span> spectrum of kieserite: Grain size and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> effects</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Compositional analysis of the Martian and Europan surfaces often relies on remote sensing using such imaging spectrometers as MRO CRISM, Mars Express OMEGA and Galileo NIMS. To enhance their scientific returns, well-characterized laboratory spectra are required. Several <span class="hlt">variables</span> affect the observed spectra that must be understood if the return data are to be fully interpreted. We have quantified the effects of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and grain size on the kieserite (MgSO4•H2O) spectrum. While only <span class="hlt">temperature</span> seems to affect the band position, both grain size and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> alter the band depths and band shapes.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jamieson, C. S.; Noe Dobrea, E. Z.; Dalton, J. B., III; Pitman, K. M.; Abbey, W. J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">98</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001AGUFM.A51E0093S"> <span id="translatedtitle">Longitudinal Variations of Mesospheric <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> at Middle and High Latitudes - the WINDII Perspective</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Longitudinal variations of mesospheric <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> observed by the WIND Imaging Interferometer (WINDII) on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite will be presented and discussed. The study will examine global <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> and year-to-year <span class="hlt">variability</span> in the height range 65-95 km. Planetary scale perturbations will be analysed employing LMS spectral analysis.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Shepherd, M. G.; Rochon, Y. J.; Evans, W. F.; Shepherd, G. G.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2001-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">99</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012ThApC.110..499O"> <span id="translatedtitle">Enhanced <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> in high-altitude climate change</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In the present article, monthly mean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> at 56 stations assembled in 18 regional groups in 10 major mountain ranges of the world were investigated. The periods of the analysis covered the last 50 to 110 years. The author found that the <span class="hlt">variability</span> of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in climatic time scale tends to increase with altitude in about 65 % of the regional groups. A smaller number of groups, 20 %, showed the fastest change at an intermediate altitude between the peaks (or ridges) and their foot, while the remaining small number of sites, 15 %, showed the largest trends at the foot of mountains. This tendency provides a useful base for considering and planning the climate impact evaluations. The reason for the amplification of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variation at high altitudes is traced back to the increasing diabatic processes in the mid- and high troposphere as a result of the cloud condensation. This situation results from the fact that the radiation balance at the earth's surface is transformed more efficiently into latent heat of evaporation rather than sensible heat, the ratio between them being 4 to 1. Variation in the surface evaporation is converted into heat upon condensation into cloud particles and ice crystals in the mid- and high troposphere. Therefore, this is the altitude where the result of the surface radiation change is effectively transferred. Further, the low <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of the environment amplifies the effect of the energy balance variation on the surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, as a result of the functional shape of Stefan-Boltzmann law. These processes altogether contribute to enhancing <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> at high altitudes. The altitude play s an important role in determining the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span>, besides other important factors such as topography, surface characteristics, cryosphere/<span class="hlt">temperature</span> feedback and the frequency and intensity of an inversion. These processes have a profound effect not only on the ecosystem but also on glaciers and permafrost.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ohmura, Atsumu</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">100</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010JGRC..11512011M"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> in a shallow, tidally isolated coral reef lagoon</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Temperature</span> data collected in the shallow, tidally isolated reef flat/lagoon of Lady Elliot Island off Queensland, Australia, show marked <span class="hlt">variability</span> under solar and tidal forcing. Sea level drops below the height of the protective lagoon rim for a few hours during low tide, effectively isolating the remaining water. Because the lagoon is shallow, its <span class="hlt">temperature</span> change (from diurnal solar forcing and cooling) is amplified. We develop a simple analytical model to predict the time evolution of mean lagoon <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, beginning with a well-mixed control volume. This approach highlights the asymmetric flood/ebb physics of tidally isolated lagoons. After discussing the response of this model, we compare it with results from two idealized numerical simulations that illustrate differing aspects of lagoon <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> under "potential flow" and "prevailing current" situations. The conceptual model captures the essence of lagoon <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> and underscores the importance of solar-lunar phasing. However, because of the well-mixed assumption, it cannot reproduce sudden <span class="hlt">temperature</span> transitions associated with new incoming water masses. Observations show that a slowly progressing thermal wave inundates the lagoon on rising tides. This wave is similar to our "potential flow" simulation in that it is approximately radially symmetric. On the other hand, it appears to advectively replace resident lagoon water, similar to our "prevailing current" simulations. We attempt to account for this behavior with a simple "frontal" modification to our conceptual model. Results show that this frontal model is able to capture the sudden <span class="hlt">temperature</span> transitions present in the data and offers improved predictive capabilities over the well-mixed model.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">McCabe, R. M.; Estrade, P.; Middleton, J. H.; Melville, W. K.; Roughan, M.; Lenain, L.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return 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onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">101</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1990IJBm...34...76V"> <span id="translatedtitle">Rheological modelling of physiological <span class="hlt">variables</span> during <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variations at rest</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The evolution with time of cardio-respiratory <span class="hlt">variables</span>, blood pressure and body <span class="hlt">temperature</span> has been studied on six males, resting in semi-nude conditions during short (30 min) cold stress exposure (0°C) and during passive recovery (60 min) at 20°C. Passive cold exposure does not induce a change in HR but increases VO 2, VCO 2 Ve and core <span class="hlt">temperature</span> T re, whereas peripheral <span class="hlt">temperature</span> is significantly lowered. The kinetic evolution of the studied <span class="hlt">variables</span> was investigated using a Kelvin-Voigt rheological model. The results suggest that the human body, and by extension the measured physiological <span class="hlt">variables</span> of its functioning, does not react as a perfect viscoelastic system. Cold exposure induces a more rapid adaptation for heart rate, blood pressure and skin <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> than that observed during the rewarming period (20°C), whereas respiratory adjustments show an opposite evolution. During the cooling period of the experiment the adaptative mechanisms, taking effect to preserve core homeothermy and to obtain a higher oxygen supply, increase the energy loss of the body.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Vogelaere, P.; de Meyer, F.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1990-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">102</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.lsgi.polyu.edu.hk/rsrg/resources/people/paper/ijrs_air_article.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Spatial <span class="hlt">variability</span> of air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and appropriate resolution for satellite?derived air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> estimation</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">This study investigates the spatial <span class="hlt">variability</span> of air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> over Hong Kong using in situ air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> recorded from a mobile traverse combined with an ASTER thermal satellite image. Three different degrees of urbanization in Hong Kong, including city downtown (Kowloon), suburban areas (Yuen Long and Shatin), and rural countryside (Tai Mo Shan and Lam Tsuen) are analysed. The spatially</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">J. E. Nichol; M. S. Wong</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">103</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/54477359"> <span id="translatedtitle">Identifying Modes of <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> <span class="hlt">Variability</span> Using AIRS Data</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">We use the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) and Advance Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU) data obtained on Aqua spacecraft to study mid-tropospheric <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> between 2002-2007. The analysis is focused on daily zonal means of the AIRS channel at 2388 1\\/cm in the CO2 R-branch and the AMSU channel #5 in the 57 GHz Oxygen band, both with weighting function peaking</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">A. Ruzmaikin; H. H. Aumann; Y. Yung</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">104</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.springerlink.com/index/u70t7m9hydtg67gn.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Modelled and observed <span class="hlt">variability</span> in atmospheric vertical <span class="hlt">temperature</span> structure</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Realistic simulation of the internal <span class="hlt">variability</span> of the climate system is important both for climate change detection and\\u000a as an indicator of whether the physics of the climate system is well-represented in a climate model. In this work zonal mean\\u000a atmospheric <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> from a control run of the second Hadley Centre coupled GCM are compared with gridded radiosonde observations\\u000a for</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">N. P. Gillett; M. R. Allen; S. F. B. Tett</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2000-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">105</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3316685"> <span id="translatedtitle">Historical <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> <span class="hlt">Variability</span> Affects Coral Response to Heat Stress</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Coral bleaching is the breakdown of symbiosis between coral animal hosts and their dinoflagellate algae symbionts in response to environmental stress. On large spatial scales, heat stress is the most common factor causing bleaching, which is predicted to increase in frequency and severity as the climate warms. There is evidence that the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> threshold at which bleaching occurs varies with local environmental conditions and background climate conditions. We investigated the influence of past <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> on coral susceptibility to bleaching, using the natural gradient in peak <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> in the Gilbert Islands, Republic of Kiribati. The spatial pattern in skeletal growth rates and partial mortality scars found in massive Porites sp. across the central and northern islands suggests that corals subject to larger year-to-year fluctuations in maximum ocean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> were more resistant to a 2004 warm-water event. In addition, a subsequent 2009 warm event had a disproportionately larger impact on those corals from the island with lower historical heat stress, as indicated by lower concentrations of triacylglycerol, a lipid utilized for energy, as well as thinner tissue in those corals. This study indicates that coral reefs in locations with more frequent warm events may be more resilient to future warming, and protection measures may be more effective in these regions.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Carilli, Jessica; Donner, Simon D.; Hartmann, Aaron C.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">106</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFMPP31A1844K"> <span id="translatedtitle">Solar induced Greenland <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> over the past 4000 years</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">An understanding <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variations in Greenland and their mechanisms is critical for making better projections of sea level rises in a future warmer climate. However, past Greenland <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variations on multi-decadal to millennial time scales are not well understood owing to short observational records. Several methods have been developed to reconstruct Greenland's <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, such as oxygen isotopes of ice (?18Oice) and borehole thermometry, but these methods have several drawbacks. Here, we reconstructed Greenland's <span class="hlt">temperature</span> over the past 4000 years at the GISP2 site with a newly developed method that utilises argon and nitrogen isotopic ratios in the occluded air in a Greenland ice core. The reconstructed Greenland <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> correlate with ?18Oice of GISP2, GRIP, and NGRIP by r = 0.41, 0.51, and 0.57, respectively. The higher correlation with the ?18Oice of NGRIP is probably because the site is located further north so that it is less susceptible to seasonal storm activity than those of GISP2, or GRIP. To investigate influences other than local <span class="hlt">temperature</span> changes on ?18Oice, we subtracted the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> effect (= <span class="hlt">temperature</span> × 0.25 %/°C) from GISP2 ?18Oice by calculating the "residual ?18Oice", which should represent factors such as <span class="hlt">temperature</span> changes in moisture source regions around 35°N in the North Atlantic, and moisture transport pathways together with precipitation seasonality. We found that the residual ?18Oice for the past 4000 years positively correlates with the changes in solar irradiance, indicating a persistent solar influence on atmospheric circulation in the North Atlantic region. Millennial variation of the Greenland <span class="hlt">temperature</span> before 1000 years ago shows that during reduced solar activity or during the "Bond cycle 1" and "2", the Greenland <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> became warmer, indicating atmospheric responses like the NAO (North Atlantic Oscillation). This is also consistent with the fact that centennial <span class="hlt">variability</span> of the Greenland <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and residual ?18Oice is modulated in opposite directions by changes in solar irradiance, except the last millennium. During the last millennium, millennial to centennial variation of the Greenland <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and the GISP2 ?18Oice was positively correlated with changes in solar irradiance. We speculate that during the Little Ice Age, the coldest period since the Holocene Climatic Optimum during 8000-5000 years ago, the AMOC (Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation) slowed down, and caused a basin-wide cooling as observed at 8200 years ago. The slowdown of the AMOC may be caused by increased southward sea-ice flux and/or southward ITCZ migration during low solar activity.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kobashi, T.; Kawamura, K.; Severinghaus, J. P.; Barnola, J.; Vinther, B.; Johnsen, S.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">107</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AGUFMGC34A..06R"> <span id="translatedtitle">Identifying Modes of <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> <span class="hlt">Variability</span> Using AIRS Data.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We use the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) and Advance Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU) data obtained on Aqua spacecraft to study mid-tropospheric <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> between 2002-2007. The analysis is focused on daily zonal means of the AIRS channel at 2388 1/cm in the CO2 R-branch and the AMSU channel #5 in the 57 GHz Oxygen band, both with weighting function peaking in the mid-troposphere (400 mb) and the matching sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> from NCEP (Aumann et al., 2007). Taking into account the nonlinear and non- stationary behavior of the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> we apply the Empirical Mode Decomposition (Huang et al., 1998) to better separate modes of <span class="hlt">variability</span>. All-sky (cloudy) and clear sky, day and night data are analyzed. In addition to the dominant annual variation, which is nonlinear and latitude dependent, we identified the modes with higher frequency and inter-annual modes. Some trends are visible and we apply stringent criteria to test their statistical significance. References: Aumann, H. H., D. T. Gregorich, S. E. Broberg, and D. A. Elliott, Geophys. Res. Lett., 34, L15813, doi:10.1029/2006GL029191, 2007. Huang, N. E. Z. Shen, S. R. Long, M. C. Wu, H. H. Shih, Q. Zheng, N.-C. Yen, C. C. Tung, and H. H. Liu, Proc. R. Soc. Lond., A 454, 903-995, 1998.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ruzmaikin, A.; Aumann, H. H.; Yung, Y.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">108</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20653232"> <span id="translatedtitle">A Novel Sorbent Material Test Device at <span class="hlt">Variable</span> Cryogenic <span class="hlt">Temperatures</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The knowledge of accurate performance data of porous materials is an essential need for investigation of new candidate sorbent materials for use in cryosorption devices. The <span class="hlt">temperature</span> range between 5 K and 20 K is foreseen to be used in order to exploit the cryosorption mechanism in cryovacuum pump systems for nuclear fusion. But direct experimental data at cryogenic <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> are very scarce in the open literature, especially at <span class="hlt">temperature</span> levels other than LHe or LN.Thus, a novel device was developed to measure sorption characteristics of porous materials under <span class="hlt">variable</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> cryogenic conditions (3.5 K to 100 K). The COOLSORP facility is based on a commercially available pore-analyser, upgraded by a heatable, closed He cycle, two-stage Gifford McMahon refrigerator. This facility is characterised by its wide range of accessible pressures, from ambient down to 10-4 Pa.The paper describes the facility set-up and and presents typical examples of low <span class="hlt">temperature</span> sorption data on different gases (helium, hydrogen, deuterium, nitrogen) for activated carbon and getter materials. COOLSORP is demonstrated to be a versatile facility which cannot only be used for scientific purposes to investigate different materials, but also for quality assurance purposes.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Day, Chr.; Hauer, V. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Institut fuer Technische Physik, PO Box 3640, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-06-28</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">109</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AIPC.1434.1279F"> <span id="translatedtitle">Performance measurements of multilayer insulation at <span class="hlt">variable</span> cold <span class="hlt">temperature</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Multilayer insulation (MLI) is commonly used in most cryogenic devices such as LHe-cryostats or superconductive cables. Typically thermal performance measurements have been carried out using bath cryostats. Inherent to all this devices is a fixed cold <span class="hlt">temperature</span> at the boiling point of the particular cryogenic liquid. A recent approach for cryogenic pressure vessels covers a broad <span class="hlt">temperature</span> range, i.e. hydrogen storage from 20 K to ambient <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. Thus, a new calorimeter cryostat has been designed at TU Dresden to meet these requirements. The design as a flow cryostat allows the measurement of the thermal performance with <span class="hlt">variable</span> cold <span class="hlt">temperature</span> between 20 K and 300 K. It can be operated in vertical as well as in horizontal orientation. The insulation material is wrapped around a nearly isothermal cylinder which is held at the desired <span class="hlt">temperature</span> by a cooling fluid. Preferably LHe respectively helium cold gas is used. Several design features reduce undesired interference errors. It is reported about design and equipment of this cryostat plus first experiences in operation</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Funke, Thomas; Haberstroh, Christoph</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">110</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23948472"> <span id="translatedtitle">Cryptic impacts of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> on amphibian immune function.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Ectothermic species living in temperate regions can experience rapid and potentially stressful changes in body <span class="hlt">temperature</span> driven by abrupt weather changes. Yet, among amphibians, the physiological impacts of short-term <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variation are largely unknown. Using an ex situ population of Cryptobranchus alleganiensis, an aquatic North American salamander, we tested the hypothesis that naturally occurring periods of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variation negatively impact amphibian health, either through direct effects on immune function or by increasing physiological stress. We exposed captive salamanders to repeated cycles of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> fluctuations recorded in the population's natal stream and evaluated behavioral and physiological responses, including plasma complement activity (i.e. bacteria killing) against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli and Aeromonas hydrophila. The best-fit model (?AICc=0, wi=0.9992) revealed 70% greater P. aeruginosa killing after exposure to <span class="hlt">variable</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> and no evidence of thermal acclimation. The same model predicted 50% increased E. coli killing, but had weaker support (?AICc=1.8, wi=0.2882). In contrast, plasma defenses were ineffective against A. hydrophila, and other health indicators (leukocyte ratios, growth rates and behavioral patterns) were maintained at baseline values. Our data suggest that amphibians can tolerate, and even benefit from, natural patterns of rapid warming/cooling. Specifically, <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variation can elicit increased activity of the innate immune system. This immune response may be adaptive in an unpredictable environment, and is undetectable by conventional health indicators (and hence considered cryptic). Our findings highlight the need to consider naturalistic patterns of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variation when predicting species' susceptibility to climate change. PMID:23948472</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Terrell, Kimberly A; Quintero, Richard P; Murray, Suzan; Kleopfer, John D; Murphy, James B; Evans, Matthew J; Nissen, Bradley D; Gratwicke, Brian</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-08-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">111</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/921576"> <span id="translatedtitle">Complexation of Plutonium (IV) with Sulfate at <span class="hlt">Variable</span> <span class="hlt">Temperatures</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The complexation of plutonium(IV) with sulfate at <span class="hlt">variable</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> from 25o C to 55o C has been investigated by solvent extraction method. A NaBrO3 as holding oxidant was used to maintain plutonium in the Pu(IV) oxidation state throughout the experiments. The distribution ratio of Pu(IV) between the organic and aqueous phases was found to decrease as the concentrations of sulfate were increased. Stability constants of the 1:1 and 1:2 Pu(IV)-HSO4- complexes, dominant in the aqueous phase under the experimental conditions, were calculated from the effect of [HSO4-] on the distribution ratio. The enthalpy and entropy of complexation were calculated from the stability constants at different <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> by using the Van’t Hoff equation.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Xia, Yuanxian; Friese, Judah I.; Moore, Dean A.; Bachelor, Paula P.; Rao, Linfeng</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">112</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013NatGe...6..339P"> <span id="translatedtitle">Continental-scale <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> during the past two millennia</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Past global climate changes had strong regional expression. To elucidate their spatio-temporal pattern, we reconstructed past <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> for seven continental-scale regions during the past one to two millennia. The most coherent feature in nearly all of the regional <span class="hlt">temperature</span> reconstructions is a long-term cooling trend, which ended late in the nineteenth century. At multi-decadal to centennial scales, <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> shows distinctly different regional patterns, with more similarity within each hemisphere than between them. There were no globally synchronous multi-decadal warm or cold intervals that define a worldwide Medieval Warm Period or Little Ice Age, but all reconstructions show generally cold conditions between AD 1580 and 1880, punctuated in some regions by warm decades during the eighteenth century. The transition to these colder conditions occurred earlier in the Arctic, Europe and Asia than in North America or the Southern Hemisphere regions. Recent warming reversed the long-term cooling; during the period AD 1971-2000, the area-weighted average reconstructed <span class="hlt">temperature</span> was higher than any other time in nearly 1,400 years.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Pages 2k Consortium; Ahmed, Moinuddin; Anchukaitis, Kevin J.; Asrat, Asfawossen; Borgaonkar, Hemant P.; Braida, Martina; Buckley, Brendan M.; Büntgen, Ulf; Chase, Brian M.; Christie, Duncan A.; Cook, Edward R.; Curran, Mark A. J.; Diaz, Henry F.; Esper, Jan; Fan, Ze-Xin; Gaire, Narayan P.; Ge, Quansheng; Gergis, Joëlle; González-Rouco, J. Fidel; Goosse, Hugues; Grab, Stefan W.; Graham, Nicholas; Graham, Rochelle; Grosjean, Martin; Hanhijärvi, Sami T.; Kaufman, Darrell S.; Kiefer, Thorsten; Kimura, Katsuhiko; Korhola, Atte A.; Krusic, Paul J.; Lara, Antonio; Lézine, Anne-Marie; Ljungqvist, Fredrik C.; Lorrey, Andrew M.; Luterbacher, Jürg; Masson-Delmotte, Valérie; McCarroll, Danny; McConnell, Joseph R.; McKay, Nicholas P.; Morales, Mariano S.; Moy, Andrew D.; Mulvaney, Robert; Mundo, Ignacio A.; Nakatsuka, Takeshi; Nash, David J.; Neukom, Raphael; Nicholson, Sharon E.; Oerter, Hans; Palmer, Jonathan G.; Phipps, Steven J.; Prieto, Maria R.; Rivera, Andres; Sano, Masaki; Severi, Mirko; Shanahan, Timothy M.; Shao, Xuemei; Shi, Feng; Sigl, Michael; Smerdon, Jason E.; Solomina, Olga N.; Steig, Eric J.; Stenni, Barbara; Thamban, Meloth; Trouet, Valerie; Turney, Chris S. M.; Umer, Mohammed; van Ommen, Tas; Verschuren, Dirk; Viau, Andre E.; Villalba, Ricardo; Vinther, Bo M.; von Gunten, Lucien; Wagner, Sebastian; Wahl, Eugene R.; Wanner, Heinz; Werner, Johannes P.; White, James W. C.; Yasue, Koh; Zorita, Eduardo</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">113</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AIPC.1103...22T"> <span id="translatedtitle">High <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> <span class="hlt">Variable</span> Conductance Heat Pipes for Radioisotope Stirling Systems</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In a Stirling radioisotope system, heat must continually be removed from the GPHS modules, to maintain the GPHS modules and surrounding insulation at acceptable <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. Normally, the Stirling converter provides this cooling. If the Stirling engine stops in the current system, the insulation is designed to spoil, preventing damage to the GPHS, but also ending the mission. An alkali-metal <span class="hlt">Variable</span> Conductance Heat Pipe (VCHP) is under development to allow multiple stops and restarts of the Stirling engine. The status of the ongoing effort in developing this technology is presented in this paper. An earlier, preliminary design had a radiator outside the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG) casing, used NaK as the working fluid, and had the reservoir located on the cold side adapter flange. The revised design has an internal radiator inside the casing, with the reservoir embedded inside the insulation. A large set of advantages are offered by this new design. In addition to reducing the overall size and mass of the VCHP, simplicity, compactness and easiness in assembling the VCHP with the ASRG are significantly enhanced. Also, the permanently elevated <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> of the entire VCHP allows the change of the working fluid from a binary compound (NaK) to single compound (Na). The latter, by its properties, allows higher performance and further mass reduction of the system. Preliminary design and analysis shows an acceptable peak <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of the ASRG case of 140° C while the heat losses caused by the addition of the VCHP are 1.8 W.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Tarau, Calin; Walker, Kara L.; Anderson, William G.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">114</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013CliPa...9.2299K"> <span id="translatedtitle">Causes of Greenland <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> over the past 4000 yr: implications for northern hemispheric <span class="hlt">temperature</span> changes</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Precise understanding of Greenland <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> is important in two ways. First, Greenland ice sheet melting associated with rising <span class="hlt">temperature</span> is a major global sea level forcing, potentially affecting large populations in coming centuries. Second, Greenland <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> are highly affected by North Atlantic Oscillation/Arctic Oscillation (NAO/AO) and Atlantic multidecadal oscillation (AMO). In our earlier study, we found that Greenland <span class="hlt">temperature</span> deviated negatively (positively) from northern hemispheric (NH) <span class="hlt">temperature</span> trend during stronger (weaker) solar activity owing to changes in atmospheric/oceanic changes (e.g. NAO/AO) over the past 800 yr (Kobashi et al., 2013). Therefore, a precise Greenland <span class="hlt">temperature</span> record can provide important constraints on the past atmospheric/oceanic circulation in the region and beyond. Here, we investigated Greenland <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> over the past 4000 yr reconstructed from argon and nitrogen isotopes from trapped air in a GISP2 ice core, using a one-dimensional energy balance model with orbital, solar, volcanic, greenhouse gas, and aerosol forcings. The modelled northern Northern Hemisphere (NH) <span class="hlt">temperature</span> exhibits a cooling trend over the past 4000 yr as observed for the reconstructed Greenland <span class="hlt">temperature</span> through decreasing annual average insolation. With consideration of the negative influence of solar <span class="hlt">variability</span>, the modelled and observed Greenland <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> agree with correlation coefficients of r = 0.34-0.36 (p = 0.1-0.04) in 21 yr running means (RMs) and r = 0.38-0.45 (p = 0.1-0.05) on a centennial timescale (101 yr RMs). Thus, the model can explain 14 to 20% of variance of the observed Greenland <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in multidecadal to centennial timescales with a 90-96% confidence interval, suggesting that a weak but persistent negative solar influence on Greenland <span class="hlt">temperature</span> continued over the past 4000 yr. Then, we estimated the distribution of multidecadal NH and northern high-latitude <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> over the past 4000 yr constrained by the climate model and Greenland <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. Estimated northern NH <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and NH average <span class="hlt">temperature</span> from the model and the Greenland <span class="hlt">temperature</span> agree with published multi-proxy <span class="hlt">temperature</span> records with r = 0.35-0.60 in a 92-99% confidence interval over the past 2000 yr. We found that greenhouse gases played two important roles over the past 4000 yr for the rapid warming during the 20th century and slightly cooler <span class="hlt">temperature</span> during the early period of the past 4000 yr. Lastly, our analysis indicated that the current average <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (1990-2010) or higher <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> occurred at a frequency of 1.3 times per 1000 yr for northern high latitudes and 0.36 times per 4000 yr for NH <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, respectively, indicating that the current multidecadal NH <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (1990-2010) is more likely unprecedented than not (p = 0.36) for the past 4000 yr.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kobashi, T.; Goto-Azuma, K.; Box, J. E.; Gao, C.-C.; Nakaegawa, T.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">115</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1473539"> <span id="translatedtitle">Picosecond and steady state, <span class="hlt">variable</span> intensity and <span class="hlt">variable</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> emission spectroscopy of bacteriorhodopsin.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The bacteriorhodopsin emission lifetime at 77 degrees K has been obtained for different regions of the emission spectrum with single-pulse excitation. The data under all conditions yield a lifetime of 60 +/- 15 ps. Intensity effects on this lifetime have been ruled out by studying the relative emission amplitude as a function of the excitation pulse energy. We relate our lifetime to previously reported values at other <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> by studying the relative emission quantum efficiency as a function of <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. These <span class="hlt">variable</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> studies have indicated that an excited state with an emission maximum at 670 nm begins to contribute to the spectrum as the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> is lowered. Within our experimental error the picosecond data seem to suggest that this new emission may arise from a minimum of the same electronic state responsible for the 77 degrees K emission at 720 nm. A correlation is noted between a 1.0-ps formation time observed in absorption by Ippen et al. (Ippen, E.P., C.V. Shank, A. Lewis, and M.A. Marcus. 1978. Subpicosecond spectroscopy of bacteriorhodopsin. Science [wash. D.C.]. 200:1279-1281 and a time extrapolated from relative quantum efficiency measurements and the 77 degrees K fluorescence lifetime that we report. Images FIGURE 3</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Shapiro, S L; Campillo, A J; Lewis, A; Perreault, G J; Spoonhower, J P; Clayton, R K; Stoeckenius, W</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1978-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">116</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005AdAtS..22..575Y"> <span id="translatedtitle">The climate <span class="hlt">variabilities</span> of air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> around the Korean Peninsula</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this study, changes in climatological conditions around the Korean Peninsula are estimated quantitatively using various types of high order statistical analyses. The <span class="hlt">temperature</span> data collected from Incheon station have been analyzed for the assessment of the climate variation. According to our analysis, the climate changes observed over the Korean Peninsula for the last century are similar to the global observational data in many respects. First of all, the warming trend [+1.5°C (100 yr)-1] and the overall evolving pattern throughout the century are quite similar to each other. The <span class="hlt">temperature</span> change in the Korean Peninsula is about two to three times larger than that of the global scale which may partially be ascribed to the influence of urbanization at mid and high latitudes. In this work, a new Winter Monsoon Index (WMI) is suggested based on the European continental scale circulation index (EU1) pattern. Our WMI is defined as the normalized sea level pressure (SLP) difference in the winter period between the centers of the East Sea and west of Lake Baikal in Siberia, the two eastern centers of the EU1 action patterns. A strong similarity is found between the time series of the WMI and surface air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> at Incheon. The WMI has decreased gradually since the 1920s but has shifted to a rapid increasing trend in the last two decades; it was in fact accompanied by a weakening of the Siberian High and a decreasing of the northerly during winter. Our findings of the close correlations between the surface air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> at Incheon and the WMI strongly indicate that our newly suggested index is unique and can be used as an efficient tool to predict climate <span class="hlt">variability</span> in Korea.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Youn, Yong-Hoon</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">117</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/881407"> <span id="translatedtitle">Amplification of surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> trends and <span class="hlt">variability</span> in thetropical atmosphere</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The month-to-month <span class="hlt">variability</span> of tropical <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> is larger in the troposphere than at the Earth's surface. This amplification behavior is similar in a range of observations and climate model simulations, and is consistent with basic theory. On multi-decadal timescales, tropospheric amplification of surface warming is a robust feature of model simulations, but occurs in only one observational dataset. Other observations show weak or even negative amplification. These results suggest that either different physical mechanisms control amplification processes on monthly and decadal timescales, and models fail to capture such behavior, or (more plausibly) that residual errors in several observational datasets used here affect their representation of long-term trends.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Santer, B.D.; Wigley, T.M.L.; Mears, C.; Wentz, F.J.; Klein,S.A.; Seidel, D.J.; Taylor, K.E.; Thorne, P.W.; Wehner, M.F.; Gleckler,P.J.; Boyle, J.S.; Collins, W.D.; Dixon, K.W.; Doutriaux, C.; Free, M.; Fu, Q.; Hansen, J.E.; Jones, G.S.; Ruedy, R.; Karl, T.R.; Lanzante, J.R.; Meehl, G.A.; Ramaswamy, V.; Russell, G.; Schmidt, G.A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-08-11</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">118</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012DSRI...64...43R"> <span id="translatedtitle">Sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> in the Colombian Basin, Caribbean Sea</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Daily sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (SST) data from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) database with ˜4 km of spatial resolution were analyzed for the period 1985-2009 in the Colombian Basin using harmonic and empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analysis. The data were compared with observational records in the Rosario Island National Park at 10 m depth (T10) from March 2003 to August 2005. SST values were higher than T10 from June to October (rainy season), but similar from December to February (dry season); both data sets have similar coefficient of variation. The mean SST distribution varies spatially, with minimum SST values in the coastal zone of La Guajira Peninsula and maximum values in the Darien and Mosquitos Gulfs. The seasonal <span class="hlt">variability</span> explains up to 75% of the total <span class="hlt">variability</span> in La Guajira, a high value compared with 40% in the Mosquitos Gulf. The most important feature of the splitting of SST variation into annual and semiannual harmonics in La Guajira is the relationship between their amplitudes. These are of the same order, which is not common in other ocean zones, where the semiannual component is only a small fraction of the annual dominated by the solar warming. The river water discharge, highest from August to November, produces low density surface water, reduces vertical mixing and limits the absorption of solar radiation to a thin surface layer, explaining the discrepancy between SST and T10 in the rainy season. The decomposition of the SST in EOFs indicated that the dominant mode of the basin is a uniform interannual variation in phase with the North Tropical Atlantic Index. The second mode, representing the <span class="hlt">variability</span> of the Guajira upwelling, covaried strongly with the second mode of wind stress curl. The third mode reflected the role of the vertical atmospheric circulation cell associated with the Caribbean Low Level Jet off Central America.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ruiz-Ochoa, Mauricio; Beier, Emilio; Bernal, Gladys; Barton, Eric Desmond</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">119</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AIPC.1203..899A"> <span id="translatedtitle">Long Term <span class="hlt">Variability</span> of Sea Surface <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> in Mediterranean Sea</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The long term <span class="hlt">variability</span> of the sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (SST) of the Mediterranean basin and its sub-basins for the period 1869-2006 (138 years) is investigated using the International Comprehensive Ocean-Atmosphere Data Set (I-COADS). Analysis of the SST time-series revealed a positive trend in both basin and sub-basin scale. During the last century, the highest positive SST trend is found in the Adriatic Sea (0.0141° C/y) and the lowest one in the Aegean sea (0.0011° C/y). This difference in the SST evolution in the two sub-basins can be related to the shift of the Eastern Mediterranean deep water formation site during the 90s, known as Eastern Mediterranean Transient (EMT). The SST variations of the Eastern Mediterranean sub-basins (Adriatic Sea, Ionian Sea, Aegean Sea, Levantine Sea) are highly correlated to each other, in contrast to the poor correlation of the SST variations between the Eastern and Western Mediterranean Sea. Harmonic analysis has shown that a dominant period of the Mediterranean <span class="hlt">variability</span> is similar to the deep water turnover time of the basin. Comparison with climatic indices points out a high correlation of the Western Mediterranean and Adriatic Sea SST with the NAO index, while the Eastern Mediterranean SST variations are highly correlated to the Indian Summer Monsoon Index.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Axaopoulos, P.; Sofianos, S.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">120</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009EGUGA..11..901F"> <span id="translatedtitle">The Predictability of Scottish <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> and Precipitation <span class="hlt">Variability</span> from North Atlantic Sea Surface <span class="hlt">Temperature</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A number of studies have highlighted the regulating role that North Atlantic Sea Surface <span class="hlt">Temperatures</span> (SSTs) play on the European climate. This study, however, suggests a more localised mechanism. Specifically, SSTs around the UK were found to have a greater influence on the <span class="hlt">variability</span> of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and precipitation in Scotland. A number of eigen techniques were used to investigate the relationships between SST in the North Atlantic and the <span class="hlt">variability</span> of Scottish <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and precipitation at the seasonal-to-decadal time-scale. A Canonical Correlation Analysis (CCA) was performed on the main principal components (PCs) of North Atlantic SST and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and precipitation during the 1960-2001 period. This analysis revealed a stronger relationship between these two terrestrial climatic <span class="hlt">variables</span> and the European shelf seas SSTs (45°N-65°N, 20W-20E), particularly the North Sea, rather than for the SSTs over the entire North Atlantic (30°N-75°N, 80°W-30°E). Based on the above relationships, a redundancy analysis was accomplished to quantitatively assess the predictability of Scottish <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and precipitation based on (1) the European shelf seas SSTs, and (2) the entire North Atlantic SSTs as predictors. Then, the temporal consistency of the identified sources of predictability was established for the period 1890-2001, the longest time-period for which observational data were readily available. The results indicate a good potential to forecast decadal trends in spring, summer and autumn Scottish <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. No significant predictability was achieved for rainfall. The statistical models developed were significantly better when SST in the European shelf seas were used as a predictor. The potential for seasonal predictability was assessed using correlation analyses between the leading PC time series and <span class="hlt">temperature</span>/precipitation data for the periods 1960-2001 and 1890-2001. PC time series were obtained from Empirical Orthogonal Functions (EOFs) of North Atlantic SSTs for the two oceanic regions of interest (entire North Atlantic and European Shelf Seas). Correlation coefficients were found to be significantly higher with the European shelf seas SSTs. For <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, significant correlations are found at the 0-1 month lag, which is of limited use for seasonal prediction. Nevertheless, a high and statistically significant correlation is observed between autumn air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and preceding spring SST. A relationship between summer <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and the preceding winter-spring SST is also seen. Further possibilities for seasonal prediction are observed for winter and autumn rainfall, using the preceding summer and winter SSTs, respectively, as predictors. These results were generally temporally consistent but significantly stronger for the period 1960-2001 in comparison to the period 1890-2001.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Foss, I.; Woolf, D. K.; Gagnon, A. S.; Merchant, C. J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' 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onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">121</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21293373"> <span id="translatedtitle">High <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> <span class="hlt">Variable</span> Conductance Heat Pipes for Radioisotope Stirling Systems</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In a Stirling radioisotope system, heat must continually be removed from the GPHS modules, to maintain the GPHS modules and surrounding insulation at acceptable <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. Normally, the Stirling converter provides this cooling. If the Stirling engine stops in the current system, the insulation is designed to spoil, preventing damage to the GPHS, but also ending the mission. An alkali-metal <span class="hlt">Variable</span> Conductance Heat Pipe (VCHP) is under development to allow multiple stops and restarts of the Stirling engine. The status of the ongoing effort in developing this technology is presented in this paper. An earlier, preliminary design had a radiator outside the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG) casing, used NaK as the working fluid, and had the reservoir located on the cold side adapter flange. The revised design has an internal radiator inside the casing, with the reservoir embedded inside the insulation. A large set of advantages are offered by this new design. In addition to reducing the overall size and mass of the VCHP, simplicity, compactness and easiness in assembling the VCHP with the ASRG are significantly enhanced. Also, the permanently elevated <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> of the entire VCHP allows the change of the working fluid from a binary compound (NaK) to single compound (Na). The latter, by its properties, allows higher performance and further mass reduction of the system. Preliminary design and analysis shows an acceptable peak <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of the ASRG case of 140 deg. C while the heat losses caused by the addition of the VCHP are 1.8 W.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Tarau, Calin; Walker, Kara L.; Anderson, William G. [Advanced Cooling Technologies, Inc. 1046 New Holland Ave. Lancaster, PA 17601 (United States)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-03-16</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">122</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10151372"> <span id="translatedtitle">A High <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Hermetic Primer and a <span class="hlt">Variable</span> Spring Tester</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Percussion primers are used at Sandia to ignite energetic components such as pyrotechnic actuators and thermal batteries. This report describes a High <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Hermetic Primer (HTHP) that was developed to replace a previous G16 Percussion Primer Subassembly (Gl6PPS). The ignition mix in these primers is the same as in the discontinued Remington 44G16 (KC1O{sub 3}, SbS{sub 3}, and Ca{sub 2}Si). The HTHP has nearly the same sensitivity as the 44G16 and a significantly lower sensitivity than the G16PPS. In parallel with the HTHP development, we also designed a <span class="hlt">Variable</span> Spring Tester (VST) to determine percussion primer ignition sensitivity with firing pins that have the same mass as those used in field applications. The tester is capable of accelerating firing pins over a velocity range of 100 to 600 inches per second for pins weighing up to 6 grams. The desired impulse can be preselected with an accuracy of better than {plus_minus}1%. The actual impulse is measured on every shot. The VST was characterized using the WW42Cl primer, as well as with the G16PPS and the HTHP. Compared to data from conventional ball drop testers, we found that ignition sensitivities were lower and there was less scatter in the sensitivity data. Our experiments indicate that ignition sensitivity is not strictly energy dependent, but also depends on the rate of deposition, or firing pin velocity in this case. Development results for the HTHP and <span class="hlt">Variable</span> Spring Tester are discussed and design details are shown.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Begeal, D.R.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1994-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">123</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1080982"> <span id="translatedtitle">Influence of Water and <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Stress on the <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Dependence of the Reappearance of <span class="hlt">Variable</span> Fluorescence following Illumination</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The <span class="hlt">temperature</span> dependence of the rate and magnitude of the reappearance of photosystem II (PSII) <span class="hlt">variable</span> fluorescence following illumination has been used to determine plant <span class="hlt">temperature</span> optima. The present study was designed to determine the effect of a plant's environmental history on the thermal dependency of the reappearance of PSII <span class="hlt">variable</span> fluorescence. In addition, this study further evaluated the usefulness of this fluorescence technique in identifying plant <span class="hlt">temperature</span> optima. Laboratory and greenhouse grown potato (Solanum tuberosum L. cv “Norgold M”) plants had a thermal kinetic window between 15 and 25°C. The minimum apparent Km of NADH hydroxypyruvate reductase for NADH occurred at 20°C. This <span class="hlt">temperature</span> was also the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> providing maximal reappearance of <span class="hlt">variable</span> fluorescence. Soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merrill cv “Wayne”) plants had a thermal kinetic window between 15 and 30°C with a minimum apparent Km at 25°C. Maximal reappearance of <span class="hlt">variable</span> fluorescence was seen between 20 and 30°C. To determine if increasing environmental <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> increased the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> optimum provided from the fluorescence response curves, potato and soybean leaves from irrigated and dryland field grown plants were evaluated. Although the absolute levels of PSII <span class="hlt">variable</span> fluorescence declined with increasing thermal stress, the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> optimum of the dryland plants did not increase with increased exposure to elevated <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. Because of <span class="hlt">variability</span> in the daily period of high <span class="hlt">temperature</span> stress in the field, studies were initiated with tobacco plants grown in controlled environment chambers. The reappearance of PSII <span class="hlt">variable</span> fluorescence in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L. cv “Wisconsin 38”) leaves that had experienced continuous leaf <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> of 35°C for 8 days had the same 20°C optima as leaves from plants grown at room <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. The results of this study suggest that the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> optimum for the reappearance of <span class="hlt">variable</span> fluorescence following illumination is not altered by the plant's previous exposure to <span class="hlt">variable</span> environmental <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. These findings support the usefulness of this procedure for the rapid identification of a plant's <span class="hlt">temperature</span> optimum.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ferguson, David L.; Burke, John J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1991-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">124</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3077866"> <span id="translatedtitle">Interaction of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and other environmental <span class="hlt">variables</span> influencing plant distribution.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Statistical analyses of the relationships between the patterns of distribution of plants with C4 photosynthesis and Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) have revealed a variety of correlations with environmental <span class="hlt">variables</span>. The worldwide abundance of C4 grasses, relative to C3 grasses, is highly positively correlated with growing season <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. However, microscale analyses have revealed that C4 grasses are more abundant than C3 grasses in habitats with high levels of solar irradiance and low moisture availability. There are numerous exceptions to these generalizations. C4 dicots generally are more abundant in habitats characterized by high rates of evaporation. Species possessing CAM occur in habitats having low levels of soil moisture store. In the Cactaceae such habitats also have very high potential rates of evaporation and the CAM pathway is the primary mechanism of the uptake of atmospheric CO2. In contrast many species of the Crassulaceae grow in habitats with lower potential rates of evaporation and the CAM pathway is less important or not used at all in the uptake of atmospheric CO2. PMID:3077866</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Teeri, J A</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1988-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">125</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/41392425"> <span id="translatedtitle">Adsorption mechanism of different coal ranks under <span class="hlt">variable</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and pressure conditions</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Variable</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and pressure adsorption tests were conducted on four coal samples with different coal ranks, under simulated <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> and pressures corresponding to coal reservoirs at different depths. The regularity of the variation in the amounts of adsorption by coals under <span class="hlt">variable</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and pressure and 30° C isothermal conditions are compared and the adsorption characteristics of coal under the</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Qing-ling ZHANG</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">126</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/41192444"> <span id="translatedtitle">Fatigue <span class="hlt">variability</span> of a single crystal superalloy at elevated <span class="hlt">temperature</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">In order to develop more accurate life prediction tools, an improved understanding of the <span class="hlt">variability</span> within the fatigue behavior of a material is required. Recent work has shown multiple failure mechanisms that drive the <span class="hlt">variability</span> in fatigue life of polycrystalline titanium and nickel materials. In addition, the bimodal behavior in the fatigue response is not readily apparent when only a</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ryan J. Morrissey; Reji John; W. John Porter III</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">127</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=198982"> <span id="translatedtitle">PROCESSES INFLUENCING <span class="hlt">VARIABILITY</span> IN CAVE DRIP WATER <span class="hlt">TEMPERATURES</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/TekTran.htm">Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We have investigated five months of epikarst storage drip water <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> along with surface air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and rainfall at a small waterfall in Cave Spring Caverns, Kentucky. Falling from about 4 m, water <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> are measured within seconds of entering the cave passage with two minute, and...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">128</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23107263"> <span id="translatedtitle">Core <span class="hlt">temperature</span>: a forgotten <span class="hlt">variable</span> in energy expenditure and obesity?</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A substantial proportion of energy expenditure is utilized for maintenance of the 'warm-blooded' or homoeothermic state. In normally active humans, this compartment of energy output approximates 40% of total energy expenditure. Many mammalian species utilize regulated decreases in <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, such as hibernation or shallow torpor, as a means of energy conservation. Inherited forms of rodent obesity (ob/ob mouse, fa/fa rat) have lower core <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> and withstand cold poorly. Obese humans, however, have normal core <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. This review addresses the role of core <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in the metabolic economy of the obese state and raises the possibility that (i) lower <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> may contribute to the increase in metabolic efficiency that accompanies weight loss in the obese; and (ii) that lower core <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> may have initiated weight gain in the pre-obese state and that the normal <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> in the obese may represent metabolic compensation to restore energy balance and limit further weight gain. PMID:23107263</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Landsberg, L</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">129</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/40762885"> <span id="translatedtitle">Evidence for solar signals in the mesopause <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span>?</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Nocturnal <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> are almost continuously derived from OH* (3,1) near-infrared emissions in the upper mesosphere (around 87km) above Wuppertal, Germany (51°N, 7°E) from ground-based measurements since 1980. The time series analyzed covers the time interval from 1980 until 2005 and consists of 4628 well documented night mean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> data. OH* <span class="hlt">temperature</span> fluctuations on temporal scales of about 3–20 days are</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kathrin Höppner; Michael Bittner</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">130</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1904169"> <span id="translatedtitle">Simulated and observed <span class="hlt">variability</span> in ocean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and heat content</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Observations show both a pronounced increase in ocean heat content (OHC) over the second half of the 20th century and substantial OHC <span class="hlt">variability</span> on interannual-to-decadal time scales. Although climate models are able to simulate overall changes in OHC, they are generally thought to underestimate the amplitude of OHC <span class="hlt">variability</span>. Using simulations of 20th century climate performed with 13 numerical models, we demonstrate that the apparent discrepancy between modeled and observed <span class="hlt">variability</span> is largely explained by accounting for changes in observational coverage and instrumentation and by including the effects of volcanic eruptions. Our work does not support the recent claim that the 0- to 700-m layer of the global ocean experienced a substantial OHC decrease over the 2003 to 2005 time period. We show that the 2003–2005 cooling is largely an artifact of a systematic change in the observing system, with the deployment of Argo floats reducing a warm bias in the original observing system.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">AchutaRao, K. M.; Ishii, M.; Santer, B. D.; Gleckler, P. J.; Taylor, K. E.; Barnett, T. P.; Pierce, D. W.; Stouffer, R. J.; Wigley, T. M. L.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">131</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/41027564"> <span id="translatedtitle">Mechanical properties of SG-iron subjected to <span class="hlt">variable</span> and isothermal austempering <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> heat treatment</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Mechanical properties of spheroidal graphite (SG)-iron subjected to <span class="hlt">variable</span> and isothermal austempering <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> heat treatment have been examined. <span class="hlt">Variable</span> austempering <span class="hlt">temperature</span> heat treatment is carried out by austenitizing at 1183 K then quenching into a salt bath held at 593 and 723 K, respectively. After quenching, the former is steadily heated to 723 K while the latter is allowed to</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Mahmoud Hafiz</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">132</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010E%26PSL.296..481E"> <span id="translatedtitle">Seasonal <span class="hlt">variability</span> in Arctic <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> during early Eocene time</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">As a deep time analog for today's rapidly warming Arctic region, early Eocene (52-53 Ma) rock on Ellesmere Island in Canada's High Arctic (˜ 79°N.) preserves evidence of lush swamp forests inhabited by turtles, alligators, primates, tapirs, and hippo-like Coryphodon. Although the rich flora and fauna of the early Eocene Arctic imply warmer, wetter conditions than at present, the quantification of Eocene Arctic climate has been more elusive. By analyzing oxygen isotope ratios of biogenic phosphate from mammal, fish, and turtle fossils from a single locality on central Ellesmere Island, we infer early Eocene Arctic <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, including mean annual <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (MAT) of ˜ 8 °C, mean annual range in <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of ˜ 16.5-19 °C, warm month mean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of 19-20 °C, and cold month mean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of 0-3.5 °C. Our seasonal range in <span class="hlt">temperature</span> is similar to the range in estimated MAT obtained using different proxies. In particular, relatively high estimates of early Eocene Arctic MAT and SST by others that are based upon the distribution of branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraether (GDGT) membrane lipids in terrestrial soil bacteria and isoprenoid tetraether lipids in marine Crenarchaeota fall close to our warm month <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, suggesting a bias towards summer values. From a paleontologic perspective, our <span class="hlt">temperature</span> estimates verify that alligators and tortoises, by way of nearest living relative-based climatic inference, are viable paleoclimate proxies for mild, above-freezing year-round <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. Although for both of these reptilian groups, past <span class="hlt">temperature</span> tolerances probably were greater than in living descendants.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Eberle, Jaelyn J.; Fricke, Henry C.; Humphrey, John D.; Hackett, Logan; Newbrey, Michael G.; Hutchison, J. Howard</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">133</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFMPP43B1577E"> <span id="translatedtitle">Seasonal <span class="hlt">variability</span> in Arctic <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> during the early Eocene</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">As a deep time analog for today’s rapidly warming Arctic region, early Eocene (~53 Ma) rocks on Ellesmere Island, Arctic Canada (~79° N.) preserve evidence of lush swamp forests inhabited by turtles, alligators, primates, tapirs, and hippo-like Coryphodon. Although the rich flora and fauna of the early Eocene Arctic imply warmer, wetter conditions that at present, quantitative estimates of Eocene Arctic climate are rare. By analyzing oxygen isotope ratios of biogenic phosphate from mammal, fish, and turtle fossils from a single locality on central Ellesmere Island, we provide estimates of early Eocene Arctic <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, including mean annual <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (MAT) of ~ 8° C, mean annual range in <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (MART) of ~ 16.5° C, warm month mean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (WMMT) of 16 - 19° C, and cold month mean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (CMMT) of 0 - 1° C. Our seasonal range in <span class="hlt">temperature</span> is similar to the range in estimated MAT obtained using different proxies. In particular, unusually high estimates of early Eocene Arctic MAT and sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (SST) by others that are based upon the distribution of branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraether (GDGT) membrane lipids in terrestrial soil bacteria and marine Crenarchaeota fall within our range of WMMT, suggesting a bias towards summer values. Consequently, caution should be taken when using these methods to infer MAT and SST that, in turn, are used to constrain climate models. From a paleontologic perspective, our <span class="hlt">temperature</span> estimates verify that alligators and tortoises, by way of nearest living relative-based climatic inference, are viable paleoclimate proxies for mild, above-freezing year-round <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. Although in both of these reptiles, past <span class="hlt">temperature</span> tolerances were greater than in their living descendants.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Eberle, J. J.; Fricke, H. C.; Humphrey, J.; Hackett, L.; Newbrey, M.; Hutchison, H.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">134</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.frontier.iarc.uaf.edu:8080/~igor/research/warm/warm_apr02.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Variability</span> and Trends of Air <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> and Pressure in the Maritime Arctic, 1875-2000</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Arctic atmospheric <span class="hlt">variability</span> during the industrial era (1875-2000) is assessed using spatially averaged surface air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (SAT) and sea level pressure (SLP) records. Air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and pressure display strong multidecadal <span class="hlt">variability</span> on timescales of 50-80 yr [termed low-frequency oscillation (LFO)]. Associated with this <span class="hlt">variability</span>, the Arctic SAT record shows two maxima: in the 1930s-40s and in recent decades, with two</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Igor V. Polyakov; Roman V. Bekryaev; Genrikh V. Alekseev; Uma S. Bhatt; Roger L. Colony; Mark A. Johnson; Alexander P. Maskshtas; David Walsh</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">135</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=PB89165930"> <span id="translatedtitle">Climatology of <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> and Precipitation <span class="hlt">Variability</span> in the United States.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The paper examines the seasonal and annual variance and standardized range for <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and the seasonal and annual coefficient of variation and normalized standardized range for precipitation, on a climatic division level for the contiguous United Sta...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">B. K. Eder L. E. Truppi P. L. Finkelstein</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1989-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">136</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2978011"> <span id="translatedtitle">Core-<span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Sensor Ingestion Timing and Measurement <span class="hlt">Variability</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Abstract Context: Telemetric core-<span class="hlt">temperature</span> monitoring is becoming more widely used as a noninvasive means of monitoring core <span class="hlt">temperature</span> during athletic events. Objective: To determine the effects of sensor ingestion timing on serial measures of core <span class="hlt">temperature</span> during continuous exercise. Design: Crossover study. Setting: Outdoor dirt track at an average ambient <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of 4.4°C ± 4.1°C and relative humidity of 74.1% ± 11.0%. Patients or Other Participants: Seven healthy, active participants (3 men, 4 women; age ?=? 27.0 ± 7.5 years, height ?=? 172.9 ± 6.8 cm, body mass ?=? 67.5 ± 6.1 kg, percentage body fat ?=? 12.7% ± 6.9%, peak oxygen uptake [V?o2peak] ?=? 54.4 ± 6.9 mL•kg?1•min?1) completed the study. Intervention(s): Participants completed a 45-minute exercise trial at approximately 70% V?o2peak. They consumed core-<span class="hlt">temperature</span> sensors at 24 hours (P1) and 40 minutes (P2) before exercise. Main Outcome Measure(s): Core <span class="hlt">temperature</span> was recorded continuously (1-minute intervals) using a wireless data logger worn by the participants. All data were analyzed using a 2-way repeated-measures analysis of variance (trial × time), Pearson product moment correlation, and Bland-Altman plot. Results: Fifteen comparisons were made between P1 and P2. The main effect of time indicated an increase in core <span class="hlt">temperature</span> compared with the initial <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. However, we did not find a main effect for trial or a trial × time interaction, indicating no differences in core <span class="hlt">temperature</span> between the sensors (P1 ?=? 38.3°C ± 0.2°C, P2 ?=? 38.3°C ± 0.4°C). Conclusions: We found no differences in the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> recordings between the 2 sensors. These results suggest that assumed sensor location (upper or lower gastrointestinal tract) does not appreciably alter the transmission of reliable and repeatable measures of core <span class="hlt">temperature</span> during continuous running in the cold.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Domitrovich, Joseph W.; Cuddy, John S.; Ruby, Brent C.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">137</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.livingrivers.org/pdfs/lrlibrary/climatedocs/mccabe2007.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">ASSOCIATIONS OF DECADAL TO MULTIDECADAL SEA-SURFACE <span class="hlt">TEMPERATURE</span> <span class="hlt">VARIABILITY</span> WITH UPPER COLORADO RIVER FLOW1</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The relations of decadal to multidecadal (D2M) <span class="hlt">variability</span> in global sea-surface <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> (SSTs) with D2M <span class="hlt">variability</span> in the flow of the Upper Colorado River Basin (UCRB) are examined for the years 1906- 2003. Results indicate that D2M <span class="hlt">variability</span> of SSTs in the North Atlantic, North Pacific, tropical Pacific, and Indian Oceans is associated with D2M <span class="hlt">variability</span> of the UCRB. A</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Gregory J. McCabe; Julio L. Betancourt; Hugo G. Hidalgo</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">138</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.nersc.no/~helge/Papers/2005GL023404.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Effects of simulated natural <span class="hlt">variability</span> on Arctic <span class="hlt">temperature</span> projections</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">A five-member ensemble with a coupled atmosphere-sea ice-ocean model is used to examine the effects of natural <span class="hlt">variability</span> on climate projections for the Arctic. The individual ensemble members are initialized from a 300 years control experiment, each starting from different strengths and phases of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation. The ensemble members are integrated for 80 years with a 1%</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Asgeir Sorteberg; Tore Furevik; Helge Drange; Nils Gunnar Kvamstø</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">139</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17578928"> <span id="translatedtitle">Simulated and observed <span class="hlt">variability</span> in ocean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and heat content.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Observations show both a pronounced increase in ocean heat content (OHC) over the second half of the 20th century and substantial OHC <span class="hlt">variability</span> on interannual-to-decadal time scales. Although climate models are able to simulate overall changes in OHC, they are generally thought to underestimate the amplitude of OHC <span class="hlt">variability</span>. Using simulations of 20th century climate performed with 13 numerical models, we demonstrate that the apparent discrepancy between modeled and observed <span class="hlt">variability</span> is largely explained by accounting for changes in observational coverage and instrumentation and by including the effects of volcanic eruptions. Our work does not support the recent claim that the 0- to 700-m layer of the global ocean experienced a substantial OHC decrease over the 2003 to 2005 time period. We show that the 2003-2005 cooling is largely an artifact of a systematic change in the observing system, with the deployment of Argo floats reducing a warm bias in the original observing system. PMID:17578928</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Achutarao, K M; Ishii, M; Santer, B D; Gleckler, P J; Taylor, K E; Barnett, T P; Pierce, D W; Stouffer, R J; Wigley, T M L</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-06-19</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">140</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/27127964"> <span id="translatedtitle">Natural convection along slender vertical cylinders with <span class="hlt">variable</span> surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Natural convection in laminar boundary layers along slender vertical cylinders is analyzed for the situation in which the wall <span class="hlt">temperature</span> T{sub w}(x) varies arbitrarily with the axial coordinate x. The governing boundary layer equations along with the boundary conditions are first cast into a dimensionless form by a nonsimilar transformation and the resulting system of equations is then solved by</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">H. R. Lee; T. S. Chen; B. F. Armaly</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1988-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' 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onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">141</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/1519961"> <span id="translatedtitle">Determination of the absolute rotor <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of squirrel cage induction machines using measurable <span class="hlt">variables</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper presents a new method for observing the rotor <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of high-power squirrel cage induction machines using measurable <span class="hlt">variables</span>. The method is based on the fact that the rotor resistance depends on the actual rotor <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. The main problem is to separate the changes in the rotor resistance due to <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and skin effect. By comparing the input impedance</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Martin Maximini; Hans-Jürgen Koglin</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">142</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.iiasa.ac.at/Publications/Documents/IR-99-074.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Temperature</span> and Precipitation <span class="hlt">Variability</span> in China - A Gridded Monthly Time Series from 1958 to 1988</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Wide climatic <span class="hlt">variability</span> is characteristic for large parts of China including events of extreme anomalies. This paper presents a time series covering the period 1958 to 1988 for monthly <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and precipitation in China for a 5x5 km grid cell size. Monthly station histories (265 for <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and 310 for rainfall), long-term averages of mean monthly <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and rainfall on</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">S. Prieler</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1999-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">143</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/41192157"> <span id="translatedtitle">A thermo-mechanical fatigue damage model for <span class="hlt">variable</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and loading amplitude conditions</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">A fatigue life prediction method for thermo-mechanical fatigue damage under <span class="hlt">variable</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and loading amplitudes was proposed. In this approach, a rainflow cycle counting technique was used to extract cycle counts from the mechanical loading history. For each loading cycle, an equivalent damage <span class="hlt">temperature</span> was determined. Once the equivalent <span class="hlt">temperature</span> was used, the loop would be guaranteed closed. This approach</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hong Tae Kang; Yung-Li Lee; Jim Chen; David Fan</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">144</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFMPP23A1725Z"> <span id="translatedtitle">Tropical sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> near the Oligocene - Miocene boundary</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Oligocene/Miocene (O-M) boundary is characterized by a period of rapid and intense glaciation labeled Mi-1 at ~ 23.1 Ma. An abrupt 1.5‰ increase in the benthic foraminifera oxygen isotope composition that characterizes Mi-1 may indicate a (1) significant deep-water <span class="hlt">temperature</span> decrease; (2) major ice-sheet expansion, or the combination of both. Current coarse Mg/Ca-based <span class="hlt">temperature</span> estimations for the early Miocene suggests that deep-ocean <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> were ~2°C warmer than Today [1, 2]. However, Mg/Ca based <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> can also be influenced by changes in the carbonate ion concentration, vital effects, and diagenesis. In particular, recent evidence from mid-ocean ridge flank carbonate veins shows dramatic seawater Mg/Ca ratio changes during the Neogene (Mg/Ca from ~2.2 to 5.3, [3]), which further challenges the application of Mg/Ca thermometry. Owing to poor <span class="hlt">temperature</span> constraints, current ice volume estimations for the late Oligocene/early Miocene range from 125% of the present-day East Antarctic Ice Sheet (EAIS) to a nearly complete collapse of the Antarctic glaciers [4]. Here we present tropical sea surface <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> (SSTs) records based on TEX86 and alkenone UK37 near the O-M boundary. Sediment samples from Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Site 926 in the Ceara Rise (tropical Atlantic) and Site 1148 in the South China Sea (tropical Pacific) were subject to lipid extraction, separation, gas chromatography, and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis. TEX86-based SST indicates that the tropics were ~3-4°C warmer than today and relatively stable during Mi-1. This suggests that ice-sheet dynamics, rather than <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, might be responsible for the observed oxygen isotope changes during the O-M boundary. Further, O-M boundary averaged <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> recorded at site 926 is ~ 0.5°C higher relative to the late Eocene from site 925 (a nearby site [5]). Given late Oligocene benthic ?18O that suggests at least 1‰ enrichment relative to the late Eocene (e.g. ODP 1218 [2]), our records suggest major Antarctic ice build-up in the Oligocene. Additional work across high-latitude sites is necessary to evaluate how the extratropics responded to climate change during Mi-1, as well as modeling efforts to quantitatively resolve ice volume from <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. [1] K. Billups, D.P. Schrag, Paleotemperatures and ice volume of the past 27 Myr revisited with paired Mg/Ca and 18O/16O measurements on bethic foraminifera, Paleoceanography 17(2002). [2] C.H. Lear, Y. Rosenthal, H.K. Coxall, P.A. Wilson, Late Eocene to early Miocene ice sheet dynamics and the global carbon cycle, Paleoceanography 19(2004). [3] R.M. Coggon, D.A.H. Teagle, C.E. Smith-Duque, J.C. Alt, M.J. Copper, Reconstructing past seawater Mg/Ca and Sr/Ca from Mid-Ocean Ridge flank calcium carbonate veins, Science 327(2010) 1141-1147. [4] S.F. Pekar, R.M. DeConto, High-resolution ice-volume estimates for the early Miocene: Evidence for a dynamic ice sheet in Antarctica, Palaeogeogr. Palaeoclimatol. Palaeoecol. 231(2006) 101-109. [5] Z. Liu, M. Pagani, D. Zinniker, R. DeConto, M. Huber, H. Brinkhuis, S.R. Shah, R.M. Leckie, A. Pearson, Global Cooling During the Eocene-Oligocene Climate Transition, Science 323(2009) 1187-1190.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Zhang, Y.; Pagani, M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">145</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1978468"> <span id="translatedtitle">Are Room <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> and Thermal Neutral Synonymous Terms? An Investigation of Common Therapeutic Modality Control <span class="hlt">Variables</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Context: Therapeutic modality control <span class="hlt">variables</span> are thought to be thermal neutral, a term sometimes used interchangeably with room <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. We question this common assumption. Objective: To determine thermal neutrality of common therapeutic modality control <span class="hlt">variables</span>. Design: We performed 5 laboratory experiments, including (1) water <span class="hlt">temperature</span> over 3 weeks in 3 different containers (glass, plastic, and polystyrene); (2) water <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and volume of 4 beakers (2 insulated, 2 uninsulated) over 4 weeks, with 1 beaker of each type covered by polyethylene; and skin interface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of (3) a dry, nonheated hydrocollator pack held against the chest, (4) kitty litter applied to the knee, and (5) room-<span class="hlt">temperature</span> ultrasound gel to the forearm. Setting: Therapeutic modalities laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: College student volunteers were subjects in experiments 3, 4, and 5. Main Outcome Measure(s): We measured <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and volume change. Data were evaluated using descriptive and interferential statistics. Results: Water <span class="hlt">temperature</span> plateaued significantly below room <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. <span class="hlt">Temperatures</span> significantly increased in all but the open, insulated container. Open containers plateaued at approximately 2°C below room <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and lost significant amounts of water; closed containers plateaued at room <span class="hlt">temperature</span> with negligible water loss. In experiments 3 through 5, skin <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> rose significantly during hydrocollator pack, kitty litter, and ultrasound gel application. Conclusions: Room-<span class="hlt">temperature</span> water baths, dry hydrocollator packs, kitty litter, and ultrasound gel were not thermally neutral. Room <span class="hlt">temperature</span> should not be used synonymously with thermal neutral. Care must be taken to ensure that control <span class="hlt">variables</span> truly are controlled.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hawkins, Jeremy R; Knight, Kenneth L; Long, Blaine C</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">146</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/54278325"> <span id="translatedtitle">Influence of solar <span class="hlt">variability</span> on global sea surface <span class="hlt">temperatures</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Recent measurements1 have shown that the total solar irradiance decreased at a rate of 0.019% per year between 1980 and 1985, and may still be decreasing. Presumably, this reflects a cyclical variation that may or may not be related to the well-known cycles of solar activity. Using data on globally averaged sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (SST) over the past 120 yr2,</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">George C. Reid</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1987-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">147</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/41999130"> <span id="translatedtitle">Mesopause <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> above a midlatitude station in Europe</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">More than 2000 mean night <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> (1987-1995) were derived from OH* near-infrared emissions in the upper mesosphere (around 87 km) above Wuppertal (51°N, 7°E) from ground-based measurements. Variations of 4-50 days' period were analyzed using maximum entropy and wavelet methods. A climatology showing the seasonal dependence of occurrence and long-term evolution of the strength of these variations is presented. While</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">M. Bittner; D. Offermann; H. H. Graef</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2000-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">148</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70004660"> <span id="translatedtitle">Amplification and dampening of soil respiration by changes in <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Accelerated release of carbon from soils is one of the most important feed backs related to anthropogenically induced climate change. Studies addressing the mechanisms for soil carbon release through organic matter decomposition have focused on the effect of changes in the average <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, with little attention to changes in <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">vari-ability</span>. Anthropogenic activities are likely to modify both the average state and the <span class="hlt">variability</span> of the climatic system; therefore, the effects of future warming on decomposition should not only focus on trends in the average <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, but also <span class="hlt">variability</span> expressed as a change of the probability distribution of <span class="hlt">temperature</span>.Using analytical and numerical analyses we tested common relationships between <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and respiration and found that the <span class="hlt">variability</span> of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> plays an important role determining respiration rates of soil organic matter. Changes in <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span>, without changes in the average <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, can affect the amount of carbon released through respiration over the long term. Furthermore, simultaneous changes in the average and variance of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> can either amplify or dampen there release of carbon through soil respiration as climate regimes change. The effects depend on the degree of convexity of the relationship between <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and respiration and the magnitude of the change in <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variance. A potential consequence of this effect of <span class="hlt">variability</span> would be higher respiration in regions where both the mean and variance of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> are expected to increase, such as in some low latitude regions; and lower amounts of respiration where the average <span class="hlt">temperature</span> is expected to increase and the variance to decrease, such as in northern high latitudes.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sierra, C. A.; Harmon, M. E.; Thomann, E.; Perakis, S. S.; Loescher, H. W.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">149</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011JGRD..11614105A"> <span id="translatedtitle">Modeled surface air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> response to snow depth <span class="hlt">variability</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Previous literature has established a relationship between snow cover and climate on large and small scales, but has focused on the influence of the presence versus absence of snow cover. A small body of literature indicates that snow depth can also influence properties of the atmosphere, through its ability to insulate the land surface. In this study, we investigate the local surface air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> response to perturbations in snow water equivalent over the course of a single season, using the regional climate model RegCM3. Snow depth is specified as a percentage of the climatological snow water equivalent averaged over a small domain within a larger 3000 × 3000 km model domain, both centered at Minneapolis-St. Paul, Minnesota, United States (44.87°N, 93.22°W). In response to a specified increase in snow water equivalent corresponding to a shift from shallow (<14 cm) to deep (>31 cm) snow, we find a seasonally averaged reduction in surface air <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> that is on the order of 1°C, with smaller and larger responses observed within a season. Coincident with this change, we find reduced upward sensible heat flux at the surface. Both results are consistent with those of previous studies when differences in methodology are accounted for. The response achieved here extends vertically and horizontally beyond the forcing domain, suggesting the potential for the influence of snow depth on large-scale features of climate.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Alexander, Patrick; Gong, Gavin</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">150</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1992JGR....9717777N"> <span id="translatedtitle">Sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> of the Iceland-Faeroe Front</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Several advanced very high resolution radiometer (AVHRR) images with spatial resolution of 1.1-3.3 km, together with several concurrent aircraft-deployed expendable bathythermograph (AXBT) surveys and conductivity-<span class="hlt">temperature</span>-depth (CTD) stations, from spring 1989 are used to describe the Iceland-Faeroe sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (SST) front. In the AVHRR images, SST fronts are located by maximizing |?SST|. Single, large gradient segments of the SST front do exist, with some exceeding 100 km in length, indicating a multiple frontal structure. These single frontal lines are also segments where |?2SST| is small, and they can be followed uniquely by a single isotherm eastward from Iceland for a distance of 300 km. With a 35-km sampled AXBT survey, two small subsurface cold eddies were located south of the surface front in an area 170 km × 270 km east of Iceland. From a May 1987 AVHRR image on 1.1-km resolution, a population of seven such cold eddies are found between Iceland and the Faroes. They appear to be generated along the surface expression of the Iceland Faroes front and populate the northern slope of the Iceland-Faroes Ridge. Historical data from towed high-resolution instruments suggest that the cold eddies are ˜30-50 km in size and uplift the main thermocline by 150 m.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Niiler, Pearn P.; Piacsek, Steve; Neuberg, Lucas; Warn-Varnas, Alex</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1992-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">151</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010GeoRL..37.7705C"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Temperature</span> responses to spectral solar <span class="hlt">variability</span> on decadal time scales</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Two scenarios of spectral solar forcing, namely Spectral Irradiance Monitor (SIM)-based out-of-phase variations and conventional in-phase variations, are input to a time-dependent radiative-convective model (RCM), and to the GISS modelE. Both scenarios and models give maximum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> responses in the upper stratosphere, decreasing to the surface. Upper stratospheric peak-to-peak responses to out-of-phase forcing are ˜0.6 K and ˜0.9 K in RCM and modelE, ˜5 times larger than responses to in-phase forcing. Stratospheric responses are in-phase with TSI and UV variations, and resemble HALOE observed 11-year <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variations. For in-phase forcing, ocean mixed layer response lags surface air response by ˜2 years, and is ˜0.06 K compared to ˜0.14 K for atmosphere. For out-of-phase forcing, lags are similar, but surface responses are significantly smaller. For both scenarios, modelE surface responses are less than 0.1 K in the tropics, and display similar patterns over oceanic regions, but complex responses over land.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Cahalan, Robert F.; Wen, Guoyong; Harder, Jerald W.; Pilewskie, Peter</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">152</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002RScI...73..486P"> <span id="translatedtitle">Low-noise <span class="hlt">variable-temperature</span> preamplifier for piezoelectric tuning fork force sensors</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The development of a low-noise <span class="hlt">variable-temperature</span> preamplifier for self-sensing piezoelectric tuning fork force sensors is presented. The preamplifier utilizes a pair of commercially available GaAs field effect transistors to achieve high impedance and low noise over a wide range of <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. Using a standard 32 kHz quartz tuning fork, the base noise level achieved is 20 dB below the thermal noise resonance at room <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and at 4.2 K. The circuit diagram, biasing points, and noise specifications are presented, and the application for <span class="hlt">variable</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> scanning probe microscopy is discussed.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Patil, N. G.; Levy, J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">153</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007HMT....43.1241H"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Variable</span> permeability effect on buoyancy-induced inclined boundary layer flow in a saturated porous medium with <span class="hlt">variable</span> wall <span class="hlt">temperature</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The analysis is carried out for buoyancy-induced boundary layer flow adjacent to an inclined heated surface in a saturated porous medium incorporating the variation of permeability and thermal conductivity due to paking particles with non-uniform <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. The surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> is assumed to vary as a power function of the axial coordinate measured from the leading edge of the surface. Both the streamwise and normal component of the buoyancy force are retained in the momentum equations. Numerical solutions are obtained in the cases of uniform and nonuniform permeability and various values of the inclination parameter ? ( x) = ( Ra x cos ?)1/3 tan ? by using finite difference method. The problem is solved using nonsimilarity solutions for the case of <span class="hlt">variable</span> wall <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. Results for the details of the velocity and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> fields as well as local Nusselt number have been presented.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hassanien, I. A.; Elaiw, A. M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">154</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.springerlink.com/index/5205516633257135.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Beyond average: an experimental test of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> on the population dynamics of Tribolium confusum</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The relationship between ectotherm ecology and climatic conditions has been mainly evaluated in terms of average conditions.\\u000a Average <span class="hlt">temperature</span> is the more common climatic <span class="hlt">variable</span> used in physiological and population studies, and its effect on individual\\u000a and population-level processes is well understood. However, the intrinsic <span class="hlt">variability</span> of thermal conditions calls attention\\u000a to the potential effects that this <span class="hlt">variability</span> could have</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sergio A. Estay; Sabrina Clavijo-Baquet; Mauricio Lima; Francisco Bozinovic</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">155</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/39664008"> <span id="translatedtitle">Role of Indian Ocean sea surface <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> in modulating northwest Indian winter precipitation <span class="hlt">variability</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Summary  The interannual <span class="hlt">variability</span> of North-West India Winter Precipitation (NWIWP) has been examined in association with the <span class="hlt">variability</span>\\u000a of sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (SST), surface air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (SAT) and upper tropospheric (200?hPa) wind patterns over India\\u000a and the surrounding regions. We have considered data for a period of 54 years (1950–2003). During the years of excess NWIWP,\\u000a the SST was above normal</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">R. K. Yadav; K. Rupa Kumar; M. Rajeevan</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">156</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/33451127"> <span id="translatedtitle">The effect of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and barometric pressure on ambulatory blood pressure <span class="hlt">variability</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The effect of climate on cardiovascular disease has been well studied; however, less known are the effects of climate on blood pressure <span class="hlt">variability</span>. We investigated the effect of ambient <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and barometric pressure on ambulatory blood pressure <span class="hlt">variability</span> in 333 males and females with high normal blood pressure or Stage 1 hypertension participating in the Dietary Attempts to Stop Hypertension</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Megan L. Jehn; Edgar R. Miller; Lawrence J. Appel</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2001-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">157</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2889522"> <span id="translatedtitle">Linking global climate and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> to widespread amphibian declines putatively caused by disease</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The role of global climate change in the decline of biodiversity and the emergence of infectious diseases remains controversial, and the effect of climatic <span class="hlt">variability</span>, in particular, has largely been ignored. For instance, it was recently revealed that the proposed link between climate change and widespread amphibian declines, putatively caused by the chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), was tenuous because it was based on a temporally confounded correlation. Here we provide temporally unconfounded evidence that global El Niño climatic events drive widespread amphibian losses in genus Atelopus via increased regional <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span>, which can reduce amphibian defenses against pathogens. Of 26 climate <span class="hlt">variables</span> tested, only factors associated with <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> could account for the spatiotemporal patterns of declines thought to be associated with Bd. Climatic predictors of declines became significant only after controlling for a pattern consistent with epidemic spread (by temporally detrending the data). This presumed spread accounted for 59% of the temporal variation in amphibian losses, whereas El Niño accounted for 59% of the remaining variation. Hence, we could account for 83% of the variation in declines with these two <span class="hlt">variables</span> alone. Given that global climate change seems to increase <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span>, extreme climatic events, and the strength of Central Pacific El Niño episodes, climate change might exacerbate worldwide enigmatic declines of amphibians, presumably by increasing susceptibility to disease. These results suggest that changes to <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> associated with climate change might be as significant to biodiversity losses and disease emergence as changes to mean <span class="hlt">temperature</span>.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Rohr, Jason R.; Raffel, Thomas R.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">158</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1992PhDT.......103L"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Variable</span> <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> High-Frequency Response of Heterostructure Transistors</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The development of high performance heterostructure transistors is essential for emerging opto-electronic integrated circuits (OEICs) and monolithic microwave integrated circuits (MMICs). Applications for OEICs and MMICs include the rapidly growing telecommunications and personal communications markets. The key to successful OEIC and MMIC chip sets is the development of high performance, cost-effective technologies. In this work, several different transistor structures are investigated to determine the potential for high speed performance and the physical mechanisms controlling the ultimate device operation. A cryogenic vacuum microwave measurement system has been developed to study the high speed operation of modulation doped field-effect transistors (MODFETs), doped channel metal insulator field-effect transistors (MISFETs), and metal semiconductor field-effect transistors (MESFETs). This study has concluded that the high field velocity and not the low field mobility is what controls high frequency operation of GaAs based field-effect transistors. Both Al_{rm x} Ga_{rm 1-x}As/GaAs and InP/In_{rm y}Ga _{rm 1-y}As heterostructure bipolar transistors (HBTs) have also been studied at reduced lattice <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> to understand the role of diffusive transport in the Al_{rm x} Ga_{rm 1-x}As/GaAs HBT and nonequilibrium transport in the InP/In _{rm y}Ga_ {rm 1-y}As HBT. It is shown that drift/diffusion formulation must be modified to accurately estimate the base delay time in the conventional Al _{rm x}Ga_ {rm 1-x}As/GaAs HBT. The reduced lattice <span class="hlt">temperature</span> operation of the InP/In_ {rm y}Ga_{rm 1-y}As HBT demonstrates extreme nonequilibrium transport in the neutral base and collector space charge region with current gain cut-off frequency exceeding 300 GHz, which is the fastest reported transistor to date. Finally, the MODFET has been investigated as a three-terminal negative differential resistance (NDR) transistor. The existence of real space transfer is confirmed by analyzing the dc and microwave characteristics of the MODFET. The data are shown to correlate very well with the theoretical predictions of tunneling real space transfer between the channel and donor layer.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Laskar, Joy</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1992-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">159</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3144938"> <span id="translatedtitle">Influence of Climate on Emergency Department Visits for Syncope: Role of Air <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> <span class="hlt">Variability</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Background Syncope is a clinical event characterized by a transient loss of consciousness, estimated to affect 6.2/1000 person-years, resulting in remarkable health care and social costs. Human pathophysiology suggests that heat may promote syncope during standing. We tested the hypothesis that the increase of air <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> from January to July would be accompanied by an increased rate of syncope resulting in a higher frequency of Emergency Department (ED) visits. We also evaluated the role of maximal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> in affecting ED visits for syncope. Methodology/Principal Findings We included 770 of 2775 consecutive subjects who were seen for syncope at four EDs between January and July 2004. This period was subdivided into three epochs of similar length: 23 January–31 March, 1 April–31 May and 1 June–31 July. Spectral techniques were used to analyze oscillatory components of day by day maximal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and syncope <span class="hlt">variability</span> and assess their linear relationship. There was no correlation between daily maximum <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> and number of syncope. ED visits for syncope were lower in June and July when maximal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> declined although the maximal <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> themselves were higher. Frequency analysis of day by day maximal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> showed a major non-random fluctuation characterized by a ?23-day period and two minor oscillations with ?3- and ?7-day periods. This latter oscillation was correlated with a similar ?7-day fluctuation in ED visits for syncope. Conclusions/Significance We conclude that ED visits for syncope were not predicted by daily maximal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> but were associated with increased <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span>. A ?7-day rhythm characterized both maximal <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> and ED visits for syncope <span class="hlt">variability</span> suggesting that climate changes may have a significant effect on the mode of syncope occurrence.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Galli, Andrea; Barbic, Franca; Borella, Marta; Costantino, Giorgio; Perego, Francesca; Dipaola, Franca; Casella, Francesco; Duca, Pier Giorgio; Diedrich, Andre; Raj, Satish; Robertson, David; Porta, Alberto; Furlan, Raffaello</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">160</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003AGUFMPP52A0944B"> <span id="translatedtitle">Sahel Precipitation <span class="hlt">Variability</span> and Global Sea Surface <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Forcing</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In the last 50 years or so, the Sahel region in sub-Saharan Africa has experienced two multi-decadal wet and dry periods separated by a relatively sharp transition. The onset of the dry episode in the Sahel is associated with the start of a significant warming trend in Southern Hemisphere sea surface <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> (SST) that persisted well into the late 1990's. It has been stipulated, based on general circulation model (GCM) experiments, that the SST rise in the southern ocean basins is the predominant driver of rainfall patterns over the Sahel. Here we support this notion by comparing the observed rate of change in Southern Hemisphere SST with that of Sahel summertime rainfall. We examine the variations in each ocean basin separately and find that the drought pattern is most prominently associated with SST changes in the Indian Ocean, which display maximum warming rates simultaneously with the wet to dry shift in the Sahel. We provide further support to the role of the Indian Ocean using results from GCM integrations forced with observed Indian Ocean SST values and climatological values elsewhere, which effectively recreate the dry Sahel rainfall pattern. While the variations in equatorial Pacific SST associated with El Ni¤o have been found to have an effect on Sahel rainfall during the summer months, their influence does not appear to be significantly connected with the prolonged drought episode. The dry period was accentuated by two severe droughts in the early 1970's and 1980s, which generated very different repercussions for the Sahelian people. The first drought resulted in widespread famine and death while the second more severe drought in 1983-84 generated very few casualties. The political and socioeconomic assessment of these episodes suggests that the extensive loss of life was due to inefficient transportation of supplies to the starving populations. International aid organizations initiated famine protection programs following the 1970's drought that helped to effectively counteract devastating famine in the 1980's.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bach, D. E.; Kushnir, Y.; Seager, R.; Goddard, L.; Giannini, A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> 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onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">161</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://forestecology.cfans.umn.edu/Wythers.GCB.2005.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Foliar respiration acclimation to <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variable</span> Q10 alter ecosystem carbon balance</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The response of respiration to <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in plants can be considered at both short- and long-term temporal scales. Short-term <span class="hlt">temperature</span> responses are not well described by a constant Q10 of respiration, and longer-term responses often include acclimation. Despite this, many carbon balance models use a static Q10 of respiration to describe the short-term <span class="hlt">temperature</span> response and ignore <span class="hlt">temperature</span> acclimation. We</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">KIRK R. WYTHERS; P ETER B. R EICH; PAUL B. B OLST</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">162</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009NatGe...2..492S"> <span id="translatedtitle">Surface-<span class="hlt">temperature</span> trends and <span class="hlt">variability</span> in the low-latitude North Atlantic since 1552</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> in the North Atlantic Ocean recorded since about 1850 has been ascribed to a natural multidecadal oscillation superimposed on a background warming trend. It has been suggested that the multidecadal <span class="hlt">variability</span> may be a persistent feature, raising the possibility that the associated climate impacts may be predictable. However, our understanding of the multidecadal ocean <span class="hlt">variability</span> before the instrumental record is based on interpretations of high-latitude terrestrial proxy records. Here we present an absolutely dated and annually resolved record of sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> from the Bahamas, based on a 440-year time series of coral growth rates. The reconstruction indicates that <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> were as warm as today from about 1552 to 1570, then cooled by about 1?C from 1650 to 1730 before warming until the present. Our estimates of background <span class="hlt">variability</span> suggest that much of the warming since 1900 was driven by anthropogenic forcing. Interdecadal <span class="hlt">variability</span> with a period of 15-25years is superimposed on most of the record, but multidecadal <span class="hlt">variability</span> becomes significant only after 1730. We conclude that the multidecadal <span class="hlt">variability</span> in sea surface <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> in the low-latitude western Atlantic Ocean may not be persistent, potentially making accurate decadal climate forecasts more difficult to achieve.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Saenger, Casey; Cohen, Anne L.; Oppo, Delia W.; Halley, Robert B.; Carilli, Jessica E.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">163</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=130715"> <span id="translatedtitle">EFFECT OF <span class="hlt">VARIABLE</span> <span class="hlt">TEMPERATURE</span> ON THE INFECTION FREQUENCY OF SPHAEROTHECA MACULARIS ON HUMULUS LUPULUS.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/TekTran.htm">Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The effect of <span class="hlt">variable</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> on the infection frequency of Sphaerotheca macularis (sym. S. humuli) on Humulus lupulus L. (Hops) was investigated. Potted 'Symphony' hop plants were inoculated and exposed to different supra-optimal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> regimes for varying amounts of time. Infection...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">164</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/2534805"> <span id="translatedtitle">Global-scale modes of surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> on interannual to century timescales</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Using 100 years of global <span class="hlt">temperature</span> anomaly data, we have performed a singular value decomposition of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variations in narrow frequency bands to isolate coherent spatio-temporal ``modes'' of global climate <span class="hlt">variability</span>. Statistical significance is determined from confidence limits obtained by Monte Carlo simulations. Secular variance is dominated by a globally coherent trend, with nearly all grid points warming in phase</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Michael E. Mann; Jeffrey Park</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1994-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">165</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/51353775"> <span id="translatedtitle">Second law analysis of advanced power generation systems using <span class="hlt">variable</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> heat sources</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Many systems produce power using <span class="hlt">variable</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (sensible) heat sources. The Heat Cycle Research Program is currently investigating the potential improvements to such power cycles utilizing moderate <span class="hlt">temperature</span> geothermal resources to produce electrical power. It has been shown that mixtures of saturated hydrocarbons (alkanes) or halogenated hydrocarbons operating with a supercritical Rankine cycle gave improved performance over boiling Rankine cycles</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">C. J. Bliem; G. L. Mines</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1990-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">166</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/42528173"> <span id="translatedtitle">In situ surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> retrieval in a boreal forest under <span class="hlt">variable</span> cloudiness conditions</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Canopy <span class="hlt">temperature</span> retrieval was one of the purposes during the Solar Induced FLuorescence EXperiment (SIFLEX?2002) of the European Space Agency, carried out in a Finnish boreal forest. In this work, we describe the strategy used to determine this <span class="hlt">temperature</span> from ground thermal infrared (TIR) data under skies with <span class="hlt">variable</span> cloud cover. TIR radiance was measured by a CIMEL Electronique CE</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">R. Niclòs; V. Caselles; C. Coll; E. Valor; J. M. Sánchez</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">167</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/48540212"> <span id="translatedtitle">Spatial and temporal patterns of trends and <span class="hlt">variability</span> in diurnal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> ranges of Turkey</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Summary Spatial and temporal patterns of trends in the diurnal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> ranges ( DTRs) of the 70 stations and the role of maximum and minimum <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> on the year-to-year <span class="hlt">variability</span> and the long-term trends of the DTRs in Turkey have been investigated for the period 1929–1999. The principal results of the study are as follows: (i) The daytime maximum <span class="hlt">temperatures</span></p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">M. Türkes; U. M. Sümer</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">168</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/51479952"> <span id="translatedtitle">Surface <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Lapse Rates and Regional <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> <span class="hlt">Variability</span> on the Prince of Wales Icefield, Ellesmere Island, Canada</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span>, net annual mass balance, and seasonal snow isotopic ratios were monitored from May 2001 to April 2003 in an array of 25 sites on the Prince of Wales Icefield, Ellesmere Island, Canada. The observational network spans the entire Icefield, an area of 180 km by 120 km, with a maximum elevation of 2020 m in the vicinity</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">S. J. Marshall; D. Burgess; M. J. Sharp; F. S. Anslow</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">169</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003JCli...16.1821M"> <span id="translatedtitle">Links between Snow Cover, Surface Skin <span class="hlt">Temperature</span>, and Rainfall <span class="hlt">Variability</span> in the North American Monsoon System.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The influence of land-atmosphere interactions on the <span class="hlt">variability</span> of the North American monsoon system (NAMS) is investigated using the Television Infrared Observation Satellite (TIROS) Operational Vertical Sounder (TOVS) Pathfinder, the Climate Prediction Center (CPC) gauge precipitation, and observed snow water equivalent (SWE). Three hypotheses are tested regarding the connection between land surface <span class="hlt">variables</span> and precipitation in the NAMS region. First, there is a weak negative correlation between 1 April SWE and subsequent surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in the southern Rocky Mountains (SRM) region. However, this connection persists only until June and, therefore, cannot directly influence monsoon rainfall in July and August. Second, there is a negative correlation between SRM surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and NAMS precipitation during the monsoon season, rather than the positive correlation previously proposed. Third, there is a highly significant negative correlation between rainfall and surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> within the NAMS region. On the monthly timescale, surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> decreases by 4 K per 1 mm day1 increase in rainfall, consistent with a positive soil moisture-rainfall feedback. The substantial <span class="hlt">variability</span> of SRM skin <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (10 K) may modulate the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> gradient between land and ocean. However, these skin <span class="hlt">temperature</span> anomalies persist only for 1 month, so their effects are <span class="hlt">variable</span> throughout the monsoon season.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Matsui, Toshi; Lakshmi, Venkat; Small, Eric</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">170</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003EAEJA....14177L"> <span id="translatedtitle">Patterns of northern emisphere mid-latitude <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> in a 500-year climate simulation with <span class="hlt">variable</span> radiative forcing</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This study is based on a 500-year long simulation carried out with an AOGCM which computes the climate evolution from the 15th to the end of the 20th century. The simulation includes a VRF (<span class="hlt">Variable</span> Radiative Forcing) which accounts for variations of the solar activity, volcanic eruptions and recent increase of GHG (Green House Gases) concentration. The results are compared with a 1000-year long CTR (ConTRol) simulation which is based on a constant radiative forcing, corresponding to the 1990 level. The model, called ECHO-G model, consists of the global atmospheric model ECHAM4, at T30 resolution, and of the ocean circulation model HOPE-G, at 2.8 degs resolution. A clear (seasonal) signature of the radiative forcing <span class="hlt">variability</span> on the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> distribution is identified from the analysis of the fields associated with extreme radiative forcing values. The effect is present, though smaller, also on the sea level pressure fields. The dynamics behind these <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and sea level pressure patterns are described and their importance for the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of the mid-latitudes in the Northern emisphere is shown.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lionello, P.; de Zolt, S.; Zorita, E.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">171</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013E%26PSL.375..418L"> <span id="translatedtitle">Reconciling discrepancies between Uk37 and Mg/Ca reconstructions of Holocene marine <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Significant discrepancies exist between the detrended <span class="hlt">variability</span> of late-Holocene marine <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> inferred from Mg/Ca and Uk37 proxies, with the former showing substantially more centennial-scale variation than the latter. Discrepancies exceed that attributable to differences in location and persist across various calibrations, indicating that they are intrinsic to the proxy measurement. We demonstrate that these discrepancies can be reconciled using a statistical model that accounts for the effects of bioturbation, sampling and measurement noise, and aliasing of seasonal <span class="hlt">variability</span>. The smaller number of individual samples incorporated into Mg/Ca measurements relative to Uk37 measurements leads to greater aliasing and generally accounts for the differences in the magnitude and distribution of <span class="hlt">variability</span>. An inverse application of the statistical model is also developed and applied in order to estimate the spectrum of marine <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> after correcting for proxy distortions. The correction method is tested on surrogate data and shown to reliably estimate the spectrum of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variance when using high-resolution records. Applying this inverse method to the actual Mg/Ca and Uk37 data results in estimates of the spectrum of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variance that are consistent. This approach provides a basis by which to accurately estimate the distribution of intrinsic marine <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> from marine proxy records.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Laepple, Thomas; Huybers, Peter</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">172</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=AD657953"> <span id="translatedtitle">Determination of <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Distribution in Wood with <span class="hlt">Variable</span> Surface <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> by Numerical Integration of Duhamel'S Integral.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A numerical method is developed to determine the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> distribution in homogeneous semi-infinite or thick-walled solids when the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of one surface varies with time. A computer program is given in 'FORTRAN' language for the determination of ...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">F. Rattner E. L. Schaffer</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1967-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">173</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFMPP52A..01S"> <span id="translatedtitle">A coral-based reconstruction of Atlantic sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> trends and <span class="hlt">variability</span> since 1552 (Invited)</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">North Atlantic sea-surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (SST) <span class="hlt">variability</span> can have a near global impact on climate. Observed <span class="hlt">variability</span> has been described as a natural multidecadal (65-100 year) oscillation superimposed upon a linearly- increasing, externally-forced background warming. The multidecadal portion of this <span class="hlt">variability</span> may be persistent, suggesting useful decadal climate predictions may soon be possible. However, our understanding of multidecadal Atlantic SST <span class="hlt">variability</span> prior to the brief instrumental record relies almost exclusively on high latitude tree-ring proxies. No proxy SST reconstruction from the Atlantic itself has the resolution, dating accuracy and length needed to assess the behavior of multidecadal <span class="hlt">variability</span>. We present the first absolutely dated and annually-resolved multi-centennial record of Atlantic sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. Our 439-year coral-based reconstruction suggests western low-latitude Atlantic SSTs were nearly as warm as today from ~1552-1570 A.D., cooled by more than 1°C from ~1650-1730 A.D. and generally warmed to the present. Estimates of externally-forced background <span class="hlt">variability</span> suggest that anthropogenic forcing can account for most of the warming since 1850 A.D. Multidecadal variations superimposed upon this background disappear prior to ~1730 A.D. in favor of interdecadal (15-20 year) <span class="hlt">variability</span>. This suggests observed multidecadal <span class="hlt">variability</span> is not persistent and may be difficult to predict.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Saenger, C. P.; Cohen, A. L.; Oppo, D.; Carilli, J.; Halley, R. B.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">174</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009EGUGA..11.8392S"> <span id="translatedtitle">A coral-based reconstruction of Atlantic sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> trends and <span class="hlt">variability</span> since 1552</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">North Atlantic sea-surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (SST) <span class="hlt">variability</span> can have a near global impact on climate. Observed <span class="hlt">variability</span> has been described as a natural multidecadal (65-100 year) oscillation superimposed upon a linearly-increasing, externally-forced background warming. The multidecadal portion of this <span class="hlt">variability</span> may be persistent, suggesting useful decadal climate predictions may soon be possible. However, our understanding of multidecadal Atlantic SST <span class="hlt">variability</span> prior to the brief instrumental record relies almost exclusively on high latitude tree-ring proxies. No proxy SST reconstruction from the Atlantic itself has the resolution, dating accuracy and length needed to assess the behavior of multidecadal <span class="hlt">variability</span>. We present the first absolutely dated and annually-resolved multi-centennial record of Atlantic sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. Our 439-year coral-based reconstruction suggests western low-latitude Atlantic SSTs were nearly as warm as today from ~1552-1570 A.D., cooled by more than 1°C from ~1650-1730 A.D. and generally warmed to the present. Estimates of externally-forced background <span class="hlt">variability</span> suggest that anthropogenic forcing can account for most of the warming since 1850 A.D. Multidecadal variations superimposed upon this background disappear prior to ~1730 A.D. in favor of interdecadal (15-20 year) <span class="hlt">variability</span>. This suggests observed multidecadal <span class="hlt">variability</span> is not persistent and may be difficult to predict.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Saenger, C.; Cohen, A. L.; Oppo, D. W.; Carilli, J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">175</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003AGUFM.C11B0808M"> <span id="translatedtitle">Surface <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Lapse Rates and Regional <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> <span class="hlt">Variability</span> on the Prince of Wales Icefield, Ellesmere Island, Canada</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span>, net annual mass balance, and seasonal snow isotopic ratios were monitored from May 2001 to April 2003 in an array of 25 sites on the Prince of Wales Icefield, Ellesmere Island, Canada. The observational network spans the entire Icefield, an area of 180 km by 120 km, with a maximum elevation of 2020 m in the vicinity of the ice divide. Sites on the eastern margin descend to sea level, while the western margin terminates terrestrially at 450 to 620 m elevation. Hourly, daily, and monthly average <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> from the spatial array provide a tremendous record of surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> lapse rates and mesoscale <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> on the Icefield. Observed lapse rates in the two-year record appear to have modes that are indicative of both synoptic and regional conditions, with an average rate of cooling of 4--5oC/km. This is less than the moist- or dry-adiabatic lapse rates that are adopted for extrapolations of sea-level <span class="hlt">temperature</span> to higher altitudes, with important implications for modeling snow and ice melt. We also examine systematic variations in the standard deviation of monthly and daily <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, important free parameters in methods that are presently in use for glacier mass balance modeling.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Marshall, S. J.; Burgess, D.; Sharp, M. J.; Anslow, F. S.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">176</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.agu.org/journals/wr/wr0607/2005WR004184/2005WR004184.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Relationships between Pacific and Atlantic ocean sea surface <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> and U.S. streamflow <span class="hlt">variability</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">An evaluation of Pacific and Atlantic Ocean sea surface <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> (SSTs) and continental U.S. streamflow was performed to identify coupled regions of SST and continental U.S. streamflow <span class="hlt">variability</span>. Both SSTs and streamflow displayed temporal <span class="hlt">variability</span> when applying the singular value decomposition (SVD) statistical method. Initially, an extended temporal evaluation was performed using the entire period of record (i.e., all years</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Glenn A. Tootle; Thomas C. Piechota</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">177</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JASTP..95...15Y"> <span id="translatedtitle">Intensity of climate <span class="hlt">variability</span> derived from the satellite and MERRA reanalysis <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>: AO, ENSO, and QBO</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Satellite measurements (Atmospheric InfraRed Sounder/Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A, MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) and the Modern Era Retrospective-analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) reanalysis have been utilized to analyze the relative influence of the climate <span class="hlt">variability</span> (AO: Arctic Oscillation, ENSO: El Niño-Southern Oscillation, QBO: Quasi-Biennial Oscillation) on the zonal-mean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and wind variations over the globe from September 2002 to August 2011. We also extended the usage of MERRA data for the period of 1979-2011; furthermore, three climate indices of AO, NINO3.4, and QBO were used as the corresponding climate indicators. The correlations between the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> anomalies and the climate indices indicate that the tropospheric <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> in the mid-latitude (30-60N) linked to both AO and ENSO has been more pronounced over ocean than over land. However, the low stratospheric <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> in the mid-latitude is mainly associated with ENSO and QBO. The north-south symmetric patterns over the globe are seen in the wind anomaly distributions for ENSO and QBO, but not for AO. The ENSO events are globally vigorous but also localized during the recent 9 years compared with those based on the period of 1979-2011. The tropospheric warming and stratospheric cooling phenomena during this period are more remarkable in the recent 9 years, although according to IPCC (2012). their linkage to the ENSO <span class="hlt">variability</span> is still uncertain. The ENSO is found to have more significant impact on the tropospheric and low stratosphere <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> over the tropics in the recent period, consistent with more active zonal wind meridional circulations. The discrepancies between satellite observations and MERRA are also discussed. The estimated relative impact of the three major concurrent large-scale climate phenomena on regional <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> can be of great use in its long-term predictability.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Yoo, Jung-Moon; Won, Young-In; Jeong, Myeong-Jae; Kim, Kyu-Myong; Shin, Dong-Bin; Lee, Yu-Ri; Cho, Young-Jun</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">178</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1752-1688.2007.00015.x"> <span id="translatedtitle">Associations of decadal to multidecadal sea-surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> with Upper Colorado River flow</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The relations of decadal to multidecadal (D2M) <span class="hlt">variability</span> in global sea-surface <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> (SSTs) with D2M <span class="hlt">variability</span> in the flow of the Upper Colorado River Basin (UCRB) are examined for the years 1906-2003. Results indicate that D2M <span class="hlt">variability</span> of SSTs in the North Atlantic, North Pacific, tropical Pacific, and Indian Oceans is associated with D2M <span class="hlt">variability</span> of the UCRB. A principal components analysis (with varimax rotation) of detrended and 11-year smoothed global SSTs indicates that the two leading rotated principal components (RPCs) explain 56% of the <span class="hlt">variability</span> in the transformed SST data. The first RPC (RPC1) strongly reflects <span class="hlt">variability</span> associated with the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation and the second RPC (RPC2) represents <span class="hlt">variability</span> of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation, the tropical Pacific Ocean, and Indian Ocean SSTs. Results indicate that SSTs in the North Atlantic Ocean (RPC1) explain as much of the D2M <span class="hlt">variability</span> in global SSTs as does the combination of Indian and Pacific Ocean <span class="hlt">variability</span> (RPC2). These results suggest that SSTs in all of the oceans have some relation with flow of the UCRB, but the North Atlantic may have the strongest and most consistent association on D2M time scales. Hydroclimatic persistence on these time scales introduces significant nonstationarity in mean annual streamflow, with critical implications for UCRB water resource management. ?? 2007 American Water Resources Association.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">McCabe, G. J.; Betancourt, J. L.; Hidalgo, H. G.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">179</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFMPP33B1684S"> <span id="translatedtitle">Deglacial Subsurface <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Change in the Tropical North Atlantic Linked to Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation <span class="hlt">Variability</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Coupled ocean-atmosphere modeling experiments indicate that Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) <span class="hlt">variability</span> is tightly coupled to abrupt tropical North Atlantic (TNA) climate change through both atmospheric and oceanic processes (Zhang, 2007; Chang et al., 2008; and Chiang et al., 2008). While a slowdown of AMOC in these experiments results in an atmospheric-induced surface cooling in the entire TNA, the subsurface experiences an even larger warming due to rapid reorganizations of ocean circulation patterns (Wan et al., 2009). In addition, observational records of detrended 20th century ocean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and salinity <span class="hlt">variability</span> show a strong anticorrelation between surface cooling and subsurface warming in the TNA over the past several decades, suggesting changing vertical <span class="hlt">temperature</span> gradients in this region may be a distinct fingerprint of AMOC <span class="hlt">variability</span> (Zhang 2007). In order to test the hypothesis that subsurface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> change in the TNA is coupled to AMOC <span class="hlt">variability</span> across abrupt climate events over the last deglacial, we reconstructed high-resolution Mg/Ca-<span class="hlt">temperature</span> and ?18O records from both surface (G. ruber) and sub-thermocline dwelling (G. truncatulinoides, 350-500 m depth and G. crassaformis, 450-580 m) planktonic foraminifera in the southern Caribbean Sea sediment core VM12-107 (11.33oN, 66.63oW; 1079 m; 18 cm/kyr sedimentation rate). Sea surface <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> indicate a gradual warming in the TNA starting at ~19 kyr BP with small cold reversals of ~1.5oC during Heinrich Event 1 (H1) and the Younger Dryas (YD). In contrast, last glacial maximum subsurface <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> were as much as 2.5oC warmer than Late Holocene values and H1 and the YD are marked by the warmest subsurface <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> characterized by abrupt <span class="hlt">temperature</span> increases as large as 4-5oC. Furthermore, a comparison of our subsurface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> record with the Bermuda Rise 231Pa/230Th proxy record of AMOC <span class="hlt">variability</span> (McManus et al., 2004) indicates a strong correlation between periods of reduced AMOC and subsurface warming in the TNA. Our results suggest that western TNA subsurface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> change is a sensitive indicator of AMOC strength with the potential to determine AMOC <span class="hlt">variability</span> during marine isotope stage 3.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Schmidt, M. W.; Chang, P.; Otto-Bliesner, B. L.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">180</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.springerlink.com/index/537347l708273567.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">A <span class="hlt">variable-temperature</span> surrogate mother for studying attachment in infant monkeys</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">A <span class="hlt">variable</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> surrogate mother for use with infant monkeys is described. The apparatus is designed to facilitate\\u000a manipulation of the infant-surrogate attachment bond. Data showing significant behavioral changes in ventral contact and locomotion\\u000a as a function of depressed surrogate <span class="hlt">temperature</span> are presented. The value of this technique in the production of psyehopathology\\u000a is indicated by a dramatic and progressive</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">C. M. Baysinger; P. E. Plubell; H. F. Harlow</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1973-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' 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class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#">4</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#">5</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#">6</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#">7</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#">8</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#">9</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">10</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">181</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/54617406"> <span id="translatedtitle">Improved Monitoring of Inter-annual <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> <span class="hlt">Variability</span> Using AIRS\\/AMSU Observations</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">AIRS\\/AMSU was launched on EOS Aqua in May 2002 and started producing useful data in September 2002. EOS is primarily a mission for studying inter-annual <span class="hlt">variability</span> of the Earth's surface and atmospheric geophysical parameters for the purpose of improving understanding of climate processes. Surface skin <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and atmospheric <span class="hlt">temperature</span> profiles are among many geophysical parameters derived from analysis of AIRS\\/AMSU</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">J. Susskind; G. Molnar</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">182</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/48446075"> <span id="translatedtitle">Interannual to decadal summer drought <span class="hlt">variability</span> over Europe and its relationship to global sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Interannual to decadal <span class="hlt">variability</span> of European summer drought and its relationship with global sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (SST)\\u000a is investigated using the newly developed self calibrated Palmer drought severity index (scPDSI) and global sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span>\\u000a (SST) field for the period 1901–2002. A European drought severity index defined as the average of scPDSI over entire Europe\\u000a shows quasiperiodic variations in the</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">M. Ionita; G. Lohmann; N. Rimbu; S. Chelcea; M. Dima</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">183</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.statcan.gc.ca/edu/power-pouvoir/ch8/5214817-eng.htm"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Variables</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This site, presented by Statistics Canada, is a section from "Statistics: Power from Data!" on <span class="hlt">variable</span> classification. It discusses categorical and numerical <span class="hlt">variables</span> and their types. The site discusses these <span class="hlt">variables</span>: nominal, ordinal, numeric, continuous, and discrete. This is a good introductory site for any mathematics classroom studying statistics.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-12-25</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">184</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=195692"> <span id="translatedtitle">Predicting germination response to <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. III. Model validation under field-<span class="hlt">variable</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> conditions</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/TekTran.htm">Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Two previous papers in this series evaluated model fit of eight thermal-germination models parameterized from constant-<span class="hlt">temperature</span> germination data. The previous studies determined that model formulations with the fewest shape assumptions provided the best estimates of both germination rate and ger...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">185</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011A%26A...526A..78K"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> in X-ray bright points observed with Hinode/XRT</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Aims: We investigate the <span class="hlt">variability</span> in <span class="hlt">temperature</span> as a function of time among a sample of coronal X-ray bright points (XBPs). Methods: We analysed a 7-h (17:00-24:00 UT) long time sequence of soft X-ray images observed almost simultaneously in two filters (Ti_poly and Al_mesh) on April 14, 2007 with X-ray telescope (XRT) onboard the Hinode mission. We identified and selected 14 XBPs for a detailed analysis. The light curves of XBPs were derived using the SolarSoft library in IDL. The <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of XBPs was determined using the calibrated <span class="hlt">temperature</span> response curves of the two filters by means of the intensity ratio method. Results: We find that the XBPs show a high <span class="hlt">variability</span> in their <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and that the average <span class="hlt">temperature</span> ranges from 1.1 MK to 3.4 MK. The variations in <span class="hlt">temperature</span> are often correlated with changes in average X-ray emission. It is evident from the results of time series that the XBP heating rate can be highly <span class="hlt">variable</span> on short timescales, suggesting that it has a reconnection origin.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kariyappa, R.; Deluca, E. E.; Saar, S. H.; Golub, L.; Damé, L.; Pevtsov, A. A.; Varghese, B. A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">186</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JGRD..118.9105I"> <span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">variability</span> of California summertime marine stratus: Impacts on surface air <span class="hlt">temperatures</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">study investigates the <span class="hlt">variability</span> of clouds, primarily marine stratus clouds, and how they are associated with surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> anomalies over California, especially along the coastal margin. We focus on the summer months of June to September when marine stratus are the dominant cloud type. Data used include satellite cloud reflectivity (cloud albedo) measurements, hourly surface observations of cloud cover and air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> at coastal airports, and observed values of daily surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> at stations throughout California and Nevada. Much of the anomalous <span class="hlt">variability</span> of summer clouds is organized over regional patterns that affect considerable portions of the coast, often extend hundreds of kilometers to the west and southwest over the North Pacific, and are bounded to the east by coastal mountains. The occurrence of marine stratus is positively correlated with both the strength and height of the thermal inversion that caps the marine boundary layer, with inversion base height being a key factor in determining their inland penetration. Cloud cover is strongly associated with surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variations. In general, increased presence of cloud (higher cloud albedo) produces cooler daytime <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> and warmer nighttime <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. Summer daytime <span class="hlt">temperature</span> fluctuations associated with cloud cover variations typically exceed 1°C. The inversion-cloud albedo-<span class="hlt">temperature</span> associations that occur at daily timescales are also found at seasonal timescales.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Iacobellis, Sam F.; Cayan, Daniel R.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">187</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011IJBm...55..387B"> <span id="translatedtitle">Effects of precipitation and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> on crop production <span class="hlt">variability</span> in northeast Iran</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Climate <span class="hlt">variability</span> adversely impacts crop production and imposes a major constraint on farming planning, mostly under rainfed conditions, across the world. Considering the recent advances in climate science, many studies are trying to provide a reliable basis for climate, and subsequently agricultural production, forecasts. The El Niño-Southern Oscillation phenomenon (ENSO) is one of the principle sources of interannual climatic <span class="hlt">variability</span>. In Iran, primarily in the northeast, rainfed cereal yield shows a high annual <span class="hlt">variability</span>. This study investigated the role played by precipitation, <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and three climate indices [Arctic Oscillation (AO), North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and NINO 3.4] in historically observed rainfed crop yields (1983-2005) of both barley and wheat in the northeast of Iran. The results revealed differences in the association between crop yield and climatic factors at different locations. The south of the study area is a very hot location, and the maximum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> proved to be the limiting and determining factor for crop yields; <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> resulted in crop yield <span class="hlt">variability</span>. For the north of the study area, NINO 3.4 exhibited a clear association trend with crop yields. In central locations, NAO provided a solid basis for the relationship between crop yields and climate factors.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bannayan, Mohammad; Sadeghi Lotfabadi, Sajad; Sanjani, Sarah; Mohamadian, Azadeh; Aghaalikhani, Majid</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">188</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20706741"> <span id="translatedtitle">Effects of precipitation and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> on crop production <span class="hlt">variability</span> in northeast Iran.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Climate <span class="hlt">variability</span> adversely impacts crop production and imposes a major constraint on farming planning, mostly under rainfed conditions, across the world. Considering the recent advances in climate science, many studies are trying to provide a reliable basis for climate, and subsequently agricultural production, forecasts. The El Niño-Southern Oscillation phenomenon (ENSO) is one of the principle sources of interannual climatic <span class="hlt">variability</span>. In Iran, primarily in the northeast, rainfed cereal yield shows a high annual <span class="hlt">variability</span>. This study investigated the role played by precipitation, <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and three climate indices [Arctic Oscillation (AO), North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and NINO 3.4] in historically observed rainfed crop yields (1983-2005) of both barley and wheat in the northeast of Iran. The results revealed differences in the association between crop yield and climatic factors at different locations. The south of the study area is a very hot location, and the maximum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> proved to be the limiting and determining factor for crop yields; <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> resulted in crop yield <span class="hlt">variability</span>. For the north of the study area, NINO 3.4 exhibited a clear association trend with crop yields. In central locations, NAO provided a solid basis for the relationship between crop yields and climate factors. PMID:20706741</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bannayan, Mohammad; Lotfabadi, Sajad Sadeghi; Sanjani, Sarah; Mohamadian, Azadeh; Aghaalikhani, Majid</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-08-13</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">189</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/42003958"> <span id="translatedtitle">Impact of interannual rainfall anomalies on Indian Ocean salinity and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">A nonlinear reduced gravity model with four active layers and mixed layer physics is used to investigate how precipitation anomalies affect salinity and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> in the Indian Ocean. In one experiment the model is forced by observations of monthly varying winds and rainfall for the period 1980-2000. In another it is forced by the same winds and climatological rainfall.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Claire Perigaud; Julian P. McCreary; Kate Q. Zhang</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">190</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/48923357"> <span id="translatedtitle">Impact of interannual rainfall anomalies on Indian Ocean salinity and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">A nonlinear reduced gravity model with four active layers and mixed layer physics is used to investigate how precipitation anomalies affect salinity and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> in the Indian Ocean. In one experiment the model is forced by observations of monthly varying winds and rainfall for the period 1980–2000. In another it is forced by the same winds and climatological rainfall.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Claire Perigaud; Julian P. McCreary Jr; Kate Q. Zhang</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">191</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/50383206"> <span id="translatedtitle">Comparison of the effects of selected <span class="hlt">variables</span> on urban surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The intra-urban variation in surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and its related natural and social <span class="hlt">variables</span> region by region within a city was investigated in the study. The study area is Washington DC, USA. Data sources include one EOS Terra ASTER scene, census data and high spatial resolution (1m) color infrared DOQQ. The census tracts were used to partition the city into different</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Weirong Chen; Guoqing Zhou</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">192</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/52414798"> <span id="translatedtitle">Comparing <span class="hlt">variability</span> and trends in observed and modelled global-mean surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The observed evolution of the global-mean surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> over the twentieth century reflects the combined influences of natural variations and anthropogenic forcing, and it is a primary goal of climate models to represent both. In this study we isolate, compare, and remove the following natural signals in observations and in climate models: dynamically induced atmospheric <span class="hlt">variability</span>, the El Niño-Southern Oscillation,</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">John C. Fyfe; Nathan P. Gillett; David W. J. Thompson</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">193</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/39672168"> <span id="translatedtitle">Canopy <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> as an indicator of crop water stress severity</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Irrigation scheduling requires an operational means to quantify plant water stress. Remote sensing may offer quick measurements with regional coverage that cannot be achieved by current ground-based sampling techniques. This study explored the relation between <span class="hlt">variability</span> in fine-resolution measurements of canopy <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and crop water stress in cotton fields in Central Arizona, USA. By using both measurements and simulation models,</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">M. P. González-Dugo; M. S. Moran; L. Mateos; R. Bryant</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">194</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/55496817"> <span id="translatedtitle">Sea Surface <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> and Seawater Oxygen Isotope <span class="hlt">Variability</span> Recorded in a Madagascar Coral Record</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Within KIHZ a coral from the lagoon of Ifaty off southwest Madagascar in the Mozambique Channel was examined. Based on temporal <span class="hlt">variability</span> of skeletal oxygen isotopes annual mean sea surface <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> are reconstructed for the period from 1658 to 1995. Sr\\/Ca ratios were measured for selected windows with monthly resolution (1973 to 1995, 1863 to 1910, 1784 to 1809, 1688</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">J. Zinke; W. Dullo; A. Eisenhauer</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">195</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/54429017"> <span id="translatedtitle">Sea Surface <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> and Seawater Oxygen Isotope <span class="hlt">Variability</span> Recorded in a Madagascar Coral Record</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">We analysed a 336 year coral oxygen isotope record off southwest Madagascar in the Mozambique Channel. Based on temporal <span class="hlt">variability</span> of skeletal oxygen isotopes annual mean sea surface <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> are reconstructed for the period from 1659 to 1995. Sr\\/Ca ratios were measured for selected windows with monthly resolution (1973 to 1995, 1863 to 1910, 1784 to 1809, 1688 to 1710)</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">J. Zinke; W. Chr Dullo; A. Eisenhauer</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">196</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.geog.ucsb.edu/~joel/g280_s09/recent_cryosphere/hamlet_etal_joc05.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Effects of <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> and Precipitation <span class="hlt">Variability</span> on Snowpack Trends in the Western United States</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Recent studies have shown substantial declines in snow water equivalent (SWE) over much of the western United States in the last half century, as well as trends toward earlier spring snowmelt and peak spring streamflows. These trends are influenced both by interannual and decadal-scale climate <span class="hlt">variability</span>, and also by <span class="hlt">temperature</span> trends at longer time scales that are generally consistent with</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Alan F. Hamlet; Philip W. Mote; Martyn P. Clark; Dennis P. Lettenmaier</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">197</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/18379578"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Variable</span>-coefficient KP equation and solitonic solution for two-<span class="hlt">temperature</span> ions in dusty plasma</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this Letter, the cylindrical KP equation, which is a <span class="hlt">variable</span>-coefficient equation, is obtained by using the reductive perturbation method for unmagnified, collisionless and two-<span class="hlt">temperature</span> ions in dusty plasma. With the help of generalized projected Riccati equation expansion method, the cylindrical KP equation is solved and many solitonic solutions are obtained. Some important parameters for the existence of the compressive</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Yue-Yue Wang; Jie-Fang Zhang</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">198</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.agu.org/journals/pa/pa0602/2005PA001218/2005PA001218.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Florida Current surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and salinity <span class="hlt">variability</span> during the last millennium</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The salinity and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of the Florida Current are key parameters affecting the transport of heat into the North Atlantic, yet little is known about their <span class="hlt">variability</span> on centennial timescales. Here we report replicated, high-resolution foraminiferal records of Florida Current surface hydrography for the last millennium from two coring sites, Dry Tortugas and the Great Bahama Bank. The oxygen isotopic</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">David C. Lund; William Curry</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">199</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=ADA451672"> <span id="translatedtitle">High-<span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Deformation Behavior of HCP Alloys -- An Internal <span class="hlt">Variable</span> Approach.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The high <span class="hlt">temperature</span> deformation behavior of HCP alloys has been investigated within the framework of an internal <span class="hlt">variable</span> theory. Various mechanical tests were conducted to this end for AZ31 Mg and Ti-6Al-4V alloys together with microstructure observatio...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Y. W. Chang</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">200</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/44474742"> <span id="translatedtitle">Decadal <span class="hlt">Variability</span> of the Tropical Atlantic Ocean Surface <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> in Shipboard Measurements and in a Global Ocean-Atmosphere Model</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Numerous analyses of relatively short (25-30 years in length) time series of the observed surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of the tropical Atlantic Ocean have indicated the possible existence of decadal timescale <span class="hlt">variability</span>. It was decided to search for such <span class="hlt">variability</span> in 100-yr time series of sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (SST) measured aboard ships and available in the recently published Global Ocean Surface <span class="hlt">Temperature</span></p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Vikram M. Mehta; Thomas Delworth</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1995-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return 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id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#">4</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#">5</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#">6</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#">7</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#">8</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#">9</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#">10</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">201</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFMPP21B1793S"> <span id="translatedtitle">Deglacial Subsurface <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Change in the Tropical North Atlantic Linked to Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation <span class="hlt">Variability</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Coupled ocean-atmosphere modeling experiments conducted under both the present and Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) conditions indicate that Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) <span class="hlt">variability</span> is tightly coupled to abrupt tropical North Atlantic (TNA) climate change through both atmospheric and oceanic processes (Zhang, 2007; Chang et al., 2008; Chiang et al., 2008; Otto-Bliesner and Brady, 2009). While a slowdown of AMOC in these experiments results in an atmospheric-induced surface cooling in the entire TNA, the subsurface experiences an even larger warming due to rapid reorganizations of ocean circulation patterns (Wan et al., 2009). To test the hypothesis that subsurface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> change in the TNA is coupled to AMOC <span class="hlt">variability</span> across abrupt climate events over the last deglacial, we reconstruct Mg/Ca-<span class="hlt">temperature</span> and ?18O records from both surface (Globigerinoides ruber, upper mixed layer) and sub-thermocline dwelling (Globorotalia truncatulinoides, 350-500 m depth) planktonic foraminifera, as well as from the benthic species Cibicidoides pachyderma in the southern Caribbean Sea sediment core VM12-107 (11.33 °N, 66.63 °W; 1079 m; 18 cm/kyr sedimentation rate). Reconstructed sea surface <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> (SSTs) indicate a gradual warming in the TNA starting at ~19 kyr BP with small cold reversals of ~1.5 °C during Heinrich Event 1 (H1) and the Younger Dryas (YD). In contrast, LGM subsurface <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> were as much as 2.5 °C warmer than Late Holocene values and H1 and the YD are marked by the warmest subsurface <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> characterized by abrupt <span class="hlt">temperature</span> increases as large as 4-5 °C. In addition, benthic Mg/Ca ratios during the YD and H1 increase by 50% relative to Holocene intervals, suggesting significant warming extending to 1079 m water depth across these events. Comparison of our subsurface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> records with the Bermuda Rise 231Pa/230Th proxy record of AMOC <span class="hlt">variability</span> (McManus et al., 2004) indicates a strong correlation between periods of reduced AMOC and subsurface warming in the southern Caribbean Sea. To confirm the subsurface warming is caused by basin-scale changes in intermediate-depth circulation rather than by local hydrographic dynamics, we will also reconstruct an intermediate-depth <span class="hlt">temperature</span> record from inside the Cariaco Basin using G. truncatulinoides from ODP site 1002C. Because the Cariaco Basin sill depth was less than 100 m across the deglacial, intermediate-depth warming associated with AMOC <span class="hlt">variability</span> should not affect intermediate-depth <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> inside the basin. Our results suggest that western TNA subsurface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> change is a sensitive indicator of AMOC strength with the potential to reconstruct past AMOC <span class="hlt">variability</span>.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Schmidt, M. W.; Hertzberg, J. E.; Them, T. R.; Parker, A. O.; Chang, P.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">202</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.quaint.2007.07.001"> <span id="translatedtitle">Associations of multi-decadal sea-surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> with US drought</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Recent research suggests a link between drought occurrence in the conterminous United States (US) and sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (SST) <span class="hlt">variability</span> in both the tropical Pacific and North Atlantic Oceans on decadal to multidecadal (D2M) time scales. Results show that the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) is the most consistent indicator of D2M drought <span class="hlt">variability</span> in the conterminous US during the 20th century, but during the 19th century the tropical Pacific is a more consistent indicator of D2 M drought. The interaction between El Nin??o-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and the AMO explain a large part of the D2M drought <span class="hlt">variability</span> in the conterminous US. More modeling studies are needed to reveal possible mechanisms linking low-frequency ENSO <span class="hlt">variability</span> and the AMO with drought in the conterminous US. ?? 2007 Elsevier Ltd and INQUA.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">McCabe, G. J.; Betancourt, J. L.; Gray, S. T.; Palecki, M. A.; Hidalgo, H. G.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">203</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013ThApC.tmp..179D"> <span id="translatedtitle">Climate <span class="hlt">variability</span> analysis of winter <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> in the central Mediterranean since 1500 AD</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This work presents the reconstruction of a time series of annual winter air <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> across Central and Southern Italy for the period 1500-2010 that largely overlaps the Little Ice Age (LIA) period (1300-1850). A detailed analysis was undertaken on winter mean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> data using both observations (1871-2010) and proxy-based reconstructions (1500-1870). Based on this homogeneized reconstructed series, a time-dependency in low-frequency time-pattern of <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> (70- and 130-year cycles) was suggested although the temporal oscillation was not merely periodic. The LIA was characterized by marked climatic <span class="hlt">variability</span> over this part of Southern Europe, with particular emphasis during the so-called "Maunder Minimum" (MM), between 1645 and 1715. The interannual <span class="hlt">variability</span> of low <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, in particular, makes the MM an outstanding climatic period. There is some consistency that patterns of warming conditions observed in recent times also occurred in the past. Quasiperiodic cycles appear as a consequence of stochastic resonance emerging in long time scales but the <span class="hlt">variability</span> inherent to the series of winter <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, although likely generated by processes internal to the climate system, is difficult to forecast because the system is chaotic and affected by unpredictable noise.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Diodato, Nazzareno; Bellocchi, Gianni; Bertolin, Chiara; Camuffo, Dario</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">204</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007JGRD..11224S07R"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Variability</span> of recent ground surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> changes in the Albuquerque basin, central New Mexico</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Subsurface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> measurements have been taken at four sites over a large area within the Albuquerque basin, central New Mexico. These data were taken in the unsaturated zone in order to avoid potential water movement in the saturated zone, so that a better estimate of surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> change might be realized. The data imply surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> change is not constant across the area. Unexpectedly, large upward water flow is suggested at one site having a very unique hydrogeologic environment. Different amounts of surface warming, likely caused by land cover change and encroaching urbanization, are estimated at two other sites. Data from a fourth site do not indicate a statistically significant surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> change, although the effects of urbanization and possibly increased evaporation in the past several years add ambiguity to the interpretation. These four sites indicate the potential <span class="hlt">variability</span> of phenomena affecting subsurface <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> in the Albuquerque basin.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Reiter, Marshall</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">205</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1998PhDT.......144T"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Variable</span> range hopping conduction in high <span class="hlt">temperature</span> superconducting junctions and low dimensional systems</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This thesis examines <span class="hlt">variable</span> range hopping conduction in low dimensional systems. Special attention is paid to quasi-two dimensional systems since this is the dimensionality found in high <span class="hlt">temperature</span> superconducting S/N/S junctions. An introduction to localized states is given, as is an introduction to hopping conduction. The hopping probability for low <span class="hlt">temperature</span> cases is derived, and is used to explain the Mott <span class="hlt">temperature</span> dependent <span class="hlt">variable</span> range hopping conductivity formula for a system of arbitrary dimensionality. The hopping probability is expanded to include the effect of an electric field, and a new theory for electric field dependent <span class="hlt">variable</span> range hopping in a quasi-two dimensional system is presented. It is compared with the experimental results for a high <span class="hlt">temperature</span> superconducting PrBasb2Cusb3Osb{7-y}-based S/N/S junction; good agreement is found between theory and experiment. This theory is extended to include the effects of electron-electron interactions, and further expressions are derived for quasi-one and anisotropic quasi-two dimensional systems. For the case of quasi-two dimensional systems, the theory is further extended to include a wider variety of states in the hopping, and to include pre-exponential factors previously ignored. This was done both with and without the effects of electron-electron interactions being included. Comparison with a PrBasb2Cusb3Osb{7-y}-based S/N/S junction and Bsb{14}Tesb{11}Ssb{10} thin crystals shows a good agreement between theory and experiment. A theory for magnetoconductivity is presented for <span class="hlt">variable</span> range hopping in quasi-two dimensional materials. The theory includes the effects of magnetic fields, electric fields, and <span class="hlt">temperature</span>; it also allows for either the presence or absence of electron-electron interactions. Conductivity formulas are derived which are valid both with and without the effects of scattering on the <span class="hlt">variable</span> range hopping conduction. The theory is compared with a PrBasb2Cusb3Osb{7-y} thin film experiment. With the inclusion of scattering, a good agreement is found between theory and experiment. For the high <span class="hlt">temperature</span> case, hopping probabilities are presented for small polarons. A theory for small polaron <span class="hlt">variable</span> range hopping conduction in quasi-two dimensional systems is constructed. The effects of magnetic fields, electric fields, and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> are included. Conductivity formulas valid for the inclusion or exclusion of scattering are given. The theory is compared with a PrBasb2Cusb{3-x}GasbxOsb{7-y} experiment; good agreement is found.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Thompson, Russell Berton</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">206</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23646563"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Temperature</span> effect of activation energy for GaSb quantum dots using <span class="hlt">variable</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> photoluminescence.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The excitation power dependence of radiative transitions in the type-II GaSb/GaAs quantum dots structure has been studied by the photoluminescence (PL) at different <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. The QDs' photoluminescence exhibits a strong blue-shift with increasing the excitation power and the peak energy (E(PL)) is proportional to the third root of excitation power. With the increase of excitation power, the nonlinear change for both the PL peak and the intensity was observed, which is attributed to the excited state transition. The thermal process and activation energy (E(a)) of electron-hole pairs at different excitation powers has also been studied for GaSb QDs. As the excitation power increases, the activation energy decreases, while E(PL) +E(a) keeps nearly constant, which is smaller than the band gap of GaAs. The decrease of E(a) is probably caused by the band bending effect. PMID:23646563</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Yin, Hong; Li, Guodong; Jiang, Chao</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">207</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17832386"> <span id="translatedtitle">Interannual and interdecadal <span class="hlt">variability</span> in 335 years of central England <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Understanding the natural <span class="hlt">variability</span> of climate is important for predicting its near-term evolution. Models of the oceans' thermohaline and wind-driven circulation show low-frequency oscillations. Long instrumental records can help validate the oscillatory behavior of these models. Singular spectrum analysis applied to the 335-year-long central England <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (CET) record has identified climate oscillations with interannual (7- to 8-year) and interdecadal (15- and 25-year) periods, probably related to the North Atlantic's wind-driven and thermohaline circulation, respectively. Statistical prediction of oscillatory <span class="hlt">variability</span> shows CETs decreasing toward the end of this decade and rising again into the middle of the next. PMID:17832386</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Plaut, G; Ghil, M; Vautard, R</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1995-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">208</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JGRD..118.7835L"> <span id="translatedtitle">Impact of the dominant large-scale teleconnections on winter <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> over East Asia</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Monthly mean geopotential height for the past 33 DJF seasons archived in Modern Era Retrospective analysis for Research and Applications reanalysis is decomposed into the large-scale teleconnection patterns to explain their impacts on winter <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> over East Asia. Following Arctic Oscillation (AO) that explains the largest variance, East Atlantic/West Russia (EA/WR), West Pacific (WP) and El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) are identified as the first four leading modes that significantly explain East Asian winter <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variation. While the northern part of East Asia north of 50°N is prevailed by AO and EA/WR impacts, <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in the midlatitudes (30°N-50°N), which include Mongolia, northeastern China, Shandong area, Korea, and Japan, is influenced by combined effect of the four leading teleconnections. ENSO impact on average over 33 winters is relatively weaker than the impact of the other three teleconnections. WP impact, which has received less attention than ENSO in earlier studies, characterizes winter <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> over Korea, Japan, and central to southern China region south of 30°N mainly by advective process from the Pacific. Upper level wave activity fluxes reveal that, for the AO case, the height and circulation anomalies affecting midlatitude East Asian winter <span class="hlt">temperature</span> is mainly located at higher latitudes north of East Asia. Distribution of the fluxes also explains that the stationary wave train associated with EA/WR propagates southeastward from the western Russia, affecting the East Asian winter <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. Investigation on the impact of each teleconnection for the selected years reveals that the most dominant teleconnection over East Asia is not the same at all years, indicating a great deal of interannual <span class="hlt">variability</span>. Comparison in <span class="hlt">temperature</span> anomaly distributions between observation and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> anomaly constructed using the combined effect of four leading teleconnections clearly show a reasonable consistency between them, demonstrating that the seasonal winter <span class="hlt">temperature</span> distributions over East Asia are substantially explained by these four large-scale circulation impacts.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lim, Young-Kwon; Kim, Hae-Dong</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">209</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007JGRC..112.1013W"> <span id="translatedtitle">Modes of mesoscale sea surface height and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> in the East Australian Current</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Mesoscale <span class="hlt">variability</span> where the East Australian Current (EAC) separates from the coast is studied using sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and surface velocity streamfunction observed by satellite and a regional numerical model. The mean circulation simulated by the model (the Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS)) is compared to a high-resolution regional climatology, and the realism of the simulated mesoscale <span class="hlt">variability</span> is tested by comparison to statistical analyses of the satellite data. Both ROMS and data show spectral peaks in the mesoscale energy band at periods between 90 and 180 days. Complex Empirical Orthogonal Function (EOF) analysis identifies two significant modes of mesoscale <span class="hlt">variability</span> in the data; an Eddy Mode, for which the <span class="hlt">variability</span> propagates southwestward along the coast, and a Wave Mode, for which phase propagation is predominantly onshore. The regional model open boundary conditions include only annual and semiannual harmonics of <span class="hlt">variability</span> so remote mesoscale forcing is absent. The Eddy Mode is represented well in the model indicating this aspect of the circulation results from local instabilities of the flow and that its underlying dynamical process is simulated well. While the observed and modeled Wave Modes have some similarities, their differences suggest the model is deficient in representing westward propagation of mesoscale period <span class="hlt">variability</span> in the region. Whatever the source of this energy, the orthogonality property of the EOF analysis indicates the Wave Mode does not interact significantly with eddy processes in the EAC separation.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wilkin, John L.; Zhang, Weifeng G.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">210</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.springerlink.com/index/f2l3342167np6620.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">A Mass-Selective <span class="hlt">Variable-Temperature</span> Drift Tube Ion Mobility-Mass Spectrometer for <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Dependent Ion Mobility Studies</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">A hybrid ion mobility-mass spectrometer (IM-MS) incorporating a <span class="hlt">variable-temperature</span> (80–400 K) drift tube is presented. The\\u000a instrument utilizes an electron ionization (EI) source for fundamental small molecule studies. Ions are transferred to the\\u000a IM-MS analyzer stages through a quadrupole, which can operate in either broad transmission or mass-selective mode. Ion beam\\u000a modulation for the ion mobility experiment is accomplished by an</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jody C. May; David H. Russell</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">211</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005GeoRL..3220603U"> <span id="translatedtitle">Seasonal and interannual <span class="hlt">variability</span> of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> inversions in the subarctic North Pacific</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Hydrographic data from profiling floats obtained during 2001-2004 were analyzed to study seasonal and interannual <span class="hlt">variability</span> of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> inversions (T-invs) in the subarctic North Pacific (SNP). In the western SNP and Bering Sea, the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> minimum at the top of T-invs outcropped and was renewed every winter, causing a seasonal cycle in the magnitude of T-invs, with the maximum at the end of winter. In the Gulf of Alaska in the eastern SNP, the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> minimum outcropped in winters 2002 and 2004, but scarcely outcropped in winter 2003. Consequently, the magnitude of the T-invs showed remarkable interannual variation; its monotonic decrease through winter 2003 overwhelmed the seasonal cycle. The year-to-year variation of the magnitude of the T-invs in each region of the SNP was consistent with and thereby attributable to that of the winter sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> anomaly there.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ueno, Hiromichi; Oka, Eitarou; Suga, Toshio; Onishi, Hiroji</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">212</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002AGUFM.H72E0896H"> <span id="translatedtitle">Spatial <span class="hlt">Variability</span> in Radiant Stream <span class="hlt">Temperatures</span> Estimated From Thermal Infrared Images</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Stream <span class="hlt">temperature</span> is an important water quality indicator, for example, in the Pacific Northwest where endangered fish populations are sensitive to elevated water <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. Regional assessment of stream <span class="hlt">temperature</span> is limited by sparse sampling of <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> in both space and time. Remotely sensed thermal infrared (TIR) imagery can be used to derive spatially distributed estimates of the radiant skin <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (Tr) (top 100 nm) of streams, but spatial <span class="hlt">variability</span> in these measurements makes it difficult to link Tr to the kinetic <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of the stream (Tk). In image pixels that are fully resolved at the scale of the TIR data, this along-stream <span class="hlt">variability</span> is primarily the result of evaporative cooling due to wind, and to surface effects along the stream, such as riffles and foam, which increase the apparent emissivity and therefore the measured radiance. The resulting distinct spatial pattern of Tr must be identified and corrected if accurate Tk is to be determined. We investigate spatial <span class="hlt">variability</span> in Tr using medium-resolution (5m) TIR imagery from the airborne NASA-MASTER sensor, and coarse-resolution (90m) imagery from the ASTER sensor on the Terra satellite. Ground data of Tr and Tk within the Yakima River watershed in Washington State are used to validate analysis results. In a uniform reach with a Tk of 20.7 oC, the mean Tr observed using MASTER is 22.1 oC, with a standard deviation of 0.7 oC. Preliminary results show that the distinct along-stream patterns of Tr correspond to observed surface effects.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Handcock, R. N.; Cherkauer, K. A.; Kay, J. E.; Gillespie, A.; Burges, S. J.; Booth, D. B.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">213</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003JGRD..108.4365A"> <span id="translatedtitle">Evaluating the first-order effect of intraannual <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> on urban air pollution</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The direct effect of intraannual <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> on ozone and PM2.5 concentrations at the urban scale was simulated using a high-resolution air quality model that tracks the <span class="hlt">temperature</span>-dependant formation of secondary organic and inorganic aerosol components. Calculations show that the concentration of ozone and non-volatile secondary particulate matter will generally increase at higher <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> due to increased gas-phase reaction rates. The concentration of semi-volatile reaction products also will increase at higher <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, but the amount of this material that partitions to the particle-phase may decrease as equilibrium vapor pressures rise. Calculations performed for Southern California on September 25, 1996 predict that intraannual <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> may cause peak ozone and PM2.5 concentrations to fluctuate by up to 16% and 25% respectively. 24-hour average PM2.5 concentrations will decrease with increasing <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> for inland portions of the South Coast air basin during most of the day. Slight increases in 24-hour average PM2.5 concentrations were predicted for coastal regions. The majority of the predicted shift in PM2.5 concentrations was related to increased production rates for nitric acid and condensable organic compounds balanced against increased volatilization of these products. Semi-volatile particulate ammonium nitrate concentrations are most sensitive to volatilization losses at hotter <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> and when the ratio of gas-phase ammonia to nitric acid concentrations is approximately unity. Background sulfate particles and particles released from non-catalyst equipped gasoline-powered engines, diesel engines, and food cooking were shifted to smaller sizes as ammonium nitrate volatilized at hotter <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Aw, Jeremy; Kleeman, Michael J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">214</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..1414099H"> <span id="translatedtitle">Small-scale <span class="hlt">variability</span> of alpine snow packs from fiber-optic distributed <span class="hlt">temperature</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Variations in small-scale surface roughness, snow density and in the snowpack microstructure influence the surface and internal snow <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, being key quantities for various heat flux components of the surface energy balance. Detailed knowledge on the spatial distribution and temporal evolution of snow <span class="hlt">temperature</span> is crucial to quantify spatial <span class="hlt">variability</span> in the subsurface and surface heat fluxes of the snow pack. We present measurements of small-scale <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variations in alpine snow packs using fiber-optic distributed <span class="hlt">temperature</span> sensing (DTS) together with traditional sensors at spatial resolutions much smaller than most common distributed snow cover models to shed light on subgrid-scale physics. Fiber-optic cables of several 100m were installed in a fence-like configuration in in the Swiss Alps to obtain 2D information on subgrid-scale snow <span class="hlt">variability</span>. The setup allowed for computation of subsurface heat fluxes at 1m spatial resolution along the measurement transect based on the Fourier heat equation using snow <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and snow depth data, and an effective thermal conductivity of the snow derived from density measurements.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Huwald, H.; Williams, S.; Higgins, C. W.; Nolin, A. W.; Drake, S. A.; Selker, J. S.; Parlange, M. B.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">215</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6468889"> <span id="translatedtitle">A <span class="hlt">variable</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> cryostat that produces in situ clean-up germanium detector surfaces</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Variable</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> cryostats that can maintain germanium detectors at <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> from 82 K to about 400 K while the thermal shield surrounding the detectors remains much colder when the detectors are warmed have been developed. Cryostats such as these offer the possibility of cryopumping material from the surface of detectors to the colder thermal shield. The diode characteristics of several detectors have shown very significant improvement following thermal cycles up to about 150 K in these cryostats. Important applications for cryostats having this attribute are many. 4 figs.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Pehl, R.H.; Madden, N.W.; Malone, D.F.; Cork, C.P.; Landis, D.A.; Xing, J.S.; Friesel, D.L.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1988-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">216</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFMSA51B1934J"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Variability</span> in the mesospheric and lower thermospheric <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> at high-latitude</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The terrestrial nightglow emissions from OH in near infrared region have been obtained using an IR spectrometer at Esrange, Sweden (67.90 N, 21,10 E) since October 2001. Using the multi-year measurements, we investigated the <span class="hlt">variability</span> of MLT <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> related to Quasi Biennial Oscillation (QBO). We also performed the statistical analysis of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variation during the major Sudden Stratospheric Warming (SSW) events in the context of progress of wave activities. We used Modern Era Retrospective-Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA), TIME/SABER and Aura/MLS data for comparison.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jee, G.; Won, Y.; Kim, J.; Kwak, Y.; Cho, Y.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">217</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70014266"> <span id="translatedtitle">The use of <span class="hlt">variable</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and magic-angle sample spinning in studies of fulvic acids</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Intensity distortions and poor signal to noise in the cross-polarization magic-angle sample spinning NMR of fulvic acids were investigated and attributed to molecular mobility in these ostensibly "solid" materials. We have shown that inefficiencies in cross polarization can be overcome by lowering the sample <span class="hlt">temperature</span> to about -60??C. These difficulties can be generalized to many other synthetic and natural products. The use of <span class="hlt">variable</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and cross-polarization intensity as a function of contact time can yield valuable qualitative information which can aid in the characterization of many materials. ?? 1987.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Earl, W. L.; Wershaw, R. L.; Thorn, K. A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1987-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">218</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2898143"> <span id="translatedtitle">Conformational Analysis of (+)-Germacrene A by <span class="hlt">Variable</span> <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> NMR and NOE Spectroscopy</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">(+)-Germacrene A, an important intermediate in sesquiterpene biosynthesis, was isolated in pure form from a genetically engineered yeast and was characterized by chromatographic properties (TLC, GC), MS, optical rotation, UV, IR, 1H NMR and 13C NMR data. <span class="hlt">Variable-temperature</span> 500 MHz 1H NMR spectra in CDCl3 showed that this flexible cyclodecadiene ring exists as three NMR-distinguishable conformational isomers in a ratio of about 5:3:2 at or below ordinary probe <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (25° C). The conformer structures were assigned by 1H NMR data comparisons, NOE experiments, and vicinal couplings as follows: 1a (52%, UU), 1b (29% UD), and 1c (19%, DU).</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Faraldos, Juan A.; Wu, Shuiqin; Chappell, Joe</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">219</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..12.9145C"> <span id="translatedtitle">Climate reconstructions of the NH mean <span class="hlt">temperature</span>: Can underestimation of trends and <span class="hlt">variability</span> be avoided?</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Knowledge about the climate in the period before instrumental records are available is based on climate proxies obtained from tree-rings, sediments, ice-cores etc. Reconstructing the climate from such proxies is therefore necessary for studies of climate <span class="hlt">variability</span> and for placing recent climate change into a longer term perspective. More than a decade ago pioneering attempts at using a multi-proxy dataset to reconstruct the Northern Hemisphere (NH) mean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> resulted in the much published "hockey-stick"; a NH mean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> that did not vary much before the rapid increase in the last century. Subsequent reconstructions show some differences but the overall "hockey-stick" structure seems to be a persistent feature However, there has been an increasing awareness of the fact that the applied reconstruction methods underestimate the low-frequency <span class="hlt">variability</span> and trends. The recognition of the inadequacies of the reconstruction methods has to a large degree originated from pseudo-proxy studies, i.e., from long climate model experiments where artificial proxies have been generated and reconstructions based on these have been compared to the known model climate. It has also been found that reconstructions contain a large element of stochasticity which is revealed as broad distributions of skills. This means that it is very difficult to draw conclusions from a single or a few realizations. Climate reconstruction methods are based on variants of linear regression models relating <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> and proxies. In this contribution we review some of the theory of linear regression and error-in-<span class="hlt">variables</span> models to identify the sources of the underestimation of <span class="hlt">variability</span>. Based on the gained insight we formulate a reconstruction method supposed to minimize this underestimation. The method is tested by applying it to an ensemble of surrogate <span class="hlt">temperature</span> fields based on two climate simulations covering the last 500 and 1000 years. Compared to the RegEM TTLS method and a composite plus scale method - two methods recently used in the literature - the new method strongly improves the behavior regarding the low-frequency <span class="hlt">variability</span> and trends. The potential importance in real world situations is demonstrated by implying the methods to a set of 14 decadal smoothed proxies. Here the new method shows much larger low-frequency <span class="hlt">variability</span> and a much colder pre-industrial <span class="hlt">temperature</span> level than the other reconstruction methods.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Christiansen, Bo</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">220</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/55486180"> <span id="translatedtitle">Tropical Atlantic sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> and its relation to El Niño-Southern Oscillation</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Past analyses of tropical Atlantic sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> have suggested a dipole behavior between the northern and southern tropics, across the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ). By analyzing an improved 43-year (1950-1992) record of SST [Smith et al., 1996] and other data derived from the Comprehensive Ocean-Atmosphere Data Set (COADS), it is shown that the regions north and south of</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">David B. Enfield; Dennis A. Mayer</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1997-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' 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style="font-weight: bold;">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">221</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.agu.org/journals/gl/gl0621/2006GL027145/2006GL027145.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> in the tropical southeast Atlantic Ocean and West African rainfall</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Evidence is presented of a connection between sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (SST) <span class="hlt">variability</span> in the tropical southeast Atlantic Ocean off Angola and boreal summer rainfall over coastal West Africa. The strongest relationships exist between April–May SST in the Angola-Benguela Frontal Zone area, May–June latent heat fluxes in this area, and July–August rainfall over the region 5°W–5°E, 5°N–10°N. Anomalously wet summers in</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">C. J. C. Reason; M. Rouault</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">222</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.springerlink.com/index/y382778gut4527p6.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">On multi-timescale <span class="hlt">variability</span> of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in China in modulated annual cycle reference frame</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The traditional anomaly (TA) reference frame and its corresponding anomaly for a given data span changes with the extension\\u000a of data length. In this study, the modulated annual cycle (MAC), instead of the widely used climatological mean annual cycle,\\u000a is used as an alternative reference frame for computing climate anomalies to study the multi-timescale <span class="hlt">variability</span> of surface\\u000a air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (SAT)</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Cheng Qian; Zhaohua Wu; Congbin Fu; Tianjun Zhou</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">223</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/42016641"> <span id="translatedtitle">Modality of semiannual to multidecadal oscillations in global sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Repeating the history of study on El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) in the 1980s, interdecadal oscillation (IDO) in climate <span class="hlt">variability</span> is currently an area of active research and debate, following the recognition of its emerging significance in nature and science. In this work, a two-dimensional propagating modal extraction technique is applied to a reconstructed global monthly sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (SST) data</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ge Chen; Baomin Shao; Yong Han; Jun Ma; Bertrand Chapron</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">224</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/53854308"> <span id="translatedtitle">Sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> off southern Brazil and Uruguay as revealed from historical data since 1854</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">About 300,000 quality-controlled local reports from ships of opportunity were complemented with the data extracted from global data records to compile monthly series of sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (SST) for the period 1854 to 1994 on a grid 1°×1° in latitude and longitude. These historical data are used to investigate the <span class="hlt">variability</span> off the coast of southern Brazil and Uruguay in</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Peter O. Zavialov; Ilana Wainer; João M. Absy</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1999-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">225</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/52971474"> <span id="translatedtitle">The impact of rapid wind <span class="hlt">variability</span> on sea surface <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> and atmosphere-ocean coupling</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this talk we study the impact of rapidly-varying (effectively stochastic) sea surface heat fluxes on sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (SST) <span class="hlt">variability</span> and atmosphere-ocean coupling. As stressed by many previous investigators, the clear separation between the dynamical timescales of the ocean and atmosphere allows a simple paradigm for much air-sea interaction in which the rapidly varying component of surface heat fluxes</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">P. Sura</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">226</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/48910198"> <span id="translatedtitle">Spatio-temporal <span class="hlt">variability</span> of ocean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in the Portugal Current System</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">A dynamic process convolution model (DPCM) is used to investigate the evolution and spatial distribution of monthly ocean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> anomalies in the Portugal Current System. The analysis is performed with 20th century standard depth measurements from the National Oceanographic Data Center, ranging from the surface to 500 m depth. The proposed DPCM decomposes the temporal <span class="hlt">variability</span> into short-term non-linear components</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ricardo T. Lemos; Bruno Sansó</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">227</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006PhLA..352..155W"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Variable</span>-coefficient KP equation and solitonic solution for two-<span class="hlt">temperature</span> ions in dusty plasma</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this Letter, the cylindrical KP equation, which is a <span class="hlt">variable</span>-coefficient equation, is obtained by using the reductive perturbation method for unmagnified, collisionless and two-<span class="hlt">temperature</span> ions in dusty plasma. With the help of generalized projected Riccati equation expansion method, the cylindrical KP equation is solved and many solitonic solutions are obtained. Some important parameters for the existence of the compressive and rarefactive solitons are discussed and the effects caused by transverse perturbations are also discussed.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wang, Yue-Yue; Zhang, Jie-Fang</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">228</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/57478999"> <span id="translatedtitle">Performance optimisation for an irreversible <span class="hlt">variable-temperature</span> heat reservoir air refrigerator</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The performance analysis and optimisation of an irreversible air refrigerator with <span class="hlt">variable-temperature</span> heat reservoirs is carried out by taking the cooling load density, i.e., the ratio of cooling load to the maximum specific volume in the cycle, as the optimisation objective using finite-time thermodynamics (FTT) or entropy generation minimisation (EGM) in this paper. The analytical formulae for the relationships between</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">L. Chen; S. Zhou; F. Sun; C. Wu</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">229</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JASTP.102..252W"> <span id="translatedtitle">Impact of atmospheric <span class="hlt">variability</span> on validation of satellite-based <span class="hlt">temperature</span> measurements</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Satellite validation is often based on straight forward comparison of satellite-based data with non-satellite based measurements. For functional reasons satellite and reference measurements do usually not correspond exactly in time and space. Dynamical effects in the atmosphere lead to temporal and spatial <span class="hlt">variability</span> of atmospheric parameters (e.g. <span class="hlt">temperature</span>). This causes considerable differences that do not necessarily hint to an incorrect satellite measurement, so called mistime and misdistance errors.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wendt, Verena; Wüst, Sabine; Mlynczak, Martin G.; Russell, James M.; Yee, Jeng-Hwa; Bittner, Michael</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">230</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=PB85219624"> <span id="translatedtitle">New Corresponding States Theory Using the Second Virial Coefficient as the <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> <span class="hlt">Variable</span>. Topical Report December 1982 - December 1984.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A new corresponding states theory is presented that uses an approximation to the reduced second virial coefficient as its <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variable</span>. This new corresponding states <span class="hlt">variable</span>, X(T(sub r)), is chosen to be a simple function of <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, critical...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">C. K. Hall B. A. Hacker</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1984-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">231</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013ThApC.tmp..244A"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Variability</span> of maximum and mean average <span class="hlt">temperature</span> across Libya (1945-2009)</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Spatial and temporal <span class="hlt">variability</span> in daily maximum and mean average daily <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, monthly maximum and mean average monthly <span class="hlt">temperature</span> for nine coastal stations during the period 1956-2009 (54 years), and annual maximum and mean average <span class="hlt">temperature</span> for coastal and inland stations for the period 1945-2009 (65 years) across Libya are analysed. During the period 1945-2009, significant increases in maximum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (0.017 °C/year) and mean average <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (0.021 °C/year) are identified at most stations. Significantly, warming in annual maximum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (0.038 °C/year) and mean average annual <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> (0.049 °C/year) are observed at almost all study stations during the last 32 years (1978-2009). The results show that Libya has witnessed a significant warming since the middle of the twentieth century, which will have a considerable impact on societies and the ecology of the North Africa region, if increases continue at current rates.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ageena, I.; Macdonald, N.; Morse, A. P.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">232</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010E%26ES....9a2021G"> <span id="translatedtitle">Assessing the potential of Southern Caribbean corals for reconstructions of Holocene <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We present a 40-year long monthly resolved Sr/Ca record from a fossil Diploria strigosa coral from Bonaire (Southern Caribbean Sea) dated with U/Th at 2.35 ka before present (BP). Secondary modifiers of this sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (SST) proxy in annually-banded corals such as diagenetic alteration of the skeleton and skeletal growth-rate are investigated. Extensive diagenetic investigations reveal that this fossil coral skeleton is pristine which is further supported by clear annual cycles in the coral Sr/Ca record. No significant correlation between annual growth rate and Sr/Ca is observed, suggesting that the Sr/Ca record is not affected by coral growth. Therefore, we conclude that the observed interannual Sr/Ca <span class="hlt">variability</span> was influenced by ambient SST <span class="hlt">variability</span>. Spectral analysis of the annual mean Sr/Ca record reveals a dominant frequency centred at 6-7 years that is not associated with changes of the annual growth rate. The first monthly resolved coral Sr/Ca record from the Southern Caribbean Sea for preindustrial time suggests that fossil corals from Bonaire are suitable tools for reconstructing past SST <span class="hlt">variability</span>. Coastal deposits on Bonaire provide abundant fossil D. strigosa colonies of Holocene age that can be accurately dated and used to reconstruct climate <span class="hlt">variability</span>. Comparisons of long monthly resolved Sr/Ca records from multiple fossil corals will provide a mean to estimate seasonality and interannual to interdecadal SST <span class="hlt">variability</span> of the Southern Caribbean Sea during the Holocene.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Giry, Cyril; Felis, Thomas; Scheffers, Sander; Fensterer, Claudia</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">233</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFMPP34A..01D"> <span id="translatedtitle">Surface ocean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> in the southwest tropical Pacific since 1649 CE</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Understanding of natural climate <span class="hlt">variability</span> in the tropical Pacific before the twentieth century is limited by a lack of high quality instrumental and paleoclimate records. We present 350 years of surface ocean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> derived from highly reproducible strontium-to-calcium ratios (Sr/Ca) from coral colonies in the reef surrounding Amédée Island, New Caledonia (22°28.8'S, 166°27.9'E) for the interval from 1649 to 1999 CE. Our reconstruction includes two new multi-century coral Sr/Ca records coupled with previous records from this location in which we examine Sr/Ca <span class="hlt">variability</span> between intracolony and intercolony records and assesses the errors associated with sampling, chronology, and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> reconstruction. The reconstruction error for a monthly <span class="hlt">temperature</span> record is greatest for a reconstruction based on a single core (0.95°C, 1?) and the least for a reconstruction with five intra- and intercolony cores (0.59°C, 1?). For interannual <span class="hlt">variability</span>, the reconstruction error is reduced by ~33% by including an additional coral colony whereas the chronology error is reduced for reconstructions >250 years by including an additional core from the same colony. With respect to 1961-1990 CE, the interval between 1818-1889 CE is the coolest in the past 350 years (-0.48 ±0.05°C) and the interval from 1649-1697 CE is warmer (+0.18 ±0.06°C). Our reconstruction does not correspond to sunspot variations or Little Ice Age cooling observed in northern hemisphere reconstructions; however, we do find a 0.73°C warming trend from 1890 to 1999 CE (±0.0011°C year-1, 1?), which is similar to the warming trend that reported by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Time-frequency analysis reveals decadal scale variations of 0.5 to 1.0°C from modulating interdecadal periodicities and persistent quasi-bidecadal periodicities before the 1900 CE, which are not coherent with previously recognized modes of Pacific decadal <span class="hlt">variability</span>. Timing of the interdecadal <span class="hlt">variability</span> corresponds to abnormally cold <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, some of which correspond to large explosive volcanic eruptions, whereas other cold events may be the result of localized upwelling induced by stronger trade winds related to shifts in the South Pacific gyre. Our results suggest different climate mode(s) are present in the southwest Pacific before the twentieth century.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">DeLong, K. L.; Quinn, T. M.; Taylor, F. W.; Shen, C.; lin, K.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">234</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005GeoRL..3213819H"> <span id="translatedtitle">Interannual <span class="hlt">variability</span> in Antarctic ozone depletion controlled by planetary waves and polar <span class="hlt">temperature</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The dependence of Antarctic ozone depletion on midlatitude planetary wave activity and South Pole <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> was examined from 1979-2003 using NCEP/NCAR reanalyses and column ozone data. The annual severity of Antarctic ozone depletion was quantified using the seasonal mean of daily ozone mass deficit (OMD). The dependence of annual mean OMD on effective equivalent stratospheric chlorine (EESC) was removed to produce an anomaly time series (OMD'). Similar anomaly time series for 100 hPa South Pole <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> (T') and 20 hPa, 60°S midlatitude planetary wave activity (PWA') were calculated. Regression of OMD' against T' and PWA' shows that most of the interannual <span class="hlt">variability</span> in Antarctic ozone depletion can be explained by <span class="hlt">variability</span> in midlatitude planetary wave activity and South Pole <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. To estimate how future changes in South Pole <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, midlatitude wave activity and EESC will affect Antarctic ozone depletion, the regression model was applied to T' and PWA' values from a chemistry-climate model run (1975-2019).</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Huck, P. E.; McDonald, A. J.; Bodeker, G. E.; Struthers, H.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">235</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23784699"> <span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">temperature</span> size rule in arthropods: independent of macro-environmental <span class="hlt">variables</span> but size dependent.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Temperature</span> is a key factor that affects the rates of growth and development in animals, which ultimately determine body size. Although not universal, a widely documented and poorly understood pattern is the inverse relationship between the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> at which an ectothermic animal is reared and its body size (<span class="hlt">temperature</span> size rule [TSR]). The proximate and ultimate mechanisms for the TSR remain unclear. To explore possible explanations for the TSR, we tested for correlations between the magnitude/direction of the TSR and latitude, <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, elevation, habitat, availability of oxygen, capacity for flight, and taxonomic grouping in 98 species/populations of arthropods. The magnitude and direction of the TSR was not correlated with any of the macro-environmental <span class="hlt">variables</span> we examined, supporting the generality of the TSR. However, body size affected the magnitude and direction of the TSR, with smaller arthropods more likely to demonstrate a classic TSR. Considerable variation among species exists in the TSR, suggesting either strong interactions with nutrition, or selection based on microclimatic or seasonal variation not captured in classic macro-environmental <span class="hlt">variables</span>. PMID:23784699</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Klok, C Jaco; Harrison, Jon F</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-06-18</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">236</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AtmRe.106....1R"> <span id="translatedtitle">Observed and simulated <span class="hlt">variability</span> of extreme <span class="hlt">temperature</span> events over South America</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This invited review paper tends to summarise the results based on the <span class="hlt">variability</span> of occurrence of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> extremes in South America. The first thing to note is that there is a geographical imbalance with respect to the number of published studies on <span class="hlt">temperature</span> extremes. Most of the results come from the southern part of South America, east of the Andes, and a few from the northern part of the continent and for the Altiplano. The workshop organised by the ETCCDMI in Brazil was the first time to have the opportunity to collect information in a regional way and present trends in extreme daily <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. A better geographical picture enhanced with more data show significant geographical trends in warm (positive) and cold (negative) nights over Southern South America and over the northern South America coast. All other studies based on smaller regions also agree in finding the most significant trends in the evolution of the minimum <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, with positive trends in almost all studies on the occurrence of warm nights (or hot extremes of minimum <span class="hlt">temperature</span>) and negative trend in the cold extremes of the minimum. On the other hand, there is little agreement on the <span class="hlt">variability</span> of maximum <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. Generally the maximum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in southern South America has decreased, in opposition to the case of northern South America where it has increased. Strong decadal and interannual <span class="hlt">variability</span> have been found in the occurrence of cold extremes. Reanalysis and climate models underestimate the intensity of extremes, mainly near the Andes. The studies trying to understand the dynamics of the circulation that leads to the occurrence of these extremes are analysed from its occurrence in almost all scales from the synoptic, intraseasonal, seasonal, annual, and multi-year linear trend with different methodologies, also, indentifying the local and remote forcing. A gap was found in studies that relate some specific local forcing (like changes in land use) and compare it with the remote ones. Different aspects of the occurrence of the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> extremes are still missing in some regions of the continent.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Rusticucci, Matilde</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">237</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/59108385"> <span id="translatedtitle">Low-Frequency Minimum <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> <span class="hlt">Variability</span> Throughout the Southeastern United States During the 1970s: Regime Shift or Phase Coincidence?</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The low-frequency signals (LFS) of climate <span class="hlt">variables</span> such as <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and pressure often contain <span class="hlt">variability</span> as a result of the nonlinear and non-stationary nature of Earth's climate system. Occasionally, as in the case of the North Pacific climate regime shift of the mid-1970s, this <span class="hlt">variability</span> appears in the form of an abrupt shift in climate states. Because such <span class="hlt">variability</span> can</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sarah Strazzo</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">238</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22777683"> <span id="translatedtitle">Retail redlining in New York City: racialized access to <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> retail resources.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Racial residential segregation is associated with health inequalities in the USA, and one of the primary mechanisms is through influencing features of the neighborhood physical environment. To better understand how Black residential segregation might contribute to health risk, we examined retail redlining; the inequitable distribution of retail resources across racially distinct areas. A combination of visual and analytic methods was used to investigate whether predominantly Black census block groups in New York City had poor access to retail stores important for health. After controlling for retail demand, median household income, population density, and subway ridership, percent Black was associated with longer travel distances to various retail industries. Our findings suggest that Black neighborhoods in New York City face retail redlining. Future research is needed to determine how retail redlining may perpetuate health disparities and socioeconomic disadvantage. PMID:22777683</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kwate, Naa Oyo A; Loh, Ji Meng; White, Kellee; Saldana, Nelson</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">239</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/59211912"> <span id="translatedtitle">A naturalistic enquiry into the <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> lives of obese children</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Childhood obesity has reached epidemic levels in both developed and developing countries, posing one of the greatest challenges to paediatric health in the 21st century. To date, interventions to prevent and treat child obesity have had moderate success, with many researchers advocating the need for individual and community programs combined with a better understanding of the contextual factors affecting children,</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lauren M Puglisi</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">240</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23168345"> <span id="translatedtitle">Understanding the <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> lives of obese children and their families.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This study investigated the daily lives of obese children and their families to better understand factors influencing weight-related behaviors. A multiple case study design was implemented with 6 obese children and their families. Participant observations occurred in different settings from when the children woke until they went to bed, yielding approximately 95 hours of data per family. Lack of parenting skills and role modeling, environments encouraging poor weight-related behaviors, low self-awareness and enjoyment of sedentary activities were common themes. Child obesity involves a complex set of factors interacting to place a child at risk of developing weight problems. PMID:23168345</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Puglisi, Lauren M; Okely, Anthony D; Pearson, Philip; Vialle, Wilma</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' 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src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">241</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22455860"> <span id="translatedtitle">"Living from <span class="hlt">day</span> <span class="hlt">to</span> <span class="hlt">day</span>": food insecurity, complexity, and coping in muTare, Zimbabwe.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In Zimbabwe, unpredictable conditions associated with structural and institutional factors exacerbated the combined effects of structural violence, economic and political instability, and climate change in the mid 2000s, contributing to widespread food insecurity. Drought, food shortages, and government settlement policy affecting both rural and urban populations has yielded a national human rights crisis. Drawing on ethnographic research conducted in Mutare, southeast Zimbabwe, in 2005-2006, the authors illustrate the flow-on effects of drought and government policy on the livelihoods of households already suffering as a result of the social impacts of AIDS, and how people in a regional city responded to these factors, defining and meeting their basic food needs in diverse ways. PMID:22455860</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Gwatirisa, Pauline; Manderson, Lenore</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">242</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/57520081"> <span id="translatedtitle">“Living from <span class="hlt">Day</span> <span class="hlt">to</span> <span class="hlt">Day</span>”: Food Insecurity, Complexity, and Coping in Mutare, Zimbabwe</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">In Zimbabwe, unpredictable conditions associated with structural and institutional factors exacerbated the combined effects of structural violence, economic and political instability, and climate change in the mid 2000s, contributing to widespread food insecurity. Drought, food shortages, and government settlement policy affecting both rural and urban populations has yielded a national human rights crisis. Drawing on ethnographic research conducted in Mutare,</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Pauline Gwatirisa; Lenore Manderson</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">243</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19024427"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Day-to-day</span> care: the interplay of CNAs' views of residents & nursing home environments.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This qualitative study identified certified nursing assistants' (CNAs') perspectives of nursing home residents and how these perspectives translate into care practices. Data included observations of and interviews with 27 CNAs in three dissimilar nursing homes. All participants were people of color, and all but 3 were immigrants. CNAs constructed three views of residents: as fictive kin, as a commodity, and as an autonomous person. Although individual CNAs held one primary view of residents in general, select residents were viewed from an alternative perspective, resulting in variations in care practices. These findings suggest that such distinctions, in tandem with structural, organizational, and cultural differences in nursing homes, present opportunities for nursing leadership to affect the visible, everyday practice of nursing CNAs. To target interventions, further research is needed on how CNAs come to differentially view residents and how these differences influence CNAs' care relationships with residents. PMID:19024427</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Fisher, Lucy Takesue; Wallhagen, Margaret I</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">244</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15113223"> <span id="translatedtitle">Hydrolysis of uranium(VI) at <span class="hlt">variable</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> (10-85 degrees C).</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The hydrolysis of uranium(VI) in tetraethylammonium perchlorate (0.10 mol dm(-3) at 25 degrees C) was studied at <span class="hlt">variable</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> (10-85 degrees C). The hydrolysis constants (*beta(n,m)) and enthalpy of hydrolysis (Delta H(n,m)) for the reaction mUO(2)(2+) + nH(2)O = (UO(2))(m)(OH)(n)((2m-n))+) + nH(+) were determined by titration potentiometry and calorimetry. The hydrolysis constants, *beta(1,1), *beta(2,2), and *beta(5,3), increased by 2-5 orders of magnitude as the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> was increased from 10 to 85 degrees C. The enthalpies of hydrolysis, Delta H(2,2) and Delta H(5,3), also varied: Delta H(2,2) became more endothermic while Delta H(5,3) became less endothermic as the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> was increased. The heat capacities of hydrolysis, Delta C(p(2,2)) and Delta C(p(5,3)), were calculated to be (152 +/- 43) J K(-1) mol(-1) and -(229 +/- 34) J K(-1) mol(-1), respectively. UV/Vis absorption spectra supported the trend that hydrolysis of U(VI) was enhanced at elevated <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. Time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy provided additional information on the hydrolyzed species at different <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. Approximation approaches to predict the effect of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> were tested with the data from this study. PMID:15113223</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Zanonato, PierLuigi; Di Bernardo, Plinio; Bismondo, Arturo; Liu, Guokui; Chen, Xueyuan; Rao, Linfeng</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">245</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21385834"> <span id="translatedtitle">Ambient <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, air pollution, and heart rate <span class="hlt">variability</span> in an aging population.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Studies show that ambient <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and air pollution are associated with cardiovascular disease and that they may interact to affect cardiovascular events. However, few epidemiologic studies have examined mechanisms through which ambient <span class="hlt">temperature</span> may influence cardiovascular function. The authors examined whether <span class="hlt">temperature</span> was associated with heart rate <span class="hlt">variability</span> (HRV) in a Boston, Massachusetts, study population and whether such associations were modified by ambient air pollution concentrations. The population was a cohort of 694 older men examined between 2000 and 2008. The authors fitted a mixed model to examine associations between <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and air pollution and their interactions with repeated HRV measurements, adjusting for covariates selected a priori on the basis of their previous studies. Results showed that higher ambient <span class="hlt">temperature</span> was associated with decreases in HRV measures (standard deviation of normal-to-normal intervals, low-frequency power, and high-frequency power) during the warm season but not during the cold season. These warm-season associations were significantly greater when ambient ozone levels were higher (>22.3 ppb) but did not differ according to levels of ambient fine (?2.5 ?m) particulate matter. The authors conclude that <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and ozone, exposures to both of which are expected to increase with climate change, might act together to worsen cardiovascular health and/or precipitate cardiovascular events via autonomic nervous system dysfunction. PMID:21385834</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ren, Cizao; O'Neill, Marie S; Park, Sung Kyun; Sparrow, David; Vokonas, Pantel; Schwartz, Joel</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-03-08</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">246</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/1662504"> <span id="translatedtitle">Arrhenius average <span class="hlt">temperature</span>: the effective <span class="hlt">temperature</span> for non-fatigue wearout and long term reliability in <span class="hlt">variable</span> thermal conditions and climates</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper presents a method of assessing the effective <span class="hlt">temperature</span> essential for predicting the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> acceleration of the wearout mechanisms (other than thermal fatigue) of electronic equipment. This is particularly important for equipment experiencing <span class="hlt">variable</span> thermal conditions. The approach, based on weighting of thermal acceleration factors, leads to the Arrhenius average <span class="hlt">temperature</span> Teff given by (4). Teff is related to</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Michal Tencer; John Seaborn Moss; Trevor Zapach</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">247</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..1512040R"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Temperature</span> extreme events <span class="hlt">variability</span> over Romania and their relationship with atmospheric blocking</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The dominant spatial and temporal patterns of interannual to decadal <span class="hlt">variability</span> in the frequency of extreme <span class="hlt">temperature</span> events recorded at 82 meteorological stations from Romania during 1962 to 2010 period are investigated using various univariate and multivariate statistical techniques. The frequency of extreme high <span class="hlt">temperature</span> events is defined as the number of days in a season when maximum daily <span class="hlt">temperature</span> was higher than the 90th percentile. An EOF analysis reveals that the dominant patterns of these extreme <span class="hlt">temperature</span> indices are monopolar for all seasons and are strongly related with the frequency of the blocking events in the Euro-Atlantic region. The statistical relationship between the leading extreme high <span class="hlt">temperature</span> patterns over Romania and the atmospheric blocking over the Euro-Atlantic region is investigated using a two-dimensional blocking indicator based on 500-hPa geopotential field. A composite analysis reveals that relatively high (low) frequency of warm events over Romania is associated with low (high) frequency of blocking in a broad region which extends from Iceland to Scandinavia. This pattern shows some resemblance with the blocking pattern associated to the positive (negative) phase of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) with the main anomaly centers displaced toward Europe. Low (high) blocking activity over the Scandinavian region is associated with high (low) frequency of warm extreme events over Romania during summer. The time coefficients (PC1) associated to the dominant pattern of extreme warm events over Romania show strong multidecadal variations which are significantly positively correlated with the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) index. Analysis of long-term extreme warm <span class="hlt">temperature</span> indices over Romania in combination with two-dimensional blocking indicators calculated from the 20th Century Reanalysis Project (http://www.esrl.noaa.gov/psd/data/gridded/data.20thC_ReanV2.html) reveals a strong relationship between multidecadal <span class="hlt">variability</span> of extreme high <span class="hlt">temperature</span> events in Romania and AMO during the last century. We argue that both NAO and AMO influence the <span class="hlt">variability</span> of extreme warm events over Romania through modulation of the frequency of atmospheric blocking in the Euro-Atlantic region.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Rimbu, Norel; Stefan, Sabina; Necula, Cristian; Grigoras, Cristinel; Orzan, Alina</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">248</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21925758"> <span id="translatedtitle">Intraspecific <span class="hlt">variability</span> of growth and patulin production of 79 Penicillium expansum isolates at two <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Penicillium expansum is the main species responsible for patulin production in apples and pears. Generally, fruit is stored at suboptimal conditions for mould growth and this situation could influence on the intra-species <span class="hlt">variability</span> in both capability for growth and mycotoxin production. The aim of this research was to assess the impact of suboptimal environmental conditions on the intra-specific <span class="hlt">variability</span> of P. expansum growth and patulin production using seventy nine isolates of this mould. Petri dishes with Apple Concentrate Agar Medium (ACAM) were inoculated centrally and incubated at two <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, one near optimal (20 °C) and the other representative of suboptimal cold storage (1 °C). For each condition, 10 Petri dishes were inoculated, and colony growth and patulin production was measured over time. The Kruskal-Wallis test revealed significant differences among growth rate (?) and lag phase (?) within the seventy nine assayed isolates. Coefficients of variation revealed a wider dispersion of ? (mm/day) and ? (days) at 1 °C compared with 20 °C. There were significant differences (p<0.05) among patulin levels (ng/mm²) for the different conditions, values being lower at the lower <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. Coefficients of variation revealed a wider dispersion of mycotoxin production at 1 °C. In order to address the strain <span class="hlt">variability</span> in growth initiation and prove the well-established notion of reducing patulin production in foods by preventing fungal growth, a greater number of strains should be included. PMID:21925758</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Garcia, Daiana; Ramos, Antonio J; Sanchis, Vicente; Marín, Sonia</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-08-31</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">249</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002AGUFMOS22A0242G"> <span id="translatedtitle">Multidecadal <span class="hlt">Variability</span> Simulated With an Atmospheric General Circulation Model Forced With Observed Sea Surface <span class="hlt">Temperature</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We investigate the response of an atmospheric general circulation model to observed sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> for the instrumental period 1856-2000. The model used is the {nderline P}ortable {nderline U}niversity {nderline M}odel of the {nderline A}tmosphere (PUMA) developed at the University of Hamburg for long-term climate studies. When the model is forced with global sea surface <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> (SSTs) the model interdecadal <span class="hlt">variability</span> is dominated by the Atlantic Interdecadal Mode (AIM) and its associated teleconnection patterns. The modeled interdecadal <span class="hlt">variability</span> sea surface patterns are in good agreement with analysis of observational time series in an ensemble mode integration. Positive SST anomalies and a sea level pressure (SLP) dipole pattern dominate the North Atlantic while a strong positive anomaly in SLP is characteristic for the North Pacific Ocean. Although the observational database is short, investigations of the typical AIM patterns before and after the climate shift in the 1970's suggest an oscillatory multidecadal mode rather than a singular event for that period. Additional experiments with ''Atlantic only'' forcing depict strong sensitivities of the relative roles of Atlantic and Pacific SST data initiating <span class="hlt">variability</span> at multidecadal time scales. Our results have implications for climate predictability on long time scales from observed SST data.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Grosfeld, K.; Rimbu, N.; Lohmann, G.; Lunkeit, F.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">250</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013DSRII..93...33A"> <span id="translatedtitle">Interannual <span class="hlt">variability</span> in sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and fCO2 changes in the Cariaco Basin</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We examined the <span class="hlt">variability</span> of sea surface carbon dioxide fugacity (fCO2sea) and its relation to <span class="hlt">temperature</span> at the Cariaco Basin ocean time-series location (10°30'N, 64°40'W) for the period from 1996 through 2008. Periods of warm (positive) and cold (negative) anomalies at the station were related to <span class="hlt">variability</span> in coastal upwelling intensity. A positive temporal trend in monthly-deseasonalized sea surface <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> (SST) was observed, leading to an overall increase of 1.13 °C over 13 years. Surface fCO2sea displayed significant short-term variation (month to month) with a range of 330-445 ?atm. In addition to a large seasonal range (58±17 ?atm), deseasonalized fCO2sea data showed an interannual positive trend of 1.77±0.43 ?atm yr-1. In the Cariaco Basin, positive and negative anomalies of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and fCO2sea are in phase. An increase/decrease of 1 °C coincides with an increase/decrease of 16-20 ?atm of fCO2sea. Deseasonalized fCO2sea normalized to 26.05 °C, the mean Cariaco SST, shows a lower rate of increase (0.51±0.49 ?atm yr-1). Based on these observations, 72% of the increase in fCO2sea in Cariaco Basin between 1996 and 2008 can be attributed to an increasing <span class="hlt">temperature</span> trend of surface waters, making this the primary factor controlling fugacity at this location. During this period, a decrease in upwelling intensity was also observed. The phytoplankton community changed from large diatom-dominated blooms during upwelling in the late 1990's to blooms dominated by smaller cells in the first decade of the 21st century. The average net sea-air CO2 flux over the study period is 2.0±2.6 mol C m-2 yr-1 employing the Wanninkhof parameterization, and 2.1±2.5 mol C m-2 yr-1 based on Nightingale's model. To further understand the connection between the changes observed in the Cariaco Basin, the relationships between interannual <span class="hlt">variability</span> in the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> anomaly with three modes of climate <span class="hlt">variability</span> (AMO, NAO and ENSO) were examined. The correlations between SSTA and two of these climate modes (AMO and ENSO) only show very weak relationships, although they were significant.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Astor, Y. M.; Lorenzoni, L.; Thunell, R.; Varela, R.; Muller-Karger, F.; Troccoli, L.; Taylor, G. T.; Scranton, M. I.; Tappa, E.; Rueda, D.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">251</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003EAEJA.....1766Z"> <span id="translatedtitle">Sea Surface <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> and Seawater Oxygen Isotope <span class="hlt">Variability</span> Recorded in a Madagascar Coral Record</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We analysed a 336 year coral oxygen isotope record off southwest Madagascar in the Mozambique Channel. Based on temporal <span class="hlt">variability</span> of skeletal oxygen isotopes annual mean sea surface <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> are reconstructed for the period from 1659 to 1995. Sr/Ca ratios were measured for selected windows with monthly resolution (1973 to 1995, 1863 to 1910, 1784 to 1809, 1688 to 1710) to validate the SST reconstructions derived from oxygen isotopes. The coral proxy data were validated against gridded SST data sets. The coral oxygen isotope record is coherent with Kaplan-SST and GISST2.3b on an interdecadal frequency of 17 years, which is the most prominent frequency band observed in this region. The Sr/Ca-SST agree well with SST observations in the validation period (1863 to 1910), whereas the d18O derived SST show largest discrepencies during this time interval. By taking into account the SST values derived from coral Sr/Ca, we were able to reconstruct d18O seawater <span class="hlt">variability</span>. This indicates that d18O seawater variations contributed significantly to interannual and interdecadal variations in coral d18O. We propose that the local surface-ocean evaporation-precipitation balance and remote forcing by ENSO via South Equatorial Current and/or Indonesian throughflow <span class="hlt">variability</span> may contribute to observed d18O <span class="hlt">variability</span>. Our results indicate that coral d18O may be used to reconstruct temporal variations in the fresh water balance within the Indian Ocean on interannual to interdecadal time scales.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Zinke, J.; Dullo, W. Chr; Eisenhauer, A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">252</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002AGUFMPP62A0314Z"> <span id="translatedtitle">Sea Surface <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> and Seawater Oxygen Isotope <span class="hlt">Variability</span> Recorded in a Madagascar Coral Record</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Within KIHZ a coral from the lagoon of Ifaty off southwest Madagascar in the Mozambique Channel was examined. Based on temporal <span class="hlt">variability</span> of skeletal oxygen isotopes annual mean sea surface <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> are reconstructed for the period from 1658 to 1995. Sr/Ca ratios were measured for selected windows with monthly resolution (1973 to 1995, 1863 to 1910, 1784 to 1809, 1688 to 1710) to validate the SST reconstructions derived from oxygen isotopes. The coral proxy data were validated against gridded SST data sets. The Sr/Ca-SST agree well with SST observations in the validation period (1863 to 1910), whereas the d18O derived SST show largest discrepencies during this time interval. By taking into account the SST values derived from coral Sr/Ca, we were able to reconstruct d18O seawater <span class="hlt">variability</span>. This indicates that d18O seawater variations contributed significantly to interannual and interdecadal variations in coral d18O. We propose that remote forcing by South Equatorial Current and/or Indonesian throughflow <span class="hlt">variability</span> may contribute to observed d18O <span class="hlt">variability</span>. The local surface-ocean evaporation-precipitation balance is also of importance. Our results indicate that coral d18O may be used to reconstruct temporal variations in the fresh water balance within the Indian Ocean on interannual to interdecadal time scales.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Zinke, J.; Dullo, W.; Eisenhauer, A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">253</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001ClDy...17..627K"> <span id="translatedtitle">Surface flux response to interannual tropical Pacific sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> in AMIP models</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A systematic comparison of observed and modeled atmospheric surface heat and momentum fluxes related to sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (SST) <span class="hlt">variability</span> on interannual time scales in the tropical Pacific is conducted. This is done to examine the ability of atmospheric general circulation models (AGCMs) in the Atmospheric Model Intercomparison Project (AMIP) to simulate the surface fluxes important for driving the ocean on interannual time scales. In order to estimate the model and observed response to such SST <span class="hlt">variability</span>, various regression calculations are made between a time series representing observed ENSO SST <span class="hlt">variability</span> in the tropical Pacific and the resulting surface flux anomalies. The models exhibit a range of differences from the observations. Overall the zonal wind stress anomalies are most accurately simulated while the solar radiation anomalies are the least accurately depicted. The deficiencies in the solar radiation are closely related to errors in cloudiness. The total heat flux shows some cancellation of the errors in its components particularly in the central Pacific. The performance of the GCMs in simulating the surface flux anomalies seems to be resolution dependent and low-resolution models tend to exhibit weaker flux responses. The simulated responses in the western Pacific are more <span class="hlt">variable</span> than those of the central and eastern Pacific but in the west the observed estimates are less robust as well. Further improvements in atmospheric GCM flux simulation through better physical parametrization is clearly required if such models are to be used to their full potential in coupled modeling and climate forecasting.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kleeman, R.; Wang, G.; Jewson, S.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">254</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006JGRC..111.4010L"> <span id="translatedtitle">Spatio-temporal <span class="hlt">variability</span> of ocean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in the Portugal Current System</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A dynamic process convolution model (DPCM) is used to investigate the evolution and spatial distribution of monthly ocean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> anomalies in the Portugal Current System. The analysis is performed with 20th century standard depth measurements from the National Oceanographic Data Center, ranging from the surface to 500 m depth. The proposed DPCM decomposes the temporal <span class="hlt">variability</span> into short-term non-linear components and long-term linear trends, with both components varying smoothly across latitude, longitude and depth. An important feature of the DPCM is that it allows the assessment of trend significance without ad hoc corrections, since the residuals are spatially and temporally uncorrelated. In the analyzed period, an overall warming of coastal surface waters off the west Iberian Peninsula is found, together with fading cross-shelf <span class="hlt">temperature</span> gradients and increased coastal stratification. Since previous studies also found that upwelling-favorable winds have weakened from the 1940s onward, these results most likely reflect a long-term weakening of the coastal upwelling regime. Transient periods of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> change are also described and associated with known <span class="hlt">variability</span> in the North Atlantic, and a final discussion on the link between the observed trends and anthropogenic forcing on climate is presented.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lemos, Ricardo T.; Sansó, Bruno</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">255</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19805213"> <span id="translatedtitle">Higher trends but larger uncertainty and geographic <span class="hlt">variability</span> in 21st century <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and heat waves.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Generating credible climate change and extremes projections remains a high-priority challenge, especially since recent observed emissions are above the worst-case scenario. Bias and uncertainty analyses of ensemble simulations from a global earth systems model show increased warming and more intense heat waves combined with greater uncertainty and large regional <span class="hlt">variability</span> in the 21st century. Global warming trends are statistically validated across ensembles and investigated at regional scales. Observed heat wave intensities in the current decade are larger than worst-case projections. Model projections are relatively insensitive to initial conditions, while uncertainty bounds obtained by comparison with recent observations are wider than ensemble ranges. Increased trends in <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and heat waves, concurrent with larger uncertainty and <span class="hlt">variability</span>, suggest greater urgency and complexity of adaptation or mitigation decisions. PMID:19805213</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ganguly, Auroop R; Steinhaeuser, Karsten; Erickson, David J; Branstetter, Marcia; Parish, Esther S; Singh, Nagendra; Drake, John B; Buja, Lawrence</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-09-08</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">256</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/50809"> <span id="translatedtitle">Interannual and interdecadal <span class="hlt">variability</span> in 335 years of central England <span class="hlt">temperatures</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Understanding the natural <span class="hlt">variability</span> of climate is important for predicting its near-term evolution. Models of the oceans` thermohaline and wind-driven circulation show low-frequency oscillations. Long instrumental records can help validate the oscillatory behavior of these models. Singular spectrum analysis applied to the 335-year-long central England <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (CET) record has identified climate oscillations with interannual (7- to 8-year) and interdecadal (15- and 25-year) periods, probably related to the North Atlantic`s wind-driven and thermohaline circulation, respectively. Statistical prediction of oscillatory <span class="hlt">variability</span> shows CETs decreasing toward the end of this decade and rising again into the middle of the next. 42 refs., 4 figs.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Plaut, G. [Institut Non-Lineaire de Nice, Valbonne (France); Ghil, M. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Vautard, R. [Ecole Normale Superieure, Paris (France)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1995-05-05</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">257</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AGUFMOS51E..05M"> <span id="translatedtitle">Surface Mixed Layer <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> <span class="hlt">Variability</span> on Seasonal Time Scales in the Eastern Tropical Pacific</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The eastern tropical Pacific is characterized by a pronounced seasonal cycle and significant hemispheric asymmetries in oceanographic and meteorological conditions. The processes that create these conditions, which influence the regional climate of the eastern Pacific and western North and South America, are poorly known. As part of the Eastern Pacific Investigation of Climate Processes (EPIC), the Tropical Atmosphere Ocean (TAO) moored buoy array along 95W was enhanced in 2000-2003 with additional moorings between 8S- 12N and additional upper ocean and surface meteorological sensors. Data from this enhanced array of measurements are used to characterize <span class="hlt">variability</span> in the upper ocean and at the air-sea interface, and to diagnose the mixed layer heat balance on seasonal time scales. Results highlight the wide range of processes involved in generating observed sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span>, and the importance of both accurate surface flux estimates and sustained measurements of mixed layer properties in the tropics.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">McPhaden, M. J.; Cronin, M. F.; McClurg, D. C.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">258</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001RScI...72.1438P"> <span id="translatedtitle">A fast-scanning, low- and <span class="hlt">variable-temperature</span> scanning tunneling microscope</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The design and performance of a fast-scanning, low- and <span class="hlt">variable-temperature</span>, scanning tunneling microscope (STM) incorporated in an ultrahigh vacuum system is described. The sample <span class="hlt">temperature</span> can be varied from 25 to 350 K by cooling the sample using a continuous flow He cryostat and counter heating by a W filament. The sample <span class="hlt">temperature</span> can be changed tens of degrees on a time scale of minutes, and scanning is possible within minutes after a <span class="hlt">temperature</span> change. By means of a software implemented active drift compensation the drift rate can be as low as 1 nm/day. The STM is rigid, very compact, and of low weight, and is attached firmly to the sample holder using a bayonet-type socket. Atomic resolution on clean metal surfaces can be achieved in the entire <span class="hlt">temperature</span> range. The performance of the instrument is further demonstrated by images of adsorbed hexa-tert-butyl-decacyclene molecules on Cu(110), by STM movies, i.e., sequential STM images with a time resolution down to 1 s/image (100×100 Å2 with 256×256 pixels), of the mobility of these molecules, and finally by constant current images of standing waves in the electronic local density of states on Cu(110).</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Petersen, L.; Schunack, M.; Schaefer, B.; Linderoth, T. R.; Rasmussen, P. B.; Sprunger, P. T.; Laegsgaard, E.; Stensgaard, I.; Besenbacher, F.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2001-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">259</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6190122"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Variability</span> of superconducting transition <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> of Ag-clad Bi(2223) tapes</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The zero-field intersample <span class="hlt">variability</span> of the superconducting transition <span class="hlt">temperature</span> was measured for two commercially supplied Ag-clad Bi[sub 2]Sr[sub 2]Ca[sub 2]Cu[sub 3]O[sub x] (Bi(2223)) 37 filament tapes, one 103 m and the second 193 m long. The resistivity of six 30 cm long pieces of each tape was measured with increasing and decreasing <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. Hysteresis and time-dependent effects were observed. For the 103 m tape, upon cooling, the resistivity deviates from the conventional behavior at (114.3.3.2) K and complete superconductivity is achieved at (105.1.3.9) K. With increasing <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, deviation from superconductivity starts at (112.5.4.6) K and superconductivity is completely gone at (121.8.3.1) K. The corresponding <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> for the 193 m tape are (113.4.4.9), (108.6.3.6), (108.9.7.4) and (118.1.7.4) K. For one sample of the 193 m tape, the corresponding <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> are (107.9.3.1), (102.5.5.9), (100.8.4.3) and (112.0.3.3) K. The anomalously broad foot structure in the zero field resistive transition previously seen by Zhao et al. in single crystals of Bi[sub 2]Sr[sub 2]CaCu[sub 2]O[sub x] (Bi(2212)) was observed here.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Mayo, B. de (State Univ. of West Georgia, Carrollton, GA (United States). Dept. of Mathematics and Physics)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1998-12-20</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">260</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21830713"> <span id="translatedtitle">An evaluation of the effect of recent <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> on the prediction of coral bleaching events.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Over the past 30 years, warm thermal disturbances have become commonplace on coral reefs worldwide. These periods of anomalous sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (SST) can lead to coral bleaching, a breakdown of the symbiosis between the host coral and symbiotic dinoflagellates which reside in coral tissue. The onset of bleaching is typically predicted to occur when the SST exceeds a local climatological maximum by 1 degrees C for a month or more. However, recent evidence suggests that the threshold at which bleaching occurs may depend on thermal history. This study uses global SST data sets (HadISST and NOAA AVHRR) and mass coral bleaching reports (from Reefbase) to examine the effect of historical SST <span class="hlt">variability</span> on the accuracy of bleaching prediction. Two <span class="hlt">variability</span>-based bleaching prediction methods are developed from global analysis of seasonal and interannual SST <span class="hlt">variability</span>. The first method employs a local bleaching threshold derived from the historical <span class="hlt">variability</span> in maximum annual SST to account for spatial <span class="hlt">variability</span> in past thermal disturbance frequency. The second method uses a different formula to estimate the local climatological maximum to account for the low seasonality of SST in the tropics. The new prediction methods are tested against the common globally fixed threshold method using the observed bleaching reports. The results find that estimating the bleaching threshold from local historical SST <span class="hlt">variability</span> delivers the highest predictive power, but also a higher rate of Type I errors. The second method has the lowest predictive power globally, though regional analysis suggests that it may be applicable in equatorial regions. The historical data analysis suggests that the bleaching threshold may have appeared to be constant globally because the magnitude of interannual <span class="hlt">variability</span> in maximum SST is similar for many of the world's coral reef ecosystems. For example, the results show that a SST anomaly of 1 degrees C is equivalent to 1.73-2.94 standard deviations of the maximum monthly SST for two-thirds of the world's coral reefs. Coral reefs in the few regions that experience anomalously high interannual SST <span class="hlt">variability</span> like the equatorial Pacific could prove critical to understanding how coral communities acclimate or adapt to frequent and/or severe thermal disturbances. PMID:21830713</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Donner, Simon D</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return 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<a onClick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">261</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/51602645"> <span id="translatedtitle">Local and mesoscale <span class="hlt">variability</span> of surface water <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and chlorophyll in the northern Great Barrier Reef, Australia</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Continuous transects of near-surface water <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and chlorophyll fluorescence on the northern Great Barrier Reef shelf were sampled in October 1987 and February 1990. In 1987, local spatial <span class="hlt">variability</span> of both <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and chlorophyll were higher within or close to the reef matrix than in open waters of the GBR lagoon. <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> and chlorophyll fluorescence were negatively correlated at short</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Peter Liston; Miles J. Furnas; Alan W. Mitchell; Edward A. Drew</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1992-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">262</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..1511832M"> <span id="translatedtitle">Enhanced future <span class="hlt">variability</span> during India's rainy season</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Indian summer monsoon shapes the livelihood of a large share of the world's population. About 80% of annual precipitation over India occurs during the monsoon season from June through September. Next to its seasonal mean rainfall the <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> is crucial for the risk of flooding, national water supply and agricultural productivity. Here we show that the latest ensemble of climate model simulations, prepared for the IPCC's AR-5, consistently projects significant increases in <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> rainfall <span class="hlt">variability</span> under unmitigated climate change. While all models show an increase in <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span>, some models are more realistic in capturing the observed seasonal mean rainfall over India than others. While no model's monsoon rainfall exceeds the observed value by more than two standard deviations, half of the models simulate a significantly weaker monsoon than observed. The relative increase in <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> by the year 2100 ranges from 15% to 48% under the strongest scenario (RCP-8.5), in the ten models which capture seasonal mean rainfall closest to observations. The <span class="hlt">variability</span> increase per degree of global warming is independent of the scenario in most models, and is 8% +/- 4% per K on average. This consistent projection across 20 comprehensive climate models provides confidence in the results and suggests the necessity of profound adaptation measures in the case of unmitigated climate change.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Menon, Arathy; Levermann, Anders; Schewe, Jacob</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">263</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011mss..confEMI12I"> <span id="translatedtitle">Photodissociation Spectroscopy of Ca^+-H_2O in the <span class="hlt">Temperature-Variable</span> Ion Trap</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In the last two decades, developments of infrared spectroscopy and theoretical calculations on gas-phase molecular clusters have revealed detailed solvation structures of various systems, especially of hydrogen-bonded systems. One of the remained problems in studies on microscopic solvation or hydration is a <span class="hlt">temperature</span> dependence of solvation structures. Lisy and coworkers succeeded in interpreting the hydration structures of alkali metal ions by taking <span class="hlt">temperature</span>- or entropic effect. They utilized Ar vaporization to cool down the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of clusters. Another method for controlling <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of cluster ions is a buffer gas cooling in an ion trap. In the present study, we have measured photodissociation spectra of Ca^+-H_2O in our <span class="hlt">temperature-variable</span> ion trap In the present study, we examined the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of the Ca^+-H_2O in the trap by simulating the rotational profile of the 0-0 band of the ^2B_1 - ^2A_1 transition. The observed rotational profile is similar to that reported by Duncan and coworkers. By changing the trap period from 10 ms to 40 ms, it was confirmed that the trap period of 10 ms is sufficient to get <span class="hlt">temperature</span> equilibrium in our experimental condition. Details of the experimental results will be presented in the paper. D. J. Miller, J. M. Lisy J. Am. Chem. Soc. 130, 15393 (2008). A. Fujihara, et al. J. Phys. Chem. A 112, 1457 (2008) A. Fujihara, et al. J. Phys. Chem. A 113, 8169 (2009). C. T. Scurlock, S. H. Pullins, J. E. Reddic, M. A. Duncan J. Chem. Phys. 104, 4591 (1996).</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ishikawa, Haruki; Eguchi, Toru; Nakano, Takumi; Fujihara, Akimasa; Fuke, Kiyokazu</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">264</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006JASTP..68...30H"> <span id="translatedtitle">Decadal and inter-hemispheric <span class="hlt">variability</span> in polar mesospheric clouds, water vapor, and <span class="hlt">temperature</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Variability</span> in polar mesospheric clouds (PMCs), <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, and water vapor over decadal time scales and also between hemispheres was examined using measurements from the Halogen Occultation Experiment (HALOE) covering 1991 to present. HALOE measurements were compared to results from a zonally averaged chemical/dynamics model (CHEM2D). HALOE indicates decadal cycles in <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, water vapor, and PMCs that are correlated with the 11-year solar cycle. During solar cycle 23, variations in <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and water vapor were nearly identical in the north and south. <span class="hlt">Temperatures</span> varied by roughly 5 K at 85 km to 1 K at 30 km, with colder <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> during solar minimum. Water vapor varied by roughly 30% at 85 km to less than 1% at 30 km, with more water vapor during solar minimum. Solar cycle variations in PMC extinction were roughly 23% in both the south and north, with brighter PMCs occurring during solar minimum. The overall picture given by HALOE is consistent with expectations, where a cooler and wetter mesosphere during solar minimum corresponds to brighter PMCs. CHEM2D confirms the solar cycle variations in <span class="hlt">temperature</span> indicated by HALOE, but underestimates the observed solar cycle changes in H2O. Comparing southern and northern HALOE measurements reveals warmer <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> in the south throughout the mesosphere. CHEM2D results show the same pattern, although the model appears to overestimate the magnitude of these north-south differences. HALOE indicates that water vapor is nearly identical in the north and south, while CHEM2D predicts a wetter southern mesosphere. HALOE measurements show that northern PMCs are 30% brighter than southern clouds on average, a difference that must be related to the cooler northern summer mesosphere.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hervig, Mark; Siskind, Dave</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">265</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16059964"> <span id="translatedtitle">Characterisation of indomethacin and nifedipine using <span class="hlt">variable-temperature</span> solid-state NMR.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We have characterised the stable polymorphic forms of two drug molecules, indomethacin (1) and nifedipine (2) by 13C CPMAS NMR and the resonances have been assigned. The signal for the C-Cl carbon of indomethacin has been studied as a function of applied magnetic field, and the observed bandshapes have been simulated. <span class="hlt">Variable-temperature</span> 1H relaxation measurements of static samples have revealed a T1rho minimum for indomethacin at 17.8 degrees C. The associated activation energy is 38 kJ mol(-1). The relevant motion is probably an internal rotation and it is suggested that this involves the C-OCH3 group. Since the two drug compounds are potential candidates for formulation in the amorphous state, we have examined quench-cooled melts in detail by <span class="hlt">variable-temperature</span> 13C and 1H NMR. There is a change in slope for T1H and T1rhoH at the glass transition <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (Tg) for indomethacin, but this occurs a few degrees below Tg for nifedipine, which is perhaps relevant to the lower real-time stability of the amorphous form for the latter compound. Comparison of relaxation time data for the crystalline and amorphous forms of each compound reveals a greater difference for nifedipine than for indomethacin, which again probably relates to real-time stabilities. Recrystallisation of the two drugs has been followed by proton bandshape measurements at higher <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. It is shown that, under the conditions of the experiments, recrystallisation of nifedipine can be detected already at 70 degrees C, whereas this does not occur until 110 degrees C for indomethacin. The effect of crushing the amorphous samples has been studied by 13C NMR; nifedipine recrystallises but indomethacin does not. The results were supported by DSC, powder XRD, FTIR and solution-state NMR measurements. PMID:16059964</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Apperley, David C; Forster, Angus H; Fournier, Romain; Harris, Robin K; Hodgkinson, Paul; Lancaster, Robert W; Rades, Thomas</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">266</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009JAP...105l4102B"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Variable-temperature</span> measurements of the dielectric relaxation in carbon black loaded epoxy composites</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Technologically, an understanding of the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> influence on the transport properties is essential to the study of many random conductor-insulator composites, while fundamentally it is related to a variety of questions in statistical physics, dielectrics, and materials science, to name a few. <span class="hlt">Variable-temperature</span> measurements of the frequency dependent complex effective permittivity were performed on amine-cured epoxy resins loaded with carbon black (CB). Two series of prepercolative samples differing from the kind of CB particles (Raven 2000 and Raven 5000) mixed in an amine-cured epoxy matrix (diglycidylic ether of bisphenol F) were studied. In this effort to contribute to our understanding of the role of frequency (100 Hz-15 MHz) and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (from ambient <span class="hlt">temperature</span> up to 90 °C) on the complex effective permittivity which describes the linear response of the system to an electromagnetic wave, we investigate these composites with CB loadings below the percolation threshold. Two features are observed. First, our observations cannot be understood in the typical framework of a simple Debye-like dipolar process. In this analysis, we argue that the appearance of the broad <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and frequency dependent maximum loss can be understood within the heuristic framework proposed by Jonscher which applies to disordered heterogeneous systems. This theoretical framework is consistent with several aspects of the experiments, notably the power-law decays of the real and imaginary parts of the effective permittivity characterized by two fractional exponents m and n. These exponents are both positive and smaller than unity. We further quantified their different <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variations: while m is strongly decreasing with increasing <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, n takes a value close to 1. Second, the observed maximum loss frequency found for each CB volume fraction shifts to higher frequencies with increasing <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and exhibits a non-Arrhenius <span class="hlt">temperature</span> dependence well represented by a Vogel-Tammam-Fulcher (VTF) fit. Well below the percolation threshold, the associated activation energy and ordering <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of the VTF fit are not significantly sensitive upon the CB concentration. Such results are compared to previous related work.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Brosseau, C.; Achour, M. E.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">267</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..12.1692P"> <span id="translatedtitle">Impact of Air <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> and SST <span class="hlt">Variability</span> on Cholera Incidence in Southeastern Africa, 1971-2006</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The most important climatic parameter related to cholera outbreaks is the <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, especially of the water bodies and the aquatic environment. This factor governs the survival and growth of V. cholerae, since it has a direct influence on its abundance in the environment, or alternatively, through its indirect influence on other aquatic organisms to which the pathogen is found to attach. Thus, the potential for cholera outbreaks may rise, parallel to the increase in ocean surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. Indeed, recent studies indicate that global warming might create a favorable environment for V. cholerae and increase its incidence in vulnerable areas. Africa is vulnerable to climate <span class="hlt">variability</span>. According to the recent IPCC report on Africa, the air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> has indicated a significant warming trend since the 1960s. In recent years, most of the research into disease vectors in Africa related to climate <span class="hlt">variability</span> has focused on malaria. The IPCC indicated that the need exists to examine the vulnerabilities and impacts of climatic factors on cholera in Africa. In light of this, the study uses a Poisson Regression Model to analyze the possible association between the cholera rates in southeastern Africa and the annual <span class="hlt">variability</span> of air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (SST) at regional and hemispheric scales, for the period 1971-2006. Data description is as follows: Number of cholera cases per year in Uganda, Kenya, Rwanda, Burundi, Tanzania, Malawi, Zambia and Mozambique. Source: WHO Global Health Atlas - cholera. Seasonal and annual <span class="hlt">temperature</span> time series: Regional scale: a) Air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> for southeastern Africa (30° E-36° E, 5° S-17° S), source: NOAA NCEP-NCAR; b) Sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, for the western Indian Ocean (0-20° S, 40° E-45° E), source: NOAA, Kaplan SST dataset. Hemispheric scale (for the whole Southern Hemisphere): a) Air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> anomaly; b) Sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> anomaly. Source: CRU, University of East Anglia. The following Poisson regression model is suggested: log{E(CHOLt)} = b0+b1×Xt+b2×Xt-1 where: CHOLt = the number of new cases of cholera in year t Xt / Xt-1 = the climate covariate measured in year t/t-1. (b0,b1) = the coefficients. A first order autocorrelation, AR1 = cor(Yt, Yt-1) is taken into account in the estimation using Generalized Estimating Equations. b1 and b2 quantify the association of CHOL and X, i.e. if Xt or Xt-1 increase by one unit, the mean of Yt is expected to increase in exp{b1} or exp{b2} times, respectively (multiplicative model). The results showed a significant exponential increase of cholera rates in humans during the study period, with an estimate of exp(b1)=1.08 (p-value = 0.02). Associations have been found between the annual increase of the air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in southeastern Africa and the cholera incidence in the same area. Linkages were found also for a wider scale, with the air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> anomaly of the Southern Hemisphere, with an estimate of exp(b1)=1.18 (p-value = 0.04) and exp(b1)=1.26 (p-value = 0.006) for the previous year. Significant linkages were detected between the annual cholera rate and the annual western Indian Ocean' SST , with exp(b1) = 1.31 (p-value = 0.01) for the current year and exp(b1) = 1.23 (p-value = 0.05) for the previous year. Linkages were found also for the hemispheric scale, with the SST anomaly. The increase of global <span class="hlt">temperature</span> may influence the temporal fluctuations of cholera, as well as potentially increasing the frequency and duration of its outbreaks. Despite future uncertainty, the climate <span class="hlt">variability</span> has to be considered in predicting further cholera outbreaks in Africa. This may help to promote better, more efficient preparedness. For more details: Paz, S. 2010. Impact of <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> <span class="hlt">Variability</span> on Cholera Incidence in Southeastern Africa, 1971-2006. EcoHealth, in press.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Paz, Shlomit</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">268</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.B41E0253S"> <span id="translatedtitle">Isolating plant physiological responses to a changing climate of elevated <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> and more <span class="hlt">variable</span> water availability</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The semiarid southwest has and is predicted to continue to experience multiple concomitant changes in the coming decades. Climatic warming and more <span class="hlt">variable</span> precipitation with long periods of drought are projected for the region. Vegetative change, through the widespread expansion of woody plants into grasslands, is also expected to continue. Due to differences in plant physiological responses to varying conditions of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and moisture availability, these climatic and vegetative shifts could mean big changes in how ecosystems sequester carbon dioxide (CO2) from or respire CO2 to our atmosphere. In this study, we compared photosynthetic rates of CO2 assimilation (A) in C3 woody mesquites and C4 grasses in response to a large rainfall event after a prolonged drought. Paired treatments were maintained at two <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> differing by 4°C to provide insight into responses under current and expected future climate conditions. Preliminary results indicate greater A within grasses than mesquites at both dry and post-rainfall time points, suggesting a possible movement toward less carbon sequestration in the future under the influence of woody plant encroachment. Time to reach peak A after an initial rainfall event was greater in grasses demonstrating a difference in growth strategies for precipitation response. Furthermore, grasses tended to have higher optimum <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, but mesquites were able to maintain A across a broader range of <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> under dry, drought conditions. The effects of deeper rooting and groundwater access in woody plants during longer drought periods could complicate these results and would warrant future study.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sykora, K.; Barron-Gafford, G. A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">269</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012GPC....86...11C"> <span id="translatedtitle">Reconstructed <span class="hlt">temperature</span> for Yong'an, Fujian, Southeast China: Linkages to the Pacific Ocean climate <span class="hlt">variability</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Variations in ring width of Pinus massoniana were used to develop high-resolution climate proxy data to extend the existing climate record in Yong'an, Fujian Province, Southeast China. Growth-climate response analyses showed that the total ring width (TRW) in the subtropical zone of Fujian Province is mainly influenced by summer-autumn <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span>. Based on the total ring width chronology derived from one chronology site (LBY), we developed July-October minimum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> reconstruction for the period A.D. 1803-2008. The climate/tree-growth model accounts for 42.2% of the instrumental <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variance during the period 1954-2008. Warm periods occurred during 1808-1815, 1833-1853, 1862-1871, 1895-1906, 1914-1927 and 1973-present; while the periods of 1803-1807, 1816-1832, 1854-1861, 1872-1894, 1907-1913 and 1928-1972 were relatively cold. There is a reasonable agreement with the cold and warcum periods previously estimated from tree-rings around Western Pacific Ocean. The climate correlation analyses with summer APO and gridded climate dataset revealed that our season <span class="hlt">temperature</span> reconstruction contains the strong climate signals for Asian-Pacific.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Chen, Feng; Yuan, Yu-jiang; Wei, Wen-shou; Yu, Shu-long; Zhang, Tong-wen</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">270</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17979422"> <span id="translatedtitle">An ultrahigh vacuum fast-scanning and <span class="hlt">variable</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> scanning tunneling microscope for large scale imaging.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We describe the design and performance of a fast-scanning, <span class="hlt">variable</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> scanning tunneling microscope (STM) operating from 80 to 700 K in ultrahigh vacuum (UHV), which routinely achieves large scale atomically resolved imaging of compact metallic surfaces. An efficient in-vacuum vibration isolation and cryogenic system allows for no external vibration isolation of the UHV chamber. The design of the sample holder and STM head permits imaging of the same nanometer-size area of the sample before and after sample preparation outside the STM base. Refractory metal samples are frequently annealed up to 2000 K and their cooldown time from room <span class="hlt">temperature</span> to 80 K is 15 min. The vertical resolution of the instrument was found to be about 2 pm at room <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. The coarse motor design allows both translation and rotation of the scanner tube. The total scanning area is about 8 x 8 microm(2). The sample <span class="hlt">temperature</span> can be adjusted by a few tens of degrees while scanning over the same sample area. PMID:17979422</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Diaconescu, Bogdan; Nenchev, Georgi; de la Figuera, Juan; Pohl, Karsten</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">271</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUSMSA31A..02I"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Temperature</span> <span class="hlt">Variability</span> in the Stratosphere Obtained from 7 years of Vibrational-Raman- lidar Measurements</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Purple Crow Lidar (PCL) is a large power-aperture product monostatic laser radar located at the Delaware Observatory (42° 52' N, 81° 23' W, 225 m elevation above sea level) near the campus of The University of Western Ontario. It is capable of measuring <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and wave parameters from 10 to 110 km altitude, as well as water vapor in the troposphere and stratosphere. We use upper tropospheric and stratospheric vibrational Raman N2 backscatter-derived <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> to form a climatology for the years 1999 to 2007 from 10 to 30 km altitude. The lidar <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> are validated using coincident radiosondes measurements from Detroit and Buffalo. The measured <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> show good agreement with the radiosonde soundings. An agreement of ±1 K is found during summer months and ±2.5 K during the winter months, validating the calibration of the lidar to within the geophysical <span class="hlt">variability</span> of the measurements. Comparison between the PCL measurements and atmospheric models shows the PCL measurements are 5 K or less colder than CIRA-86 below 25 km and 2.5 K warmer above during the summer months. Below 16 km the PCL measurements are 5 K or less colder than the MSIS-90 model, while above this region, the PCL agrees to about ±3.5 K or less. The <span class="hlt">temperature</span> differences between the PCL measurements and the models are consistent with the differences between the atmospheric models and the Detroit and Buffalo radiosonde measurements. The <span class="hlt">temperature</span> differences compared to the models are consistent with previous comparisons between other radiosondes and satellite data sets, confirming that these differences with the models are real. We will highlight nights which show significant variations from the long-term averages, and when possible, the evolution of the variations.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Iserhienrhien, B.; Sica, R. J.; Argall, P. S.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">272</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.A11G0175D"> <span id="translatedtitle">Relationship between Tropical Atlantic sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> and southern Indian Ocean tropical cyclones</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Recent studies have found that tropical Atlantic sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (SST) <span class="hlt">variability</span> may be influencing tropical Indian Ocean climate. Due to the economic and social impact of tropical cyclones, it is important to investigate how an Atlantic-Indian Ocean connection may be affecting tropical cyclone behavior in the southern Indian Ocean. In this study, the International Best Track Archive for Climate Stewardship (IBTrAC) tropical cyclone database is used to derive metrics of tropical cyclone behavior, which are then compared with an index of tropical Atlantic SST <span class="hlt">variability</span>. Changes in tropical Atlantic SSTs are found to coincide with significant differences in tropical cyclone activity for portions of the southern Indian Ocean. In addition, for these same regions, tropical Atlantic SST <span class="hlt">variability</span> is associated with changes in large-scale atmospheric conditions, including wind shear, low-level vorticity, and humidity, typically associated with tropical cyclogenesis. These findings indicate a possible link between tropical Atlantic conditions and cyclone activity in the Indian Ocean mediated through a teleconnection between tropical Atlantic SSTs and large scale atmospheric conditions over the southern Indian Ocean. The nature of this teleconnection and the mechanisms driving it are being further explored with model experiments.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">DeBlander, E.; Shaman, J. L.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">273</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AN....333..736Z"> <span id="translatedtitle">Simultaneous U BV RI observations of the cataclysmic <span class="hlt">variable</span> AE Aquarii: <span class="hlt">Temperatures</span> and masses of fireballs</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We report simultaneous multicolour observations in 5 bands (U BV RI) of the flickering <span class="hlt">variability</span> of the cataclysmic <span class="hlt">variable</span> AE Aqr. Our aim is to estimate the parameters (colours, <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, size) of the fireballs that produce the optical flares. The observed rise times of the optical flares are in the interval 220-440 s. We estimate the dereddened colours of the fireballs as (U-B)_0˜ 0.8-1.4, (B-V)_0 ˜ 0.03-0.24, and (V-I)_0 ˜ 0.26-0.78. We find for the fireballs <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> of 10000-25000 K, masses of (7-90)× 1019 g, and sizes of (3-7)× 109 cm (using a distance of d=86 pc). These values refer to the peak of the flares observed in the U BV RI bands. The data are available upon request from the authors. Based on data collected with the telescopes at Bulgarian National Astronomical Observatory Rozhen and Belogradchick Astronomical Observatory.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Zamanov , R. K.; Latev, G. Y.; Stoyanov, K. A.; Boeva, S.; Spassov, B.; Tsvetkova, S. V.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">274</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007ThApC..87...73Y"> <span id="translatedtitle">Role of Indian Ocean sea surface <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> in modulating northwest Indian winter precipitation <span class="hlt">variability</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The interannual <span class="hlt">variability</span> of North-West India Winter Precipitation (NWIWP) has been examined in association with the <span class="hlt">variability</span> of sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (SST), surface air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (SAT) and upper tropospheric (200 hPa) wind patterns over India and the surrounding regions. We have considered data for a period of 54 years (1950-2003). During the years of excess NWIWP, the SST was above normal over the equatorial Indian Ocean, SAT was below normal over east Mediterranean Sea and over the Himalayan region and upper tropospheric westerlies strengthen and shift southwards. Upper tropospheric westerlies over north and central India was found to be related with the SST anomalies over the equatorial Indian Ocean. The decrease of SAT over north India and surroundings may largely be a manifestation of cooling brought about by excessive precipitation and sweep of cold air advection in rear of the storms. The intensifying of upper troposphere westerlies embedded with a jet increases the upper level divergence over north India due to increased horizontal shear resulting in intense anticyclone at upper troposphere.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Yadav, R. K.; Rupa Kumar, K.; Rajeevan, M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">275</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17441188"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Variable-temperature</span> powder X-ray diffraction of aromatic carboxylic acid and carboxamide cocrystals.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The effect of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> on the cocrystallization of benzoic acid (BA), pentafluorobenzoic acid (FBA), benzamide (BAm), and pentafluorobenzamide (FBAm) is examined in the solid state. BA and FBA formed a 1:1 complex 1 at ambient <span class="hlt">temperature</span> by grinding with a mortar and pestle. Grinding FBA and BAm together resulted in partial conversion into the 1:1 adduct 2 at 28 degrees C and complete transformation into the product cocrystal at 78 degrees C. Further heating (80-100 degrees C) and then cooling to room <span class="hlt">temperature</span> gave a different powder pattern from that of 2. BAm and FBAm hardly reacted at ambient <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, but they afforded the 1:1 cocrystal 3 by melt cocrystallization at 110-115 degrees C. Both BA+FBAm (4) and BA+BAm (5) reacted to give new crystalline phases upon heating, but the structures of these products could not be determined owing to a lack of diffraction-quality single crystals. The stronger COOH and CONH2 hydrogen-bonding groups of FBA and FBAm yielded the equimolar cocrystal 6 at room <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, and heating of these solids to 90-100 degrees C gave a new crystalline phase. The X-ray crystal structures of 1, 2, 3, and 6 are sustained by the acid-acid/amide-amide homosynthons or acid-amide heterosynthon, with additional stabilization from phenyl-perfluorophenyl stacking in 1 and 3. The <span class="hlt">temperature</span> required for complete transformation into the cocrystal was monitored by in situ <span class="hlt">variable-temperature</span> powder X-ray diffraction (VT-PXRD), and formation of the cocrystal was confirmed by matching the experimental peak profile with the simulated diffraction pattern. The reactivity of H-bonding groups and the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> for cocrystallization are in good agreement with the donor and acceptor strengths of the COOH and CONH2 groups. It was necessary to determine the exact <span class="hlt">temperature</span> range for quantitative cocrystallization in each case because excessive heating caused undesirable phase transitions. PMID:17441188</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Reddy, L Sreenivas; Bhatt, Prashant M; Banerjee, Rahul; Nangia, Ashwini; Kruger, Gert J</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">276</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009EGUGA..11.6530G"> <span id="translatedtitle">Mg/Ca ratios in coralline red algae as <span class="hlt">temperature</span> proxies for reconstructing Labrador Current <span class="hlt">variability</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Climate and oceanographic changes in the Northwestern Atlantic have recently had a dramatic impact on ecosystems and fishery yields. Fluctuations of North Atlantic marine climate have been linked in part to a dominant pattern of atmospheric circulation known as the North Atlantic Oscillation, which has a strong influence on transport <span class="hlt">variability</span> of the Labrador Current (LC) flowing along the Eastern Canadian coastline. Although interdecadal and interannual <span class="hlt">variability</span> of SST and salinity in the LC system have been documented, a clear cyclic pattern has not been identified. In order to better understand the observed ecosystem changes and predict future changes in LC flow, a spatial and temporal reconstruction of the LC is needed. This, however, requires reliable long-term and high-resolution <span class="hlt">temperature</span> records, which are not available from short instrumental observations. Our research is therefore concerned with establishing century-scale sea-surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (SST) reconstructions from the Northwest Atlantic using long-lived coralline red algae. Coralline red algae have a high-Mg calcite skeleton, live in shallow water worldwide and develop annual growth bands. It has previously been demonstrated that subannual resolution SST information can be obtained from coralline red algal Mg/Ca ratios, a commonly used paleotemperature proxy. Specimens of the long-lived coralline red algae Clathromorphum compactum were collected alive in August 2008 along a latitudinal transect spanning the southern extent of LC flow in Nova Scotia and Newfoundland. This collection is supplemented with specimens from the same region collected in the 1960's. In order to reconstruct spatial and temporal patterns of the LC, selected samples of C. compactum were analyzed for Mg/Ca using Laser Ablation Inductively-Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS). Age models were established for all specimens by counting annual growth increments, which average 350 microns/year. Mg/Ca ratios range from 0.055 to 0.138 (measured in weight %) and relate to water <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> of -1 to 10°C. An integration of observed element cycles and age model data yields Mg/Ca-based SST reconstructions dating back to the industrial revolution. Multidecadal spatial correlations of our C. compactum records with satellite-derived sea-surface <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> clearly indicate the influence of a LC signature on the Mg/Ca time series and highlight the value of the algae as a proxy to resolve large-scale and long-term LC <span class="hlt">variability</span>.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Gamboa, G.; Halfar, J.; Zack, T.; Hetzinger, S.; Adey, W.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">277</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFMPP43B1669B"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Variability</span> of North Atlantic surface and subsurface <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> during the last 2000 years</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) is an important component for oceanic heat transport from low to high latitudes; most of this ocean heat is mainly contained in the first few hundred meters of the water column. Recent oceanographic measurements show that AMOC fluctuated in a decadal period of time. The causes of these fluctuations are still poorly understood, and available observations are too limited in time (only the last decades) to properly investigate all the mechanisms responsible for these fluctuations. The aim of this work is to reconstruct <span class="hlt">variability</span> of past sea surface and subsurface <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> in order to extend the information available from observations on the ocean heat content fluctuations. This work is part of the European project THOR (Thermohaline Overturning - at Risk?). We studied the IMAGES core MD08-3182 (52°41.99’N 35°56.15’W, 3757m) located in the main pathway of the Gulf Stream (GS) in the Charlie Gibbs Fracture Zone, a key location for monitoring the subpolar gyre dynamics. We also use the IMAGES MD99-2203 core (34°58,38N-620m) located off Cape Hatteras, a suitable location to record the <span class="hlt">variability</span> of the GS. A third core CADI2KS12 (36°42,79’-1120m) in the Gulf of Cádiz monitors the return current of the subtropical gyre. All these cores are radiocarbon dated by AMS. The upper water column characteristics are reconstructed by geochemical analysis: paired measurements of oxygen isotopic composition and trace elements ratio (Mg/Ca) in Planktonic foraminifera have been used to reconstruct <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and oxygen isotopic composition of sea water (?18Osw). Both surface and deep-dwelling species (at the base of the seasonal thermocline) have been measured in order to obtain a complete <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and ?18Osw record over the first few hundred meters of the water column. We have reconstructed the sea <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> of the water column during the Late Holocene, in particular the last 2000 years. These results enable us to think to a significative oceanic circulation change during the Medieval Climatic Anomaly.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bouinot, T.; Cortijo, E.; Govin, A.; Cléroux, C.; Mulder, T.; Gonthier, E.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">278</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004GeCoA..68.4821R"> <span id="translatedtitle">Hydrolysis of neptunium(V) at <span class="hlt">variable</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> (10 85°C)</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Neptunium is one of the few radioactive elements that are of great concern in the disposal of nuclear wastes in the geological repository, due to its hazards and the long half-life of the isotope, 237Np ( t1/2 = 2.14 × 10 6 years). To understand and predict the migration behavior of neptunium in the geological media, it is of importance to study its hydrolysis at elevated <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, because the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in the waste package and the vicinity of the repository could be high. Moreover, the chemical analogy between neptunium(V) and plutonium(V) adds even greater value to this investigation, because the latter could exist at tracer levels in neutral and slightly oxidizing waters but is difficult to study due to its rather labile redox behavior. In this work, the hydrolysis of neptunium(V) was studied at <span class="hlt">variable</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> (10 to 85°C) in tetramethylammonium chloride (1.12 mol kg -1). Two hydrolyzed species of neptunium(V), NpO 2OH(aq) and NpO 2(OH) 2-, were identified by potentiometry and Near-IR absorption spectroscopy. The hydrolysis constants (* ?n) and enthalpy of hydrolysis (? Hn) for the reaction NpO 2+ + nH 2O = NpO 2(OH) n(1-n)+ + nH + ( n = 1 and 2) were determined by titration potentiometry and microcalorimetry. The hydrolysis constants, * ?1 and * ?2, increased by 0.8 and 3.4 orders of magnitude, respectively, as the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> was increased from 10 to 85°C. The enhancement of hydrolysis at elevated <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> is mainly due to the significant increase of the degree of ionization of water as the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> is increased. The hydrolysis reactions are endothermic but become less endothermic as the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> is increased. The heat capacities of hydrolysis, ? Cp1 and ? Cp2 , are calculated to be -(71 ± 17) J K -1 mol -1 and -(127 ± 17) J K -1 mol -1, respectively. Approximation approaches to predict the effect of <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, including the constant enthalpy approach, the constant heat capacity approach and the DQUANT equation, have been tested with the data.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Rao, Linfeng; Srinivasan, Thandankorai G.; Garnov, Alexander Yu; Zanonato, PierLuigi; Di Bernardo, Plinio; Bismondo, Arturo</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">279</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21919093"> <span id="translatedtitle">Hydrolysis of plutonium(VI) at <span class="hlt">variable</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> (283-343 K).</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The hydrolysis of Pu(VI) was studied at <span class="hlt">variable</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> (283-343 K) by potentiometry, microcalorimetry, and spectrophotometry. Three hydrolysis reactions, mPuO(2)(2+) + nH(2)O=(PuO(2))(m)(OH)(n) (2m-n)(?+) + nH(+)), in which (n,m)=(1,1), (2,2), and (5,3), were invoked to describe the potentiometric and calorimetric data. The equilibrium constants (*?(n,m)) were determined by potentiometry at 283, 298, 313, 328, and 343 K. As the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> was increased from 283 to 343 K, *?(1,1), *?(2,2), and *?(5,3), increased by 1, 1.5, and 4 orders of magnitude, respectively. The enhancement of hydrolysis at elevated <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> is mainly due to the significant increase of the degree of ionization of water as the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> increases. Measurements by microcalorimetry indicate that the three hydrolysis reactions are all endothermic at 298.15 K, with enthalpies of (35.0±3.4) kJ mol(-1), (65.4±1.0) kJ mol(-1), and (127.7±1.7) kJ mol(-1) for ?H(1,1), ?H(2,2), and ?H(5,3), respectively. The hydrolysis constants at infinite dilution have been obtained with the Specific Ion Interaction approach. The applicability of three approaches for estimating the equilibrium constants at different <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, including the constant enthalpy approach, the DQUANT equation, and the Ryzhenko-Bryzgalin model, were evaluated with the data from this work. PMID:21919093</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Rao, Linfeng; Tian, Guoxin; Di Bernardo, Plinio; Zanonato, PierLuigi</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-08-23</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">280</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012GeCoA..99..224S"> <span id="translatedtitle">Carbonate clumped isotope <span class="hlt">variability</span> in shallow water corals: <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> dependence and growth-related vital effects</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Geochemical variations in shallow water corals provide a valuable archive of paleoclimatic information. However, biological effects can complicate the interpretation of these proxies, forcing their application to rely on empirical calibrations. Carbonate clumped isotope thermometry (?47) is a novel paleotemperature proxy based on the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> dependent "clumping" of 13C-18O bonds. Similar ?47-<span class="hlt">temperature</span> relationships in inorganically precipitated calcite and a suite of biogenic carbonates provide evidence that carbonate clumped isotope <span class="hlt">variability</span> may record absolute <span class="hlt">temperature</span> without a biological influence. However, large departures from expected values in the winter growth of a hermatypic coral provided early evidence for possible ?47 vital effects. Here, we present the first systematic survey of ?47 in shallow water corals. Sub-annual Red Sea ?47 in two Porites corals shows a <span class="hlt">temperature</span> dependence similar to inorganic precipitation experiments, but with a systematic offset toward higher ?47 values that consistently underestimate <span class="hlt">temperature</span> by ˜8 °C. Additional analyses of Porites, Siderastrea, Astrangia and Caryophyllia corals argue against a number of potential mechanisms as the leading cause for this apparent ?47 vital effect including: salinity, organic matter contamination, alteration during sampling, the presence or absence of symbionts, and interlaboratory differences in analytical protocols. However, intra- and inter-coral comparisons suggest that the deviation from expected ?47 increases with calcification rate. Theoretical calculations suggest this apparent link with calcification rate is inconsistent with pH-dependent changes in dissolved inorganic carbon speciation and with kinetic effects associated with CO2 diffusion into the calcifying space. However, the link with calcification rate may be related to fractionation during the hydration/hydroxylation of CO2 within the calcifying space. Although the vital effects we describe will complicate the interpretation of ?47 as a paleothermometer in shallow water corals, it may still be a valuable paleoclimate proxy, particularly when applied as part of a multi-proxy approach.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Saenger, Casey; Affek, Hagit P.; Felis, Thomas; Thiagarajan, Nivedita; Lough, Janice M.; Holcomb, Michael</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img 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href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">281</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AGUFMPP51E..02L"> <span id="translatedtitle">Zonal and Meridional Sea Surface <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Gradients and Orbital <span class="hlt">Variability</span> During the Plio-Pleistocene Transition</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">As the most recent interval of sustained warmth in Earth's history the Pliocene represents a potential analog for future climate scenarios. Yet, the ultimate causes of both early Pliocene warmth and the subsequent major climatic transition, which resulted in the development of large ice sheets in the Northern Hemisphere, remain unclear. Here, we compare and contrast three orbital-resolution, alkenone-derived sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (SST) records for the interval from 4 to 1.4 Ma, shedding new light on the evolution of the ocean surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> field during the Plio-Pleistocene Transition. We examine the trends and orbital scale <span class="hlt">variability</span> as well as the zonal and meridional <span class="hlt">temperature</span> gradients elucidated by SST data from Ocean Drilling Program Site 846 (3°S, 91°W) in the eastern equatorial Pacific (EEP), Site 982 (58°N, 16°W) in the North Atlantic, and Site 662 (1°S, 12°W) in the Eastern Equatorial Atlantic (EE ATL). Our data indicate that although the rate of cooling in the EEP (1°C/Myr) was nearly twice that in the EE ATL (0.6°C/Myr), the overall structure of the data from these two sites is remarkably similar. This marked similarity in structure suggests the operation of a large-scale forcing mechanism, such as a change in atmospheric CO2 concentrations. The zonal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> gradient between our two tropical sites grew steadily from <1°C at 4 Ma to ~2°C at 1.4 Ma, perhaps as a result of strengthening Walker circulation in the equatorial Pacific. The North Atlantic meridional <span class="hlt">temperature</span> gradient was ~8°C between 4 and 3.5 Ma and grew steadily to ~12°C at 2.5 Ma when it plateaued until the end of the record at 1.4 Ma. Not surprisingly, the variance at our high latitude site is much greater than that at our tropical sites. However, the presence of significant variance at Site 982 prior to the intensification of Northern Hemisphere Glaciation (~2.75 Ma) is anomalous given the very small amplitude of variations in all other climatic time series from this time period. Obliquity variations are notable in all three records. Significant obliquity <span class="hlt">variability</span> exists throughout the Site 982 time series while the obliquity response at both tropical sites increases markedly at ~2.7 Ma. In contrast to the minor role of precessional variations at Site 846 and Site 982, precession played very prominent role at Site 662, likely related to variations in the strength of the African monsoon system.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lawrence, K. T.; Cleaveland, L. C.; Mulligan, A. B.; Herbert, T. D.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">282</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5231272"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Variable-temperature</span> scanning tunneling microscopy. Final report, 21 Jul 88-20 Jul 91</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Variable</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> STM/STS has been used over the 4.2 K to 400 K <span class="hlt">temperature</span> range to study CDW formation and spatial variations of the superconducting energy gap in Pb films. Topographic variations of the superconducting energy gap in Pb films show an intriguing transition from superconducting to normal behavior over distances much less than the bulk coherence length. More recently, effort has been focused on the development of a multi-chamber UHV-STM system that will couple a wide range of STM/STS capability with sample and tip preparation and characterization facilities. The first chamber of this system is fully functional and is being used to study and modify semiconductor surfaces. Other chambers will be specialized for STM nanolithography and cryogenic UHV-STM. This system accommodates UHV sample and tip transfer between chambers in addition to independent chamber operation modes. STM modification of H-passivated silicon surfaces has been accomplished using techniques developed by John Dagata at NIST. A unique STM lateral coarse translation system has been developed and used to locate and modify Si MOSFET structures fabricated for this project. Gratings written by STM within the gate region are being evaluated for the creation of finished devices that will exhibit quantum interference effects at higher <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> than previously observed. Work is also underway to fabricate planar tunnel junction structures that utilize coulomb charging effects to realize logic functions.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lyding, J.W.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1991-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">283</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012GeoRL..3914705W"> <span id="translatedtitle">Sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> in southern Okinawa Trough during last 2700 years</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Most of the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> reconstructions for the past two millennia are based on proxy data from various sites on land. Here we present a bidecadal resolution record of sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (SST) in Southern Okinawa Trough for the past ca. 2700 years by analyzing tetraether lipids of planktonic archaea in the ODP Hole 1202B, a site under the strong influence of Kuroshio Current and East Asian monsoon. The reconstructed SST anomalies generally coincided with previously reported late Holocene climate events, including the Roman Warm Period, Sui-Tang dynasty Warm Period, Medieval Warm Period, Current Warm Period, Dark Age Cold Period and Little Ice Age. However, the Medieval Warm Period usually thought to be a historical analogue for the Current Warm Period has a mean SST of 0.6-0.8°C lower than that of the Roman Warm Period and Sui-Tang dynasty Warm Period. Despite an increase since 1850 AD, the mean SST in the 20th century is still within the range of natural <span class="hlt">variability</span> during the past 2700 years. A close correlation of SST in Southern Okinawa Trough with air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in East China, intensity of East Asian monsoon and the El-Niño Southern Oscillation index has been attributed to the fluctuations in solar output and oceanic-atmospheric circulation.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wu, Weichao; Tan, Wenbing; Zhou, Liping; Yang, Huan; Xu, Yunping</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">284</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24064550"> <span id="translatedtitle">NOM degradation during river infiltration: Effects of the climate <span class="hlt">variables</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and discharge.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Most peri-alpine shallow aquifers fed by rivers are oxic and the drinking water derived by riverbank filtration is generally of excellent quality. However, observations during past heat waves suggest that water quality may be affected by climate change due to effects on redox processes such as aerobic respiration, denitrification, reductive dissolution of manganese(III/IV)- and iron(III)(hydr)oxides that occur during river infiltration. To assess the dependence of these redox processes on the climate-related <span class="hlt">variables</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and discharge, we performed periodic and targeted (summer and winter) field sampling campaigns at the Thur River, Switzerland, and laboratory column experiments simulating the field conditions. Typical summer and winter field conditions could be successfully simulated by the column experiments. Dissolved organic matter (DOM) was found not to be a major electron donor for aerobic respiration in summer and the DOM consumption did not reveal a significant correlation with <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and discharge. It is hypothesized that under summer conditions, organic matter associated with the aquifer material (particulate organic matter, POM) is responsible for most of the consumption of dissolved oxygen (DO), which was the most important electron acceptor in both the field and the column system. For typical summer conditions at <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> >20 °C, complete depletion of DO was observed in the column system and in a piezometer located only a few metres from the river. Both in the field system and the column experiments, nitrate acted as a redox buffer preventing the release of manganese(II) and iron(II). For periodic field observations over five years, DO consumption showed a pronounced <span class="hlt">temperature</span> dependence (correlation coefficient r = 0.74) and therefore a seasonal pattern, which seemed to be mostly explained by the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> dependence of the calculated POM consumption (r = 0.7). The river discharge was found to be highly and positively correlated with DO consumption (r = 0.85), suggesting an enhanced POM input during flood events. This high correlation could only be observed for the low-<span class="hlt">temperature</span> range (T < 15 °C). For <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> >15 °C, DO consumption was already high (almost complete) and the impact of discharge could not be resolved. Based on our results, we estimate the risk for similar river-infiltration systems to release manganese(II) and iron(II) to be low during future average summer conditions. However, long-lasting heat waves might lead to a consumption of the nitrate buffer, inducing a mobilization of manganese and iron. PMID:24064550</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Diem, Samuel; Rudolf von Rohr, Matthias; Hering, Janet G; Kohler, Hans-Peter E; Schirmer, Mario; von Gunten, Urs</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-09-03</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">285</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AtmRe.106..159E"> <span id="translatedtitle">Trend and <span class="hlt">variability</span> of surface air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in northeastern Spain (1920-2006): Linkage to atmospheric circulation</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">An assessment of long-term change and <span class="hlt">variability</span> of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> over northeastern Spain (1920-2006) is provided using a dataset of 19 observatories. In addition, a more detailed analysis of the spatial and temporal <span class="hlt">variability</span> of maximum, minimum, and mean <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, and the diurnal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> range (DTR) has also been carried out employing 128 observatories spanning the period from 1960 to 2006. In general, maximum, minimum, and mean <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> have increased significantly, mainly from 1960. Contrarily, the DTR showed less coherent <span class="hlt">variability</span> with both positive and negative trends. On a seasonal scale, the analysis reveals that the weakest trends (mostly insignificant at the 5% level) were observed during autumn, while the strongest warming rates were found during summer and spring. Spatially, the observed warming was more robust in the coastal proportions compared with mainland observatories. The trends on the annual timescale are spatially consistent with those observed in warm seasons (summer and spring) rather than in cold seasons (winter and autumn). This study also explores the forcing mechanisms that can explain <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> on seasonal timescales. This <span class="hlt">variability</span> can markedly be connected to variations in the large-scale atmospheric patterns. Notably, the Eastern Atlantic (EA), the Scandinavian (SCA), and the Western Mediterranean Oscillation (WeMO) patterns exert a significant influence on <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variations in the study domain. Our results confirm that circulation patterns have spatially <span class="hlt">variable</span> influences on <span class="hlt">temperature</span> on both seasonal and annual timescales. Changes in patterns of atmospheric flows, as driven by increase in zonal circulation and anticyclonic conditions in recent decades, seem to play a noticeable role to explain spatio-temporal <span class="hlt">variability</span> of <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> in the study domain.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">El Kenawy, Ahmed; López-Moreno, Juan I.; Vicente-Serrano, Sergio M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">286</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16099951"> <span id="translatedtitle">Amplification of surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> trends and <span class="hlt">variability</span> in the tropical atmosphere.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The month-to-month <span class="hlt">variability</span> of tropical <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> is larger in the troposphere than at Earth's surface. This amplification behavior is similar in a range of observations and climate model simulations and is consistent with basic theory. On multidecadal time scales, tropospheric amplification of surface warming is a robust feature of model simulations, but it occurs in only one observational data set. Other observations show weak, or even negative, amplification. These results suggest either that different physical mechanisms control amplification processes on monthly and decadal time scales, and models fail to capture such behavior; or (more plausibly) that residual errors in several observational data sets used here affect their representation of long-term trends. PMID:16099951</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Santer, B D; Wigley, T M L; Mears, C; Wentz, F J; Klein, S A; Seidel, D J; Taylor, K E; Thorne, P W; Wehner, M F; Gleckler, P J; Boyle, J S; Collins, W D; Dixon, K W; Doutriaux, C; Free, M; Fu, Q; Hansen, J E; Jones, G S; Ruedy, R; Karl, T R; Lanzante, J R; Meehl, G A; Ramaswamy, V; Russell, G; Schmidt, G A</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-08-11</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">287</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005Sci...309.1551S"> <span id="translatedtitle">Amplification of Surface <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Trends and <span class="hlt">Variability</span> in the Tropical Atmosphere</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The month-to-month <span class="hlt">variability</span> of tropical <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> is larger in the troposphere than at Earth's surface. This amplification behavior is similar in a range of observations and climate model simulations and is consistent with basic theory. On multidecadal time scales, tropospheric amplification of surface warming is a robust feature of model simulations, but it occurs in only one observational data set. Other observations show weak, or even negative, amplification. These results suggest either that different physical mechanisms control amplification processes on monthly and decadal time scales, and models fail to capture such behavior; or (more plausibly) that residual errors in several observational data sets used here affect their representation of long-term trends.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Santer, B. D.; Wigley, T. M. L.; Mears, C.; Wentz, F. J.; Klein, S. A.; Seidel, D. J.; Taylor, K. E.; Thorne, P. W.; Wehner, M. F.; Gleckler, P. J.; Boyle, J. S.; Collins, W. D.; Dixon, K. W.; Doutriaux, C.; Free, M.; Fu, Q.; Hansen, J. E.; Jones, G. S.; Ruedy, R.; Karl, T. R.; Lanzante, J. R.; Meehl, G. A.; Ramaswamy, V.; Russell, G.; Schmidt, G. A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">288</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.springerlink.com/index/vbec99g3w8b931jw.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Mediterranean summer air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> and its connection to the large-scale atmospheric circulation and SSTs</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The interannual and decadal <span class="hlt">variability</span> of summer (June to September) air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> over the Mediterranean area is analyzed for the period 1950 to 1999. The combined influence of the large-scale atmospheric circulation at different levels and thermic predictors (thickness patterns and Mediterranean SSTs) on station <span class="hlt">temperature</span> data is assessed by means of optimal objective techniques. The validity of the statistical</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">E. Xoplaki; J. F. González-Rouco; J. Luterbacher; H. Wanner</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">289</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/54483234"> <span id="translatedtitle">A Multi-Scale Information Theory Approach to Assess Spatial-Temporal <span class="hlt">Variability</span> in Daily Precipitation and <span class="hlt">Temperature</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Wavelet based information theory metrics are applied to daily precipitation and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> over the continental United States. Station data from the US Historical Climate Network (USHCN) sites are used to ascertain the spatial and temporal <span class="hlt">variability</span> and interactions across spatial and temporal scales. Entropy is computed of the daily precipitation, the precipitation event size distribution, and air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and the</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">N. A. Brunsell</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">290</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15..770V"> <span id="translatedtitle">Low-frequency <span class="hlt">variability</span> of Sahel rainfall driven by sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> patterns in CMIP5 models</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Throughout the 20th century it has been observed a decadal <span class="hlt">variability</span> of the Sahelian rainfall, with a rainy period during the 1950s and 1960s followed by a period of severe drought during the 1970s and 1980s. Sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (SST) patterns mainly drove this low-frequency <span class="hlt">variability</span>. In this work we study the low-frequency <span class="hlt">variability</span> of SST in historical and preindustrial control simulations of CMIP5 models. We describe the leading large-scale patterns of SST related to external forcing and to internal <span class="hlt">variability</span> in the Atlantic and Pacific oceans and we analyze their relation with Sahel rainfall.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Villamayor, Julián; Mohino, Elsa</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">291</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013GeoRL..40.2131M"> <span id="translatedtitle">The changing roles of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and precipitation on snowpack <span class="hlt">variability</span> in Switzerland as a function of altitude</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this study, we assess the role of altitude in determining the relative performance of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and precipitation as predictors of snowpack <span class="hlt">variability</span> in Switzerland. The results indicate a linear relationship between altitude and the correlation of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (precipitation) with snowpack depth and duration. We identify a threshold altitude of approximately 1400 m a.s.l. (± 200 m, depending on the snow index considered), below which <span class="hlt">temperature</span> is the main explanatory <span class="hlt">variable</span> and above which precipitation is a better predictor of snowpack <span class="hlt">variability</span>. The results also highlight that as climate warms, the altitude at which <span class="hlt">temperature</span> is the main constraint on snow accumulation increases. This has important implications for the future viability of snow-dependent economic sectors in Switzerland, where projections indicate a continuous warming during the course of the 21st century.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">MoráN-Tejeda, Enrique; López-Moreno, Juan Ignacio; Beniston, Martin</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">292</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://atoc.colorado.edu/%7Efriedrik/WEBPAGES/atoc5600_files/readings/Lee_drop.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Variability</span> of Drop Size Distributions: TimeScale Dependence of the <span class="hlt">Variability</span> and Its Effects on Rain Estimation</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">A systematic and intensive analysis is performed on 5 yr of reliable disdrometric data (over 20 000 one-minute drop size distributions, DSDs) to investigate the <span class="hlt">variability</span> of DSDs in the Montreal, Quebec, Canada, area. The scale dependence (climatological scale, <span class="hlt">day</span> <span class="hlt">to</span> <span class="hlt">day</span>, within a day, between physical processes, and within a physical process) of the DSD <span class="hlt">variability</span> and its effect</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Gyuwon Lee; Isztar Zawadzki</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">293</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007ThApC..88..111G"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Temperature</span> and snow-melt controls on interannual <span class="hlt">variability</span> in carbon exchange in the high Arctic</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Net Ecosystem CO2 Exchange (NEE) was studied during the summer season (June August) at a high Arctic heath ecosystem for 5 years in Zackenberg, NE Greenland. Integrated over the 80 day summer season, the heath is presently a sink ranging from -1.4 g C m-2 in 1997 to -23.3 g C m-2 in 2003. The results indicate that photosynthesis might be more <span class="hlt">variable</span> than ecosystem respiration on the seasonal timescale. The years focused on in this paper differ climatically, which is reflected in the measured fluxes. The environmental conditions during the five years strongly indicated that time of snow-melt and air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> during the growing season are closely related to the interannual variation in the measured fluxes of CO2 at the heath. Our estimates suggest that net ecosystem CO2 uptake is enhanced by 0.16 g C m-2 per increase in growing degree-days during the period of growth. This study emphasises that increased summer time air <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> are favourable for this particular ecosystem in terms of carbon accumulation.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Groendahl, L.; Friborg, T.; Soegaard, H.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">294</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013ClDy...41.2003H"> <span id="translatedtitle">Siberian high <span class="hlt">variability</span> and its teleconnections with tropical circulations and surface air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> over Saudi Arabia</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Based on a generated time series for the central pressure of the Siberian High, and on defining a robust Siberian High Index (SHI), the behavior of this atmospheric center of action is examined from 1949 to 2010 with regard to inter-annual variations, persistence, trends, abrupt changes, spectral analysis and interactions. The interannual <span class="hlt">variability</span> in the central pressure of the Siberian High is considerable. The mean downward linear and non-linear trend over the entire period (1949-2010) is estimated and is found to be statistically significant at the 95 % confidence level. Low frequency variation and linearity within the SHI time series are found from the persistence analysis. Using spectral analysis, the center of action of the Siberian High is characterized by non-periodic behavior; the peaks occur only at the lowest frequency and may be related to the Sea Surface <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> (SST) over the El Niño region. The Siberian High is affected by the Hadley circulation cell; there is no detectable connection between the Walker circulation cell and the Siberian High. SSTs over the El Niño region may affect the Siberian High. Interactions between the Siberian High and the SSTs over the tropical Atlantic Ocean are absent. The SHI is positively correlated to surface air <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> over Saudi Arabia, and this is statistically significant in the western and north-western regions.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hasanean, H. M.; Almazroui, M.; Jones, P. D.; Alamoudi, A. A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">295</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013ClDy..tmp...17H"> <span id="translatedtitle">Siberian high <span class="hlt">variability</span> and its teleconnections with tropical circulations and surface air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> over Saudi Arabia</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Based on a generated time series for the central pressure of the Siberian High, and on defining a robust Siberian High Index (SHI), the behavior of this atmospheric center of action is examined from 1949 to 2010 with regard to inter-annual variations, persistence, trends, abrupt changes, spectral analysis and interactions. The interannual <span class="hlt">variability</span> in the central pressure of the Siberian High is considerable. The mean downward linear and non-linear trend over the entire period (1949-2010) is estimated and is found to be statistically significant at the 95 % confidence level. Low frequency variation and linearity within the SHI time series are found from the persistence analysis. Using spectral analysis, the center of action of the Siberian High is characterized by non-periodic behavior; the peaks occur only at the lowest frequency and may be related to the Sea Surface <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> (SST) over the El Niño region. The Siberian High is affected by the Hadley circulation cell; there is no detectable connection between the Walker circulation cell and the Siberian High. SSTs over the El Niño region may affect the Siberian High. Interactions between the Siberian High and the SSTs over the tropical Atlantic Ocean are absent. The SHI is positively correlated to surface air <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> over Saudi Arabia, and this is statistically significant in the western and north-western regions.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hasanean, H. M.; Almazroui, M.; Jones, P. D.; Alamoudi, A. A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">296</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1997JGR...102..929E"> <span id="translatedtitle">Tropical Atlantic sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> and its relation to El Niño-Southern Oscillation</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Past analyses of tropical Atlantic sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> have suggested a dipole behavior between the northern and southern tropics, across the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ). By analyzing an improved 43-year (1950-1992) record of SST [Smith et al, 1996] and other data derived from the Comprehensive Ocean-Atmosphere Data Set (COADS), it is shown that the regions north and south of the ITCZ are statistically independent of each other at the seasonal to interannual timescales dominating the data, confirming the conclusions of Houghton and Tourre [1992]. Some dipole behavior does develop weakly during the boreal spring season, when there is a tendency for SST anomaly west of Angola to be opposite of that in the tropical North Atlantic. It is further shown that tropical Atlantic SST <span class="hlt">variability</span> is correlated with Pacific El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) <span class="hlt">variability</span> in several regions. The major region affected is the North Atlantic area of NE trades west of 40°W along 10°N-20°N and extending into the Caribbean. There, about 50-80% of the anomalous SST <span class="hlt">variability</span> is associated with the Pacific ENSO, with Atlantic warmings occurring 4-5 months after the mature phases of Pacific warm events. An analysis of local surface flux fields derived from COADS data shows that the ENSO-related Atlantic warmings occur as a result of reductions in the surface NE trade wind speeds, which in turn reduce latent and sensible heat losses over the region in question, as well as cooling due to entrainment. This ENSO connection is best developed during the boreal spring following the most frequent season of maximum ENSO anomalies in the Pacific. A region of secondary covariability with ENSO occurs along the northern edge of the mean ITCZ position and appears to be associated with northward migrations of the ITCZ when the North Atlantic warmings occur. Although easterly winds are intensified in the western equatorial Atlantic in response to Pacific warm events, they do not produce strong local changes in SST. Contrary to expectations from studies based on equatorial dynamics, these teleconnected wind anomalies do not give rise to significant correlations of SST in the Gulf of Guinea with the Pacific ENSO. As the teleconnection sequence matures, strong SE trades at low southern latitudes follow the development of the North Atlantic SST anomaly and precede by several months the appearance of weak negative SST anomalies off Angola and stronger positive anomalies extending eastward from southern Brazil along 15°-30°S.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Enfield, David B.; Mayer, Dennis A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1997-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">297</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..1510208B"> <span id="translatedtitle">How does stratospheric <span class="hlt">variability</span> affect surface weather and climate?</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Changes to the stratosphere, due to both natural <span class="hlt">variability</span> and ozone depletion, have substantial effects on surface weather and climate, especially at middle to high latitudes. Despite clear evidence of these impacts, the primary dynamics of this phenomenon are not yet well understood. Here we show that the stratospheric meridional circulation forces the column of air above the Arctic downwards into the troposphere, acting like a mechanical plunger that controls the <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> thickness of the troposphere. This vertical motion directly affects <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> and the strength of jets in the mid- to upper troposphere. Raising and lowering of the Arctic tropopause layer leads to stretching and compression of the tropospheric column and a north-south dipole in surface pressure similar to the Northern Annular Mode.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Baldwin, Mark; Birner, Thomas</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">298</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011JGRD..116.8106F"> <span id="translatedtitle">Investigations of stratospheric <span class="hlt">temperature</span> regional <span class="hlt">variability</span> with lidar and Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Seasonal and interannual stratospheric <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> at two relatively close-by lidar stations, the Observatoire de Haute-Provence (France) and the Hohenpeissenberg Observatory (Germany), are investigated using lidars and the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU) satellite data to examine possible causes of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> trend discrepancies between these two sites. We first examined data measured by lidar and AMSU at each station and found that <span class="hlt">temperature</span> anomalies observed with lidar have larger spread than those with AMSU probably as a result of distinct vertical sampling. Lidar and AMSU measurements have correlation typically higher than 0.7; however, correlation is decreased to 0.4-0.5 in summer at the French station. Lidar measurements have good correlation between the two stations, around 0.9 in winter and 0.45 in summer, while AMSU data show correlations between both stations of about 0.94 year-round. Data from coincident measurement dates at both sites have then been taken from the integral series in order to isolate local geophysical effects. A comparison between lidar and AMSU measurements of coincident dates suggests that in wintertime measurement discrepancies are to a great extent a result of different local atmospheric dynamics. These are important on the estimation of stratospheric trends and can partially explain discrepancies observed in trends estimates based on lidars in distinct locations or on satellite data. The present results have implications on the planning of measurement strategies using lidars involved in the Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Changes (NDACC), as well as on methodologies for satellite data use for stratospheric monitoring purposes.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Funatsu, Beatriz M.; Claud, Chantal; Keckhut, Philippe; Steinbrecht, Wolfgang; Hauchecorne, Alain</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">299</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011GPC....76...95O"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Variability</span> in precipitation, <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and river runoff in W Central Asia during the past ~ 2000 yrs</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The tributary rivers Amu Darya and Syr Darya contribute major amounts of water to the hydrological budget of the endorheic Aral Sea. Processes controlling the flow of water into rivers in the headwater systems in Tien Shan (Kyrgyzstan) and Pamir (Tajikistan) are therefore most relevant. Lake water mineralization is strongly dependent on river discharge and has been inferred from spectrometrically determined gypsum and other salt contents. Comparison of high-resolution mineralization data with tree ring data, other proxies for tracing <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and snow cover in NW China, and accumulation rates in the Guliya Ice Core indicate that mineralization over the past ~ 2000 yrs in the Aral Sea reflects snow cover <span class="hlt">variability</span> and glacier extent in Tien Shan and Pamir (at the NW and W edges of the Tibetan Plateau). Snow cover in W Central Asia is preferentially a winter expression controlled by <span class="hlt">temperature</span> patterns that impact the moisture-loading capacity over N Europe and NW Asia (Clark et al., 1999). We observed that the runoff, resulting from warmer winter <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> in W Central Asia and resulting in a reduction of snow cover, decreased between AD 100-300, AD 1150-1250, AD 1380-1450, AD 1580-1680 and during several low frequency events after AD 1800. Furthermore, we observed a negative relationship between the amount of mineralization in the Aral Sea and SW summer monsoon intensity starting with the Little Ice Age. Based on these observations, we conclude that the lake level changes during the past ~ 2000 yrs were mostly climatically controlled. Around AD 200, AD 1400 and during the late 20th century AD, human activities (namely irrigation) may also have synergistically influenced discharge dynamics in the lower river courses.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Oberhänsli, Hedi; Novotná, Kate?ina; Píšková, Anna; Chabrillat, Sabine; Nourgaliev, Danis K.; Kurbaniyazov, Abilgazy K.; Matys Grygar, Tomáš</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">300</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012JGRD..11715111I"> <span id="translatedtitle">Dominant modes of Diurnal <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Range <span class="hlt">variability</span> over Europe and their relationships with large-scale atmospheric circulation and sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> anomaly patterns</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The relationships between the dominant modes of interannual <span class="hlt">variability</span> of Diurnal <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Range (DTR) over Europe and large-scale atmospheric circulation and sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> anomaly fields are investigated through statistical analysis of observed and reanalysis data. It is shown that the dominant DTR modes as well as their relationship with large-scale atmospheric circulation and sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> anomaly fields are specific for each season. During winter the first and second modes of interannual DTR <span class="hlt">variability</span> are strongly related with the North Atlantic Oscillation and the Scandinavian pattern, while the third mode is related with the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation. Strong influence of the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation and the Arctic Oscillation on spring DTR modes of <span class="hlt">variability</span> was also detected. During summer the DTR <span class="hlt">variability</span> is influenced mostly by a blocking-like pattern over Europe, while the autumn DTR <span class="hlt">variability</span> is associated with a wave train like pattern, which develops over the Atlantic Ocean and extends up to Siberia. It is also found that the response of DTR to global sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> is much weaker in spring and summer comparing to winter and autumn. A correlation analysis reveals a strong relationship between DTR modes of <span class="hlt">variability</span> and the Cloud Cover anomalies during all seasons. The influence of the potential evapotranspiration and precipitation anomalies on DTR modes of <span class="hlt">variability</span> is strongest during summer, but it is significant also in spring and autumn. It is suggested that a large part of interannual to decadal DTR <span class="hlt">variability</span> over Europe is induced by the large-scale climate anomaly patterns via modulation of cloud cover, precipitation and potential evapotranspiration anomaly fields.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ionita, M.; Lohmann, G.; Rimbu, N.; Scholz, P.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" 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showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">301</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15.7041I"> <span id="translatedtitle">Dominant modes of Diurnal <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Range <span class="hlt">variability</span> over Europe and their relationships with large-scale atmospheric circulation and sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> anomaly patterns</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The relationships between the dominant modes of interannual <span class="hlt">variability</span> of Diurnal <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Range (DTR) over Europe and large-scale atmospheric circulation and sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> anomaly fields are investigated through statistical analysis of observed and reanalysis data. It is shown that the dominant DTR modes as well as their relationship with large-scale atmospheric circulation and sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> anomaly fields are specific for each season. During winter the first and second modes of interannual DTR <span class="hlt">variability</span> are strongly related with the North Atlantic Oscillation and the Scandinavian pattern, while the third mode is related with the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation. Strong influence of the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation and the Arctic Oscillation on spring DTR modes of <span class="hlt">variability</span> was also detected. During summer the DTR <span class="hlt">variability</span> is influenced mostly by a blocking-like pattern over Europe, while the autumn DTR <span class="hlt">variability</span> is associated with a wave-train like pattern, which develops over the Atlantic Ocean and extends up to Siberia. It is also found that the response of DTR to global sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> is much weaker in spring and summer comparing to winter and autumn. A correlation analysis reveals a strong relationship between DTR modes of <span class="hlt">variability</span> and the Cloud Cover anomalies during all seasons. The influence of the potential evapotranspiration and precipitation anomalies on DTR modes of <span class="hlt">variability</span> is strongest during summer, but it is significant also in spring and autumn. It is suggested that a large part of interannual to decadal DTR <span class="hlt">variability</span> over Europe is induced by the large-scale climate anomaly patterns via modulation of cloud cover, precipitation and potential evapotranspiration anomaly fields.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ionita-Scholz, Monica; Lohmann, Gerrit; Rimbu, Norel; Scholz, Patrick</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">302</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFMPP31C1887A"> <span id="translatedtitle">Temporal <span class="hlt">Variability</span> of Precipitation and <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> across Heinrich Events from Bahamian Stalagmites</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">During the last glacial period there is substantial evidence for global <span class="hlt">variability</span> in climate dominated by Heinrich and Dansgaard-Oeschger events. Heinrich events have been shown to correlate with rapid climate change such as cooling in the North Atlantic, precipitation decrease in Africa and Asia and warming in Antarctica. While a comprehensive picture of climate patterns is emerging, the climate in the topical Atlantic is still not as well understood. In this study, a stalagmite from the Bahamas has been analyzed for carbon and oxygen isotopes and fluid inclusion isotopic analysis across Heinrich events 1-3. The combination of both methodologies allows for the determination of the temporal drip water isotopic <span class="hlt">variability</span> and in addition the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> at the time of formation. The stalagmites were dated using U/Th and analyzed for stable carbon and oxygen isotopes at a resolution of 20 ?m (approximately one sample every 2 years). Fluid inclusion analyses were conducted at a resolution of about 1.5 cm. Fluid inclusion analysis is the analysis of microscopic, water filled cavities within the stalagmite. These cavities preserve drip water at the time of formation and allow for the measurement of the ?18O composition of the formation water. In the subtropics, it has been demonstrated that higher volume rainfall events generally leads to a depleted ?18O and ?13C signal, whereas heavier ?18O and ?13C values are attributed to lower amounts of rainfall. The fluid inclusion data help constrain the origin of the large changes in the oxygen isotopic composition of the speleothem itself across the Heinrich events, which averages about 4 % for C and 2 % for O for Heinrich events 1-3. These results may support a rapid shift from an arid and colder to a much wetter and warmer climate in the Bahamas associated with Heinrich events.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Arienzo, M.; Swart, P. K.; Vonhof, H. B.; Broad, K.; Clement, A. C.; Eisenhauer, A.; Kakuk, B.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">303</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/60243866"> <span id="translatedtitle">Development of alternate silicone potting compounds. Volume 11. Influences of <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, material <span class="hlt">variables</span>, and composition <span class="hlt">variables</span> on the properties of substitute potting compounds</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">We evaluated the effect that Sylgard 184 and 186 and Dielectric Gel Q3-6527 have on the mechanical properties of cured Sylgard starting materials, cured APC2.5, and APC10 substitute potting compounds. We looked specifically at the influences of five <span class="hlt">variables</span> of 184, 186, and Q3-6527 on the 25°C mechanical properties, namely <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, platinum content of the accelerator, amount of accelerator used,</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Cady</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1983-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">304</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/98WR01572"> <span id="translatedtitle">Field study and simulation of diurnal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> effects on infiltration and <span class="hlt">variably</span> saturated flow beneath an ephemeral stream</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Two experiments were performed to investigate flow beneath an ephemeral stream and to estimate streambed infiltration rates. Discharge and stream-area measurements were used to determine infiltration rates. Stream and subsurface <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> were used to interpret subsurface flow through <span class="hlt">variably</span> saturated sediments beneath the stream. Spatial variations in subsurface <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> suggest that flow beneath the streambed is dependent on the orientation of the stream in the canyon and the layering of the sediments. Streamflow and infiltration rates vary diurnally: Stream flow is lowest in late afternoon when stream <span class="hlt">temperature</span> is greatest and highest in early morning when stream <span class="hlt">temperature</span> is least. The lower afternoon streamflow is attributed to increased infiltration rates; evapotranspiration is insufficient to account for the decreased streamflow. The increased infiltration rates are attributed to viscosity effects on hydraulic conductivity from increased stream <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. The first set of field data was used to calibrate a two-dimensional <span class="hlt">variably</span> saturated flow model that includes heat transport. The model was calibrated to (1) <span class="hlt">temperature</span> fluctuations in the subsurface and (2) infiltration rates determined from measured stream flow losses. The second set of field data was to evaluate the ability to predict infiltration rates on the basis of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> measurements alone. Results indicate that the <span class="hlt">variably</span> saturated subsurface flow depends on downcanyon layering of the sediments. They also support the field observations in indicating that diurnal changes in infiltration can be explained by <span class="hlt">temperature</span> dependence of hydraulic conductivity. Over the range of <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> and flows monitored, diurnal stream <span class="hlt">temperature</span> changes can be used to estimate streambed infiltration rates. It is often impractical to maintain equipment for determining infiltration rates by traditional means; however, once a model is calibrated using both infiltration and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> data, only relatively inexpensive <span class="hlt">temperature</span> monitoring can later yield infiltration rates that are within the correct order of magnitude.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ronan, A. D.; Prudic, D. E.; Thodal, C. E.; Constantz, J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1998-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">305</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1996MNRAS.278...11F"> <span id="translatedtitle">The pulsation, <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> and metallicities of Mira and semiregular <span class="hlt">variables</span> in different stellar systems</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Data on angular diameters and infrared photometry for late-type stars are assembled. It is shown that a consistent T_eff scale can be established, combining results for Mira and non-Mira M-type stars. The log T_eff versus (J-K) relation is much steeper than previously adopted, but is consistent with predictions from model stellar atmospheres. Comparison of the linear diameters of Miras measured in the red spectral region with those measured in the infrared shows that models successfully predict the extension observed in the red, and the combined data provide strong evidence that Miras are pulsating in their first overtone. Data on Miras and semiregular (SR) <span class="hlt">variables</span> in globular clusters are compared with predictions from stellar evolution and pulsation theory. These data also support a steep log T_eff versus (J-K) relation at low <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. The Miras and SR <span class="hlt">variables</span> in 47 Tuc conform to theoretical expectation if they are undergoing an average mass loss of ~3x10^-7 M_ yr^-1. SR <span class="hlt">variables</span> in both metal-rich and metal-poor globular clusters are probably pulsating, like the Miras in their first overtone. The general agreement between observations and theory now found suggests that infrared colour-period relations can be used to investigate overall metallicity differences between Miras in different stellar systems, at least at the shorter periods where circumstellar extinction is probably negligible. A comparison of Miras in Galactic globular clusters of known metallicity with those in the LMC and in the SgrI window of the Galactic Bulge indicates that Miras of periods 100 to 300d in the LMC have a mean metallicity log z~-0.6, whilst those in SgrI have log z~-0.2, close to that of K giants in the NGC 6522 Bulge window. No evidence has yet been found for a dependence of the Mira period-luminosity relation on metallicity, and it is pointed out that theory does not at present give a definitive prediction of such an effect. Some stars of special interest are discussed in an appendix.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Feast, M. W.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1996-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">306</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/45440674"> <span id="translatedtitle">Changes in the Interannual Surface Air <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> <span class="hlt">Variability</span> in the Northern Hemisphere in Response to Global Warming</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper examines long-term change in the interannual <span class="hlt">variability</span> in surface air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and its cause by using monthly data generated in climate change experiments (1851-2100) performed using two models. Regions north of 20°N are analyzed. Anomalies are defined as high-pass filtered values with a cutoff period of 30 years. Interannual <span class="hlt">variabilities</span> of anomalies are expressed as the root mean</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Daisaku SAKAI; Hisanori ITOH; Seiji YUKIMOTO</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">307</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/1836396"> <span id="translatedtitle">High-dynamic-range decibel-linear IF <span class="hlt">variable</span>-gain amplifier with <span class="hlt">temperature</span> compensation for WCDMA applications</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper presents the design and simulated performance of a novel intermediate-frequency <span class="hlt">variable</span>-gain amplifier for Wideband Code-Division Multiple Access transmitters. A compensation technique for parasitic coupling is proposed which allows the very high dynamic range of 85 dB to be attained using a single <span class="hlt">variable</span>-gain stage. <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> compensation and decibel-linear control are achieved by means of a proper bias network</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Francesco Carrara; Pietro Filoramo; Giovanni Palmisano</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">308</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.springerlink.com/index/y53ur61776n78258.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Processes of 30–90 days sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> in the northern Indian Ocean during boreal summer</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">During summer, the northern Indian Ocean exhibits significant atmospheric intraseasonal <span class="hlt">variability</span> associated with active\\u000a and break phases of the monsoon in the 30–90 days band. In this paper, we investigate mechanisms of the Sea Surface <span class="hlt">Temperature</span>\\u000a (SST) signature of this atmospheric <span class="hlt">variability</span>, using a combination of observational datasets and Ocean General Circulation\\u000a Model sensitivity experiments. In addition to the previously-reported intraseasonal</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">J. Vialard; A. Jayakumar; C. Gnanaseelan; M. Lengaigne; D. Sengupta; B. N. Goswami</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">309</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ir.lib.ncut.edu.tw/bitstream/987654321/1741/1/%e7%bf%81%e5%9c%8b%e4%ba%ae+j1.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Performance evaluation of an innovative fan-coil unit: Low-<span class="hlt">temperature</span> differential <span class="hlt">variable</span> air volume FCU</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">An innovative low <span class="hlt">temperature</span> differential <span class="hlt">variable</span> air volume fan-coil unit (LTD-VAV FCU) was developed to improve the defects of <span class="hlt">variable</span> air volume (VAV) and cold air distribution energy-saving technologies. A test bench and procedures according to its unique air supply features were established to investigate the energy-saving and IAQ improving potential experimentally.The experimental results of the prototype indicated the supply</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ming-Tsun Ke; Kuo-Liang Weng; Che-Ming Chiang</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">310</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFMPP11D1360S"> <span id="translatedtitle">Tropical North Atlantic Subsurface <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Change Linked to Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation <span class="hlt">Variability</span> During the Last Deglacial</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Water hosing experiments using coupled ocean-atmosphere models indicate that Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) <span class="hlt">variability</span> can have a major impact on abrupt tropical North Atlantic (TNA) climate change through both atmospheric and oceanic processes (Zhang, 2007; Chang et al., 2008; Chiang et al., 2008). While a slowdown of AMOC results in an atmospheric-induced surface cooling in the entire TNA, the subsurface experiences an even larger warming due to rapid reorganizations of ocean circulation patterns (Wan et al., 2009). In addition, observed records of detrended 20th century ocean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and salinity <span class="hlt">variability</span> show a strong anticorrelation between surface cooling and subsurface warming in the TNA over the past several decades, suggesting changing vertical <span class="hlt">temperature</span> gradients in this region may be a distinct fingerprint of AMOC <span class="hlt">variability</span> (Zhang 2007). In order to test the hypothesis that surface and subsurface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> change in the TNA are sensitive indicators of AMOC <span class="hlt">variability</span> over the last deglacial, we reconstructed Mg/Ca-<span class="hlt">temperature</span> and ?18O records from surface (G. ruber) and deeper thermocline dwelling (G. truncatulinoides, 200 - 500 m depth habitat) planktonic foraminifera from southern Caribbean Sea core VM12-107 (11.33oN, 66.63oW; 1079 m; 15 cm/kyr sedimentation rate). As a result, we present the first deglacial subsurface Mg/Ca-<span class="hlt">temperature</span> record for this region. Results show that glacial sea surface <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> (SST) were 4oC cooler than those in the late Holocene. SSTs during the deglacial show little or no SST rise (1oC) during Heinrich Event 1 (H1), and a 2oC SST decrease during the Younger Dryas (YD). In contrast, last glacial maximum subsurface <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> were 2oC warmer than Late Holocene values of 12 - 13oC and periods of reduced AMOC are marked by abrupt subsurface warming events. Subsurface <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> increased by almost 3oC during H1 and the YD, warming to as much as 16.5oC. Furthermore, a comparison of our subsurface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> record with the Bermuda Rise 231Pa/230Th proxy record of AMOC <span class="hlt">variability</span> (McManus et al., 2004) indicates a strong correlation between periods of reduced AMOC and subsurface warming in the TNA. Because the subsurface warming is thought to be directly tied to large-scale changes in ocean circulation, our initial results suggest that western TNA subsurface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> change may be a sensitive indicator of AMOC <span class="hlt">variability</span> that has the potential to assess AMOC <span class="hlt">variability</span> in the future.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Schmidt, M. W.; Chang, P.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">311</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008ThApC..92...31K"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> over the Indian Ocean and its relationship with Indian summer monsoon rainfall</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The present study examines the long term trend in sea surface <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> (SSTs) of the Arabian Sea, Bay of Bengal and Equatorial South India Ocean in the context of global warming for the period 1901 2002 and for a subset period 1971 2002. An attempt has also been made to identify the relationship between SST variations over three different ocean areas, and All-India and homogeneous region summer monsoon rainfall <span class="hlt">variability</span>, including the role of El-Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO). Annual sea surface <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> of the Arabian Sea, Bay of Bengal and Equatorial South India Ocean show a significant warming trend of 0.7 °C, 0.6 °C and 0.5 °C per hundred years, respectively, and a relatively accelerated warming of 0.16 °C, 0.14 °C and 0.14 °C per decade during the 1971 2002 period. There is a positive and statistically significant relationship between SSTs over the Arabian Sea from the preceding November to the current February, and Indian monsoon rainfall during the period 1901 2002. The correlation coefficient increases from October and peaks in December, decreasing from February to September. This significant relationship is also found in the recent period 1971 2002, whereas, during 1901 70, the relationship is not significant. On the seasonal scale, Arabian Sea winter SSTs are positively and significantly correlated with Indian monsoon rainfall, while spring SSTs have no significant positive relationship. Nino3 spring SSTs have a negative significant relationship with Indian monsoon rainfall and it is postulated that there is a combined effect of Nino3 and Arabian Sea SSTs on Indian monsoon. If the Nino3 SST effect is removed, the spring SSTs over the Arabian Sea also have a significant relationship with monsoon rainfall. Similarly, the Bay of Bengal and Equatorial South Indian Ocean spring SSTs are significantly and positively correlated with Indian monsoon rainfall after removing the Nino3 effect, and correlation values are more pronounced than for the Arabian Sea.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kothawale, D. R.; Munot, A. A.; Borgaonkar, H. P.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">312</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011GeoRL..3817602H"> <span id="translatedtitle">Mechanisms controlling mixed-layer <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> in the eastern tropical Pacific on the intraseasonal timescale</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Madden Julian Oscillation (MJO) is a prominent mode of intraseasonal (˜35-95 day) <span class="hlt">variability</span> in the tropical Indian and western Pacific Oceans. Its impacts on ocean mixed-layer <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> (MLT) in the eastern tropical Pacific Ocean (ETPO) are not well-understood. A previous study of mooring data at (110°W, EQ) implies vertical advection forced by MJO-generated Kelvin waves is important to ETPO intraseasonal MLT; another, based on model output over (120-100°W, 3°S-3°N), indicates meridional advection dominates. We analyze an ocean state estimate at (110°W, EQ) and find combined subsurface processes, including a notable vertical advection component like that expected from MJO-forced Kelvin waves, dominate. However, when averaged over (120-100°W, 3°S-3°N), subsurface processes and horizontal advection are both important, and effects of thermocline forcing (e.g., Kelvin waves) are small compared to those by local wind driven mixing and horizontal advection. The results highlight the importance of understanding regional physics on different spatial scales.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Halkides, D. J.; Lucas, Lisanne E.; Waliser, Duane E.; Lee, Tong; Murtugudde, Raghu</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">313</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012ClDy...38..877C"> <span id="translatedtitle">Can oceanic reanalyses be used to assess recent anthropogenic changes and low-frequency internal <span class="hlt">variability</span> of upper ocean <span class="hlt">temperature</span>?</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A multivariate analysis of the upper ocean thermal structure is used to examine the recent long-term changes and decadal <span class="hlt">variability</span> in the upper ocean heat content as represented by model-based ocean reanalyses and a model-independent objective analysis. The three <span class="hlt">variables</span> used are the mean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> above the 14°C isotherm, its depth and a fixed depth mean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (250 m mean <span class="hlt">temperature</span>). The mean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> above the 14°C isotherm is a convenient, albeit simple, way to isolate thermodynamical changes by filtering out dynamical changes related to thermocline vertical displacements. The global upper ocean observations and reanalyses exhibit very similar warming trends (0.045°C per decade) over the period 1965-2005, superimposed with marked decadal <span class="hlt">variability</span> in the 1970s and 1980s. The spatial patterns of the regression between indices (representative of anthropogenic changes and known modes of internal decadal <span class="hlt">variability</span>), and the three <span class="hlt">variables</span> associated with the ocean heat content are used as fingerprint to separate out the different contributions. The choice of <span class="hlt">variables</span> provides information about the local heat absorption, vertical distribution and horizontal redistribution of heat, this latter being suggestive of changes in ocean circulation. The discrepancy between the objective analysis and the reanalyses, as well as the spread among the different reanalyses, are used as a simple estimate of ocean state uncertainties. Two robust findings result from this analysis: (1) the signature of anthropogenic changes is qualitatively different from those of the internal decadal <span class="hlt">variability</span> associated to the Pacific Interdecadal Oscillation and the Atlantic Meridional Oscillation, and (2) the anthropogenic changes in ocean heat content do not only consist of local heat absorption, but are likely related with changes in the ocean circulation, with a clear shallowing of the tropical thermocline in the Pacific and Indian oceans.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Corre, L.; Terray, L.; Balmaseda, M.; Ribes, A.; Weaver, A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">314</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.atmos.albany.edu/facstaff/mathias/pubs/Vuille_et_al_2000b.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Climate <span class="hlt">Variability</span> in the Andes of Ecuador and Its Relation to Tropical Pacific and Atlantic Sea Surface <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Anomalies</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The main spatiotemporal modes of seasonal precipitation and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> in the Andes of Ecuador (1°N-4°S) and their relation to tropical Pacific and Atlantic sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> anomalies (SSTAs) between 1963-92 are identified based on rotated principal component analysis and cross-correlation techniques. Outgoing longwave radiation composites are analyzed during periods of strong oceanic forcing to confirm the proposed physical mechanisms.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Mathias Vuille; Raymond S. Bradley; Frank Keimig</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2000-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">315</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/19868789"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Variable-temperature</span> characterization of NbTi strands in the low critical-current density range</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">A facility for the characterization of superconducting strands at <span class="hlt">variable</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> has been recently upgraded at ENEA. Measurement of transport properties of superconducting strands can be now carried out in the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> range from 3.5 K to 15 K, with stability less than 10 mK, and in magnetic fields up to 12.5 T, covering a range of critical currents between</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">L Affinito; S Chiarelli; V Corato; A della Corte; G De Marzi; A Di Zenobio; C Fiamozzi Zignani; G Messina; L Muzzi; M Napolitano; S Turtù</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">316</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/54715648"> <span id="translatedtitle">Observed and model simulated 20th century Arctic <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span>: Canadian Earth System Model CanESM2</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">We present simulations of the 20th century Arctic <span class="hlt">temperature</span> anomaly from the second generation Canadian Earth System Model (CanESM2). The new model couples together an atmosphere-ocean general circulation model, a land-vegetation model and terrestrial and oceanic interactive carbon cycle. It simulates well the observed 20th century Arctic <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> that includes the early and late 20th century warming periods and</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">P. Chylek; J. Li; M. K. Dubey; M. Wang; G. Lesins</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">317</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/55457227"> <span id="translatedtitle">Long-Term Extra-tropical Land <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> <span class="hlt">Variability</span> and Its Association with Solar and Volcanic Forcing</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">It has long been hypothesized that a significant fraction of observed Northern Hemisphere (NH) <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> at multi-decadal to centennial time scales can be attributed to variations in solar activity. This argument has been supported by some modeling experiments that used long-term changes in solar irradiance, explosive volcanism, and anthropogenic trace gases to model <span class="hlt">temperature</span> changes over the past 1,000</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">E. R. Cook</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">318</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=139446"> <span id="translatedtitle">COOL-SEASON GRASS DEVELOPMENT RESPONSE TO ACCUMULATED <span class="hlt">TEMPERATURE</span> FOLLOWING <span class="hlt">VARIABLE</span> EXPOSURE TO BELOW-FREEZING <span class="hlt">TEMPERATURES</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/TekTran.htm">Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In several temperate grass species there is a linear relation between cumulative leaf appearance and accumulated <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, or growing day degrees (GDD), above 0 °C. It is not known if this response is changed by short-term exposure to <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> below freezing. Mainstem leaf appearance rate wa...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">319</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013IJAEO..20....4V"> <span id="translatedtitle">Spatio-temporal <span class="hlt">variability</span> in remotely sensed land surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, and its relationship with physiographic <span class="hlt">variables</span> in the Russian Altay Mountains</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Spatio-temporal <span class="hlt">variability</span> in energy fluxes at the earth's surface implies spatial and temporal changes in observed land surface <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> (LST). These fluxes are largely determined by variation in meteorological conditions, surface cover and soil characteristics. Consequently, a change in these parameters will be reflected in a different temporal LST behavior which can be observed by remotely sensed time series. Therefore, the objective of this paper is to perform a quantitative analysis on the parameters that determine this <span class="hlt">variability</span> in LST to estimate the impact of changes in these parameters on the surface thermal regime. This study was conducted in the Russian Altay Mountains, an area characterized by strong gradients in meteorological conditions and surface cover. Spatio-temporal <span class="hlt">variability</span> in LST was assessed by applying the fast Fourier transform (FFT) on 8 year of MODIS Aqua LST time series, herein considering both day and nighttime series as well as the diurnal difference. This FFT method was chosen as it allows to discriminate significant periodics, and as such enables distinction between short-term weather components, and strong, climate related, periodic patterns. A quantitative analysis was based on multiple linear regression models between the calculated, significant Fourier components (i.e. the annual and average component) and five physiographic <span class="hlt">variables</span> representing the regional <span class="hlt">variability</span> in meteorological conditions and surface cover. Physiographic predictors were elevation, potential solar insolation, topographic convergence, vegetation cover and snow cover duration. Results illustrated the strong inverse relationship between averaged daytime and diurnal difference LST and snow duration, with a Radj2 of 0.85 and 0.60, respectively. On the other hand, nocturnal LST showed a strong connection with elevation and the amount of vegetation cover. Amplitudes of the annual harmonic experienced both for daytime and for nighttime LST similar trends with the set of physiographic <span class="hlt">variables</span> - with stronger relationships at night. As such, topographic convergence was found to be the principal single predictor which demonstrated the importance of severe <span class="hlt">temperature</span> inversions in the region. Furthermore, limited contribution of the physiographic predictors to the observed variation in the annual signal of the diurnal difference was retrieved, although a significant phase divergence was noticed between the majority of the study region and the perennial snowfields. Hence, this study gives valuable insights into the complexity of the spatio-temporal <span class="hlt">variability</span> in LST, which can be used in future studies to estimate the ecosystems' response on changing climatic conditions.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Van De Kerchove, R.; Lhermitte, S.; Veraverbeke, S.; Goossens, R.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">320</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012DSRII..65..208B"> <span id="translatedtitle">Do walleye pollock exhibit flexibility in where or when they spawn based on <span class="hlt">variability</span> in water <span class="hlt">temperature</span>?</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Environmental <span class="hlt">variability</span> is increasingly recognized as a primary determinant of year-class strength of marine fishes by directly or indirectly influencing egg and larval development, growth, and survival. Here we examined the role of annual water <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> in determining when and where walleye pollock (Theragra chalcogramma) spawn in the eastern Bering Sea. Walleye pollock spawning was examined using both long-term ichthyoplankton data (N=19 years), as well as with historical spatially explicit, foreign-reported, commercial catch data occurring during the primary walleye pollock spawning season (February-May) each year (N=22 years in total). We constructed <span class="hlt">variable</span>-coefficient generalized additive models (GAMs) to relate the spatially explicit egg or adult catch-per-unit-effort (CPUE) to predictor <span class="hlt">variables</span> including spawning stock biomass, season, position, and water <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. The adjusted R2 value was 63.1% for the egg CPUE model and 35.5% for the adult CPUE model. Both egg and adult GAMs suggest that spawning progresses seasonally from Bogoslof Island in February and March to Outer Domain waters between the Pribilof and Unimak Islands by May. Most importantly, walleye pollock egg and adult CPUE was predicted to generally increase throughout the study area as mean annual water <span class="hlt">temperature</span> increased. These results suggest low interannual <span class="hlt">variability</span> in the spatial and temporal dynamics of walleye pollock spawning regardless of changes in environmental conditions, at least at the spatial scale examined in this study and within the time frame of decades.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bacheler, Nathan M.; Ciannelli, Lorenzo; Bailey, Kevin M.; Bartolino, Valerio</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#" title="Previous 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href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">321</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012DSR....65..208B"> <span id="translatedtitle">Do walleye pollock exhibit flexibility in where or when they spawn based on <span class="hlt">variability</span> in water <span class="hlt">temperature</span>?</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Environmental <span class="hlt">variability</span> is increasingly recognized as a primary determinant of year-class strength of marine fishes by directly or indirectly influencing egg and larval development, growth, and survival. Here we examined the role of annual water <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> in determining when and where walleye pollock (Theragra chalcogramma) spawn in the eastern Bering Sea. Walleye pollock spawning was examined using both long-term ichthyoplankton data (N=19 years), as well as with historical spatially explicit, foreign-reported, commercial catch data occurring during the primary walleye pollock spawning season (February-May) each year (N=22 years in total). We constructed <span class="hlt">variable</span>-coefficient generalized additive models (GAMs) to relate the spatially explicit egg or adult catch-per-unit-effort (CPUE) to predictor <span class="hlt">variables</span> including spawning stock biomass, season, position, and water <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. The adjusted R2 value was 63.1% for the egg CPUE model and 35.5% for the adult CPUE model.Both egg and adult GAMs suggest that spawning progresses seasonally from Bogoslof Island in February and March to Outer Domain waters between the Pribilof and Unimak Islands by May. Most importantly, walleye pollock egg and adult CPUE was predicted to generally increase throughout the study area as mean annual water <span class="hlt">temperature</span> increased. These results suggest low interannual <span class="hlt">variability</span> in the spatial and temporal dynamics of walleye pollock spawning regardless of changes in environmental conditions, at least at the spatial scale examined in this study and within the time frame of decades.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bacheler, Nathan M.; Ciannelli, Lorenzo; Bailey, Kevin M.; Bartolino, Valerio</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">322</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/39781639"> <span id="translatedtitle">Observational evidence of interannual to decadal-scale <span class="hlt">variability</span> of the subsurface <span class="hlt">temperature</span>-salinity structure of the world ocean</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">We present a brief summary of some results describing interannual to decade scale <span class="hlt">variability</span> of ocean parameters, focusing on subsurface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and salinity. We focus attention on the North Atlantic, where it is very clear that a major redistribution of heat and salt has been occurring since 1960, from the sea surface to at least 3000 m depth. We then</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sydney Levitus; John Antonov</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1995-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">323</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/42527526"> <span id="translatedtitle">Seasonal and interannual <span class="hlt">variability</span> of oceanographic processes in the Gulf of Guinea: An investigation using AVHRR sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> data</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Gulf of Guinea is situated in a critical position for understanding Atlantic equatorial dynamics. This study investigates seasonal and interannual <span class="hlt">variability</span> in sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (SST) throughout this region, focusing on dynamical ocean processes. A 10.5-year time series of remotely sensed SST data with 4 km spatial resolution from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) were used for</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">N. J. Hardman-Mountford; J. M. McGlade</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">324</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=ADA423291"> <span id="translatedtitle">Temporal and Spatial <span class="hlt">Variability</span> of Satellite Sea Surface <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> and Ocean Colour in the Japan/East Sea.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Temporal and spatial <span class="hlt">variability</span> of Sea Surface <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> (SST) and ocean color in the Japan/East Sea (JES) are examined during winter and spring using satellite data from Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) and Sea-viewing Wide Field of vi...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">R. W. Gould R. A. Arnone</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">325</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.cefe.cnrs.fr/fe/pdf/joffre/a51_reichstein_gbc2003.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Modeling temporal and large-scale spatial <span class="hlt">variability</span> of soil respiration from soil water availability, <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and vegetation productivity indices</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Field-chamber measurements of soil respiration from 17 different forest and shrubland sites in Europe and North America were summarized and analyzed with the goal to develop a model describing seasonal, interannual and spatial <span class="hlt">variability</span> of soil respiration as affected by water availability, <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, and site properties. The analysis was performed at a daily and at a monthly time step. With</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Markus Reichstein; Ana Rey; Annette Freibauer; John Tenhunen; Riccardo Valentini; Joao Banza; Pere Casals; Yufu Cheng; Jose M. Grünzweig; James Irvine; Richard Joffre; Beverly E. Law; Denis Loustau; Franco Miglietta; Walter Oechel; Jean-Marc Ourcival; Joao S. Pereira; Alessandro Peressotti; Francesca Ponti; Ye Qi; Serge Rambal; Mark Rayment; Joan Romanya; Federica Rossi; Vanessa Tedeschi; Giampiero Tirone; Ming Xu; Dan Yakir</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">326</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=xrays&id=EJ770215"> <span id="translatedtitle">Using <span class="hlt">Variable</span> <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Powder X-Ray Diffraction to Determine the Thermal Expansion Coefficient of Solid MgO</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">|A laboratory exercise was developed by using <span class="hlt">variable</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) to determine [alpha] for MgO (periclase)and was tested in the Applied Physical Chemistry and Materials Characterization Laboratories at James Madison University. The experiment which was originally designed to provide undergraduate students with a…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Corsepius, Nicholas C.; DeVore, Thomas C.; Reisner, Barbara A.; Warnaar, Deborah L.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">327</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.agu.org/journals/pa/pa0704/2007PA001502/2007PA001502.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">A 28-ka history of sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, primary productivity and planktonic community <span class="hlt">variability</span> in the western Arabian Sea</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Uranium series radionuclides and organic biomarkers, which represent major groups of planktonic organisms, were measured in western Arabian Sea sediments that span the past 28 ka. <span class="hlt">Variability</span> in the past strength of the southwest and northeast monsoons and its influence on primary productivity, sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (SST), and planktonic community structure were investigated. The average alkenone-derived SST for the last</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ali Pourmand; Franco Marcantonio; Thomas S. Bianchi; Elizabeth A. Canuel; Elizabeth J. Waterson</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">328</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/53098675"> <span id="translatedtitle">Modelling temporal and large-scale spatial <span class="hlt">variability</span> of soil respiration from soil water availability, <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and vegetation productivity indices</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Field-chamber measurements of soil respiration from 17 different forest and shrubland sites in Europe and North America were summarized and analyzed with the goal to develop a model describing seasonal, inter-annual and spatial <span class="hlt">variability</span> of soil respiration as affected by water availability, <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and site properties. The analysis was performed at a daily and at a monthly time step. With</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">M. Reichstein; A. Rey; A. Freibauer; J. Tenhunen; R. Valentini</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">329</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/41996995"> <span id="translatedtitle">Climatic controls on interannual <span class="hlt">variability</span> of precipitation delta18O: Simulated influence of <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, precipitation amount, and vapor source region</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">We use an atmospheric GCM that incorporates stable isotopes and regional vapor source tracers in the hydrologic cycle to explore the relationship between interannual <span class="hlt">variability</span> in climate and precipitation delta18O globally. On the basis of a 12-year simulation forced by observed sea surface <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> (SSTs), we identify changes in the amount of precipitation and in the contributions of local and</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Julia E. Cole; David Rind; Robert S. Webb; Jean Jouzel; Richard Healy</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1999-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">330</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3427576"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Variability</span> in solar radiation and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> explains observed patterns and trends in tree growth rates across four tropical forests</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The response of tropical forests to global climate <span class="hlt">variability</span> and change remains poorly understood. Results from long-term studies of permanent forest plots have reported different, and in some cases opposing trends in tropical forest dynamics. In this study, we examined changes in tree growth rates at four long-term permanent tropical forest research plots in relation to variation in solar radiation, <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and precipitation. Temporal variation in the stand-level growth rates measured at five-year intervals was found to be positively correlated with variation in incoming solar radiation and negatively related to temporal variation in night-time <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. Taken alone, neither solar radiation <span class="hlt">variability</span> nor the effects of night-time <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> can account for the observed temporal variation in tree growth rates across sites, but when considered together, these two climate <span class="hlt">variables</span> account for most of the observed temporal <span class="hlt">variability</span> in tree growth rates. Further analysis indicates that the stand-level response is primarily driven by the responses of smaller-sized trees (less than 20 cm in diameter). The combined <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and radiation responses identified in this study provide a potential explanation for the conflicting patterns in tree growth rates found in previous studies.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Dong, Shirley Xiaobi; Davies, Stuart J.; Ashton, Peter S.; Bunyavejchewin, Sarayudh; Supardi, M. N. Nur; Kassim, Abd Rahman; Tan, Sylvester; Moorcroft, Paul R.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">331</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.mad.zmaw.de/fileadmin/extern/Publications/HoloceneClimate.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Holocene climate <span class="hlt">variability</span> as derived from alkenone sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and coupled ocean-atmosphere model experiments</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Holocene climate modes are identified by the statistical analysis of reconstructed sea surface <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> (SSTs) from the tropical and North Atlantic regions. The leading mode of Holocene SST <span class="hlt">variability</span> in the tropical region indicates a rapid warming from the early to mid Holocene followed by a relatively weak warming during the late Holocene. The dominant mode of the North Atlantic</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">N. Rimbu; G. Lohmann; S. J. Lorenz; J. H. Kim; R. R. Schneider</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">332</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007Ocgy...47..758T"> <span id="translatedtitle">On the possibility of forecasting the long-term air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> that determines the hydrophysical structure and ecology of the Black Sea waters</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Periods and amplitudes of long-term <span class="hlt">temperature</span> fluctuations were obtained using the methods of spectral analysis and filtration of secular time series of the air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> at 13 hydrometeorological stations in the Black Sea region. The prognostic calculations of the long-term air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> are based on the results of processing of time series. The calculations of the air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> agree with the data of observations. The possibility of the long-term air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> prediction is shown.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Titov, V. B.; Savin, M. T.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">333</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFMGC23B0953P"> <span id="translatedtitle">Space-time decomposition of global Sea Surface <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> using Multichannel Empirical Orthogonal Teleconnection analysis</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">With earth observation data, one of the primary concerns is the discovery of recurrent patterns over time. For example, the ENSO phenomenon is a major climatological pattern of global significance. As a spatial/two-dimensional extension of Singular Spectrum Analysis (SSA), Multichannel Singular Spectrum Analysis (MSSA) seeks to uncover the temporal evolution of recurrent space-time patterns within a specified time frame (known as the embedding dimension) by a method of spectral decomposition equivalent to Extended Principal Components Analysis. However, it suffers from the same limitations as PCA with regard to the propensity to develop components that are mixtures of multiple dominant patterns. In this paper we introduce a novel procedure we call Multichannel Empirical Orthogonal Teleconnection (MEOT) analysis as a simple extension of the logic of Empirical Orthogonal Teleconnections (EOT). A global sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> dataset spanning the 1982-2007 time period is utilized to explore the similarities and differences between MSSA and MEOT. The techniques are applied with a 13 month embedding dimension to extract spatio-temporal patterns that exhibit clear basis vectors in quadrature. Findings indicate that MEOT is capable of detecting more patterns in quadrature than MSSA. MEOT identifies three climate events as quadratures corresponding to the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO), the Atlantic Meridional Mode (AMM) and the Atlantic Niño/ Tropical Southern Atlantic (TSA) mode. All of these climate events have phase change within a year. MSSA in contrast, only identified the ENSO event. Moreover, since MEOT does not suffer from a bi-orthogonality constraint, it is capable of extracting fewer mixed modes of <span class="hlt">variability</span> than MSSA. Thus, results suggest a better identification and representation of individual climate events by the MEOT method.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Parmentier, B.; Neeti, N.; Eastman, R.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">334</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/79387"> <span id="translatedtitle">Decadal <span class="hlt">variability</span> of the tropical Atlantic Ocean surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in shipboard measurements and in a Global Ocean-atmosphere model</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Numerous analyses of relatively short (25-30 years in length) time series of the observed surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of the tropical Atlantic Ocean have indicated the possible existence of decadal timescale <span class="hlt">variability</span>. It was decided to search for such <span class="hlt">variability</span> in 100-yr time series of sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (SST) measured aboard ships and available in the recently published Global Ocean Surface <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Atlas (GOSTA). Fourier and singular spectrum analyses of the GOSTA SST time series averaged over 11 subregions, each approximately 1 x 10{sup 6}km{sup 2} in area, show that pronounced quasi-oscillatory decadal ({approximately}-20 yr) and multidecadal ({approximately}30-40 yr) timescale <span class="hlt">variability</span> exists in the GOSTA dataset over the tropical Atlantic. Motivated by the above results, SST <span class="hlt">variability</span> was investigated in a 200-yr integration of a global model of the coupled oceanic and atmospheric general circulations developed at the geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL). The second 100 yr of SST in the coupled model`s tropical Atlantic region were analyzed with a variety of techniques. Analyses of SST time series, averaged over approximately the same subregions as the GOSTA time series, showed that the GFDL SST anomalies also undergo pronounced quasi-oscillatory decadal and multidecadal <span class="hlt">variability</span> but at somewhat shorter timescales than the GOSTA SST anomalies. Further analyses of the horizontal structures of the decadal timescale <span class="hlt">variability</span> in the GFDL coupled model showed the existence of two types of <span class="hlt">variability</span> in general agreement with results of the GOSTA SST time series analyses. One type, characterized by timescales between 8 and 11 yr, has high spatial coherence within each hemisphere but not between the two hemispheres of the tropical Atlantic. A second type, characterized by timescales between 12 and 20 yr, has high spatial coherence between the two hemispheres. 31 refs., 14 figs., 3 tabs.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Mehta, V.M. [Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (United States); Delworth, T. [Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ (United States)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1995-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">335</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/54311022"> <span id="translatedtitle">Seasonal <span class="hlt">Variability</span> in OH Mesospheric <span class="hlt">Temperatures</span> at Low-Latitudes and Comparison with Timed-Saber <span class="hlt">Temperatures</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Utah State University Mesospheric <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Mapper (MTM) is a high performance, solid state imaging system capable of determining variations in the rotational <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> of two upper mesospheric near infrared nightglow emissions: the OH (6,2) Meinel band (peak altitude 87 km) and the O2(0,1) Atmospheric band emission (peak altitude 94 km), with a precision of typically 1-2K in 3 min.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Michael J. Taylor; Yucheng Zhao; J. M. Russell III</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">336</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002JApMe..41..588J"> <span id="translatedtitle">Observation-Time-Dependent Biases and Departures for Daily Minimum and Maximum Air <span class="hlt">Temperatures</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Non-calendar-day observations of 24-h minimum and maximum air <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> can be considerably different from calendar-day or midnight observations. This paper examines the influence of time-of-observation on 24-h <span class="hlt">temperature</span> observations. Diurnal minimum and maximum <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> measured at common observation times (0700 and 1700 LST) are compared with minimum and maximum <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> measured at midnight. The principal methods make use of hourly <span class="hlt">temperature</span> observations, sampled over 24-h moving windows, to approximate once-daily observations. Surprisingly, non-calendar-day observations are similar to calendar-day observations on a majority of days. When differences do occur, however, they can be large and of either sign. Differences between 1700 LST observations and midnight observations are typically smaller than those arising from 0700 LST observations. Daily differences can be grouped by <span class="hlt">temperature</span> extrema recorded on the incorrect day (a bookkeeping problem) or <span class="hlt">temperature</span> extrema recorded on two successive days (bias). Bias scenarios arise when very cold mornings or very warm afternoons influence the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> measured on successive days. Locations or seasons with the least <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> often display the least time-of-daily-observation influence on <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. Determining those days on which large departures and biases are likely to occur is possible by measuring <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> persistence. First-order differences of daily time series may be used explicitly in adjustment procedures for morning observations of maximum <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. Otherwise, first-order differences may be used to determine those days on which large observation-time differences are likely or those days on which observation-time dependencies are trivial.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Janis, Michael J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">337</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFMPP23C1425W"> <span id="translatedtitle">Early Holocene Centennial-Scale Sea Surface <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> and Salinity <span class="hlt">Variability</span> in the Florida Straits</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Paleoproxy data and modeling studies suggest that Early Holocene (10.5 - 7 kyr BP) climate in the western tropical North Atlantic (TNA) was warmer and wetter than today. Perihelion occurred during boreal summer, resulting in an amplified Early Holocene seasonal cycle and a reorganization of the tropical climate system (Oppo et al., 2007). Trace metal records from the Cariaco Basin (Haug et al., 2001) and ostracod ?18O records from Haiti (Hodell, 1991) suggest a northward shift in the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) resulted in decreased evaporation-precipitation values in the western TNA. In addition, the final drainage of large pro-glacial lakes into the North Atlantic at 8.2 kyr BP is thought to have resulted in a meltwater-induced reduction in Atlantic meridional overturning circulation that caused widespread cooling in the circum-Atlantic region (Barber et al., 1999; Clarke et al., 2004; Ellison et al., 2006). In order to reconstruct centennial-scale records of Early Holocene sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (SST) and salinity (SSS) <span class="hlt">variability</span> in the Florida Straits, we will measure ?18O values as well as Mg/Ca and Ba/Ca ratios in the planktonic foraminifera Globigerinoides ruber from two sediment cores recovered from the Florida Straits: KNR166-2 JPC-51 (24°24.70’N, 83°13.14’W, 198 m; ~60-100 cm/kyr sedimentation rate) and KNR166-2 GGC-7 (24°21.50’N, 83°20.90’N, 535 m; ~55 cm/kyr sedimentation rate). SSTs are calculated from Mg/Ca ratios based on a published sediment trap calibration (Anand et al., 2003). Initial measurements of Mg/Ca ratios suggest centennial-scale SST oscillations during the Early Holocene. Calculated SSTs vary from 26.3 to 29.8°C and are within the range of modern seasonal <span class="hlt">variability</span> for our core locations (25-30°C). Calculated Mg/Ca-SSTs will be combined with G. ruber ?18O values to calculate past ?18Oseawater values (a proxy for SSS) using a laboratory calibrated relationship (Bemis et al., 1998). In addition, Ba/Ca ratios in foraminifera can be used as a qualitative proxy for salinity change resulting riverine input (Weldeab et al., 2007). Laboratory experiments show that Ba+2 incorporation into living planktonic foraminifera shells is linear, dependent primarily on the [Ba+2] of the water in which the shell grows (Lea and Spero, 1994). Riverine water contains much higher concentrations of [Ba+2] relative to seawater. Furthermore, dissolved barium concentrations exhibit a conservative mixing with seawater, resulting in a linear inverse correlation between salinity and [Ba+2] (Coffey et al., 1997; Edmond et al., 1978; Hanor and Chan, 1977). The resulting Ba/Ca can then be used to identify periods of intensified riverine input into the Gulf of Mexico. Finally, we will compare our Florida Straits ?18Oseawater and Ba/Ca-SSS reconstructions with the previously published centennial-scale record of Early Holocene hydrologic change from the northern Gulf of Mexico’s Orca Basin (LoDico et al., 2006).</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Weinlein, W. A.; Schmidt, M. W.; Lynch-Stieglitz, J. M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">338</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1991CMT.....3...79T"> <span id="translatedtitle">Deformation behaviour of TiNi shape memory alloy subjected to <span class="hlt">variable</span> stress and <span class="hlt">temperature</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Experiments with cyclic loading-unloading and experiments with heatingcooling under constant stress of TiNi shape memory alloys were carried out. This paper shows that, during the thermomechanical cycles, the transformation stresses of the martensitic transformation and the reverse transformation decrease, but the transformation <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> increase. The cyclic recovery strain is represented by a relation between the heating <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, the cooling <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, the transformation lines in the stress-<span class="hlt">temperature</span> plane and the transformation strain.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Tobushi, H.; Iwanaga, H.; Tanaka, K.; Hori, T.; Sawada, T.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1991-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">339</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012E%26PSL.331..187G"> <span id="translatedtitle">Mid- to late Holocene changes in tropical Atlantic <span class="hlt">temperature</span> seasonality and interannual to multidecadal <span class="hlt">variability</span> documented in southern Caribbean corals</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Proxy reconstructions of tropical Atlantic sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (SST) that extend beyond the period of instrumental observations have primarily focused on centennial to millennial <span class="hlt">variability</span> rather than on seasonal to multidecadal <span class="hlt">variability</span>. Here we present monthly-resolved records of Sr/Ca (a proxy of SST) from fossil annually-banded Diploria strigosa corals from Bonaire (southern Caribbean Sea). The individual corals provide time-windows of up to 68 years length, and the total number of 295 years of record allows for assessing the natural range of seasonal to multidecadal SST <span class="hlt">variability</span> in the western tropical Atlantic during snapshots of the mid- to late Holocene. Comparable to modern climate, the coral Sr/Ca records reveal that mid- to late Holocene SST was characterised by clear seasonal cycles, persistent quasi-biennial and prominent interannual as well as inter- to multidecadal-scale <span class="hlt">variability</span>. However, the magnitude of SST variations on these timescales has varied over the last 6.2 ka. The coral records show increased seasonality during the mid-Holocene consistent with climate model simulations indicating that southern Caribbean SST seasonality is induced by insolation changes on orbital timescales, whereas internal dynamics of the climate system play an important role on shorter timescales. Interannual SST <span class="hlt">variability</span> is linked to ocean-atmosphere interactions of Atlantic and Pacific origin. Pronounced interannual <span class="hlt">variability</span> in the western tropical Atlantic is indicated by a 2.35 ka coral, possibly related to a strengthening of the <span class="hlt">variability</span> of the El Niño/Southern Oscillation throughout the Holocene. Prominent inter- to multidecadal SST <span class="hlt">variability</span> is evident in the coral records and slightly more pronounced in the mid-Holocene. We finally argue that our coral data provide a target for studying Holocene climate <span class="hlt">variability</span> on seasonal and interannual to multidecadal timescales, when using further numerical models and high-resolution proxy data.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Giry, Cyril; Felis, Thomas; Kölling, Martin; Scholz, Denis; Wei, Wei; Lohmann, Gerrit; Scheffers, Sander</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">340</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.springerlink.com/index/x98t87104g2u8104.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Temperature</span> adaptation in sea anemones: Physiological and biochemical <span class="hlt">variability</span> in geographically separate populations of Metridium senile</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Latitudinally separate populations of the sea anemone Metridium senile (L.) are very similar genetically by electrophoretic criteria, yet respond differently to <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. Anemones from southern and northern California (USA) have different oxygen consumption patterns in response to acclimatory and acute changes in <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. Northern anemones show a pronounced increase in Q10 at <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> just above the normal environmental range, but</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">P. J. Walsh; G. N. Somero</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1981-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' 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class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#">4</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#">5</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#">6</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#">7</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#">8</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#">9</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#">10</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">341</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3514704"> <span id="translatedtitle">OVA-induced airway hyperresponsiveness alters murine heart rate <span class="hlt">variability</span> and body <span class="hlt">temperature</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Altered autonomic (ANS) tone in chronic respiratory disease is implicated as a factor in cardiovascular co-morbidities, yet no studies address its impact on cardiovascular function in the presence of murine allergic airway (AW) hyperresponsiveness (AHR). Since antigen (Ag)-induced AHR is used to model allergic asthma (in which ANS alterations have been reported), we performed a pilot study to assess measurement feasibility of, as well as the impact of allergic sensitization to ovalbumin (OVA) on, heart rate <span class="hlt">variability</span> (HRV) in a murine model. Heart rate (HR), body <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (TB), and time- and frequency-domain HRV analyses, a reflection of ANS control, were obtained in chronically instrumented mice (telemetry) before, during and for 22 h after OVA or saline aerosolization in sensitized (OVA) or Alum adjuvant control exposed animals. OVA mice diverged significantly from Alum mice with respect to change in HR during aerosol challenge (P < 0.001, Two-Way ANOVA; HR max change Ctrl = +80 ± 10 bpm vs. OVA = +1 ± 23 bpm, mean ± SEM), and displayed elevated HR during the subsequent dark cycle (P = 0.006). Sensitization decreased the TB during aerosol challenge (P < 0.001). Sensitized mice had decreased HRV prior to challenge (SDNN: P = 0.038; Low frequency (LF) power: P = 0.021; Low/high Frequency (HF) power: P = 0.042), and increased HRV during Ag challenge (RMSSD: P = 0.047; pNN6: P = 0.039). Sensitized mice displayed decreased HRV subsequent to OVA challenge, primarily in the dark cycle (RMSSD: P = 0.018; pNN6: P ? 0.001; LF: P ? 0.001; HF: P = 0.040; LF/HF: P ? 0.001). We conclude that implanted telemetry technology is an effective method to assess the ANS impact of allergic sensitization. Preliminary results show mild sensitization is associated with reduced HRV and a suppression of the acute TB-response to OVA challenge. This approach to assess altered ANS control in the acute OVA model may also be beneficial in chronic AHR models.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Domnik, N. J.; Seaborn, G.; Vincent, S. G.; Akl, S. G.; Redfearn, D. P.; Fisher, J. T.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">342</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1997JGR...10220937C"> <span id="translatedtitle">Temporal and spatial <span class="hlt">variabilities</span> of the South China Sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> anomaly</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this study we use the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) monthly sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (SST) fields (1982-1994) to investigate the temporal and spatial <span class="hlt">variabilities</span> of the South China Sea (SCS) warm/cool anomalies. Three steps of analysis were performed on the data set: ensemble mean ?, composite analysis to obtain the monthly mean anomaly relative to the ensemble mean ?, and empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analysis on the residue data relative to ?. The ensemble mean SST field ? has a rather weak horizontal gradient: 29°C near the Borneo coast to 25°-26°C near the southeast China coast. Two areas of evident SST anomalies were found in the monthly ? variation: west of Borneo-Palawan Islands (WBP) and southeast of the southern Vietnam coast (SVC). Four patterns, monsoon and transition each with two out-of-phase structures, were found. During the spring-to-summer transition (March to May) the warm anomaly is formed in the northern SCS with ? located at 112°-119°30'E, 15°-19°30'N. During the fall-to-winter transition (October to November) the northern SCS (north of 12°N) cool anomaly is formed in November with ? located at 108°-115°, 13°-20°N. We performed an EOF analysis on the residue data relative to ? in order to obtain transient and interannual variations of the SST fields. EOF1 accounts for 47% of the variance and represents the northern SCS warm/cool anomaly pattern. EOF2 accounts for 14% of the variance and represents the southern SCS dipole pattern. Strong northern SCS warm anomaly (1°C warmer) appears during October-November 1987 and January-February 1988, and strong northern SCS cool anomaly (1°C cooler) occurs during March 1986 and November 1992. Furthermore, a strong cross correlation between wind stress curl and SST anomalies, computed from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecast analyzed wind stress data and the NCEP SST data for different lags, shows the existence of an air-sea feedback mechanism in the SCS deep basin.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Chu, Peter C.; Lu, Shihua; Chen, Yuchun</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1997-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">343</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6984513"> <span id="translatedtitle">Simulation of uranium transport with <span class="hlt">variable</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and oxidation potential: The computer program THCC (Thermo-Hydro-Chemical Coupling)</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A simulator of reactive chemical transport has been constructed with the capabilities of treating <span class="hlt">variable</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> and <span class="hlt">variable</span> oxidation potentials within a single simulation. Homogeneous and heterogeneous chemical reactions are simulated at <span class="hlt">temperature</span>-dependent equilibrium, and changes of oxidation states of multivalent elements can be simulated during transport. Chemical mass action relations for formation of complexes in the fluid phase are included explicitly within the partial differential equations of transport, and a special algorithm greatly simplifies treatment of reversible precipitation of solid phases. This approach allows direct solution of the complete set of governing equations for concentrations of all aqueous species and solids affected simultaneously by chemical and physical processes. Results of example simulations of transport, along a <span class="hlt">temperature</span> gradient, of uranium solution species under conditions of varying pH and oxidation potential and with reversible precipitation of uraninite and coffinite are presented. The examples illustrate how inclusion of <span class="hlt">variable</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and oxidation potential in numerical simulators can enhance understanding of the chemical mechanisms affecting migration of multivalent waste elements.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Carnahan, C.L.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1986-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">344</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/901464"> <span id="translatedtitle">Large-scale spatial <span class="hlt">variability</span> of riverbed <span class="hlt">temperature</span> gradients in Snake River fall Chinook salmon spawning areas</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In the Snake River basin of the Pacific northwestern United States, hydroelectric dam operations are often based on the predicted emergence timing of salmon fry from the riverbed. The spatial <span class="hlt">variability</span> and complexity of surface water and riverbed <span class="hlt">temperature</span> gradients results in emergence timing predictions that are likely to have large errors. The objectives of this study were to quantify the thermal heterogeneity between the river and riverbed in fall Chinook salmon spawning areas and to determine the effects of thermal heterogeneity on fall Chinook salmon emergence timing. This study quantified river and riverbed <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> at 15 fall Chinook salmon spawning sites distributed in two reaches throughout 160 km of the Snake River in Hells Canyon, Idaho, USA, during three different water years. <span class="hlt">Temperatures</span> were measured during the fall Chinook salmon incubation period with self-contained data loggers placed in the river and at three different depths below the riverbed surface. At all sites <span class="hlt">temperature</span> increased with depth into the riverbed, including significant differences (p<0.05) in mean water <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of up to 3.8°C between the river and the riverbed among all the sites. During each of the three water years studied, river and riverbed <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> varied significantly among all the study sites, among the study sites within each reach, and between sites located in the two reaches. Considerable <span class="hlt">variability</span> in riverbed <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> among the sites resulted in fall Chinook salmon emergence timing estimates that varied by as much as 55 days, depending on the source of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> data used for the estimate. Monitoring of riverbed <span class="hlt">temperature</span> gradients at a range of spatial scales throughout the Snake River would provide better information for managing hydroelectric dam operations, and would aid in the design and interpretation of future empirical research into the ecological significance of physical riverine processes.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hanrahan, Timothy P.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">345</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1999JSSCh.145...10S"> <span id="translatedtitle">Phase Transitions in KNO3 Studied by <span class="hlt">Variable-Temperature</span> 15N Magic-Angle Spinning NMR Spectroscopy</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The phase transitions within the three phases of potassium nitrate (?-, ?-, and ?-KNO3) have been investigated in detail by <span class="hlt">variable-temperature</span> (VT) 15N magic-angle spinning (MAS) NMR spectroscopy employing 98% 15N-enriched KNO3. The stability of the metastable ?-KNO3 phase is found to be highly influenced by the thermal history of the sample, i.e., by the number of heating cycles into the high-<span class="hlt">temperature</span> ?-KNO3 phase at 160°C. Furthermore, the spectral appearance for the room-<span class="hlt">temperature</span> ?-KNO3 phase is found to change after excursions of the sample into the high-<span class="hlt">temperature</span> ?-KNO3 phase, an observation similar to that made in a recent VT synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction study.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Schønwandt, Bjarke V.; Jakobsen, Hans J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1999-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">346</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1992CSR....12..907L"> <span id="translatedtitle">Local and mesoscale <span class="hlt">variability</span> of surface water <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and chlorophyll in the northern Great Barrier Reef, Australia</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Continuous transects of near-surface water <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and chlorophyll fluorescence on the northern Great Barrier Reef shelf were sampled in October 1987 and February 1990. In 1987, local spatial <span class="hlt">variability</span> of both <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and chlorophyll were higher within or close to the reef matrix than in open waters of the GBR lagoon. <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> and chlorophyll fluorescence were negatively correlated at short length scales in data sets. Correlations at longer scales were inconsistent. Vertical mixing forced by flow diversion around reefs or through gaps between reefs appears to be the major process responsible for the observed spatial heterogeneity of near-surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and chlorophyll fields. Individual features in linear transects, however, are often difficult to attribute to specific gaps between reefs at distances greater than a few kilometers from a particular gap.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Liston, Peter; Furnas, Miles J.; Mitchell, Alan W.; Drew, Edward A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1992-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">347</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012PrOce.106...96H"> <span id="translatedtitle">Multi-decadal <span class="hlt">variability</span> and trends in the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of the northwest European continental shelf: A model-data synthesis</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We examine the trends and <span class="hlt">variability</span> in <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of the northwest European shelf seas over the period 1960-2004 using four approaches: a regional model simulation (using the Proudman Oceanographic Laboratory Coastal Ocean Modelling System; POLCOMS), in situ multi-annual timeseries observations, satellite remote sensed (AVHRR) sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (SST), and an analysis of data held in an international database at the International Council for the Exploration of the Sea (ICES). We focus on <span class="hlt">variability</span> for the full period and trends from 1985 to 2004, being limited by the length of model simulation and the availability of satellite data. We find that all data sources give a consistent picture, with both trends and <span class="hlt">variability</span> being intensified on-shelf and north of ˜48°N. The model and AVHRR SST show statistically significant warming trends in large areas of this region that are clearly distinguishable from both model/observation error and natural <span class="hlt">variability</span> on these timescales. This 'signal to noise ratio' is substantially reduced when near bottom <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> are considered in the model. The long timeseries at Port Erin (Isle of Man) shows that the variation in trend is well represented by the model and that the warming trend in the period 1985-2004 is substantially larger and of longer duration than previous peaks in 20-year trends since 1914.We find that the SST trends are greater in the model and satellite observations than the air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> trends in the ERA40 re-analysis used for forcing; the net sea to air heat flux is ˜20% less in 1985-2004 than 1960-1984 (including shortwave, longwave, sensible and latent components). This is partly compensated by a ˜9% reduction in advective warming. The model shows the trends in seasonally stratified regions are greater at the surface than at depth, indicating an increase in this stratification. While this pattern is also seen in the annual trends from the ICES data analysis, the lack of seasonal resolution hampers a quantitative corroboration.The model is seen to have good skill in reproducing both the trends and <span class="hlt">variability</span>, but tends to underestimate the trends. The modelled <span class="hlt">variability</span> is overestimated in some coastal and open ocean regions and underestimated elsewhere, while the phase of this <span class="hlt">variability</span> is generally well represented. Generally the model performance is better on-shelf than in the open ocean.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Holt, Jason; Hughes, Sarah; Hopkins, Joanne; Wakelin, Sarah L.; Penny Holliday, N.; Dye, Stephen; González-Pola, César; Hjøllo, Solfrid Sætre; Mork, Kjell Arne; Nolan, Glen; Proctor, Roger; Read, Jane; Shammon, Theresa; Sherwin, Toby; Smyth, Tim; Tattersall, Graham; Ward, Ben; Wiltshire, Karen Helen</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">348</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.geos.ed.ac.uk/homes/ghegerl/hegerlwallace.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Influence of Patterns of Climate <span class="hlt">Variability</span> on the Difference between Satellite and Surface <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Trends</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">During the past 20 years, satellite measurements of tropospheric <span class="hlt">temperature</span> have shown a slower rate of global <span class="hlt">temperature</span> increase than surface air <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, yielding an increase in the surface to lower-troposphere lapse rate of 0.12 K decade 21 from 1979 to August 2001. This increase in lapse rate was preceded by a decrease over the previous 15-yr interval. The influence</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Gabriele C. Hegerl; John M. Wallace</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">349</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/60383203"> <span id="translatedtitle">Control of supply air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and outdoor airflow and its effect on energy use in a <span class="hlt">variable</span> air volume system</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">A VAV system in a commercial office building in central New Jersey has been modeled, with DOE-2 and a <span class="hlt">variable</span>-base bin method, to assess control strategies that lead to reduce HVAC costs with no decrease in comfort. The goal is to minimize the sum of fan and heating\\/cooling power while providing sufficient air to maintain desired office <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> and air</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">L. K. Norford; A. Rabi; R. H. Socolow</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1986-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">350</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1984AJ.....89..389E"> <span id="translatedtitle">CoD-48 3636 deg - an apparently bright, low-luminosity, and high-<span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variable</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">CoD -48°3636 has been found to be a low-luminosity and high-<span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variable</span> with light variations on both short and long time scales and with radial velocity variations in the hydrogen emission lines with a period of 0.122 days. The star is probably a member of the Sirius Supercluster, giving Mv = +7 mag (? = 0arcsec.0305), and indicating similarity to the blue companions in such systems as RU Peg and AE Agr.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Eggen, O. J.; Niemela, V. S.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1984-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">351</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/51481352"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Variable</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy: Electronic and physical properties of single and two component thin films</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">A newly acquired, commercial scanning tunneling microscope (STM) designed to work in ultra high vacuum at <span class="hlt">variable</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> down to 50 K was used for scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy (STM\\/STS) studies of organic adsorbates on metal surfaces. Au(111) substrates were prepared by evaporation of gold onto mica. Cobalt(II) phthalocyanine (CoPc), cobalt(II) tetraphenyl porphyrin (CoTPP), and vanadyl(II) phthalocyanine (VOPc) were</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Daniel Edward Barlow</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2001-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">352</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.agu.org/journals/pa/pa0803/2008PA001598/2008PA001598.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Paleoclimate proxy perspective on Caribbean climate since the year 1751: Evidence of cooler <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> and multidecadal <span class="hlt">variability</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Annually resolved coral ?18O and Sr\\/Ca records from southwestern Puerto Rico are used to investigate Caribbean climate <span class="hlt">variability</span> between 1751 and 2004 C.E. Mean surface ocean <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> in this region have increased steadily by about 2°C since the year 1751, with Sr\\/Ca data indicating 2.1 ± 0.8°C and ?18O data indicating 2.7 ± 0.5°C. Coral geochemical records from across the</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">K. H. Kilbourne; T. M. Quinn; R. Webb; T. Guilderson; J. Nyberg; A. Winter</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">353</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/6284854"> <span id="translatedtitle">Simulation of extreme <span class="hlt">temperature</span> events by a stochastic weather generator: effects of interdiurnal and interannual <span class="hlt">variability</span> reproduction</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">A WGEN-like four-variate (maximum and minimum <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, precipitation and solar radiation) stochastic daily weather generator Met&Roll is used to provide synthetic weather series for models simulating crop growth and hydrological regime in present and changed climate conditions. Since impacts of climate change will be largely affected by changes in climate <span class="hlt">variability</span> and extreme events, present climate models should satisfactorily reproduce</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jan Kyselý; Martin Dubrovský</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">354</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ufa.cas.cz/html/climaero/kysely/2005_ijc_Kysely_Dubrovsky.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">SIMULATION OF EXTREME <span class="hlt">TEMPERATURE</span> EVENTS BY A STOCHASTIC WEATHER GENERATOR: EFFECTS OF INTERDIURNAL AND INTERANNUAL <span class="hlt">VARIABILITY</span> REPRODUCTION</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">A WGEN-like four-variate (maximum and minimum <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, precipitation and solar radiation) stochastic daily weather generator Met&Roll is used to provide synthetic weather series for models simulating crop growth and hydrological regime in present and changed climate conditions. Since impacts of climate change will be largely affected by changes in climate <span class="hlt">variability</span> and extreme events, present climate models should satisfactorily reproduce</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">JAN KYSEL</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">355</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013ESDD....4..967S"> <span id="translatedtitle">The role of the North Atlantic overturning and deep-ocean for multi-decadal global-mean-<span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Earth's climate exhibits internal modes of <span class="hlt">variability</span> on various time scales. Here we investigate multi-decadal <span class="hlt">variability</span> of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) in the control runs of an ensemble of CMIP5 models. By decomposing global-mean-<span class="hlt">temperature</span> (GMT) variance into contributions of the AMOC and Northern Hemisphere sea-ice extent using a graph-theoretical statistical approach, we find the AMOC to contribute 8% to GMT <span class="hlt">variability</span> in the ensemble mean. Our results highlight the importance of AMOC sea-ice feedbacks that explain 5% of the GMT variance, while the contribution solely related to the AMOC is found to be about 3%. As a consequence of multi-decadal AMOC <span class="hlt">variability</span>, we report substantial variations in North Atlantic deep-ocean heat content with trends of up to 0.7 × 1022 J decade-1 that are of the order of observed changes over the last decade and consistent with the reduced GMT warming trend over this period. Although these <span class="hlt">temperature</span> anomalies are largely density-compensated by salinity changes, we find a robust negative correlation between the AMOC and North Atlantic deep-ocean density with density lagging the AMOC by 5 to 11 yr in most models. While this would in principle allow for a self-sustained oscillatory behavior of the coupled AMOC-deep-ocean system, our results are inconclusive about the role of this feedback in the model ensemble.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Schleussner, C. F.; Runge, J.; Lehmann, J.; Levermann, A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">356</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005HESSD...2..691T"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Variability</span> in stream discharge and <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> during ecologically sensitive time periods: a preliminary assessment of the implications for Atlantic salmon</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This study focused on improving the understanding of the temporal <span class="hlt">variability</span> in hydrological and thermal conditions and their potential influences on two life stages of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) - stream resident juveniles and returning adult spawners. Stream discharges and <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> in the Girnock Burn, NE Scotland, a small nursery stream, were characterised over a time period of ten hydrological years (1994/95-2003/04). Frequency, magnitude, duration and timing of thermal, hydraulic and hydrological conditions were examined using data with a high temporal resolution (hourly and subhourly). Particular attention was focussed on assessing variations during ecologically sensitive time periods when salmon behaviour is most susceptible to environmental perturbations. The Girnock Burn was characterised by a strong inter- and intra-annual <span class="hlt">variability</span> in the hydrological and thermal regime. This has clear implications for the likely feeding opportunities for juvenile fish in winter and early spring and the emergence of fry in the late spring. The movement of adult spawners towards breeding areas showed a complex dependence on hydrological <span class="hlt">variability</span>. If discharges were low, fish movement was increasingly triggered by suboptimal flow increases as spawning time approached. Elucidating links between discharge/<span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> and salmon habitat availability and utilization at appropriately fine temporal scales is a prerequisite to the development of better conservation management strategies and more biologically meaningful flow regimes in regulated river systems.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Tetzlaff, D.; Soulsby, C.; Youngson, A. F.; Gibbins, C.; Bacon, P. J.; Malcolm, I. A.; Langan, S.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">357</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/50259715"> <span id="translatedtitle">Novel low-<span class="hlt">temperature</span> processing of polymer dielectrics on organic substrates by <span class="hlt">variable</span> frequency microwave processing</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The demand for faster electronic devices with increased functionality has necessitated the use of new high performance dielectric materials with lower dielectric constant and higher thermal stability. Polyimides are most suited for these applications because of their excellent electrical, chemical, and thermo-mechanical properties. However, polyimides require long cure cycles at elevated <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, which are above the decomposition <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of organic</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ravindra V. Tanikella; Sue A. Bidstrup Allen; Paul A. Kohl</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">358</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/26249256"> <span id="translatedtitle">Dynamic <span class="hlt">temperature</span> rise of shielded MR sensors during simulated electrostatic discharge pulses of <span class="hlt">variable</span> pulse width</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The <span class="hlt">temperature</span> rise from electrical over-stress (EOS) and electrostatic discharge (ESD) of shielded AMR sensors used for magnetic tape storage devices is studied using square wave voltage pulses with widths from 35ns to 2ms. A phenomenological model has been developed to describe the dynamic stripe <span class="hlt">temperature</span> versus pulse width and power for the time range studied as well as for</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Icko Eric Timothy Iben</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">359</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/50357733"> <span id="translatedtitle">Dynamic <span class="hlt">temperature</span> rise of shielded MR sensors during simulated electrostatic discharge pulses of <span class="hlt">variable</span> pulse width</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The <span class="hlt">temperature</span> rise from Electrostatic discharge (ESD) of shielded AMR sensors used for magnetic tape storage devices is studied using square wave voltage pulses with widths from 35 ns to 2 ms. A phenomenological model has been developed to describe the dynamic stripe <span class="hlt">temperature</span> versus pulse width and power for the time range studied as well as for a wide</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">I. Eric; T. Iben</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">360</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://core.ecu.edu/crawfordt/ncgs/ncg/ncg_2005/2005_ortegren.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Spatial <span class="hlt">Variability</span> of <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Trends in Urbanized and Urbanizing Areas of North Carolina</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper investigates the differences in <span class="hlt">temperature</span> trends during a 40-year period in urbanized and urbanizing areas in North Carolina. Urbanized sites are in the urban cores of the selected regions; urbanizing sites are in outlying suburban locations characterized by lower devel- opment intensities than their respective urban cores. We examined maximum and minimum <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> for four seasons represented by</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jason Ortegren; Zhi-Jun Liu; G. J. Lennartson</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' 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onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">361</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/26440126"> <span id="translatedtitle">High-<span class="hlt">temperature</span> wire sweep characteristics of semiconductor package for <span class="hlt">variable</span> loop-height wirebonding technology</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper studies the elevated-<span class="hlt">temperature</span> sweep characteristics of wire bond during the transfer molding process for semiconductor packages. The material properties of gold wire are obtained experimentally at various <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. A set of sweep experiments is also performed to acquire the sweep stiffness of wire bond for several bond spans and bond heights. The linearity of the load–transverse displacement curves</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Huang-Kuang Kung; Bo-Wun Huang</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">362</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/39855466"> <span id="translatedtitle">The dielectric properties of mica paper in <span class="hlt">variable</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and humidity</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The complex capacitance of mica paper is influenced exponentially by variations in the reciprocal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and the relative humidity. This response is dominated by the peripheral line contacts between mica flakes, rather than by the surface impedance of the mica flakes between these contacts. The resulting complex capacitance shows low-frequency dispersion at high humidities and high <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, and a less</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">M. Ashraf Chaudhry; Andrew K. Jonscher</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1985-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">363</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/13018125"> <span id="translatedtitle">European Seasonal and Annual <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> <span class="hlt">Variability</span>, Trends, and Extremes Since 1500</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Multiproxy reconstructions of monthly and seasonal surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> fields for Europe back to 1500 show that the late 20th- and early 21st-century European climate is very likely (>95% confidence level) warmer than that of any time during the past 500 years. This agrees with findings for the entire Northern Hemisphere. European winter average <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> during the period 1500 to 1900</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jürg Luterbacher; Daniel Dietrich; Elena Xoplaki; Martin Grosjean; Heinz Wanner</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">364</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/27094677"> <span id="translatedtitle">In Situ Acoustic <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Measurement During <span class="hlt">Variable</span>-Frequency Microwave Curing</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Variable</span>-frequency microwave (VFM) curing can perform the same processing steps as conventional thermal processing in minutes, without compromising intrinsic material properties. With increasing demand for novel dielectrics, there is a corresponding demand for new processing techniques that lead to comparable or better properties than conventional methods. VFM processing can be a viable alternative to conventional thermal techniques. However, current limitations</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Cleon E. Davis; Anthony J. Dickherber; William D. Hunt; Gary S. May</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">365</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/53673635"> <span id="translatedtitle">Mg\\/Ca Ratios in Coralline Red Algae as <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Proxies for Reconstructing Labrador Current <span class="hlt">Variability</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Marine ecosystems and fishery productivity in the Northwestern Atlantic have been considerably affected by regional climate and oceanographic changes. Fluctuations of North Atlantic marine climate have been linked in part to a dominant pattern of atmospheric circulation known as the North Atlantic Oscillation, which has a strong influence on transport <span class="hlt">variability</span> of the Labrador Current (LC). The cold LC originates</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">G. Gamboa; S. Hetzinger; J. Halfar; T. Zack; B. Kunz; W. Adey</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">366</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/15188041"> <span id="translatedtitle">Linking Global Climate and <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> <span class="hlt">Variability</span> to Widespread Amphibian Declines Putatively Caused by Disease</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The role of global climate change in the decline of biodiversity and the emergence of infectious diseases remains controversial, and the effect of climatic <span class="hlt">variability</span>, in particular, has largely been ignored. For instance, it was recently revealed that the proposed link between climate change and widespread amphibian declines, putatively caused by the chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), was tenuous because</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jason R. Rohr; Thomas R. Raffel</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">367</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17814003"> <span id="translatedtitle">Interannual <span class="hlt">variability</span> of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> at a depth of 125 meters in the north atlantic ocean.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Analyses of historical ocean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> data at a depth of 125 meters in the North Atlantic Ocean indicate that from 1950 to 1990 the subtropical and subarctic gyres exhibited linear trends that were opposite in phase. In addition, multivariate analyses of yearly mean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> anomaly fields between 20 degrees N and 70 degrees N in the North Atlantic show a characteristic space-time <span class="hlt">temperature</span> oscillation from 1947 to 1990. A quasidecadal oscillation, first identified at Ocean Weather Station C, is part of a basin-wide feature. Gyre and basin-scale variations such as these provide the observational basis for climate diagnostic and modeling studies. PMID:17814003</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Levitus, S; Antonov, J I; Boyer, T P</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1994-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">368</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/68718"> <span id="translatedtitle">Interannual <span class="hlt">variability</span> of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> at a depth of 125 meters in the North Atlantic Ocean</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Analyses of historical ocean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> data at a depth of 125 meters in the North Atlantic Ocean indicate that from 1950-1990 the subtropical and subartic gyres exhibited linear trends that were opposite in phase. In addition, multivariate analyses of yearly mean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> anomaly fields between 20{degrees}N and 70{degrees}N in the North Atlantic show a characteristic space-time <span class="hlt">temperature</span> oscillation from 1947 to 1990. A quasidecadal oscillation, first-identified at Ocean Weather Station C, is part of a basin-wide feature. Gyre and basin-scale variations such as these provide the observational basis for climate diagnostic and modeling studies.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Levitus, S.; Boyer, T.P. [National Oceanographic Data Center, Washington, DC (United States); Antonov, J.I. [State Hydrological Institute, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1994-10-07</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">369</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008AGUFM.B13A0409W"> <span id="translatedtitle">Title: Interannual <span class="hlt">variability</span> in the <span class="hlt">temperature</span>-responsiveness of CO2 flux from forest and peatland soils</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Northern forests and peatlands store large amounts of carbon in soils. The development of robust predictions of carbon fluxes from these ecosystems is important to improving biogeochemical models, especially in the context of global environmental change. We measured fluxes of CO2 from upland forest and peatland soils in the Marcell Experimental Forest (northern Minnesota, USA) from 2005 through 2007. We compared fluxes from upland and peatland hydrologic settings and also used regression approaches to examine the effectiveness of soil <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, soil moisture, and water table level in predicting CO2 flux. Differences between upland and peatland CO2 flux were sometimes apparent but were not consistent across sampling years. In 2005, the mean upland CO2 flux was significantly higher than the mean peatland flux; in both 2006 and 2007, peatland fluxes exceeded upland fluxes, though the difference was not significant. Soil <span class="hlt">temperature</span> was generally a stronger predictor of CO2 flux than was soil moisture or water table, but its predictive strength varied by hydrologic setting and year. In 2005, these <span class="hlt">variables</span> explained roughly 60 percent of the variation of CO2 flux in both uplands and peatlands, but the strength of these predictive relationships declined in 2006 and 2007. Our study highlights the potential role of soil <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in feedbacks between climate and the carbon cycle, but also illustrates a strong need for understanding interannual <span class="hlt">variability</span> in the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> responsiveness of CO2 flux.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Weishampel, P.; King, J. Y.; Kolka, R. K.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">370</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AdSpR..49..572R"> <span id="translatedtitle">Decadal <span class="hlt">variability</span> of tropical Pacific <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in relation to solar cycles</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We use the 8-year long satellite <span class="hlt">temperature</span> data (2002-2010) from Atmospheric InfraRed Sounder (AIRS) and Atmospheric Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU) on the Aqua satellite to identify <span class="hlt">temperature</span> trends in the troposphere and low stratosphere over the Niño 3.4 region of the Tropical Pacific Ocean in the most recent 11-year solar cycle. Employing more extended sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (SST) data for five solar cycles (1950-2009) in this region we show that the satellite trends reflect a typical decrease of the sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (SST) in the Niño 3.4 region in the declining phase of the solar cycle. The magnitude of the SST decrease depends on the solar cycle and ranges between 0.07 K/yr and 0.27 K/yr for the last five solar cycles.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ruzmaikin, Alexander; Aumann, Hartmut H.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">371</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=DE20016635"> <span id="translatedtitle">Interactions of CO2 with <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and other climate <span class="hlt">variables</span>: response of vegetation. Final report.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The overall objectives of this project were: (1) to examine experimentally, for major crop species, the interacting effects of CO(sub 2) concentration, <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, and water availability on plant growth and development, (2) to model these interactions, a...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">E. B. Knipling</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1995-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">372</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/eimsapi.dispdetail?deid=188510"> <span id="translatedtitle">Estuarine intertidal sediment <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> in Zoster marina and Z. japonica habitats in Yaquina Bay, Oregon</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Physical characterization of intertidal estuarine plant habitats over time may reveal distribution-limiting thresholds. <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> data from loggers embedded in sediment in transects crossing Zostera marina and Z. japonica habitats in lower Yaquina Bay, Oregon display signific...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">373</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6393772"> <span id="translatedtitle">High-<span class="hlt">temperature</span> electrical resistivity of rare-earth metals with <span class="hlt">variable</span> valence</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The electrical resistivity of compounds of rare-earth metals at high <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> is calculated on the basis of allowance for the background mechanism of scattering and the hybridization of local electron states with the states of conduction electrons. An analytic expression is obtained for resistivity in a strong hybridization approximation. It follows from the expression that electrical resistivity may have a negative <span class="hlt">temperature</span> coefficient within a broad range of high <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. The use of a three-band (s, d, f) model makes it possible to explain experimental data on the resistivity of certain rare-earth metals, particularly the connection between the sign of the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> coefficient of electrical resistivity and the curvature of the relation (T).</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Povzner, A.A.; Abel'skii, S.S.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1986-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">374</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.agu.org/journals/gl/v025/i007/98GL00499/98GL00499.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Solar <span class="hlt">variability</span> and climate change: Geomagnetic aa index and global surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">During the past ?120 years, Earth's surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> is correlated with both decadal averages and solar cycle minimum values of the geomagnetic aa index. The correlation with aa minimum values suggests the existence of a long-term (low-frequency) component of solar irradiance that underlies the 11-year cyclic component. Extrapolating the aa-<span class="hlt">temperature</span> correlations to Maunder Minimum geomagnetic conditions implies that solar forcing</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">E. W. Clivernd; V. Boriakoff; J. Feynman</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1998-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">375</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.agu.org/journals/jd/jd0712/2006JD008249/2006JD008249.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Temporal and spatial <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> and change over Spain during 1850–2005</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">We analyze temporal and spatial patterns of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> change over Spain during the period 1850–2005, using daily maximum (Tmax), minimum (Tmin), and mean (Tmean) <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> from the 22 longest and most reliable Spanish records. Over mainland Spain, a significant (at 0.01 level) warming of 0.10°C\\/decade is found for the annual average of Tmean. Autumn and winter contributed slightly more than</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">M. Brunet; P. D. Jones; J. Sigró; O. Saladié; E. Aguilar; A. Moberg; P. M. Della-Marta; D. Lister; A. Walther; D. López</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">376</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/935933"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Variable</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> neutron diffraction and x-ray charge density studies of tetraacetylethane.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Single crystal neutron diffraction data have been collected on a sample of enolized 3,4-diacetyl-2,5-hexanedione (tetraacetylethane, TAE) at five <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> between 20 and 298 K to characterize the <span class="hlt">temperature</span>-dependent behavior of the short, strong, intramolecular hydrogen bond. Upon decreasing the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> from 298 K to 20 K, the O2-H1 distance decreases from 1.171(11) to 1.081(2) {angstrom} and the O1 {hor_ellipsis} H1 distance increases from 1.327(10) to 1.416(6) {angstrom}. The convergence of the C?O bond lengths from inequivalent distances at low <span class="hlt">temperature</span> to identical values (1.285(4) {angstrom}) at 298 K is consistent with a resonance-assisted hydrogen bond. However, a rigid bond analysis indicates that the structure at 298 K is disordered. The disorder vanishes at lower <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. Short intermolecular C?H {hor_ellipsis} O contacts may be responsible for the ordering at low <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. The intramolecular O {hor_ellipsis} O distance (2.432 0.006 {angstrom}) does not change with <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. X-ray data at 20 K were measured to analyze the charge density and to gain additional insight into the nature of the strong hydrogen bond. Quantum mechanical calculations demonstrate that periodic boundary conditions provide significant enhancement over gas phase models in that superior agreement with the experimental structure is achieved when applying periodicity. One-dimensional potential energy calculations followed by quantum treatment of the proton reproduce the location of the proton nearer to the O2 site reasonably well, although they overestimate the O?H distance at low <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. The choice of the single-point energy calculation strategy for the proton potential is justified by the fact that the proton is preferably located nearer to O2 rather than being equally distant to O1 and O2 or evenly distributed (disordered) between them.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Piccoli, P. M. B.; Koetzle, T. F.; Schultz, A. J.; Zhurova, E. A.; Stare, J.; Pinkerton, A. A.; Eckert, J.; Hadzi, D.; Univ. of Toledo; National Inst. of Chemistry; Univ. of California at Santa Barbara</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-07-24</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">377</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24140990"> <span id="translatedtitle">Conductance of partially disordered graphene: crossover from <span class="hlt">temperature</span>-dependent to field-dependent <span class="hlt">variable</span>-range hopping.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We report an analysis of low-<span class="hlt">temperature</span> measurements of the conductance of partially disordered reduced graphene oxide, finding that the data follow a simple crossover scenario. At room <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, the conductance is dominated by two-dimensional (2D) electric field-assisted, thermally driven (Pollak-Riess) <span class="hlt">variable</span>-range hopping (VRH) through highly disordered regions. However, at lower <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> T, we find a smooth crossover to follow the exp(-E0/E)(1/3) field-driven (Shklovskii) 2D VRH conductance behaviour when the electric field E exceeds a specific crossover value [Formula: see text] determined by the scale factors E0 and Ea for the high-field and intermediate-field regimes respectively. Our crossover scenario also accounts well for experimental data reported by other authors for three-dimensional disordered carbon networks, suggesting wide applicability. PMID:24140990</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Cheah, C Y; Gómez-Navarro, C; Jaurigue, L C; Kaiser, A B</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-10-21</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">378</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013IJAME..18..945M"> <span id="translatedtitle">Mass Transfer with Chemical Reaction on Flow Past an Accelerated Vertical Plate with <span class="hlt">Variable</span> <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> and Thermal Radiation</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">An exact solution of an unsteady radiative flow past a uniformly accelerated infinite vertical plate with <span class="hlt">variable</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and mass diffusion is presented here, taking into account the homogeneous chemical reaction of first order. The plate <span class="hlt">temperature</span> as well as concentration near the plate is raised linearly with time. The dimensionless governing equations are solved using the Laplace-transform technique. The velocity, <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and concentration fields are studied for different physical parameters such as the thermal Grashof number, mass Grashof number, Schmidt number, Prandtl number, radiation parameter, chemical reaction parameter and time. It is observed that the velocity increases with increasing values of the thermal Grashof number or mass Grashof number. But the trend is just reversed with respect to the thermal radiation parameter. It is also observed that the velocity increases with the decreasing chemical reaction parameter</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Muthucumaraswamy, R.; Balachandran, P.; Ganesan, K.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">379</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15.5958S"> <span id="translatedtitle">Trends and <span class="hlt">variability</span> of daily and extreme <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and precipitation in the Caribbean region, 1961-2010</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A workshop was held at the University of the West Indies, Jamaica, in May 2012 to build capacity in climate data rescue and to enhance knowledge about climate change in the Caribbean region. Scientists brought their daily surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and precipitation data for an assessment of quality and homogeneity and for the preparation of climate change indices helpful for studying climate change in their region. This study presents the trends in daily and extreme <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and precipitation indices in the Caribbean region for records spanning the 1961-2010 and 1986-2010 intervals. Overall, the results show a warming of the surface air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> at land stations. Region-wide, annual means of the daily minimum <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> (+1.4°C) have increased more than the annual means of the daily maximum <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> (+0.95°C) leading to significant decrease in the diurnal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> range. The frequency of warm days and warm nights has increased by more than 15% while 7% fewer cool days and 10% fewer cool night were found over the 50-year interval. These frequency trends are further reflected in a rise of the annual extreme high and low <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> by ~1°C. Changes in precipitation indices are less consistent and the trends are generally weak. Small positive trends were found in annual total precipitation, daily intensity, maximum number of consecutive dry days and heavy rainfall events particularly during the period 1986-2010. Finally, aside from the observed climate trends, correlations between these indices and the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) annual index suggest a coupling between land <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> and, to a lesser extent, precipitation extremes on the one hand, and the AMO signal of the North Atlantic surface sea <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Stephenson, Tannecia; Vincent, Lucie; Allen, Theodore; Van Meerbeeck, Cedric; McLean, Natalie</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">380</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010HMR....64..125W"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Temperature</span> effects on zoeal morphometric traits and intraspecific <span class="hlt">variability</span> in the hairy crab Cancer setosus across latitude</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Phenotypic plasticity is an important but often ignored ability that enables organisms, within species-specific physiological limits, to respond to gradual or sudden extrinsic changes in their environment. In the marine realm, the early ontogeny of decapod crustaceans is among the best known examples to demonstrate a <span class="hlt">temperature</span>-dependent phenotypic response. Here, we present morphometric results of larvae of the hairy crab Cancer setosus, the embryonic development of which took place at different <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> at two different sites (Antofagasta, 23°45' S; Puerto Montt, 41°44' S) along the Chilean Coast. Zoea I larvae from Puerto Montt were significantly larger than those from Antofagasta, when considering embryonic development at the same <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. Larvae from Puerto Montt reared at 12 and 16°C did not differ morphometrically, but sizes of larvae from Antofagasta kept at 16 and 20°C did, being larger at the colder <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. Zoea II larvae reared in Antofagasta at three <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> (16, 20, and 24°C) showed the same pattern, with larger larvae at colder <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. Furthermore, larvae reared at 24°C, showed deformations, suggesting that 24°C, which coincides with <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> found during strong EL Niño events, is indicative of the upper larval thermal tolerance limit. C. setosus is exposed to a wide <span class="hlt">temperature</span> range across its distribution range of about 40° of latitude. Phenotypic plasticity in larval offspring does furthermore enable this species to locally respond to the inter-decadal warming induced by El Niño. Morphological plasticity in this species does support previously reported energetic trade-offs with <span class="hlt">temperature</span> throughout early ontogeny of this species, indicating that plasticity may be a key to a species’ success to occupy a wide distribution range and/or to thrive under highly <span class="hlt">variable</span> habitat conditions.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Weiss, Monika; Thatje, Sven; Heilmayer, Olaf</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return 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onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">381</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15.9763C"> <span id="translatedtitle">The role of surface and advective heat and salt fluxes in the <span class="hlt">variability</span> of North Sea <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and salinity</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The objective of this study is to understand the various roles played by the local air-sea exchange processes and the oceanic advection for changes in <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and salinity of the North Sea. The results are obtained from a three-dimensional model with a resolution of approximately 3 km of the North Sea over the period 1952 - 2001. The simulation is validated by means of observed hydrography and volume fluxes and demonstrated that the model is able to reproduce reasonable results. Oceanic advection shows different effects on <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and salinity changes. The seasonal surface heat flux (Qsur) is larger than advective heat flux (Qadv) over much of the North Sea, except in the region of the Norwegian Trench. In winter and spring, Qadv warms the North Sea through the northern entrance and the English Channel, where in summer and autumn. Qadv shows advective cooling Surface salt flux is much smaller than advective salt flux in the whole North Sea. This indicates that changes in salinity are controlled more by advection than by the precipitation-evaporation balance in the North Sea. In most parts of the North Sea, the seasonal variation of Qsur is much larger than that of Qadv, while the interannual <span class="hlt">variabilities</span> of Qsur and Qadv have the same magnitude. We investigate the roles of on different time scales. Qsur and Qadv for the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variations The study shows that the seasonal variation of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in the North Sea is determined by scale, Qsur. On interannual time scale, Qsur plays an important role on <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variation in most parts of the North Sea. However, in the main pathways of the circulation in the North Sea, Qadv also plays a role on <span class="hlt">temperature</span> interannual <span class="hlt">variability</span>, especially in the northwest inflow region, where the North Atlantic water enters through Fair Isle Passage and from east of the Shetland.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Chen, Xinping; O'Driscoll, Kieran; Mayer, Bernhard; Su, Jian; Mathis, Moritz; Narayan, Nikesh; Pohlmann, Thomas</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">382</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012ECSS..108....7R"> <span id="translatedtitle">Analysis of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> and determination of apparent thermal diffusivity in sandy intertidal sediments at the German North Sea coast</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Temperature</span> was measured at depths of 1, 10, 30, 75, and 170 cm in fine sandy intertidal sediments by means of specially-designed "<span class="hlt">temperature</span> lances". The measurements cover a period from February to October 2007 and have a temporal resolution of 5 min. Stochastic as well as recurrent processes due to the solar cycle and due to tide induces flooding and drying of the sediment surface lead to a complex composition of the time series curves. Spectral analyses based on Fast Fourier Transformation (FFT) reveal that <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> at the sediment water/air interface is widely controlled by recurrent processes with period lengths of 4.93, 6.1, 8.19, ˜12, ˜24 h, and 354 h (14.7 days). The importance of the higher frequencies decreases with increasing sediment depth. At a depth of 30 cm the 24 h and the 14.7 days cycles mainly determine the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> development over time, while at 75 cm sediment depth contour <span class="hlt">temperature</span> varies only along the 14.7 days cycle, as well as within the seasonal cycle. Using cross-correlation-analysis the time necessary for a <span class="hlt">temperature</span> signal at the surface to trigger a response at a sediment depth of 10, 30, and 75 cm was calculated as 1.4, 7.0, and 73.1 h respectively. Utilizing an alternate approach, FFT derived <span class="hlt">temperature</span> peak-to-peak amplitude values and phase angles of up to 9 different cycles were used to calculate apparent thermal diffusivity in different sediment depths. The thermal diffusivity decreases from approximately 6-9 × 10-7 m2 s-1 from the surface down to a sediment depth of 75 cm. The specially-designed instrumentation has proven to be robust and precise enough to record high resolution time series of sediment <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in different depths. The time series analysis of the data clearly shows that the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> in the intertidal sediments to a high degree can be explained by recurrent solar and/or tidal effects. So the methods and results presented in this paper can help to answer questions, which are related to sediment <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in tidal flat environments.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ricklefs, Klaus; Vanselow, Klaus Heinrich</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">383</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFMPP33C..08S"> <span id="translatedtitle">Late Holocene megadroughts and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> changes in the tropics: coherent century-scale climate <span class="hlt">variability</span> across the tropics</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">High latitude paleoclimate reconstructions for the late Holocene show large shifts in <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and rainfall on century timescales, with the most notable of these events occurring during the Medieval Climate Anomaly and the Little Ice Age. The tropical manifestation of these events is less clear, though existing records seem to provide evidence for significant <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and rainfall changes that are at least broadly synchronous with events at the high latitudes. Here we present new multiproxy geochemical and stable isotope (e.g., ?18O, ?Dleaf wax) records from sites in tropical South America, Africa and the West Pacific, which show strongly coherent and synchronous patterns of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and rainfall <span class="hlt">variability</span>. These data provide a strong support for a dynamical linkage between the tropical monsoon systems, as well as between the tropics and the high latitudes on century timescales. Several sites also indicate that rainfall variations were accompanied by significant (e.g., 1-2 C) <span class="hlt">temperature</span> changes, indicating that high latitude <span class="hlt">temperature</span> depressions were propagated to the low latitudes during late Holocene cold intervals, though the mechanism driving these <span class="hlt">temperature</span> changes is unclear.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Shanahan, T. M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">384</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/18645692"> <span id="translatedtitle">Time-accurate calculation of <span class="hlt">variable</span> density flows with strong <span class="hlt">temperature</span> gradients and combustion</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">A time-accurate algorithm is proposed for low Mach number, <span class="hlt">variable</span> density flows with or without chemical reactions. The algorithm is based on a predictor–corrector time integration scheme that employs a projection method for the momentum equation. A constant-coefficient Poisson equation is solved for the pressure following both the predictor and corrector steps to fully satisfy the continuity equation at each</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bamdad Lessani; Miltiadis V. Papalexandris</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">385</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.agu.org/journals/gl/gl0708/2006GL028764/2006GL028764.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Suggestive correlations between the brightness of Neptune, solar <span class="hlt">variability</span>, and Earth's <span class="hlt">temperature</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Long-term photometric measurements of Neptune show variations of brightness over half a century. Seasonal change in Neptune's atmosphere may partially explain a general rise in the long-term light curve, but cannot explain its detailed variations. This leads us to consider the possibility of solar-driven changes, i.e., changes incurred by innate solar <span class="hlt">variability</span> perhaps coupled with changing seasonal insolation. Although correlations</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">H. B. Hammel; G. W. Lockwood</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">386</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003EAEJA.....3977R"> <span id="translatedtitle">Modelling temporal and large-scale spatial <span class="hlt">variability</span> of soil respiration from soil water availability, <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and vegetation productivity indices</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Field-chamber measurements of soil respiration from 17 different forest and shrubland sites in Europe and North America were summarized and analyzed with the goal to develop a model describing seasonal, inter-annual and spatial <span class="hlt">variability</span> of soil respiration as affected by water availability, <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and site properties. The analysis was performed at a daily and at a monthly time step. With the daily time step, the relative soil water content in the upper soil layer expressed as a fraction of field capacity was a good predictor of soil respiration at all sites. Among the site <span class="hlt">variables</span> tested, those related to site productivity (e.g. leaf area index) correlated significantly with soil respiration, while carbon pool <span class="hlt">variables</span> like standing biomass or the litter and soil carbon stocks did not show a clear relationship with soil respiration. Furthermore, it was evidenced that the effect of precipitation on soil respiration stretched beyond its direct effect via soil moisture. A general statistical non-linear regression model was developed to describe soil respiration as dependent on soil <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, soil water content and site-specific maximum leaf area index. The model explained nearly two thirds of the temporal and inter-site <span class="hlt">variability</span> of soil respiration with a mean absolute error of 0.82 µmol m-2 s-1. The parameterised model exhibits the following principal properties: 1) At a relative amount of upper-layer soil water of 16% of field capacity half-maximal soil respiration rates are reached. 2) The apparent <span class="hlt">temperature</span> sensitivity of soil respiration measured as Q10 varies between 1 and 5 depending on soil <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and water content. 3) Soil respiration under reference moisture and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> conditions is linearly related to maximum site leaf area index. At a monthly time-scale we employed the approach by Raich et al. (2002, Global Change Biol. 8, 800-812) that used monthly precipitation and air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> to globally predict soil respiration (T&P-model). While this model was able to explain some of the month-to-month <span class="hlt">variability</span> of soil respiration, it failed to capture the inter-site <span class="hlt">variability</span>, regardless whether the original or a new optimized model parameterization was used. In both cases, the residuals were strongly related to maximum site leaf area index. Thus, for a monthly time scale we developed a simple T&P&LAI-model that includes leaf area index as an additional predictor of soil respiration. This extended but still simple model performed nearly as well as the more detailed time-step model and explained 50 % of the overall and 65% of the site-to-site <span class="hlt">variability</span>. Consequently, better estimates of globally distributed soil respiration should be obtained with the new model driven by satellite estimates of leaf area index.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Reichstein, M.; Rey, A.; Freibauer, A.; Tenhunen, J.; Valentini, R.; Soil Respiration Synthesis Team</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">387</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003GBioC..17.1104R"> <span id="translatedtitle">Modeling temporal and large-scale spatial <span class="hlt">variability</span> of soil respiration from soil water availability, <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and vegetation productivity indices</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Field-chamber measurements of soil respiration from 17 different forest and shrubland sites in Europe and North America were summarized and analyzed with the goal to develop a model describing seasonal, interannual and spatial <span class="hlt">variability</span> of soil respiration as affected by water availability, <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, and site properties. The analysis was performed at a daily and at a monthly time step. With the daily time step, the relative soil water content in the upper soil layer expressed as a fraction of field capacity was a good predictor of soil respiration at all sites. Among the site <span class="hlt">variables</span> tested, those related to site productivity (e.g., leaf area index) correlated significantly with soil respiration, while carbon pool <span class="hlt">variables</span> like standing biomass or the litter and soil carbon stocks did not show a clear relationship with soil respiration. Furthermore, it was evidenced that the effect of precipitation on soil respiration stretched beyond its direct effect via soil moisture. A general statistical nonlinear regression model was developed to describe soil respiration as dependent on soil <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, soil water content, and site-specific maximum leaf area index. The model explained nearly two thirds of the temporal and intersite <span class="hlt">variability</span> of soil respiration with a mean absolute error of 0.82 ?mol m-2 s-1. The parameterized model exhibits the following principal properties: (1) At a relative amount of upper-layer soil water of 16% of field capacity, half-maximal soil respiration rates are reached. (2) The apparent <span class="hlt">temperature</span> sensitivity of soil respiration measured as Q10 varies between 1 and 5 depending on soil <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and water content. (3) Soil respiration under reference moisture and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> conditions is linearly related to maximum site leaf area index. At a monthly timescale, we employed the approach by [2002] that used monthly precipitation and air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> to globally predict soil respiration (T&P model). While this model was able to explain some of the month-to-month <span class="hlt">variability</span> of soil respiration, it failed to capture the intersite <span class="hlt">variability</span>, regardless of whether the original or a new optimized model parameterization was used. In both cases, the residuals were strongly related to maximum site leaf area index. Thus, for a monthly timescale, we developed a simple T&P&LAI model that includes leaf area index as an additional predictor of soil respiration. This extended but still simple model performed nearly as well as the more detailed time step model and explained 50% of the overall and 65% of the site-to-site <span class="hlt">variability</span>. Consequently, better estimates of globally distributed soil respiration should be obtained with the new model driven by satellite estimates of leaf area index. Before application at the continental or global scale, this approach should be further tested in boreal, cold-temperate, and tropical biomes as well as for non-woody vegetation.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Reichstein, Markus; Rey, Ana; Freibauer, Annette; Tenhunen, John; Valentini, Riccardo; Banza, Joao; Casals, Pere; Cheng, Yufu; Grünzweig, Jose M.; Irvine, James; Joffre, Richard; Law, Beverly E.; Loustau, Denis; Miglietta, Franco; Oechel, Walter; Ourcival, Jean-Marc; Pereira, Joao S.; Peressotti, Alessandro; Ponti, Francesca; Qi, Ye; Rambal, Serge; Rayment, Mark; Romanya, Joan; Rossi, Federica; Tedeschi, Vanessa; Tirone, Giampiero; Xu, Ming; Yakir, Dan</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">388</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/792558"> <span id="translatedtitle">Comparison of <span class="hlt">Variability</span> of the Monthly Mean <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> of the ECMWF and NCEP Reanalyses and CCM3 and DSM Simulations</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The low frequency variation in the three dimensional air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> fields of two reanalyses and two model simulations are described. The data sets used are the monthly mean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> fields for the NCAR Climate Simulation Model (CSM, Boville and Gent, 1998) 300 year run, a NCAR Community Climate Model version 3 (CCM3, Kiehl et al., 1998) AMIP type simulation, and the NCEPLNCAR and ECMWF (ERA) reanalysis data sets. The variances and correlations are computed for the anomalies from the annual cycle for each data set. In general the reanalyses and models agree fairly well on the structure of the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variance. The models tend to have too much variance at the surface compared to the reanalyses. The CSM's poor simulation of the SST in the eastern Pacific leads to a much reduced variance in the Nino3 region. The enhanced <span class="hlt">variability</span> over land appears to affect the midlatitude simulation of the CSM in that the higher surface <span class="hlt">variability</span> extends off the east coast of continents. This is not evident in CCM3 and reanalyses where the SSTs are prescribed. At 200 hPa the CCM3 and reanalyses all evince the dumb bell pattern straddling the Equator in the eastern Pacific attributed by Yulaeva and Wallace (1994) to ENS0 variations. The CSM shows no such pattern. A CCM3 integration using climatological SSTs displays more variance that the CSM in this region, apparently the CSM suppresses <span class="hlt">variability</span> in this locale. The correlations of the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> fields with the surface air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> show that the regions of subtropical subsidence are virtually uncorrelated to the surface at the 700 hPa level. The regions of the cold water off the west coast of continents evince decoupling with the surface at 850 hPa. In the region from 30s to 30N the zonal mean correlation falls to about 0.7 below 800 hPa, with this value extending up to about 600 hPa in mid and upper latitudes. These characteristics are consistent across all the data sets. Thus, the variations of vertically integrated measures such as MSU <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> do not need agree with observations of surface air <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> at the time scales examined here.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Boyle, J.S.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2000-02-16</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">389</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/802098"> <span id="translatedtitle">Comparison of <span class="hlt">Variability</span> of the Monthly Mean <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> of the ECMWF and NCEP Reanalyses and CCM3 and CSM Simulations</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The low frequency variation in the three dimensional air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> fields of two reanalyses and two model simulations are described. The data sets used are the monthly mean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> fields for the NCAR Climate Simulation Model (CSM, Boville and Gent, 1998) 300 year run, a NCAR Community Climate Model version 3 (CCM3, Kiehl et al., 1998) AMIP type simulation, and the NCEP/NCAR and ECMWF (ERA) reanalysis data sets. The variances and correlations are computed for the anomalies from the annual cycle for each data set. In general the reanalyses and models agree fairly well on the structure of the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variance. The models tend to have too much variance at the surface compared to the reanalyses. The CSMs poor simulation of the SST in the eastern Pacific leads to a much reduced variance in the Nino3 region. The enhanced <span class="hlt">variability</span> over land appears to affect the midlatitude simulation of the CSM in that the higher surface <span class="hlt">variability</span> extends off the east coast of continents. This is not evident in CCM3 and reanalyses where the SSTs are prescribed. At 200 hPa the CCM3 and reanalyses all evince the dumb bell pattern straddling the Equator in the eastern Pacific attributed by Yulaeva and Wallace (1994) to ENSO variations. The CSM shows no such pattern. A CCM3 integration using climatological SSTs displays more variance that the CSM in this region. Apparently the coupling to an ocean in the CSM suppresses the atmospheric model's <span class="hlt">variability</span> in this locale. The correlations of the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> fields with the surface air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> show that the regions of subtropical subsidence are virtually uncorrelated to the surface at the 700 hPa level. The regions of the cold water off the west coast of continents evince decoupling with the surface at 850 hPa. In the region from 30S to 30N the zonal mean correlation falls to about 0.7 below 800 hPa, with this value extending up to about 600 hPa in mid and upper latitudes. These characteristics are consistent across all the data sets. Thus, the variations of vertically integrated measures such as MSU <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> need not agree with observations of surface air <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> at the time scales examined here.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Boyle, J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2000-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">390</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20800222"> <span id="translatedtitle">The Effect of the <span class="hlt">Variability</span> in the Isotopic Composition of Gases on Top-Accuracy Cryogenic <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Standards and Remedies</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In the cryogenic range, <span class="hlt">temperature</span> standards are based on the measurement of phase transitions of substances that are gaseous at room <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. For total uncertainty budgets today approaching, for the most accurate realizations, 50 {mu}K, the effect of different isotopic compositions in the samples measured can become so large as to be the leading component of the total uncertainty budget.The <span class="hlt">variability</span> of the isotopic composition is a well-known issue and is regularly monitored and reviewed by bodies such as the IUPAC. However, these data cover the whole spectrum of the <span class="hlt">variability</span> observed on the earth. The actual <span class="hlt">variability</span> that can be observed when buying commercial substances could be smaller to such an extent to alleviate or eliminate the practical problem, or could instead remain relevant. Only recently attention has been paid to the latter problem and the results were partially unexpected. This paper briefly reviews the modern analytical and thermal techniques, the resulting present knowledge and problems, and some recent solutions.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Pavese, F. [CNR, Istituto di Metrologia 'G.Colonnetti' (IMGC), Turin, 10135 (Italy)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-04-27</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">391</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012JASTP..80..138P"> <span id="translatedtitle">A simulation of the quasi-two-day wave and its effect on <span class="hlt">variability</span> of summertime mesopause <span class="hlt">temperatures</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The quasi 2-day wave is studied using a multi-year simulation of the Canadian Middle Atmosphere Model. The general characteristics of the wave are presented, and interannual and inter-hemispheric differences are discussed. The simulated quasi 2-day wave amplifies shortly after solstice in the summer hemisphere. The wave exhibits a <span class="hlt">variable</span> phase speed over the summer season, which decreases as the mesospheric jet weakens. As such, the period is initially shorter than 2 days, but can lengthen to more than 2 days. A 2-day wave index is defined using empirical orthogonal functions, and is used to describe the behaviour of the quasi 2-day wave. The 2-day index is also used to examine the effect of the 2-day wave on mesospheric <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> through its impact on the residual circulation. It is determined that up to 10% of the interannual <span class="hlt">variability</span> in the seasonal polar summer mesopause <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> can be attributed to the simulated quasi 2-day wave. It could, therefore, be a significant source of <span class="hlt">variability</span> for polar mesospheric clouds.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Pendlebury, Diane</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">392</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013SPIE.8768E..2SS"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Temperature</span> control system of resistance-heated furnace based on <span class="hlt">variable</span> fuzzy-PI control</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In order to solve the problem that resistance-heated furnace has the disadvantage of non-linearity, slow time-variant and large delay and so on, a <span class="hlt">temperature</span> control system of the resistance-heated furnace has been designed according to the fuzzy-PI algorithm. Because this method has the merits of both PI and fuzzy control, the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> control effect is improved to large extent. When the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> error between given value and measured value is too large, the fuzzy control is adopted. When the error is too small, the PI control is used. The simulation test is performed by MATLAB, and the results indicate that this system has the advantages of small overshoot, short adjusting time and good robustness.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Shi, Dequan; Gao, Guili; Gao, Zhiwei; Xiao, Peng</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">393</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013ExFl...54.1599S"> <span id="translatedtitle">Experimental study of thermal mixing layer using <span class="hlt">variable</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> hot-wire anemometry</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The buoyancy effects on the development of the thermal mixing layer downstream from a horizontal separating plate were studied by comparing stable and unstable counter-gradient configurations. In this study, the novel experimental technique called parameterizable constant <span class="hlt">temperature</span> anemometer, proposed by Ndoye et al. (Meas Sci Technol 21(7):075401, 2010), was improved to make possible the simultaneous measurement of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and two velocity components with an x-wire probe. The buoyancy effects on the flow are discussed through the transport equations of turbulent kinetic energy and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variance. In view of the low Richardson numbers at stake ( Ri f < 0.03), the buoyancy forces appeared logically to be quantitatively negligible compared to the main driving forces, but such a low-energy forcing mechanism was in fact sufficient in unstable configurations to increase the shear stress and the expansion rate of the mixing layer significantly, both phenomena being associated with enhanced production of turbulence.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sodjavi, Kodjovi; Carlier, Johan</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">394</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10182152"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Variable</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> optoacoustic studies of 4f-states of neodymium in oxide phases</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">An apparatus for recording high sensitivity photoacoustic spectra from strongly light scattering samples has been constructed and tested at <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> from 4 to 295K. The apparatus is suitable for use with air- or moisture-sensitive samples or radioactive samples requiring containment. Unlike an earlier ambient <span class="hlt">temperature</span> photoacoustic study on Nd{sub 2}O{sub 3}, the photoacoustic bands observed from high purity Nd{sub 2}O{sub 3} in the present work agree well with the Stark components of 4f states of Nd{sup 3+} in A-type Nd{sub 2}O{sub 3} as assigned by Caro, Derouet, and Beaury.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Beitz, J.V.; Hinaus, B.M. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Huang, Jin [Wisconsin Univ., Madison, WI (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1993-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">395</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2000Sci...290.1145L"> <span id="translatedtitle">Decadal Sea Surface <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> <span class="hlt">Variability</span> in the Subtropical South Pacific from 1726 to 1997 A.D.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We present a 271-year record of Sr/Ca <span class="hlt">variability</span> in a coral from Rarotonga in the South Pacific gyre. Calibration with monthly sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (SST) from satellite and ship measurements made in a grid measuring 1° by 1° over the period from 1981 to 1997 indicates that this Sr/Ca record is an excellent proxy for SST. Comparison with SST from ship measurements made since 1950 in a grid measuring 5° by 5° also shows that the Sr/Ca data accurately record decadal changes in SST. The entire Sr/Ca record back to 1726 shows a distinct pattern of decadal <span class="hlt">variability</span>, with repeated decadal and interdecadal SST regime shifts greater than 0.75°C. Comparison with decadal climate <span class="hlt">variability</span> in the North Pacific, as represented by the Pacific Decadal Oscillation index (1900-1997), indicates that several of the largest decadal-scale SST variations at Rarotonga are coherent with SST regime shifts in the North Pacific. This hemispheric symmetry suggests that tropical forcing may be an important factor in at least some of the decadal <span class="hlt">variability</span> observed in the Pacific Ocean.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Linsley, Braddock K.; Wellington, Gerard M.; Schrag, Daniel P.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2000-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">396</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012WRR....48.2527B"> <span id="translatedtitle">Using high-resolution distributed <span class="hlt">temperature</span> sensing to quantify spatial and temporal <span class="hlt">variability</span> in vertical hyporheic flux</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Hyporheic flow can be extremely <span class="hlt">variable</span> in space and time, and our understanding of complicated flow systems, such as exchange around small dams, has generally been limited to reach-averaged parameters or discrete point measurements. Emerging techniques are starting to fill the void between these disparate scales, increasing the utility of hyporheic research. When ambient diurnal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> patterns are collected at high spatial resolution across vertical profiles in the streambed, the data can be applied to one-dimensional conduction-advection-dispersion models to quantitatively describe the vertical component of hyporheic flux at the same high spatial resolution. We have built on recent work by constructing custom fiber-optic distributed <span class="hlt">temperature</span> sensors with 0.014 m spatial resolution that are robust enough to be installed by hand into the streambed, maintain high signal strength, and permit several sensors to be run in series off a single distributed <span class="hlt">temperature</span> sensing unit. Data were collected continuously for 1 month above two beaver dams in a Wyoming stream to determine the spatial and temporal nature of vertical flux induced by the dams. Flux was organized by streambed morphology with strong, <span class="hlt">variable</span> gradients with depth indicating a transition to horizontal flow across a spectrum of hyporheic flow paths. Several profiles showed contrasting temporal trends as discharge decreased by 45%. The high-resolution thermal sensors, combined with powerful analytical techniques, allowed a distributed quantitative description of the morphology-driven hyporheic system not previously possible.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Briggs, Martin A.; Lautz, Laura K.; McKenzie, Jeffrey M.; Gordon, Ryan P.; Hare, Danielle K.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">397</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010OcDyn..60..771G"> <span id="translatedtitle">The roles of surface heat flux and ocean heat transport convergence in determining Atlantic Ocean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> of the Atlantic Ocean is investigated using an eddy-permitting (1/4°) global ocean model (ORCA-025) forced with historical surface meteorological fields from 1958 to 2001. The simulation of volume-averaged <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and the vertical structure of the zonally averaged <span class="hlt">temperature</span> trends are compared with those from observations. In regions with a high number of observations, in particular above a depth of 500 m and between 22° N and 65° N, the model simulation and the dataset are in good agreement. The relative contribution of <span class="hlt">variability</span> in ocean heat transport (OHT) convergence and net surface heat flux to changes in ocean heat content is investigated with a focus on three regions: the subpolar and subtropical gyres and the tropics. The surface heat flux plays a relatively minor role in year-to-year changes in the subpolar and subtropical regions, but in the tropical North Atlantic, its role is of similar significance to the ocean heat transport convergence. The strongest signal during the study period is a cooling of the subpolar gyre between 1970 and 1990, which subsequently reversed as the mid-latitude OHT convergence transitioned from an anomalously weak to an anomalously strong state. We also explore whether model OHT anomalies can be linked to surface flux anomalies through a Hovmöller analysis of the Atlantic sector. At low latitudes, increased ocean heat gain coincides with anomalously strong northward transport, whereas at mid-high latitudes, reduced ocean heat loss is associated with anomalously weak heat transport.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Grist, Jeremy P.; Josey, Simon A.; Marsh, Robert; Good, Simon A.; Coward, Andrew. C.; de Cuevas, Beverly A.; Alderson, Steven G.; New, Adrian L.; Madec, Gurvan</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">398</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008IzAOP..44..517T"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Variability</span> of sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in the Japan Sea and its relationship to the wind-curl field</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The <span class="hlt">variability</span> of sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (SST) in the Japan Sea is investigated using the complex EOF analysis of daily data produced at Tohoku University, Japan (New Generation SST; 2002-2006). The relationship with the wind field is investigated from the daily NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data wi