Note: This page contains sample records for the topic day-to-day temperature variability from Science.gov.
While these samples are representative of the content of Science.gov,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of Science.gov
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.
Last update: August 15, 2014.
1

Day-to-day variability in ionospheric electron content  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Published values of ionospheric electron content (IEC) are used to study its day-to-day variability at a number of stations extending from equatorial to mid-latitudes in Indian and American sectors for high and low solar activity years. It is seen that the variability is larger at night than by day, highest in February and November (D months) and lowest in equinox (E) months. The solar activity dependence is such that the variability is higher during high sunspot years than during low sunspot years for mid- and subauroral latitudes while for low latitudes this trend is reversed from 08 to 23 h local time. From a correlative study of the variability in IEC vis-a-vis that in possible causative factors such as solar 10.7 cm flux. magnetic activity, equatorial and auroral electrojet, the relative contributions of the above factors to the variability in IEC at different locations are brought out. The spatial correlation of TEC is also studied.

Aravindakshan, P.; Iyer, K. N.

1993-10-01

2

Description of Day-to-Day Variability in IRI  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The International Reference Ionosphere (IRI) describes the monthly average behavior of Earth's ionosphere based on most of the accessible and reliable ground and space observations of ionospheric parameters. IRI is doing an excellent job in accurately representing these average conditions as countless comparisons with additional data have shown and as acknowledged by the fact that international organizations (COSPAR, URSI, ISO, ECSS) have accepted IRI as their ionosphere standard. However, with our ever-increasing dependence on space technology it has become important to go beyond the monthly averages and to provide a description of the day-to-day variability of the ionosphere. We will review past and ongoing efforts to provide IRI users with a quantitative description of ionospheric variability depending on altitude, time of day, time of year, latitude and solar and magnetic activity. We will present new results from an analysis of ISIS and Alouette topside sounder data. The IRI team is also pursuing the development of an IRI Real-Time (IRI-RT) that uses assimilative algorithms or updating procedures to combine IRI with real-time data for a more accurate picture of current ionospheric conditions. We will review the status of these activities and report on latest results.

Bilitza, Dieter; Liu, Boding; Rodriguez, Joseph E.

2013-04-01

3

Day-to-day ionospheric variability due to lower atmosphere perturbations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Abstract Ionospheric <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> is a ubiquitous feature, even in the absence of appreciable geomagnetic activities. Although meteorological perturbations have been recognized as an important source of the <span class="hlt">variability</span>, it is not well represented in previous modeling studies and the mechanism is not well understood. This study demonstrates that the thermosphere-ionosphere-mesosphere-electrodynamics general circulation model (TIME-GCM) constrained in the stratosphere and mesosphere by the hourly whole atmosphere community climate model (WACCM) simulations is capable of reproducing observed features of <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> in the thermosphere-ionosphere. Realistic weather patterns in the lower atmosphere in WACCM were specified by Modern Era Retrospective Reanalysis for Research and Application (MERRA). The <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> variations in mean zonal wind, migrating and nonmigrating tides in the thermosphere, vertical and zonal E × B drifts, and ionosphere F2 layer peak electron density (NmF2) are examined. The standard deviations of the drifts and NmF2 show local time and longitudinal dependence that compare favorably with observations. Their magnitudes are 50% or more of those from observations. The <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> thermosphere and ionosphere <span class="hlt">variability</span> in the model is primarily caused by the perturbations originated in lower atmosphere, since the model simulation is under constant solar minimum and low geomagnetic conditions.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Liu, H.-L.; Yudin, V. A.; Roble, R. G.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">4</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19890001426&hterms=spring+water&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3Dspring%2Bwater"> <span id="translatedtitle">The observed <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> of Mars water vapor</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The diurnal <span class="hlt">variability</span> of atmospheric water vapor as derived from the Viking MAWD data is discussed. The detection of <span class="hlt">day</span> <span class="hlt">to</span> <span class="hlt">day</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> of atmospheric water would be a significant finding since it would place constraints on the nature of surface reservoirs. Unfortunately, the diurnal <span class="hlt">variability</span> seen by the MAWD experiment is well correlated with the occurrence of dust and/or ice hazes, making it difficult to separate real variations from observational effects. Analysis of the <span class="hlt">day</span> <span class="hlt">to</span> <span class="hlt">day</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> of water vapor in the Martian atmosphere suggests that the observations are, at certain locations and seasons, significantly affected by the presence of water-ice hazes. Because such effects are generally limited to specific locations, such as Tharsis, Lunae Planum, and the polar cap edge during the spring, the seasonal and latitudinal trends in water vapor that have been previously reported are not significantly affected.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jakosky, Bruce M.; Lapointe, Michael R.; Zurek, Richard W.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1987-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">5</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22960661"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Day-to-day</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> of oscillatory impedance and spirometry in asthma and COPD.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Variability</span> in airway function may be a marker of disease activity in COPD and asthma. The aim was to determine the effects of repeatability and airway obstruction on <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> in respiratory system resistance (Rrs) and reactance (Xrs) measured by forced oscillation technique (FOT). Three groups of 10 subjects; normals, stable asthmatic and stable COPD subjects underwent daily FOT recordings for 7 days. Mean total and inspiratory Rrs and Xrs, and expiratory flow limitation (EFL) Index (inspiratory - expiratory Xrs), were calculated. The ICC's were high for all parameters in all groups. Repeatability, in terms of absolute units, correlated with airway obstruction and was therefore lowest in COPD. <span class="hlt">Day-to-day</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> was due mostly to repeatability, with a small contribution from the mean value for some parameters. FOT measures are highly repeatable in health, stable asthma and COPD in relation to the wide range of measures between subjects. For home monitoring in asthma and COPD, either the coefficient of variation or individualized SDs could be used to define <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span>. PMID:22960661</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Timmins, Sophie C; Coatsworth, Nicholas; Palnitkar, Gaurie; Thamrin, Cindy; Farrow, Catherine E; Schoeffel, Robin E; Berend, Norbert; Diba, Chantale; Salome, Cheryl M; King, Gregory G</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">6</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1990P%26SS...38..743A"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Day-to-day</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> in ionospheric electron content at low latitudes</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Published values of ionospheric electron content (IEC) are used to study its <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> at a number of low latitude stations in Indian, American, and Pacific sectors for varying levels of solar activity. It is seen that the <span class="hlt">variability</span> is larger at night than day, higher in winter compared with summer, and higher in low-sunspot periods than in high-sunspot periods. From a correlative study of <span class="hlt">variability</span> in IEC with possible causative factors such as solar 10.7-cm flux, sunspot activity, magnetic activity, and electrojet strength, it is seen that the dominant factor contributing to the <span class="hlt">variability</span> in IEC is the electrojet strength.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Aravindan, P.; Iyer, K. N.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1990-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">7</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4020012"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Day-to-day</span> <span class="hlt">Variability</span> in Nap Duration Predicts Medical Morbidity in Older Adults</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Objective The objectives for the present study were to: 1) examine within-person <span class="hlt">variability</span> of nap duration and 2) assess how <span class="hlt">variability</span> in nap duration is related to the number of health conditions in a sample of older adults. For highly <span class="hlt">variable</span> behaviors such as sleep, it is important to consider fluctuations within the person instead of solely comparing averages of behaviors across persons. Methods Data were drawn from a previous study examining sleep in 103 community-dwelling older adults. Subjective estimates of napping behavior were obtained from sleep diaries and objective estimates of napping behavior were obtained using actigraphy. Both measures were collected for 14 consecutive days. The sampled data were aggregated in terms of: 1) average daily time spent napping and 2) average within-person fluctuations in daily nap duration. The health measure consisted of the number of self-reported health conditions. Results Both the objective and subjective measures revealed that there was considerable <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> fluctuation in nap duration and that <span class="hlt">variability</span> in nap duration, not mean duration, uniquely predicted the number of health conditions, [b=.03, b*=.26, t(100)= 2.71, p = .01]. Conclusions Duration of napping in the elderly is a highly <span class="hlt">variable</span> behavior, fluctuating as much within- as between-person. Further, <span class="hlt">variability</span> in nap duration from <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> is predictive of greater medical morbidity, suggesting that clinicians should assess for inconsistencies in nap behavior in addition to duration, frequency, and timing.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Dautovich, Natalie D.; Kay, Daniel B.; Perlis, Michael L.; Dzierzewski, Joseph M.; Rowe, Meredeth A.; McCrae, Christina S.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">8</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12514296"> <span id="translatedtitle">Implications of <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> on measurements of usual food and nutrient intakes.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Day-to-day</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> in dietary intake makes it difficult to measure accurately the "usual" intake of foods and nutrients. The objectives of the present study were to estimate within- and between-subject <span class="hlt">variability</span> for foods and nutrients by adjusted and unadjusted models and to assess the number of days required to assess nutrient and food group intakes accurately by two different methods. Adult men and women aged 18-65 y (n = 1543) in the Food Habits of Canadians Study provided a 24-h recall. A repeat interview was conducted in a subsample to estimate components of <span class="hlt">variability</span>. Within- and between-subject <span class="hlt">variability</span> were determined by mixed model procedure (crude and adjusted for age, gender, education, smoking, family size and season). The number of days required to obtain various degrees of accuracy was ascertained by two methods, one that uses the variance ratio for groups and one that considers within-subject <span class="hlt">variability</span> alone for individuals. Variance ratios were higher using the adjusted compared with the unadjusted method (e.g., for men, energy 1.07 vs. 0.49). More days were required to reflect usual intake with accuracy using the adjusted model (energy 5 vs. 2 d), indicating the need to control for confounders to obtain reliable estimates of intakes. PMID:12514296</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Palaniappan, U; Cue, R I; Payette, H; Gray-Donald, K</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">9</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1988Icar...73...80J"> <span id="translatedtitle">The observed <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> of Mars atmospheric water vapor</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The present evaluation of Viking water column abundance measurements of the Martian atmosphere notes observed changes to be due to atmospheric water vapor vertical column abundance variations, as well as to apparent changes resulting from abundance changes of atmospheric aerosols, relative vertical distribution changes of water vapor and aerosol, or systematic viewing-geometry variations. <span class="hlt">Variability</span> noted in several major regions by visible and thermal-IR observations is found to very accurately coincide with the occurrence of water ice clouds and hazes.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jakosky, B. M.; Zurek, R. W.; La Pointe, M. R.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1988-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">10</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24688128"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Day-to-Day</span> <span class="hlt">Variability</span> in Home Blood Pressure Is Associated With Cognitive Decline: The Ohasama Study.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Although an association between high blood pressure and cognitive decline has been reported, no studies have investigated the association between home blood pressure and cognitive decline. Home blood pressure measurements can also provide <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> blood pressure <span class="hlt">variability</span> calculated as the within-participant SD. The objectives of this prospective study were to clarify whether home blood pressure has a stronger predictive power for cognitive decline than conventional blood pressure and to compare the predictive power of the averaged home blood pressure with <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> home blood pressure <span class="hlt">variability</span> for cognitive decline. Of 485 participants (mean age, 63 years) who did not have cognitive decline (defined as Mini-Mental State Examination score, <24) initially, 46 developed cognitive decline after a median follow-up of 7.8 years. Each 1-SD increase in the home systolic blood pressure value showed a significant association with cognitive decline (odds ratio, 1.48; P=0.03). However, conventional systolic blood pressure was not significantly associated with cognitive decline (odds ratio, 1.24; P=0.2). The <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> in systolic blood pressure was significantly associated with cognitive decline after including home systolic blood pressure in the same model (odds ratio, 1.51; P=0.02), whereas the odds ratio of home systolic blood pressure remained positive, but it was not significant. Home blood pressure measurements can be useful for predicting future cognitive decline because they can provide information not only on blood pressure values but also on <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> blood pressure <span class="hlt">variability</span>. PMID:24688128</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Matsumoto, Akihiro; Satoh, Michihiro; Kikuya, Masahiro; Ohkubo, Takayoshi; Hirano, Mikio; Inoue, Ryusuke; Hashimoto, Takanao; Hara, Azusa; Hirose, Takuo; Obara, Taku; Metoki, Hirohito; Asayama, Kei; Hosokawa, Aya; Totsune, Kazuhito; Hoshi, Haruhisa; Hosokawa, Toru; Sato, Hiroshi; Imai, Yutaka</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">11</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008JGRA..113.9309S"> <span id="translatedtitle">Spatial correlations of <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> ionospheric total electron content <span class="hlt">variability</span> obtained from ground-based GPS</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The spatial correlations of <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> ionospheric TEC variations for four 30-day long periods in 2004 (January, March/April, June/July, September/October) were determined using more than 1000 ground-based GPS receivers. The spatial correlations were obtained in a two-step process. Initially, the <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> was calculated by first mapping the observed slant TEC values for each 5-min GPS ground receiver-satellite pair to the vertical using a simple geometrical factor and then differencing it with its corresponding value from the previous day. This resulted in more than 150 million values of <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> change in TEC (?TEC). Next, statistics were performed on the ?TEC values to obtain their spatial correlations. Our study indicates strong correlations between geomagnetic conjugate points, and these correlations are larger at low latitudes (r = 0.63-0.73) than at mid-latitudes (r = 0.32-0.43). Typical correlation lengths, defined as the angular separation at which the correlation coefficient drops to 0.7, were found to be larger at mid-latitudes than at low latitudes. The meridional correlation lengths are about 7 degrees and 4 degrees at middle and low latitudes, respectively. The zonal correlation lengths are approximately 20 degrees at mid-latitudes and 11 degrees at low latitudes. The correlation lengths are larger during daytime (1100-1300 MLT) than during nighttime (2300-0100 MLT). The results indicate that the spatial correlation is largely independent of season. These spatial correlations are important for understanding the physical mechanisms that cause ionospheric weather <span class="hlt">variability</span> and are also relevant to data assimilation.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Shim, J. S.; Scherliess, L.; Schunk, R. W.; Thompson, D. C.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">12</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013GeoRL..40.4469P"> <span id="translatedtitle">Application of data assimilation in the Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model to the study of <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> in the middle and upper atmosphere</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Data Assimilation Research Testbed (DART) ensemble adjustment Kalman filter (EAKF) is employed to perform data assimilation in the Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model (WACCM). To demonstrate the potential of the WACCM+DART for studying short-term <span class="hlt">variability</span> in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere (MLT), results are presented based on the assimilation of synthetic observations that are sampled from a known model truth. We assimilate <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and wind from radiosondes and aircraft, satellite drift winds, and COSMIC refractivity in the lower atmosphere, and SABER <span class="hlt">temperature</span> observations in the middle/upper atmosphere. Relative to an unconstrained WACCM simulation, the assimilation of only lower atmosphere observations reduces the global root mean square error (RMSE) in zonal wind by up to 40% at MLT altitudes. Using data assimilation to constrain the lower atmosphere can therefore provide significant insight into MLT <span class="hlt">variability</span>. The RMSE in the MLT is reduced by an additional 10-15% when SABER observations are also assimilated. The WACCM+DART is shown to be able to reproduce the large-scale features of the <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> in the zonal mean, migrating, and nonmigrating tides in the MLT. Though our simulation results are based on idealized conditions, they demonstrate that the WACCM+DART can reproduce the <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> in the MLT. Assimilation of real observations in the WACCM+DART will therefore enable significant insight into the real <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> dynamical <span class="hlt">variability</span> from the surface to the lower thermosphere.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Pedatella, N. M.; Raeder, K.; Anderson, J. L.; Liu, H.-L.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">13</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6996961"> <span id="translatedtitle">Clinic- rather than self-monitoring of home blood samples: relevance of <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> to decision making.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> of blood glucose concentrations in juvenile diabetes means that it is often more reasonable to aim to achieve a generally good pattern of blood glucose control, rather than regularly to assess the next insulin dose after each blood glucose measurement. This means that immediate assessment by the patient of his blood glucose concentrations is not always necessary. We have investigated control in 22 insulin-requiring diabetic patients by means of a monthly series of four blood samples taken during a day into collector bottles and transported to a laboratory for blood glucose assay. The overall means before breakfast, before lunch, before dinner, and before bed were 6.1, 5.8, 7.3, and 7.2 mmol/L, respectively. In many patients, sufficiently good control can be obtained by this method so that it is not necessary to ask them to measure their own blood glucose concentrations or to ask them to obtain the fairly expensive meters for reading glucose oxidase strips. Control would then probably be best assessed by a series of three daily profiles taken once per month, with, if necessary, the results being discussed with the patient. On the other hand, in more unstable diabetes, home assessment by patients of blood glucose measurements is indicated. PMID:6996961</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ward, E A; Phillips, M A; Ward, G M; Simpson, R W; Mullins, R; Turner, R C</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1980-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">14</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.A31C0082I"> <span id="translatedtitle">Assessing <span class="hlt">Day-to</span> <span class="hlt">Day</span> <span class="hlt">Variability</span> in the Vertical Distribution of Methane, Carbon Dioxide, and Ozone over Railroad Valley, NV</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In-situ observations of three trace gases over a remote desert site allow for an analysis of the <span class="hlt">variability</span> of ozone (O3), methane (CH4), and carbon dioxide (CO2) in the free troposphere. Observations from June 2013 show almost no change from one day to the next in the boundary layer (BL) up to > 4 km (30% of the atmospheric column), while mixing ratios of methane and carbon dioxide show strong <span class="hlt">variability</span> above this altitude. Ozone values also demonstrate <span class="hlt">variability</span> above the boundary layer, and ozone <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> in the well-mixed BL is greater than that of CO2 or CH4. Results from week-long intensives in both June 2012 and June 2013, as well as monthly measurements over the period 2012-2013, will be compared to long-term vertical profile data sets at other locations (Trinidad Head, CA; Briggsdale, CO; and the Southern Great Plains site, OK). <span class="hlt">Variability</span> above and in the boundary layer will be reported. To assess possible sources of <span class="hlt">variability</span>, in situ data will be analyzed with a chemical trajectory model (GEOS-Chem v9-01-03). The North America nested-grid version of GEOS-Chem utilizes varying emission inventories and model parameterizations to simulate the emissions of greenhouse gases (CO2 and CH4, in this case) and ozone precursor gases. Tagged tracer simulations in GEOS-Chem allow for the geographical source apportionment of ozone, indicating whether the observed O3 was formed in the upper troposphere, middle troposphere, stratosphere, or any user-defined boundary layer location. For this study we will focus on ozone formed in the boundary layer over Asia, the Pacific Ocean, Mexico, Canada, and the United States. The importance of daily <span class="hlt">variability</span> in the free tropospheric values of CO2, CH4, and O3 will be discussed in the context of column measurements collected from the surface or from space. Many data assimilation systems are designed to assume that changes to the total column average should be attributed primarily to changes within the boundary layer where large diurnal and seasonal cycles are presumed to dominate, but our data show that under some circumstances, this is not a valid presumption and can lead to a misinterpretation of the column measurement.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Iraci, L. T.; Johnson, M. S.; Yates, E. L.; Tanaka, T.; Sweeney, C.; Tadic, J.; Roby, M.; Andrews, A. E.; Lopez, J. P.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">15</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001JGR...106.3655M"> <span id="translatedtitle">Testing the thermospheric neutral wind suppression mechanism for <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> of equatorial spread F</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The determination of the physical processes that cause the <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> of equatorial spread F (ESF) has long been one of the outstanding problems in terrestrial space physics. Within the context of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability model for ESF, mechanisms that either enhance or inhibit the growth of a seed perturbation offer potential sources of <span class="hlt">variability</span> that can be tested. In this study the hypothesis that enhanced thermospheric meridional winds play a critical role in suppressing ESF is examined during the Multi-Instrumented Studies of Equatorial Thermospheric Aeronomy (MISETA) campaign of September 1998. New, high-time-resolution Fabry-Perot interferometer (FPI) observations at 6300-Å nightglow made at Arequipa (Peru) provided the neutral wind measurements during the critical postsunset hours that had been sampled only sparsely in earlier morphology studies. Evidence of local ESF activity was obtained using GPS-based observations of phase fluctuations (Fp) and 6300-Å all-sky optical images from the same site. Additional GPS measurements of Fp and total electron content (TEC) from Bogota (Colombia) and Santiago (Chile) were used to determine the full flux tube development of ESF plumes and to characterize the F region morphology of the interhemispheric Appleton anomaly. Correlative studies between the nightly magnitudes of the meridional winds (Um), ESF activity (Fp), and indices describing the strength (Is) and asymmetry (Ia) of the Appleton anomaly offered no convincing evidence for the wind suppression mechanism. The best available precursor for premidnight ESF appeared to be the strength of the electrodynamically driven Appleton anomaly pattern at sunset. If one assumes that the required seed perturbation for ESF onset is essentially always available, then for all practical purposes, the magnitude of the eastward electric field that causes upward drift is both the necessary and sufficient parameter to forecast ESF with reasonable success. These results reconfirm 60 years of study pointing to the dominance of electrodynamical processes in the onset and growth of plasma instabilities at low latitudes.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Mendillo, Michael; Meriwether, John; Biondi, Manfred</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2001-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">16</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.springerlink.com/index/t553h6863mn407l8.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Cladoceran Densities, <span class="hlt">Day-to-Day</span> <span class="hlt">Variability</span> in Food Selection by Smelt, and the Birth-Rate-Compensation Hypothesis</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Late-evening gut inspection of a dominant planktivore (smelt) and evaluation of densities, fecundities, and body-size distributions in dominant zooplankton prey (cladocerans) were made in <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> sequences in June–July (24 days in 1999 and 24 days in 2000). This was conducted as a field test of the hypothesis that species-specific population densities in cladocerans result from size-selective predation by a dominant</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Z. Maciej Gliwicz; Adam Jawi?ski; Marcin Paw?owicz</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">17</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011JASTP..73.1915S"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Day</span> <span class="hlt">to</span> <span class="hlt">day</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> of h?F and foF2 during some solar cycle epochs</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Comparison of the diurnal and seasonal changes of the <span class="hlt">variability</span> (VR) of the virtual height of reflection (h?F) and those of critical frequency of the F layer (foF2) is carried out at Ibadan (7.4°N, 3.9°E, 6°S dip) in the African sector. The effect of latitude on both characteristics is investigated by combining data from Singapore (1.3°N,103.8°E, 17.6°S dip) in the East Asian sector and Slough (51.5°N, 359.4°E, 66.5°S dip) in the European sector. The <span class="hlt">variability</span> of foF2 is found greater than that of h?F except during high solar activity when night-time h?F VR is about the same as night-time foF2 VR possibly due to high post-sunset rise in F region heights at this epoch. Both characteristics have pre-midnight and post-midnight peaks with the latter being the greater one at all epochs with the exception of all the seasons of 1958 but June Solstice, very likely because of the same greater F region height during maximum solar activity. Night-time foF2 VR is greater in September Equinox and June Solstice at all epochs while night-time h?F VR is greater in June Solstice during the three epochs, on a general note. No seasonal trend is observed in the daytime <span class="hlt">variability</span> of both characteristics during the three epochs except for h?F VR of December Solstice during high solar activity, which is greater than those of other seasons. VR of both parameters are found to increase and decrease alternately with Zurich sunspot number (Rz) at Ibadan and Singapore throughout the day. VR of foF2 at Slough is found to increase from midnight to 1300 h after which it alternates. Generally, post-midnight VR of both characteristics are greater than those of pre-midnight at low latitudes during all epochs while daytime VR are the least. At the mid-latitude station of Slough, foF2 VR is about the same throughout the hours of the day during 1968 and 1971, its post-midnight value is however greater than those of pre-midnight and daytime during 1970. Daytime h?F VR is greater than post- and pre-midnight values during 1968, but about the same throughout the hours of the day during 1971.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Somoye, E. O.; Akala, A. O.; Ogwala, A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">18</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.agu.org/journals/ja/ja0904/2008JA013899/2008JA013899.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Day-to-day</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> of the equatorial ionization anomaly and scintillations at dusk observed by GUVI and modeling by SAMI3</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> in ionospheric irregularity generation giving rise to equatorial scintillation has remained an unresolved issue over many decades. We take a fresh look at the problem utilizing the global imagery provided by the Global Ultraviolet Imager (GUVI) instrument on NASA's Thermosphere, Ionosphere, Mesosphere Energetics and Dynamics satellite. GUVI has been acquiring images of 135.6-nm emission in the Earth's</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Su. Basu; S. Basu; J. Krall; S. E. McDonald; E. S. Miller; S. Ray</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">19</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMSA43B2146F"> <span id="translatedtitle">Ground-based observatory network, located in the Brazilian sector, to study the <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> of the ionosphere-thermosphere during the solar cycle 24</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A new set of instrumentation (all-sky imaging, Fabry-Perot, and magnetometers) is being installed in the Universidade do Vale do Paraiba (UNIVAP) observatory network, which is located from near equatorial region to low-latitudes at Manaus(2.9oS,60.0oW, Dip-latitude 6.4oN), Palmas (10.2oS, 48.2oW,Dip-latitude 05.5oS), Itajaí (18.0oS, 51.7oW, Dip-latitude 12.1oS), and São José dos Campos (23.2oS, 45.9oW,Dip-latitude 17.6oS). These observatories have operated ionosondes since 2002, and this new instrumentation will provide observation to study the ionosphere and thermosphere <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span>. The main topics that may be studied in detail are: a) Thermosphere-ionosphere response to geomagnetic disturbed periods; b) Propagations of gravity waves and planetary waves at thermosphere and their effects on ionosphere; c) Generation, evolution, and propagation of equatorial large scale and bottom side ionospheric irregularities; d) Ionospheric F3 layer studies at equatorial and low-latitude regions. In addition, the combination of ground-based and satellite data is important to improve the knowledge of ionosphere-thermosphere <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span>. The new instrumentation has been funded by the Sao Paulo Research Foundation (FAPESP), Grant 2012/08445-9. Figure 1- A map of Brazil showing the locations of the UNIVAP observatories. Table1- Detail of the UNIVAP Observatory network.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Fagundes, P. R.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">20</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010RaSc...45.6001P"> <span id="translatedtitle">Characteristics of the equatorial ionization anomaly in relation to the <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> of ionospheric irregularities around the postsunset period</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The equatorial ionosphere is characterized by the equatorial ionization anomaly (EIA) over a major part of the day, and ionospheric F region irregularities causing amplitude and phase scintillations on transionospheric satellite links during the postsunset period. Scintillations of transionospheric signals constitute one of the most intense Space Weather related propagation effects and exhibit extreme <span class="hlt">variability</span> in space and time. The EIA exhibits an asymmetry in terms of the extents of the crests and peak ion densities on either side of the magnetic equator. It has been suggested that transequatorial winds cause significant redistribution of ionization with respect to the magnetic equator resulting in this asymmetry. The asymmetry in EIA between the two hemispheres has been suggested to influence growth of plasma instability and hence occurrence of scintillations. This paper presents some measures of EIA asymmetry derived from the latitudinal distribution of topside F region ionization density over the magnetic equator in the Indian longitude sector obtained from DMSP satellites and investigates their correspondence with the <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> of geostationary L band scintillations observed from Calcutta (latitude: 22.58°N; longitude: 88.38°E geographic; magnetic dip: 32°N) situated near the northern crest of the EIA during the high sunspot number years 2000-2001. A parameter combining the strength as well as the asymmetry of the EIA has been derived which shows good correlation with the occurrence of postsunset geostationary L band scintillations. These quantitative estimates may be used for forecasting occurrences of scintillations by system operators.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Paul, A.; Dasgupta, A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a style="font-weight: bold;">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#">4</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#">5</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#">6</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#">7</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#">8</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#">9</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#">10</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> </div><!-- page_1 div --> <div id="page_2" class="hiddenDiv"> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#">4</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#">5</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#">6</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#">7</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#">8</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#">9</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#">10</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">21</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JGRA..119.3206C"> <span id="translatedtitle">An analysis of the quiet time <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> in the formation of postsunset equatorial plasma bubbles in the Southeast Asian region</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Presented is an analysis of the occurrence of postsunset Equatorial Plasma Bubbles (EPBs) detected using a Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver at Vanimo. The three year data set shows that the EPB occurrence maximizes (minimizes) during the equinoxes (solstices), in good agreement with previous findings. The Vanimo ionosonde station is used with the GPS receiver in an analysis of the <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> EPB occurrence <span class="hlt">variability</span> during the 2000 equinox period. A superposed epoch analysis (SEA) reveals that the altitude, and the change in altitude, of the F layer height is ˜1 standard deviation (1?) larger on the days for which EPBs were detected, compared to non-EPB days. These results are then compared to results from the Thermosphere Ionosphere Electrodynamics General Circulation Model (TIEGCM), which show strong similarities with the observations. The TIEGCM is used to calculate the flux-tube integrated Rayleigh-Taylor (R-T) instability linear growth rate. A SEA reveals that the modeled R-T growth rate is 1? higher on average for EPB days compared to non-EPB days, and that the upward plasma drift is the most dominant contributor. It is further demonstrated that the TIEGCM's success in describing the observed daily EPB <span class="hlt">variability</span> during the scintillation season resides in the variations caused by geomagnetic activity (as parameterized by Kp) rather than solar EUV flux (as parameterized by F10.7). Geomagnetic activity varies the modeled high-latitude plasma convection and the associated Joule heating that affects the low-latitude F region dynamo, and consequently the equatorial upward plasma drift.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Carter, B. A.; Yizengaw, E.; Retterer, J. M.; Francis, M.; Terkildsen, M.; Marshall, R.; Norman, R.; Zhang, K.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">22</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1984RaSc...19..749D"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Day-to-day</span> changes in ionospheric electron content at low latitudes</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">For a number of years, the ionospheric electron content (IEC) over the Indian subcontinent has been determined on the basis of the Faraday rotation of satellite radio beacon transmissions. In these determinations, use was made of the orbiting satellites BE-B and BE-C, and, for a limited period, of the geostationary satellite ATS 6. A large <span class="hlt">variability</span> in <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> values of IEC was reported, and it was tried to correlate this phenomenon with magnetic activity, solar flux, or the effect of neutral winds. Tyagi (1978) observed that the <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> changes in IEC occur in the form of single day abnormality, and alternate day abnormality. Long-term fluctuations were found with a periodicity of about 45 days. The present investigation is concerned with a more detailed study of the observed variations. An analysis is conducted of IEC data recorded during the low phase of the solar cycle, taking into account data from six low-latitude stations covering a latitude range from approximately 15.0 deg N to 30.0 deg N.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Dabas, R. S.; Bhuyan, P. K.; Tyagi, T. R.; Bhardwaj, R. K.; Lal, J. B.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1984-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">23</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=%22Taggart%22&pg=6&id=EJ763456"> <span id="translatedtitle">Curricular Quality and <span class="hlt">Day-to-Day</span> Learning Activities in Pre-School</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The purpose of this paper is to show how curricular quality is related to the <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> activities experienced by children and the pedagogical activities of staff, both coded through systematic target-child observations. Data were drawn from the Effective Provision of Pre-School Education (EPPE) and the Researching Effective Pedagogy in the Early…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sylva, Kathy; Taggart, Brenda; Siraj-Blatchford, Iram; Totsika, Vasiliki; Ereky-Stevens, Katharina; Gilden, Rose; Bell, Daniel</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">24</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=%22cori%22&pg=4&id=EJ824835"> <span id="translatedtitle">The Constant Cycle: <span class="hlt">Day</span> <span class="hlt">to</span> <span class="hlt">Day</span> Critical Action of the QUIPPED Project</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Action research in the critical paradigm involves a process of continual refection in and on action including the research process itself. In the second in a series of several papers we report on the <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> management of the QUIPPED project. The aim was to facilitate patient centred care through inter-professional collaboration with health…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Medves, Jennifer M.; Paterson, Margo; Schroder, Cori; Verma, Sarita; Broers, Teresa; Chapman, Christine; O'Riordan, Anne</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">25</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013ClDy..tmp..425L"> <span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> monitoring of the 2011 severe drought in China</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Dry/wet condition has a large interannual <span class="hlt">variability</span>. Decision-makers need to know the onset, duration, and intensity of drought, and require droughts be monitored at a daily to weekly scale. However, previous tools cannot monitor drought well at this short timescale. The Palmer Drought Severity Index has been found dissatisfactory in monitoring because of its complexity and numerous limitations. The Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) always asks for a timescale, and precipitation is averaged over the period of the scale. Because of this, the SPI cannot be used for short scales, e.g., several days, and what it tells is the overall drought situation of the period. The weighted average of precipitation (WAP) developed by Lu (Geophys Res Lett 36:L12707, 2009) overcomes the deficiency of the SPI; it does not require a timescale, and can provide the drought (and flood) extent of each day. Therefore, the WAP can monitor drought at scales from daily to weekly, monthly, and any longer scale, and is really "flexible and versatile for all timescales". In this study, the standardized WAP (SWAP) is used to monitor the 2011 drought over China. Drought swept the country during the year from north to south and from east to west. In spring, a once-in-a-fifty-year drought occurred over the Yangtze River basin and the southern region, causing serious shortage of drinking water for people and livestock, as well as tremendous losses in agriculture and the shipping industry. Results show that the SWAP, with its monthly mean plots, can well reproduce the seasonal shift of the 2011 drought across the country. The animation of daily plots demonstrates that the SWAP would have been able to monitor the <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> variation of the spring drought around the Yangtze River basin. It can provide the details of the drought, such as when the drought emerged over the region, how long it maintained there (though drought area may move back and forth with extension and contraction of the area), and when the drought relieved over the basin.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lu, Er; Cai, Wenyue; Jiang, Zhihong; Zhang, Qiang; Zhang, Cunjie; Higgins, R. Wayne; Halpert, Michael S.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">26</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/42538432"> <span id="translatedtitle">Curricular quality and <span class="hlt">day?to?day</span> learning activities in pre?school</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The purpose of this paper is to show how curricular quality is related to the <span class="hlt">day?to?day</span> activities experienced by children and the pedagogical activities of staff, both coded through systematic target?child observations. Data were drawn from the Effective Provision of Pre?School Education (EPPE) and the Researching Effective Pedagogy in the Early Years (REPEY) studies. Curricular quality was measured by coding</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kathy Sylva; Brenda Taggart; Vasiliki Totsika; Rose Gilden; Daniel Bell</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">27</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3825468"> <span id="translatedtitle">Living from <span class="hlt">Day</span> <span class="hlt">to</span> <span class="hlt">Day</span> - Qualitative Study on Borderline Personality Disorder in Adolescence</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Objective: The purpose of this study was to assess how far identity and self-image disturbances are features of borderline personality disorder (BPD) in adolescence. Method: Face-to-face interviews were carried out with a total of 50 adolescents with BPD and 50 controls, with a median age of 16 (SD 1.1; range 13 to 18) years. Data was analysed using a qualitative methodology, interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA). Thematic statements representative of adolescents’ lived experience were extracted from the interviews. Results: Four main themes representing the <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> experiences of adolescents with BPD were identified: emotional experiences characterised by the feelings of fear, sadness and pessimism; interpersonal relationships characterised by the feelings of solitude and hostility from others; a conformist self-image characterised by a feeling of normality and difficulty in projecting into time; and, a structuring of discourse characterised by discontinuity in the perception of experiences. Conclusion: This qualitative study suggests that the <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> experiences of adolescents with borderline personality disorder is centred on the experience of the present. Discontinuity in self-image, alongside marked dysphoric manifestations, leads to distress and hinders compliance with care. These issues are highly relevant in psychotherapy and could lead to more effective treatment of the disorder in adolescents.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Spodenkiewicz, Michel; Speranza, Mario; Taieb, Olivier; Pham-Scottez, Alexandra; Corcos, Maurice; Revah-Levy, Anne</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">28</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007ASPC..376..515B"> <span id="translatedtitle">The NOAO Data Management System: <span class="hlt">Day-to-Day</span> Challenges of Managing the DMS</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Data Management System (DMS) manages the NOAO Data Products Program (DPP) end-to-end data-flow system. The DMS provides a common framework to handle the flow of raw, pipeline reduced, and science quality astronomical data. The DMS is a distributed system that incorporates three observatories, and three data centers, that are geographically distributed across two hemispheres. Data can enter the DMS from NOAO telescopes, automated pipelines, and manually from surveys. The operational requirements to capture, transport, store, and validate data through the system are challenging at the current raw data rates (approximately 19.7~TB for 2006). This challenge grows as new instruments come on-line, which will increase the data rates to an estimated 58.5~TB for 2007. This paper presents the <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> Operations tasks that are required to manage and insure the integrity of these data at all sites.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Barg, I.; Seaman, R.; Lanning, H.; Smith, R. C.; Saavedra, N.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">29</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014PhyD..275...54Z"> <span id="translatedtitle">Nonlinear <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> traffic dynamics with driver experience delay: Modeling, stability and bifurcation analysis</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> traffic assignment problems travelers’ past experiences have important impact on their cost prediction which influences their route choice and consequently the arising flow patterns in the network. Many travelers execute the same trip in every few days, not daily, which leads to time delays in the system. In this paper, we propose a nonlinear, discrete-time model with driver experience delay. The linear stability of the stochastic user equilibrium is analyzed by studying the eigenvalues of the Jacobian matrix of the system while the nonlinear oscillations arising at the bifurcations are investigated by normal form calculations, numerical continuation and simulation. The methods are demonstrated on a two-route example. By applying rigorous analysis we show that the linearly unstable parameter domain as well as the period of arising oscillations increase with the delay. Moreover, delays and nonlinearities result in an extended domain of bistability where the stochastic user equilibrium coexists with stable and unstable oscillations. This study explains the influence of initial conditions on the dynamics of transportation networks and may provide guidance for network design and management.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Zhao, Xiaomei; Orosz, Gábor</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">30</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFMSA51D1654D"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Day-to-day</span> longitudinal variation of bubble occurrence over South America</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">VTEC GPS data from LISN Network from 2008 is being analyzed to get the ionospheric conditions that generate spread F irregularities, like bubbles, in the South American (SA) continent. Using Automatic Bubble Detection Algorithm (ABDA), it was possible to find bubble signatures (hundreds of kilometers scale size) between September and December months. The bubble occurrence pattern over SA in general follows the characteristics of bubbles detected previously with digisonde and satellite (e.g. DMSP, CHAMP) that are September-October in the west and November-December in the east. However we have observed bubbles signatures all over the continent among September to December period. Digisonde ionospheric parameters (NmF2, h'F and foF2) were measured to describe the ionospheric local conditions over Fortaleza (Brazil) and Jicamarca (Peru) that can help us to understand the characteristics of the phenomena described here. Digisonde data from Fortaleza located at 3.8S, 38W and 9S dip latitude, and Jicamarca located at 12S, 76.9W and 1N dip latitude were used to measure the <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> longitudinal variation. We will show the variation of NmF2, h'F and foF2 in these two stations when spread F (bubble) presence is in the east, in the west and all over the continent.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">de La Cruz Cueva, R.; Valladares, C. E.; Batista, I. S.; de Paula, E. R.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">31</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4003432"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Day</span> <span class="hlt">to</span> <span class="hlt">day</span> treatment variations of accelerated partial breast brachytherapy using a multi-lumen balloon</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Purpose To evaluate the variations of multi-lumen balloon (MLB)-based brachytherapy from simulation day to treatment day and their dosimetric impacts during accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI). Material and methods A total of 42 CT images scanned from seven patients were evaluated with regards to daily variation due to of: 1) internal uncertainty: size and shape of balloon, seroma volume; 2) geometrical uncertainty-random: length of each catheter was measured for each fraction (total 70); 3) geometrical uncertainty-systematic: virtual systematic errors were tested by offsetting dwell positions. The original plans (as group A) had a mean value of 96.8% on V95 of the PTV_Eval. Plans were rerun (as group B) such that the mean value of the V95 was relaxed to 90.4%. By applying the reference plan to each daily CT image, variations of target coverage under different sources of error were evaluated. Results Shape and size of the balloon had means of < 1 mm decreased in diameter and < 0.4 cm3 decreased in volume; the mean seroma volume increased by 0.2 cm3. This internal variation has a mean of < 1% difference for both V90 and V95. The geometrical uncertainty made a mean deviation of 2.7 mm per root of sum of square. It caused the degradations of V90 and V95 by mean values of 1.0% and 1.2%, respectively. A systematic error of 3 mm and 4 mm would degrade both of V90 and V95 by 4% and 6%, respectively. The degradations on target coverage of the plans in group A were statistically the same as those in group B. Conclusions Overall, APBI treatments with MLB based brachytherapy are precise from <span class="hlt">day</span> <span class="hlt">to</span> <span class="hlt">day</span>. However, minor variation due to daily treatment uncertainties can still degrade tumor bed coverage to an unacceptable coverage when V95 of the original plan is close to 90%.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Mehta, Keyur J.; Hong, Linda; Yaparpalvi, Ravindra; Montgomery, Leslie L.; Bodner, William; Tome, Wolfgang A.; Kalnicki, Shalom</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">32</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1996SPIE.2680..341M"> <span id="translatedtitle">High-throughput genotyping: practical considerations concerning the <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> application</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Advances in high throughput genotyping protocols over the past few years have been remarkable. Most protocols developed to increase the throughput of genotyping rely on fluorescent based technologies for data acquisition and capture. In general, the number of genotypes per day quoted for these protocols are the result of extrapolations based on ideal situations. Here we present our experience with respect to the <span class="hlt">day</span> <span class="hlt">to</span> <span class="hlt">day</span> problems of high throughput genotyping. Our laboratory is currently working on several genetic mapping projects in both mouse and man. For example, we are looking at the genetic basis for susceptibility to rheumatoid arthritis in a local native American tribe as well as a mouse animal model for the same disease. The machines used to collect gel image data are two Li- Cor infrared DNA sequencers adapted for genotyping. During the evolution of these projects, we have addressed issues concerning the tracking and flow of information from the initial extraction of DNA to the calling of the genotypes. In particular, we have focused on designing methods that are efficient, cost effective and can be easily taught to the technical staff. Computer programs have been written that record gel specific information (e.g. ID information), archive data and capture genotypes in a simple point and click environment. Instrumentation was purchased to ease the repetitive nature of sample allocation, reagent disbursement and gel loading. Using this system, we can produce genotype data on 96 individuals for 20 loci (1920 genotypes) in one day. Solutions to the overall flow of information at each of these junctions are discussed.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">McIndoe, Richard A.; Bumgarner, R. E.; Welti, Russ; Hood, Leroy</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1996-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">33</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=worker+AND+energy&id=EJ773705"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Day</span> <span class="hlt">to</span> <span class="hlt">Day</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A clean, healthy and safe school provides students, faculty and staff with an environment conducive to learning and working. However, budget and staff reductions can lead to substandard cleaning practices and unsanitary conditions. Some school facility managers have been making the switch to a day-schedule to reduce security and energy costs, and…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jurecki, Dennis</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">34</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3678711"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Day-to-day</span> measurement of patient-reported outcomes in exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Background Exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are a major burden to patients and to society. Little is known about the possible role of <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> patient-reported outcomes during an exacerbation. This study aims to describe the <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> course of patient-reported health status during exacerbations of COPD and to assess its value in predicting clinical outcomes. Methods Data from two randomized controlled COPD exacerbation trials (n = 210 and n = 45 patients) were used to describe both the feasibility of daily collection of and the <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> course of patient-reported outcomes during outpatient treatment or admission to hospital. In addition to clinical parameters, the BORG dyspnea score, the Clinical COPD Questionnaire (CCQ), and the St George’s Respiratory Questionnaire were used in Cox regression models to predict treatment failure, time to next exacerbation, and mortality in the hospital study. Results All patient-reported outcomes showed a distinct pattern of improvement. In the multivariate models, absence of improvement in CCQ symptom score and impaired lung function were independent predictors of treatment failure. Health status and gender predicted time to next exacerbation. Five-year mortality was predicted by age, forced expiratory flow in one second % predicted, smoking status, and CCQ score. In outpatient management of exacerbations, health status was found to be less impaired than in hospitalized patients, while the rate and pattern of recovery was remarkably similar. Conclusion Daily health status measurements were found to predict treatment failure, which could help decision-making for patients hospitalized due to an exacerbation of COPD.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kocks, Jan Willem H; van den Berg, Jan Willem K; Kerstjens, Huib AM; Uil, Steven M; Vonk, Judith M; de Jong, Ynze P; Tsiligianni, Ioanna G; van der Molen, Thys</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">35</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFMSA33B1771Z"> <span id="translatedtitle">Exospheric <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> and the solar EUV control</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Incoherent scatter radar experiments at Millstone Hill for a consecutive 30 days have been conducted in October 2002, enabling this study of the <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> thermospheric <span class="hlt">variability</span> in exospheric <span class="hlt">temperature</span> Tex. This <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> is seen as variations at fixed local times as well as those in the tidal decompositions. Solar EUV and magnetic activity influences as the main driving factors on the <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> are investigated quantitatively. The solar EUV flux is from the TIMED/SEE space weather product, allowing for detailed studies of the EUV-Tex correlation, EUV band dependency and time delay of thermospheric responses. Main findings include, (1) to precisely understand thermospheric <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span>, the daily F107 data is typically insufficient and the EUV data is essential. (2) There is a 20--60-hour time delay in the Tex response to solar EUV flux, being short in the morning and long in the afternoon and at night. (3) Tex is most sensitive, with an approximately 2-day delay, to the EUV flux at wavelengths of 27--34 nm and 30.4 nm. A model including only the EUV flux at 27--34 nm with a 2-day time delay can generate 90% of the observed <span class="hlt">variability</span> in the diurnal DC component. Tex is relatively less sensitive to the flux at 133.5 nm and 145--165 nm. (4) With a two-day time delay, the flux at 0.1--7 nm band is clearly positively correlated to the diurnal amplitude, and negatively correlated to the semidiurnal amplitude. (5) Magnetic activity control, as represented by the Dst index, tends to be weaker during the day and stronger at night, and is, in all three tidal components examined (DC, diurnal and semidiurnal amplitudes), most important for the semidiurnal amplitude and least important for the DC component.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Zhang, S.; Holt, J. M.; Erickson, P. J.; Woods, T. N.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">36</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24417654"> <span id="translatedtitle">Associations between relationship status and <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> health behaviors and weight among diverse young adults.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Previous research has shown strong positive associations between physical and psychological health outcomes and being in a committed relationship, such as marriage; however, little research has investigated whether being in a committed relationship is protective for <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> health behaviors such as dietary patterns and physical activity. This research examined associations between relationship status and <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> health behaviors (e.g., dietary intake, physical activity) and weight status among a diverse cohort of young adults. This cross-sectional study used data from Project EAT-III, a 10-year longitudinal population-based study (N = 1,853) of Midwest young adults. Young adult participants had an average age of 25.3 years, and were 45% male and 55% female. Participants were socioeconomically and racially/ethnically diverse, including 48.4% White, 18.6% African American, 5.9% Hispanic, 19.6% Asian, 3.3% Native American, and 4.2% mixed or other race/ethnicity. Results indicated that married men were more likely to be overweight/obese (body mass index ? 25) compared with single/casually dating and committed dating/engaged men. Married women were more likely to eat breakfast ?5 times per week compared with women in other relationship categories. No differences were observed in other health behaviors by relationship status. There were no significant interactions by race/ethnicity. Relationship status seems largely unrelated to young adults' participation in physical activity and dietary behaviors. However, findings suggest that being married may be a risk factor for overweight/obesity in young adult men and may be a protective factor for health-related behaviors associated with overweight/obesity such as breakfast intake for young adult women. PMID:24417654</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Berge, Jerica M; Bauer, Katherine W; Maclehose, Rich; Eisenberg, Marla E; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">37</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010cosp...38.1261M"> <span id="translatedtitle">Effects of upward propagating atmospheric waves on <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> variations in the upper atmosphere by using an atmosphere-ionosphere coupled model</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Recent observational and modeling studies have revealed that the energy input from the lower atmosphere produces significant spatial and temporal variations in the thermosphere/ionosphere. For example, the CHAMP observation has shown that the distributions of the neutral <span class="hlt">temper-ature</span> and electron density in the equatorial thermosphere/ionosphere have wave-4 pattern in the longitudinal direction. This wave-4 pattern is considered to originate from non-migrating diurnal tide (DE3) that is excited in the troposphere. However, the physical mechanism of spatial and temporal variations in the thermosphere/ionosphere caused by upward propagating atmospheric waves is not fully understood. In order to investigate the physical mechanism of these variations, we developed an atmosphere-ionosphere coupled model, in which a whole at-mosphere general circulation model (GCM), an ionosphere model and an electrodynamics model are integrated. The whole atmosphere GCM contains the region from the ground surface to the upper thermosphere, so that we can simulate excitation of tides in the lower atmosphere and their upward propagation to the thermosphere. By using the coupled model, we examine effects of tides and Kelvin waves from the lower atmosphere on the variations in the thermo-sphere/ionosphere. Our results show that <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> variations in the thermosphere/ionosphere are caused by <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> variations of these upward propagating waves. We also discuss further development of the coupled model in the near future.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Miyoshi, Yasunobu; Hidekatsu, Jin; Fujiwara, Hitoshi; Shinagawa, Hiroyuki</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">38</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3757229"> <span id="translatedtitle">Better or Worse: a Study of <span class="hlt">Day-to-Day</span> Changes over Five Months of Rosen Method Bodywork Treatment for Chronic Low Back Pain</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Background Fluctuations of good days and bad days—in physical symptoms and emotional states—are common for individuals with chronic illness. This pilot study examines these fluctuations during bodywork treatment. Purpose We analyzed changes in daily self-reports over a period of five months for five individuals who received weekly treatments of Rosen Method Bodywork (RMB), which uses touch and words to enhance body awareness of physical sensations and emotional states. Subjects and Design Five subjects (aged 31–56) who had chronic low back pain (CLBP) received 16 weekly treatments given by three experienced RMB practitioners. Measures Pre- and posttreatment assessments covered demographics, disability, and pain. Clients also completed daily bedtime assessments of pain, fatigue, emotional state, and sense of control during the entire treatment period. Results All clients reported reductions in pain and/or disability in post- compared to pretreatment. In spite of a high level of <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> in the daily assessments, there were significant reductions in pain and fatigue, and significant increases in positive emotional state and sense of control across the treatment period. In reaching this end, however, some clients had slow and steady improvements, some improved more rapidly, while others got worse before they got better. Conclusions The natural course of healing—with its inevitable fluctuations in symptoms—is part of a process leading to successful treatment outcomes. Rosen Method Bodywork may be especially helpful in developing and accepting both sensory and emotional body awareness changes that facilitate overall improvement.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Fogel, Alan</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">39</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/41467"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Day-to-Day</span> Travel-Time Trends and Travel-Time Prediction from Loop-Detector Data</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper presents an approach to estimate future travel times on a freeway using flow and occupancy data from single loop detectors and historical travel time information. The work uses linear regression with stepwise <span class="hlt">variable</span> selection method and more advanced tree based methods. The analysis considers forecasts ranging from a few minutes into the future up to an hour ahead.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jaimyoung Kwon; Benjamin Coifman; Peter Bickel</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2000-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">40</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010ACP....10.3787D"> <span id="translatedtitle">IASI observations of seasonal and <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> variations of tropospheric ozone over three highly populated areas of China: Beijing, Shanghai, and Hong Kong</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">IASI observations of tropospheric ozone over the Beijing, Shanghai and Hong Kong areas during one year (2008) have been analysed, demonstrating the capability of space-borne infrared nadir measurements to probe seasonal and even <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> variations of lower tropospheric ozone (0-6 km partial columns) on the regional scale of highly populated areas. The monthly variations of lower tropospheric ozone retrieved from IASI clearly show the influence of the Asian summer monsoon that brings clean air masses from the Pacific during summer. They exhibit indeed a sharp ozone maximum in late spring and early summer (May-June) followed by a summer minimum. The time periods and the intensities of the maxima and of the decreases are latitude-dependent: they are more pronounced in Hong Kong and Shanghai than in Beijing. Moreover, IASI provides the opportunity to follow the spatial variations of ozone over the surroundings of each megacity as well as its daily <span class="hlt">variability</span>. We show here that the large lower tropospheric ozone amounts (0-6 km partial columns) observed with IASI are mainly downwind the highest populated areas in each region, thus possibly suggesting the anthropogenic origin of the large ozone amounts observed. Finally, an analysis of the mean ozone profiles over each region - for selected days with high ozone events - in association with the analysis of the meteorological situation shows that the high ozone amounts observed during winter are likely related to descents of ozone-rich air from the stratosphere, whereas in spring and summer the tropospheric ozone is likely enhanced by photochemical production in polluted areas and/or in air masses from fire plumes.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Dufour, G.; Eremenko, M.; Orphal, J.; Flaud, J.-M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#">4</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#">5</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#">6</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#">7</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#">8</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#">9</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#">10</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> </div><!-- page_2 div --> <div id="page_3" class="hiddenDiv"> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#">4</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#">5</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#">6</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#">7</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#">8</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#">9</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#">10</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">41</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JGRA..119.3053P"> <span id="translatedtitle">Quiet time short-period and <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> variations in E × B drift studied using 150 km radar echoes from Gadanki</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">this paper we present short-period and <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> variations in E × B drift during low solar and magnetically quiet conditions, based on radar observations of daytime 150 km echoes from Gadanki, India. Short-period (<100 min) variations in E × B drift show amplitude as large as 7 m s-1 and display large <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> variation. Spectral analysis reveals that drift velocity fluctuations consist of several components of short periods in the range of 4-100 min. Among these periods, the most frequently occurring periods are 6-60 min. Observations also show that amplitudes of these periods increase with increasing period. Interestingly, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) variations also show periods of 3-19 min, which have also been observed in velocity variations. In addition, amplitudes of the periodic variations in SNR tend to increase with increasing period, which is also similar to those observed in drift velocity fluctuations. No correlation between SNR and velocity variations, however, has been found. Noticeable <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> variations in drift velocity are found in all seasons, and the variation is as large as ±25 m s-1. <span class="hlt">Day-to-day</span> variations also show wave-like features with period of 2-4 days. Observed E × B drift variations of 7 m s-1 at short time scale and 25 m s-1 on a <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> basis indicate zonal electric field variations of 0.25 mV/m and 0.9 mV/m, respectively. We surmise that quiet time E × B drift variations with periods <100 min and 2-4 days are likely to be the manifestations of gravity wave and planetary wave wind-induced electric fields, respectively, consistent with those reported earlier.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Pavan Chaitanya, P.; Patra, A. K.; Rao, S. V. B.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">42</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/patientinstructions/000697.htm"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Day</span> <span class="hlt">to</span> <span class="hlt">day</span> with COPD</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePLUS</a></p> <p class="result-summary">... 1. Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD). Global strategy for the diagnosis, management, and prevention ... WA): Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD); 2013. Qaseem A, Wilt TJ, Weinberger SE, Hanania ...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">43</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.atmos-chem-phys.net/10/3787/2010/acp-10-3787-2010.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">IASI observations of seasonal and <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> variations of tropospheric ozone over three highly populated areas of China: Beijing, Shanghai, and Hong Kong</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">IASI observations of tropospheric ozone over the Beijing, Shanghai and Hong Kong areas during one year (2008) have been analysed, demonstrating the capability of space-borne infrared nadir measurements to probe seasonal and even <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> variations of lower tropospheric ozone (0-6 km partial columns) on the regional scale of highly populated areas. The monthly variations of lower tropospheric ozone retrieved from</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">G. Dufour; M. Eremenko; J. Orphal; J.-M. Flaud</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">44</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4017961"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Day-to-day</span> fluctuation of point-of-care circulating cathodic antigen test scores and faecal egg counts in children infected with Schistosoma mansoni in Ethiopia</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Background Determining the variation of circulating cathodic antigen (CCA) in urine and egg counts variation in stool between days in Schistosoma mansoni (S. mansoni) infected individuals is vital to decide whether or not to rely on a single-sample test for diagnosis of Schistosomiasis. In this study, the magnitude of <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> variation in urine-CCA test scores and in faecal egg counts was evaluated in school children in Ethiopia. Methods A total of 620 school children (age 8 to 12 years) were examined for S. mansoni infection using double Kato-Katz and single urine-CCA cassette methods (batch 32727) on three consecutive days. Results The prevalence of S. mansoni infection was 81.1% based on triple urine-CCA-cassette test and 53.1% based on six Kato-Katz thick smears. Among the study participants, 26.3% showed fluctuation in urine CCA and 32.4% showed fluctuation in egg output. Mean egg count as well as number of cases in each class of intensity and intensity of cassette band color varied over the three days of examination. Over 85% of the children that showed <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> variations in status of S. mansoni infection from negative to positive or vice versa by the Kato-Katz and the CCA methods had light intensity of infection. The fluctuation in both the CCA test scores and faecal egg count was not associated with age and sex. Conclusions The current study showed <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> variation in CCA and Kato-Katz test results of children infected with S. mansoni. This indicates the necessity of more than one urine or stool samples to be collected on different days for more reliable diagnosis of S. mansoni infection in low endemic areas.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">45</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/40762364"> <span id="translatedtitle">VHF radar studies of the equatorial electrojet 3-m irregularities over São Luís: <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> <span class="hlt">variabilities</span> under auroral activity and quiet conditions</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">We have analyzed the data collected during an observational campaign of the equatorial electrojet (EEJ) plasma irregularities using 50MHz coherent back-scatter radar operated at São Luís, Brazil. The 7-day campaign were characterized by a disturbed 3-day period in the beginning followed by `quiet' days. A correlative analysis of the auroral electrojet (AE) indices and radar and magnetometer data are carried</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Clezio M. Denardini; Mangalathayil A. Abdu; José H. A. Sobral</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">46</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/55341284"> <span id="translatedtitle">VHF radar studies of the equatorial electrojet 3-m irregularities over São Luís: <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> <span class="hlt">variabilities</span> under auroral activity and quiet conditions</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">We have analyzed the data collected during an observational campaign of the equatorial electrojet (EEJ) plasma irregularities using 50 MHz coherent back-scatter radar operated at São Luís, Brazil. The 7-day campaign were characterized by a disturbed 3-day period in the beginning followed by `quiet' days. A correlative analysis of the auroral electrojet (AE) indices and radar and magnetometer data are</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Clezio M. Denardini; Mangalathayil A. Abdu; José H. A. Sobral</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">47</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21367522"> <span id="translatedtitle">Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy for Liver Tumors: Impact of Daily Setup Corrections and <span class="hlt">Day-to-Day</span> Anatomic Variations on Dose in Target and Organs at Risk</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Purpose: To assess <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> differences between planned and delivered target volume (TV) and organ-at-risk (OAR) dose distributions in liver stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT), and to investigate the dosimetric impact of setup corrections. Methods and Materials: For 14 patients previously treated with SBRT, the planning CT scan and three treatment scans (one for each fraction) were included in this study. For each treatment scan, two dose distributions were calculated: one using the planned setup for the body frame (no correction), and one using the clinically applied (corrected) setup derived from measured tumor displacements. Per scan, the two dose distributions were mutually compared, and the clinically delivered distribution was compared with planning. Doses were recalculated in equivalent 2-Gy fraction doses. Statistical analysis was performed with the linear mixed model. Results: With setup corrections, the mean loss in TV coverage relative to planning was 1.7%, compared with 6.8% without corrections. For calculated equivalent uniform doses, these figures were 2.3% and 15.5%, respectively. As for the TV, mean deviations of delivered OAR doses from planning were small (between -0.4 and +0.3 Gy), but the spread was much larger for the OARs. In contrast to the TV, the mean impact of setup corrections on realized OAR doses was close to zero, with large positive and negative exceptions. Conclusions: Daily correction of the treatment setup is required to obtain adequate TV coverage. Because of <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> patient anatomy changes, large deviations in OAR doses from planning did occur. On average, setup corrections had no impact on these doses. Development of new procedures for image guidance and adaptive protocols is warranted.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Mendez Romero, Alejandra, E-mail: a.mendezromero@erasmusmc.n [Department of Radiation Oncology, Erasmus MC - Daniel den Hoed Cancer Center, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Zinkstok, Roel Th.; Wunderink, Wouter [Department of Radiation Oncology, Erasmus MC - Daniel den Hoed Cancer Center, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Os, Rob M. van [Department of Radiation Oncology, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Joosten, Hans; Seppenwoolde, Yvette; Nowak, Peter; Brandwijk, Rene P. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Erasmus MC - Daniel den Hoed Cancer Center, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Verhoef, Cornelis; Ijzermans, Jan N.M. [Department of Surgery, Erasmus MC, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Levendag, Peter C.; Heijmen, Ben J.M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Erasmus MC - Daniel den Hoed Cancer Center, Rotterdam (Netherlands)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-11-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">48</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3990496"> <span id="translatedtitle">Diagnostic Performance of Schistosoma Real-Time PCR in Urine Samples from Kenyan Children Infected with Schistosoma haematobium: <span class="hlt">Day-to-day</span> Variation and Follow-up after Praziquantel Treatment</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Background In an effort to enhance accuracy of diagnosis of Schistosoma haematobium, this study explores <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> and diagnostic performance of real-time PCR for detection and quantification of Schistosoma DNA compared to other diagnostic tools in an endemic area before and after treatment. Methodology Previously collected urine samples (N?=?390) from 114 preselected proven parasitological and/or clinical S. haematobium positive Kenyan schoolchildren were analyzed by a Schistosoma internal transcribed spacer-based real-time PCR after 14 years of storage. Pre-treatment <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> fluctuations of PCR and microscopy over three consecutive days were measured for 24 children using intra-class correlation coefficient. A combined ‘gold standard’ (PCR and/or microscopy positive) was used to measure sensitivity and negative predictive value (NPV) of several diagnostic tools at baseline, two and 18 months post-treatment with praziquantel. Principal Findings All 24 repeatedly tested children were PCR-positive over three days with little daily variation in median Ct-values, while 83.3% were found to be egg-positive for S. haematobium at day 1 and 75.0% at day 2 and 3 pre-treatment, signifying daily fluctuations in microscopy diagnosis. Of all 114 preselected schoolchildren, repeated microscopic measurements were required to detect 96.5% versus 100% of positive pre-treatment cases by single PCR. At two months post-treatment, microscopy and PCR detected 22.8% versus 69.3% positive children, respectively. Based on the ‘gold standard’, PCR showed high sensitivity (>92%) as compared to >31% sensitivity for microscopy, both pre- and post-treatment. Conclusions/Significance Detection and quantification of Schistosoma DNA in urine by real-time PCR was shown to be a powerful and specific diagnostic tool for detection of S. haematobium infections, with less <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> variation and higher sensitivity compared to microscopy. The superior performance of PCR before, and two and 18 months post-treatment provides a compelling argument for PCR as an accurate and reproducible tool for monitoring treatment efficacy.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Vinkeles Melchers, Natalie V. S.; van Dam, Govert J.; Shaproski, David; Kahama, Anthony I.; Brienen, Eric A. T.; Vennervald, Birgitte J.; van Lieshout, Lisette</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">49</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/48255135"> <span id="translatedtitle">Vacuum <span class="hlt">Variable</span> Medium <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Blackbody</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">This article describes the vacuum <span class="hlt">variable</span> medium-<span class="hlt">temperature</span> blackbody (VMTBB) constructed to serve as a highly stable reference\\u000a source with an aperture diameter of 20 mm in the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> range from 150 °C to 430 °C under medium-vacuum conditions (10?3 Pa) and in a reduced background environment (liquid-nitrogen-cooled shroud). The VMTBB was realized for the calibration facility\\u000a at the PTB in the field of</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">S. P. Morozova; N. A. Parfentiev; B. E. Lisiansky; U. A. Melenevsky; B. Gutschwager; C. Monte; J. Hollandt</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">50</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010IJT....31.1809M"> <span id="translatedtitle">Vacuum <span class="hlt">Variable</span> Medium <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Blackbody</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This article describes the vacuum <span class="hlt">variable</span> medium-<span class="hlt">temperature</span> blackbody (VMTBB) constructed to serve as a highly stable reference source with an aperture diameter of 20 mm in the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> range from 150 °C to 430 °C under medium-vacuum conditions (10-3 Pa) and in a reduced background environment (liquid-nitrogen-cooled shroud). The VMTBB was realized for the calibration facility at the PTB in the field of reduced background radiation thermometry under vacuum. This facility is intended for performing radiometric and radiation thermometric measurements under vacuum conditions in the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> range from -173 °C to 430 °C and spectral emissivity measurements in the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> range from 0 °C to 600 °C without atmospheric interferences. It is difficult to realize a precision blackbody with high emissivity for <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> above 400 °C. Cavities of such blackbodies are normally made of copper and coated by a paint with high emissivity. But any paint put on copper does not survive several cycles of heating to <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> up to 450 °C. As a result of investigations at PTB, a special procedure of coating the surface of the cavity by paint with high emissivity has been developed. The cavity surface is coated by chemical nickel plating before covering it by a paint with high emissivity. The general concept and the design of the VMTBB are given. For realization of good <span class="hlt">temperature</span> uniformity along the complete radiating cavity, a three module design is used consisting of a heat exchanger and two stages of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> control of the cavity, based on two precision PID controllers. The <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of the cavity is determined by 15 precision Pt resistance thermometers. Six of them are used for the VMTBB cavity and heat exchanger <span class="hlt">temperature</span> control, and the others are used for the cavity <span class="hlt">temperature</span> measurement and correction. A description of the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> control and measurement system of the VMTBB is presented. Optical ray tracing with a Monte Carlo method (STEEP 3) indicated that the effective emissivity of this blackbody cavity is not worse than 0.9994. Tests of the VMTBB were carried out at the PTB facility, and the radiation of the VMTBB was measured in comparison to the vacuum <span class="hlt">variable</span> low-<span class="hlt">temperature</span> blackbody (VLTBB) in the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> range from 150 °C to 170 °C with the vacuum infrared standard radiation thermometer (VIRST). The <span class="hlt">temperature</span> uniformity of the blackbody from the bottom to the front of the cavity is better than ±100 mK in the whole <span class="hlt">temperature</span> range. The stability of the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of the blackbody is within 50 mK in the whole <span class="hlt">temperature</span> range.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Morozova, S. P.; Parfentiev, N. A.; Lisiansky, B. E.; Melenevsky, U. A.; Gutschwager, B.; Monte, C.; Hollandt, J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">51</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23537499"> <span id="translatedtitle">Real-time evaluation of milk quality as reflected by clotting parameters of individual cow's milk during the milking session, between <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> and during lactation.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Real-time analysis of milk coagulation properties as performed by the AfiLab™ milk spectrometer introduces new opportunities for the dairy industry. The study evaluated the performance of the AfiLab™ in a milking parlor of a commercial farm to provide real-time analysis of milk-clotting parameters -Afi-CF for cheese manufacture and determine its repeatability in time for individual cows. The AfiLab™ in a parlor, equipped with two parallel milk lines, enables to divert the milk on-line into two bulk milk tanks (A and B). Three commercial dairy herds of 220 to 320 Israeli Holstein cows producing ?11 500 l during 305 days were selected for the study. The Afi-CF repeatability during time was found significant (P < 0.001) for cows. The statistic model succeeded in explaining 83.5% of the variance between Afi-CF and cows, and no significant variance was found between the mean weekly repeated recordings. Days in milk and log somatic cell count (SCC) had no significant effect. Fat, protein and lactose significantly affected Afi-CF and the empirical van Slyke equation. Real-time simulations were performed for different cutoff levels of coagulation properties where the milk of high Afi-CF cutoff value was channeled to tank A and the lower into tank B. The simulations showed that milk coagulation properties of an individual cow are not uniform, as most cows contributed milk to both tanks. Proportions of the individual cow's milk in each tank depended on the selected Afi-CF cutoff. The assessment of the major causative factors of a cow producing low-quality milk for cheese production was evaluated for the group that produced the low 10% quality milk. The largest number of cows in those groups at the three farms was found to be cows with post-intramammary infection with Escherichia coli and subclinical infections with streptococci or coagulase-negative staphylococci (?30%), although the SCC of these cows was not significantly different. Early time in lactation together with high milk yield >50 l/day, and late in lactation together with low milk yield<15 l/day and estrous (0 to 5 days) were also important influencing factors for low-quality milk. However, ?50% of the tested <span class="hlt">variables</span> did not explain any of the factors responsible for the cow producing milk in the low - 10% Afi-CF. PMID:23537499</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Leitner, Gabriel; Merin, Uzi; Jacoby, Shamay; Bezman, Dror; Lemberskiy-Kuzin, Liubov; Katz, Gil</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">52</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/53605685"> <span id="translatedtitle">Pliocene Sea Surface <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> <span class="hlt">Variability</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions and modification of land surfaces are expected to cause the earth's climate to warm. However the amount and details of the warming are still highly uncertain. Identifying and predicting human related changes must take into account natural climate <span class="hlt">variability</span> and the complex interactions of the different components of the Earth's climate system. The USGS PRISM (Pliocene</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">H. J. Dowsett; M. A. Chandler</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">53</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/55417939"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Variable</span> color <span class="hlt">temperature</span> fluorescent lamp</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Color <span class="hlt">temperature</span> change in a mercury-rare gas low pressure discharge has been investigated. Different pulse waveforms have been employed to increase the ratio of mercury upper level transitions with respect to the resonant 254 nm radiation. Low pressure fluorescent light sources were made with coatings consisting of a blue phosphor, sensitive to 365 nm ultraviolet radiation, blended with the standard</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">J. Ravi; J. Maya</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2000-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">54</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..14.6862S"> <span id="translatedtitle">Longitudinal <span class="hlt">Variability</span> of Thermospheric <span class="hlt">Temperature</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A topic of great current interest in atmospheric dynamics is the developing recognition of the influence of the diurnal eastward-propagating non-migrating tide of wavenumber 3 (DE3) on the thermosphere. Longitudinal variations of F-region ionospheric electron density show a zonal wavenumber 4 pattern, expected for satellite observations at a fixed local time with respect to a rotating Earth. WINDII observations of airglow O(1S) volume emission rate (VER), excited by photoelectron impact on atomic oxygen at 250 km were interpreted as neutral density observations; they have shown the wavenumber 4 to be a common density perturbation in the equatorial thermosphere. The analysis has been extended further by examining thermospheric neutral <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> at 245 km height derived from the observed daytime O(1S)VERs and the atomic oxygen density scale heights centred at this altitude. The observations examined have shown a distinct wave-4 signature at 20°S-40°S for the period from September to April with a more pronounced increase during fall equinox. Another enhancement of the wave 4 amplitude is observed during January. At the same time the quasi 2-day wave was observed in the MLT region in Rayleigh scattering <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> and up to 180 km in O(1S) airglow and wind observations. The thermospheric <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> at 245 km are further analysed for quasi 2-day wave signatures in attempt to determine the source of the observed thermospheric <span class="hlt">temperature</span> wave-4 perturbations and their coupling with the neutral atmosphere below.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Shepherd, M.; Shepherd, G.; Cho, Y.-M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">55</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/doepatents/biblio/570434"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Variable</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> semiconductor film deposition</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A method of depositing a semiconductor material on a substrate is disclosed. The method sequentially comprises (a) providing the semiconductor material in a depositable state such as a vapor for deposition on the substrate; (b) depositing the semiconductor material on the substrate while heating the substrate to a first <span class="hlt">temperature</span> sufficient to cause the semiconductor material to form a first film layer having a first grain size; (c) continually depositing the semiconductor material on the substrate while cooling the substrate to a second <span class="hlt">temperature</span> sufficient to cause the semiconductor material to form a second film layer deposited on the first film layer and having a second grain size smaller than the first grain size; and (d) raising the substrate <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, while either continuing or not continuing to deposit semiconductor material to form a third film layer, to thereby anneal the film layers into a single layer having favorable efficiency characteristics in photovoltaic applications. A preferred semiconductor material is cadmium telluride deposited on a glass/tin oxide substrate already having thereon a film layer of cadmium sulfide.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Li, X.; Sheldon, P.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1998-01-27</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">56</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/doepatents/biblio/871346"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Variable</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> semiconductor film deposition</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A method of depositing a semiconductor material on a substrate. The method sequentially comprises (a) providing the semiconductor material in a depositable state such as a vapor for deposition on the substrate; (b) depositing the semiconductor material on the substrate while heating the substrate to a first <span class="hlt">temperature</span> sufficient to cause the semiconductor material to form a first film layer having a first grain size; (c) continually depositing the semiconductor material on the substrate while cooling the substrate to a second <span class="hlt">temperature</span> sufficient to cause the semiconductor material to form a second film layer deposited on the first film layer and having a second grain size smaller than the first grain size; and (d) raising the substrate <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, while either continuing or not continuing to deposit semiconductor material to form a third film layer, to thereby anneal the film layers into a single layer having favorable efficiency characteristics in photovoltaic applications. A preferred semiconductor material is cadmium telluride deposited on a glass/tin oxide substrate already having thereon a film layer of cadmium sulfide.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Li, Xiaonan (Golden, CO); Sheldon, Peter (Lakewood, CO)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1998-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">57</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1981Ge%26Ae..21..823I"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Day-to-day</span> summer variations of hmF2 and n/e/mF2 values as a reflection of variations of the neutral composition of the upper atmosphere</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">An analysis of ionospheric data for summer daytime hours under quiet geomagnetic conditions discloses synphase <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> variations of hmF2 and n(e)mF2 (i.e., the height and electron density of the F-layer maximum). These variations are accompanied by synphase variations of the critical frequencies of the E region. This phenomenon is explained by a mechanism that involves variations of the neutral composition of the upper atmosphere, i.e., variations of the atomic-oxygen concentration that can amount to 60%.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ivanov-Kholodnyi, G. S.; Mikhailov, A. V.; Ostrovskii, G. I.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1981-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">58</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005PhDT.......131L"> <span id="translatedtitle">Sodium lidar observed <span class="hlt">variability</span> in mesopause region <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and horizontal wind: Planetary wave influence and tidal-gravity wave interactions</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The CSU sodium lidar system at Fort Collins, CO (40.6N, 105W), after a decade of mesopause <span class="hlt">temperature</span> observation was upgraded in 1999 from a one-beam system to a two-beam system, capable of simultaneous and continuous observations of mesopause region <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, zonal wind, and meridional wind, over full diurnal cycles, weather permitting. The regular observation under this operation mode started in May 2002. The valuable datasets could be used to study not only the tidal <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> but also planetary waves and gravity waves. Analysis of our longest dataset near fall equinox in 2003 (September 2003 campaign) reveals the dramatic tidal <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> with 2-fold increase in tidal amplitudes in all three fields during UT day 267 and 268. Further TIME-GCM (Thermosphere-Ionosphere-Mesosphere-Electrodynamics General Circulation Model) study and comparison between lidar observed <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and the SABER observed global <span class="hlt">temperature</span> field suggest that both tidal/planetary wave interactions and tidal/gravity wave interactions play an important role for the tidal amplitude enhancement. Though detailed causes for tidal <span class="hlt">variability</span> require further study, we have demonstrated that substantial information on MLT dynamics may be obtained from a comprehensive long-period data set. Three near 80hr continuous datasets in consecutive summers of 2002, 2003, 2004 give us the opportunities to study summer quasi-two-day waves (QTD) with the possible modulation of Quasi-Biannual Oscillation (QBO) on QTD wave amplitude. Comparisons between the QTD wave amplitudes of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> observed by lidar and SABER for all three campaigns show very good agreement. A strong winter mesospheric <span class="hlt">temperature</span> inversion layer (MIL) was observed by our sodium lidar in December 2004 campaign. Studies of this event reveal the strong MIL which is consistent with mean state and tidal/gravity wave interactions. The observed dramatic tidal amplitude increase in day 338 is the result of such wave-wave interactions.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Li, Tao</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">59</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/doepatents/biblio/870932"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Variable</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> seat climate control system</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A <span class="hlt">temperature</span> climate control system comprises a <span class="hlt">variable</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> seat, at least one heat pump, at least one heat pump <span class="hlt">temperature</span> sensor, and a controller. Each heat pump comprises a number of Peltier thermoelectric modules for <span class="hlt">temperature</span> conditioning the air in a main heat exchanger and a main exchanger fan for passing the conditioned air from the main exchanger to the <span class="hlt">variable</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> seat. The Peltier modules and each main fan may be manually adjusted via a control switch or a control signal. Additionally, the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> climate control system may comprise a number of additional <span class="hlt">temperature</span> sensors to monitor the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of the ambient air surrounding the occupant as well as the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of the conditioned air directed to the occupant. The controller is configured to automatically regulate the operation of the Peltier modules and/or each main fan according to a <span class="hlt">temperature</span> climate control logic designed both to maximize occupant comfort during normal operation, and minimize possible equipment damage, occupant discomfort, or occupant injury in the event of a heat pump malfunction.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Karunasiri, Tissa R. (Van Nuys, CA); Gallup, David F. (Pasadena, CA); Noles, David R. (Glendale, CA); Gregory, Christian T. (Alhambra, CA)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1997-05-06</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">60</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24860701"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Variable</span> effects of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> on insect herbivory.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Rising <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> can influence the top-down control of plant biomass by increasing herbivore metabolic demands. Unfortunately, we know relatively little about the effects of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> on herbivory rates for most insect herbivores in a given community. Evolutionary history, adaptation to local environments, and dietary factors may lead to <span class="hlt">variable</span> thermal response curves across different species. Here we characterized the effect of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> on herbivory rates for 21 herbivore-plant pairs, encompassing 14 herbivore and 12 plant species. We show that overall consumption rates increase with <span class="hlt">temperature</span> between 20 and 30?°C but do not increase further with increasing <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. However, there is substantial variation in thermal responses among individual herbivore-plant pairs at the highest <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. Over one third of the herbivore-plant pairs showed declining consumption rates at high <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, while an approximately equal number showed increasing consumption rates. Such variation existed even within herbivore species, as some species exhibited idiosyncratic thermal response curves on different host plants. Thus, rising <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, particularly with respect to climate change, may have highly <span class="hlt">variable</span> effects on plant-herbivore interactions and, ultimately, top-down control of plant biomass. PMID:24860701</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lemoine, Nathan P; Burkepile, Deron E; Parker, John D</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#">4</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#">5</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#">6</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#">7</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#">8</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#">9</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#">10</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> </div><!-- page_3 div --> <div id="page_4" class="hiddenDiv"> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">4</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#">5</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#">6</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#">7</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#">8</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#">9</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#">10</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">61</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4017821"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Variable</span> effects of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> on insect herbivory</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Rising <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> can influence the top-down control of plant biomass by increasing herbivore metabolic demands. Unfortunately, we know relatively little about the effects of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> on herbivory rates for most insect herbivores in a given community. Evolutionary history, adaptation to local environments, and dietary factors may lead to <span class="hlt">variable</span> thermal response curves across different species. Here we characterized the effect of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> on herbivory rates for 21 herbivore-plant pairs, encompassing 14 herbivore and 12 plant species. We show that overall consumption rates increase with <span class="hlt">temperature</span> between 20 and 30?°C but do not increase further with increasing <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. However, there is substantial variation in thermal responses among individual herbivore-plant pairs at the highest <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. Over one third of the herbivore-plant pairs showed declining consumption rates at high <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, while an approximately equal number showed increasing consumption rates. Such variation existed even within herbivore species, as some species exhibited idiosyncratic thermal response curves on different host plants. Thus, rising <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, particularly with respect to climate change, may have highly <span class="hlt">variable</span> effects on plant-herbivore interactions and, ultimately, top-down control of plant biomass.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Burkepile, Deron E.; Parker, John D.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">62</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1616430G"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Variability</span> of the Martian thermospheric <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> during the last 7 Martian Years</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> and densities in the Martian upper atmosphere have a significant influence over the different processes producing atmospheric escape. A good knowledge of the thermosphere and its <span class="hlt">variability</span> is thus necessary in order to better understand and quantify the atmospheric loss to space and the evolution of the planet. Different global models have been used to study the seasonal and interannual <span class="hlt">variability</span> of the Martian thermosphere, usually considering three solar scenarios (solar minimum, solar medium and solar maximum conditions) to take into account the solar cycle <span class="hlt">variability</span>. However, the <span class="hlt">variability</span> of the solar activity within the simulated period of time is not usually considered in these models. We have improved the description of the UV solar flux included on the General Circulation Model for Mars developed at the Laboratoire de Météorologie Dynamique (LMD-MGCM) in order to include its observed <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span>. We have used the model to simulate the thermospheric <span class="hlt">variability</span> during Martian Years 24 to 30, using realistic UV solar fluxes and dust opacities. The model predicts and interannual <span class="hlt">variability</span> of the <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> in the upper thermosphere that ranges from about 50 K during the aphelion to up to 150 K during perihelion. The seasonal <span class="hlt">variability</span> of <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> due to the eccentricity of the Martian orbit is modified by the <span class="hlt">variability</span> of the solar flux within a given Martian year. The solar rotation cycle produces <span class="hlt">temperature</span> oscillations of up to 30 K. We have also studied the response of the modeled thermosphere to the global dust storms in Martian Year 25 and Martian Year 28. The atmospheric dynamics are significantly modified by the global dust storms, which induces significant changes in the thermospheric <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. The response of the model to the presence of both global dust storms is in good agreement with previous modeling results (Medvedev et al., Journal of Geophysical Research, 2013). As expected, the simulated ionosphere is also sensitive to the <span class="hlt">variability</span> of the solar activity. Acknowledgemnt: Francisco González-Galindo is funded by a CSIC JAE-Doc contract financed by the European Social Fund</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Gonzalez-Galindo, Francisco; Lopez-Valverde, Miguel Angel; Millour, Ehouarn; Forget, François</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">63</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21141660"> <span id="translatedtitle">Sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span>: patterns and mechanisms.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Patterns of sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (SST) <span class="hlt">variability</span> on interannual and longer timescales result from a combination of atmospheric and oceanic processes. These SST anomaly patterns may be due to intrinsic modes of atmospheric circulation <span class="hlt">variability</span> that imprint themselves upon the SST field mainly via surface energy fluxes. Examples include SST fluctuations in the Southern Ocean associated with the Southern Annular Mode, a tripolar pattern of SST anomalies in the North Atlantic associated with the North Atlantic Oscillation, and a pan-Pacific mode known as the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (with additional contributions from oceanic processes). They may also result from coupled ocean-atmosphere interactions, such as the El Niño-Southern Oscillation phenomenon in the tropical Indo-Pacific, the tropical Atlantic Niño, and the cross-equatorial meridional modes in the tropical Pacific and Atlantic. Finally, patterns of SST <span class="hlt">variability</span> may arise from intrinsic oceanic modes, notably the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation. PMID:21141660</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Deser, Clara; Alexander, Michael A; Xie, Shang-Ping; Phillips, Adam S</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">64</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/2005PA001133"> <span id="translatedtitle">Middle Pliocene sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Estimates of sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (SST) based upon foraminifer, diatom, and ostracod assemblages from ocean cores reveal a warm phase of the Pliocene between about 3.3 and 3.0 Ma. Pollen records and plant megafossils, although not as well dated, show evidence for a warmer climate at about the same time. Increased greenhouse forcing and altered ocean heat transport are the leading candidates for the underlying cause of Pliocene global warmth. Despite being a period of global warmth, this interval encompasses considerable <span class="hlt">variability</span>. Two new SST reconstructions are presented that are designed to provide a climatological error bar for warm peak phases of the Pliocene and to document the spatial distribution and magnitude of SST <span class="hlt">variability</span> within the mid-Pliocene warm period. These data suggest long-term stability of low-latitude SST and document greater <span class="hlt">variability</span> in regions of maximum warming. Copyright 2005 by the American Geophysical Union.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Dowsett, H. J.; Chandler, M. A.; Cronin, T. M.; Dwyer, G. S.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">65</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003GeoRL..30.1781S"> <span id="translatedtitle">Modes of the wintertime Arctic <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">It is shown that the Arctic averaged wintertime <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> during the 20th century can be essentially described by two orthogonal modes. These modes were identified by an Empirical Orthogonal Function (EOF) decomposition of the 1892-1999 surface wintertime air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> anomalies (40°N-80°N) using a gridded dataset covering high Arctic. The first mode (1st leading EOF) is related to the NAO and has a major contribution to Arctic warming during the last 30 years. The second one (3rd leading EOF) dominates the SAT <span class="hlt">variability</span> prior to 1970. A correlation between the corresponding principal component PC3 and the Arctic SAT anomalies is 0.79. This mode has the largest amplitudes in the Kara-Barents Seas and Baffin Bay and exhibits no direct link to the large-scale atmospheric circulation <span class="hlt">variability</span>, in contrast to the other leading EOFs. We suggest that the existence of this mode is caused by long-term sea ice variations presumably due to Atlantic inflow <span class="hlt">variability</span>.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Semenov, Vladimir A.; Bengtsson, Lennart</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">66</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013PhRvL.111x1102P"> <span id="translatedtitle">Forecasting Neutron Star <span class="hlt">Temperatures</span>: Predictability and <span class="hlt">Variability</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">It is now possible to model thermal relaxation of neutron stars after bouts of accretion during which the star is heated out of equilibrium by nuclear reactions in its crust. Major uncertainties in these models can be encapsulated in modest variations of a handful of control parameters that change the fiducial crustal thermal conductivity, specific heat, and heating rates. Observations of thermal relaxation constrain these parameters and allow us to predict longer term <span class="hlt">variability</span> in terms of the neutron star core <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. We demonstrate this explicitly by modeling ongoing thermal relaxation in the neutron star XTE J1701-462. Its future cooling, over the next 5 to 30 years, is strongly constrained and depends mostly on its core <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, uncertainties in crust physics having essentially been pinned down by fitting to the first three years of observations.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Page, Dany; Reddy, Sanjay</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">67</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24483640"> <span id="translatedtitle">Forecasting neutron star <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>: predictability and <span class="hlt">variability</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">It is now possible to model thermal relaxation of neutron stars after bouts of accretion during which the star is heated out of equilibrium by nuclear reactions in its crust. Major uncertainties in these models can be encapsulated in modest variations of a handful of control parameters that change the fiducial crustal thermal conductivity, specific heat, and heating rates. Observations of thermal relaxation constrain these parameters and allow us to predict longer term <span class="hlt">variability</span> in terms of the neutron star core <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. We demonstrate this explicitly by modeling ongoing thermal relaxation in the neutron star XTE J1701-462. Its future cooling, over the next 5 to 30 years, is strongly constrained and depends mostly on its core <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, uncertainties in crust physics having essentially been pinned down by fitting to the first three years of observations. PMID:24483640</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Page, Dany; Reddy, Sanjay</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-12-13</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">68</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014GeoRL..41.2528L"> <span id="translatedtitle">Global and regional <span class="hlt">variability</span> in marine surface <span class="hlt">temperatures</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> simulated by climate models is generally consistent with that observed in instrumental records at the scale of global averages, but further insight can also be obtained from regional analysis of the marine <span class="hlt">temperature</span> record. A protocol is developed for comparing model simulations to observations that account for observational noise and missing data. General consistency between Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 model simulations and regional sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> is demonstrated at interannual timescales. At interdecadal timescales, however, the <span class="hlt">variability</span> diagnosed from observations is significantly greater. Discrepancies are greatest at low latitudes, with none of the 41 models showing equal or greater interdecadal <span class="hlt">variability</span>. The pattern of suppressed <span class="hlt">variability</span> at longer timescales and smaller spatial scales appears consistent with models generally being too diffusive. Suppressed <span class="hlt">variability</span> of low-latitude marine <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> points to underestimation of intrinsic <span class="hlt">variability</span> and may help explain why few models reproduce the observed <span class="hlt">temperature</span> trends during the last 15 years.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Laepple, T.; Huybers, P.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">69</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/3216036"> <span id="translatedtitle">Impact of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and precipitation <span class="hlt">variability</span> on crop model predictions</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Future climate changes, as well as differences in climates from one location to another, may involve changes in climatic <span class="hlt">variability</span> as well as changes in means. In this study, a synthetic weather generator is used to systematically change the within-year <span class="hlt">variability</span> of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and precipitation (and therefore also the interannual <span class="hlt">variability</span>), without altering long-term mean values. For precipitation, both the</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Susan J. Riha; Daniel S. Wilks; Patrick Simoens</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1996-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">70</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17481754"> <span id="translatedtitle">Listeria monocytogenes fecal shedding in dairy cattle shows high levels of <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> variation and includes outbreaks and sporadic cases of shedding of specific L. monocytogenes subtypes.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Fecal shedding of Listeria monocytogenes poses a risk for contamination of animal feed and agricultural environments and raw food at the pre-harvest stages of food production. To be able to reduce these risks it is critical to improve understanding of the epidemiology of L. monocytogenes shedding in feces. The objective of this study was to assess the daily <span class="hlt">variability</span> of fecal shedding and its association with individual animal (lactation number and the day of current lactation) and environmental (feed) risk factors. That was achieved by application of longitudinal daily sample collection in a herd of dairy cattle and molecular characterization of isolated L. monocytogenes. Fecal samples (25) and silage samples (2) were collected daily during two 2-week periods and one 5-day period. L. monocytogenes was isolated from 255 out of 825 (31%) fecal samples on 24 out of 33 (73%) days, and from 25 out of 66 (38%) silage samples on 16 out of 33 (48%) days. Ninety-four percent of cows excreted L. monocytogenes in feces at least once during the study period. Our data analyses indicated that (i) the prevalence and incidence risk of L. monocytogenes fecal shedding in cattle vary considerably over time, from 0 to 100%, and both are associated with contamination of silage, (ii) L. monocytogenes fecal shedding in cattle could occur as part of an outbreak or as an isolated sporadic case, (iii) L. monocytogenes subtypes associated with human infections are commonly isolated from cattle feces and silage, and (iv) a single cow can harbor more than one L. monocytogenes subtype on any given day. Although limited to a single dairy cattle herd, these findings provide a significant advancement in the understanding of the epidemiology of L. monocytogenes fecal shedding in dairy cattle. PMID:17481754</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ho, A J; Ivanek, R; Gröhn, Y T; Nightingale, K K; Wiedmann, M</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-08-16</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">71</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/53953769"> <span id="translatedtitle">Middle Pliocene sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Estimates of sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (SST) based upon foraminifer, diatom, and ostracod assemblages from ocean cores reveal a warm phase of the Pliocene between about 3.3 and 3.0 Ma. Pollen records and plant megafossils, although not as well dated, show evidence for a warmer climate at about the same time. Increased greenhouse forcing and altered ocean heat transport are the</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Harry J. Dowsett; Mark A. Chandler; Thomas M. Cronin; Gary S. Dwyer</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">72</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/52658354"> <span id="translatedtitle">Simple, <span class="hlt">variable-temperature</span>, scanning tunneling microscope</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">We describe a simple scanning tunneling microscope (STM) which works well from room <span class="hlt">temperature</span> to 4 K. It is relatively easy to build, repair, or modify, and works very reliably. An unusual feature of our STM is that it is assembled without glues or solders. A list of suppliers of the components used in our STM is included in the</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">M. A. Dubson; Jeeseong Hwang</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1992-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">73</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23980136"> <span id="translatedtitle">Contribution of solar radiation to decadal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> over land.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Global air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> has become the primary metric for judging global climate change. The <span class="hlt">variability</span> of global <span class="hlt">temperature</span> on a decadal timescale is still poorly understood. This paper examines further one suggested hypothesis, that variations in solar radiation reaching the surface (Rs) have caused much of the observed decadal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span>. Because Rs only heats air during the day, its <span class="hlt">variability</span> is plausibly related to the <span class="hlt">variability</span> of diurnal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> range (daily maximum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> minus its minimum). We show that the <span class="hlt">variability</span> of diurnal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> range is consistent with the <span class="hlt">variability</span> of Rs at timescales from monthly to decadal. This paper uses long comprehensive datasets for diurnal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> range to establish what has been the contribution of Rs to decadal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span>. It shows that Rs over land globally peaked in the 1930s, substantially decreased from the 1940s to the 1970s, and changed little after that. Reduction of Rs caused a reduction of more than 0.2 °C in mean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> during May to October from the 1940s through the 1970s, and a reduction of nearly 0.2 °C in mean air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> during November to April from the 1960s through the 1970s. This cooling accounts in part for the near-constant <span class="hlt">temperature</span> from the 1930s into the 1970s. Since then, neither the rapid increase in <span class="hlt">temperature</span> from the 1970s through the 1990s nor the slowdown of warming in the early twenty-first century appear to be significantly related to changes of Rs. PMID:23980136</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wang, Kaicun; Dickinson, Robert E</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-09-10</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">74</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Temperature%2bvariations&id=EJ435001"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Variability</span> of Soil <span class="hlt">Temperature</span>: A Spatial and Temporal Analysis.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Discusses an analysis of the relationship of soil <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> at 3 depths to various climatic <span class="hlt">variables</span> along a 200-kilometer transect in west-central Oklahoma. Reports that <span class="hlt">temperature</span> readings increased from east to west. Concludes that <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variations were explained by a combination of spatial, temporal, and biophysical factors. (SG)</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Walsh, Stephen J.; And Others</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1991-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">75</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/48597685"> <span id="translatedtitle">Interpolation of climate <span class="hlt">variables</span> and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> modeling</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and modeling are becoming powerful tools in agricultural research and natural resource\\u000a management. This study proposes an empirical methodology for modeling and mapping of the monthly and annual air <span class="hlt">temperature</span>\\u000a using remote sensing and GIS techniques. The study area is Gangetic West Bengal and its neighborhood in the eastern India,\\u000a where a number of weather systems</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sailesh Samanta; Dilip Kumar Pal; Debasish Lohar; Babita Pal</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">76</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1068748"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Variable</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> electrochemical strain microscopy of Sm-doped ceria</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Variable</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> electrochemical strain microscopy has been used to study the electrochemical activity of Sm-doped ceria as a function of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and bias. The electrochemical strain microscopy hysteresis loops have been collected across the surface at different <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> and the relative activity at different <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> has been compared. The relaxation behavior of the signal at different <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> has been also evaluated to relate kinetic process during bias induced electrochemical reactions with <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and two different kinetic regimes have been identified. The strongly non-monotonic dependence of relaxation behavior on <span class="hlt">temperature</span> is interpreted as evidence for water-mediated mechanisms.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jesse, Stephen [ORNL; Morozovska, A. N. [National Academy of Science of Ukraine, Kiev, Ukraine; Kalinin, Sergei V [ORNL; Eliseev, E. A. [National Academy of Science of Ukraine, Kiev, Ukraine; Yang, Nan [ORNL; Doria, Sandra [ORNL; Tebano, Antonello [ORNL</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">77</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014GeoRL..41.3211M"> <span id="translatedtitle">On forced <span class="hlt">temperature</span> changes, internal <span class="hlt">variability</span>, and the AMO</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">estimate the low-frequency internal <span class="hlt">variability</span> of Northern Hemisphere (NH) mean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> using observed <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variations, which include both forced and internal <span class="hlt">variability</span> components, and several alternative model simulations of the (natural + anthropogenic) forced component alone. We then generate an ensemble of alternative historical <span class="hlt">temperature</span> histories based on the statistics of the estimated internal <span class="hlt">variability</span>. Using this ensemble, we show, first, that recent NH mean <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> fall within the range of expected multidecadal <span class="hlt">variability</span>. Using the synthetic <span class="hlt">temperature</span> histories, we also show that certain procedures used in past studies to estimate internal <span class="hlt">variability</span>, and in particular, an internal multidecadal oscillation termed the "Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation" or "AMO", fail to isolate the true internal <span class="hlt">variability</span> when it is a priori known. Such procedures yield an AMO signal with an inflated amplitude and biased phase, attributing some of the recent NH mean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> rise to the AMO. The true AMO signal, instead, appears likely to have been in a cooling phase in recent decades, offsetting some of the anthropogenic warming. Claims of multidecadal "stadium wave" patterns of variation across multiple climate indices are also shown to likely be an artifact of this flawed procedure for isolating putative climate oscillations.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Mann, Michael E.; Steinman, Byron A.; Miller, Sonya K.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">78</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19950038700&hterms=venus+solar+flux&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dvenus%2Bsolar%2Bflux"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Variability</span> of dayside electron <span class="hlt">temperature</span> at Venus</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Langmuir probe measurements on Pioneer Venus Orbiter show that electron <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (Te) profiles exhibit two distinct regions. The lower, but more extended region is in the main ionosphere where Te increases slowly with altitude. The other, less extended region is in the ionopause, where Te rise sharply with altitude. If horizontal magnetic fields and flux ropes in the ionosphere inhibit vertical thermal conductivity sufficiently, then the observed Te profile could be explained with EUV as the major heat source (Cravens et al., 1980). The rise in Te in the ionopause region has generally been attributed to solar wind heating (Brace and Kliore, 1991). We suggest that this sharp rise in Te is due primarily to the steep fall in electron density, Ne. If the heating rate is essentially unchanged and heat conduction is not of primary importance, then a steep rise in Te will maintain a constant electron cooling rate for a steeply falling Ne. We have observed large orbit to orbit variations in Te in the ionopause region which are found to be inversely related to changes in Ne. Variations in solar wind dynamic pressure do not seem to have a direct effect on Te, rather the effect is indirect coming through the sharp decrease in Ne.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Mahajan, K. K.; Ghosh, S.; Paul, R.; Hoegy, W. R.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1994-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">79</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001AGUFM.A51E0093S"> <span id="translatedtitle">Longitudinal Variations of Mesospheric <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> at Middle and High Latitudes - the WINDII Perspective</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Longitudinal variations of mesospheric <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> observed by the WIND Imaging Interferometer (WINDII) on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite will be presented and discussed. The study will examine global <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> and year-to-year <span class="hlt">variability</span> in the height range 65-95 km. Planetary scale perturbations will be analysed employing LMS spectral analysis.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Shepherd, M. G.; Rochon, Y. J.; Evans, W. F.; Shepherd, G. G.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2001-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">80</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1613374E"> <span id="translatedtitle">Attributing Future Changes in Surface <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> <span class="hlt">Variability</span> to Thermal Advection</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Assessing the projected changes in <span class="hlt">variability</span> of surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> is a key step towards assessing the future probability of extreme events such as cold spells and heat waves. Furthermore, understanding the driving mechanisms behind such changes in <span class="hlt">variability</span> enables more confidence to be placed in model projections. A large fraction of present day <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variance is associated with thermal advection, as anomalous winds blow across the land-sea <span class="hlt">temperature</span> contrast for instance. This study investigates the extent to which this mechanism may also explain projected changes in <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> up to the end of the 21st century. Under greenhouse gas forcing there is expected to be an increase in land-sea <span class="hlt">temperature</span> contrasts in summer and a decrease in winter. In winter, the northern hemisphere will also see decreased large scale meridional <span class="hlt">temperature</span> gradients due to Arctic amplification of the warming signal. In this study, it is found that the associated changes in thermal advection are expected to lead to widespread changes in daily and monthly <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> by the end of the twenty-first century. The study uses a multiple regression analysis applied to ESSENCE, a 17 member ensemble of the ECHAM5/MPI-OM climate model, to separate the contributions from changing <span class="hlt">temperature</span> gradients and changing circulation patterns. It will be shown that many changes can be explained using only the changes in seasonal mean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> gradient. A comparison with the CMIP5 suite of models will also be presented to highlight which changes in <span class="hlt">variability</span> are robust across climate models, and to demonstrate the temporal evolution of the <span class="hlt">variability</span> signal in model projections.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ely, Caroline; Woollings, Tim; de Vries, Hylke; Hawkins, Ed</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">4</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#">5</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#">6</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#">7</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#">8</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#">9</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#">10</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> </div><!-- page_4 div --> <div id="page_5" class="hiddenDiv"> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#">4</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">5</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#">6</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#">7</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#">8</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#">9</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#">10</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">81</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1984AdSpR...4...37C"> <span id="translatedtitle">Possible influence of solar radiation <span class="hlt">variability</span> on the stratosphere <span class="hlt">temperature</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Using daily <span class="hlt">temperature</span> data available from radiosonde measurements over Barajas (Madrid), La Coruna, and Palma de Mallorca stations for the time span 1971-1982 and an altitude range 100-30 mb, <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> at different levels are compared with the 10.7-cm flux in order to check whether radiation <span class="hlt">variability</span> must be included in lower-stratospheric models. At the latitude studied, stratospheric <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> are uninfluenced by sudden warming phenomena, avoiding difficulties of masking found in previous studies.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Cacho, J.; Gil, M.; Sainz de Aja, M. J.; Alberca, L. F.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">82</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23883935"> <span id="translatedtitle">No increase in global <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> despite changing regional patterns.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Evidence from Greenland ice cores shows that year-to-year <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> was probably higher in some past cold periods, but there is considerable interest in determining whether global warming is increasing climate <span class="hlt">variability</span> at present. This interest is motivated by an understanding that increased <span class="hlt">variability</span> and resulting extreme weather conditions may be more difficult for society to adapt to than altered mean conditions. So far, however, in spite of suggestions of increased <span class="hlt">variability</span>, there is considerable uncertainty as to whether it is occurring. Here we show that although fluctuations in annual <span class="hlt">temperature</span> have indeed shown substantial geographical variation over the past few decades, the time-evolving standard deviation of globally averaged <span class="hlt">temperature</span> anomalies has been stable. A feature of the changes has been a tendency for many regions of low <span class="hlt">variability</span> to experience increases, which might contribute to the perception of increased climate volatility. The normalization of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> anomalies creates the impression of larger relative overall increases, but our use of absolute values, which we argue is a more appropriate approach, reveals little change. Regionally, greater year-to-year changes recently occurred in much of North America and Europe. Many climate models predict that total <span class="hlt">variability</span> will ultimately decrease under high greenhouse gas concentrations, possibly associated with reductions in sea-ice cover. Our findings contradict the view that a warming world will automatically be one of more overall climatic variation. PMID:23883935</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Huntingford, Chris; Jones, Philip D; Livina, Valerie N; Lenton, Timothy M; Cox, Peter M</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-08-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">83</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23600250"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Variable</span> intertidal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> explains why disease endangers black abalone.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Epidemiological theory suggests that pathogens will not cause host extinctions because agents of disease should fade out when the host population is driven below a threshold density. Nevertheless, infectious diseases have threatened species with extinction on local scales by maintaining high incidence and the ability to spread efficiently even as host populations decline. Intertidal black abalone (Haliotis cracherodii), but not other abalone species, went extinct locally throughout much of southern California following the emergence of a Rickettsiales-like pathogen in the mid-1980s. The rickettsial disease, a condition known as withering syndrome (WS), and associated mortality occur at elevated water <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. We measured abalone body <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> in the field and experimentally manipulated intertidal environmental conditions in the laboratory, testing the influence of mean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and daily <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> on key epizootiological processes of WS. Daily <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> increased the susceptibility of black abalone to infection, but disease expression occurred only at warm water <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> and was independent of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span>. These results imply that high thermal variation of the marine intertidal zone allows the pathogen to readily infect black abalone, but infected individuals remain asymptomatic until water <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> periodically exceed thresholds modulating WS. Mass mortalities can therefore occur before pathogen transmission is limited by density-dependent factors. PMID:23600250</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ben-Horin, Tal; Lenihan, Hunter S; Lafferty, Kevin D</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">84</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/95748"> <span id="translatedtitle">Local versus regional coherence in meteorological <span class="hlt">variables</span> and lake <span class="hlt">temperatures</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Lakes are affected by many driving <span class="hlt">variables</span>, some acting locally, some regionally. Meteorological <span class="hlt">variables</span> and lake <span class="hlt">temperature</span> profiles from long-term data sets collected at four research sites across the Great Lakes Region (the North Temperate Lakes LTER sites in northern and southern Wisconsin, and the Experimental Lakes Area and Dorset Research Area in Canada) were analyzed to test whether inter-annual variation in meteorological <span class="hlt">variables</span> (air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and solar radiation), lake <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, and mixed layer depth was temporally coherent, i.e. exhibited synchronous variation. Coherence is an important property to evaluate because it influences how broadly we can extrapolate results from a lake or set of lakes and it clarifies what aspects of climate are linked to lake dynamics. Results to date show strong coherence, as measured by high correlation values, of air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> among the four areas. Summer surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> was strongly coherent for lakes within a research site and moderately coherent among some of the sites whereas hypolimnion <span class="hlt">temperature</span> was not as coherent. Thus lake thermal <span class="hlt">variables</span> range from being tightly linked to climate to relatively disconnected from regional climatic variation.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Benson, B.J.; Kratz, T.K.; Dillon, P. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison (United States)]|[Dorset Research Centre, Ontario (Canada)] [and others</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1995-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">85</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/51181437"> <span id="translatedtitle">A Compact <span class="hlt">Variable-Temperature</span> Broadband Series-Resistor Calibration</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">We present a broadband on-wafer calibration from 45 MHz to 40 GHz for <span class="hlt">variable</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> measurements, which requires three standards: a thru, reflect, and series resistor. At room <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, the maximum error of this technique, com- pared to a benchmark nine-standard multiline thru-reflect-line (TRL) method, is comparable to the repeatability of the bench- mark calibration. The series-resistor standard is modeled</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Nathan D. Orloff; Jordi Mateu; Arkadiusz Lewandowski; Eduard Rocas; Josh King; Dazhen Gu; Xiaoli Lu; Carlos Collado; Ichiro Takeuchi; James C. Booth</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">86</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/59032494"> <span id="translatedtitle">Lower Tropospheric <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> <span class="hlt">Variability</span> Over the USA: a GIS Approach</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">We use the high resolution North American Regional Analysis (NARR) dataset to build for the United States a <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Change Index (TCI) based on four contributing <span class="hlt">variables</span> derived from the layer-averaged <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and lapse rate of the 1000mb - 700mb layer (near-surface to 3000 meters) for the 1979-2008 period. The analysis uses Geographic Information Systems (GIS) methods to identify distinct</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Souleymane Fall; Dev Niyogi; Gilbert L Rochon</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">87</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1069151"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Variability</span> in Measured Space <span class="hlt">Temperatures</span> in 60 Homes</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This report discusses the observed <span class="hlt">variability</span> in indoor space <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in a set of 60 homes located in Florida, New York, Oregon, and Washington. <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> data were collected at 15-minute intervals for an entire year, including living room, master bedroom, and outdoor air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (Arena, et. al). The data were examined to establish the average living room <span class="hlt">temperature</span> for the set of homes for the heating and cooling seasons, the <span class="hlt">variability</span> of living room <span class="hlt">temperature</span> depending on climate, and the <span class="hlt">variability</span> of indoor space <span class="hlt">temperature</span> within the homes. The accuracy of software-based energy analysis depends on the accuracy of input values. Thermostat set point is one of the most influential inputs for building energy simulation. Several industry standards exist that recommend differing default thermostat settings for heating and cooling seasons. These standards were compared to the values calculated for this analysis. The data examined for this report show that there is a definite difference between the climates and that the data do not agree well with any particular standard.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Roberts, D.; Lay, K.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">88</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/44485202"> <span id="translatedtitle">Orthogonal Wavelet Analysis: Interannual <span class="hlt">Variability</span> in the Sea Surface <span class="hlt">Temperature</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The unique capability of orthogonal wavelets, which have attractive time-frequency localization properties as exemplified by the Meyer wavelet, is demonstrated in a diagnosis of the interannual <span class="hlt">variability</span> using a 44-year dataset of the sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (SST). This wavelet analysis is performed in conjunction with an empirical orthogonal function analysis and a Fourier analysis to illustrate their complementary capability. The</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Mankin Mak</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1995-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">89</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/7036"> <span id="translatedtitle">Novel Dodecaarylporphyrins: Synthesis and <span class="hlt">Variable</span> <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> NMR Studies</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">An investigation of the synthesis of novel dodecaarylporphyrins using the Suzuki coupling reaction of arylboronic acids with octabromotetraarylporphyrins is reported. Studies of the dynamic properties of these new porphyrins using <span class="hlt">variable</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (VT) <SUP>1</SUP>H NMR spectroscopy and molecular mechanics provide interesting insights into their dynamic properties, including the first determination of {beta} aryl rotation in a porphyrin system.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Cancilla, Mark; Lebrilla, Carlito; Ma, Jian-Guo; Medforth, Craig J.; Muzzi, Cinzia M.; Shelnutt, John A.; Smith, Kevin M.; Voss, Lisa</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1999-05-05</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">90</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFMPP14C..05F"> <span id="translatedtitle">Interannual <span class="hlt">variability</span> in tropical Pacific <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> during Heinrich stadial 1</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Assessing the response of interannual climate <span class="hlt">variability</span> in the tropical Pacific Ocean to future greenhouse warming is of paramount importance. However, the dominant mode of Pacific atmosphere-ocean <span class="hlt">variability</span> on interannual timescales, the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO), is poorly understood with respect to its behaviour under boundary conditions different from today. For last glacial conditions, model simulations and rare proxy records of interannual climate <span class="hlt">variability</span> in the Pacific are contradictory. Here we present a monthly resolved reconstruction of tropical South Pacific climate from 15,000 years ago at the end of the last glacial. This period was characterised by substantial cooling in the North Atlantic Ocean and a reduction in the strength of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) in response to massive iceberg discharge associated with Heinrich stadial 1 (H1). Our Sr/Ca palaeotemperature record constructed from a fossil coral recovered by Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Expedition 310 to Tahiti indicates pronounced interannual ENSO <span class="hlt">variability</span>, even though the site is only weakly influenced by ENSO today. From our coral record and simulations with a comprehensive climate model (CCSM3) we conclude that interannual ENSO <span class="hlt">variability</span> in the tropical Pacific was strong during H1. Our results suggest that enhanced interannual <span class="hlt">variability</span> in tropical Pacific <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> is the ENSO response to a reduced AMOC under glacial boundary conditions.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Felis, T.; Merkel, U.; Asami, R.; Deschamps, P.; Hathorne, E.; Koelling, M.; Bard, E. G.; Cabioch, G.; Durand, N.; Prange, M.; Schulz, M.; Cahyarini, S.; Pfeiffer, M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">91</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFMGC51B1201K"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> and early clustering of record breaking events</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">As the number of studies using record breaking statistics in climatology is growing rapidly, the criteria for choosing time period become essential. To that end, here we examine the evolution of monthly mean <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> and its dependence on beginning and final year. Specifically, we use the <span class="hlt">variability</span> index Alpha (Anderson and Kostinski, J, Appl. Met. and Clim., 2010) such that <Alpha> = 0 indicates no trend in <span class="hlt">variability</span>. Generally, Alpha has decreased between 1900 and 2010 (indicating decreasing <span class="hlt">variability</span>) for stations from the contiguous United States (United States Historical Climatology Network, version 2). We find, somewhat surprisingly, that the observed decrease is due to an early clustering of records. While detailed results depend on whether the data is gridded, detrended, etc., the general finding appears remarkably robust and holds globally as well.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kostinski, A. B.; Anderson, A. L.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">92</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014NatCC...4..362N"> <span id="translatedtitle">Inter-hemispheric <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> over the past millennium</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Earth's climate system is driven by a complex interplay of internal chaotic dynamics and natural and anthropogenic external forcing. Recent instrumental data have shown a remarkable degree of asynchronicity between Northern Hemisphere and Southern Hemisphere <span class="hlt">temperature</span> fluctuations, thereby questioning the relative importance of internal versus external drivers of past as well as future climate <span class="hlt">variability</span>. However, large-scale <span class="hlt">temperature</span> reconstructions for the past millennium have focused on the Northern Hemisphere, limiting empirical assessments of inter-hemispheric <span class="hlt">variability</span> on multi-decadal to centennial timescales. Here, we introduce a new millennial ensemble reconstruction of annually resolved <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variations for the Southern Hemisphere based on an unprecedented network of terrestrial and oceanic palaeoclimate proxy records. In conjunction with an independent Northern Hemisphere <span class="hlt">temperature</span> reconstruction ensemble, this record reveals an extended cold period (1594-1677) in both hemispheres but no globally coherent warm phase during the pre-industrial (1000-1850) era. The current (post-1974) warm phase is the only period of the past millennium where both hemispheres are likely to have experienced contemporaneous warm extremes. Our analysis of inter-hemispheric <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> in an ensemble of climate model simulations for the past millennium suggests that models tend to overemphasize Northern Hemisphere-Southern Hemisphere synchronicity by underestimating the role of internal ocean-atmosphere dynamics, particularly in the ocean-dominated Southern Hemisphere. Our results imply that climate system predictability on decadal to century timescales may be lower than expected based on assessments of external climate forcing and Northern Hemisphere <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variations alone.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Neukom, Raphael; Gergis, Joëlle; Karoly, David J.; Wanner, Heinz; Curran, Mark; Elbert, Julie; González-Rouco, Fidel; Linsley, Braddock K.; Moy, Andrew D.; Mundo, Ignacio; Raible, Christoph C.; Steig, Eric J.; van Ommen, Tas; Vance, Tessa; Villalba, Ricardo; Zinke, Jens; Frank, David</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">93</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/2682817"> <span id="translatedtitle">Amplification of surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> trends and <span class="hlt">variability</span> in thetropical atmosphere</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The month-to-month <span class="hlt">variability</span> of tropical <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> is larger in the troposphere than at the Earth's surface. This amplification behavior is similar in a range of observations and climate model simulations, and is consistent with basic theory. On multi-decadal timescales, tropospheric amplification of surface warming is a robust feature of model simulations, but occurs in only one observational dataset. Other observations</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">B. D. Santer; T. M. L. Wigley; C. Mears; F. J. Wentz; S. A. Klein; D. J. Seidel; K. E. Taylor; P. W. Thorne; M. F. Wehner; P. J. Gleckler; J. S. Boyle; W. D. Collins; K. W. Dixon; C. Doutriaux; M. Free; Q. Fu; J. E. Hansen; G. S. Jones; T. R. Karl; J. R. Lanzante; G. A. Meehl; V. Ramaswamy; G. Russell; G. A. Schmidt</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">94</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ApJ...785..158R"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Fluctuations as a Source of Brown Dwarf <span class="hlt">Variability</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A number of brown dwarfs are now known to be <span class="hlt">variable</span> with observed amplitudes as large as 10%-30% at some wavelengths. While spatial inhomogeneities in cloud coverage and thickness are likely responsible for much of the observed <span class="hlt">variability</span>, it is possible that some of the variations arise from atmospheric <span class="hlt">temperature</span> fluctuations instead of, or in addition to, clouds. To better understand the role that thermal <span class="hlt">variability</span> might play we present a case study of brown dwarf <span class="hlt">variability</span> using a newly developed one-dimensional, time-stepping model of atmospheric thermal structure. We focus on the effects of thermal perturbations, intentionally simplifying the problem through omission of clouds and atmospheric circulation. Model results demonstrate that thermal perturbations occurring deep in the atmosphere (at pressures greater than 10 bar) of a model T-dwarf can be communicated to the upper atmosphere through radiative heating via the windows in near-infrared water opacity. The response time depends on where in the atmosphere a thermal perturbation is introduced. We show that, for certain periodic perturbations, the emission spectrum can have complex time- and wavelength-dependent behaviors, including phase shifts in times of maximum flux observed at different wavelengths. Since different wavelengths probe different levels in the atmosphere, these variations track a wavelength-dependent set of radiative exchanges happening between different atmospheric levels as a perturbation evolves in time. We conclude that thermal—as well as cloud—fluctuations must be considered as possible contributors to the observed brown dwarf <span class="hlt">variability</span>.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Robinson, Tyler D.; Marley, Mark S.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">95</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22479626"> <span id="translatedtitle">Historical <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> affects coral response to heat stress.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Coral bleaching is the breakdown of symbiosis between coral animal hosts and their dinoflagellate algae symbionts in response to environmental stress. On large spatial scales, heat stress is the most common factor causing bleaching, which is predicted to increase in frequency and severity as the climate warms. There is evidence that the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> threshold at which bleaching occurs varies with local environmental conditions and background climate conditions. We investigated the influence of past <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> on coral susceptibility to bleaching, using the natural gradient in peak <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> in the Gilbert Islands, Republic of Kiribati. The spatial pattern in skeletal growth rates and partial mortality scars found in massive Porites sp. across the central and northern islands suggests that corals subject to larger year-to-year fluctuations in maximum ocean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> were more resistant to a 2004 warm-water event. In addition, a subsequent 2009 warm event had a disproportionately larger impact on those corals from the island with lower historical heat stress, as indicated by lower concentrations of triacylglycerol, a lipid utilized for energy, as well as thinner tissue in those corals. This study indicates that coral reefs in locations with more frequent warm events may be more resilient to future warming, and protection measures may be more effective in these regions. PMID:22479626</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Carilli, Jessica; Donner, Simon D; Hartmann, Aaron C</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">96</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3316685"> <span id="translatedtitle">Historical <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> <span class="hlt">Variability</span> Affects Coral Response to Heat Stress</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Coral bleaching is the breakdown of symbiosis between coral animal hosts and their dinoflagellate algae symbionts in response to environmental stress. On large spatial scales, heat stress is the most common factor causing bleaching, which is predicted to increase in frequency and severity as the climate warms. There is evidence that the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> threshold at which bleaching occurs varies with local environmental conditions and background climate conditions. We investigated the influence of past <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> on coral susceptibility to bleaching, using the natural gradient in peak <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> in the Gilbert Islands, Republic of Kiribati. The spatial pattern in skeletal growth rates and partial mortality scars found in massive Porites sp. across the central and northern islands suggests that corals subject to larger year-to-year fluctuations in maximum ocean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> were more resistant to a 2004 warm-water event. In addition, a subsequent 2009 warm event had a disproportionately larger impact on those corals from the island with lower historical heat stress, as indicated by lower concentrations of triacylglycerol, a lipid utilized for energy, as well as thinner tissue in those corals. This study indicates that coral reefs in locations with more frequent warm events may be more resilient to future warming, and protection measures may be more effective in these regions.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Carilli, Jessica; Donner, Simon D.; Hartmann, Aaron C.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">97</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFMOS41B1721N"> <span id="translatedtitle">Intraseasonal sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> in Indonesian seas</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The satellite-derived sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (SST) data, 1998-mid 2012, are used to examine intraseasonal <span class="hlt">variability</span> (ISV; 20-90 days) across the Indonesian seas. The most energetic ISV is observed in the Banda Sea and across the Indo-Australia basin with an The satellite-derived sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (SST) data, 1998-mid 2012, are used to examine intraseasonal <span class="hlt">variability</span> (ISV; 20-90 days) across the Indonesian seas. The most energetic ISV is observed in the Banda Sea and across the Indo-Australia basin with an average SST standard deviation (STD) between 0.4-0.5°C, with strongest signature during boreal winter. What physical processes force the SST ISV <span class="hlt">variability</span> within the Indonesian seas? Ocean process, sea-air interaction, or both? To help identify the main forcing, the satellite derived outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) and wind stress data in the region are examined. The OLR shows robust intraseasonal variations and is significantly correlated with the SST, particularly for <span class="hlt">variability</span> with periods of 30-60 days, with OLR accounting for ~60-70% of the SST variance. The OLR is also maximum during boreal winter. Conversely, the surface wind may play insignificant role in perturbing the SST at intraseasonal timescales as shown by weak correlation between wind stress and SST. We thus suspect that the surface solar flux (suggested by the OLR) is likely more dominant than the surface turbulent heat flux (indicated by the surface wind) as the main source for the ISV in the SST in Indonesian seas. Furthermore the maximum OLR phase, coupled with a period of minimum mixed layer depth, may explain the strong SST variation during boreal winter in Indonesian seas. The influence of the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) on the OLR and SST <span class="hlt">variability</span> is currently being evaluated.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Napitu, A. M.; Gordon, A. L.; Yuan, X.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">98</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.6088S"> <span id="translatedtitle">Trends and <span class="hlt">variability</span> in East African rainfall and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> observations</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The economy of East Africa is highly dependent on agriculture, leading to a strong vulnerability of local society to fluctuations in seasonal rainfall amounts, including extreme events. Hence, the knowledge about the evolution of seasonal rainfall under future climate conditions is crucial. Rainfall regimes over East Africa are influenced by multiple factors, including two monsoon systems, several convergence zones and the Rift Valley lakes. In addition, local conditions, like topography, modulate the large-scale rainfall pattern. East African rainfall <span class="hlt">variability</span> is also influenced by various teleconnections like the Indian Ocean Zonal Mode and El Niño Southern Oscillation. Regarding future climate projections, regional and global climate models partly disagree on the increase or decrease of East African rainfall. The specific aim of the present study is the acquirement of historic data from weather stations in East Africa (Kenya, Tanzania, Ruanda and Uganda), the use of gridded satellite (rainfall) products (ARC2 and TRMM), and three-dimensional atmospheric reanalysis (e.g., ERA-Interim) to quantify climate <span class="hlt">variability</span> in the recent past and to understand its causes. Climate <span class="hlt">variability</span> and trends, including changes in extreme events, are evaluated using ETCCDI climate change and standardized precipitation indices. These climate indices are determined in order to investigate the <span class="hlt">variability</span> of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and rainfall and their trends with the focus on most recent decades. In the follow-up, statistical and dynamical analyses are conducted to quantify the local impact of pertinent large-scale modes of climate <span class="hlt">variability</span> (Indian Ocean Zonal Mode, El Niño Southern Oscillation, Sea Surface <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> of the Indian Ocean).</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Seregina, Larisa; Ermert, Volker; Fink, Andreas H.; Pinto, Joaquim G.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">99</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1612121D"> <span id="translatedtitle">Geoeffective solar <span class="hlt">variability</span> influence on Northern Hemisphere surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The complex interaction of the solar outputs such as electromagnetic radiation, solar wind and interplanetary magnetic field with terrestrial environment would affect the Earth's climate. Usually, the effect of solar <span class="hlt">variability</span> on climate is taken into account only through changes in solar total and spectral irradiance. In this study, possible climatic effects related to geoeffective solar <span class="hlt">variability</span> were investigated by means of long-term statistical correlations between surface air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and solar/geomagnetic indices. The data from NCEP/NCAR reanalysis database for the Northern Hemisphere have been processed. Spectral analysis indicates the occurrence of periodicities between 2 and 7 years, associated to atmospheric phenomena, and periodicities around 11 and 22 years, normally associated to solar <span class="hlt">variability</span>. By applying simple filtering procedures we can get the 11 and 22-year signals in our <span class="hlt">temperature</span> data. Various features of these signals will be discussed on different spatial scales of the Northern hemisphere. The differences between observed and reanalysed data will be also discussed.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Dobrica, Venera; Suteanu, Cristian; Stefan, Cristiana; Pirloaga, Razvan; Demetrescu, Crisan</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">100</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23343264"> <span id="translatedtitle">Multicanonical molecular dynamics by <span class="hlt">variable-temperature</span> thermostats and <span class="hlt">variable</span>-pressure barostats.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Sampling from flat energy or density distributions has proven useful in equilibrating complex systems with large energy barriers. Several thermostats and barostats are presented to sample these flat distributions by molecular dynamics. These methods use a <span class="hlt">variable</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> or pressure that is updated on the fly in the thermodynamic controller. These methods are illustrated on a Lennard-Jones system and a structure-based model of proteins. PMID:23343264</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Zhang, Cheng; Deem, Michael W</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-21</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#">4</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">5</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#">6</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#">7</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#">8</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#">9</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#">10</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> </div><!-- page_5 div --> <div id="page_6" class="hiddenDiv"> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#">4</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#">5</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">6</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#">7</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#">8</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#">9</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#">10</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">101</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19820057313&hterms=hatfield&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dhatfield"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Variability</span> of surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in agricultural fields of central California</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In an attempt to evaluate the relationship between hand-held infrared thermometers and aircraft thermal scanners in near-level terrain and to quantify the <span class="hlt">variability</span> of surface <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> within individual fields, ground-based and aircraft thermal sensor measurements were made along a 50-km transect on 3 May 1979 and a 20-km transect on 7 August 1980. These comparisons were made on fields near Davis, California. Agreement was within 1 C for fields covered with vegetation and 3.6 C for bare, dry fields. The <span class="hlt">variability</span> within fields was larger for bare, dry fields than for vegetatively covered fields. In 1980, with improvements in the collection of ground truth data, the agreement was within 1 C for a variety of fields.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hatfield, J. L.; Millard, J. P.; Goettelman, R. C.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1982-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">102</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AGUFMGC34A..06R"> <span id="translatedtitle">Identifying Modes of <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> <span class="hlt">Variability</span> Using AIRS Data.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We use the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) and Advance Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU) data obtained on Aqua spacecraft to study mid-tropospheric <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> between 2002-2007. The analysis is focused on daily zonal means of the AIRS channel at 2388 1/cm in the CO2 R-branch and the AMSU channel #5 in the 57 GHz Oxygen band, both with weighting function peaking in the mid-troposphere (400 mb) and the matching sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> from NCEP (Aumann et al., 2007). Taking into account the nonlinear and non- stationary behavior of the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> we apply the Empirical Mode Decomposition (Huang et al., 1998) to better separate modes of <span class="hlt">variability</span>. All-sky (cloudy) and clear sky, day and night data are analyzed. In addition to the dominant annual variation, which is nonlinear and latitude dependent, we identified the modes with higher frequency and inter-annual modes. Some trends are visible and we apply stringent criteria to test their statistical significance. References: Aumann, H. H., D. T. Gregorich, S. E. Broberg, and D. A. Elliott, Geophys. Res. Lett., 34, L15813, doi:10.1029/2006GL029191, 2007. Huang, N. E. Z. Shen, S. R. Long, M. C. Wu, H. H. Shih, Q. Zheng, N.-C. Yen, C. C. Tung, and H. H. Liu, Proc. R. Soc. Lond., A 454, 903-995, 1998.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ruzmaikin, A.; Aumann, H. H.; Yung, Y.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">103</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AIPC.1434.1279F"> <span id="translatedtitle">Performance measurements of multilayer insulation at <span class="hlt">variable</span> cold <span class="hlt">temperature</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Multilayer insulation (MLI) is commonly used in most cryogenic devices such as LHe-cryostats or superconductive cables. Typically thermal performance measurements have been carried out using bath cryostats. Inherent to all this devices is a fixed cold <span class="hlt">temperature</span> at the boiling point of the particular cryogenic liquid. A recent approach for cryogenic pressure vessels covers a broad <span class="hlt">temperature</span> range, i.e. hydrogen storage from 20 K to ambient <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. Thus, a new calorimeter cryostat has been designed at TU Dresden to meet these requirements. The design as a flow cryostat allows the measurement of the thermal performance with <span class="hlt">variable</span> cold <span class="hlt">temperature</span> between 20 K and 300 K. It can be operated in vertical as well as in horizontal orientation. The insulation material is wrapped around a nearly isothermal cylinder which is held at the desired <span class="hlt">temperature</span> by a cooling fluid. Preferably LHe respectively helium cold gas is used. Several design features reduce undesired interference errors. It is reported about design and equipment of this cryostat plus first experiences in operation</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Funke, Thomas; Haberstroh, Christoph</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">104</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/23444663"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Variable</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> system using vortex tube cooling and fiber optic <span class="hlt">temperature</span> measurement for low <span class="hlt">temperature</span> magic angle spinning NMR</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">We describe the construction and operation of a <span class="hlt">variable</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (VT) system for a high field fast magic angle spinning (MAS) probe. The probe is used in NMR investigations of biological macromolecules, where stable setting and continuous measurement of the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> over periods of several days are required in order to prevent sample overheating and degradation. The VT system described</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Rachel W. Martin; Kurt W. Zilm</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">105</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010ems..confE.177D"> <span id="translatedtitle">Multilevel analysis of spatial <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> in Brno region</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Urban climate is typical with changes in <span class="hlt">temperature</span> regime compared to rural landscape. This is related to e.g. prevalence of artificial surfaces or production of anthropogenic heat. An Urban Heat Island can be a typical demonstration of urban climate. <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> in urban environment can be studied on different levels using different data sources such as standard meteorological measurements, special-purpose measurements or e.g. thermal satellite imagery. Spatial distribution of land surface <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> (LST) in Brno and surroundings was modeled using available satellite imagery from Terra ASTER and Landsat 7 ETM+. We present two different methodological approaches that can be used for construction of LST fields. Since Landsat 7 ETM+ offers a single thermal imagery, the first approach uses emissivity maps that must be constructed from land-use categories in advance. Terra ASTER provides five thermal images and both emissivity and LST can be computed directly from them. We compare both methods and provide LST maps for Brno region. These maps are used to describe spatial distribution of LST and to detect areas that are typical with higher LST values. Whereas thermal imagery provide spatially consistent information on surface <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, effects of urban environment on air <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> can be studied with the help of network of special-purpose meteorological stations. Such network has been established in Brno region during 2009. Spatiotemporal changes in air <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> are described for a set of days with a radiation type of weather. Spatial interpolation methods of air <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> within urban environment are discussed and compared with results of LST mapping.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Dobrovolný, P.; Brázdil, R.; Krahula, L.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">106</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20020060765&hterms=estonia&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3D%2522estonia%2522"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Variability</span> of Winter Air <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> in Mid-Latitude Europe</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The aim of this paper is to report extreme winter/early-spring air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (hereinafter <span class="hlt">temperature</span>) anomalies in mid-latitude Europe, and to discuss the underlying forcing to these interannual fluctuations. Warm advection from the North Atlantic in late winter controls the surface-air <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, as indicated by the substantial correlation between the speed of the surface southwesterlies over the eastern North Atlantic (quantified by a specific Index Ina) and the 2-meter level air <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> (hereinafter Ts) over Europe, 45-60 deg N, in winter. In mid-March and subsequently, the correlation drops drastically (quite often it is negative). This change in the relationship between Ts and Ina marks a transition in the control of the surface-air <span class="hlt">temperature</span>: absorption of insolation replaces the warm advection as the dominant control. This forcing by maritime-air advection in winter was demonstrated in a previous publication, and is re-examined here in conjunction with extreme fluctuations of <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> in Europe. We analyze here the interannual <span class="hlt">variability</span> at its extreme by comparing warm-winter/early-spring of 1989/90 with the opposite scenario in 1995/96. For these two December-to-March periods the differences in the monthly mean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in Warsaw and Torun, Poland, range above 10 C. Short-term (shorter than a month) fluctuations of the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> are likewise very strong. We conduct pentad-by-pentad analysis of the surface-maximum air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (hereinafter Tmax), in a selected location, examining the dependence on Ina. The increased cloudiness and higher amounts of total precipitable water, corollary effects to the warm low-level advection. in the 1989/90 winter, enhance the positive <span class="hlt">temperature</span> anomalies. The analysis of the ocean surface winds is based on the Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I) dataset; ascent rates, and over land wind data are from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF); maps of 2-m <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, cloud cover and precipitable water are from the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) Reanalysis.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Otterman, J.; Ardizzone, J.; Atlas, R.; Bungato, D.; Cierniewski, J.; Jusem, J. C.; Przybylak, R.; Schubert, S.; Starr, D.; Walczewski, J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">107</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013SuScT..26i5001N"> <span id="translatedtitle">Electrical measurements of AC losses in high <span class="hlt">temperature</span> superconducting coils at <span class="hlt">variable</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Measurements of AC losses in high <span class="hlt">temperature</span> superconducting (HTS) coils wound from two different types of YBa2Cu3O7 (YBCO) coated conductors are reported. AC loss measurements by different arrangements of voltage loops and pick-up coils were investigated to propose accurate and convenient techniques to measure the AC losses in HTS coils, especially for large coils with the measurement signals significantly higher than the input range of typical lock-in amplifiers. A new and simple sub-cooling technique with an open liquid nitrogen bath was developed to measure AC losses in the sample coils at <span class="hlt">variable</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> between 65 and 77 K. The <span class="hlt">temperature</span> dependence of the losses in these coils was qualitatively explained based on the data on transport and magnetization AC losses in isolated tapes at <span class="hlt">variable</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Nguyen, D. N.; Kim, C. H.; Kim, J. H.; Pamidi, S.; Ashworth, S. P.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">108</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013NatGe...6..339P"> <span id="translatedtitle">Continental-scale <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> during the past two millennia</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Past global climate changes had strong regional expression. To elucidate their spatio-temporal pattern, we reconstructed past <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> for seven continental-scale regions during the past one to two millennia. The most coherent feature in nearly all of the regional <span class="hlt">temperature</span> reconstructions is a long-term cooling trend, which ended late in the nineteenth century. At multi-decadal to centennial scales, <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> shows distinctly different regional patterns, with more similarity within each hemisphere than between them. There were no globally synchronous multi-decadal warm or cold intervals that define a worldwide Medieval Warm Period or Little Ice Age, but all reconstructions show generally cold conditions between AD 1580 and 1880, punctuated in some regions by warm decades during the eighteenth century. The transition to these colder conditions occurred earlier in the Arctic, Europe and Asia than in North America or the Southern Hemisphere regions. Recent warming reversed the long-term cooling; during the period AD 1971-2000, the area-weighted average reconstructed <span class="hlt">temperature</span> was higher than any other time in nearly 1,400 years.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Pages 2k Consortium; Ahmed, Moinuddin; Anchukaitis, Kevin J.; Asrat, Asfawossen; Borgaonkar, Hemant P.; Braida, Martina; Buckley, Brendan M.; Büntgen, Ulf; Chase, Brian M.; Christie, Duncan A.; Cook, Edward R.; Curran, Mark A. J.; Diaz, Henry F.; Esper, Jan; Fan, Ze-Xin; Gaire, Narayan P.; Ge, Quansheng; Gergis, Joëlle; González-Rouco, J. Fidel; Goosse, Hugues; Grab, Stefan W.; Graham, Nicholas; Graham, Rochelle; Grosjean, Martin; Hanhijärvi, Sami T.; Kaufman, Darrell S.; Kiefer, Thorsten; Kimura, Katsuhiko; Korhola, Atte A.; Krusic, Paul J.; Lara, Antonio; Lézine, Anne-Marie; Ljungqvist, Fredrik C.; Lorrey, Andrew M.; Luterbacher, Jürg; Masson-Delmotte, Valérie; McCarroll, Danny; McConnell, Joseph R.; McKay, Nicholas P.; Morales, Mariano S.; Moy, Andrew D.; Mulvaney, Robert; Mundo, Ignacio A.; Nakatsuka, Takeshi; Nash, David J.; Neukom, Raphael; Nicholson, Sharon E.; Oerter, Hans; Palmer, Jonathan G.; Phipps, Steven J.; Prieto, Maria R.; Rivera, Andres; Sano, Masaki; Severi, Mirko; Shanahan, Timothy M.; Shao, Xuemei; Shi, Feng; Sigl, Michael; Smerdon, Jason E.; Solomina, Olga N.; Steig, Eric J.; Stenni, Barbara; Thamban, Meloth; Trouet, Valerie; Turney, Chris S. M.; Umer, Mohammed; van Ommen, Tas; Verschuren, Dirk; Viau, Andre E.; Villalba, Ricardo; Vinther, Bo M.; von Gunten, Lucien; Wagner, Sebastian; Wahl, Eugene R.; Wanner, Heinz; Werner, Johannes P.; White, James W. C.; Yasue, Koh; Zorita, Eduardo</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">109</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014InPhT..64...97L"> <span id="translatedtitle">Thermal performance analysis of vacuum <span class="hlt">variable-temperature</span> blackbody system</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this paper, the design and structure of a vacuum <span class="hlt">variable-temperature</span> blackbody system were described, and the steady-state thermal analysis of a 3-D blackbody model was presented. Also, the thermal performance of the blackbody was evaluated using an infrared camera system. The blackbody system was constructed to operate under vacuum conditions (2.67 × 10?2 Pa) to reduce its <span class="hlt">temperature</span> uncertainty, which can be caused by vapor condensation at low <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> usually below 273.15 K. A heat sink and heat shield including a cold shield were embedded around the radiator to maintain the heat balance of the blackbody. A simplified 3-D model of the blackbody including a radiator, heat sink, heat shield, cold shield, and heat source was thermophysically evaluated by performing finite elements analysis using the extended Stefan–Boltzmann's rule, and the infrared radiating performance of the developed system was analyzed using an infrared camera system. On the basis of the results of measurements and simulations, we expect that the suggested blackbody system can serve as a highly stable reference source for the calibration and measurement of infrared optical systems within operational <span class="hlt">temperature</span> ranges.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lee, Sang-Yong; Kim, Geon-Hee; Lee, Young-Shin; Kim, Ghiseok</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">110</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4064806"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> and childhood pneumonia: an ecological study</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Background Few data on the relationship between <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> and childhood pneumonia are available. This study attempted to fill this knowledge gap. Methods A quasi-Poisson generalized linear regression model combined with a distributed lag non-linear model was used to quantify the impacts of diurnal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> range (DTR) and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> change between two neighbouring days (TCN) on emergency department visits (EDVs) for childhood pneumonia in Brisbane, from 2001 to 2010, after controlling for possible confounders. Results An adverse impact of TCN on EDVs for childhood pneumonia was observed, and the magnitude of this impact increased from the first five years (2001–2005) to the second five years (2006–2010). Children aged 5–14 years, female children and Indigenous children were particularly vulnerable to TCN impact. However, there was no significant association between DTR and EDVs for childhood pneumonia. Conclusions As climate change progresses, the days with unstable weather pattern are likely to increase. Parents and caregivers of children should be aware of the high risk of pneumonia posed by big TCN and take precautionary measures to protect children, especially those with a history of respiratory diseases, from climate impacts.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">111</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20090042540&hterms=variable+viscosity+applications&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dvariable%2Bviscosity%2Bapplications"> <span id="translatedtitle">High <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> <span class="hlt">Variable</span> Conductance Heat Pipes for Radioisotope Stirling Systems</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In a Stirling radioisotope system, heat must continually be removed from the GPHS modules, to maintain the GPHS modules and surrounding insulation at acceptable <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. Normally, the Stirling convertor provides this cooling. If the Stirling convertor stops in the current system, the insulation is designed to spoil, preventing damage to the GPHS, but also ending the mission. An alkali-metal <span class="hlt">Variable</span> Conductance Heat Pipe (VCHP) is under development to allow multiple stops and restarts of the Stirling convertor. The status of the ongoing effort in developing this technology is presented in this paper. An earlier, preliminary design had a radiator outside the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG) casing, used NaK as the working fluid, and had the reservoir located on the cold side adapter flange. The revised design has an internal radiator inside the casing, with the reservoir embedded inside the insulation. A large set of advantages are offered by this new design. In addition to reducing the overall size and mass of the VCHP, simplicity, compactness and easiness in assembling the VCHP with the ASRG are significantly enhanced. Also, the permanently elevated <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> of the entire VCHP allows the change of the working fluid from a binary compound (NaK) to single compound (Na). The latter, by its properties, allows higher performance and further mass reduction of the system. Preliminary design and analysis shows an acceptable peak <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of the ASRG case of 140 C while the heat losses caused by the addition of the VCHP are 1.8 W.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Tarau, Calin; Walker, Kara L.; Anderson, William G.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">112</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008RScI...79a3904C"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Variable</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> thin film indentation with a flat punch</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We present modifications to conventional nanoindentation that realize <span class="hlt">variable</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, flat punch indentation of ultrathin films. The technique provides generation of large strain, thin film extrusion of precise geometries that idealize the essential flows of nanoimprint lithography, and approximate constant area squeeze flow rheometry performed on thin, macroscopic soft matter samples. Punch radii as small as 185 nm have been realized in ten-to-one confinement ratio testing of 36 nm thick polymer films controllably squeezed in the melt state to a gap width of a few nanometers. Self-consistent, compressive stress versus strain measurements of a wide variety of mechanical testing conditions are provided by using a single die-sample system with <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> ranging from 20 to 125 °C and loading rates spanning two decades. Low roughness, well aligned flat punch dies with large contact areas provide precise detection of soft surfaces with standard nanoindenter stiffness sensitivity. Independent heating and thermometry with heaters and thermocouples attached to the die and sample allow introduction of a novel directional heat flux measurement method to ensure isothermal contact conditions. This is a crucial requirement for interpreting the mechanical response in <span class="hlt">temperature</span> sensitive soft matter systems. Instrumented imprint is a new nanomechanics material testing platform that enables measurements of polymer and soft matter properties during large strains in confined, thin film geometries and extends materials testing capabilities of nanoindentation into low modulus, low strength glassy, and viscoelastic materials.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Cross, Graham L. W.; O'Connell, Barry S.; Pethica, John B.; Rowland, Harry; King, William P.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">113</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013CliPa...9.2299K"> <span id="translatedtitle">Causes of Greenland <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> over the past 4000 yr: implications for northern hemispheric <span class="hlt">temperature</span> changes</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Precise understanding of Greenland <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> is important in two ways. First, Greenland ice sheet melting associated with rising <span class="hlt">temperature</span> is a major global sea level forcing, potentially affecting large populations in coming centuries. Second, Greenland <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> are highly affected by North Atlantic Oscillation/Arctic Oscillation (NAO/AO) and Atlantic multidecadal oscillation (AMO). In our earlier study, we found that Greenland <span class="hlt">temperature</span> deviated negatively (positively) from northern hemispheric (NH) <span class="hlt">temperature</span> trend during stronger (weaker) solar activity owing to changes in atmospheric/oceanic changes (e.g. NAO/AO) over the past 800 yr (Kobashi et al., 2013). Therefore, a precise Greenland <span class="hlt">temperature</span> record can provide important constraints on the past atmospheric/oceanic circulation in the region and beyond. Here, we investigated Greenland <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> over the past 4000 yr reconstructed from argon and nitrogen isotopes from trapped air in a GISP2 ice core, using a one-dimensional energy balance model with orbital, solar, volcanic, greenhouse gas, and aerosol forcings. The modelled northern Northern Hemisphere (NH) <span class="hlt">temperature</span> exhibits a cooling trend over the past 4000 yr as observed for the reconstructed Greenland <span class="hlt">temperature</span> through decreasing annual average insolation. With consideration of the negative influence of solar <span class="hlt">variability</span>, the modelled and observed Greenland <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> agree with correlation coefficients of r = 0.34-0.36 (p = 0.1-0.04) in 21 yr running means (RMs) and r = 0.38-0.45 (p = 0.1-0.05) on a centennial timescale (101 yr RMs). Thus, the model can explain 14 to 20% of variance of the observed Greenland <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in multidecadal to centennial timescales with a 90-96% confidence interval, suggesting that a weak but persistent negative solar influence on Greenland <span class="hlt">temperature</span> continued over the past 4000 yr. Then, we estimated the distribution of multidecadal NH and northern high-latitude <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> over the past 4000 yr constrained by the climate model and Greenland <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. Estimated northern NH <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and NH average <span class="hlt">temperature</span> from the model and the Greenland <span class="hlt">temperature</span> agree with published multi-proxy <span class="hlt">temperature</span> records with r = 0.35-0.60 in a 92-99% confidence interval over the past 2000 yr. We found that greenhouse gases played two important roles over the past 4000 yr for the rapid warming during the 20th century and slightly cooler <span class="hlt">temperature</span> during the early period of the past 4000 yr. Lastly, our analysis indicated that the current average <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (1990-2010) or higher <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> occurred at a frequency of 1.3 times per 1000 yr for northern high latitudes and 0.36 times per 4000 yr for NH <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, respectively, indicating that the current multidecadal NH <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (1990-2010) is more likely unprecedented than not (p = 0.36) for the past 4000 yr.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kobashi, T.; Goto-Azuma, K.; Box, J. E.; Gao, C.-C.; Nakaegawa, T.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">114</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1992SPIE.1575..602L"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Variable</span> low-<span class="hlt">temperature</span> FTIR study of crystalline sugars</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The complex chains of hydrogen bonds of (Beta) -L-arabinose (I), methyl (alpha) -D- glucopyranoside (II) and di-(Beta) -D-fructopyranose 1,2':2,1'-dianhydride (III) in the crystalline state have been studied at <span class="hlt">variable</span> low <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. In addition to the increase of information showing up in the overall region upon cooling, the effect on intensity, bandshape and bandmaximum has also been studied. Most surprising is the contradictive behavior of the shift of the band maxima of methyl (alpha) -D-glucopyranoside, for which an increase is observed for the 'free' OH group, while H-bonds absorbing at lower wave-numbers are red shifted. Deuterium exchange experiments show the presence of vibrational coupling in the crystal of II whereas this phenomenon is absent in III.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lutz, E. T.; van der Maas, John H.; van Duijneveldt, F. B.; Kanters, J. A.; Baran, J.; Ratajczak, H.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1992-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">115</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/881407"> <span id="translatedtitle">Amplification of surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> trends and <span class="hlt">variability</span> in thetropical atmosphere</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The month-to-month <span class="hlt">variability</span> of tropical <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> is larger in the troposphere than at the Earth's surface. This amplification behavior is similar in a range of observations and climate model simulations, and is consistent with basic theory. On multi-decadal timescales, tropospheric amplification of surface warming is a robust feature of model simulations, but occurs in only one observational dataset. Other observations show weak or even negative amplification. These results suggest that either different physical mechanisms control amplification processes on monthly and decadal timescales, and models fail to capture such behavior, or (more plausibly) that residual errors in several observational datasets used here affect their representation of long-term trends.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Santer, B.D.; Wigley, T.M.L.; Mears, C.; Wentz, F.J.; Klein,S.A.; Seidel, D.J.; Taylor, K.E.; Thorne, P.W.; Wehner, M.F.; Gleckler,P.J.; Boyle, J.S.; Collins, W.D.; Dixon, K.W.; Doutriaux, C.; Free, M.; Fu, Q.; Hansen, J.E.; Jones, G.S.; Ruedy, R.; Karl, T.R.; Lanzante, J.R.; Meehl, G.A.; Ramaswamy, V.; Russell, G.; Schmidt, G.A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-08-11</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">116</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AIPC.1203..899A"> <span id="translatedtitle">Long Term <span class="hlt">Variability</span> of Sea Surface <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> in Mediterranean Sea</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The long term <span class="hlt">variability</span> of the sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (SST) of the Mediterranean basin and its sub-basins for the period 1869-2006 (138 years) is investigated using the International Comprehensive Ocean-Atmosphere Data Set (I-COADS). Analysis of the SST time-series revealed a positive trend in both basin and sub-basin scale. During the last century, the highest positive SST trend is found in the Adriatic Sea (0.0141° C/y) and the lowest one in the Aegean sea (0.0011° C/y). This difference in the SST evolution in the two sub-basins can be related to the shift of the Eastern Mediterranean deep water formation site during the 90s, known as Eastern Mediterranean Transient (EMT). The SST variations of the Eastern Mediterranean sub-basins (Adriatic Sea, Ionian Sea, Aegean Sea, Levantine Sea) are highly correlated to each other, in contrast to the poor correlation of the SST variations between the Eastern and Western Mediterranean Sea. Harmonic analysis has shown that a dominant period of the Mediterranean <span class="hlt">variability</span> is similar to the deep water turnover time of the basin. Comparison with climatic indices points out a high correlation of the Western Mediterranean and Adriatic Sea SST with the NAO index, while the Eastern Mediterranean SST variations are highly correlated to the Indian Summer Monsoon Index.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Axaopoulos, P.; Sofianos, S.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">117</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009EGUGA..11..901F"> <span id="translatedtitle">The Predictability of Scottish <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> and Precipitation <span class="hlt">Variability</span> from North Atlantic Sea Surface <span class="hlt">Temperature</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A number of studies have highlighted the regulating role that North Atlantic Sea Surface <span class="hlt">Temperatures</span> (SSTs) play on the European climate. This study, however, suggests a more localised mechanism. Specifically, SSTs around the UK were found to have a greater influence on the <span class="hlt">variability</span> of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and precipitation in Scotland. A number of eigen techniques were used to investigate the relationships between SST in the North Atlantic and the <span class="hlt">variability</span> of Scottish <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and precipitation at the seasonal-to-decadal time-scale. A Canonical Correlation Analysis (CCA) was performed on the main principal components (PCs) of North Atlantic SST and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and precipitation during the 1960-2001 period. This analysis revealed a stronger relationship between these two terrestrial climatic <span class="hlt">variables</span> and the European shelf seas SSTs (45°N-65°N, 20W-20E), particularly the North Sea, rather than for the SSTs over the entire North Atlantic (30°N-75°N, 80°W-30°E). Based on the above relationships, a redundancy analysis was accomplished to quantitatively assess the predictability of Scottish <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and precipitation based on (1) the European shelf seas SSTs, and (2) the entire North Atlantic SSTs as predictors. Then, the temporal consistency of the identified sources of predictability was established for the period 1890-2001, the longest time-period for which observational data were readily available. The results indicate a good potential to forecast decadal trends in spring, summer and autumn Scottish <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. No significant predictability was achieved for rainfall. The statistical models developed were significantly better when SST in the European shelf seas were used as a predictor. The potential for seasonal predictability was assessed using correlation analyses between the leading PC time series and <span class="hlt">temperature</span>/precipitation data for the periods 1960-2001 and 1890-2001. PC time series were obtained from Empirical Orthogonal Functions (EOFs) of North Atlantic SSTs for the two oceanic regions of interest (entire North Atlantic and European Shelf Seas). Correlation coefficients were found to be significantly higher with the European shelf seas SSTs. For <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, significant correlations are found at the 0-1 month lag, which is of limited use for seasonal prediction. Nevertheless, a high and statistically significant correlation is observed between autumn air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and preceding spring SST. A relationship between summer <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and the preceding winter-spring SST is also seen. Further possibilities for seasonal prediction are observed for winter and autumn rainfall, using the preceding summer and winter SSTs, respectively, as predictors. These results were generally temporally consistent but significantly stronger for the period 1960-2001 in comparison to the period 1890-2001.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Foss, I.; Woolf, D. K.; Gagnon, A. S.; Merchant, C. J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">118</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10151372"> <span id="translatedtitle">A High <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Hermetic Primer and a <span class="hlt">Variable</span> Spring Tester</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Percussion primers are used at Sandia to ignite energetic components such as pyrotechnic actuators and thermal batteries. This report describes a High <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Hermetic Primer (HTHP) that was developed to replace a previous G16 Percussion Primer Subassembly (Gl6PPS). The ignition mix in these primers is the same as in the discontinued Remington 44G16 (KC1O{sub 3}, SbS{sub 3}, and Ca{sub 2}Si). The HTHP has nearly the same sensitivity as the 44G16 and a significantly lower sensitivity than the G16PPS. In parallel with the HTHP development, we also designed a <span class="hlt">Variable</span> Spring Tester (VST) to determine percussion primer ignition sensitivity with firing pins that have the same mass as those used in field applications. The tester is capable of accelerating firing pins over a velocity range of 100 to 600 inches per second for pins weighing up to 6 grams. The desired impulse can be preselected with an accuracy of better than {plus_minus}1%. The actual impulse is measured on every shot. The VST was characterized using the WW42Cl primer, as well as with the G16PPS and the HTHP. Compared to data from conventional ball drop testers, we found that ignition sensitivities were lower and there was less scatter in the sensitivity data. Our experiments indicate that ignition sensitivity is not strictly energy dependent, but also depends on the rate of deposition, or firing pin velocity in this case. Development results for the HTHP and <span class="hlt">Variable</span> Spring Tester are discussed and design details are shown.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Begeal, D.R.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1994-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">119</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1080982"> <span id="translatedtitle">Influence of Water and <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Stress on the <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Dependence of the Reappearance of <span class="hlt">Variable</span> Fluorescence following Illumination</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The <span class="hlt">temperature</span> dependence of the rate and magnitude of the reappearance of photosystem II (PSII) <span class="hlt">variable</span> fluorescence following illumination has been used to determine plant <span class="hlt">temperature</span> optima. The present study was designed to determine the effect of a plant's environmental history on the thermal dependency of the reappearance of PSII <span class="hlt">variable</span> fluorescence. In addition, this study further evaluated the usefulness of this fluorescence technique in identifying plant <span class="hlt">temperature</span> optima. Laboratory and greenhouse grown potato (Solanum tuberosum L. cv “Norgold M”) plants had a thermal kinetic window between 15 and 25°C. The minimum apparent Km of NADH hydroxypyruvate reductase for NADH occurred at 20°C. This <span class="hlt">temperature</span> was also the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> providing maximal reappearance of <span class="hlt">variable</span> fluorescence. Soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merrill cv “Wayne”) plants had a thermal kinetic window between 15 and 30°C with a minimum apparent Km at 25°C. Maximal reappearance of <span class="hlt">variable</span> fluorescence was seen between 20 and 30°C. To determine if increasing environmental <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> increased the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> optimum provided from the fluorescence response curves, potato and soybean leaves from irrigated and dryland field grown plants were evaluated. Although the absolute levels of PSII <span class="hlt">variable</span> fluorescence declined with increasing thermal stress, the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> optimum of the dryland plants did not increase with increased exposure to elevated <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. Because of <span class="hlt">variability</span> in the daily period of high <span class="hlt">temperature</span> stress in the field, studies were initiated with tobacco plants grown in controlled environment chambers. The reappearance of PSII <span class="hlt">variable</span> fluorescence in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L. cv “Wisconsin 38”) leaves that had experienced continuous leaf <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> of 35°C for 8 days had the same 20°C optima as leaves from plants grown at room <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. The results of this study suggest that the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> optimum for the reappearance of <span class="hlt">variable</span> fluorescence following illumination is not altered by the plant's previous exposure to <span class="hlt">variable</span> environmental <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. These findings support the usefulness of this procedure for the rapid identification of a plant's <span class="hlt">temperature</span> optimum.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ferguson, David L.; Burke, John J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1991-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">120</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15140428"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Variable</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> system using vortex tube cooling and fiber optic <span class="hlt">temperature</span> measurement for low <span class="hlt">temperature</span> magic angle spinning NMR.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We describe the construction and operation of a <span class="hlt">variable</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (VT) system for a high field fast magic angle spinning (MAS) probe. The probe is used in NMR investigations of biological macromolecules, where stable setting and continuous measurement of the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> over periods of several days are required in order to prevent sample overheating and degradation. The VT system described is used at and below room <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. A vortex tube is used to provide cooling in the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> range of -20 to 20 degrees C, while a liquid nitrogen-cooled heat exchanger is used below -20 degrees C. Using this arrangement, the lowest <span class="hlt">temperature</span> that is practically achievable is -140 degrees C. Measurement of the air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> near the spinning rotor is accomplished using a fiber optic thermometer that utilizes the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> dependence of the absorption edge of GaAs. The absorption edge of GaAs also has a magnetic field dependence that we have measured and corrected for. This dependence was calibrated at several field strengths using the well-known <span class="hlt">temperature</span> dependence of the (1)H chemical shift difference of the protons in methanol. PMID:15140428</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Martin, Rachel W; Zilm, Kurt W</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#">4</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#">5</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">6</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#">7</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#">8</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#">9</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#">10</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> </div><!-- page_6 div --> <div id="page_7" class="hiddenDiv"> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#">4</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#">5</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#">6</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">7</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#">8</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#">9</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#">10</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">121</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010ems..confE.418E"> <span id="translatedtitle">Seasonal <span class="hlt">variability</span> of diurnal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> range in Egypt with links to atmospheric circulations and sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The diurnal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> range (DTR) is an important climate-change <span class="hlt">variable</span>. Seasonal and annual <span class="hlt">variability</span> of DTR in Egypt was investigated based on a monthly dataset of 40 observatories distributing across the country. The trends were calculated using the Rho spearman rank test at the 95 % level of significance. The trends at the independent individual scale were compared with a regional series created for the whole country following the Thiessen polygon approach. A cross-tabulation analysis was performed between the trends of the DTR and the trends of maximum and minimum <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> to account for directional causes of <span class="hlt">variability</span> of the DTR at seasonal and annual scales. The physical processes controlling the DTR <span class="hlt">variability</span> were also assessed in terms of large atmospheric circulations representing in the indices of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), the East Atlantic (EA) pattern, El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) index and the EAWR (East Atlantic/West Russia) Pattern. Also, the <span class="hlt">variability</span> of the DTR was linked with anomaly of Sea Surface <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> (SST). A cooling trend was observed in Egypt with strong behavior in winter and summer rather than fall and spring. The upwarding trend of the mean minimum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> was mainly responsible for <span class="hlt">variability</span> of the DTR rather than the mean maximum <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. Also, the EA and the EAWR indices were the main indices accounted for most of variation in the DTR in Egypt, particularly in summer. Key words: trend analysis, <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span>, Diurnal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> range, atmospheric circulation, sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, Egypt.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">El Kenawy, A.; Lopez Moreno, J. I.; Vicente-Serrano, S.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">122</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5542072"> <span id="translatedtitle">Method of <span class="hlt">variable</span> bias and its application to estimating subsurface <span class="hlt">temperature</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A method of obtaining <span class="hlt">variable</span>-bias estimates of physical quantities from noisy and incomplete data is introduced, and its application to estimating subsurface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> is illustrated by application to <span class="hlt">temperature</span> data from the Iberia salt dome in south Louisiana.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Deming, D.; Hanor, J.S.; Nunn, J.A. (Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge (USA))</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1990-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">123</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/40380903"> <span id="translatedtitle">Predicting germination response of four cool-season range grasses to field-<span class="hlt">variable</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> regimes</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Germination of non-dormant seeds under <span class="hlt">variable-temperature</span> conditions can be predicted from constant-<span class="hlt">temperature</span> germination data if it is assumed that instantaneous germination rate is independent of thermal history. Thermal-response models of this type have not been validated under simulated field-<span class="hlt">variable</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> conditions that vary in diurnal pattern, diurnal range and longer-term trends in mean–daily <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. The purpose of this experiment was</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">S. P Hardegree; S. S Van Vactor</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1999-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">124</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1904169"> <span id="translatedtitle">Simulated and observed <span class="hlt">variability</span> in ocean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and heat content</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Observations show both a pronounced increase in ocean heat content (OHC) over the second half of the 20th century and substantial OHC <span class="hlt">variability</span> on interannual-to-decadal time scales. Although climate models are able to simulate overall changes in OHC, they are generally thought to underestimate the amplitude of OHC <span class="hlt">variability</span>. Using simulations of 20th century climate performed with 13 numerical models, we demonstrate that the apparent discrepancy between modeled and observed <span class="hlt">variability</span> is largely explained by accounting for changes in observational coverage and instrumentation and by including the effects of volcanic eruptions. Our work does not support the recent claim that the 0- to 700-m layer of the global ocean experienced a substantial OHC decrease over the 2003 to 2005 time period. We show that the 2003–2005 cooling is largely an artifact of a systematic change in the observing system, with the deployment of Argo floats reducing a warm bias in the original observing system.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">AchutaRao, K. M.; Ishii, M.; Santer, B. D.; Gleckler, P. J.; Taylor, K. E.; Barnett, T. P.; Pierce, D. W.; Stouffer, R. J.; Wigley, T. M. L.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">125</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.agu.org/journals/jc/jc0709/2007JC004097/2007JC004097.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Spatial patterns of intraseasonal <span class="hlt">variability</span> of chlorophyll and sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in the California Current</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Six years of daily satellite data are used to quantify and map intraseasonal <span class="hlt">variability</span> of chlorophyll and sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (SST) in the California Current. We define intraseasonal <span class="hlt">variability</span> as temporal variation remaining after removal of interannual <span class="hlt">variability</span> and stationary seasonal cycles. Semivariograms are used to quantify the temporal structure of residual time series. Empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analyses of</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kasey R. Legaard; Andrew C. Thomas</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">126</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/42010512"> <span id="translatedtitle">Spatial Patterns of Intraseasonal <span class="hlt">Variability</span> of Chlorophyll and Sea Surface <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> in the California Current</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Six years of daily satellite data are used to quantify and map intraseasonal <span class="hlt">variability</span> of chlorophyll and sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (SST) in the California Current. We define intraseasonal <span class="hlt">variability</span> as temporal variation remaining after removal of interannual <span class="hlt">variability</span> and stationary seasonal cycles. Semivariograms are used to quantify the temporal structure of residual time series. Empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analyses of</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kasey R. Legaard; Andrew C. Thomas</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">127</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/39663195"> <span id="translatedtitle">Mean seasonal and spatial <span class="hlt">variability</span> in global surface air <span class="hlt">temperature</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Using terrestrial observations of shelter-height air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and shipboard measurements, a global climatology of mean monthly surface air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> has been compiled. Data were obtained from ten sources, screened for coding errors, and redundant station records were removed. The combined data base consists of 17 986 independent terrestrial station records and 6 955 oceanic grid-point records. These data were then</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">D. R. Legates; C. J. Willmott</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1990-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">128</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/eimsapi.dispdetail?deid=49630"> <span id="translatedtitle">SPATIAL <span class="hlt">VARIABILITY</span> OF REMOTELY SENSED SURFACE <span class="hlt">TEMPERATURE</span> AT FIELD SCALE</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Bare soil surface <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> (BST) and crop canopy <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> (CCT) were collected from a 1-ha field in central Arizona using an infrared thermometer to determine whether they were spatially correlated. The measurements were taken from a two-dimensional random sampling patter...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">129</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/41263684"> <span id="translatedtitle">Long-term <span class="hlt">variability</span> of stratospheric <span class="hlt">temperature</span> above central Antarctica</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Long-term variations of atmospheric <span class="hlt">temperature</span> at different isobaric surfaces above central Antarctica were studied. Data of atmospheric balloon soundings at two Antarctic intercontinental stations Vostok and Amundsen-Scott (South Pole) taken for the last 40 years were used in this study. It was found that stratospheric <span class="hlt">temperature</span> at both stations averaged seasonally or annually does not demonstrate any meaningful correlation with</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">L. N Makarova; A. V Shirochkov</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">130</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/14895167"> <span id="translatedtitle">The role of increasing <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> in European summer heatwaves</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Instrumental observations and reconstructions of global and hemispheric <span class="hlt">temperature</span> evolution reveal a pronounced warming during the past ~150 years. One expression of this warming is the observed increase in the occurrence of heatwaves. Conceptually this increase is understood as a shift of the statistical distribution towards warmer <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, while changes in the width of the distribution are often considered small.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Christoph Schär; Pier Luigi Vidale; Daniel Lüthi; Christoph Frei; Christian Häberli; Mark A. Liniger; Christof Appenzeller</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">131</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/40739930"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Variability</span> of the spectroscopic <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of the sun</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The concept of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> as it applies to the solar photosphere is discussed. Spectroscopic diagnostics such as C-I 5380A and Fe-I 5379A are evaluated using model atmosphere calculations. New evidence is presented for a secular change now being under way in the deep photosphere <span class="hlt">temperature</span> gradient.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">W. Livingston; M. Steffen</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1988-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">132</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010E%26PSL.296..481E"> <span id="translatedtitle">Seasonal <span class="hlt">variability</span> in Arctic <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> during early Eocene time</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">As a deep time analog for today's rapidly warming Arctic region, early Eocene (52-53 Ma) rock on Ellesmere Island in Canada's High Arctic (˜ 79°N.) preserves evidence of lush swamp forests inhabited by turtles, alligators, primates, tapirs, and hippo-like Coryphodon. Although the rich flora and fauna of the early Eocene Arctic imply warmer, wetter conditions than at present, the quantification of Eocene Arctic climate has been more elusive. By analyzing oxygen isotope ratios of biogenic phosphate from mammal, fish, and turtle fossils from a single locality on central Ellesmere Island, we infer early Eocene Arctic <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, including mean annual <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (MAT) of ˜ 8 °C, mean annual range in <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of ˜ 16.5-19 °C, warm month mean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of 19-20 °C, and cold month mean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of 0-3.5 °C. Our seasonal range in <span class="hlt">temperature</span> is similar to the range in estimated MAT obtained using different proxies. In particular, relatively high estimates of early Eocene Arctic MAT and SST by others that are based upon the distribution of branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraether (GDGT) membrane lipids in terrestrial soil bacteria and isoprenoid tetraether lipids in marine Crenarchaeota fall close to our warm month <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, suggesting a bias towards summer values. From a paleontologic perspective, our <span class="hlt">temperature</span> estimates verify that alligators and tortoises, by way of nearest living relative-based climatic inference, are viable paleoclimate proxies for mild, above-freezing year-round <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. Although for both of these reptilian groups, past <span class="hlt">temperature</span> tolerances probably were greater than in living descendants.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Eberle, Jaelyn J.; Fricke, Henry C.; Humphrey, John D.; Hackett, Logan; Newbrey, Michael G.; Hutchison, J. Howard</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">133</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFMPP43B1577E"> <span id="translatedtitle">Seasonal <span class="hlt">variability</span> in Arctic <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> during the early Eocene</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">As a deep time analog for today’s rapidly warming Arctic region, early Eocene (~53 Ma) rocks on Ellesmere Island, Arctic Canada (~79° N.) preserve evidence of lush swamp forests inhabited by turtles, alligators, primates, tapirs, and hippo-like Coryphodon. Although the rich flora and fauna of the early Eocene Arctic imply warmer, wetter conditions that at present, quantitative estimates of Eocene Arctic climate are rare. By analyzing oxygen isotope ratios of biogenic phosphate from mammal, fish, and turtle fossils from a single locality on central Ellesmere Island, we provide estimates of early Eocene Arctic <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, including mean annual <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (MAT) of ~ 8° C, mean annual range in <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (MART) of ~ 16.5° C, warm month mean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (WMMT) of 16 - 19° C, and cold month mean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (CMMT) of 0 - 1° C. Our seasonal range in <span class="hlt">temperature</span> is similar to the range in estimated MAT obtained using different proxies. In particular, unusually high estimates of early Eocene Arctic MAT and sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (SST) by others that are based upon the distribution of branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraether (GDGT) membrane lipids in terrestrial soil bacteria and marine Crenarchaeota fall within our range of WMMT, suggesting a bias towards summer values. Consequently, caution should be taken when using these methods to infer MAT and SST that, in turn, are used to constrain climate models. From a paleontologic perspective, our <span class="hlt">temperature</span> estimates verify that alligators and tortoises, by way of nearest living relative-based climatic inference, are viable paleoclimate proxies for mild, above-freezing year-round <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. Although in both of these reptiles, past <span class="hlt">temperature</span> tolerances were greater than in their living descendants.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Eberle, J. J.; Fricke, H. C.; Humphrey, J.; Hackett, L.; Newbrey, M.; Hutchison, H.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">134</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.frontier.iarc.uaf.edu:8080/~igor/research/warm/warm_apr02.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Variability</span> and Trends of Air <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> and Pressure in the Maritime Arctic, 1875-2000</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Arctic atmospheric <span class="hlt">variability</span> during the industrial era (1875-2000) is assessed using spatially averaged surface air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (SAT) and sea level pressure (SLP) records. Air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and pressure display strong multidecadal <span class="hlt">variability</span> on timescales of 50-80 yr [termed low-frequency oscillation (LFO)]. Associated with this <span class="hlt">variability</span>, the Arctic SAT record shows two maxima: in the 1930s-40s and in recent decades, with two</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Igor V. Polyakov; Roman V. Bekryaev; Genrikh V. Alekseev; Uma S. Bhatt; Roger L. Colony; Mark A. Johnson; Alexander P. Maskshtas; David Walsh</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">135</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.livingrivers.org/pdfs/lrlibrary/climatedocs/mccabe2007.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">ASSOCIATIONS OF DECADAL TO MULTIDECADAL SEA-SURFACE <span class="hlt">TEMPERATURE</span> <span class="hlt">VARIABILITY</span> WITH UPPER COLORADO RIVER FLOW1</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The relations of decadal to multidecadal (D2M) <span class="hlt">variability</span> in global sea-surface <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> (SSTs) with D2M <span class="hlt">variability</span> in the flow of the Upper Colorado River Basin (UCRB) are examined for the years 1906- 2003. Results indicate that D2M <span class="hlt">variability</span> of SSTs in the North Atlantic, North Pacific, tropical Pacific, and Indian Oceans is associated with D2M <span class="hlt">variability</span> of the UCRB. A</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Gregory J. McCabe; Julio L. Betancourt; Hugo G. Hidalgo</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">136</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=ADA143759"> <span id="translatedtitle">Spectroscopic Research at High Pressure and <span class="hlt">Variable</span> <span class="hlt">Temperature</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Work concentrated on the use of spectroscopic techniques to probe material held under high pressure at various <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> with the objective of improving understanding of intermolecular forces and the material properties which depend on them. Included i...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">W. F. Sherman</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1984-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">137</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19970005354&hterms=HPGE&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3DHPGE"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Variable</span> <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Performance of a Si(Li) Detector Stack</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">New experimental data is presented which displays 137Cs resolution of both single Si(Li) devices and a detector stack 2 cm in height as a function of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (85 K greater than or equal to T greater than or equal to 245 K). We also discuss variations in photopeak shape which indicate that detector charge collection may be <span class="hlt">temperature</span> dependent over the range of interest.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hubbard, G. Scott; McMurray, Robert E., Jr.; Keller, R. G.; Wercinski, P. F.; Walton, J. T.; Wong, Y. K.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1994-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">138</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/2011GL049714"> <span id="translatedtitle">Western Arctic Ocean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> during the last 8000 years</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We reconstructed subsurface (?200–400 m) ocean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and sea-ice cover in the Canada Basin, western Arctic Ocean from foraminiferal ?18O, ostracode Mg/Ca ratios, and dinocyst assemblages from two sediment core records covering the last 8000 years. Results show mean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> varied from ?1 to 0.5°C and ?0.5 to 1.5°C at 203 and 369 m water depths, respectively. Centennial-scale warm periods in subsurface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> records correspond to reductions in summer sea-ice cover inferred from dinocyst assemblages around 6.5 ka, 3.5 ka, 1.8 ka and during the 15th century Common Era. These changes may reflect centennial changes in the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and/or strength of inflowing Atlantic Layer water originating in the eastern Arctic Ocean. By comparison, the 0.5 to 0.7°C warm <span class="hlt">temperature</span> anomaly identified in oceanographic records from the Atlantic Layer of the Canada Basin exceeded reconstructed Atlantic Layer <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> for the last 1200 years by about 0.5°C.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Farmer, Jesse R.; Cronin, Thomas M.; De Vernal, Anne; Dwyer, Gary S.; Keigwin, Loyd D.; Thunell, Robert C.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">139</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011GeoRL..3824602F"> <span id="translatedtitle">Western Arctic Ocean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> during the last 8000 years</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We reconstructed subsurface (˜200-400 m) ocean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and sea-ice cover in the Canada Basin, western Arctic Ocean from foraminiferal ?18O, ostracode Mg/Ca ratios, and dinocyst assemblages from two sediment core records covering the last 8000 years. Results show mean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> varied from -1 to 0.5°C and -0.5 to 1.5°C at 203 and 369 m water depths, respectively. Centennial-scale warm periods in subsurface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> records correspond to reductions in summer sea-ice cover inferred from dinocyst assemblages around 6.5 ka, 3.5 ka, 1.8 ka and during the 15th century Common Era. These changes may reflect centennial changes in the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and/or strength of inflowing Atlantic Layer water originating in the eastern Arctic Ocean. By comparison, the 0.5 to 0.7°C warm <span class="hlt">temperature</span> anomaly identified in oceanographic records from the Atlantic Layer of the Canada Basin exceeded reconstructed Atlantic Layer <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> for the last 1200 years by about 0.5°C.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Farmer, Jesse R.; Cronin, Thomas M.; de Vernal, Anne; Dwyer, Gary S.; Keigwin, Lloyd D.; Thunell, Robert C.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">140</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/7036877"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Variable</span> pressure insulating jackets for high-<span class="hlt">temperature</span> batteries</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A new method is proposed for controlling the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of high-<span class="hlt">temperature</span> batteries namely, varying the hydrogen pressure inside of multifoil insulation by varying the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of a reversible hydrogen getter. Calculations showed that the rate of heat loss through 1.5 cm of multifoil insulation between a hot-side <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of 425[degrees]C and a cold-side <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of 25[degrees]C could be varied between 17.6 W/m[sup 2] and 7,000 W/m[sup 2]. This change in heat transfer rate can be achieved by varying the hydrogen pressure between 1.0 Pa and 1,000 Pa, which can be done with an available hydrogen gettering alloy operating in the range of 50[degrees]C to 250[degrees]C. This approach to battery cooling requires cylindrical insulating jackets, which are best suited for bipolar batteries having round cells approximately 10 to 18 cm in diameter.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Nelson, P.A.; Chilenskas, A.A.; Malecha, R.F.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1992-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#">4</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#">5</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#">6</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">7</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#">8</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#">9</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#">10</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> </div><!-- page_7 div --> <div id="page_8" class="hiddenDiv"> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#">4</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#">5</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#">6</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#">7</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">8</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#">9</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#">10</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">141</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10125119"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Variable</span> pressure insulating jackets for high-<span class="hlt">temperature</span> batteries</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A new method is proposed for controlling the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of high-<span class="hlt">temperature</span> batteries namely, varying the hydrogen pressure inside of multifoil insulation by varying the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of a reversible hydrogen getter. Calculations showed that the rate of heat loss through 1.5 cm of multifoil insulation between a hot-side <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of 425{degrees}C and a cold-side <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of 25{degrees}C could be varied between 17.6 W/m{sup 2} and 7,000 W/m{sup 2}. This change in heat transfer rate can be achieved by varying the hydrogen pressure between 1.0 Pa and 1,000 Pa, which can be done with an available hydrogen gettering alloy operating in the range of 50{degrees}C to 250{degrees}C. This approach to battery cooling requires cylindrical insulating jackets, which are best suited for bipolar batteries having round cells approximately 10 to 18 cm in diameter.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Nelson, P.A.; Chilenskas, A.A.; Malecha, R.F.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1992-12-31</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">142</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6103217"> <span id="translatedtitle">Natural convection along slender vertical cylinders with <span class="hlt">variable</span> surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Natural convection in laminar boundary layers along slender vertical cylinders is analyzed for the situation in which the wall <span class="hlt">temperature</span> T{sub w}(x) varies arbitrarily with the axial coordinate x. The governing boundary layer equations along with the boundary conditions are first cast into a dimensionless form by a nonsimilar transformation and the resulting system of equations is then solved by a finite difference method in conjunction with the cubic spline interpolation technique. As an example, numerical results were obtained for the case of T{sub w}(x) = T{infinity} + ax{sup n}, a power-law wall <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variation. They cover Prandtl numbers of 0.1, 0.7, 7, and 100 over a wide range of values of the surface curvature parameter. Representative local Nusselt number as well as velocity and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> profiles are presented. Correlation equations for the local and average Nusselt numbers are also given.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lee, H.R.; Chen, T.S.; Armaly, B.F. (Univ. of Missouri, Rolla (United States))</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1988-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">143</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/56030408"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Variable-temperature</span> scanning optical and force microscope</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The implementation of a scanning microscope capable of working in confocal, atomic force and apertureless near field configurations is presented. The microscope is designed to operate in the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> range 4-300 K, using conventional helium flow cryostats. In atomic force microscope (AFM) mode, the distance between the sample and an etched tungsten tip is controlled by a self-sensing piezoelectric tuning</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">P. S. Fodor; H. Zhu; N. G. Patil; J. Jevy</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">144</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/27687861"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Variable-temperature</span> scanning optical and force microscope</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The implementation of a scanning microscope capable of working in confocal, atomic force and apertureless near field configurations is presented. The microscope is designed to operate in the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> range 4–300 K, using conventional helium flow cryostats. In atomic force microscope (AFM) mode, the distance between the sample and an etched tungsten tip is controlled by a self-sensing piezoelectric tuning</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">P. S. Fodor; H. Zhu; N. G. Patil; J. Jevy</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">145</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013ESDD....4..743T"> <span id="translatedtitle">An interaction network perspective on the relation between patterns of sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> and global mean surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">On interannual-to-multidecadal time scales <span class="hlt">variability</span> in sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> appears to be organized in large-scale spatiotemporal patterns. In this paper, we investigate these patterns by studying the community structure of interaction networks constructed from sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> observations. Much of the community structure as well as the first neighbour maps can be interpreted using known dominant patterns of <span class="hlt">variability</span>, such as the El Niño/Southern Oscillation and the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation and teleconnections. The community detection method allows to overcome some shortcomings of Empirical Orthogonal Function analysis or composite analysis and hence provides additional information with respect to these classical analysis tools. The community analysis provides also new insight into the relationship between patterns of sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and the global mean surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (GMST). On the decadal-to-multidecadal time scale, we show that only two communities (Indian Ocean and North Atlantic) determine most of the GMST <span class="hlt">variability</span>.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Tantet, A.; Dijkstra, H. A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">146</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1012303"> <span id="translatedtitle">Complexation of Plutonium (IV) with Fluoride at <span class="hlt">Variable</span> <span class="hlt">Temperatures</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The complexation of Pu(IV) with fluoride at elevated <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> was studied by solvent extraction technique. A solution of NaBrO3 was used as holding oxidant to maintain the oxidation state of plutonium throughout the experiments. The distribution ratio of Pu(IV) between the organic and aqueous phases was found to decrease as the concentrations of fluoride were increased. Stability constants of the 1:1 and 1:2 Pu(IV)-F- complexes, dominant in the aqueous phase under the experimental conditions, were calculated from the effect of fluoride ions on the distribution ratio. The thermodynamic parameters, including enthalpy and entropy of complexation between Pu(IV) and fluoride at 25 degrees C - 55 degrees C were calculated from the stability constants at different <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> by using the Van’t Hoff equation.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Xia, Yuanxian; Rao, Linfeng; Friese, Judah I.; Moore, Dean A.; Bachelor, Paula P.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-02-02</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">147</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5508100"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Variable</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> effects on release rates of readily soluble nuclides</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this paper we study the effect of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> on the release rate of readily soluble nuclides, as affected by a time-<span class="hlt">temperature</span> dependent diffusion coefficient. In this analysis ground water fills the voids in the waste package at t = 0 and one percent of the inventories of cesium and iodine are immediately dissolved into the void water. Mass transfer resistance of partly failed container and cladding is conservatively neglected. The nuclides move through the void space into the surrounding rock under a concentration gradient. We use an analytic solution to compute the nuclide concentration in the gap or void, and the mass flux rate into the porous rock. 8 refs., 4 figs.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kim, C.-L.; Light, W.B.; Lee, W.W.-L.; Chambre, P.L.; Pigford, T.H. (Korea Advanced Energy Research Inst., Daeduk (Republic of Korea); Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (USA))</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1988-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">148</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/2536256"> <span id="translatedtitle">Pacific interdecadal <span class="hlt">variability</span> in this century's sea surface <span class="hlt">temperatures</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Analysis of this century's sea surface <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> over the Pacific Ocean reveals an interdecadal oscillation with a period of 15-20 years. Our results show that the well-known 1976-77 climate regime shift is not unique, but represents one of several phase transitions associated with this interdecadal oscillation, also found around 1924-25, 1941-42, and 1957-58. The oscillation's striking north-south symmetry across the</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Yi Chao; Michael Ghil; James C. McWilliams</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2000-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">149</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/1502053"> <span id="translatedtitle">Complex permittivity measurements of common plastics over <span class="hlt">variable</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this paper, we present complex permittivity data at microwave frequencies (approximately 10 GHz) for many common plastics over a <span class="hlt">temperature</span> range of 122 to 375 K. The measurements were made with a TE01? dielectric resonator placed inside an environmental chamber. Data are presented for the following materials: acrylonitrile butadiene styrene, polytetrafluoroethylene, cross-linked polystyrene, tetrafluorethylene-perfluorpropylene, polypropylene, polysulfone, polymethylmethacrylate, polyvinyl chloride,</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bill Riddle; James Baker-Jarvis; Jerzy Krupka</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">150</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.agu.org/journals/gl/gl0801/2007GL031904/2007GL031904.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Solar flux <span class="hlt">variability</span> of Mars' exosphere densities and <span class="hlt">temperatures</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Using densities derived from precise orbit determination of the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) spacecraft from 1999 to mid-2005, the response of Mars' exosphere to long-term solar change is established and compared to that of Earth and Venus. At Mars, exosphere <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> (weighted towards high-latitude Southern Hemisphere daytime conditions) change only 36–50% as much as those at Earth as solar activity</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jeffrey M. Forbes; Frank G. Lemoine; Sean L. Bruinsma; Michael D. Smith; Xiaoli Zhang</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">151</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70004660"> <span id="translatedtitle">Amplification and dampening of soil respiration by changes in <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Accelerated release of carbon from soils is one of the most important feed backs related to anthropogenically induced climate change. Studies addressing the mechanisms for soil carbon release through organic matter decomposition have focused on the effect of changes in the average <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, with little attention to changes in <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">vari-ability</span>. Anthropogenic activities are likely to modify both the average state and the <span class="hlt">variability</span> of the climatic system; therefore, the effects of future warming on decomposition should not only focus on trends in the average <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, but also <span class="hlt">variability</span> expressed as a change of the probability distribution of <span class="hlt">temperature</span>.Using analytical and numerical analyses we tested common relationships between <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and respiration and found that the <span class="hlt">variability</span> of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> plays an important role determining respiration rates of soil organic matter. Changes in <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span>, without changes in the average <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, can affect the amount of carbon released through respiration over the long term. Furthermore, simultaneous changes in the average and variance of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> can either amplify or dampen there release of carbon through soil respiration as climate regimes change. The effects depend on the degree of convexity of the relationship between <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and respiration and the magnitude of the change in <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variance. A potential consequence of this effect of <span class="hlt">variability</span> would be higher respiration in regions where both the mean and variance of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> are expected to increase, such as in some low latitude regions; and lower amounts of respiration where the average <span class="hlt">temperature</span> is expected to increase and the variance to decrease, such as in northern high latitudes.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sierra, C. A.; Harmon, M. E.; Thomann, E.; Perakis, S. S.; Loescher, H. W.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">152</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFM.A13H0360M"> <span id="translatedtitle">ENSO & NAO Impacts on Intra-Seasonal <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> <span class="hlt">Variability</span> in United States Winters</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">For decades climatologists have researched teleconnection patterns to understand the impacts of these phenomena on seasonal climate <span class="hlt">variability</span> in the United States. This research expands upon many previous works that have primarily addressed climate <span class="hlt">variability</span> in terms of average departures from monthly and seasonal mean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and precipitation conditions. Here, two prominent teleconnections with strong winter signatures in the United States, the El Niño/ Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), are examined to thoroughly describe intra-seasonal climate <span class="hlt">variability</span> during each teleconnection phase over the last 55 winters. January - March daily maximum and mimimum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> is assessed with Varimax rotated principal components analysis for each month and teleconnection phase, including neutral events. The spatial <span class="hlt">variability</span> of results obtained across the country are assessed in GIS and the magnitude of phase <span class="hlt">variability</span> is examined. Prior to statistical analyses, the global climate change signal is removed from <span class="hlt">temperature</span> records since the mid 1970s using a hinge-fit linear trend line technique. In addition, an apparent trend in the NAO index, that biases the record prior to 1979 toward negative values and the period following 1979 toward positive values, is also removed to create a new NAO index for use in long-term climate <span class="hlt">variability</span> assessments. Significant intra-seasonal climate <span class="hlt">variability</span> is identified in all ENSO and NAO phases. Results indicate that two dominant modes and one subordinate mode exhibit a pattern of large and regionally consistent daily <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> in all phases, frequently over the Southwest, Northeast and North Central United States. In most ENSO and NAO events, the standard deviation of phase <span class="hlt">variability</span> is approximately 6- 8°C. <span class="hlt">Variability</span> patterns of Neutral ENSO and NAO phases are often different each month, indicating that these events are not simply times of “near normal” conditions and are associated with unique regional <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span>. Further, since the spatial patterns of daily maximum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> in a given phase are frequently found to be dissimilar to that of minimum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in the same phase, the use of average <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> may be misrepresentative of the true range of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variation in a given region. The results of this research add information to climate forecasts and should aid confidence statistics issued alongside regional climate forecasts of phase average <span class="hlt">temperature</span> departures.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Malin, M. L.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">153</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013PolSc...7..233S"> <span id="translatedtitle">Long-term <span class="hlt">variability</span> in Arctic sea surface <span class="hlt">temperatures</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this study, we used 30 years of an operational sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (SST) product, the NOAA Optimum Interpolation (OI) SST Version 2 dataset, to examine variations in Arctic SSTs during the period December 1981-October 2011. We computed annual SST anomalies and interannual trends in SST variations for the period 1982-2010; during this period, marginal (though statistically significant) increases in SSTs were observed in oceanic regions poleward of 60°N. A warming trend is evident over most of the Arctic region, the Beaufort Sea, the Chuckchi Sea, Hudson Bay, the Labrador Sea, the Iceland Sea, the Norwegian Sea, Bering Strait, etc.; Labrador Sea experienced higher <span class="hlt">temperature</span> anomalies than those observed in other regions. However, cooling trends were observed in the central Arctic, some parts of Baffin Bay, the Kara Sea (south of Novaya Zemlya), the Laptev Sea, the Siberian Sea, and Fram Strait. The central Arctic region experienced a cooling trend only during 1992-2001; warming trends were observed during 1982-1991 and 2002-2010. We also examined a 30-yr (1982-2011) record of summer season (June-July-August) SST variations and a 29-yr (1982-2010) record of September SST variations, the results of which are discussed.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Singh, Rajkumar Kamaljit; Maheshwari, Megha; Oza, Sandip R.; Kumar, Raj</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">154</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20110016145&hterms=harder&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dharder"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Responses to Spectral Solar <span class="hlt">Variability</span> on Decadal Time Scales</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Two scenarios of spectral solar forcing, namely Spectral Irradiance Monitor (SIM)-based out-of-phase variations and conventional in-phase variations, are input to a time-dependent radiative-convective model (RCM), and to the GISS modelE. Both scenarios and models give maximum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> responses in the upper stratosphere, decreasing to the surface. Upper stratospheric peak-to-peak responses to out-of-phase forcing are approx.0.6 K and approx.0.9 K in RCM and modelE, approx.5 times larger than responses to in-phase forcing. Stratospheric responses are in-phase with TSI and UV variations, and resemble HALOE observed 11-year <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variations. For in-phase forcing, ocean mixed layer response lags surface air response by approx.2 years, and is approx.0.06 K compared to approx.0.14 K for atmosphere. For out-of-phase forcing, lags are similar, but surface responses are significantly smaller. For both scenarios, modelE surface responses are less than 0.1 K in the tropics, and display similar patterns over oceanic regions, but complex responses over land.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Cahalan, Robert F.; Wen, Guoyong; Harder, Jerald W.; Pilewskie, Peter</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">155</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004RScI...75.2971F"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Variable-temperature</span> scanning optical and force microscope</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The implementation of a scanning microscope capable of working in confocal, atomic force and apertureless near field configurations is presented. The microscope is designed to operate in the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> range 4-300 K, using conventional helium flow cryostats. In atomic force microscope (AFM) mode, the distance between the sample and an etched tungsten tip is controlled by a self-sensing piezoelectric tuning fork. The vertical position of both the AFM head and microscope objective can be accurately controlled using piezoelectric coarse approach motors. The scanning is performed using a compact XYZ stage, while the AFM and optical head are kept fixed, allowing scanning probe and optical measurements to be acquired simultaneously and in concert. The free optical axis of the microscope enables both reflection and transmission experiments to be performed.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Fodor, P. S.; Zhu, H.; Patil, N. G.; Jevy, J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">156</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013RScI...84d6106B"> <span id="translatedtitle">Note: A <span class="hlt">variable</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> cell for spectroscopy of thin films</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We report the design and construction of a cell that enables precisely controlled measurement of UV/Vis spectra of thin films on transparent substrates at <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> up to 800 K. The dimensions of the setup are accommodated by a standard Varian Cary 5E spectrophotometer allowing for widespread use in standard laboratory settings. The cell also fits in a Bio-Rad IR-spectrometer. The cell is constructed with an outer water cooled heat shield of aluminum and an inner sample holder with heating element, thermo-resistor and windows, made from nickel coated copper. The cell can operate both in air, and with an inert gas filling. We illustrate the utility of the cell by characterization of three commercially available near infrared absorbers that are commonly used for laser welding of plastics and are known to possess high thermal stability.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Brock-Nannestad, T.; Nielsen, C. B.; Bak, H. Ø.; Pittelkow, M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">157</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23635240"> <span id="translatedtitle">Note: A <span class="hlt">variable</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> cell for spectroscopy of thin films.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We report the design and construction of a cell that enables precisely controlled measurement of UV?Vis spectra of thin films on transparent substrates at <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> up to 800 K. The dimensions of the setup are accommodated by a standard Varian Cary 5E spectrophotometer allowing for widespread use in standard laboratory settings. The cell also fits in a Bio-Rad IR-spectrometer. The cell is constructed with an outer water cooled heat shield of aluminum and an inner sample holder with heating element, thermo-resistor and windows, made from nickel coated copper. The cell can operate both in air, and with an inert gas filling. We illustrate the utility of the cell by characterization of three commercially available near infrared absorbers that are commonly used for laser welding of plastics and are known to possess high thermal stability. PMID:23635240</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Brock-Nannestad, T; Nielsen, C B; Bak, H Ø; Pittelkow, M</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">158</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/33451127"> <span id="translatedtitle">The effect of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and barometric pressure on ambulatory blood pressure <span class="hlt">variability</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The effect of climate on cardiovascular disease has been well studied; however, less known are the effects of climate on blood pressure <span class="hlt">variability</span>. We investigated the effect of ambient <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and barometric pressure on ambulatory blood pressure <span class="hlt">variability</span> in 333 males and females with high normal blood pressure or Stage 1 hypertension participating in the Dietary Attempts to Stop Hypertension</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Megan L. Jehn; Edgar R. Miller; Lawrence J. Appel</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2001-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">159</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/54202353"> <span id="translatedtitle">Upper mixed layer <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and salinity <span class="hlt">variability</span> in the tropical boundary of the California Current</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">In eastern boundary current, eddies, meanders, fronts, and coastal upwelling are the main processes in the generation of mesoscale <span class="hlt">variability</span>. Seasonal <span class="hlt">variability</span> of the integrated <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in the quasi-isothermal layer depth and the integrated salinity in the quasi-isohaline layer depth of the southern part of the California Current are examined using hydrographic data from thirty six surveys carried out from</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">J. Gomez-Valdes; G. Jeronimo</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">160</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.geog.umd.edu/resac/sgoetz/Goetz-IJRS97.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Multisensor analysis of NDVI, surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and biophysical <span class="hlt">variables</span> at a mixed grassland site</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">A unique remotely sensed data set derived for a temperate mixed grassland in the central United States was used to test the comparability of a suite of satellite and aircraft sensors, and to characterize temporal <span class="hlt">variability</span> in the normalized diÄ erence vegetation index (NDVI), retrieved surface radiant <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (Ts), and surface biophysical <span class="hlt">variables</span>. The temporal evolution of atmospherically corrected NDVI</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">S. J. GOETZ</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1997-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#">4</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#">5</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#">6</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#">7</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">8</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#">9</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#">10</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> </div><!-- page_8 div --> <div id="page_9" class="hiddenDiv"> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#">4</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#">5</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#">6</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#">7</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#">8</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">9</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#">10</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">161</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.agu.org/journals/jd/jd0902/2008JD010624/2008JD010624.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Seasonality in secular changes and interannual <span class="hlt">variability</span> of European air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> during the twentieth century</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">A gridded terrestrial monthly surface air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (AT) data set for 1901–2000 from the Climatic Research Unit (CRU), University of East Anglia, is used to investigate seasonality in the long-term AT <span class="hlt">variability</span> over Europe. Prominent seasonal differences are detected in all considered characteristics of AT <span class="hlt">variability</span>. Significant warming trends over western and southern Europe are found during summer and fall.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Igor I. Zveryaev; Sergey K. Gulev</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">162</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/39632433"> <span id="translatedtitle">The importance of the air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variable</span> for the snowmelt runoff modelling using the SRM</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Runoff regimes in most northern basins are controlled by the melting snow cover. A common method for evaluating runoff consists in correlating ambient air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and recorded hydrometric gauge values. The air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> is the principal <span class="hlt">variable</span> to estimate the importance of the melting of the snow cover when using a global conceptual model such as the snowmelt runoff model</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">C. Richard; D. J. Gratton</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2001-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">163</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/57803638"> <span id="translatedtitle">Preparation of Cold Brew Tea by Explosion Puffing Drying at <span class="hlt">Variable</span> <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> and Pressure</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Cold brew tea was prepared using explosion puffing drying at <span class="hlt">variable</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and pressure. The influences of moisture content of predried tea leaves, freezing pretreatment times at ?18°C, and puffing <span class="hlt">temperature</span> on water extracts content of cold brew tea were studied according to the orthogonal experiments of processing of cold brew tea based on single factors. The biochemistry ingredients of</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Xin-Yi He; Jin-Fu Liu; Zong-Hai Huang</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">164</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013ClDy...40.1183Y"> <span id="translatedtitle">Tropical/extratropical forcing on wintertime <span class="hlt">variability</span> of the extratropical <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and circulation</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The secular trends and interannual <span class="hlt">variability</span> of wintertime <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> over northern extratropical lands and circulations over the northern hemisphere are examined using the NCEP/NCAR reanalysis from 1961 to 2010. A primitive equation dry atmospheric model, driven by time-averaged forcing in each winter diagnosed from the NCEP reanalysis, is then employed to investigate the influences of tropical and extratropical forcing on the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and circulation <span class="hlt">variability</span>. The model has no topography and the forcing is thus model specific. The dynamic and thermodynamic maintenances of the circulation and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> anomalies are also diagnosed. Distinct surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> trends over 1961-1990 and 1991-2010 are found over most of the extratropical lands. The trend is stronger in the last two decades than that before 1990, particularly over eastern Canadian Arctic, Greenland, and Asia. The exchange of midlatitude and polar air supports the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> trends. Both the diagnosed extratropical and tropical forcings contribute to the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and circulation trends over 1961-1990, while the extratropical forcing dominates tropical forcing for the trends over 1991-2010. The contribution of the tropical forcing to the trends is sensitive to the period considered. The <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and circulation responses to the diagnosed tropical and extratropical forcings are approximately additive and partially offsetting. Covariances between the interannual surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and 500-hPa geopotential anomalies for the NCEP reanalysis from 1961 to 2010 are dominated by two leading modes associated with the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and Pacific-North American (PNA) teleconnection patterns. The diagnosed extratropical forcing accounts for a significant part of the NAO and PNA associated <span class="hlt">variability</span>, including the interannual <span class="hlt">variability</span> of stationary wave anomalies, as well as dynamically and thermodynamically synoptic eddy feedbacks over the North Atlantic and North Pacific. The tropical forcing contributes to the PNA related <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and circulation <span class="hlt">variability</span>, but has a small contribution to the NAO associated <span class="hlt">variability</span>. Additionally, relative contributions of tropical Indian and Pacific forcings are also assessed.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Yu, Bin; Lin, Hai</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">165</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011JASMS..22.1134M"> <span id="translatedtitle">A Mass-Selective <span class="hlt">Variable-Temperature</span> Drift Tube Ion Mobility-Mass Spectrometer for <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Dependent Ion Mobility Studies</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A hybrid ion mobility-mass spectrometer (IM-MS) incorporating a <span class="hlt">variable-temperature</span> (80-400 K) drift tube is presented. The instrument utilizes an electron ionization (EI) source for fundamental small molecule studies. Ions are transferred to the IM-MS analyzer stages through a quadrupole, which can operate in either broad transmission or mass-selective mode. Ion beam modulation for the ion mobility experiment is accomplished by an electronic shutter gate. The <span class="hlt">variable-temperature</span> ion mobility spectrometer consists of a 30.2 cm uniform field drift tube enclosed within a thermal envelope. Subambient <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> down to 80 K are achievable through cryogenic cooling with liquid nitrogen, while elevated <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> can be accessed through resistive heating of the envelope. Mobility separated ions are mass analyzed by an orthogonal time-of-flight (TOF) mass spectrometer. This report describes the technological considerations for operating the instrument at <span class="hlt">variable</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, and preliminary results are presented for IM-MS analysis of several small mass ions. Specifically, mobility separations of benzene fragment ions generated by EI are used to illustrate significantly improved (greater than 50%) ion mobility resolution at low <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> resulting from decreased diffusional broadening. Preliminary results on the separation of long-lived electronic states of Ti+ formed by EI of TiCl4 and hydration reactions of Ti+ with residual water are presented.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">May, Jody C.; Russell, David H.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">166</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/959417"> <span id="translatedtitle">Complexation of Lanthanides with Nitrate at <span class="hlt">Variable</span> <span class="hlt">Temperatures</span>: Thermodynamics and Coordination Modes</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Complexation of neodymium(III) with nitrate was studied at <span class="hlt">variable</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> (25, 40, 55 and 70 C) by spectrophotometry and microcalorimetry. The NdNO{sub 3}{sup 2+} complex is weak and becomes slightly stronger as the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> is increased. The enthalpy of complexation at 25 C was determined by microcalorimetry to be small and positive, (1.5 {+-} 0.2) kJ {center_dot} mol{sup -1}, in good agreement with the trend of the stability constant at <span class="hlt">variable</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. Luminescence emission spectra and lifetime of Eu(III) in nitrate solutions suggest that inner-sphere and bidentate complexes form between trivalent lanthanides (Nd{sup 3+} and Eu{sup 3+}) and nitrate in aqueous solutions. Specific Ion Interaction approach (SIT) was used to obtain the stability constants of NdNO{sub 3}{sup 2+} at infinite dilution and <span class="hlt">variable</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Rao, Linfeng; Tian, Guoxin</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-12-10</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">167</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/54216063"> <span id="translatedtitle">On the design and implementation of a novel impedance chamber based <span class="hlt">variable</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> regulator at liquid helium <span class="hlt">temperatures</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">A novel <span class="hlt">variable</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> regulator (VTR) based on the use of a fine impedance capillary to control the flow rate of cold helium gas into the VTR chamber is described. The capillary has a diameter of just 200 mum and the flow rate of cold helium gas through the capillary can be effectively controlled to the desired value by heating</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">R. Nagendran; N. Thirumurugan; N. Chinnasamy; M. P. Janawadkar; C. S. Sundar</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">168</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFMGC52A..02M"> <span id="translatedtitle">Joint <span class="hlt">variability</span> of global sea-surface <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> and runoff in the conterminous United States</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Singular value decomposition was applied to annual water-balance simulated runoff for the conterminous United States (US) and annual global sea-surface <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> (SSTs) for the period 1900 through 2009 to identify the major modes of joint <span class="hlt">variability</span>. Results indicate two primary modes of joint <span class="hlt">variability</span> in US runoff and global SSTs. The modes reflect the influence of (1) the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and (2) North Atlantic SSTs on annual US runoff. Results also indicate that the spatial extent of drought during the 20th century has been associated with mostly positive AMO conditions and an equal mix of positive and negative ENSO conditions. The two modes of joint <span class="hlt">variability</span>, however, only explain 21 percent (%) and 31% of the overall <span class="hlt">variability</span> in conterminous US annual runoff and global SSTs respectively; indicating that much of the <span class="hlt">variability</span> in runoff is unexplained by SST <span class="hlt">variability</span> and may be unpredictable.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">McCabe, G. J.; Wolock, D.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">169</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/60314477"> <span id="translatedtitle">Energy conservation evaluation of two <span class="hlt">variable</span> interval time\\/<span class="hlt">temperature</span> heat pump defrost control strategies</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The <span class="hlt">variable</span> interval time\\/<span class="hlt">temperature</span> (VITT) defrost control systems monitor outside air dry-bulb <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and use the measured data to alter the interval between defrost. However, for any outdoor <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, the VITT systems, defrost at constant intervals of time. Analyses of the VITT-A A and VITT-B strategies have been performed for the Department of Energy to assess the energy-saving potential of</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Rettberg</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1981-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">170</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/48928372"> <span id="translatedtitle">Evaluating the first-order effect of intraannual <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> on urban air pollution</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The direct effect of intraannual <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> on ozone and PM2.5 concentrations at the urban scale was simulated using a high-resolution air quality model that tracks the <span class="hlt">temperature</span>-dependant formation of secondary organic and inorganic aerosol components. Calculations show that the concentration of ozone and non-volatile secondary particulate matter will generally increase at higher <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> due to increased gas-phase reaction rates.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jeremy Aw; Michael J. Kleeman</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">171</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24593370"> <span id="translatedtitle">A <span class="hlt">variable-temperature</span> nanostencil compatible with a low-<span class="hlt">temperature</span> scanning tunneling microscope/atomic force microscope.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We describe a nanostencil lithography tool capable of operating at <span class="hlt">variable</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> down to 30 K. The setup is compatible with a combined low-<span class="hlt">temperature</span> scanning tunneling microscope/atomic force microscope located within the same ultra-high-vacuum apparatus. The lateral movement capability of the mask allows the patterning of complex structures. To demonstrate operational functionality of the tool and estimate <span class="hlt">temperature</span> drift and blurring, we fabricated LiF and NaCl nanostructures on Cu(111) at 77 K. PMID:24593370</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Steurer, Wolfram; Gross, Leo; Schlittler, Reto R; Meyer, Gerhard</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">172</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ESD.....5....1T"> <span id="translatedtitle">An interaction network perspective on the relation between patterns of sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> and global mean surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">On interannual- to multidecadal timescales <span class="hlt">variability</span> in sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> appears to be organized in large-scale spatiotemporal patterns. In this paper, we investigate these patterns by studying the community structure of interaction networks constructed from sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> observations. Much of the community structure can be interpreted using known dominant patterns of <span class="hlt">variability</span>, such as the El Niño/Southern Oscillation and the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation. The community detection method allows us to bypass some shortcomings of Empirical Orthogonal Function analysis or composite analysis and can provide additional information with respect to these classical analysis tools. In addition, the study of the relationship between the communities and indices of global surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> shows that, while El Niño-Southern Oscillation is most dominant on interannual timescales, the Indian West Pacific and North Atlantic may also play a key role on decadal timescales. Finally, we show that the comparison of the community structure from simulations and observations can help detect model biases.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Tantet, A.; Dijkstra, H. A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">173</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040035745&hterms=PC3&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3D%2522PC3%2522"> <span id="translatedtitle">Recent Climate <span class="hlt">Variability</span> in Antarctica from Satellite-derived <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Data</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Recent Antarctic climate <span class="hlt">variability</span> on month-to-month to interannual time scales is assessed through joint analysis of surface <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> from satellite thermal infrared observations (T(sub IR)) and passive microwave brightness <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> (T(sub B)). Although Tw data are limited to clear-sky conditions and T(sub B) data are a product of the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and emissivity of the upper approx. 1m of snow, the two data sets share significant covariance. This covariance is largely explained by three empirical modes, which illustrate the spatial and temporal <span class="hlt">variability</span> of Antarctic surface <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. T(sub B) variations are damped compared to TIR variations, as determined by the period of the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> forcing and the microwave emission depth; however, microwave emissivity does not vary significantly in time. Comparison of the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> modes with Southern Hemisphere (SH) 500-hPa geopotential height anomalies demonstrates that Antarctic <span class="hlt">temperature</span> anomalies are predominantly controlled by the principal patterns of SH atmospheric circulation. The leading surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> mode strongly correlates with the Southern Annular Mode (SAM) in geopotential height. The second <span class="hlt">temperature</span> mode reflects the combined influences of the zonal wavenumber-3 and Pacific South American (PSA) patterns in 500-hPa height on month-to-month timescales. ENSO <span class="hlt">variability</span> projects onto this mode on interannual timescales, but is not by itself a good predictor of Antarctic <span class="hlt">temperature</span> anomalies. The third <span class="hlt">temperature</span> mode explains winter warming trends, which may be caused by blocking events, over a large region of the East Antarctic plateau. These results help to place recent climate changes in the context of Antarctica's background climate <span class="hlt">variability</span> and will aid in the interpretation of ice core paleoclimate records.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Schneider, David P.; Steig, Eric J.; Comiso, Josefino C.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">174</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013ThApC.113..305I"> <span id="translatedtitle">Multidecadal <span class="hlt">variability</span> of summer <span class="hlt">temperature</span> over Romania and its relation with Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We investigate the multidecadal <span class="hlt">variability</span> of summer <span class="hlt">temperature</span> over Romania as measured at 14 meteorological stations with long-term observational records. The dominant pattern of summer <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> has a monopolar structure and shows pronounced multidecadal variations. A correlation analysis reveals that these multidecadal variations are related with multidecadal variations in the frequency of four daily atmospheric circulation patterns from the North Atlantic region. It is found that on multidecadal time scales, negative summer mean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (TT) anomalies are associated with positive sea level pressure (SLP) anomalies centered over the northern part of the Atlantic Ocean and Scandinavia and negative SLP anomalies centered over the northern part of Africa. It is speculated that a possible cause of multidecadal fluctuations in the frequency of these four patterns are the sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (SST) anomalies associated to the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO). These results have implications for predicting the evolution of summer <span class="hlt">temperature</span> over Romania on multidecadal time scales.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ionita, Monica; Rimbu, Norel; Chelcea, Silvia; Patrut, Simona</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">175</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19830019036&hterms=dry+weather&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3Ddry%2Bweather"> <span id="translatedtitle">Simulating soybean canopy <span class="hlt">temperature</span> as affected by weather <span class="hlt">variables</span> and soil water potential</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Hourly weather data for several clear sky days during summer at Phoenix and Baltimore which covered a wide range of <span class="hlt">variables</span> were used with a plant atmosphere model to simulate soybean (Glycine max L.) leaf water potential, stomatal resistance and canopy <span class="hlt">temperature</span> at various soil water potentials. The air and dew point <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> were found to be the significant weather <span class="hlt">variables</span> affecting the canopy <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. Under identical weather conditions, the model gives a lower canopy <span class="hlt">temperature</span> for a soybean crop with a higher rooting density. A knowledge of crop rooting density, in addition to air and dew point <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> is needed in interpreting infrared radiometric observations for soil water status. The observed dependence of stomatal resistance on the vapor pressure deficit and soil water potential is fairly well represented. Analysis of the simulated leaf water potentials indicates overestimation, possibly due to differences in the cultivars.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Choudhury, B. J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1982-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">176</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014IJBm..tmp...32O"> <span id="translatedtitle">Effects of outdoor <span class="hlt">temperature</span> on changes in physiological <span class="hlt">variables</span> before and after lunch in healthy women</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Previous studies of autonomic nervous system responses before and after eating when controlling patient conditions and room <span class="hlt">temperature</span> have provided inconsistent results. We hypothesized that several physiological parameters reflecting autonomic activity are affected by outdoor <span class="hlt">temperature</span> before and after a meal. We measured the following physiological <span class="hlt">variables</span> before and after a fixed meal in 53 healthy Japanese women: skin <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, salivary amylase, blood glucose, heart rate, and heart rate <span class="hlt">variability</span>. We assessed satiety before and after lunch using a visual analog scale (100 mm). We recorded outdoor <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, atmospheric pressure, and relative humidity. Skin <span class="hlt">temperature</span> rose significantly 1 h after eating (greater in cold weather) (P = 0.008). Cold weather markedly influenced changes in diastolic blood pressure before (P = 0.017) and after lunch (P = 0.013). Fasting salivary amylase activity increased significantly in cold weather but fell significantly after lunch (significantly greater in cold weather) (P = 0.007). Salivary amylase was significantly associated with cold weather, low atmospheric pressure, and low relative humidity 30 min after lunch (P < 0.05). Cold weather significantly influenced heart rate <span class="hlt">variability</span> (P = 0.001). The decreased low frequency (LF)/high frequency (HF) ratio, increased ? LF/HF ratio, and increased ? salivary amylase activity imply that cold outdoor <span class="hlt">temperature</span> is associated with dominant parasympathetic activity after lunch. Our results clarify the relationship between environmental factors, food intake, and autonomic system and physiological <span class="hlt">variables</span>, which helps our understanding of homeostasis and metabolism.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Okada, Masahiro; Kakehashi, Masayuki</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">177</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19990017738&hterms=SFT&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3DSFT"> <span id="translatedtitle">Linkages Between Multiscale Global Sea Surface <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Change and Precipitation <span class="hlt">Variabilities</span> in the US</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A growing number of evidence indicates that there are coherent patterns of <span class="hlt">variability</span> in sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (SST) anomaly not only at interannual timescales, but also at decadal-to-inter-decadal timescale and beyond. The multi-scale <span class="hlt">variabilities</span> of SST anomaly have shown great impacts on climate. In this work, we analyze multiple timescales contained in the globally averaged SST anomaly with and their possible relationship with the summer and winter rainfall in the United States over the past four decades.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lau, K. M.; Weng, Heng-Yi</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1999-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">178</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/42528964"> <span id="translatedtitle">Interpretation of the relationship between skin <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and vegetation fraction: Effect of subpixel soil <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Both land surface\\/skin <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and vegetation indices data provided routinely and globally by NASA MODIS sensors at 1?km grid resolution represent an important piece of information assimilated into various environmental applications\\/models. Previous studies based on these and similar remotely data sets and on two?component pixel representation (accounting for pixel?aggregated vegetation and bare soil <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> only) have shown a rather strong</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Georgy V. Mostovoy; Valentine Anantharaj; Roger L. King; Marina G. Filippova</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">179</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.A33E0276Z"> <span id="translatedtitle">Summer water <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> of the Great Lakes: Seasonal footprinting versus synchronous summertime atmospheric forcing</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Water bodies often exhibit less <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> than air over proximate land at time scales ranging from diurnal cycle to secular trend, due to the large heat capacity of water. One exception to this is the Laurentian Great Lakes. Observations from recent decades suggest that the surface of the Great Lakes warmed more rapidly than the air over surrounding land and showed greater year-to-year <span class="hlt">variability</span> in summer. The pioneering study of Austin and Colman (2007) shed light on this paradox by empirically relating summer water <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> to springtime stratification, and further, to ice cover in the preceding winter. However, a clear physical picture of this 'seasonal footprinting' and its role in the summer water <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> are still elusive. Here, we employ a regional climate model with interactive lake processes to demonstrate the feasibility of the seasonal footprinting mechanism, and to investigate its significance for the summer water <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> compared with synchronous summertime atmospheric forcing. We explore the relative roles of these two influences in the context of the amplified warming trend of the Great Lakes in recent decades, characterized by the presence of an approximate step-change in lake <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and ice cover between 1997 and 1998.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Zhong, Y.; Notaro, M.; Vavrus, S. J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">180</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMEP43C0870D"> <span id="translatedtitle">Temporal <span class="hlt">variability</span> of thermal refuges and water <span class="hlt">temperature</span> patterns in an Atlantic salmon river</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">River basins in northern latitudes are predicted to experience increased water <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> under future climate change. This will have a negative impact on most salmonid populations which are highly intolerant of <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> in excess of 23° C. In response to summer heat stress, salmonids thermoregulate in discrete units of cold water. Termed thermal refuges, these are of great significance to the ability of salmon and trout to survive increased water <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. Although previous research has documented links between the spatial patterns of thermal refuges and salmonid distribution and behaviour, the temporal <span class="hlt">variability</span> of these cold water units has never been studied. In this investigation, airborne thermal infrared (TIR) imagery acquired six times between 2009 and 2011 was used to characterise temporal <span class="hlt">variability</span> of thermal refuges and broader scale patterns of water <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in the Rivière Ouelle, an Atlantic salmon river in Québec, Canada. Thermal refuges detected from TIR imagery were classified into a series of categories, revealing notable inter-survey <span class="hlt">variability</span> between the absolute counts of each refuge type. Broader-scale longitudinal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> profiles of river <span class="hlt">temperature</span> were also extracted. Temporal <span class="hlt">variability</span> in the absolute counts of lateral groundwater seeps (the most frequently observed thermal refuge class) was shown to correlate strongly with long duration hydrometeorological metrics such as seasonal mean discharge (R2 = 0.94, p < 0.01). Conversely, thermal refuges resulting from cold water tributaries were more temporally stable. Downstream <span class="hlt">temperature</span> complexity was shown to correlate best with short duration metrics such as cumulative precipitation depth within a 5-day period prior to each survey (R2 = 0.90, p < 0.01). This study is the first of its kind to link thermal refuge dynamics and water <span class="hlt">temperature</span> patterns to hydrometeorological conditions and may offer valuable insights into how changing hydrometeorological regimes could influence these important cold water units in the future.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Dugdale, S.; Bergeron, N.; St-Hilaire, A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#">4</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#">5</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#">6</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#">7</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#">8</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">9</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#">10</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> </div><!-- page_9 div --> <div id="page_10" class="hiddenDiv"> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#">4</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#">5</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#">6</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#">7</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#">8</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#">9</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">10</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">181</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AIPC.1592..215L"> <span id="translatedtitle">Investigation on multi-<span class="hlt">variable</span> decoupled <span class="hlt">temperature</span> control system for enamelling machine with heated air circulation</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A lots of problems may occur frequently when controlling the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of the enamelling machine oven in the real industrial process, such as multi-<span class="hlt">variable</span> coupled problem. an experimental rig with triple inputs and triple outputs was devised and a simulation modeling was established accordingly in this study,. the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> control system based on the feedforward compensation algorithm was proposed. Experimental results have shown that the system is of high efficiency, good stability and promising application.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Li, Yang; Qin, Le; Zou, Shipeng; Long, Shijun</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">182</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFM.A53E0316F"> <span id="translatedtitle">A MERRA based analysis of the Climate <span class="hlt">Variability</span> and Summer <span class="hlt">Temperature</span>-Rainfall Relationships over India</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Using gridded monthly observation and reanalysis datasets (Modern Era Retrospective-analysis for Research and Applications - MERRA), we examine the <span class="hlt">variability</span>, co-<span class="hlt">variability</span> and lagged relationships between <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and summer rainfall over India (1979 - 2005). The spatial and temporal patterns of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and rainfall anomalies are analyzed by computing the percentage of occurrences of positive anomalies for each gridpoint (spatial patterns of <span class="hlt">variability</span>) and for all seasons throughout the study period (temporal patterns of <span class="hlt">variability</span>). We found that a percentage of occurrences of positive <span class="hlt">temperature</span> anomalies larger than 50% was observed for 63% of winters, but only 44% of summers. To investigate the relationships between the two <span class="hlt">variables</span>, we use the Observations Minus Reanalysis (OMR) method to identify areas of interest (warming/cooling) and we look at rainfall patterns in such areas. We also analyze <span class="hlt">temperature</span> patterns in areas where rainfall has increased (or decreased) over the study period. The results do not point to well defined rainfall patterns as a function of OMR, but show clearly the occurrence of the largest <span class="hlt">temperature</span> increases (decreases) in areas where summer rainfall has decreased (increased). The lag correlations between summer rainfall and standardized <span class="hlt">temperature</span> anomalies of previous months show that from January to April, negative correlations dominate: e.g. in January, up to -0.79 along the eastern coast; -0.75 in central India in March; up to -0.84 Rajasthan, Punjab and Madhya Pradesh. In May, positive correlations are predominant: up to 0.79 in northern and southern India. Strong relationships are limited, but provide guidance for local rainfall predictability.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Fall, S.; Niyogi, D.; Kishtawal, C. M.; Mishra, V.; Bosilovich, M. G.; Entin, J. K.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">183</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JPhCS.507c2027D"> <span id="translatedtitle">2T/5T Two-Axis Cryogen Free Superconducting Vector Magnet With <span class="hlt">Variable</span> <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Space</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A conduction cooled 2T / 5T superconducting vector magnetic system with a <span class="hlt">variable</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> space was developed and tested. The system is based on a commercial two-stage 4 K Gifford-McMahon cryocooler with the cooling power of 1.5 W at 4.2 K. The cool down time of the magnet from room <span class="hlt">temperature</span> to 3.2 K is 17 hours. The system provides sample <span class="hlt">temperature</span> range of 6.0-300 K. The clear diameter of <span class="hlt">variable</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> space is 39 mm. A 5 T solenoid generates magnetic field in the vertical axis and a 2 T split coil generates field in the horizontal axis. The magnets are made of niobium-titanium wire wound on a copper former. A PC controlled rotary drive is applied to rotate a sample holder around the vertical axis. Thus the measured sample can be exposed to the magnetic field in any desired direction. A helium gas gap heat switch is used as a controllable thermal link between the <span class="hlt">variable</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> space and the 2nd stage to avoid overheating of the magnet at high <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> of the sample. The system design, manufacturing and test results are presented.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Demikhov, E. I.; Demikhov, T. E.; Kostrov, E. A.; Lysenko, V. V.; Piskunov, N. A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">184</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20706741"> <span id="translatedtitle">Effects of precipitation and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> on crop production <span class="hlt">variability</span> in northeast Iran.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Climate <span class="hlt">variability</span> adversely impacts crop production and imposes a major constraint on farming planning, mostly under rainfed conditions, across the world. Considering the recent advances in climate science, many studies are trying to provide a reliable basis for climate, and subsequently agricultural production, forecasts. The El Niño-Southern Oscillation phenomenon (ENSO) is one of the principle sources of interannual climatic <span class="hlt">variability</span>. In Iran, primarily in the northeast, rainfed cereal yield shows a high annual <span class="hlt">variability</span>. This study investigated the role played by precipitation, <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and three climate indices [Arctic Oscillation (AO), North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and NINO 3.4] in historically observed rainfed crop yields (1983-2005) of both barley and wheat in the northeast of Iran. The results revealed differences in the association between crop yield and climatic factors at different locations. The south of the study area is a very hot location, and the maximum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> proved to be the limiting and determining factor for crop yields; <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> resulted in crop yield <span class="hlt">variability</span>. For the north of the study area, NINO 3.4 exhibited a clear association trend with crop yields. In central locations, NAO provided a solid basis for the relationship between crop yields and climate factors. PMID:20706741</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bannayan, Mohammad; Lotfabadi, Sajad Sadeghi; Sanjani, Sarah; Mohamadian, Azadeh; Aghaalikhani, Majid</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">185</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001AGUFM.A11A0031T"> <span id="translatedtitle">Atmospheric Dynamical Responses to Solar Wind Variations on the <span class="hlt">Day-to-Day</span> Timescale</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In the early 1970s it was shown by John Wilcox and associates and verified by Colin Hines that the strength of winter storms across the northern hemisphere decreases at times of solar wind 'sector boundary' crossings. These are now known as heliospheric current sheet (HCS) crossings, and correspond to the extension of the coronal streamer belt passing over the Earth, with reductions in solar wind velocity by about 10%. The strength of winter storms is objectively evaluated by the vorticity area index (VAI) calculated from gridded geopotential height data sets. It was shown by Tinsley, Hoeksema, Baker and Kirkland in the mid-1990s that this VAI response (the Wilcox effect) tracks the decrease in MeV electron flux precipitating from the magnetosphere, with a lag of less than a day. The MeV electron flux is strongly correlated with solar wind velocity, and together with its associated X-ray Bremsstrahlung modulates the stratospheric vertical column resistance. For winters when the column resistance is unusually high because of a high mixing ratio of H2SO4 from volcanic eruptions, the ionosphere-earth current density Jz is modulated by these stratospheric resistance variations. The winter storm response can be understood in terms of a general theory (Tinsley, Space Sci. Rev., 94, 231-258, 2000), and it involves changes in cloud microphysics and precipitation from the storm systems at mid-high geomagnetic latitudes, due to electroscavenging by cloud droplets. The electroscavenging rate tracks the Jz changes. There is a similar effect from reductions in tropospheric resistance associated with changes in cosmic ray flux during magnetic storms, first noticed in the 1960s by Walter Orr Roberts and associates. The Roberts and Wilcox effects are part of a more general influence of solar activity affecting Jz and clouds, which is part of an even more general influence of electroscavenging on clouds. The precipitation changes associated with cosmic ray and Jz changes have been evaluated by Kniveton and Todd (GRL 28, 1527-1530 and 3279). In winter storms the VAI response arises from a redistribution of vorticity within the storm because of diabatic heating changes. The storm vorticity changes have longer term dynamical and climatic consequences. >http://www.utdallas.edu/dept/physics/Faculty/tinsley/tinsley.htm</ a></p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Tinsley, B. A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2001-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">186</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10947676"> <span id="translatedtitle">A regulated telemedicine system for <span class="hlt">day</span> <span class="hlt">to</span> <span class="hlt">day</span> application in remote areas.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The NIVEMES project creates an international network of Health Service providers which offer Telemedicine-Teleconsultation services to Remote, Isolated places and to ship vessels for both routine and emergency situations. The base of the system is the powerful Multimedia Health Record, with the ability to manage conventional data, images, videos and biosignals, acquired directly from the medical device. National and international medical codification schemata are employed such as ICD-X and WHO standards. Telemedicine and Computing in Health Care are rapidly covering a pending gap, not fulfilled by current bureaucratic and telematic procedures. However even from the first test fields conducted during the past year, it is obvious that a variety of new training needs has arisen. The users of such systems need to be instructed new ways of conducting their business, of taking advantage of the services, even a new way of perceiving health care provision. The user interface of the software is kept simple, thus getting acquainted with it requires minimum effort; however there are other issues on which training is required to best exploit the advantages the system offers. The telemedical networks spawned in each country must be co-ordinated, and the user needs to know where and how he/she will acquire the necessary support. Home-cared patients will have to operate medical devices and telemedical software, a task which although made easy from today's technology, it still requires some basic training, specially as far as elderly users are concerned. The NIVEMES system uncovers a set of new training needs, but it offers at the same time a vehicle for educating the professional health-carers. The Health Record comprises a multimedia, explicit account of the patient history, which can be used for detailed and integrated study from trainee health carers of all levels (as well as from officers on board, people taking care of home-confined patients and others), on real data or in a simulated environment. At the same time the telemedicine facilities may increase the effectiveness of junior doctors working in remote areas and enhance the confidence residents have about their local health centres. Systems like NIVEMES prove that new user needs arise nowadays and employment of modern tools requires training in modern methods and in a new way of thinking. PMID:10947676</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Samiotakis, Y; Anagnostopoulou, S; Alexakis, A</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2000-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">187</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008JAP...104d3521C"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Variable</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> photoluminescence of pulsed laser deposited ZnO thin films</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Variable</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> photoluminescence of ZnO thin films deposited by a reactive laser ablation of metallic zinc was investigated. Free and bound exciton emissions are absent at cryogenic <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, and the near band edge (NBE) emission is independent of measurement <span class="hlt">temperature</span> for the ZnO thin film deposited at room <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. Annealing at 700 °C results in the removal of defects, reappearance of exciton emission, and a <span class="hlt">temperature</span> dependent NBE emission. The experimental data suggest that defects play an important role in the band edge emission in terms of both spectra shape and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> dependence. Our observations will have an impact on device applications using ZnO, especially for optoelectronics that utilizes the exciton emission.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Cui, J. B.; Soo, Y. C.; Thomas, A.; Kandel, H.; Chen, T. P.; Daghlian, C. P.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">188</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JGRD..118.9105I"> <span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">variability</span> of California summertime marine stratus: Impacts on surface air <span class="hlt">temperatures</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">study investigates the <span class="hlt">variability</span> of clouds, primarily marine stratus clouds, and how they are associated with surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> anomalies over California, especially along the coastal margin. We focus on the summer months of June to September when marine stratus are the dominant cloud type. Data used include satellite cloud reflectivity (cloud albedo) measurements, hourly surface observations of cloud cover and air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> at coastal airports, and observed values of daily surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> at stations throughout California and Nevada. Much of the anomalous <span class="hlt">variability</span> of summer clouds is organized over regional patterns that affect considerable portions of the coast, often extend hundreds of kilometers to the west and southwest over the North Pacific, and are bounded to the east by coastal mountains. The occurrence of marine stratus is positively correlated with both the strength and height of the thermal inversion that caps the marine boundary layer, with inversion base height being a key factor in determining their inland penetration. Cloud cover is strongly associated with surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variations. In general, increased presence of cloud (higher cloud albedo) produces cooler daytime <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> and warmer nighttime <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. Summer daytime <span class="hlt">temperature</span> fluctuations associated with cloud cover variations typically exceed 1°C. The inversion-cloud albedo-<span class="hlt">temperature</span> associations that occur at daily timescales are also found at seasonal timescales.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Iacobellis, Sam F.; Cayan, Daniel R.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">189</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/12148683"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Variability</span> in germination and in <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and storage resistance among Paenibacillus larvae genotypes</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">There are several methods for cultivation of Paenibacillus larvae, the causative agent of American foulbrood (AFB) in honey bees. Protocols for detection of sub-clinical levels of the bacterium from honey and bee samples include heat treatment of samples. The main objective of this study was to investigate if there is <span class="hlt">variability</span> in <span class="hlt">temperature</span> resistance among P. larvae genotypes, potentially leading</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Eva Forsgren; Jevrosima Stevanovic; Ingemar Fries</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">190</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/15075940"> <span id="translatedtitle">Amplification of Surface <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Trends and <span class="hlt">Variability</span> in the Tropical Atmosphere</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The month-to-month <span class="hlt">variability</span> of tropical <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> is larger in the troposphere than at Earth's surface. This amplification behavior is similar in a range of observations and climate model simulations and is consistent with basic theory. On multidecadal time scales, tropospheric amplification of surface warming is a robust feature of model simulations, but it occurs in only one observational data set.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">B. D. Santer; T. M. L. Wigley; C. Mears; F. J. Wentz; S. A. Klein; D. J. Seidel; K. E. Taylor; P. W. Thorne; M. F. Wehner; P. J. Gleckler; J. S. Boyle; W. D. Collins; K. W. Dixon; C. Doutriaux; M. Free; Q. Fu; J. E. Hansen; G. S. Jones; R. Ruedy; J. R. Lanzante; G. A. Meehl; V. Ramaswamy; G. Russell; G. A. Schmidt</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">191</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=PB96169487"> <span id="translatedtitle">Algorithms for Real <span class="hlt">Variable</span> Nose-Andersen Constant-<span class="hlt">Temperature</span>- Constant-Pressure Molecular Dynamics.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">An iterative velocity-Verlet, a non-iterative velocity-Verlet and a straightforward centered-difference algorithm are developed for the solution of the Nose-Andersen constant-<span class="hlt">temperature</span>-constant pressure molecular dynamics equations in real <span class="hlt">variables</span>. Th...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">J. E. Korpela J. von Boehm R. M. Nieminen</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1995-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">192</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/50547314"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Variable</span> <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Scanning Hall Probe Microscopy (SHPM) Using Quartz Crystal AFM Feedback</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Scanning Hall Probe Microscopy (SHPM) is a quantitative and non-invasive technique for imaging localized surface magnetic field fluctuations such as ferromagnetic domains. In this work, we have eliminated the difficulty in the cantilever-Hall probe integration process, just by gluing a Hall Probe chip to a quartz crystal tuning fork force sensor. The resultant SHPM can operate in <span class="hlt">variable</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> environment,</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">M. Dede; K. Urkmen; A. Oral; I. Fairer; D. A. Ritchie</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">193</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://faculty.nps.edu/pcchu/web_paper/jgr/scs_slu.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Temporal and spatial <span class="hlt">variabilities</span> of the South China Sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> anomaly</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this study we use the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) monthly sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (SST) fields (1982-1994) to investigate the temporal and spatial <span class="hlt">variabilities</span> of the South China Sea (SCS) warm\\/cool anomalies. Three steps of analysis were performed on the data set: ensemble mean (T), composite analysis to obtain the monthly mean anomaly relative to the ensemble mean</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Peter C. Chu; Shihua Lu; Yuchun Chen</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1997-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">194</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/50687116"> <span id="translatedtitle">Nonlinear Predictive Control of processes with <span class="hlt">variable</span> time delay. A <span class="hlt">temperature</span> control case study</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Material or fluid transportation is a commonly encountered phenomenon in industrial applications, generating <span class="hlt">variable</span> time delay that makes the design of feedback control loops more difficult. This paper investigates the applicability of MPC (Model Predictive Control) strategies to this type of processes. The experimental setup consists of a heated tank, of which the outlet <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (measured at a certain distance</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">M. Sbarciog; R. De Keyser; S. Cristea; C. De Prada</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">195</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02689848"> <span id="translatedtitle">Temporal <span class="hlt">variability</span> of remotely sensed suspended sediment and sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> patterns in Mobile Bay, Alabama</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Distribution patterns of suspended sediments and sea surface <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> in, Mobile Bay were derived from algorithms using digital data from the visible, near infrared, and infrared channels of the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) on the NOAA-TIROS-N satellite. Closely spaced AVHRR scenes for January 20, 24, and 29, 1982, were compared with available environmental information taken during the same period. A complex interaction between river discharge, winds, and astronomical tides controlled the distribution patterns of suspended sediments. These same <span class="hlt">variables</span>, coupled with air <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, also governed the distribution patterns of sea surface <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. ?? 1990 Estuarine Research Federation.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Rucker, J. B.; Stumpf, R. P.; Schroeder, W. W.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1990-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">196</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010JGRC..11510005C"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Temperature</span>, salinity, and density <span class="hlt">variability</span> in the central Middle Atlantic Bight</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Four years of sustained glider observations are used to compute the seasonal cycle of hydrographic fields in the central Middle Atlantic Bight (MAB). Results reveal a large phase lag in near bottom <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, with peak values occurring in September at the inner shelf, in October at the mid shelf, and in November at the outer shelf. Unlike the northern MAB, the seasonal cycle explains over 70% of the near-surface salinity <span class="hlt">variability</span>. At the inner shelf and offshore near the bottom, however, most of the variance is due to pulses in river discharge and to shifts in the position of the shelfbreak front. Cross-shelf density gradients inshore of the 60-m isobath are dominated by salinity during winter and spring, with <span class="hlt">temperature</span> contributing significantly from August to October. This is because bottom waters near the coast are warm due to the deepening of the thermocline during fall, but offshore waters are still influenced by the cold pool. The vertical stratification seasonal <span class="hlt">variability</span> is also large. Early in the year, stratification is small and entirely due to salinity. By May, salinity still dominates vertical gradients near the coast, but <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and salinity contribute equally to the density stratification offshore. During summer, stratification is dominated by <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> interannual <span class="hlt">variability</span> was small during the sampling period, but surface salinity was anomalously low by 1.2 psu in summer 2006. The anomaly was due to larger than average discharge from the Hudson River in early summer during a period of strong upwelling favorable winds.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Castelao, Renato; Glenn, Scott; Schofield, Oscar</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">197</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JMS...133...39G"> <span id="translatedtitle">Connecting Atlantic <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> and biological cycling in two earth system models</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Connections between the interdecadal <span class="hlt">variability</span> in North Atlantic <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> and biological cycling have been widely hypothesized. However, it is unclear whether such connections are due to small changes in basin-averaged <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> indicated by the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) Index, or whether both biological cycling and the AMO index are causally linked to changes in the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC). We examine interdecadal <span class="hlt">variability</span> in the annual and month-by-month diatom biomass in two Earth System Models with the same formulations of atmospheric, land, sea ice and ocean biogeochemical dynamics but different formulations of ocean physics and thus different AMOC structures and <span class="hlt">variability</span>. In the isopycnal-layered ESM2G, strong interdecadal changes in surface salinity associated with changes in AMOC produce spatially heterogeneous <span class="hlt">variability</span> in convection, nutrient supply and thus diatom biomass. These changes also produce changes in ice cover, shortwave absorption and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and hence the AMO Index. Off West Greenland, these changes are consistent with observed changes in fisheries and support climate as a causal driver. In the level-coordinate ESM2M, nutrient supply is much higher and interdecadal changes in diatom biomass are much smaller in amplitude and not strongly linked to the AMO index.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Gnanadesikan, Anand; Dunne, John P.; Msadek, Rym</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">198</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3340087"> <span id="translatedtitle">Summer <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> and long-term survival among elderly people with chronic disease</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Time series studies show that hot <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> are associated with increased death rates in the short term. In light of evidence of adaptation to usual <span class="hlt">temperature</span> but higher deaths at unusual <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, a long-term exposure relevant to mortality might be summertime <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span>, which is expected to increase with climate change. We investigated whether the standard deviation (SD) of summer (June–August) <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> was associated with survival in four cohorts of persons over age 65 y with predisposing diseases in 135 US cities. Using Medicare data (1985–2006), we constructed cohorts of persons hospitalized with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, diabetes, congestive heart failure, and myocardial infarction. City-specific yearly summer <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variance was linked to the individuals during follow-up in each city and was treated as a time-varying exposure. We applied a Cox proportional hazard model for each cohort within each city, adjusting for individual risk factors, wintertime <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variance, yearly ozone levels, and long-term trends, to estimate the chronic effects on mortality of long-term exposure to summer <span class="hlt">temperature</span> SD, and then pooled results across cities. Mortality hazard ratios ranged from 1.028 (95% confidence interval, 1.013– 1.042) per 1 °C increase in summer <span class="hlt">temperature</span> SD for persons with congestive heart failure to 1.040 (95% confidence interval, 1.022–1.059) per 1 °C increase for those with diabetes. Associations were higher in elderly persons and lower in cities with a higher percentage of land with green surface. Our data suggest that long-term increases in <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> may increase the risk of mortality in different subgroups of susceptible older populations.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Zanobetti, Antonella; O'Neill, Marie S.; Gronlund, Carina J.; Schwartz, Joel D.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">199</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17832386"> <span id="translatedtitle">Interannual and interdecadal <span class="hlt">variability</span> in 335 years of central England <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Understanding the natural <span class="hlt">variability</span> of climate is important for predicting its near-term evolution. Models of the oceans' thermohaline and wind-driven circulation show low-frequency oscillations. Long instrumental records can help validate the oscillatory behavior of these models. Singular spectrum analysis applied to the 335-year-long central England <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (CET) record has identified climate oscillations with interannual (7- to 8-year) and interdecadal (15- and 25-year) periods, probably related to the North Atlantic's wind-driven and thermohaline circulation, respectively. Statistical prediction of oscillatory <span class="hlt">variability</span> shows CETs decreasing toward the end of this decade and rising again into the middle of the next. PMID:17832386</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Plaut, G; Ghil, M; Vautard, R</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1995-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">200</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23791850"> <span id="translatedtitle">The role of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> in stabilizing the mountain pine beetle-fungus mutualism.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">As global climate patterns continue to change and extreme weather events become increasingly common, it is likely that many ecological interactions will be affected. One such interaction is the multipartite symbiosis that exists between the mountain pine beetle and two species of fungi, Grosmannia clavigera and Ophiostoma montium. In this mutualism, the fungi provide nutrition to the beetle, while the fungi benefit by being dispersed to new host trees. Multi-partite mutualisms are predicted to be unstable due to strong direct competition among symbionts or natural selection for superior over inferior mutualists. However, this mutualism has remained stable over long periods of evolutionary time. In this paper, we developed a <span class="hlt">temperature</span>-based model for the spread of fungi within a tree and connected it to an existing model for mountain pine beetle development. Using this integrated model for fungal growth, we explored the possibility that <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> is a stabilizing mechanism for the mountain pine beetle-fungi mutualism. Of the three types of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> we tested: intra-year, inter-year and <span class="hlt">variability</span> due to transitioning between different thermal habitats (thermal migration), we found that thermal migration was the most robust stabilizing mechanism. Additionally, we found that the MPB attack density or spacing between fungal lesions also had a significant effect on the stability of the system. High attack densities or close lesion spacings also tended to stabilize the system, regardless of <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. PMID:23791850</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Addison, A L; Powell, J A; Six, D L; Moore, M; Bentz, B J</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-10-21</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#">4</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#">5</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#">6</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#">7</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#">8</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#">9</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">10</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> </div><!-- page_10 div --> <div id="page_11" class="hiddenDiv"> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#">4</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#">5</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#">6</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#">7</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#">8</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#">9</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#">10</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">201</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23465760"> <span id="translatedtitle">Decreased skin <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of the foot increases gait <span class="hlt">variability</span> in healthy young adults.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We investigated the effects of reduction in plantar skin <span class="hlt">temperature</span> on gait. Thirty-four healthy subjects (20 men and 14 women; mean age 22.2±2.5 years; mean height 166.8±8.3cm) walked 16m under two different conditions - normal conditions (NC) with the skin at a basal <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, and cold conditions (CC) after cooling of the plantar skin to about 15°C. Wireless motion-recording sensor units were placed on the back at the level of L3 and on both heels to measure acceleration and angular velocity. Gait velocity and mean stride, stance and swing times were calculated. The <span class="hlt">variability</span> of lower limb movement was represented by the coefficients of variation (CVs) of stride, stance and swing times, and that of trunk movement was represented by autocorrelation coefficients (ACs) in three directions (vertical: VT; mediolateral: ML; and anteroposterior: AP). Gait velocity was significantly lower under CC conditions than under NC (p<0.0001). None of the temporal parameters were changed by plantar cooling. However, all parameters of gait <span class="hlt">variability</span> were significantly worse under CC, and AC-VT, AC-ML, and AC-AP were significantly lower under CC than under NC, even after adjusting for gait velocity (p=0.0005, 0.0071, and 0.0126, respectively). Our results suggest that reducing plantar skin <span class="hlt">temperature</span> induces gait <span class="hlt">variability</span> among healthy young adults. Further studies are now needed to explore the relationship between plantar skin <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and gait in the elderly. PMID:23465760</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sawa, Ryuichi; Doi, Takehiko; Misu, Shogo; Tsutsumimoto, Kota; Fujino, Hidemi; Ono, Rei</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">202</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007JGRC..112.1013W"> <span id="translatedtitle">Modes of mesoscale sea surface height and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> in the East Australian Current</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Mesoscale <span class="hlt">variability</span> where the East Australian Current (EAC) separates from the coast is studied using sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and surface velocity streamfunction observed by satellite and a regional numerical model. The mean circulation simulated by the model (the Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS)) is compared to a high-resolution regional climatology, and the realism of the simulated mesoscale <span class="hlt">variability</span> is tested by comparison to statistical analyses of the satellite data. Both ROMS and data show spectral peaks in the mesoscale energy band at periods between 90 and 180 days. Complex Empirical Orthogonal Function (EOF) analysis identifies two significant modes of mesoscale <span class="hlt">variability</span> in the data; an Eddy Mode, for which the <span class="hlt">variability</span> propagates southwestward along the coast, and a Wave Mode, for which phase propagation is predominantly onshore. The regional model open boundary conditions include only annual and semiannual harmonics of <span class="hlt">variability</span> so remote mesoscale forcing is absent. The Eddy Mode is represented well in the model indicating this aspect of the circulation results from local instabilities of the flow and that its underlying dynamical process is simulated well. While the observed and modeled Wave Modes have some similarities, their differences suggest the model is deficient in representing westward propagation of mesoscale period <span class="hlt">variability</span> in the region. Whatever the source of this energy, the orthogonality property of the EOF analysis indicates the Wave Mode does not interact significantly with eddy processes in the EAC separation.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wilkin, John L.; Zhang, Weifeng G.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">203</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.H53E1576H"> <span id="translatedtitle">Stream <span class="hlt">temperature</span> response to <span class="hlt">variable</span> glacier coverage in coastal watersheds of northern southeast Alaska</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Glaciers in southeast Alaska are experiencing high rates of ice thinning and retreat. These ongoing changes in glacier volume are altering the proportion of streamflow derived from glacial runoff, which can be an important control on the thermal regime of streams in the region. We measured stream <span class="hlt">temperature</span> continuously during the 2011 summer runoff season (May through October) in nine watersheds of southeast Alaska that provide spawning habitat for Pacific salmon. Six of the nine watersheds have glacier coverage ranging from 2 to 63%. Our goal was to determine how air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and watershed land cover, particularly glacier coverage, influence stream <span class="hlt">temperature</span> across the seasonal hydrograph. Multiple linear regression identified mean watershed elevation, which is tied to glacier extent, and watershed lake coverage (%) as the strongest landscape controls on mean monthly stream <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, with the weakest (May) and strongest (July) models explaining 86% and 97% of the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span>, respectively. Mean weekly stream <span class="hlt">temperature</span> was significantly related to mean weekly air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in seven of the nine streams; however, the relationships were weak to non-significant in the streams dominated by glacial runoff. Peak summer stream <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> occurred much earlier in the glacial streams (typically around late May) and glaciers also had a cooling effect on monthly mean stream <span class="hlt">temperature</span> during the summer (July through September) equivalent to a decrease of 1.1°C for each 10% increase in glacier coverage. Streams with >30% glacier coverage demonstrated decreasing stream <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> with rising summer air <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, while those with <30% glacier coverage exhibited summertime warming. The maximum weekly average <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (MWAT, an index of thermal suitability for salmon species) in the six glacial streams was substantially below the lower threshold for optimum salmonid growth. This finding suggests that, while glaciers are important for moderating summer stream <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, future reductions in glacier runoff may actually improve the thermal suitability of some streams in northern southeast Alaska for salmon.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hood, E. W.; Fellman, J. B.; Nagorski, S. A.; Vermilyea, A.; Pyare, S.; Scott, D.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">204</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1612016G"> <span id="translatedtitle">Effects of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and moisture <span class="hlt">variability</span> on soil CO2 emissions in European land ecosystems</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Soil respiration is one of the largest terrestrial fluxes of carbon dioxide (CO2) to the atmosphere. Hence, small changes in soil respiration rates could have large effects on atmospheric CO2. In order to assess CO2 emissions from diverse European soils under different land use and climate (soil moisture and <span class="hlt">temperature</span>) we conducted a laboratory incubation experiment. Therefore, we incubated soil cores (Ø 7 cm; height 7 cm) from nine European sites which are spread all over Europe; from the United Kingdom (west) to the Ukraine (east) and Italy (south) to Finland (north). In addition these sites can be clearly distinguished between their land use into forests, arable lands, grasslands and one peat land. Soil cores were incubated in a two-factorial experimental design at 5 different <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> (5, 10, 15, 20, and 25° C) and 6 different moisture contents (5, 20, 40, 60, 80, and 100 % water filled pore space (WFPS)). An automated laboratory incubation measurement system was used to measure CO2 emissions. Results show that highest CO2 emissions occurred with intermediate moisture content (40% to 60%) over all sites. We found that the relationship between CO2 emissions and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> could be well described by the equation PIC (R2 ranges from 0.98 to 1) over all sites. In general CO2 emissions were strongly related with both <span class="hlt">variables</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and moisture. However, <span class="hlt">temperature</span> sensitivity of soil respiration was strongly declined under very dry and very wet conditions (5 and >80 % WFPS moisture content). Moisture sensitivity of CO2 emissions was positive related to <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, although at low <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> (5-10° C) moisture content had almost no effect on CO2 emissions. In summary our results indicate that the <span class="hlt">variability</span> in soil <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and moisture decisively controls soil CO2 emissions, while land use had only a minor impact and describe the effect and dependencies of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and moisture on the development of CO2 emissions.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Gritsch, Christine; Zechmeister-Boltenstern, Sophie</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">205</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JGRD..118.7835L"> <span id="translatedtitle">Impact of the dominant large-scale teleconnections on winter <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> over East Asia</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Monthly mean geopotential height for the past 33 DJF seasons archived in Modern Era Retrospective analysis for Research and Applications reanalysis is decomposed into the large-scale teleconnection patterns to explain their impacts on winter <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> over East Asia. Following Arctic Oscillation (AO) that explains the largest variance, East Atlantic/West Russia (EA/WR), West Pacific (WP) and El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) are identified as the first four leading modes that significantly explain East Asian winter <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variation. While the northern part of East Asia north of 50°N is prevailed by AO and EA/WR impacts, <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in the midlatitudes (30°N-50°N), which include Mongolia, northeastern China, Shandong area, Korea, and Japan, is influenced by combined effect of the four leading teleconnections. ENSO impact on average over 33 winters is relatively weaker than the impact of the other three teleconnections. WP impact, which has received less attention than ENSO in earlier studies, characterizes winter <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> over Korea, Japan, and central to southern China region south of 30°N mainly by advective process from the Pacific. Upper level wave activity fluxes reveal that, for the AO case, the height and circulation anomalies affecting midlatitude East Asian winter <span class="hlt">temperature</span> is mainly located at higher latitudes north of East Asia. Distribution of the fluxes also explains that the stationary wave train associated with EA/WR propagates southeastward from the western Russia, affecting the East Asian winter <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. Investigation on the impact of each teleconnection for the selected years reveals that the most dominant teleconnection over East Asia is not the same at all years, indicating a great deal of interannual <span class="hlt">variability</span>. Comparison in <span class="hlt">temperature</span> anomaly distributions between observation and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> anomaly constructed using the combined effect of four leading teleconnections clearly show a reasonable consistency between them, demonstrating that the seasonal winter <span class="hlt">temperature</span> distributions over East Asia are substantially explained by these four large-scale circulation impacts.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lim, Young-Kwon; Kim, Hae-Dong</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">206</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20140005687&hterms=Hae&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3DHae"> <span id="translatedtitle">Impact of the Dominant Large-scale Teleconnections on Winter <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> <span class="hlt">Variability</span> over East Asia</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Monthly mean geopotential height for the past 33 DJF seasons archived in Modern Era Retrospective analysis for Research and Applications reanalysis is decomposed into the large-scale teleconnection patterns to explain their impacts on winter <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> over East Asia. Following Arctic Oscillation (AO) that explains the largest variance, East Atlantic/West Russia (EA/WR), West Pacific (WP) and El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) are identified as the first four leading modes that significantly explain East Asian winter <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variation. While the northern part of East Asia north of 50N is prevailed by AO and EA/WR impacts, <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in the midlatitudes (30N-50N), which include Mongolia, northeastern China, Shandong area, Korea, and Japan, is influenced by combined effect of the four leading teleconnections. ENSO impact on average over 33 winters is relatively weaker than the impact of the other three teleconnections. WP impact, which has received less attention than ENSO in earlier studies, characterizes winter <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> over Korea, Japan, and central to southern China region south of 30N mainly by advective process from the Pacific. Upper level wave activity fluxes reveal that, for the AO case, the height and circulation anomalies affecting midlatitude East Asian winter <span class="hlt">temperature</span> is mainly located at higher latitudes north of East Asia. Distribution of the fluxes also explains that the stationary wave train associated with EA/WR propagates southeastward from the western Russia, affecting the East Asian winter <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. Investigation on the impact of each teleconnection for the selected years reveals that the most dominant teleconnection over East Asia is not the same at all years, indicating a great deal of interannual <span class="hlt">variability</span>. Comparison in <span class="hlt">temperature</span> anomaly distributions between observation and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> anomaly constructed using the combined effect of four leading teleconnections clearly show a reasonable consistency between them, demonstrating that the seasonal winter <span class="hlt">temperature</span> distributions over East Asia are substantially explained by these four large-scale circulation impacts.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lim, Young-Kwon; Kim, Hae-Dong</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">207</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010RScI...81d5112N"> <span id="translatedtitle">On the design and implementation of a novel impedance chamber based <span class="hlt">variable</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> regulator at liquid helium <span class="hlt">temperatures</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A novel <span class="hlt">variable</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> regulator (VTR) based on the use of a fine impedance capillary to control the flow rate of cold helium gas into the VTR chamber is described. The capillary has a diameter of just 200 ?m and the flow rate of cold helium gas through the capillary can be effectively controlled to the desired value by heating the capillary to a preset <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and by controlling the pressure in the VTR chamber to a preset pressure using automated control circuits. Excellent <span class="hlt">temperature</span> stability (about +/-1 mK at 10 K and +/-2 mK at 100 K) has been demonstrated in this setup with uniform rates of heating or cooling by an optimal choice of parameters. Compared to the more conventional VTR designs based on the use of mechanical long stem valves in the liquid helium reservoir to control the flow rate of liquid helium into the VTR chamber, and the use of a needle valve at the top of the cryostat to control the exchange gas pressure in the thermal isolation chamber, the present design enables <span class="hlt">temperature</span> stability at any user desired <span class="hlt">temperature</span> to be attained with uniform rates of cooling/heating with minimum consumption of liquid helium. The VTR has been successfully incorporated in the high field superconducting quantum interference device magnetometer setup developed in-house. It can also be incorporated in any low <span class="hlt">temperature</span> physical property measurement system in which the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> has to be varied in a controlled manner from 4.2 to 300 K and vice versa with uniform rates of heating and cooling.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Nagendran, R.; Thirumurugan, N.; Chinnasamy, N.; Janawadkar, M. P.; Sundar, C. S.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">208</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20441373"> <span id="translatedtitle">On the design and implementation of a novel impedance chamber based <span class="hlt">variable</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> regulator at liquid helium <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A novel <span class="hlt">variable</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> regulator (VTR) based on the use of a fine impedance capillary to control the flow rate of cold helium gas into the VTR chamber is described. The capillary has a diameter of just 200 microm and the flow rate of cold helium gas through the capillary can be effectively controlled to the desired value by heating the capillary to a preset <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and by controlling the pressure in the VTR chamber to a preset pressure using automated control circuits. Excellent <span class="hlt">temperature</span> stability (about +/-1 mK at 10 K and +/-2 mK at 100 K) has been demonstrated in this setup with uniform rates of heating or cooling by an optimal choice of parameters. Compared to the more conventional VTR designs based on the use of mechanical long stem valves in the liquid helium reservoir to control the flow rate of liquid helium into the VTR chamber, and the use of a needle valve at the top of the cryostat to control the exchange gas pressure in the thermal isolation chamber, the present design enables <span class="hlt">temperature</span> stability at any user desired <span class="hlt">temperature</span> to be attained with uniform rates of cooling/heating with minimum consumption of liquid helium. The VTR has been successfully incorporated in the high field superconducting quantum interference device magnetometer setup developed in-house. It can also be incorporated in any low <span class="hlt">temperature</span> physical property measurement system in which the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> has to be varied in a controlled manner from 4.2 to 300 K and vice versa with uniform rates of heating and cooling. PMID:20441373</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Nagendran, R; Thirumurugan, N; Chinnasamy, N; Janawadkar, M P; Sundar, C S</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">209</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70044570"> <span id="translatedtitle">Streams in the urban heat island: spatial and temporal <span class="hlt">variability</span> in <span class="hlt">temperature</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Streams draining urban heat islands tend to be hotter than rural and forested streams at baseflow because of warmer urban air and ground <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, paved surfaces, and decreased riparian canopy. Urban infrastructure efficiently routes runoff over hot impervious surfaces and through storm drains directly into streams and can lead to rapid, dramatic increases in <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. Thermal regimes affect habitat quality and biogeochemical processes, and changes can be lethal if <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> exceed upper tolerance limits of aquatic fauna. In summer 2009, we collected continuous (10-min interval) <span class="hlt">temperature</span> data in 60 streams spanning a range of development intensity in the Piedmont of North Carolina, USA. The 5 most urbanized streams averaged 21.1°C at baseflow, compared to 19.5°C in the 5 most forested streams. <span class="hlt">Temperatures</span> in urban streams rose as much as 4°C during a small regional storm, whereas the same storm led to extremely small to no changes in <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in forested streams. Over a kilometer of stream length, baseflow <span class="hlt">temperature</span> varied by as much as 10°C in an urban stream and as little as 2°C in a forested stream. We used structural equation modeling to explore how reach- and catchment-scale attributes interact to explain maximum <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> and magnitudes of storm-flow <span class="hlt">temperature</span> surges. The best predictive model of baseflow <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> (R2 ?=? 0.461) included moderately strong pathways directly (extent of development and road density) and indirectly, as mediated by reach-scale factors (canopy closure and stream width), from catchment-scale factors. The strongest influence on storm-flow <span class="hlt">temperature</span> surges appeared to be % development in the catchment. Reach-scale factors, such as the extent of riparian forest and stream width, had little mitigating influence (R2 ?=? 0.448). Stream <span class="hlt">temperature</span> is an essential, but overlooked, aspect of the urban stream syndrome and is affected by reach-scale habitat <span class="hlt">variables</span>, catchment-scale urbanization, and stream thermal regimes.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Somers, Kayleigh A.; Bernhardt, Emily S.; Grace, James B.; Hassett, Brooke A.; Sudduth, Elizabeth B.; Wang, Siyi; Urban, Dean L.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">210</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6485590"> <span id="translatedtitle">Energy conservation evaluation of two <span class="hlt">variable</span> interval time/<span class="hlt">temperature</span> heat pump defrost control strategies</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The <span class="hlt">variable</span> interval time/<span class="hlt">temperature</span> (VITT) defrost control systems monitor outside air dry-bulb <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and use the measured data to alter the interval between defrost. However, for any outdoor <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, the VITT systems, defrost at constant intervals of time. Analyses of the VITT-A A and VITT-B strategies have been performed for the Department of Energy to assess the energy-saving potential of VITT defrost control sytems as compared to demand and fixed-interval time/<span class="hlt">temperature</span> (FITT) defrost control systems. VITT defrost control strategies result in seasonal performance that is more energy efficient that that of FITT strategies and less energy efficient than that of demand defrost controls. 7 refs.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Rettberg, R.J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1981-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">211</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012ThApC.107...87C"> <span id="translatedtitle">Identification of mid-latitudinal regional and urban <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variabilities</span> based on regional reanalysis data</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The objective of the study is to detect geographical and temporal variations of near surface air <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> over Minnesota and Wisconsin, USA derived from the North American Regional Reanalysis (NARR) dataset. In addition, the study serves to assess the usefulness of NARR <span class="hlt">temperature</span> data to analyze regional and local <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variations. Particular emphasis was placed on the analyses on the <span class="hlt">temperature</span>-modifying effects of the Great Lakes and large urban environments. We analyzed annual mean, daily maximum and minimum, and January minimum and July maximum <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> for the period 1979-2006 by using methods such as ordinary kriging, principal component analysis, and the Mann-Kendall test. On a regional scale, we found significant effects of the latitude and the Great Lakes on the spatial <span class="hlt">variability</span> of the data. Furthermore, we found clearly identifiable effects of large urban areas in the study region (Minneapolis—Saint Paul and Milwaukee), which are more evident in the principal component scores than in the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> data themselves. While we failed to detect significant July maximum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> trends, we detected significantly increasing trends in January minimum and mean annual <span class="hlt">temperature</span> datasets in the eastern part of the region. Overall, the present study has demonstrated the potential of using NARR data for urban climate research.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Choi, Woonsup; Keuser, Anke; Becker, Stefan</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">212</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007GeoRL..34.8203H"> <span id="translatedtitle">Suggestive correlations between the brightness of Neptune, solar <span class="hlt">variability</span>, and Earth's <span class="hlt">temperature</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Long-term photometric measurements of Neptune show variations of brightness over half a century. Seasonal change in Neptune's atmosphere may partially explain a general rise in the long-term light curve, but cannot explain its detailed variations. This leads us to consider the possibility of solar-driven changes, i.e., changes incurred by innate solar <span class="hlt">variability</span> perhaps coupled with changing seasonal insolation. Although correlations between Neptune's brightness and Earth's <span class="hlt">temperature</span> anomaly-and between Neptune and two models of solar <span class="hlt">variability</span>-are visually compelling, at this time they are not statistically significant due to the limited degrees of freedom of the various time series. Nevertheless, the striking similarity of the temporal patterns of variation should not be ignored simply because of low formal statistical significance. If changing brightnesses and <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> of two different planets are correlated, then some planetary climate changes may be due to variations in the solar system environment.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hammel, H. B.; Lockwood, G. W.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">213</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19810039233&hterms=Water+conservation&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3D%2522Water%2Bconservation%2522"> <span id="translatedtitle">Spatial <span class="hlt">variability</span> of surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> as related to cropping practice with implications for irrigation management</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Crop stress measured using thermal infrared emission is evaluated with the stress-degree-day (SDD) concept. Throughout the season, the accumulation of SDD during the reproductive stage of growth is inversely related to yield. This relationship is shown for durum wheat, hard red winter wheat, barley, grain sorghum and soybeans. It is noted that SDD can be used to schedule irrigations for maximizing yields and for applying remotely sensed data to management of water resources. An airborne flight with a thermal-IR scanner was used to examine the <span class="hlt">variability</span> in <span class="hlt">temperature</span> that may exist from one field to another and to determine realistic within-field <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variations. It was found that the airborne and the ground-based data agreed very well and that there was less <span class="hlt">variability</span> in the fields that were completely covered with crops than those of bare soil.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hatfield, J. L.; Millard, J. P.; Reginato, R. J.; Jackson, R. D.; Idso, S. B.; Pinter, P. J., Jr.; Goettelman, R. C.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1980-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">214</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6330964"> <span id="translatedtitle">A <span class="hlt">variable</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> cryostat that produces in situ clean-up of germanium detector surfaces</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Variable</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> cryostats that can maintain germanium detectors at <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> from 82 K to about 400 K while the thermal shield surrounding the detectors remains much colder when the detectors are warmed have been developed. Cryostats such as these offer the possibility of cryopumping material from the surface of detectors to the colder thermal shield. The diode characteristics of several detectors have shown very significant improvement following thermal cycles up to about 150 K in these cryostats. Important applications for cryostats having this attribute are many.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Pehl, R.H.; Madden, N.W.; Malone, D.F.; Cork, C.P.; Landis, D.A.; Xing, J.S.; Friesel, D.L.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1989-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">215</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2898143"> <span id="translatedtitle">Conformational Analysis of (+)-Germacrene A by <span class="hlt">Variable</span> <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> NMR and NOE Spectroscopy</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">(+)-Germacrene A, an important intermediate in sesquiterpene biosynthesis, was isolated in pure form from a genetically engineered yeast and was characterized by chromatographic properties (TLC, GC), MS, optical rotation, UV, IR, 1H NMR and 13C NMR data. <span class="hlt">Variable-temperature</span> 500 MHz 1H NMR spectra in CDCl3 showed that this flexible cyclodecadiene ring exists as three NMR-distinguishable conformational isomers in a ratio of about 5:3:2 at or below ordinary probe <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (25° C). The conformer structures were assigned by 1H NMR data comparisons, NOE experiments, and vicinal couplings as follows: 1a (52%, UU), 1b (29% UD), and 1c (19%, DU).</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Faraldos, Juan A.; Wu, Shuiqin; Chappell, Joe</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">216</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70014266"> <span id="translatedtitle">The use of <span class="hlt">variable</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and magic-angle sample spinning in studies of fulvic acids</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Intensity distortions and poor signal to noise in the cross-polarization magic-angle sample spinning NMR of fulvic acids were investigated and attributed to molecular mobility in these ostensibly "solid" materials. We have shown that inefficiencies in cross polarization can be overcome by lowering the sample <span class="hlt">temperature</span> to about -60??C. These difficulties can be generalized to many other synthetic and natural products. The use of <span class="hlt">variable</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and cross-polarization intensity as a function of contact time can yield valuable qualitative information which can aid in the characterization of many materials. ?? 1987.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Earl, W. L.; Wershaw, R. L.; Thorn, K. A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1987-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">217</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003EAEJA.....2739S"> <span id="translatedtitle">Wintertime Arctic <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> in the 20th century: dominant modes</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">It is shown that the Arctic averaged wintertime <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> during the 20th century can be essentially described by two orthogonal modes. These modes were identified by an EOF decomposition of the 1892-1999 surface wintertime air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> anomalies (40°N-80°N) using a gridded dataset covering high Arctic. The first mode (also the first leading EOF) is related to the NAO and has a major contribution to Arctic warming during the last 30 years. The second one (the third leading EOF) dominates the SAT <span class="hlt">variability</span> prior to 1970 including the early century warming anomaly. A correlation between the corresponding principal component timeseries PC3 and the averaged SAT anomalies north of 60°N is 0.79. This mode has the largest amplitudes in the Kara-Barents Seas and Baffin Bay and exhibits no direct link to the large-scale atmospheric circulation teleconnection patterns, in contrast to the other leading EOFs. We suggest that the existence of this mode is caused by long-term sea ice <span class="hlt">variability</span> in the Kara-Barents Seas and Baffin Bay presumably due to the Atlantic inflow <span class="hlt">variability</span>.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Semenov, V. A.; Bengtsson, L.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">218</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/42016641"> <span id="translatedtitle">Modality of semiannual to multidecadal oscillations in global sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Repeating the history of study on El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) in the 1980s, interdecadal oscillation (IDO) in climate <span class="hlt">variability</span> is currently an area of active research and debate, following the recognition of its emerging significance in nature and science. In this work, a two-dimensional propagating modal extraction technique is applied to a reconstructed global monthly sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (SST) data</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ge Chen; Baomin Shao; Yong Han; Jun Ma; Bertrand Chapron</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">219</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21307939"> <span id="translatedtitle">Holocene Southern Ocean surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> west of the Antarctic Peninsula.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The disintegration of ice shelves, reduced sea-ice and glacier extent, and shifting ecological zones observed around Antarctica highlight the impact of recent atmospheric and oceanic warming on the cryosphere. Observations and models suggest that oceanic and atmospheric <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variations at Antarctica's margins affect global cryosphere stability, ocean circulation, sea levels and carbon cycling. In particular, recent climate changes on the Antarctic Peninsula have been dramatic, yet the Holocene climate <span class="hlt">variability</span> of this region is largely unknown, limiting our ability to evaluate ongoing changes within the context of historical <span class="hlt">variability</span> and underlying forcing mechanisms. Here we show that surface ocean <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> at the continental margin of the western Antarctic Peninsula cooled by 3-4 °C over the past 12,000 years, tracking the Holocene decline of local (65° S) spring insolation. Our results, based on TEX(86) sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (SST) proxy evidence from a marine sediment core, indicate the importance of regional summer duration as a driver of Antarctic seasonal sea-ice fluctuations. On millennial timescales, abrupt SST fluctuations of 2-4 °C coincide with globally recognized climate <span class="hlt">variability</span>. Similarities between our SSTs, Southern Hemisphere westerly wind reconstructions and El Niño/Southern Oscillation <span class="hlt">variability</span> indicate that present climate teleconnections between the tropical Pacific Ocean and the western Antarctic Peninsula strengthened late in the Holocene epoch. We conclude that during the Holocene, Southern Ocean <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> at the western Antarctic Peninsula margin were tied to changes in the position of the westerlies, which have a critical role in global carbon cycling. PMID:21307939</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Shevenell, A E; Ingalls, A E; Domack, E W; Kelly, C</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-02-10</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">220</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.agu.org/journals/jc/v102/iC01/96JC03296/96JC03296.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Tropical Atlantic sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> and its relation to El Niño-Southern Oscillation</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Past analyses of tropical Atlantic sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> have suggested a dipole behavior between the northern and southern tropics, across the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ). By analyzing an improved 43-year (1950-1992) record of SST (Smith et al., 1996) and other data derived from the Comprehensive Ocean-Atmosphere Data Set (COADS), it is shown that the regions north and south of</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">David B. Enfield; Dennis A. Mayer</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1997-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#">4</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#">5</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#">6</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#">7</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#">8</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#">9</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#">10</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> </div><!-- page_11 div --> <div id="page_12" class="hiddenDiv"> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#">4</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#">5</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#">6</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#">7</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#">8</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#">9</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#">10</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#">11</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">221</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/48934193"> <span id="translatedtitle">Scales of temporal and spatial <span class="hlt">variability</span> of midlatitude land surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Scales of temporal and spatial <span class="hlt">variability</span> of clear-sky land surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (LST) in middle latitudes are empirically evaluated using data from satellite and land surface observations. We consider separately the time-dependent expected value, its spatial variations, weather-related temporal and spatial anomalies, and errors of LST observation. Seasonal and diurnal cycles in the time-dependent expected value of LST are found to</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Konstantin Y. Vinnikov; Yunyue Yu; Mitchell D. Goldberg; Ming Chen; Dan Tarpley</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">222</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005AGUFMOS44A..05H"> <span id="translatedtitle">Indian Ocean sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> and change since 1960s: forcing and process</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Indian Ocean sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (SST) <span class="hlt">variability</span> and change since 1960s are investigated using global coupled models,the Community Climate System Model version 3 (CCSM3) and parallel climate model (PCM). Results from the CCSM3 and a series of PCM experiments are analyzed in order to understand the roles played by internal <span class="hlt">variability</span>, human-induced warming, and external forcing in causing the SST variations. To consolidate the model results, the simple Ocean model Data Assimilation (SODA) products are also analyzed. The results suggest that the SST in both the south and north Indian Ocean (IO) has an increasing trend. Overlying on this trend is decadal <span class="hlt">variability</span>. Consistent with previous studies, the warming trend results mainly from the human-induced increased green house gases, which increase downward longwave fluxes. Interestingly, warming of the upper tropical and subtropical basins is accomanied by cooling in higher-latitudes in the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC) region, which results from the reduced southward heat transports by weakened the subtropical cells (STCs). This colder, ACC water can enter the IO via deep layers in the south and then shoals upward to the thermocline layer in the tropical Indian Ocean, causing a distinct vertical structrure: with warming in the near surface and below the thermocline and cooling in the thermocline. The SST decadal <span class="hlt">variability</span>, however, is caused primarily by external forcing, due to a combined effect of surface heat flux and lateral heat transport. Internal <span class="hlt">variability</span> of the coupled system also plays a role.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Han, W.; Meehl, G. A.; Hu, A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">223</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFMPP24A..08D"> <span id="translatedtitle">Decadal <span class="hlt">variability</span> in Gulf of Mexico sea surface <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> since 1734 CE</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Gulf of Mexico is a major source of moisture to North America and is a source region for the Gulf Stream, which transports ocean heat northward. Sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (SST) variations on centennial to millennial time scales have been documented for this region using paleoceanographic proxies; however, records capable of resolving decadal to subannual <span class="hlt">variability</span> are lacking. Here we present 274 years of monthly-resolved SST variations derived from records of strontium-to-calcium ratios (Sr/Ca) extracted from four Siderastrea siderea cores recovered from coral colonies within the Dry Tortugas National Park (24°42?N, 82°48?W) in the Gulf of Mexico. We find no significant difference in mean Sr/Ca among these cores and significant correlation between cores (r ? 0.90, p ? 0.05 for monthly). The cross-dated chronology, determined by counting annual bands and correlating Sr/Ca variations, agrees with four 230Th dates within ±2? analytical precision. Calibration and verification of our multi-core coral Sr/Ca record with local <span class="hlt">temperature</span> records reveals high agreement (Sr/Ca = -0.042 SST + 10.074, R2 = 0.96; ?regression = 0.70°C, 1?), similar to those reported for single cores from this location. We find winter SSTs tend to be more <span class="hlt">variable</span> than summer SSTs (0.99 and 0.81°C, 1?; respectively) with periodic intervals of 10 to 15 years with cooler summer <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. The average reconstructed SST during the Little Ice Age (LIA; 1734-1880 CE) is colder (-0.82°C) than that during the late twentieth century (1971-2000 CE). The amplitude of decadal-scale <span class="hlt">variability</span> (1 to 2.5°C) in the LIA is larger compared to similar scale <span class="hlt">variability</span> in the twentieth century. The secular trend and decadal-scale <span class="hlt">variability</span> in our reconstruction is broadly similar to an ~ decadally-resolved (~12 years/sample) Mg/Ca record from planktic foraminifer in the northern Gulf of Mexico (Richey et al., 2007), thus further confirming the reconstructed patterns of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> in the Gulf of Mexico during the LIA.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">DeLong, K. L.; Maupin, C. R.; Flannery, J. A.; Quinn, T. M.; lin, K.; Shen, C.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">224</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013ThApC.tmp..244A"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Variability</span> of maximum and mean average <span class="hlt">temperature</span> across Libya (1945-2009)</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Spatial and temporal <span class="hlt">variability</span> in daily maximum and mean average daily <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, monthly maximum and mean average monthly <span class="hlt">temperature</span> for nine coastal stations during the period 1956-2009 (54 years), and annual maximum and mean average <span class="hlt">temperature</span> for coastal and inland stations for the period 1945-2009 (65 years) across Libya are analysed. During the period 1945-2009, significant increases in maximum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (0.017 °C/year) and mean average <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (0.021 °C/year) are identified at most stations. Significantly, warming in annual maximum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (0.038 °C/year) and mean average annual <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> (0.049 °C/year) are observed at almost all study stations during the last 32 years (1978-2009). The results show that Libya has witnessed a significant warming since the middle of the twentieth century, which will have a considerable impact on societies and the ecology of the North Africa region, if increases continue at current rates.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ageena, I.; Macdonald, N.; Morse, A. P.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">225</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013PhDT.......111F"> <span id="translatedtitle">An analysis of surface air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> trends and <span class="hlt">variability</span> along the Andes</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Climate change is difficult to study in mountainous regions such as the Andes since steep changes in elevation cannot always be resolved by climate models. However, it is important to examine <span class="hlt">temperature</span> trends in this region as rises in surface air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> are leading to the melting of tropical glaciers. Local communities rely on the glacier-fed streamflow to get their water for drinking, irrigation, and livestock. Moreover, communities also rely on the tourism of hikers who come to the region to view the glaciers. As the <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> increase, these glaciers are no longer in equilibrium with their current climate and are receding rapidly and decreasing the streamflow. This thesis examines surface air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> from 858 weather stations across Ecuador, Peru, and Chile in order to analyze changes in trends and <span class="hlt">variability</span>. Three time periods were studied: 1961--1990, 1971--2000, and 1981--2010. The greatest warming occurred during the period of 1971--2000 with 92% of the stations experiencing positive trends with a mean of 0.24°C/decade. There was a clear shift toward cooler <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> at all latitudes and below elevations of 500 m during the most recent time period studied (1981--2010). Station <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> were more strongly correlated with the El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO), than the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO), and the Southern Annular Mode (SAM). A principal component analysis confirmed ENSO as the main contributor of <span class="hlt">variability</span> with the most influence in the lower latitudes. There were clear multidecadal changes in correlation strength for the PDO. The PDO contributed the most to the increases in station <span class="hlt">temperature</span> trends during the 1961--1990 period, consistent with the PDO shift to the positive phase in the middle of this period. There were many strong positive trends at individual stations during the 1971--2000 period; however, these trends could not fully be attributed to ENSO, PDO, or SAM, indicating anthropogenic effects of greenhouse gas emissions as the most likely cause.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Franquist, Eric S.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">226</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010APS..4CF.E1042P"> <span id="translatedtitle">The First Ten Months of Investigation of Gravity Waves and <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> <span class="hlt">Variability</span> Over the Andes</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Andes region is an excellent natural laboratory for investigating gravity wave influences on the Upper Mesospheric and Lower Thermospheric (MLT) dynamics. The instrument suite that comprised the very successful Maui-MALT program was recently re-located to a new Andes Lidar Observatory (ALO) located at Cerro Pachon, Chile to obtain in-depth seasonal measurements of MLT dynamics over the Andes mountains. As part of the instrument set the Utah State University CEDAR Mesospheric <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Mapper (MTM) has operated continuously since August 2009 measuring the near infrared OH(6,2) band and the O2(0,1) Atmospheric band intensity and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> perturbations. This poster focuses on an analysis of nightly OH <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> and the observed <span class="hlt">variability</span>, as well as selected gravity wave events illustrating the high wave activity and its diversity.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Pugmire, Jonathan; Criddle, Neal; Taylor, Michael; Pautet, Dominique; Zhao, Yucheng</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">227</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19780069516&hterms=Natural+Gas&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3DNatural%2BGas"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Variable-temperature</span> cryogenic trap for the separation of gas mixtures</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The paper describes a continuous <span class="hlt">variable-temperature</span> U-shaped cold trap which can both purify vacuum-line combustion products for subsequent stable isotopic analysis and isolate the methane and ethane constituents of natural gases. The canister containing the trap is submerged in liquid nitrogen, and, as the gas cools, the gas mixture components condense sequentially according to their relative vapor pressures. After the about 12 min required for the bottom of the trap to reach the liquid-nitrogen <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, passage of electric current through the resistance wire wrapped around the tubing covering the U-trap permits distillation of successive gas components at optimal <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. Data on the separation achieved for two mixtures, the first being typical vacuum-line combustion products of geochemical samples such as rocks and the second being natural gas, are presented, and the thermal behavior and power consumption are reported.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Des Marais, D. J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1978-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">228</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20953446"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Variable-temperature</span> independently driven four-tip scanning tunneling microscope</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The authors have developed an ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) <span class="hlt">variable-temperature</span> four-tip scanning tunneling microscope (STM), operating from room <span class="hlt">temperature</span> down to 7 K, combined with a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Four STM tips are mechanically and electrically independent and capable of positioning in arbitrary configurations in nanometer precision. An integrated controller system for both of the multitip STM and SEM with a single computer has also been developed, which enables the four tips to operate either for STM imaging independently and for four-point probe (4PP) conductivity measurements cooperatively. Atomic-resolution STM images of graphite were obtained simultaneously by the four tips. Conductivity measurements by 4PP method were also performed at various <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> with the four tips in square arrangement with direct contact to the sample surface.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hobara, Rei; Nagamura, Naoka; Hasegawa, Shuji; Matsuda, Iwao; Yamamoto, Yuko; Miyatake, Yutaka; Nagamura, Toshihiko [Department of Physics, School of Science, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory, Institute for Solid State Physics, University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwa-no-ha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8581 (Japan); UNISOKU Co., Ltd., 2-4-3, Kasugano, Hirakata, Osaka 573-0131 (Japan)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-05-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">229</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014GeoRL..41.2086H"> <span id="translatedtitle">Estimating climate sensitivity and future <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in the presence of natural climate <span class="hlt">variability</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">use an initial condition ensemble of an Earth System Model as multiple realizations of the climate system to evaluate estimates of climate sensitivity and future <span class="hlt">temperature</span> change derived with a climate model of reduced complexity under "perfect" conditions. In our setup, the mean and most likely estimate of equilibrium climate sensitivity vary by about 0.4-0.8°C (±1?) due to internal <span class="hlt">variability</span>. Estimates of the transient climate response vary much less; however, the effect of the spread and bias in the transient response on future <span class="hlt">temperature</span> projections increases with lead time. Future <span class="hlt">temperature</span> projections are shown to be more robust for central ranges (i.e., likely range) than for single percentiles. The estimates presented here strongly depend on a delicate balance between a particular realization of the climate system, the emerging constraints on the estimates as well as on the signal, and the decreasing uncertainties in ocean heat uptake observations.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Huber, Markus; Beyerle, Urs; Knutti, Reto</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">230</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFMPP21A1780F"> <span id="translatedtitle">Hydrologic and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> at Lake Titicaca over the past 50,000 years</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Bolivian Altiplano has been the focus of many paleoclimate studies due to the important role it plays in the South American climate system. Although the timing of climate shifts in this region is relatively well known, the magnitudes of hydrologic versus <span class="hlt">temperature</span> changes remain poorly quantified. Here we apply hydrogen isotope analysis (?D) of terrestrial leaf waxes and the TEX86 <span class="hlt">temperature</span> proxy in sediments from Lake Titicaca to reconstruct hydrologic and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> over the past 50,000 years. Our record reveals that the Altiplano underwent a major climate shift during the last deglaciation, reflected in a ~70-80% enrichment in leaf wax ?D at the onset of the Holocene. Using the global isotope-<span class="hlt">temperature</span> relationship for meteoric water, only 25-40% of this enrichment can be explained by the 4-5°C deglacial warming shown by the TEX86 proxy, indicating that precipitation was significantly reduced (and evaporation/evapotranspiration increased) during the Holocene. Further, the timing of these hydrologic and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> changes was asynchronous during the transition from a cold and wet glacial state to a warm and dry Holocene. The major hydrologic shift recorded by leaf wax ?D occurred around ~11-12 ka, consistent with Northern Hemisphere deglacial patterns, whereas TEX86 data indicate that rapid warming began much earlier, more typical of a Southern Hemisphere deglacial pattern. Within the late glacial and Holocene mean climate states, however, there is evidence of synchronous hydrologic and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> on millennial timescales. This study demonstrates that climate on the Altiplano was controlled by the interaction of local and remote forcing on a range of timescales.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Fornace, K.; Shanahan, T. M.; Sylva, S.; Ossolinski, J.; Baker, P. A.; Fritz, S. C.; Hughen, K. A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">231</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18943624"> <span id="translatedtitle">Effect of <span class="hlt">Variable</span> <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> on Infection Severity of Podosphaera macularis on Hops.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">ABSTRACT The effect of <span class="hlt">variable</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> on the infection severity of Podosphaera macularis was investigated. Potted 'Symphony' hop plants were inoculated and exposed to different <span class="hlt">temperature</span> regimes that included supraconducive <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> (30 to 42 degrees C) for varying periods of time (2 to 9 h). Infection severity (lesions per cm(2) of leaf area) was calculated 7 to 10 days after inoculation. Immediately exposing inoculated plants to 30 degrees C for as little as 2 h significantly (P </= 0.05) reduced infection severity compared with exposure at a constant 18 degrees C. However, exposure of inoculated plants to optimal conditions for 24 or 48 h prior to exposure to supraconducive conditions reduced this effect for plants exposed to 30, 33, or 36 degrees C. Exposure to 39 or 42 degrees C for 2 or more hours resulted in infection frequencies not significantly different from that of the uninoculated control regardless of prior exposure to favorable conditions. Exposure to simulated field <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> programmed into growth chambers indicated that inoculation at 1700 or 2100 h resulted in significantly more disease than did inoculation at 0900 or 1300 h. Plants exposed to supraconducive or simulated field <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> for 7 days prior to inoculation developed significantly lower disease severity than did plants maintained at 18 degrees C for 7 days. The magnitude, length, and time of exposure to supraconducive <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> in relation to time of inoculation plays an important role in the development of hop powdery mildew, and rules addressing these <span class="hlt">variables</span> could be a useful addition to disease risk assessment models. PMID:18943624</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Mahaffee, Walter F; Turechek, William W; Ocamb, Cynthia M</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">232</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AtmEn..88...14B"> <span id="translatedtitle">Influence of spatial and temporal <span class="hlt">variability</span> of subsurface soil moisture and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> on vapour intrusion</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A comprehensive field study was conducted at a site contaminated with chlorinated solvents, mainly trichloroethylene (TCE), to investigate the influence of subsurface soil moisture and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> on vapour intrusion (VI) into built structures. Existing approaches to predict the risk of VI intrusion into buildings assume homogeneous or discrete layers in the vadose zone through which TCE migrates from an underlying source zone. In reality, the subsurface of the majority of contaminated sites will be subject to significant variations in moisture and <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. Detailed site-specific data were measured contemporaneously to evaluate the impact of spatial and temporal <span class="hlt">variability</span> of subsurface soil properties on VI exposure assessment. The results revealed that indoor air vapour concentrations would be affected by spatial and temporal <span class="hlt">variability</span> of subsurface soil moisture and <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. The monthly monitoring of soil-gas concentrations over a period of one year at a depth of 3 m across the study site demonstrated significant variation in TCE vapour concentrations, which ranged from 480 to 629,308 ?g/m3. Soil-gas wells at 1 m depth exhibited high seasonal <span class="hlt">variability</span> in TCE vapour concentrations with a coefficient of variation 1.02 in comparison with values of 0.88 and 0.74 in 2 m and 3 m wells, respectively. Contour plots of the soil-gas TCE plume during wet and dry seasons showed that the plume moved across the site, hence locations of soil-gas monitoring wells for human risk assessment is a site specific decision. Subsurface soil-gas vapour plume characterisation at the study site demonstrates that assessment for VI is greatly influenced by subsurface soil properties such as <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and moisture that fluctuate with the seasons of the year.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bekele, Dawit N.; Naidu, Ravi; Chadalavada, Sreenivasulu</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">233</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFMGC51C0764B"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Temperature</span> and hydrologic <span class="hlt">variability</span> of Lake Victoria, East Africa since the Late Pleistocene</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Recent organic geochemical advances have facilitated the comparison between continental <span class="hlt">temperature</span> change and hydrologic <span class="hlt">variability</span>. TEX86, a proxy based on the lipids of aquatic Crenarchaeota that show a positive correlation with growth <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, was used to reconstruct surface water <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> from Lake Victoria, East Africa during the latest Pleistocene-Holocene. Hydrologic conditions were interpreted using paleoecological implications of shifting pollen and diatom assemblages found in the lake (Kendall, 1969; Stager et al., 2003) and will be compared with future compound specific ?13C data from terrestrial biomarkers in order to determine the patterns of rainfall and aridity in this region. Initial comparisons of climatic changes seen in <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and hydrologic records appear to show consistency between warm/wet intervals and cool/dry intervals that is often assumed, but more rarely shown, in tropical Africa. Lake Victoria <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> show a steady warming beginning 16 cal ka, with a pause around the Younger Dryas, dominated by arid conditions and strong savannah grassland development during this interval. There is continued warming to a sustained thermal maximum for this portion of the record at ~10.5-8.5 ka, which generally coincides with the beginning of the Holocene Hypsithermal, an interval of elevated <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> and precipitation throughout much of tropical Africa. This thermal maximum occurs during the most humid interval of this record (~9.5-8.3 ka), shown by an increase of humid forest pollen and high diatom abundance (due to increased water column mixing and nutrient runoff). <span class="hlt">Temperatures</span> abruptly cool ~1.5°C in <800 years while precipitation becomes somewhat more seasonally restricted, coinciding with an abrupt drop in inferred P:E ratio and reduction in wind-driven mixing. The record then shows a general cooling, reaching a Holocene thermal minimum of ~18.4°C at ~4.5 ka, contrary to other East African continental and marine paleoclimate records that exhibit a Holocene thermal maximum ~5 ka. These coolest Holocene <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> correspond to the driest interval in the surrounding region (~5.8-2.7 ka), with an increase in grassland abundance and decrease in humid forest pollen. Though a 5 ka thermal maximum is not seen in Lake Victoria, this portion of the record shows a <span class="hlt">temperature</span> inflection and <span class="hlt">variable</span> hydrologic signals, potentially marking a response to the end of the Holocene Hypsithermal, where <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> begin to rise ~3°C over the remainder of the record.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Berke, M. A.; Johnson, T. C.; Werne, J. P.; Schouten, S.; Sinninghe Damste, J. S.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">234</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20000101592&hterms=kaya&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dkaya"> <span id="translatedtitle">Testing of a Loop Heat Pipe Subjective to <span class="hlt">Variable</span> Accelerations. Part 2; <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Stability</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The effect of accelerating forces on the performance of loop heat pipes (LHP) is of interest and importance to terrestrial and space applications. LHP's are being considered for cooling of military combat vehicles and for spinning spacecraft. In order to investigate the effect of an accelerating force on LHP operation, a miniature LHP was installed on a spin table. <span class="hlt">Variable</span> accelerating forces were imposed on the LHP by spinning the table at different angular speeds. Several patterns of accelerating forces were applied, i.e. continuous spin at different speeds and periodic spin at different speeds and frequencies. The resulting accelerations ranged from 1.17 g's to 4.7 g's. This paper presents the second part of the experimental study, i.e. the effect of an accelerating force on the LHP operating <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. It has been known that in stationary tests the LHP operating <span class="hlt">temperature</span> is a function of the evaporator power and the condenser sink <span class="hlt">temperature</span> when the compensation <span class="hlt">temperature</span> is not actively controlled. Results of this test program indicate that any change in the accelerating force will result in a chance in the LHP operating <span class="hlt">temperature</span> through its influence on the fluid distribution in the evaporator, condenser and compensation chamber. However, the effect is not universal, rather it is a function of other test conditions. A steady, constant acceleration may result in an increase or decrease of the operating <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, while a periodic spin will lead to a quasi-steady operating <span class="hlt">temperature</span> over a sufficient time interval. In addition, an accelerating force may lead to <span class="hlt">temperature</span> hysteresis and changes in the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> oscillation. In spite of all these effects, the LHP continued to operate without any problems in all tests.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ku, Jentung; Ottenstein, Laura; Kaya, Taril; Rogers, Paul; Hoff, Craig</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2000-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">235</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009EGUGA..1113601M"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Variability</span> in Horizontal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> advection associated with Tropical Instability Waves in the Atlantic</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Temperature</span> advection is a key factor in helping to understanding the tropical ocean heat budget, which is a focus of regional and global climate <span class="hlt">variability</span>. We employ a new concept of using observational data in assessing the interaction of Tropical Instability Waves (TIWs) with the mixed layer in the central equatorial Atlantic. We used data from Prediction and Research Moored Array in the Atlantic (PIRATA) moorings, combining ADCP and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> at 0N/23W and surface current and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> at 10S/10W and 12N/23W. Satellite Sea Surface <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> (SST) of Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission Microwave Imager (TMI) and NCEP/Reynolds SST were used to complement the in situ data. Zonal convergence of TIW centres is observed to shallow the mixed layer, resulting in entrainment. Variations in zonal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> advection that appeared in both directions are attributed to the meridional fluctuations of the TIWs as observed from the mooring data. Results from the current meter data within the vicinity of TIW region both showed a westward advection of <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> that is typical of each region and varying seasonally. Correlations based on the 10-day averaged data between February 2004 and June 2006 is 0.92 (PIRATA SST and TMI) and 0.92 (PIRATA SST and NCEP).</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Muhammed, I.; Quartley, G.; Challenor, P.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">236</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006JGRC..11111S05D"> <span id="translatedtitle">A numerical study on dynamic mechanisms of seasonal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> in the Yellow Sea</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Using in situ observations and numerical modeling, this study investigates the dynamical mechanisms of seasonal <span class="hlt">variability</span> of water <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in the Yellow Sea (YS). Observations indicate that bottom <span class="hlt">temperature</span> lags 3-4 months behind surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in reaching a maximum in the central YS. Wave-tide-circulation coupled model simulates this time lag and indicates that the diffusion process is a key factor governing the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variation below the surface layer. Based on the diffusion equation of <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, a scheme is developed to estimate the vertical diffusion coefficient. At an observation station located at 36°00'N 124°00'E, the diffusion coefficients from April to September are estimated by using the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> data from 1954 to 1985. The mean diffusion coefficient (MDC) in the upper layer from 0 m to 15 m is almost one order of magnitude larger than those in the middle layer from 20 to 40 m, except in April. In the middle layer, the MDC is inversely proportional to the squared buoyancy frequency, and the mean value of MDC averaged from June to September is 0.28 cm2 s-1. The inverse proportionality agrees with the Osborn's relation, which has been used to estimate the diapycnal diffusivity.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Dai, Dejun; Qiao, Fangli; Xia, Changshui; Jung, Kyung Tae</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">237</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013DSR....93...33A"> <span id="translatedtitle">Interannual <span class="hlt">variability</span> in sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and fCO2 changes in the Cariaco Basin</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We examined the <span class="hlt">variability</span> of sea surface carbon dioxide fugacity (fCO2sea) and its relation to <span class="hlt">temperature</span> at the Cariaco Basin ocean time-series location (10°30'N, 64°40'W) for the period from 1996 through 2008. Periods of warm (positive) and cold (negative) anomalies at the station were related to <span class="hlt">variability</span> in coastal upwelling intensity. A positive temporal trend in monthly-deseasonalized sea surface <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> (SST) was observed, leading to an overall increase of 1.13 °C over 13 years. Surface fCO2sea displayed significant short-term variation (month to month) with a range of 330-445 ?atm. In addition to a large seasonal range (58±17 ?atm), deseasonalized fCO2sea data showed an interannual positive trend of 1.77±0.43 ?atm yr-1. In the Cariaco Basin, positive and negative anomalies of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and fCO2sea are in phase. An increase/decrease of 1 °C coincides with an increase/decrease of 16-20 ?atm of fCO2sea. Deseasonalized fCO2sea normalized to 26.05 °C, the mean Cariaco SST, shows a lower rate of increase (0.51±0.49 ?atm yr-1). Based on these observations, 72% of the increase in fCO2sea in Cariaco Basin between 1996 and 2008 can be attributed to an increasing <span class="hlt">temperature</span> trend of surface waters, making this the primary factor controlling fugacity at this location. During this period, a decrease in upwelling intensity was also observed. The phytoplankton community changed from large diatom-dominated blooms during upwelling in the late 1990's to blooms dominated by smaller cells in the first decade of the 21st century. The average net sea-air CO2 flux over the study period is 2.0±2.6 mol C m-2 yr-1 employing the Wanninkhof parameterization, and 2.1±2.5 mol C m-2 yr-1 based on Nightingale's model. To further understand the connection between the changes observed in the Cariaco Basin, the relationships between interannual <span class="hlt">variability</span> in the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> anomaly with three modes of climate <span class="hlt">variability</span> (AMO, NAO and ENSO) were examined. The correlations between SSTA and two of these climate modes (AMO and ENSO) only show very weak relationships, although they were significant.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Astor, Y. M.; Lorenzoni, L.; Thunell, R.; Varela, R.; Muller-Karger, F.; Troccoli, L.; Taylor, G. T.; Scranton, M. I.; Tappa, E.; Rueda, D.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">238</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://atoc.colorado.edu/%7Efriedrik/WEBPAGES/atoc5600_files/readings/Lee_drop.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Variability</span> of Drop Size Distributions: TimeScale Dependence of the <span class="hlt">Variability</span> and Its Effects on Rain Estimation</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">A systematic and intensive analysis is performed on 5 yr of reliable disdrometric data (over 20 000 one-minute drop size distributions, DSDs) to investigate the <span class="hlt">variability</span> of DSDs in the Montreal, Quebec, Canada, area. The scale dependence (climatological scale, <span class="hlt">day</span> <span class="hlt">to</span> <span class="hlt">day</span>, within a day, between physical processes, and within a physical process) of the DSD <span class="hlt">variability</span> and its effect</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Gyuwon Lee; Isztar Zawadzki</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">239</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013GeoRL..40.5497L"> <span id="translatedtitle">NAO implicated as a predictor of Northern Hemisphere mean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> multidecadal <span class="hlt">variability</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">twentieth century Northern Hemisphere mean surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (NHT) is characterized by a multidecadal warming-cooling-warming pattern followed by a flat trend since about 2000 (recent warming hiatus). Here we demonstrate that the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) is implicated as a useful predictor of NHT multidecadal <span class="hlt">variability</span>. Observational analysis shows that the NAO leads both the detrended NHT and oceanic Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) by 15-20 years. Theoretical analysis illuminates that the NAO precedes NHT multidecadal <span class="hlt">variability</span> through its delayed effect on the AMO due to the large thermal inertia associated with slow oceanic processes. An NAO-based linear model is therefore established to predict the NHT, which gives an excellent hindcast for NHT in 1971-2011 with the recent flat trend well predicted. NHT in 2012-2027 is predicted to fall slightly over the next decades, due to the recent NAO decadal weakening that temporarily offsets the anthropogenically induced warming.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Li, Jianping; Sun, Cheng; Jin, Fei-Fei</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">240</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/50809"> <span id="translatedtitle">Interannual and interdecadal <span class="hlt">variability</span> in 335 years of central England <span class="hlt">temperatures</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Understanding the natural <span class="hlt">variability</span> of climate is important for predicting its near-term evolution. Models of the oceans` thermohaline and wind-driven circulation show low-frequency oscillations. Long instrumental records can help validate the oscillatory behavior of these models. Singular spectrum analysis applied to the 335-year-long central England <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (CET) record has identified climate oscillations with interannual (7- to 8-year) and interdecadal (15- and 25-year) periods, probably related to the North Atlantic`s wind-driven and thermohaline circulation, respectively. Statistical prediction of oscillatory <span class="hlt">variability</span> shows CETs decreasing toward the end of this decade and rising again into the middle of the next. 42 refs., 4 figs.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Plaut, G. [Institut Non-Lineaire de Nice, Valbonne (France); Ghil, M. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Vautard, R. [Ecole Normale Superieure, Paris (France)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1995-05-05</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#">4</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#">5</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#">6</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#">7</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#">8</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#">9</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#">10</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#">11</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> </div><!-- page_12 div --> <div id="page_13" class="hiddenDiv"> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#">4</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#">5</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#">6</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#">7</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#">8</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#">9</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#">10</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">241</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19880012119&hterms=Massachusetts+Institute+Technology+abaqus&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3DMassachusetts%2BInstitute%2BTechnology%2Babaqus"> <span id="translatedtitle">An internal <span class="hlt">variable</span> constitutive model for the large deformation of metals at high <span class="hlt">temperatures</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The advent of large deformation finite element methodologies is beginning to permit the numerical simulation of hot working processes whose design until recently has been based on prior industrial experience. Proper application of such finite element techniques requires realistic constitutive equations which more accurately model material behavior during hot working. A simple constitutive model for hot working is the single scalar internal <span class="hlt">variable</span> model for isotropic thermal elastoplasticity proposed by Anand. The model is recalled and the specific scalar functions, for the equivalent plastic strain rate and the evolution equation for the internal <span class="hlt">variable</span>, presented are slight modifications of those proposed by Anand. The modified functions are better able to represent high <span class="hlt">temperature</span> material behavior. The monotonic constant true strain rate and strain rate jump compression experiments on a 2 percent silicon iron is briefly described. The model is implemented in the general purpose finite element program ABAQUS.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Brown, Stuart; Anand, Lallit</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1988-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">242</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014GeoRL..41.3307S"> <span id="translatedtitle">North American west coast summer low cloudiness: Broadscale <span class="hlt">variability</span> associated with sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">decades of observations at 20 coastal airports, from Alaska to southern California, reveal coherent interannual to interdecadal variation of coastal low cloudiness (CLC) from summer to summer over this broad region. The leading mode of CLC <span class="hlt">variability</span> represents coherent variation, accounting for nearly 40% of the total CLC variance spanning 1950-2012. This leading mode and the majority of individual airports exhibit decreased low cloudiness from the earlier to the later part of the record. Exploring climatic controls on CLC, we identify North Pacific Sea Surface <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> anomalies, largely in the form of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) as well correlated with, and evidently helping to organize, the coherent patterns of summer coastal cloud <span class="hlt">variability</span>. Links from the PDO to summer CLC appear a few months in advance of the summer. These associations hold up consistently in interannual and interdecadal frequencies.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Schwartz, Rachel E.; Gershunov, Alexander; Iacobellis, Sam F.; Cayan, Daniel R.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">243</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFMSA23B..03T"> <span id="translatedtitle">Investigating gravity waves and mesospheric <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> over the Andes Mountains</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Andes region provides an excellent natural laboratory for investigating gravity wave influences on the Upper Mesospheric and Lower Thermospheric (MLT) dynamics with dominant gravity wave forcing expected from deep convection during the summer months replaced by strong orographic forcing during the wintertime, due to intense prevailing zonal winds blowing over the towering Andes mountain range. The instrument suite that comprised the very successful Maui-MALT program (2000-2005) was relocated to a new Andes Lidar Observatory (ALO) located high in the Andes mountains (2,520 m) at Cerro Pachon, Chile (30.3°S, 70.7°W). As part of this instrument set the Utah State University (USU) Mesospheric <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Mapper (MTM) has operated continuously over the past two years (August 2009-to date) measuring the nocturnal near infrared OH(6,2) band and the O2(0,1) Atmospheric band intensity and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> perturbations to investigate a broad range of mesospheric wave forcings, their seasonal <span class="hlt">variability</span> and effects on the MLT environment over the Andes. This presentation focuses on the strong <span class="hlt">variability</span> observed from this site using collaborative investigations of selected wave events, including exceptionally large tidal perturbations (70-100 K), unusual "jumps" in OH/O2 <span class="hlt">temperature</span> possibly associated with wave breaking, mesospheric bore events, and new evidence for quasi-stationary gravity waves, all illustrating the strong wave activity and its diversity over the Andes.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Taylor, M. J.; Pautet, P.; Zhao, Y.; Pugmire, J.; Criddle, N.; Swenson, G. R.; Liu, A. Z.; Hecht, J. H.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">244</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005AdAtS..22..655C"> <span id="translatedtitle">Climate-induced <span class="hlt">variability</span> of sea level in Stockholm: Influence of air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and atmospheric circulation</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This study is focused on climate-induced variation of sea level in Stockholm during 1873 1995. After the effect of the land uplift is removed, the residual is characterized and related to large-scale <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and atmospheric circulation. The residual shows an overall upward trend, although this result depends on the uplift rate used. However, the seasonal distribution of the trend is uneven. There are even two months (June and August) that show a negative trend. The significant trend in August may be linked to fresh water input that is controlled by precipitation. The influence of the atmospheric conditions on the sea level is mainly manifested through zonal winds, vorticity and <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. While the wind is important in the period January May, the vorticity plays a main role during June and December. A successful linear multiple-regression model linking the climatic <span class="hlt">variables</span> (zonal winds, vorticity and mean air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> during the previous two months) and the sea level is established for each month. An independent verification of the model shows that it has considerable skill in simulating the <span class="hlt">variability</span>.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Chen, Deliang; Omstedt, Anders</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">245</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.3636P"> <span id="translatedtitle">The equatorial Atlantic sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> during the last millennium</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The study of the <span class="hlt">variability</span> patterns of the South Atlantic Basin is necessary to understand and predict the global climate because of its fundamental role in global climate control through heat transport to the North. As early as 330 years ago, the importance of the continental heat budget on the equatorial Atlantic Ocean driving the trade winds in the Gulf of Guinea was identified. However, only five decades ago studies started to understand the effects of these air-sea interaction processes over the Atlantic sector. More specifically, changes in continental rainfall are linked to the interannual <span class="hlt">variability</span> of the equatorial Atlantic sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, which is related to the Atlantic Niño. Here we aim to examine air-sea interaction processes in the tropical Atlantic region during key periods within the Last Millennium (LM, 850 to 1,850 Common Era, C.E.). This will be achieved by computing an index to the <span class="hlt">variability</span> of the equatorial Atlantic sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> during the LM. This <span class="hlt">variability</span> pattern will be obtained from the National Center for Atmospheric Research - Community Climate System Model, version 4 (NCAR-CCSM4.0) and the Institut Pierre Simon Laplace - Climate Model version 5A, low resolution (IPSL-CM5A-LR) transient runs. We expect to use this index to identify possible differences in the sea surface field between the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA, 950 to 1,250 C.E.) and the Little Ice Age (LIA, 1,400 to 1,700 C.E.).</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Prado, Luciana; Wainer, Ilana; Khodri, Myriam</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">246</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23865724"> <span id="translatedtitle">Dynamics and thermodynamics of crystalline polymorphs. 2. ?-Glycine, analysis of <span class="hlt">variable-temperature</span> atomic displacement parameters.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The molecular dynamics in the crystal and the thermodynamic functions of the ?-polymorph of glycine have been determined from a combination of molecular translation-libration frequencies reflecting the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> dependence of atomic displacement parameters (ADPs), with frequencies derived from ONIOM(DFT:PM3) calculations on a 15-molecule ?-glycine cluster. ADPs have been obtained from <span class="hlt">variable-temperature</span> diffraction data to 0.5 Å resolution collected with X-ray synchrotron (10-300 K) and sealed tube radiation (50-298 K). At the higher <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, the ADPs of ?-glycine from synchrotron are larger than those from sealed tube probably due to different experimental conditions. The lattice vibration frequencies from normal-mode analysis of ADPs and the internal vibration frequencies from ONIOM(B3LYP/6-311+G(2d,p):PM3) calculations agree with those from spectroscopy. Estimation of thermodynamic functions using the vibrational frequencies, the Einstein and Debye models of heat capacity, and the room-<span class="hlt">temperature</span> compressibility provides C(p), H(vib), and S(vib) that agree with those from calorimetry. The ?-phase with higher H and G is found to be less stable than the ?-phase in the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> range of the experiment. PMID:23865724</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Aree, Thammarat; Bürgi, Hans-Beat; Minkov, Vasily S; Boldyreva, Elena V; Chernyshov, Dmitry; Törnroos, Karl W</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-08-22</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">247</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1998GeoRL..25.1871S"> <span id="translatedtitle">Ozone depletion at mid-latitudes: Coupling of volcanic aerosols and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> to anthropogenic chlorine</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Satellite observations of total ozone at 40-60°N are presented from a variety of instruments over the time period 1979-1997. These reveal record low values in 1992-3 (after Pinatubo) followed by partial but incomplete recovery. The largest post-Pinatubo reductions and longer-term trends occur in spring, providing a critical test for chemical theories of ozone depletion. The observations are shown to be consistent with current understanding of the chemistry of ozone depletion when changes in reactive chlorine and stratospheric aerosol abundances are considered along with estimates of wave-driven fluctuations in stratospheric <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> derived from global <span class="hlt">temperature</span> analyses. <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> fluctuations are shown to make significant contributions to model calculated northern mid-latitude ozone depletion due to heterogeneous chlorine activation on liquid sulfate aerosols at <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> near 200-210K (depending upon water vapor pressure), particularly after major volcanic eruptions. Future mid-latitude ozone recovery will hence depend not only on chlorine recovery but also on <span class="hlt">temperature</span> trends and/or <span class="hlt">variability</span>, volcanic activity, and any trends in stratospheric sulfate aerosol.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Solomon, S.; Portmann, R. W.; Garcia, R. R.; Randel, W.; Wu, F.; Nagatani, R.; Gleason, J.; Thomason, L.; Poole, L. R.; McCormick, M. P.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">248</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFMOS14A..05B"> <span id="translatedtitle">Using skin <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> to quantify surface and subsurface estuarine processes</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">IR imagery is a unique tool to study nearshore processes. It not only provides a measure for surface skin <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, but also permits the determination of surface currents. Variations in the skin <span class="hlt">temperature</span> arise from disruption and renewal of the thermal boundary layer (TBL) as a result of wind forcing at the air-water interface, or due to turbulent eddies generated from below. The TBL plays a critical role in nearshore processes, in particular air-water heat and gas exchanges. It is essential to characterize the spatio-temporal scales of the disruption of the TBL and the extent to which it is renewed, as well as to understand how environmental factors relate to skin <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span>. Furthermore, it is necessary to evaluate the ability not only to derive surface currents, but also to infer subsurface properties and processes from IR images. Estuarine and inlet environments such as the Hudson River are more complex, with multitude of additional processes at play, compared to the open ocean. For instance, the atmospheric boundary layer is complicated by the fact that that air is moving over both land and water, flow is fetch limited and there is orographic steering of winds. In addition, the subsurface turbulence is enhanced due to the bottom boundary layer. Here, high resolution IR imagery was collected from a ship stationed roughly 12 miles upstream of the New York Harbor in November 2010. On a nearby piling, several in situ instruments were mounted both above and below water, measuring environmental parameters such as wind speed, heat fluxes, air and water <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, humidity as well as subsurface currents, turbulence, <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and salinity. An IR imager installed on the cliff overlooking the river provided a complete view of the experiment area, with both the ship and the steel piling in its field of view. This study aims not only to characterize the skin <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span>, but also to assess the validity of the various models for surface renewal found in the literature. Correlations between the measured skin <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and environmental conditions (above and below surface) will give an insight on the physical processes governing surface <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. With the goal of determining subsurface flow characteristics from the surface flow statistics, three methods to derive surface velocity vectors are used. The results from the different techniques will be inter-compared and verified with in situ data in the aim to find the strengths and limitations of the various techniques. Further, relations between derived surface flow and measured subsurface flow will be investigated and the derived velocities will allow inferring turbulence statistics, in particular TKE dissipations rates.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Brumer, S. E.; Zappa, C. J.; Anderson, S. P.; Dugan, J. P.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">249</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/41348361"> <span id="translatedtitle">Adaptive management and water <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> within a South African river system: What are the management options?</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Water <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, and in particular daily maximum water <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, are a critical water quality parameter. An understanding of associated resource management issues, including links between water <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> and aquatic diversity values, should be part of any management programme that considers river systems. Simple rule-based models have been shown to be appropriate tools within an adaptive management approach, both because</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">N. A. Rivers-Moore; G. P. W. Jewitt</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">250</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/52137598"> <span id="translatedtitle">Stream Water <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> and Climate <span class="hlt">Variability</span> along Two Elevational Gradients in the Sierra Nevada Mountains, California, U.S.A</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Water <span class="hlt">temperature</span> plays an important role in life cycles and species interactions of aquatic biota in alpine streams. Climatic <span class="hlt">variability</span> and global change affect the landscape characteristics, flow regime and air-surface water energy balance that collectively determine stream water <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. Our high frequency measurements of stream <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> over space and time along two elevational gradients in the Sierra Nevada mountains</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">M. Solomon; K. Cuffey; C. T. Hunsaker</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">251</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20050175755&hterms=Schaefer&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3DSchaefer"> <span id="translatedtitle">Effects of <span class="hlt">Variable</span> <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> on Mossbauer Data Acquisition: Laboratory-based and MER A Results</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Mossbauer spectrometers on the Spirit and Opportunity rovers have played a valuable role in identifying mineralogy at both the Gusev and Meridiani landing sites. Key to the application of Mossbauer results is the issue of how accurately the peak positions, on which the mineral identifications are based, can be determined. Remote Mossbauer spectroscopy has by necessity some unusual experimental constraints that may influence the confidence with which peak positions can be fit. We present here an analysis of the effects of <span class="hlt">variable</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and short duration run times on spectral resolution.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Rothstein, Y.; Sklute, E. C.; Dyar, M. D.; Schaefer, M. W.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">252</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10648158"> <span id="translatedtitle">Small crystals and small coils in <span class="hlt">variable-temperature</span> single-crystal NMR.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Time savings by a factor of between 20 and 30 in the acquisition of multinuclear single-crystal (SC) NMR spectra have been obtained for submillimeter-size (0.01 to 0.03 mm(3)) single crystals when compared to recent results for (31)P and (87)Rb SC NMR. This gain in sensitivity is achieved by optimizing the filling factor using the smallest possible rf coil (2.0 mm inner diameter) for the specific SC probe design. Furthermore, this small coil is particularly useful for <span class="hlt">variable-temperature</span> SC NMR studies. A probe design for such studies is presented and demonstrated experimentally. PMID:10648158</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Vosegaard, T; Daugaard, P; Hald, E; Jakobsen, H J</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2000-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">253</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24623389"> <span id="translatedtitle">Complex interactions between climate change and toxicants: evidence that <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> increases sensitivity to cadmium.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change projects that global climate change will have significant impacts on environmental conditions including potential effects on sensitivity of organisms to environmental contaminants. The objective of this study was to test the climate-induced toxicant sensitivity (CITS) hypothesis in which acclimation to altered climate parameters increases toxicant sensitivity. Adult Physa pomilia snails were acclimated to a near optimal 22 °C or a high-normal 28 °C for 28 days. After 28 days, snails from each <span class="hlt">temperature</span> group were challenged with either low (150 ?g/L) or high (300 ?g/L) cadmium at each <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (28 or 22 °C). In contrast to the CITS hypothesis, we found that acclimation <span class="hlt">temperature</span> did not have a strong influence on cadmium sensitivity except at the high cadmium test concentration where snails acclimated to 28 °C were more cadmium tolerant. However, snails that experienced a switch in <span class="hlt">temperature</span> for the cadmium challenge, regardless of the switch direction, were the most sensitive to cadmium. Within the snails that were switched between <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, snails acclimated at 28 °C and then exposed to high cadmium at 22 °C exhibited significantly greater mortality than those snails acclimated to 22 °C and then exposed to cadmium at 28 °C. Our results point to the importance of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> in increasing toxicant sensitivity but also suggest a potentially complex cost of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> acclimation. Broadly, the type of temporal stressor exposures we simulated may reduce overall plasticity in responses to stress ultimately rendering populations more vulnerable to adverse effects. PMID:24623389</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kimberly, David A; Salice, Christopher J</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">254</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011mss..confEMI12I"> <span id="translatedtitle">Photodissociation Spectroscopy of Ca^+-H_2O in the <span class="hlt">Temperature-Variable</span> Ion Trap</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In the last two decades, developments of infrared spectroscopy and theoretical calculations on gas-phase molecular clusters have revealed detailed solvation structures of various systems, especially of hydrogen-bonded systems. One of the remained problems in studies on microscopic solvation or hydration is a <span class="hlt">temperature</span> dependence of solvation structures. Lisy and coworkers succeeded in interpreting the hydration structures of alkali metal ions by taking <span class="hlt">temperature</span>- or entropic effect. They utilized Ar vaporization to cool down the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of clusters. Another method for controlling <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of cluster ions is a buffer gas cooling in an ion trap. In the present study, we have measured photodissociation spectra of Ca^+-H_2O in our <span class="hlt">temperature-variable</span> ion trap In the present study, we examined the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of the Ca^+-H_2O in the trap by simulating the rotational profile of the 0-0 band of the ^2B_1 - ^2A_1 transition. The observed rotational profile is similar to that reported by Duncan and coworkers. By changing the trap period from 10 ms to 40 ms, it was confirmed that the trap period of 10 ms is sufficient to get <span class="hlt">temperature</span> equilibrium in our experimental condition. Details of the experimental results will be presented in the paper. D. J. Miller, J. M. Lisy J. Am. Chem. Soc. 130, 15393 (2008). A. Fujihara, et al. J. Phys. Chem. A 112, 1457 (2008) A. Fujihara, et al. J. Phys. Chem. A 113, 8169 (2009). C. T. Scurlock, S. H. Pullins, J. E. Reddic, M. A. Duncan J. Chem. Phys. 104, 4591 (1996).</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ishikawa, Haruki; Eguchi, Toru; Nakano, Takumi; Fujihara, Akimasa; Fuke, Kiyokazu</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">255</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003EAEJA.....2836T"> <span id="translatedtitle">Interannual <span class="hlt">variability</span> of the annual cycle of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> channel-2 msu data over northern hemisphere</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The seasonal cycle of the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> MSU data in the Northern Hemisphere was investigated with the aim of studing interannual <span class="hlt">variability</span>. Data consist of daily <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> from the MSU-channel 2 that represent the lower troposphere. The analyzed area was the whole Northern Hemisphere and the studied period the last 23 years. Daily data were adjusted to the following expression for each year: y=a+b*sin(((2*PI)/d)x+c) The amplitude of the wave and the first inflexion point were used as indicators of the seasonal cycle. Results show a positive correlation in high latitudes between the NAO index and the amplitude and a negative one in middle latitudes. Correlations between the NAO index and the first inflexion point were negative for high latitudes regions.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Tesouro, M.; Gimeno, L.; de La Torre, L.; Nieto, R.; Añel, J. A.; Ribera, P.; García, R.; Hernández, E.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">256</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15697771"> <span id="translatedtitle">Behavior of the critical <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of Ising thin films with <span class="hlt">variable</span> surface magnetic moments.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Properties of magnetic thin films are of considerable interest both for applied as well as theoretical reasons. I study the behavior of Ising thin films through the use of layered Bethe lattices and Husimi trees. In particular the behavior of the critical <span class="hlt">temperature</span> both as a function of the number of layers and as a function of <span class="hlt">variable</span> magnetic moments of surface spins is presented. The later is motivated by that fact that such variation has been found to occur in physical systems such as Ni and Fe free surfaces and Ni/Co interfaces. The approach used is more accurate than many previously used and most importantly shows a different qualitative behavior of the critical <span class="hlt">temperature</span> from previous studies. PMID:15697771</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Monroe, James L</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">257</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009JAP...105l4102B"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Variable-temperature</span> measurements of the dielectric relaxation in carbon black loaded epoxy composites</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Technologically, an understanding of the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> influence on the transport properties is essential to the study of many random conductor-insulator composites, while fundamentally it is related to a variety of questions in statistical physics, dielectrics, and materials science, to name a few. <span class="hlt">Variable-temperature</span> measurements of the frequency dependent complex effective permittivity were performed on amine-cured epoxy resins loaded with carbon black (CB). Two series of prepercolative samples differing from the kind of CB particles (Raven 2000 and Raven 5000) mixed in an amine-cured epoxy matrix (diglycidylic ether of bisphenol F) were studied. In this effort to contribute to our understanding of the role of frequency (100 Hz-15 MHz) and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (from ambient <span class="hlt">temperature</span> up to 90 °C) on the complex effective permittivity which describes the linear response of the system to an electromagnetic wave, we investigate these composites with CB loadings below the percolation threshold. Two features are observed. First, our observations cannot be understood in the typical framework of a simple Debye-like dipolar process. In this analysis, we argue that the appearance of the broad <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and frequency dependent maximum loss can be understood within the heuristic framework proposed by Jonscher which applies to disordered heterogeneous systems. This theoretical framework is consistent with several aspects of the experiments, notably the power-law decays of the real and imaginary parts of the effective permittivity characterized by two fractional exponents m and n. These exponents are both positive and smaller than unity. We further quantified their different <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variations: while m is strongly decreasing with increasing <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, n takes a value close to 1. Second, the observed maximum loss frequency found for each CB volume fraction shifts to higher frequencies with increasing <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and exhibits a non-Arrhenius <span class="hlt">temperature</span> dependence well represented by a Vogel-Tammam-Fulcher (VTF) fit. Well below the percolation threshold, the associated activation energy and ordering <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of the VTF fit are not significantly sensitive upon the CB concentration. Such results are compared to previous related work.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Brosseau, C.; Achour, M. E.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">258</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/2009JCLI2791.1"> <span id="translatedtitle">Joint spatiotemporal <span class="hlt">variability</span> of global sea surface <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> and global Palmer drought severity index values</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Dominant modes of individual and joint <span class="hlt">variability</span> in global sea surface <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> (SST) and global Palmer drought severity index (PDSI) values for the twentieth century are identified through a multivariate frequency domain singular value decomposition. This analysis indicates that a secular trend and <span class="hlt">variability</span> related to the El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) are the dominant modes of variance shared among the global datasets. For the SST data the secular trend corresponds to a positive trend in Indian Ocean and South Atlantic SSTs, and a negative trend in North Pacific and North Atlantic SSTs. The ENSO reconstruction shows a strong signal in the tropical Pacific, North Pacific, and Indian Ocean regions. For the PDSI data, the secular trend reconstruction shows high amplitudes over central Africa including the Sahel, whereas the regions with strong ENSO amplitudes in PDSI are the southwestern and northwestern United States, South Africa, northeastern Brazil, central Africa, the Indian subcontinent, and Australia. An additional significant frequency, multidecadal <span class="hlt">variability</span>, is identified for the Northern Hemisphere. This multidecadal frequency appears to be related to the Atlantic multidecadal oscillation (AMO). The multidecadal frequency is statistically significant in the Northern Hemisphere SST data, but is statistically nonsignificant in the PDSI data.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Apipattanavis, S.; Mccabe, G. J.; Rajagopalan, B.; Gangopadhyay, S.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">259</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17979422"> <span id="translatedtitle">An ultrahigh vacuum fast-scanning and <span class="hlt">variable</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> scanning tunneling microscope for large scale imaging.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We describe the design and performance of a fast-scanning, <span class="hlt">variable</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> scanning tunneling microscope (STM) operating from 80 to 700 K in ultrahigh vacuum (UHV), which routinely achieves large scale atomically resolved imaging of compact metallic surfaces. An efficient in-vacuum vibration isolation and cryogenic system allows for no external vibration isolation of the UHV chamber. The design of the sample holder and STM head permits imaging of the same nanometer-size area of the sample before and after sample preparation outside the STM base. Refractory metal samples are frequently annealed up to 2000 K and their cooldown time from room <span class="hlt">temperature</span> to 80 K is 15 min. The vertical resolution of the instrument was found to be about 2 pm at room <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. The coarse motor design allows both translation and rotation of the scanner tube. The total scanning area is about 8 x 8 microm(2). The sample <span class="hlt">temperature</span> can be adjusted by a few tens of degrees while scanning over the same sample area. PMID:17979422</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Diaconescu, Bogdan; Nenchev, Georgi; de la Figuera, Juan; Pohl, Karsten</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">260</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1998GeoRL..25.1035C"> <span id="translatedtitle">Solar <span class="hlt">variability</span> and climate change: Geomagnetic aa index and global surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">During the past ˜120 years, Earth's surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> is correlated with both decadal averages and solar cycle minimum values of the geomagnetic aa index. The correlation with aa minimum values suggests the existence of a long-term (low-frequency) component of solar irradiance that underlies the 11-year cyclic component. Extrapolating the aa-<span class="hlt">temperature</span> correlations to Maunder Minimum geomagnetic conditions implies that solar forcing can account for ˜50% or more of the estimated ˜0.7-1.5°C increase in global surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> since the second half of the 17th century. Our analysis is admittedly crude and ignores known contributors to climate change such as warming by anthropogenic greenhouse-gases or cooling by volcanic aerosols. Nevertheless, the general similarity in the time-variation of Earth's surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and the low-frequency or secular component of the aa index over the last ˜120 years supports other studies that indicate a more significant role for solar <span class="hlt">variability</span> in climate change on decadal and century time-scales than has previously been supposed. The most recent aa data for the current solar minimum suggest that the long-term component of solar forcing will level off or decline during the coming solar cycle.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Cliver, E. W.; Boriakoff, V.; Feynman, J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#">4</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#">5</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#">6</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#">7</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#">8</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#">9</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#">10</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> </div><!-- page_13 div --> <div id="page_14" class="hiddenDiv"> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#">4</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#">5</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#">6</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#">7</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#">8</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#">9</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#">10</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">261</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007RScI...78j3701D"> <span id="translatedtitle">An ultrahigh vacuum fast-scanning and <span class="hlt">variable</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> scanning tunneling microscope for large scale imaging</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We describe the design and performance of a fast-scanning, <span class="hlt">variable</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> scanning tunneling microscope (STM) operating from 80 to 700 K in ultrahigh vacuum (UHV), which routinely achieves large scale atomically resolved imaging of compact metallic surfaces. An efficient in-vacuum vibration isolation and cryogenic system allows for no external vibration isolation of the UHV chamber. The design of the sample holder and STM head permits imaging of the same nanometer-size area of the sample before and after sample preparation outside the STM base. Refractory metal samples are frequently annealed up to 2000 K and their cooldown time from room <span class="hlt">temperature</span> to 80 K is 15 min. The vertical resolution of the instrument was found to be about 2 pm at room <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. The coarse motor design allows both translation and rotation of the scanner tube. The total scanning area is about 8×8 ?m2. The sample <span class="hlt">temperature</span> can be adjusted by a few tens of degrees while scanning over the same sample area.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Diaconescu, Bogdan; Nenchev, Georgi; de La Figuera, Juan; Pohl, Karsten</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">262</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..12.8342M"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Variability</span> of <span class="hlt">temperature</span>-derived climate indices in the Arctic - Observation and Regional Climate Model</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Arctic has now generally been accepted as an area very sensitive to climate change. This includes changes in climate extremes. As extreme climate events directly impact on the residents, their investigation is important to understand ecological and societal changes. In this study, the focus is on understanding of the climate <span class="hlt">variability</span> of extremes on a regional level. The work presented here aims at providing results for <span class="hlt">temperature</span>-based climate indices over the Arctic. On one hand, it is based on the ERA40 reanalysis data from ECMWF and Russian station data from the "Global Summary of the Day" data set provided by NCDC. On the other hand, output from the regional climate model (RCM) HIRHAM, applied over the Arctic domain, was used. The period 1958-2008 was analyzed. The detailed regional analysis for the Russian Arctic has its background in the EU project CARBO-North (http://www.carbonorth.net/) which aims at quantifying the carbon budget in Northern Russia. Various climate indices were calculated from the data described above. Frost days and growing degree days are presented here, as examples of the analysis. The spatial analysis of frost days over the Arctic domain derived from ERA40 data clearly signs to a warming along the sea ice boundaries in both transition seasons. Over land, few areas with increasing frost days were found. Frost days show a high inter-annual <span class="hlt">variability</span>; therefore only few significant trends could be calculated. Distinct regional differences in the <span class="hlt">variability</span> as well as in the amount of frost days are dicussed in the comparison of eastern and western Russian stations. The analysis of frost days calculated from HIRHAM output shows that the model captures both the spatial patterns and the year-to-year <span class="hlt">variability</span> from the observations, though it overestimates their numbers over most of the model domain. The simulated trends are in adequate agreement with those from the observations. The growing degree days as calculated from ERA40 data reflect the north-south <span class="hlt">temperature</span> gradient in the Arctic and distinguishes the high mountain ranges in Alaska and eastern Siberia. Positive trends were calculated over most parts of the Arctic and are significant in some areas like northern Alaska and northeastern Canada. This is confirmed by the regional, station based analysis over Russia, though some of the calculated trends are not significant. Growing degree days are systematically underestimated by HIRHAM over the Arctic domain. However, the calculated spatial patterns as well as the trends and decadal-scale <span class="hlt">variability</span> in the time series are well reproduced.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Matthes, Heidrun; Rinke, Annette; Dethloff, Klaus</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">263</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFMGC32A..08H"> <span id="translatedtitle">Assessing Low Frequency <span class="hlt">Variability</span> in North Atlantic Ocean Sea Surface <span class="hlt">Temperatures</span> in Global Climate Models</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) is the leading mode of non-ENSO <span class="hlt">variability</span> in the surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of the Earth. The AMO mediates sea surface <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> in the North Atlantic. Thus, its <span class="hlt">variability</span> produces wavelike variations in the global surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> record and thereby alternately masks or amplifies the signal due to enhanced greenhouse gas or aerosol levels. Regionally, it affects the track and intensity of both extratropical cyclones throughout Europe and the Levant and severe tropical cyclones in the North Atlantic basin. See Enfield and Cid-Serrano [2009] for in-depth discussion. Therefore, even if there were no anthropogenic influence on the climate, understanding the dynamics of the AMO and being able to predict it would improve regional climate prediction throughout North America and Europe. In an era of anthropogenic climate change, it is vital that we understand the dynamics of the AMO: in part to predict the oscillations on the general positive trend in global surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and in part because anthropogenic climate change could influence the dynamics and phenomenology of the AMO. Similar anthropogenic modification has been proposed for the El Nino-Southern Oscillation [e.g., Kim et al. 2009]. A small number of ocean and coupled atmosphere/ocean models simulate decadal or multidecadal <span class="hlt">variability</span> in the North Atlantic, but the exact mechanisms involved vary from model to model. Therefore, characterizing North Atlantic <span class="hlt">variability</span> on these timescales in a wide range of models opens a broad phase space to falsify mechanisms against a brief and sparse observational record. We have analyzed IPCC AR4 pre-industrial control runs from 23 global climate models (GCMs) in the World Climate Research Programme's (WCRP's) Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 3 (CMIP3) multi-model dataset, looking for global sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (SST) drift (evidence of a disequilibrated ocean), and North Atlantic SST <span class="hlt">variability</span> with a spatial pattern and periodicity consistent with instrumental and paleoclimatic records of the AMO. One GCM has been found to be both highly non-drifting and produce a multidecadal oscillation similar to the AMO. One drifting GCM also produces such an oscillation. We will present the full results of this analysis and preliminary results of more in-depth analysis of the “AMOs” simulated by these GCMs, focusing on the impact the processes that drive them could have on instrumental and paleoclimatic archives. D.B. Enfield and L. Cid-Serrano (2009), Secular and multidecadal warmings in the North Atlantic and their relationships with major hurricane activity, Int. J. Climatol., doi: 10.1002/joc.1881. H.-M. Kim, P.J. Webster, and J.A. Curry (2009), Impact of Shifting Patterns of Pacific Ocean Warming on North Atlantic Tropical Cyclones, Science, 325, 77-80.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Heavens, N. G.; Liang, M.; Lin, L.; Li, K.; Tung, K. K.; Yung, Y. L.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">264</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/53216103"> <span id="translatedtitle">The combined influences of <span class="hlt">variable</span> thermal conductivity, <span class="hlt">temperature</span>- and pressure-dependent viscosity and core mantle coupling on thermal evolution</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Most convection studies of thermal history have not considered explicitly the thermal interaction between the mantle flow and the core. We have investigated the influences of <span class="hlt">variable</span> thermal conductivity and <span class="hlt">variable</span> viscosity (<span class="hlt">temperature</span>- and pressure-dependent) on the boundary layer and thermal characteristics of the D\\</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">A. P. van den Berg; E. S. G. Rainey; D. A. Yuen</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">265</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/42815984"> <span id="translatedtitle">Effects of Four Key Process <span class="hlt">Variables</span> on Size Shrinkages of Low <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Co-Fired Ceramic Substrates</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The effects of four key process <span class="hlt">variables</span> on the size shrinkages of low <span class="hlt">temperature</span> co-fired ceramic substrates were investigated using the methods of design of experiments (DOE), analysis of variance (ANOVA), and multivariable regression. The process <span class="hlt">variables</span> investigated were raw tape thickness, laminating pressure, coining pressure, and coining time. The results revealed that coining pressure had the most significant effect</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Z. W. Zhong; P. Arulvanan; C. K. Goh</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">266</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24551103"> <span id="translatedtitle">Spatio-temporal <span class="hlt">variability</span> of the North Sea cod recruitment in relation to <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and zooplankton.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The North Sea cod (Gadus morhua, L.) stock has continuously declined over the past four decades linked with overfishing and climate change. Changes in stock structure due to overfishing have made the stock largely dependent on its recruitment success, which greatly relies on environmental conditions. Here we focus on the spatio-temporal <span class="hlt">variability</span> of cod recruitment in an effort to detect changes during the critical early life stages. Using International Bottom Trawl Survey (IBTS) data from 1974 to 2011, a major spatio-temporal change in the distribution of cod recruits was identified in the late 1990s, characterized by a pronounced decrease in the central and southeastern North Sea stock. Other minor spatial changes were also recorded in the mid-1980s and early 1990s. We tested whether the observed changes in recruits distribution could be related with direct (i.e. <span class="hlt">temperature</span>) and/or indirect (i.e. changes in the quantity and quality of zooplankton prey) effects of climate <span class="hlt">variability</span>. The analyses were based on spatially-resolved time series, i.e. sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (SST) from the Hadley Center and zooplankton records from the Continuous Plankton Recorder Survey. We showed that spring SST increase was the main driver for the most recent decrease in cod recruitment. The late 1990s were also characterized by relatively low total zooplankton biomass, particularly of energy-rich zooplankton such as the copepod Calanus finmarchicus, which have further contributed to the decline of North Sea cod recruitment. Long-term spatially-resolved observations were used to produce regional distribution models that could further be used to predict the abundance of North Sea cod recruits based on <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and zooplankton food availability. PMID:24551103</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Nicolas, Delphine; Rochette, Sébastien; Llope, Marcos; Licandro, Priscilla</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">267</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3923776"> <span id="translatedtitle">Spatio-Temporal <span class="hlt">Variability</span> of the North Sea Cod Recruitment in Relation to <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> and Zooplankton</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The North Sea cod (Gadus morhua, L.) stock has continuously declined over the past four decades linked with overfishing and climate change. Changes in stock structure due to overfishing have made the stock largely dependent on its recruitment success, which greatly relies on environmental conditions. Here we focus on the spatio-temporal <span class="hlt">variability</span> of cod recruitment in an effort to detect changes during the critical early life stages. Using International Bottom Trawl Survey (IBTS) data from 1974 to 2011, a major spatio-temporal change in the distribution of cod recruits was identified in the late 1990s, characterized by a pronounced decrease in the central and southeastern North Sea stock. Other minor spatial changes were also recorded in the mid-1980s and early 1990s. We tested whether the observed changes in recruits distribution could be related with direct (i.e. <span class="hlt">temperature</span>) and/or indirect (i.e. changes in the quantity and quality of zooplankton prey) effects of climate <span class="hlt">variability</span>. The analyses were based on spatially-resolved time series, i.e. sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (SST) from the Hadley Center and zooplankton records from the Continuous Plankton Recorder Survey. We showed that spring SST increase was the main driver for the most recent decrease in cod recruitment. The late 1990s were also characterized by relatively low total zooplankton biomass, particularly of energy-rich zooplankton such as the copepod Calanus finmarchicus, which have further contributed to the decline of North Sea cod recruitment. Long-term spatially-resolved observations were used to produce regional distribution models that could further be used to predict the abundance of North Sea cod recruits based on <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and zooplankton food availability.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Nicolas, Delphine; Rochette, Sebastien; Llope, Marcos; Licandro, Priscilla</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">268</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFMSA21A2099R"> <span id="translatedtitle">PMC brightness zonal <span class="hlt">variability</span> and its correlation with <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and water vapor</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The correlation between the Polar Mesospheric Cloud (PMC) daily zonal variation and the environmental <span class="hlt">variables</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (T) and H2O is investigated using CIPS/AIM albedo, MLS/Aura T and H2O observations, and a 0-D PMC thermodynamic equilibrium model [Hervig et al., 2009]. CIPS measurements cover the entire polar region (> 60°N/S) with an unprecedented spatial resolution of 2 km, and in this study we examine the zonal <span class="hlt">variability</span> of the albedo on a daily basis. We have chosen 18 longitudinal bins and for each bin a mean albedo north of 70°N is used. The 0-D model is used to assess the relative roles of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and H2O in determining the zonal <span class="hlt">variability</span> of the cloud ice mass density based on an analysis for the 0.00464 hPa pressure surface corresponding to an altitude of ~ 84km, which is the mean northern hemisphere cloud height. Here the ice mass density is used as a proxy to the albedo since both <span class="hlt">variables</span> reflect the cloud brightness and their horizontal variations are highly similar. Statistics of all days of the five northern seasons from 2007 to 2011 indicate that MLS T and CIPS cloud variation (with scales larger than zonal wave 8-9) are anti-correlated throughout the season, except in the core of the season where the correlation is relatively weak. The cloud and H2O correlation in the zonal direction is generally poor but overall speaking it is slightly positive. The slightly positive correlation implies that more abundant H2O leads to stronger PMCs. Nevertheless, the correlation is overall poor because the H2O depletion from the ice particle formation leads to a systematic phase shift (~50-90 degree in longitude) between the clouds and the measured "post-ice" H2O. Although H2O dominantly controls the cloud brightness variation in the high brightness limit (e.g., >50 ng/m3) [Rong, et al., 2011], T takes on an important role in the weak cloud limit, i.e., when T approaches the frost point. The weak cloud limit applies here because a large percentage of the daily measured cloud events are weak to medium clouds, for example, ~50% in the core of the cloud season. To further examine the role of <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, we increased MLS T by 5 K uniformly and found substantially stronger correlation of T and cloud variations in the core of the season. This study suggests that <span class="hlt">temperature</span> takes on a stronger role than H2O in determining the daily PMC zonal variation. It is also implies that, in a statistical sense, the cloud physics described in the 0-D model is sufficient to interpret the daily global cloud brightness <span class="hlt">variability</span> without critically relying on measurement coincidences and knowledge of dynamics such as waves and wind advection.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Rong, P.; Russell, J. M.; Randall, C. E.; Bailey, S. M.; Lambert, A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">269</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/43163987"> <span id="translatedtitle">A novel <span class="hlt">variable</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> scanning nano-Hall probe microscope system for large area magnetic imaging incorporating piezoelectric actuators maintained at room <span class="hlt">temperature</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">A unique <span class="hlt">variable</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> scanning Hall probe system (VT-SHPM) has been developed for large area, nanometre scale lateral resolution imaging of ferromagnetic domains, in which piezoelectric actuators are maintained at ambient <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and only the semiconducting micro-Hall probe and sample are cooled. Its design overcomes the limitations of conventional cryogenic SHPM systems, where the piezoelectric actuators are cooled thus reducing</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Adarsh Sandhu; Hiroshi Masuda; Hiroko Senoguchi; Kiyoshi Togawa</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">270</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AGUFMPP51E..02L"> <span id="translatedtitle">Zonal and Meridional Sea Surface <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Gradients and Orbital <span class="hlt">Variability</span> During the Plio-Pleistocene Transition</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">As the most recent interval of sustained warmth in Earth's history the Pliocene represents a potential analog for future climate scenarios. Yet, the ultimate causes of both early Pliocene warmth and the subsequent major climatic transition, which resulted in the development of large ice sheets in the Northern Hemisphere, remain unclear. Here, we compare and contrast three orbital-resolution, alkenone-derived sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (SST) records for the interval from 4 to 1.4 Ma, shedding new light on the evolution of the ocean surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> field during the Plio-Pleistocene Transition. We examine the trends and orbital scale <span class="hlt">variability</span> as well as the zonal and meridional <span class="hlt">temperature</span> gradients elucidated by SST data from Ocean Drilling Program Site 846 (3°S, 91°W) in the eastern equatorial Pacific (EEP), Site 982 (58°N, 16°W) in the North Atlantic, and Site 662 (1°S, 12°W) in the Eastern Equatorial Atlantic (EE ATL). Our data indicate that although the rate of cooling in the EEP (1°C/Myr) was nearly twice that in the EE ATL (0.6°C/Myr), the overall structure of the data from these two sites is remarkably similar. This marked similarity in structure suggests the operation of a large-scale forcing mechanism, such as a change in atmospheric CO2 concentrations. The zonal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> gradient between our two tropical sites grew steadily from <1°C at 4 Ma to ~2°C at 1.4 Ma, perhaps as a result of strengthening Walker circulation in the equatorial Pacific. The North Atlantic meridional <span class="hlt">temperature</span> gradient was ~8°C between 4 and 3.5 Ma and grew steadily to ~12°C at 2.5 Ma when it plateaued until the end of the record at 1.4 Ma. Not surprisingly, the variance at our high latitude site is much greater than that at our tropical sites. However, the presence of significant variance at Site 982 prior to the intensification of Northern Hemisphere Glaciation (~2.75 Ma) is anomalous given the very small amplitude of variations in all other climatic time series from this time period. Obliquity variations are notable in all three records. Significant obliquity <span class="hlt">variability</span> exists throughout the Site 982 time series while the obliquity response at both tropical sites increases markedly at ~2.7 Ma. In contrast to the minor role of precessional variations at Site 846 and Site 982, precession played very prominent role at Site 662, likely related to variations in the strength of the African monsoon system.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lawrence, K. T.; Cleaveland, L. C.; Mulligan, A. B.; Herbert, T. D.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">271</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19870019143&hterms=snook&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3Dsnook"> <span id="translatedtitle">Improved VAS regression soundings of mesoscale <span class="hlt">temperature</span> structure observed during the 1982 atmospheric <span class="hlt">variability</span> experiment</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">An Atmospheric <span class="hlt">Variability</span> Experiment (AVE) was conducted over the central U.S. in the spring of 1982, collecting radiosonde date to verify mesoscale soundings from the VISSR Atmospheric Sounder (VAS) on the GOES satellite. Previously published VAS/AVE comparisons for the 6 March 1982 case found that the satellite retrievals scarcely detected a low level <span class="hlt">temperature</span> inversion or a mid-tropospheric cold pool over a special mesoscale radiosonde verification network in north central Texas. The previously published regression and physical retrieval algorithms did not fully utilize VAS' sensitivity to important subsynoptic thermal features. Therefore, the 6 March 1982 case was reprocessed adding two enhancements to the VAS regression retrieval algorithm: (1) the regression matrix was determined using AVE profile data obtained in the region at asynoptic times, and (2) more optimistic signal-to-noise statistical conditioning factors were applied to the VAS <span class="hlt">temperature</span> sounding channels. The new VAS soundings resolve more of the low level <span class="hlt">temperature</span> inversion and mid-level cold pool. Most of the improvements stems from the utilization of asynoptic radiosonde observations at NWS sites. This case suggests that VAS regression soundings may require a ground-based asynoptic profiler network to bridge the gap between the synoptic radiosonde network and the high resolution geosynchronous satellite observations during the day.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Chesters, Dennis; Keyser, Dennis A.; Larko, David E.; Uccellini, Louis W.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1987-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">272</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5231272"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Variable-temperature</span> scanning tunneling microscopy. Final report, 21 Jul 88-20 Jul 91</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Variable</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> STM/STS has been used over the 4.2 K to 400 K <span class="hlt">temperature</span> range to study CDW formation and spatial variations of the superconducting energy gap in Pb films. Topographic variations of the superconducting energy gap in Pb films show an intriguing transition from superconducting to normal behavior over distances much less than the bulk coherence length. More recently, effort has been focused on the development of a multi-chamber UHV-STM system that will couple a wide range of STM/STS capability with sample and tip preparation and characterization facilities. The first chamber of this system is fully functional and is being used to study and modify semiconductor surfaces. Other chambers will be specialized for STM nanolithography and cryogenic UHV-STM. This system accommodates UHV sample and tip transfer between chambers in addition to independent chamber operation modes. STM modification of H-passivated silicon surfaces has been accomplished using techniques developed by John Dagata at NIST. A unique STM lateral coarse translation system has been developed and used to locate and modify Si MOSFET structures fabricated for this project. Gratings written by STM within the gate region are being evaluated for the creation of finished devices that will exhibit quantum interference effects at higher <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> than previously observed. Work is also underway to fabricate planar tunnel junction structures that utilize coulomb charging effects to realize logic functions.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lyding, J.W.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1991-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">273</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012GeoRL..3914705W"> <span id="translatedtitle">Sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> in southern Okinawa Trough during last 2700 years</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Most of the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> reconstructions for the past two millennia are based on proxy data from various sites on land. Here we present a bidecadal resolution record of sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (SST) in Southern Okinawa Trough for the past ca. 2700 years by analyzing tetraether lipids of planktonic archaea in the ODP Hole 1202B, a site under the strong influence of Kuroshio Current and East Asian monsoon. The reconstructed SST anomalies generally coincided with previously reported late Holocene climate events, including the Roman Warm Period, Sui-Tang dynasty Warm Period, Medieval Warm Period, Current Warm Period, Dark Age Cold Period and Little Ice Age. However, the Medieval Warm Period usually thought to be a historical analogue for the Current Warm Period has a mean SST of 0.6-0.8°C lower than that of the Roman Warm Period and Sui-Tang dynasty Warm Period. Despite an increase since 1850 AD, the mean SST in the 20th century is still within the range of natural <span class="hlt">variability</span> during the past 2700 years. A close correlation of SST in Southern Okinawa Trough with air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in East China, intensity of East Asian monsoon and the El-Niño Southern Oscillation index has been attributed to the fluctuations in solar output and oceanic-atmospheric circulation.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wu, Weichao; Tan, Wenbing; Zhou, Liping; Yang, Huan; Xu, Yunping</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">274</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMPP21A1885P"> <span id="translatedtitle">Tropical North Atlantic subsurface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> anomalies: evidence for AMOC <span class="hlt">variability</span> across Dansgaard-Oscheger events?</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A common mechanism often proposed to explain the abrupt climate events of Marine Isotope Stage 3 (MIS 3), known as Dansgaard-Oscheger (D-O) cycles, invokes <span class="hlt">variability</span> in the strength of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC). Although proxy evidence shows that D-O cycles resulted in large-scale changes in atmospheric circulation patterns around the planet, an understanding of how the AMOC varied across these events remains unclear. Coupled ocean-atmosphere models demonstrate that AMOC <span class="hlt">variability</span> is linked to abrupt change in the tropical North Atlantic (TNA) through both oceanic and atmospheric processes. A reduction in AMOC causes a subsurface oceanic warming in the TNA as the western boundary current slows, allowing the warm salinity maximum waters to enter the deep tropics. Recently, Schmidt et al. (2012) identified an abrupt subsurface warming at the onset of AMOC slow down during both Heinrich 1 and the Younger Dryas, suggesting this signal may be a robust feature of AMOC <span class="hlt">variability</span> in the TNA. In order to determine if AMOC <span class="hlt">variability</span> was the driver of D-O cycles during MIS 3, we present new, high-resolution Mg/Ca and ?18O records from the near-surface dwelling planktonic foraminifera G. ruber and the lower-thermocline dwelling planktonic foraminifera G. crassaformis from 22 - 52 ka BP in southern Caribbean core VM12-107 (11.33oN, 66.63oW, 1079m depth). Sedimentation rates in VM12-107 average 24cm/kyr, providing high temporal resolution able to resolve millennial-scale events. The G. ruber ?18O record shows abrupt oscillations up to 1‰ as well as Mg/Ca-based SST changes of 1.5 - 2oC that are synchronous with some D-O cycles recorded in the Greenland ice cores. Given our ability to resolve D-O cycles in the planktonic record, we find that Mg/Ca ratios from G. crassaformis were, on average, 0.13 × 0.04 mmol/mol higher during stadials. This equates to a <span class="hlt">temperature</span> increase during stadials of up to 1.5oC. These results imply that AMOC <span class="hlt">variability</span> played an important role in at least some millennial-scale D-O cycles during MIS 3.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Parker, A. O.; Schmidt, M. W.; Chang, P.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">275</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010JHyd..388..321M"> <span id="translatedtitle">Using <span class="hlt">temperature</span> modeling to investigate the temporal <span class="hlt">variability</span> of riverbed hydraulic conductivity during storm events</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">SummaryUnderstanding the impact of storm events on riverbed hydraulic conductivity is crucial in assessing the efficacy of riverbank filtration as a water-treatment option. In this study, the <span class="hlt">variability</span> of riverbed hydraulic conductivity and its correlation to river stage during storm events was investigated. Water levels and <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> were continuously monitored in the river using creek piezometers screened beneath the riverbed, and monitoring wells located on the river bank. The range of values for water levels during the study period was from 161.3 to 163.7 m AMSL while <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> ranged from 3.75 °C to 24 °C. During the duration of the study the Great Miami River was losing water to the underlying aquifer due to pumping in the adjacent municipal well field. Flow and heat transport were simulated in a groundwater heat and flow program VSH2D to determine the hydraulic conductivity of the riverbed. Hydraulic conductivity was estimated by using it as a calibration parameter to match simulated <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> to observed <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> in a monitoring well. Hydraulic heads in the aquifer responded to storm events at the same times but with dampened amplitudes compared to the river stage. The relative responses resulted in increased head gradients during the rising limb of the stage-hydrograph. Heat-flow modeling during five storm events demonstrated that a rise in head gradient alone was not sufficient to produce the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> changes observed in the wells. Simulated <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> were fitted to the observed data by varying both river stage (as measured in the field) and riverbed hydraulic conductivity. To produce the best fit <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, riverbed hydraulic conductivity consistently needed to be increased during the rising and peak stages of the storm events. The increased conductivity probably corresponds to a loss of fine sediments due to scour during high river stage. Hydraulic conductivity increases during storm events varied from a factor of two (0.0951-0.2195 m/d) to almost one order of magnitude (0.0007-0.00658 m/d). Despite these predicted changes the highest model-predicted hydraulic conductivity value was 0.66 m/d, which is still much lower than the infiltration rate used in sand filtration systems (3.59 m/d). These low values suggest that storm events do not pose a significant risk to the water quality at this well field. There was a direct correlation between the duration of rising limb, rate of change of stage and maximum river stage and the magnitude of change of riverbed hydraulic conductivity.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Mutiti, Samuel; Levy, Jonathan</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">276</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014SPIE.9140E..09G"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Variable</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> photocurrent characterization of quantum dots intermediate band photovoltaic devices</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The key issue for enhancing the efficiency of semiconductor photovoltaic material devices is to reduce point defects recombination phenomena and to extend the absorption wavelength range. By inserting InAs Quantum Dots in a host GaAs semiconductor structure, new energy levels can be generated resulting in wavelength absorption enhancement. Thus, the main objective of this work was to design a material based on GaAs host semiconductor with extended absorption wavelength in the infrared region. We extend our previous characterisation of GaAs/InAs material systems by studying <span class="hlt">variable</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> photocurrent spectroscopy from 300K down to 50K in order to study the effect of different inter-dot doping profiles on cell efficiency.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Garduño-Nolasco, E.; Missous, M.; Donoval, Daniel; Ková?, Jaroslav; Mikolášek, Miroslav; Florovi?, Martin</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">277</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6274156"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Variable</span> interval time/<span class="hlt">temperature</span> (VITT) defrost-control-system evaluation</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Two <span class="hlt">variable-interval-time/temperature</span> (VITT) heat pump defrost control systems are analyzed to determine if systems manufactured by Honeywell and Ranco qualify for credit for heat pumps with demand defrost control. The operation of the systems is described. VITT controls are not demand defrost control systems but utilize demand defrost control as backup systems in most Ranco models and all Honeywell models. The evaluations and results, intended to provide DOE information in making its determinations regarding credits for the control systems are discussed. The evaluation methodology utilizes a modified version of the Heat Pump Seasonal Performance Model (HPSPM) and the important modifications are discussed in Appendix A. Appendix B contains a detailed listing and discussion of the HPSPM output. (MCW)</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">None</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1980-08-12</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">278</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012GeoRL..39.1701D"> <span id="translatedtitle">Decoupled Holocene <span class="hlt">variability</span> in surface and thermocline water <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> of the Indo-Pacific Warm Pool</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Holocene <span class="hlt">variability</span> in sea surface and thermocline water <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> (SST and TWT) in the Indo-Pacific Warm Pool (IPWP) has been reconstructed by planktonic foraminiferal Mg/Ca from sediments of the western tropical Philippine Sea. Afterward the Younger Dryas interval (YD), SST warmed gradually till ˜10 ka and remained approximately constant afterwards, but TWT rose more rapidly to a peak between ˜12 and ˜10 ka and then declined by ˜1.5°C through the Holocene. The trend of TWT closely followed the boreal summer insolation and could be correlated to tropical climate changes represented by southward movement of the Inter-tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) and related changes in East Asian monsoons.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Dang, Haowen; Jian, Zhimin; Bassinot, Franck; Qiao, Peijun; Cheng, Xinrong</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">279</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005Sci...309.1551S"> <span id="translatedtitle">Amplification of Surface <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Trends and <span class="hlt">Variability</span> in the Tropical Atmosphere</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The month-to-month <span class="hlt">variability</span> of tropical <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> is larger in the troposphere than at Earth's surface. This amplification behavior is similar in a range of observations and climate model simulations and is consistent with basic theory. On multidecadal time scales, tropospheric amplification of surface warming is a robust feature of model simulations, but it occurs in only one observational data set. Other observations show weak, or even negative, amplification. These results suggest either that different physical mechanisms control amplification processes on monthly and decadal time scales, and models fail to capture such behavior; or (more plausibly) that residual errors in several observational data sets used here affect their representation of long-term trends.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Santer, B. D.; Wigley, T. M. L.; Mears, C.; Wentz, F. J.; Klein, S. A.; Seidel, D. J.; Taylor, K. E.; Thorne, P. W.; Wehner, M. F.; Gleckler, P. J.; Boyle, J. S.; Collins, W. D.; Dixon, K. W.; Doutriaux, C.; Free, M.; Fu, Q.; Hansen, J. E.; Jones, G. S.; Ruedy, R.; Karl, T. R.; Lanzante, J. R.; Meehl, G. A.; Ramaswamy, V.; Russell, G.; Schmidt, G. A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">280</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/40855719"> <span id="translatedtitle">A new, simple, general technique to predict seasonal <span class="hlt">variability</span> of river discharge and lake <span class="hlt">temperature</span> for lake ecosystem models</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The aim of this work is to present a new technique to predict seasonal <span class="hlt">variability</span> in tributary water discharge, lake water retention rate and lake <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (surface and deep water <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and stratification) when empirical data are missing, and the basic objective is to model ecosystem rather than hydrological processes. The main features of the technique are the curves (called</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lars Håkanson</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1996-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#">4</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#">5</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#">6</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#">7</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#">8</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#">9</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#">10</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> </div><!-- page_14 div --> <div id="page_15" class="hiddenDiv"> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#">4</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#">5</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#">6</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#">7</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#">8</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#">9</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#">10</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">281</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011OcScD...8..321S"> <span id="translatedtitle">Seasonal and inter-annual <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> in the bottom waters over the Black Sea shelf</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Long-term changes in the state of the Bottom Shelf Water (BSW) on the Western shelf of the Black Sea are assessed using analysis of intra- and inter-annual variations of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> as well as their relations to physical parameters of both shelf and deep-sea waters. First, large data sets of in-situ observations over the 20th century are compiled into high-resolution monthly climatology at different depth levels. Then, the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> anomalies from the climatic mean are calculated and aggregated into spatial compartments and seasonal bins to reveal temporal evolution of the BSW. For the purpose of this study the BSW is defined as such shelf water body between the seabed and the upper mixed layer (bounded by the ?? = 14.2 isopycnal) which has limited ability to mix vertically with oxygen-rich surface waters during the warm season (May-November) due to the formation of a seasonal pycnocline. The effects of atmospheric processes at the surface on the BSW are hence suppressed as well as the action of the "biological pump". The vertical extent of the near- bottom waters is determined based on energy considerations and the structure of the seasonal pycnocline, whilst the horizontal extent is controlled by the shelf break, where strong along-slope currents hinder exchanges with the deep sea. The BSW is shown to occupy nearly half of the area of the shelf during the summer stratification period. The potential of the BSW to ventilate horizontally during the warm season with the deep-sea waters is assessed using isopycnic analysis of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variations. A long-term time series of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> anomalies in the BSW is constructed from observations during the May-November period for the 2nd half of the 20th century. The results reveal a warm phase in the 1960s/70s, followed by cooling of the BSW during 1980-2001. The transition between the warm and cold periods coincides with a regime shift in the Black Sea ecosystem. While it was confirmed that the memory of winter convection events is well preserved over the following months in the deep sea, the signal of winter cooling in the Bottom Shelf Waters significantly reduces during the warm season. The time series of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in the BSW is highly correlated with the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of Cold Intermediate Waters in the deep sea thus indicating that the isopycnal exchanges with the deep sea are more important for inter-annual/inter-decadal <span class="hlt">variability</span> of the BSW on the Western Black Sea shelf than winter convection on the shelf itself.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Shapiro, G. I.; Wobus, F.; Aleynik, D. L.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">282</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011JMagR.212..355T"> <span id="translatedtitle">Development of a <span class="hlt">temperature-variable</span> magnetic resonance imaging system using a 1.0 T yokeless permanent magnet</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variable</span> magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) system has been developed using a 1.0 T permanent magnet. A permanent magnet, gradient coils, radiofrequency coil, and shim coil were installed in a <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variable</span> thermostatic bath. First, the variation in the magnetic field inhomogeneity with <span class="hlt">temperature</span> was measured. The inhomogeneity has a specific spatial symmetry, which scales linearly with <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, and a single-channel shim coil was designed to compensate for the inhomogeneity. The inhomogeneity was drastically reduced by shimming over a wide range of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> from -5 °C to 45 °C. MR images of an okra pod acquired at different <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> demonstrated the high potential of the system for visualizing thermally sensitive properties.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Terada, Y.; Tamada, D.; Kose, K.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">283</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20120008192&hterms=dataset&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3Ddataset"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Variability</span> of Surface <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> and Melt on the Greenland Ice Sheet, 2000-2011</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Enhanced melting along with surface-<span class="hlt">temperature</span> increases measured using infrared satellite data, have been documented for the Greenland Ice Sheet. Recently we developed a climate-quality data record of ice-surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (IST) of the Greenland Ice Sheet using the Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) 1ST product -- http://modis-snow-ice.gsfc.nasa.gov. Using daily and mean monthly MODIS 1ST maps from the data record we show maximum extent of melt for the ice sheet and its six major drainage basins for a 12-year period extending from March of 2000 through December of 2011. The duration of the melt season on the ice sheet varies in different drainage basins with some basins melting progressively earlier over the study period. Some (but not all) of the basins also show a progressively-longer duration of melt. The short time of the study period (approximately 12 years) precludes an evaluation of statistically-significant trends. However the dataset provides valuable information on natural <span class="hlt">variability</span> of IST, and on the ability of the MODIS instrument to capture changes in IST and melt conditions indifferent drainage basins of the ice sheet.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hall, Dorothy K.; Comiso, Josefino, C.; Shuman, Christopher A.; Koenig, Lora S.; DiGirolamo, Nicolo E.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">284</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009MAP...tmp...33T"> <span id="translatedtitle">Winter mean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> in Turkey associated with the North Atlantic Oscillation</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Changes and <span class="hlt">variability</span> in seasonal average mean and monthly mean winter (DJF) air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> series at 70 stations of Turkey and the circulation types at 500-hPa geopotential height level were investigated to explain atmospheric controls of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variations during the extreme (weak and strong) phases and normal (negative and positive) phases of the North Atlantic Oscillation (i.e., Ponta Delgada-Reykjavik and the Gibraltar-Reykjavik) indices. During the positive phases of the North Atlantic Oscillation indices (NAOIs), northeasterly circulation increased, and thus spatially coherent and significant cold signals dominate over the majority of Turkey. This pattern is closely linked to anomalously low 500-hPa heights over the region of the Icelandic Low, and anomalously high geopotential heights over the regions of the Azores High, the western Mediterranean basin and the Europe, in general including the Balkans and northwest Turkey. Contrarily, during the negative phases of the NAOIs, prevailing westerly winds that originate from the subtropical northeast Atlantic increase, and thus spatially coherent and significant warm signals over the Anatolian peninsula appear. This pattern is closely linked to the increased cyclonic activity and associated increased westerly and southwesterly circulation causing warm maritime air advection over the Mediterranean basin toward Turkey.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Türke?, Murat; Erlat, Ecmel</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">285</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013ClDy...41.2003H"> <span id="translatedtitle">Siberian high <span class="hlt">variability</span> and its teleconnections with tropical circulations and surface air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> over Saudi Arabia</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Based on a generated time series for the central pressure of the Siberian High, and on defining a robust Siberian High Index (SHI), the behavior of this atmospheric center of action is examined from 1949 to 2010 with regard to inter-annual variations, persistence, trends, abrupt changes, spectral analysis and interactions. The interannual <span class="hlt">variability</span> in the central pressure of the Siberian High is considerable. The mean downward linear and non-linear trend over the entire period (1949-2010) is estimated and is found to be statistically significant at the 95 % confidence level. Low frequency variation and linearity within the SHI time series are found from the persistence analysis. Using spectral analysis, the center of action of the Siberian High is characterized by non-periodic behavior; the peaks occur only at the lowest frequency and may be related to the Sea Surface <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> (SST) over the El Niño region. The Siberian High is affected by the Hadley circulation cell; there is no detectable connection between the Walker circulation cell and the Siberian High. SSTs over the El Niño region may affect the Siberian High. Interactions between the Siberian High and the SSTs over the tropical Atlantic Ocean are absent. The SHI is positively correlated to surface air <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> over Saudi Arabia, and this is statistically significant in the western and north-western regions.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hasanean, H. M.; Almazroui, M.; Jones, P. D.; Alamoudi, A. A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">286</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19940018864&hterms=emissivity+tungsten&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Demissivity%2Btungsten"> <span id="translatedtitle">Spatial and temporal <span class="hlt">variability</span> of soil <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, moisture and surface soil properties</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The overall objectives of this research were to: (l) Relate in-situ measured soil-water content and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> profiles to remotely sensed surface soil-water and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> conditions; to model simultaneous heat and water movement for spatially and temporally changing soil conditions; (2) Determine the spatial and temporal <span class="hlt">variability</span> of surface soil properties affecting emissivity, reflectance, and material and energy flux across the soil surface. This will include physical, chemical, and mineralogical characteristics of primary soil components and aggregate systems; and (3) Develop surface soil classes of naturally occurring and distributed soil property assemblages and group classes to be tested with respect to water content, emissivity and reflectivity. This document is a report of studies conducted during the period funded by NASA grants. The project was designed to be conducted over a five year period. Since funding was discontinued after three years, some of the research started was not completed. Additional publications are planned whenever funding can be obtained to finalize data analysis for both the arid and humid locations.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hajek, B. F.; Dane, J. H.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1993-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">287</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013APS..MART29002D"> <span id="translatedtitle">The equilibration of <span class="hlt">temperature</span>-like <span class="hlt">variables</span> in jammed granular subsystems</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Although jammed granular systems are athermal, several thermodynamic-like descriptions have been proposed which make quantitative predictions about the distribution of volume and stress within a system and provide a corresponding <span class="hlt">temperature</span>-like <span class="hlt">variable</span>. We perform experiments with an apparatus designed to generate a large number of independent, jammed, two-dimensional configurations. Each configuration consists of a single layer of photoelastic disks supported by a gentle layer of air. New configurations are generated by alternately dilating and re-compacting the system through a series of boundary displacements. Within each configuration, a bath of particles surrounds a smaller subsystem of particles with a different inter-particle friction coefficient than the bath. The use of photoelastic particles permits us to find all particle positions as well as the vector forces at each inter-particle contact. By comparing the <span class="hlt">temperature</span>-like quantities in both systems, we find compactivity (conjugate to the volume) does not equilibrate between the systems, while the angoricity (conjugate to the stress) does. Both independent components of the angoricity are linearly dependent on the hydrostatic pressure, in agreement with predictions of the stress ensemble.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Daniels, Karen; Puckett, James</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">288</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhydrol.2009.02.010"> <span id="translatedtitle">Ground and surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> for remote sensing of soil moisture in a heterogeneous landscape</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p class="result-summary">At the Little River Watershed (LRW) heterogeneous landscape near Tifton Georgia US an in situ network of stations operated by the US Department of Agriculture-Agriculture Research Service-Southeast Watershed Research Lab (USDA-ARS-SEWRL) was established in 2003 for the long term study of climatic and soil biophysical processes. To develop an accurate interpolation of the in situ readings that can be used to produce distributed representations of soil moisture (SM) and energy balances at the landscape scale for remote sensing studies, we studied (1) the temporal and spatial variations of ground <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (GT) and infra red <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (IRT) within 30 by 30 m plots around selected network stations; (2) the relationship between the readings from the eight 30 by 30 m plots and the point reading of the network stations for the <span class="hlt">variables</span> SM, GT and IRT; and (3) the spatial and temporal variation of GT and IRT within agriculture landuses: grass, orchard, peanuts, cotton and bare soil in the surrounding landscape. The results showed high correlations between the station readings and the adjacent 30 by 30 m plot average value for SM; high seasonal independent variation in the GT and IRT behavior among the eight 30 by 30 m plots; and site specific, in-field homogeneity in each 30 by 30 m plot. We found statistical differences in the GT and IRT between the different landuses as well as high correlations between GT and IRT regardless of the landuse. Greater standard deviations for IRT than for GT (in the range of 2-4) were found within the 30 by 30 m, suggesting that when a single point reading for this <span class="hlt">variable</span> is selected for the validation of either remote sensing data or water-energy models, errors may occur. The results confirmed that in this landscape homogeneous 30 by 30 m plots can be used as landscape spatial units for soil moisture and ground <span class="hlt">temperature</span> studies. Under this landscape conditions small plots can account for local expressions of environmental processes, decreasing the errors and uncertainties in remote sensing estimates caused by landscape heterogeneity.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Giraldo, M. A.; Bosch, D.; Madden, M.; Usery, L.; Finn, M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">289</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMOS51B1648F"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Variability</span> of Sea Surface <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Response to Tropical Cyclones along the NEC Bifurcation Latitude</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The east of the Philippines serves as an entry point to an annual average of 20 tropical cyclones. The ocean is dynamic where the North Equatorial Current (NEC) bifurcates into the Kurushio Current to the north and Mindanao Current to the south. The displacement and intensity of NEC bifurcation in the region varies seasonally and interannually driven by local monsoons and ENSO. The <span class="hlt">variability</span> of the NEC bifurcation latitude may alter the origins of the Kuroshio and modify the sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> field, which can alter the strength of the typhoons and upper ocean response. This paper aims to characterize the <span class="hlt">variability</span> of Sea Surface <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> (SST) Response to Tropical Cyclones along with the NEC Bifurcation latitude using daily merged product of the TRMM Microwave Imager (TMI) and Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer (AMSR-E), Sea Surface Height (SSH) and SSH Anomaly (SSHA) from AVISO and background climatological D26 (depth of 26 °C) and T100 (depth integrated <span class="hlt">temperature</span> up to 100 meters) from ARGO profiles and CTD data from WOA09 from 2003 to 2012. SSH measurements from this period were used as a proxy for determining the bifurcation latitude (YB). Characteristics of the meridional distribution from 0° to 30°N of D26 is homogenous along 10-15°N. Monthly mean D26 along 10-15°N, 125-145°E shows high correlation with YB . Variations of the D26 and T100 showed deepening and warming along with YB. Two regions were derived from meridional distribution of T100 namely BSouth (<15°N) where background climatological condition is warm all throughout the year with deep D26 and BNorth (>15°N), where background climatological condition is shallow (D26) and varies seasonally. These regions where used to compare <span class="hlt">variability</span> with respect to SST recovery time and the SST maximum change (?SSTmax) along with other factors such as TCs translation speed (TS) and intensity based on the Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Scale. Results showed that in both regions SST Recovery time is described as fast (<= 5day) when ?SSTmax is less than 1°C. Also, slow-moving TCs (TS < 4 m/s) is associated with maximum change in <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and most often with longer Recovery time (>5days). Difference between both regions can be described with respect to the ?SSTmax. Higher ?SSTmax of up to 7°C was observed on BNorth which can be attributed to colder water (Temp < 26) brought up to surface given a shallow D26 layer. Moreover, the presence of cold-core eddies (SSHA <0) contributes to higher maximum cooling on the region. On the other hand, ?SSTmax is up to 4°C in BSouth associated with deeper D26 of >= 100m allowing only warm water (Temp>26) to be brought to the surface.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Fernandez, I.; Villanoy, C. L.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">290</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001JGR...10626805T"> <span id="translatedtitle">Global patterns of decadal-scale <span class="hlt">variability</span> observed in sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and lower-tropospheric circulation fields</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The global patterns associated with decadal-scale <span class="hlt">variability</span> (DSV) are examined by a lag correlation technique based on local anomaly indices, using the fields of measured sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (SST) and 850 hPa geopotential height for the last 50 years. The three dominant patterns are identified, and the <span class="hlt">variability</span> is examined; the first spreads over the entire Pacific, which is concurrent with the decadal-scale modulation of the El Niño/Southern Oscillation (DES <span class="hlt">variability</span>), the second is confined to the local midlatitude North Pacific (LNP <span class="hlt">variability</span>), and the third extends over the North Atlantic with the decadal North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) (DNA <span class="hlt">variability</span>). The global SST pattern of DES <span class="hlt">variability</span> exhibits large-scale equatorial symmetry in the Pacific, which is similar to that of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation but is distinguished by the signals in the subtropical frontal zones. These SST anomalies are accompanied by anomalous subtropical highs that appear prior to the anomalous depression around Australia. The LNP <span class="hlt">variability</span>, which is related with the Arctic Oscillation, is characterized by the SST anomalies along the North Pacific subarctic frontal zone moving eastward accompanied by the anomalous Aleutian Low. This <span class="hlt">variability</span> develops (decays) without (with) coherent <span class="hlt">variability</span> in the tropics. It shows the 6-year quadrature phase relationship with the DES <span class="hlt">variability</span>, indicative of an interdecadal <span class="hlt">variability</span> with a period of 24 years. The DNA <span class="hlt">variability</span> is featured by the atmospheric NAO and by the SST anomalies in four zonal bands that spread in the North Atlantic from the tropics to high latitudes. This <span class="hlt">variability</span> is independent of either the DES or LNP <span class="hlt">variability</span>.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Tomita, Tomohiko; Wang, Bin; Yasunari, Tetsuzo; Nakamura, Hisashi</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2001-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">291</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMPP43C..04T"> <span id="translatedtitle">Orbital-scale summer precipitation and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> in central China reconstructed with leaf wax hydrogen isotopes and branched GDGTs</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Reconstructions of monsoon <span class="hlt">variability</span> on orbital time scales inform how the monsoon responds to large variations in forcing mechanisms (e.g., insolation, ice volume, greenhouse gases). The timing, or phase, of proxy response relative to forcing mechanisms (e.g., maximum insolation, maximum ice volume) can provide insights into which mechanisms control monsoon <span class="hlt">variability</span>. Furthermore, obtaining summer monsoon records from different regions of Asia provides information about the spatial expression of monsoon <span class="hlt">variability</span>. Deciphering which mechanisms control orbital-scale summer monsoon <span class="hlt">variability</span>, however, requires reconstructions using proxies that respond mainly to summer monsoon <span class="hlt">variability</span>. We present a 300-kyr-long, millennial-resolution record of Pleistocene summer monsoon precipitation <span class="hlt">variability</span> on the Chinese Loess Plateau, generated using leaf wax hydrogen isotopes. The loess plateau receives ca. 50% of total annual precipitation during the summer monsoon, and plants produce leaf waxes during the warm, wet summer months. Thus, leaf wax hydrogen isotopes reflect summer precipitation isotopes. Precipitation isotopes change in response to changes in transport history (e.g. source water isotope ratios, transport path, etc.), which is influenced by changes in monsoon strength. Precipitation isotopes are also affected by local condensation <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, which we account for using an independent <span class="hlt">temperature</span> proxy, branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers. We present these independent monsoon and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> records and examine implications for mechanisms controlling monsoon <span class="hlt">variability</span> in central China.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Thomas, E. K.; Clemens, S. C.; Prell, W. L.; Sun, Y.; Huang, Y.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">292</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ClDy..tmp...98G"> <span id="translatedtitle">Observed and SST-forced multidecadal <span class="hlt">variability</span> in global land surface air <span class="hlt">temperature</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The characteristics of multidecadal <span class="hlt">variability</span> (MDV) in global land surface air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (SAT) are analyzed based on observations. The role of sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (SST) variations in generating MDV in land SAT is assessed using atmospheric general circulation model simulations forced by observed SST. MDV in land SAT exhibits regional differences, with amplitude larger than 0.3 °C mainly over North America, East Asia, Northern Eurasia, Northern Africa and Greenland for the study period of 1902-2004. MDV can account for more than 30 % of long-term <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variation during the last century in most regions, especially more than 50 % in parts of the above-mentioned regions. The SST-forced simulations reproduce the observed feature of zonal mean MDV in land SAT, though with weaker amplitude especially at the northern high-latitudes. Two types of MDV in land SAT, one of 60-year-timescale, mainly observed in the northern mid-high-latitude lands, and another of 20-30-year-timescale, mainly observed in the low-latitude lands, are also well reproduced. The SST-forced MDV accounts for more than 40 % amplitude of observed MDV in most regions. Except for some sporadically distributed regions in central Eurasia, South America and Western Australia, the SST-forced multidecadal variations are well in-phase with observations. The Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation and Pacific Decadal Oscillation signals are found dominant in MDV of both the observed and SST-forced land SAT, suggesting important roles of these oceanic oscillations in generating MDV in global land SAT.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Gao, L. H.; Yan, Z. W.; Quan, X. W.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">293</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011GPC....76...95O"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Variability</span> in precipitation, <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and river runoff in W Central Asia during the past ~ 2000 yrs</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The tributary rivers Amu Darya and Syr Darya contribute major amounts of water to the hydrological budget of the endorheic Aral Sea. Processes controlling the flow of water into rivers in the headwater systems in Tien Shan (Kyrgyzstan) and Pamir (Tajikistan) are therefore most relevant. Lake water mineralization is strongly dependent on river discharge and has been inferred from spectrometrically determined gypsum and other salt contents. Comparison of high-resolution mineralization data with tree ring data, other proxies for tracing <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and snow cover in NW China, and accumulation rates in the Guliya Ice Core indicate that mineralization over the past ~ 2000 yrs in the Aral Sea reflects snow cover <span class="hlt">variability</span> and glacier extent in Tien Shan and Pamir (at the NW and W edges of the Tibetan Plateau). Snow cover in W Central Asia is preferentially a winter expression controlled by <span class="hlt">temperature</span> patterns that impact the moisture-loading capacity over N Europe and NW Asia (Clark et al., 1999). We observed that the runoff, resulting from warmer winter <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> in W Central Asia and resulting in a reduction of snow cover, decreased between AD 100-300, AD 1150-1250, AD 1380-1450, AD 1580-1680 and during several low frequency events after AD 1800. Furthermore, we observed a negative relationship between the amount of mineralization in the Aral Sea and SW summer monsoon intensity starting with the Little Ice Age. Based on these observations, we conclude that the lake level changes during the past ~ 2000 yrs were mostly climatically controlled. Around AD 200, AD 1400 and during the late 20th century AD, human activities (namely irrigation) may also have synergistically influenced discharge dynamics in the lower river courses.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Oberhänsli, Hedi; Novotná, Kate?ina; Píšková, Anna; Chabrillat, Sabine; Nourgaliev, Danis K.; Kurbaniyazov, Abilgazy K.; Matys Grygar, Tomáš</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">294</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002EGSGA..27..660G"> <span id="translatedtitle">Interannual <span class="hlt">Variability</span> of The Black Sea Surface <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> As Revealed From Satellite Data (1981-2000)</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Nighttime weekly Multi-Channel Sea Surface <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> (MCSST) data set based on NOAA AVHRR radiometer measurements (spatial and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> resolution of about 18 km and 0.1 C, respectively) during the period November 1981-December 2000 was used to trace interannual <span class="hlt">variability</span> of thermal regime of the Black Sea surface layer, particularly of extreme summer and winter SST values and long-term <span class="hlt">temperature</span> trend. Weekly mean SST both of the whole basin and of its western and eastern deep-sea areas were calculated and analyzed. It turned out that the most se- vere winters were in 1985, 1987, 1992 and 1993 (weekly SST minimum of 5.3-5.5 C), the most mild in 1982, 1984, 1988, 1995 and 1999 (6.8, 7.0, 7.1, 7.2 and 7.8 C, respectively). Since 1994 winter SST was not less than 6.3 C. A minimum summer ex- treme SST was observed in 1982 and 1984 (23.5 C), a maximum in 1991, 1992, 1998 and 1999 (25.7, 25.9, 26.9 and 26.4 C). The greatest intraannual ranges of SST were in 1987, 1992 and 1998 (19.8, 20.4 and 20.3 C, respectively). Most of the marked anomalies of summer and winter SST occurred either during the El Nino/La Nina global events (El Nino in 1982-1983, 1986-1988, 1989-1995 and 1997-1998; La Nina in 1998-2000) or some months later. Positive trend of mean SST of the Black Sea of about 0.09 C per year over the period of consideration was revealed, the western deep-sea region getting warm more slowly (about 0.08 C per year) as compared with the eastern one (about 0.11 C per year).</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ginzburg, A. I.; Kostianoy, A. G.; Sheremet, N. A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">295</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..12.3226F"> <span id="translatedtitle">Spatio-temporal <span class="hlt">variability</span> of extreme <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> in the Iberian Peninsula.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Climate change is manifested not only by changes in mean values, but also in the occurrence of extremes. In this work, the spatial-temporal <span class="hlt">variability</span> of the frequency of extreme <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> in the Iberian Peninsula during the period 1919-2008 is analysed. From daily data of maximum and minimum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in 25 stations across the Iberian Peninsula, the frequencies of cold days/nights in extended winter (accumulated from November to April), and warm days/nights in the extended summer (May to October) are analysed. Threshold values to define an extreme have been assessed for every month at each station. A cold day (night) is defined in a given month when maximum (minimum) <span class="hlt">temperature</span> is lesser than the 10th percentile of the daily distribution of <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> of that month corresponding to the reference period 1971-2000, and a warm day (night) when maximum (minimum) <span class="hlt">temperature</span> is higher than the 90th percentile of the distribution for the reference period. These indices correspond to moderate extremes, but they are probably related to major impacts of extreme events. Principal component analysis in s-mode of these indices is made, using Varimax normalized rotation. Results show that the frequency of cold extremes in winter has decreased, while the frequency of warm extremes in summer has increased during the period analysed. It is worth highlighting the following regional patterns: -A sharp increase in the summer frequency of warm nights in the East and Southeast of the IP since 1990 to the present. -A progressive increase in the summer occurrences of warm days, more remarkable in the North fringe of the IP and Mediterranean Coast. -A slight reduction in the winter frequency of cold nights since 1970 to the present, mainly significant for South Mediterranean and South Atlantic regions. -A widespread decrease in the winter frequency of cold days, significant for the whole IP (except in the North). In central and Western parts of the IP stand out a long-term pattern of decreasing cold days, while in the Mediterranean Fringe this change is remarkable since 1970.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Fernández-Montes, Sonia; Rodrigo, Fernando S.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">296</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001IJCli..21.1779B"> <span id="translatedtitle">Regional <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> in the European Alps: 1760-1998 from homogenized instrumental time series</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper investigates <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> in the Alps and their surroundings based on 97 instrumental series of monthly mean <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. A discussion of the initial homogenizing procedure illustrates its advantages and risks. A comparison of the homogenized series with the original series clearly shows the necessity to homogenize. Each of the original series had breaks (an average of five per series) and the mean of all series was systematically biased by non-climatic noise. This noise has subdued the long-term amplitude of the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> evolution in the region by 0.5 K. The relatively high spatial resolution of the data enabled a regionalization within the study area of 680 000 km2 into six sub-regions based on principal component analysis of the monthly series. Long-term <span class="hlt">temperature</span> evolution proved to be highly similar across the region - thus making a mean series (averaged over all 97 single series) representative of the study area. Trend analysis (based on progressive forward and backward Mann-Kendall statistics and on progressive analysis of linear regression coefficients) was performed on seasonal and annual series. The results diverge from those of global datasets. This is mainly due to the extension of the 240-year Alpine dataset by 100 years prior to the mid-19th century, and also due to the advantages of a dense and homogenized regional dataset. The long-term features include an initial decrease of the annual and seasonal series to a minimum followed by a positive trend until 1998. The minima are 1890 for the entire year and winter, 1840 for spring and 1920 for summer and autumn, respectively. The initial decreasing trend is more evident in spring and summer, less in autumn and smallest in winter. The mean annual <span class="hlt">temperature</span> increase since 1890 in the Alps is 1.1 K, which is twice as much as the 0.55 K in the respective grid boxes of the most frequently used global dataset of the Climatic Research Unit (CRU), University of East Anglia. To enable an easier and more systematic handling of the dataset, these data have been interpolated to a 1°×1° longitude-latitude grid. The 105 low-elevation and 16 high-elevation grid point series are widely available without restrictions for scientific research and can be obtained from the authors.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Böhm, Reinhard; Auer, Ingeborg; Brunetti, Michele; Maugeri, Maurizio; Nanni, Teresa; Schöner, Wolfgang</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2001-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">297</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013ThApC.tmp..272J"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Variability</span> and trends in daily minimum and maximum <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> and in the diurnal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> range in Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia in 1951-2010</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Spatial distribution and trends in mean and absolute maximum and minimum <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> and in the diurnal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> range were analysed at 47 stations in the eastern Baltic region (Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia) during 1951-2010. Dependence of the studied <span class="hlt">variables</span> on geographical factors (latitude, the Baltic Sea, land elevation) is discussed. Statistically significant increasing trends in maximum and minimum <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> were detected for March, April, July, August and annual values. At the majority of stations, the increase was detected also in February and May in case of maximum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and in January and May in case of minimum <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. Warming was slightly higher in the northern part of the study area, i.e. in Estonia. Trends in the diurnal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> range differ seasonally. The highest increasing trend revealed in April and, at some stations, also in May, July and August. Negative and mostly insignificant changes have occurred in January, February, March and June. The annual <span class="hlt">temperature</span> range has not changed.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jaagus, Jaak; Briede, Agrita; Rimkus, Egidijus; Remm, Kalle</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">298</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009EGUGA..1111080M"> <span id="translatedtitle">Southern Ocean sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> across the Plio-Pleistocene Climatic Transition</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Pliocene climate is considered to provide an accessible scenario for assessing the sensitivity of the climate system in a future warming world. Paleotemperature reconstructions of this period and the subsequent transition to colder climate conditions are hence essential for assessing hypotheses and validation of climate models. Previous studies have focused in the low latitudes and to a lesser extent in the high northern latitudes, but no quantitative paleotemperature estimates have previously been available from the Southern Ocean (SO), a key region in the regulation of global climate. Here we report the first continuous high-resolution reconstruction of Subantarctic (ODP Site 1090) Plio-Pleistocene sea surface <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> (SST), which shade light on Antarctic criosphere evolution and SO millennial-scale <span class="hlt">variability</span> across the last 3.65 My. This record reveals a 4-5°C warmer but highly <span class="hlt">variable</span> Pliocene SO, which may be consistent with the persistence of a dynamic east Antarctic ice-sheet (EAIS) through the late Pliocene and early Pleistocene. In favour of this interpretation the evolutive spectra of our SST record show precession phasing during the late Pliocene and early Pleistocene, providing a strong field evidence in favour of the novel interpretation of the Milankovitch theory recently proposed by Raymo et al 2006. However, our data suggest that the change towards a obliquity-driven marine-based EAIS proposed by Raymo et al to occur around 1 Ma, start to took place as early as around 1.5Ma. These findings have hence great implications for our understanding of Antarctic climate evolution, the interpretation of the Plio-Pleistocene ?18O record, and the Milankovith theory of climate.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Martinez-Garcia, A.; Rosell-Melé, A.; Haug, G.; McClymont, E. L.; Gersonde, R.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">299</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20010015246&hterms=surface+area&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dsurface%2Barea"> <span id="translatedtitle">Satellite Observed <span class="hlt">Variability</span> in Antarctic and Arctic Surface <span class="hlt">Temperatures</span> and Their Correlation to Open Water Areas</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Recent studies using meterological station data have indicated that global surface air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> has been increasing at a rate of 0.05 K/decade. Using the same set of data but for stations in the Antarctic and Arctic regions (>50 N) only, the increases in <span class="hlt">temperature</span> were 0.08, and 0.22 K/decade, when record lengths of 100 and 50 years, respectively, were used. To gain insights into the increasing rate of warming, satellite infrared and passive microwave observations over the Arctic region during the last 20 years were processed and analyzed. The results show that during this period, the ice extent in the Antarctic has been increasing at the rate of 1.2% per decade while the surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> has been decreasing at about 0.08 K per decade. Conversely, in the Northern Hemisphere, the ice extent has been decreasing at a rate of 2.8% per decade, while the surface <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> have been increasing at the rate of 0.38 K per decade. In the Antarctic, it is surprising that there is a short term trend of cooling during a global period of warming. Very large anomalies in open water areas in the Arctic were observed especially in the western region, that includes the Beaufort Sea, where the observed open water area was about 1x10(exp 6) sq km, about twice the average for the region, during the summer of 1998. In the eastern region, that includes the Laptev Sea, the area of open water was also abnormally large in the summer of 1995. Note that globally, the warmest and second warmest years in this century, were 1998 and 1995, respectively. The data, however, show large spatial <span class="hlt">variability</span> with the open water area distribution showing a cyclic periodicity of about ten years, which is akin to the North Atlantic and Arctic Oscillations. This was observed in both western and eastern regions but with the phase of one lagging the other by about two years. This makes it difficult to interpret what the trends really mean. But although the record length of satellite data is still relatively short and the climate trend difficult to establish, the immediate impact of a continued warming trend may be very profound.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Comiso, Josefino C.; Zukor, Dorothy (Technical Monitor)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2000-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">300</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..12.8454I"> <span id="translatedtitle">Interannual to decadal summer drought <span class="hlt">variability</span> over Europe and its relationship with global sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Variability</span> and predictability of European summer drought conditions during observational period is investigated. The dominat patterns of European drought and their associated large-scale climatic anomalies are identified through canonical correlation analysis (CCA) of the field of self calibrating Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) and global sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (SST) anomalies. At interannual time scales we identified patterns of drought <span class="hlt">variability</span> which are optimally correlated with SST patterns from previous years. The time lag between drought and SST anomaly patterns can provide valuable skill for the prediction of drought conditions over Europe on interannual time scales. Significant lag-correlation between drought patterns and the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) suggests that NAO can be used also as a potential predictor of drought European patterns at interannual time scales. The global trend in <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) play a significant role in establishing the drought conditions over Europe at multidecadal time scales. The influences of these climatic patterns on drought conditions at multidecadal time scales were identified also through CCA. The first PDSI pattern (CCA1) shows a dipole-like structure between the central Europe and the northern part of the Scandinavian Peninsula. The corresponding SST pattern is a mixture between the global SST trend and the abrupt shift in the 1970s. Wet (dry) conditions over central Europe (Scandinavia) are associated with a strong positive SST center south of Greenland and a strong negative center over the European coast and the North Sea. The third mode (CCA3) identifies a multidecadal scale variation, strongly related to summer drought conditions over the southern part of the Scandinavian Peninsula, the south-eastern part of Europe and the western part of Russia. The corresponding SST pattern shows SST anomalies in the Atlantic basin similar to those associated with AMO. The AMO index and the canonical time series associated to CCA3 are significantly correlated. Possible drought conditions over Europe in the next decades based on the relationships between large-scale SST patterns and drought conditions over Europe, established in our study, are discussed.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ionita, Monica; Lohmann, Gerrit; Rimbu, Norel; Chelcea, Silvia</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#">4</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#">5</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#">6</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#">7</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#">8</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#">9</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#">10</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> </div><!-- page_15 div --> <div id="page_16" class="hiddenDiv"> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#">4</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#">5</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#">6</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#">7</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#">8</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#">9</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#">10</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">301</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/98WR01572"> <span id="translatedtitle">Field study and simulation of diurnal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> effects on infiltration and <span class="hlt">variably</span> saturated flow beneath an ephemeral stream</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Two experiments were performed to investigate flow beneath an ephemeral stream and to estimate streambed infiltration rates. Discharge and stream-area measurements were used to determine infiltration rates. Stream and subsurface <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> were used to interpret subsurface flow through <span class="hlt">variably</span> saturated sediments beneath the stream. Spatial variations in subsurface <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> suggest that flow beneath the streambed is dependent on the orientation of the stream in the canyon and the layering of the sediments. Streamflow and infiltration rates vary diurnally: Stream flow is lowest in late afternoon when stream <span class="hlt">temperature</span> is greatest and highest in early morning when stream <span class="hlt">temperature</span> is least. The lower afternoon streamflow is attributed to increased infiltration rates; evapotranspiration is insufficient to account for the decreased streamflow. The increased infiltration rates are attributed to viscosity effects on hydraulic conductivity from increased stream <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. The first set of field data was used to calibrate a two-dimensional <span class="hlt">variably</span> saturated flow model that includes heat transport. The model was calibrated to (1) <span class="hlt">temperature</span> fluctuations in the subsurface and (2) infiltration rates determined from measured stream flow losses. The second set of field data was to evaluate the ability to predict infiltration rates on the basis of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> measurements alone. Results indicate that the <span class="hlt">variably</span> saturated subsurface flow depends on downcanyon layering of the sediments. They also support the field observations in indicating that diurnal changes in infiltration can be explained by <span class="hlt">temperature</span> dependence of hydraulic conductivity. Over the range of <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> and flows monitored, diurnal stream <span class="hlt">temperature</span> changes can be used to estimate streambed infiltration rates. It is often impractical to maintain equipment for determining infiltration rates by traditional means; however, once a model is calibrated using both infiltration and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> data, only relatively inexpensive <span class="hlt">temperature</span> monitoring can later yield infiltration rates that are within the correct order of magnitude.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ronan, A. D.; Prudic, D. E.; Thodal, C. E.; Constantz, J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1998-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">302</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013PhDT........87L"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Variable</span> <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> SiO2 Stripes Spectroscopy Taken by Customized Scattering Type Scanning Near-field Optical Microscopy</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Variable</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> scattering-type scanning near-field optical microscopy is the system we built up from basis to explore the phase transition under low <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. It has advantages of be able to take topography and spectroscopy simultaneously. What the SNOM system measures is the reflective effivient, it is determinde by the dielectric value of the sample, which is an intrinsic chemical propertiy. In this experiment, we taken spectroscopy of a sample with silicon dioxide stripes doped on the silicon substrate, get the contrast of silicon/silison dioxide, which is accord to the prediction of two models. Furthermore, the different contrast under various <span class="hlt">temperature</span> reveals the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> dependent dielectric function.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Li, Chaoran</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">303</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20120006480&hterms=variable+viscosity+applications&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dvariable%2Bviscosity%2Bapplications"> <span id="translatedtitle">Design of a High <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Radiator for the <span class="hlt">Variable</span> Specific Impulse Magnetoplasma Rocket</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The <span class="hlt">Variable</span> Specific Impulse Magnetoplasma Rocket (VASIMR), currently under development by Ad Astra Rocket Company (Webster, TX), is a unique propulsion system that could change the way space propulsion is performed. VASIMR's efficiency, when compared to that of a conventional chemical rocket, reduces the propellant needed for exploration missions by a factor of 10. Currently plans include flight tests of a 200 kW VASIMR system, titled VF-200, on the International Space Station (ISS). The VF-200 will consist of two 100 kW thruster units packaged together in one engine bus. Each thruster core generates 27 kW of waste heat during its 15 minute firing time. The rocket core will be maintained between 283 and 573 K by a pumped thermal control loop. The design of a high <span class="hlt">temperature</span> radiator is a unique challenge for the vehicle design. This paper will discuss the path taken to develop a steady state and transient-based radiator design. The paper will describe the radiator design option selected for the VASIMR thermal control system for use on ISS, and how the system relates to future exploration vehicles.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sheth, Rubik B.; Ungar, Eugene K.; Chambliss, Joe P.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">304</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/40126287"> <span id="translatedtitle">Analysis of <span class="hlt">variability</span> and diurnal range of daily <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in a nested regional climate model: comparison with observations and doubled CO 2 results</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Analysis of daily <span class="hlt">variability</span> of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in climate model experiments is important as a model diagnostic and for determination of how such <span class="hlt">variability</span> may change under perturbed climate conditions. The latter could be important from a climate impacts perspective. We analyze daily mean, diurnal range and <span class="hlt">variability</span> of surface air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in two continuous 3 1\\/2 year long climate simulations</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">L. O. Mearns; F. Giorgi; L. McDaniel; C. Shields</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1995-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">305</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=N9113665"> <span id="translatedtitle">Modelisation d'UN Jet Diphasique Turbulent Jusqu'a Son Auto-Inflammation dans Une Enceinte a Pression et <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> <span class="hlt">Variables</span> (Modelization of Two Phase Turbulent Jet Up to Its Auto Ignition in <span class="hlt">Variable</span> Pressure and <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Environments).</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The direct model used for the modelization of the fuel injection in <span class="hlt">variable</span> pressure and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> environments is presented. The equations and the numerical method used for solving this problem are described. The code changes are given, with a view to...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">G. Fluzin</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1990-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">306</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.H44D..05G"> <span id="translatedtitle">Inter-Annual <span class="hlt">Variability</span> in Stream Water <span class="hlt">Temperature</span>, Microclimate and Heat Exchanges: a Comparison of Forest and Moorland Environments</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Riparian forest is recognised as important for moderating stream <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> and has the potential to mitigate thermal extremes in a changing climate. Previous research on the heat exchanges controlling water column <span class="hlt">temperature</span> has often been short-term or seasonally-constrained, with the few multi-year studies limited to a maximum of two years. This study advances previous work by providing a longer-term perspective which allows assessment of inter-annual <span class="hlt">variability</span> in stream <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, microclimate and heat exchange dynamics between a semi-natural woodland and a moorland (no trees) reach of the Girnock Burn, a tributary of the Scottish Dee. Automatic weather stations collected 15-minute data over seven consecutive years, which to our knowledge is a unique data set in providing the longest term perspective to date on stream <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, microclimate and heat exchange processes. Results for spring-summer indicate that the presence of a riparian canopy has a consistent effect between years in reducing the magnitude and <span class="hlt">variability</span> of mean daily water column <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and daily net energy totals. Differences in the magnitude and <span class="hlt">variability</span> in net energy fluxes between the study reaches were driven primarily by fluctuations in net radiation and latent heat fluxes in response to between- and within-year <span class="hlt">variability</span> in growth of the riparian forest canopy at the forest and prevailing weather conditions at both the forest and moorland. This research provides new insights on the inter-annual <span class="hlt">variability</span> of stream energy exchanges for moorland and forested reaches under a wide range of climatological and hydrological conditions. The findings therefore provide a more robust process basis for modelling the impact of changes in forest practice and climate change on river thermal dynamics.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Garner, G.; Hannah, D. M.; Malcolm, I.; Sadler, J. P.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">307</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/19868789"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Variable-temperature</span> characterization of NbTi strands in the low critical-current density range</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">A facility for the characterization of superconducting strands at <span class="hlt">variable</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> has been recently upgraded at ENEA. Measurement of transport properties of superconducting strands can be now carried out in the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> range from 3.5 K to 15 K, with stability less than 10 mK, and in magnetic fields up to 12.5 T, covering a range of critical currents between</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">L Affinito; S Chiarelli; V Corato; A della Corte; G De Marzi; A Di Zenobio; C Fiamozzi Zignani; G Messina; L Muzzi; M Napolitano; S Turtù</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">308</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/42041929"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Variability</span> of core layer <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (CLT) of the North Pacific subtropical mode water</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">A time series of the core layer <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (CLT) of the North Pacific subtropical mode water for the 40-year period from 1957 to 1996 is constructed using all available <span class="hlt">temperature</span> profiles archived in World Ocean Database 1998. CLT is defined as the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of the layer having the minimum vertical <span class="hlt">temperature</span> gradient at a single profile, with <span class="hlt">temperature</span> ranging from</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kimio Hanawa; Jun Kamada</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2001-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">309</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008E%26PSL.270...86K"> <span id="translatedtitle">Spatial <span class="hlt">variability</span> in subsurface warming over the last three decades; insight from repeated borehole <span class="hlt">temperature</span> measurements in The Netherlands</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Subsurface <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> around the world are changing in response to accelerated surface atmospheric <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (SAT) rise, but are also impacted by other natural and anthropogenic changes in surface environmental conditions which alter the surface energy balance. Improved understanding of the latter influences is important for geothermal climate applications and to generate a comprehensive knowledge-framework of subsurface warming, including inherent spatial <span class="hlt">variability</span>. Here I examine sixteen wells in a relatively small area in The Netherlands, each with two available <span class="hlt">temperature</span> logs recorded some three decades apart. <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> differences of the log pairs reveal marked differences in subsurface warming amongst the wells for this time period. Forward modelling of the observed <span class="hlt">temperature</span> changes, using surface air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (SAT) forcing, shows that a considerable part of this inter-site <span class="hlt">variability</span> may be caused by inter-site differences in thermal properties and groundwater flow conditions. However, for some of the wells these factors are insufficient, implying contributions from non-SAT-driven changes in ground surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (GST). In one case an anomalous decrease in GST can be linked to back-growth of the canopy after forest cutting. For another well site, GST warming has been less than SAT warming in the absence of apparent changes in surface conditions, indicating local, subtle influences on the surface energy balance independent of SAT. The results demonstrate that repeated borehole <span class="hlt">temperature</span> logging resolves key uncertainties and ambiguities pertaining to interpretation of individual <span class="hlt">temperature</span> logs. The study further highlights the importance of establishing high-quality borehole <span class="hlt">temperature</span> databases, also for these relatively complex settings with dynamic and <span class="hlt">variable</span> surface conditions.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kooi, Henk</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">310</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012DSRII..65..208B"> <span id="translatedtitle">Do walleye pollock exhibit flexibility in where or when they spawn based on <span class="hlt">variability</span> in water <span class="hlt">temperature</span>?</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Environmental <span class="hlt">variability</span> is increasingly recognized as a primary determinant of year-class strength of marine fishes by directly or indirectly influencing egg and larval development, growth, and survival. Here we examined the role of annual water <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> in determining when and where walleye pollock (Theragra chalcogramma) spawn in the eastern Bering Sea. Walleye pollock spawning was examined using both long-term ichthyoplankton data (N=19 years), as well as with historical spatially explicit, foreign-reported, commercial catch data occurring during the primary walleye pollock spawning season (February-May) each year (N=22 years in total). We constructed <span class="hlt">variable</span>-coefficient generalized additive models (GAMs) to relate the spatially explicit egg or adult catch-per-unit-effort (CPUE) to predictor <span class="hlt">variables</span> including spawning stock biomass, season, position, and water <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. The adjusted R2 value was 63.1% for the egg CPUE model and 35.5% for the adult CPUE model. Both egg and adult GAMs suggest that spawning progresses seasonally from Bogoslof Island in February and March to Outer Domain waters between the Pribilof and Unimak Islands by May. Most importantly, walleye pollock egg and adult CPUE was predicted to generally increase throughout the study area as mean annual water <span class="hlt">temperature</span> increased. These results suggest low interannual <span class="hlt">variability</span> in the spatial and temporal dynamics of walleye pollock spawning regardless of changes in environmental conditions, at least at the spatial scale examined in this study and within the time frame of decades.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bacheler, Nathan M.; Ciannelli, Lorenzo; Bailey, Kevin M.; Bartolino, Valerio</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">311</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012IJT....33..363C"> <span id="translatedtitle">Application of Differential Transform Method to Thermoelastic Problem for Annular Disks of <span class="hlt">Variable</span> Thickness with <span class="hlt">Temperature</span>-Dependent Parameters</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This article analyzes the one-dimensional steady <span class="hlt">temperature</span> field and related thermal stresses in an annular disk of <span class="hlt">variable</span> thickness that has a <span class="hlt">temperature</span>-dependent heat transfer coefficient and is capable of <span class="hlt">temperature</span>-dependent internal heat generation. The <span class="hlt">temperature</span> dependencies of the thermal conductivity, Young's modulus, and the coefficient of linear thermal expansion of the disk are considered, whereas Poisson's ratio is assumed to be constant. The differential transform method (DTM) is employed to analyze not only the nonlinear heat conduction but also the resulting thermal stresses. Analytical solutions are developed for the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and thermal stresses in the form of simple power series. Numerical calculations are performed for an annular cooling/heating fin of <span class="hlt">variable</span> thickness. Numerical results show that the sufficiently converged analytical solutions are in good agreement with the solutions obtained by the Adomian decomposition method and give the effects of the <span class="hlt">temperature</span>-dependent parameters on the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and thermal stress profiles in the disk. The DTM is useful as a new analytical method for solving thermoelastic problems for a body with <span class="hlt">temperature</span>-dependent parameters including material properties.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Chiba, Ryoichi</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">312</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=x%2bray&id=EJ770215"> <span id="translatedtitle">Using <span class="hlt">Variable</span> <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Powder X-Ray Diffraction to Determine the Thermal Expansion Coefficient of Solid MgO</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A laboratory exercise was developed by using <span class="hlt">variable</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) to determine [alpha] for MgO (periclase)and was tested in the Applied Physical Chemistry and Materials Characterization Laboratories at James Madison University. The experiment which was originally designed to provide undergraduate students with a…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Corsepius, Nicholas C.; DeVore, Thomas C.; Reisner, Barbara A.; Warnaar, Deborah L.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">313</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/44461755"> <span id="translatedtitle">Rainfall <span class="hlt">Variability</span> in Equatorial and Southern Africa: Relationships with Sea Surface <span class="hlt">Temperatures</span> along the Southwestern Coast of Africa</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">This article presents the results of an analysis of sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (SST) fluctuations in the upwelling region along the Benguela coat and its relationship to rainfall <span class="hlt">variability</span> both along the coast and throughout equatorial and southern Africa. The analysis incorporates compositing and time series analysis. Coastal rainfall is markedly enhanced during warm-water years and suppressed during cold-water years. The</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sharon E. Nicholson; Dara Entekhabi</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1987-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">314</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=ADA253075"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Variable</span> <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Scanning Tunneling Microscopy Studies of the Charge Density Wave Phases in Tantalum Disulfide. (Reannouncement with New Availability Information).</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Variable</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> scanning tunneling microscopy has been used to elucidate details of the nearly commensurate charge density wave (CDW) phase in 1T-TaS 2. Large-area images show that the nearly commensurate phase has a hexagonal domain structure, and t...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">X. L. Wu C. M. Lieber</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1991-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">315</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.agu.org/journals/pa/pa0704/2007PA001502/2007PA001502.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">A 28-ka history of sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, primary productivity and planktonic community <span class="hlt">variability</span> in the western Arabian Sea</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Uranium series radionuclides and organic biomarkers, which represent major groups of planktonic organisms, were measured in western Arabian Sea sediments that span the past 28 ka. <span class="hlt">Variability</span> in the past strength of the southwest and northeast monsoons and its influence on primary productivity, sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (SST), and planktonic community structure were investigated. The average alkenone-derived SST for the last</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ali Pourmand; Franco Marcantonio; Thomas S. Bianchi; Elizabeth A. Canuel; Elizabeth J. Waterson</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">316</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15074993"> <span id="translatedtitle">The decamethylferrocene(+/0) electrode reaction in organic solvents at <span class="hlt">variable</span> pressure and <span class="hlt">temperature</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Half-wave potentials E(1/2) relative to a Ag/Ag(+) electrode, mean diffusion coefficients D, and standard electrode reaction rate constants k(el) are reported for the decamethylferrocene(+/0) couple (DmFc(+/0)) in nine organic solvents at <span class="hlt">variable</span> pressure and (for five solvents) <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. Limited data on the ferrocene(+/0) (Fc(+/0)) and Fe(phen)(3)(3+/2+) electrode reactions are included for comparison. Although E(1/2) for DmFc(+/0) correlates only loosely with the reciprocal of the solvent dielectric constant epsilon at ambient pressure, its pressure dependence expressed as the volume of reaction Delta V(cell) is a linear function of Phi = (1/epsilon)( partial differential ln epsilon/ partial differential P)(T) (the Drude-Nernst relation). Interpretation of the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> dependence data is made difficult by enthalpy-entropy compensation. Measurements of D for solutions containing 0.5 mol L(-1) tetrabutylammonium perchlorate (TBAP) at 25 degrees C and ambient pressure are inversely proportional to the viscosities eta of the pure solvents as expected from the Stokes-Einstein relation, despite the fact that increasing [TBAP] results in increased eta. The activation volume Delta V(diff)(++) for diffusion of DmFc(+/0) ranges from 7 to 17 cm(3) mol(-1) and generally increases with increasing eta and thus with increasing [TBAP]. The activation volumes Delta V(el)(++) for the electrode reactions of DmFc(+/0) and Fc(+/0) are all positive, equaling the corresponding Delta V(diff)(++) values within the experimental uncertainty and contrast sharply with the negative Delta V(ex)(++) values characteristic of the corresponding self-exchange reactions in homogeneous solution. These facts, together with the thermal activation parameters, point to solvent dynamical control of the electrode (but not the homogeneous self-exchange) reactions. The apparent radii of the electroactive species according to the Drude-Nernst and Stokes-Einstein relations cannot be satisfactorily related to their crystallographic radii and are better regarded as adjustable parameters with limited physical significance. PMID:15074993</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Matsumoto, Mitsuru; Swaddle, Thomas W</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-04-19</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">317</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFMGC23B0953P"> <span id="translatedtitle">Space-time decomposition of global Sea Surface <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> using Multichannel Empirical Orthogonal Teleconnection analysis</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">With earth observation data, one of the primary concerns is the discovery of recurrent patterns over time. For example, the ENSO phenomenon is a major climatological pattern of global significance. As a spatial/two-dimensional extension of Singular Spectrum Analysis (SSA), Multichannel Singular Spectrum Analysis (MSSA) seeks to uncover the temporal evolution of recurrent space-time patterns within a specified time frame (known as the embedding dimension) by a method of spectral decomposition equivalent to Extended Principal Components Analysis. However, it suffers from the same limitations as PCA with regard to the propensity to develop components that are mixtures of multiple dominant patterns. In this paper we introduce a novel procedure we call Multichannel Empirical Orthogonal Teleconnection (MEOT) analysis as a simple extension of the logic of Empirical Orthogonal Teleconnections (EOT). A global sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> dataset spanning the 1982-2007 time period is utilized to explore the similarities and differences between MSSA and MEOT. The techniques are applied with a 13 month embedding dimension to extract spatio-temporal patterns that exhibit clear basis vectors in quadrature. Findings indicate that MEOT is capable of detecting more patterns in quadrature than MSSA. MEOT identifies three climate events as quadratures corresponding to the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO), the Atlantic Meridional Mode (AMM) and the Atlantic Niño/ Tropical Southern Atlantic (TSA) mode. All of these climate events have phase change within a year. MSSA in contrast, only identified the ENSO event. Moreover, since MEOT does not suffer from a bi-orthogonality constraint, it is capable of extracting fewer mixed modes of <span class="hlt">variability</span> than MSSA. Thus, results suggest a better identification and representation of individual climate events by the MEOT method.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Parmentier, B.; Neeti, N.; Eastman, R.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">318</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JGRC..119.1861C"> <span id="translatedtitle">Wind-driven <span class="hlt">variability</span> in sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> front distribution in the California Current System</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">satellite-derived observations from 2002 to 2009 are used to quantify the relation between sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (SST) fronts and ocean winds in the California Current System (CCS). An edge-detection algorithm is applied to SST observations to generate monthly maps of frontal probabilities. Empirical orthogonal decompositions reveal that the seasonal evolution of fronts in the CCS is strongly related to the seasonal evolution of coastal alongshore wind stress. The seasonal development of SST fronts is remarkably different to the north and to the south of Cape Mendocino, however. While fronts to the north of the cape extend for hundreds of kilometers from the coast peaking during summer and fall, when upwelling winds are stronger off northern California and Oregon, the region to the south of Cape Mendocino is characterized by high frontal activity during spring in a much narrower band close to the coast. Throughout the region, anomalies in the intensity of upwelling-favorable wind stress are followed by anomalies in frontal activity. The width and speed of the widening of the region of high frontal activity are also related to coastal alongshore wind stress. Interannual <span class="hlt">variability</span> in the timing of the widening of the region of high frontal activity in the lee of Cape Blanco compared to the timing of the spring transition to upwelling-favorable winds may be related to the wind stress curl distribution in the lee of the cape. Stronger upwelling-favorable wind stress curl anomalies lead to early widening of the region of high frontal activity.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Castelao, Renato M.; Wang, Yuntao</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">319</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.1229D"> <span id="translatedtitle">Intraseasonal <span class="hlt">variability</span> of the sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in the Tropical Atlantic</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (SST) intraseasonal <span class="hlt">variability</span> (ISV) and its interaction with the local surface wind in the tropical Atlantic Ocean are investigated using atmospheric observations and reanalyses of the 2000-2009 decade. Largest SST ISV centers are located in frontal areas of the three main tropical upwelling systems: the Eastern equatorial upwelling (east of 20°W), and the Senegal-Mauritania and Angola-Namibia coastal upwellings. The equatorial SST ISV is dominated by tropical instability waves (TIWs) west of 10°W, and a quasi-biweekly oscillation (QBO) further east, from May to August. Along the West-African coast, two adjacent regions of strong SST ISV are found north and south of 15°N. The southern one is most active during November-May and is dominated by 30-90 days periodicity, with SST anomalies mainly generated by stronger-than-normal Trade winds and Azores anticyclone. The northern one corresponds to a SST ISV maximal in June-September, and a dominant periodicity between 3 and 15 days, with SST anomalies driven by coastal surface wind modulations coming from African Easterly Waves. Off the Angola-Namibia coast, the SST ISV is also maximal at two locations: around 11°S all over the year, and near 21°S in November-March, with a dominant periodicity between 20 and 90 days in both regions. The SST anomalies are created by a jet of coastal southeasterlies mainly controlled by the large-scale St Helena anticyclone. The equatorial upwelling appears to be the region with the clearest signal of surface wind adjusting to SST anomalies, while it is more modest in the other two regions of coastal upwelling.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Diakhate, Moussa; Lazar, Alban; de Coetlogon, Gaëlle; Gaye, Amadou; Eymard, Laurence</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">320</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/79387"> <span id="translatedtitle">Decadal <span class="hlt">variability</span> of the tropical Atlantic Ocean surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in shipboard measurements and in a Global Ocean-atmosphere model</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Numerous analyses of relatively short (25-30 years in length) time series of the observed surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of the tropical Atlantic Ocean have indicated the possible existence of decadal timescale <span class="hlt">variability</span>. It was decided to search for such <span class="hlt">variability</span> in 100-yr time series of sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (SST) measured aboard ships and available in the recently published Global Ocean Surface <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Atlas (GOSTA). Fourier and singular spectrum analyses of the GOSTA SST time series averaged over 11 subregions, each approximately 1 x 10{sup 6}km{sup 2} in area, show that pronounced quasi-oscillatory decadal ({approximately}-20 yr) and multidecadal ({approximately}30-40 yr) timescale <span class="hlt">variability</span> exists in the GOSTA dataset over the tropical Atlantic. Motivated by the above results, SST <span class="hlt">variability</span> was investigated in a 200-yr integration of a global model of the coupled oceanic and atmospheric general circulations developed at the geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL). The second 100 yr of SST in the coupled model`s tropical Atlantic region were analyzed with a variety of techniques. Analyses of SST time series, averaged over approximately the same subregions as the GOSTA time series, showed that the GFDL SST anomalies also undergo pronounced quasi-oscillatory decadal and multidecadal <span class="hlt">variability</span> but at somewhat shorter timescales than the GOSTA SST anomalies. Further analyses of the horizontal structures of the decadal timescale <span class="hlt">variability</span> in the GFDL coupled model showed the existence of two types of <span class="hlt">variability</span> in general agreement with results of the GOSTA SST time series analyses. One type, characterized by timescales between 8 and 11 yr, has high spatial coherence within each hemisphere but not between the two hemispheres of the tropical Atlantic. A second type, characterized by timescales between 12 and 20 yr, has high spatial coherence between the two hemispheres. 31 refs., 14 figs., 3 tabs.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Mehta, V.M. [Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (United States)] [Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (United States); Delworth, T. [Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ (United States)] [Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ (United States)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1995-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#">4</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#">5</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#">6</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#">7</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#">8</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#">9</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#">10</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> </div><!-- page_16 div --> <div id="page_17" class="hiddenDiv"> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#">4</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#">5</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#">6</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#">7</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#">8</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#">9</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#">10</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">321</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3885695"> <span id="translatedtitle">Patterns in Temporal <span class="hlt">Variability</span> of <span class="hlt">Temperature</span>, Oxygen and pH along an Environmental Gradient in a Coral Reef</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Spatial and temporal environmental <span class="hlt">variability</span> are important drivers of ecological processes at all scales. As new tools allow the in situ exploration of individual responses to fluctuations, ecologically meaningful ways of characterizing environmental <span class="hlt">variability</span> at organism scales are needed. We investigated the fine-scale spatial heterogeneity of high-frequency temporal <span class="hlt">variability</span> in <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, dissolved oxygen concentration, and pH experienced by benthic organisms in a shallow coastal coral reef. We used a spatio-temporal sampling design, consisting of 21 short-term time-series located along a reef flat-to-reef slope transect, coupled to a long-term station monitoring water column changes. Spectral analyses revealed sharp gradients in variance decomposed by frequency, as well as differences between physically-driven and biologically-reactive parameters. These results highlight the importance of environmental variance at organismal scales and present a new sampling scheme for exploring this <span class="hlt">variability</span> in situ.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Guadayol, Oscar; Silbiger, Nyssa J.; Donahue, Megan J.; Thomas, Florence I. M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">322</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMSA33B2008S"> <span id="translatedtitle">Upper atmosphere <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> from 100 to 280 km over a full solar cycle - the WINDII perspective</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Wind Imaging Interferometer (WINDII) flown on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS) provides a means of examining <span class="hlt">variability</span> in the thermospheric <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and density over the altitude range from 70 to 300 km over a period of more than 10 years (from 1991 to 2003) through observations of Rayleigh scattering <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> (70-95 km), Doppler <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> (90-300 km), and atomic oxygen airglow emissions (90-300 km). The observation period encompasses two solar maxima (1992-1993 and 2000-2001) and one solar minimum (1996-1997). The original WINDII dataset (1991-1997) was recently extended to 2003 with observations not analysed before thus bridging the gap between the UARS and TIMED satellite missions and providing a means for examining thermospheric parameter <span class="hlt">variability</span> over two solar cycles. The <span class="hlt">variability</span> of airglow Doppler <span class="hlt">temperature</span> with height from above the mesosphere to 300 km will be examined for solar maximum and minimum conditions, with an emphasis on the 100-160 km height regime where significant coupling between the lower and the upper thermosphere exists; neutral density and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> are the key to understanding the upper atmosphere thermal response to perturbations from below. Some preliminary results from this study will be presented and discussed.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Shepherd, M. G.; Cho, Y.; Shepherd, G. G.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">323</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/27325711"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Dependence of 207Pb MAS Spectra of Solid Lead Nitrate. An Accurate, Sensitive Thermometer for <span class="hlt">Variable-Temperature</span> MAS</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The remarkably sensitive <span class="hlt">temperature</span> dependence of the207Pb chemical shift in magic-angle-spinning (MAS) spectra of lead nitrate provides an excellent method for thermometry in solid-state NMR. The <span class="hlt">temperature</span> dependence is uniform over a range of at least ?130 to +150°C, and also the NMR sensitivity and linewidth are very favorable. It is demonstrated that lead nitrate can be used in MAS</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">ANTHONY BIELECKI; DOUGLAS P. BURUM</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1995-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">324</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFM.H23B0957M"> <span id="translatedtitle">Stream <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> <span class="hlt">Variability</span> as an Indicator of Groundwater-Surface Water Interactions in Two Groundwater-Fed Streams</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Water <span class="hlt">temperature</span> can be a useful tool in assessing the nature and the locations of groundwater - surface water interactions, particularly during low flow periods. In this study, a network of forty calibrated <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (TidBit) loggers was installed in two groundwater-fed streams (Fishtrap and Bertrand Creeks) in the Lower Fraser Valley of British Columbia and northern Washington State. These streams have precipitation-driven flow regimes and are presumed to be sustained by baseflow during the annual low-flow period which lags minimum precipitation by approximately one month. In these particular streams, understanding groundwater-surface water interactions has been identified data gap in the development of recovery strategies for maintaining ecosystem health and habitat for two endangered fish species, the Nooksack Dace and Salish Sucker. From July 2008 to June 2009, stream <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and discharge, groundwater <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and level, and climate were monitored consecutively over two low-flow seasons with the objective of quantifying the spatial and temporal <span class="hlt">variability</span> within each stream, as well as differences and trends between the streams. The <span class="hlt">temperature</span> logger networks were installed over 50 m of channel or less at one site on each stream, as well as at two additional sites on Fishtrap Creek for regional coverage. Within each stream, the network of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> loggers showed the <span class="hlt">variability</span> in water <span class="hlt">temperature</span> over a short distance of the channel. In Fishtrap Creek, among 15 dataloggers, the mean <span class="hlt">variability</span> was 1.3oC, and in Bertrand Creek, among 19 dataloggers, the mean <span class="hlt">variability</span> was 0.7oC. Fishtrap Creek water <span class="hlt">temperature</span> ranged from 0.4oC to 17.6oC, showing less <span class="hlt">variability</span> than Bertrand Creek, which ranged from -0.1oC to 20.8oC. The groundwater <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> remained relatively stable throughout the year and ranged from 10.1oC to 12.0oC. Fishtrap Creek water <span class="hlt">temperature</span> patterns were generally stable and mimicked groundwater <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variations, consistent with a greater groundwater input. In contrast, Bertrand Creek water <span class="hlt">temperature</span> patterns resembled the <span class="hlt">variability</span> in the air <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, which ranged from -7.7oC to 32.4oC, with daily and seasonal fluctuations. The different responses in the stream suggest that stream morphology, riparian cover and/or surficial geology/land use are influencing timing and magnitude of the groundwater-surface water interactions. Fishtrap Creek has limited riparian cover and is situated in heterogeneous coarse grained surficial deposits. In contrast, Bertrand Creek has well developed riparian cover and is situated in a fine grained, low conductivity surficial geology unit. Despite the lack of riparian cover, which generally buffers water <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, Fishtrap Creek was found to have a generally stable water <span class="hlt">temperature</span> regime relative to Bertrand Creek. The results suggest that the surficial geology of each stream exerts a greater influence on the groundwater-surface water interactions than do the riparian cover and land use patterns.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Middleton, M.; Allen, D. M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">325</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFMPP23C1425W"> <span id="translatedtitle">Early Holocene Centennial-Scale Sea Surface <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> and Salinity <span class="hlt">Variability</span> in the Florida Straits</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Paleoproxy data and modeling studies suggest that Early Holocene (10.5 - 7 kyr BP) climate in the western tropical North Atlantic (TNA) was warmer and wetter than today. Perihelion occurred during boreal summer, resulting in an amplified Early Holocene seasonal cycle and a reorganization of the tropical climate system (Oppo et al., 2007). Trace metal records from the Cariaco Basin (Haug et al., 2001) and ostracod ?18O records from Haiti (Hodell, 1991) suggest a northward shift in the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) resulted in decreased evaporation-precipitation values in the western TNA. In addition, the final drainage of large pro-glacial lakes into the North Atlantic at 8.2 kyr BP is thought to have resulted in a meltwater-induced reduction in Atlantic meridional overturning circulation that caused widespread cooling in the circum-Atlantic region (Barber et al., 1999; Clarke et al., 2004; Ellison et al., 2006). In order to reconstruct centennial-scale records of Early Holocene sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (SST) and salinity (SSS) <span class="hlt">variability</span> in the Florida Straits, we will measure ?18O values as well as Mg/Ca and Ba/Ca ratios in the planktonic foraminifera Globigerinoides ruber from two sediment cores recovered from the Florida Straits: KNR166-2 JPC-51 (24°24.70’N, 83°13.14’W, 198 m; ~60-100 cm/kyr sedimentation rate) and KNR166-2 GGC-7 (24°21.50’N, 83°20.90’N, 535 m; ~55 cm/kyr sedimentation rate). SSTs are calculated from Mg/Ca ratios based on a published sediment trap calibration (Anand et al., 2003). Initial measurements of Mg/Ca ratios suggest centennial-scale SST oscillations during the Early Holocene. Calculated SSTs vary from 26.3 to 29.8°C and are within the range of modern seasonal <span class="hlt">variability</span> for our core locations (25-30°C). Calculated Mg/Ca-SSTs will be combined with G. ruber ?18O values to calculate past ?18Oseawater values (a proxy for SSS) using a laboratory calibrated relationship (Bemis et al., 1998). In addition, Ba/Ca ratios in foraminifera can be used as a qualitative proxy for salinity change resulting riverine input (Weldeab et al., 2007). Laboratory experiments show that Ba+2 incorporation into living planktonic foraminifera shells is linear, dependent primarily on the [Ba+2] of the water in which the shell grows (Lea and Spero, 1994). Riverine water contains much higher concentrations of [Ba+2] relative to seawater. Furthermore, dissolved barium concentrations exhibit a conservative mixing with seawater, resulting in a linear inverse correlation between salinity and [Ba+2] (Coffey et al., 1997; Edmond et al., 1978; Hanor and Chan, 1977). The resulting Ba/Ca can then be used to identify periods of intensified riverine input into the Gulf of Mexico. Finally, we will compare our Florida Straits ?18Oseawater and Ba/Ca-SSS reconstructions with the previously published centennial-scale record of Early Holocene hydrologic change from the northern Gulf of Mexico’s Orca Basin (LoDico et al., 2006).</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Weinlein, W. A.; Schmidt, M. W.; Lynch-Stieglitz, J. M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">326</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFMPP11A1998C"> <span id="translatedtitle">Glacial-interglacial continental <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> in the Beringian Arctic: the MBT/CBT record of Lake El'gygytgyn</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In 2009, deep drilling at El'gygytgyn Crater Lake (Far East Russian Arctic) recovered sediments covering the past 3.6 Ma. These sediments provide the first terrestrial Arctic paleoclimate record spanning the Pliocene-Pleistocene from the largest and oldest unglaciated Arctic lake basin. Lake El'gygytgyn sediments thus offer a unique opportunity to examine high-latitude climate <span class="hlt">variability</span> beyond the 100 Ka interval captured by Greenland ice core records. In this study we utilize an organic geochemical paleothermometer, the MBT/CBT Index based on branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (GDGTs; Weijers et al., 2007), to examine continental <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> during several key time intervals of interest. In particular, we focus on Marine Isotope Stages (MIS) 1-6, MIS 9-11, MIS 31 and during the earliest formation of lacustrine sediments in the impact basin in the middle Pliocene. Previous work on Lake El'gygytgyn sediments has identified MIS 11c and MIS 31 as "super" interglacials, which were characterized by significantly warmer <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> than at present largely based on pollen spectra and modern analog analysis (Melles et al., 2012). Our results show that relative changes in MBT/CBT-derived <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> display similar overall patterns of glacial-interglacial climate <span class="hlt">variability</span> noted in <span class="hlt">temperature</span> reconstructions from Lake El'gygytgyn (Melles et al., 2012) as well as Greenland ice core records, North Atlantic sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> records (e.g. Lawrence et al., 2010), and the global benthic ?18O stack (Lisiecki and Raymo, 2005). We demonstrate that MBT/CBT is a sensitive proxy for recording <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> at Lake El'gygytgyn. Interestingly, while pronounced warming is noted during interglacials, a number of abrupt and short-lived <span class="hlt">temperature</span> reversals are also observed within these intervals, such as during MIS 5a and MIS 5e. Overall, we find that MBT/CBT <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> closely track changes in local summer insolation at 67°N, in agreement with numerous other proxy reconstructions from the lake (e.g. Melles et al., 2012). We note that before absolute <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> can be reconstructed from Lake El'gygytgyn, a site-specific MBT/CBT calibration is required. We are currently investigating this by examining MBT/CBT in surface sediment and sediment trap samples from the lake. Overall, application of the MBT/CBT paleothermometer to Lake El'gygytgyn sediments appears to be a promising technique for generating a high-resolution Plio-Pleistocene continental <span class="hlt">temperature</span> record from the western Arctic.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Castaneda, I. S.; Finkelstein, D. B.; Phu, V.; Brigham-Grette, J.; Wilkie, K. M.; D'anjou, R. M.; Wei, J. H.; Urann, B. M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">327</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040110245&hterms=spring+water+quality+quality&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dspring%2Bwater%2Bquality%2Bquality"> <span id="translatedtitle">Trend and <span class="hlt">Variability</span> of China Precipitation in Spring and Summer: Linkage to Sea Surface <span class="hlt">Temperatures</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Observational records in the past 50 years show an upward trend of boreal-summer precipitation over central eastern China and a downward trend over northern China. During boreal spring, the trend is upward over southeastern China and downward over central eastern China. This study explores the forcing mechanism of these trends in association with the global sea-surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (SST) variations on the interannual and inter-decadal timescales. Results based on Singular Value Decomposition analyses (SVD) show that the interannual <span class="hlt">variability</span> of China precipitation in boreal spring and summer can be well defined by two centers of actions for each season, which are co-varying with two interannual modes of SSTs. The first SVD modes of precipitation in spring and summer, which are centered in southeastern China and northern China, respectively, are linked to an ENSO-like mode of SSTs. The second SVD modes of precipitation in both seasons are confined to central eastern China, and are primarily linked to SST variations over the warm pool and Indian Ocean. Features of the anomalous 850-hPa winds and 700-Wa geopotential height corresponding to these modes support a physical mechanism that explains the causal links between the modal variations of precipitation and SSTs. On the decadal and longer timescale, similar causal links are found between the same modes of precipitation and SSTs, except for the case of springtime precipitation over central eastern China. For this case, while the interannual mode of precipitation is positively correlated with the interannual variations of SSTs over the warm pool and Indian Ocean; the inter-decadal mode is negatively correlated with a different SST mode, the North Pacific mode. The later is responsible for the observed downward trend of springtime precipitation over central eastern China. For all other cases, both the interannual and inter-decadal variations of precipitation can be explained by the same mode of SSTs. The upward trend of springtime precipitation over southeastern China and downward trend of summertime precipitation over northern China are attributable to the warming trend of the ENSO-like mode. The recent frequent summertime floods over central eastern China are linked to the warming trend of SSTs over the warm pool and Indian Ocean.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Yang, Fanglin; Lau, K.-M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">328</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=ADA480507"> <span id="translatedtitle">Temporal and Spatial <span class="hlt">Variabilities</span> of Japan Sea Surface <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> and Atmospheric Forcings.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this study, we used the National Centers for Environmental Prediction monthly sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (SST) and surface air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (SAT) data during 1982-1994 and the National Center for Atmospheric Research surface wind stress curl data during 19...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">P. C. Chu S. Lu Y. Chen</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1998-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">329</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20020693"> <span id="translatedtitle">A comparison of surface air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> in three 1000-Yr. coupled ocean-atmosphere model integrations</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This study compares the <span class="hlt">variability</span> of surface air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in three long coupled ocean-atmosphere general circulation model integrations. It is shown that the annual mean climatology of the surface air <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> (SAT) in all three models is realistic and the linear trends over the 1,000-yr integrations are small over most areas of the globe. Second, although there are notable differences among the models, the models' SAT <span class="hlt">variability</span> is fairly realistic on annual to decadal timescales, both in terms of the geographical distribution and of the global mean values. A notable exception is the poor simulation of observed tropical Pacific <span class="hlt">variability</span>. In the HadCM2 model, the tropical <span class="hlt">variability</span> is overestimated, while in the GFDL and HAM3L models, it is underestimated. Also, the ENSO-related spectral peak in the globally averaged observed SAT differs from that in any of the models. The relatively low resolution required to integrate models for long time periods inhibits the successful simulation of the <span class="hlt">variability</span> in this region. On timescales longer than a few decades, the largest variance in the models is generally located near sea ice margins in high latitudes, which are also regions of deep oceanic convection and <span class="hlt">variability</span> related to variations in the thermohaline circulation. However, the exact geographical location of these maxima varies from model to model. The preferred patterns of interdecadal <span class="hlt">variability</span> that are common to all three coupled models can be isolated by computing empirical orthogonal functions (EOFs) of all model data simultaneously using the common EOF technique. A comparison of the variance each model associated with these common EOF patterns shows that the models generally agree on the most prominent patterns of <span class="hlt">variability</span>. However, the amplitudes of the dominant models of <span class="hlt">variability</span> differ to some extent between the models and between the models and observations. For example, two of the models have a mode with relatively large values of the same sign over most of the Northern Hemisphere midlatitudes. This mode has been shown to be relevant for the separation of the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> response pattern due to sulfate aerosol forcing from the response to greenhouse gas forcing.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Stouffer, R.J.; Hegerl, G.; Tett, S.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2000-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">330</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6984513"> <span id="translatedtitle">Simulation of uranium transport with <span class="hlt">variable</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and oxidation potential: The computer program THCC (Thermo-Hydro-Chemical Coupling)</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A simulator of reactive chemical transport has been constructed with the capabilities of treating <span class="hlt">variable</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> and <span class="hlt">variable</span> oxidation potentials within a single simulation. Homogeneous and heterogeneous chemical reactions are simulated at <span class="hlt">temperature</span>-dependent equilibrium, and changes of oxidation states of multivalent elements can be simulated during transport. Chemical mass action relations for formation of complexes in the fluid phase are included explicitly within the partial differential equations of transport, and a special algorithm greatly simplifies treatment of reversible precipitation of solid phases. This approach allows direct solution of the complete set of governing equations for concentrations of all aqueous species and solids affected simultaneously by chemical and physical processes. Results of example simulations of transport, along a <span class="hlt">temperature</span> gradient, of uranium solution species under conditions of varying pH and oxidation potential and with reversible precipitation of uraninite and coffinite are presented. The examples illustrate how inclusion of <span class="hlt">variable</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and oxidation potential in numerical simulators can enhance understanding of the chemical mechanisms affecting migration of multivalent waste elements.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Carnahan, C.L.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1986-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">331</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.8939O"> <span id="translatedtitle">Simulated Future Air <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> and Precipitation Climatology and <span class="hlt">Variability</span> in the Mediterranean Basin by Using Downscaled Global Climate Model Outputs</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Mediterranean Basin is one of the regions that shall be affected most by the impacts of the future climate changes on <span class="hlt">temperature</span> regime including changes in heat waves intensity and frequency, seasonal and interannual precipitation <span class="hlt">variability</span> including changes in summer dryness and drought events, and hydrology and water resources. In this study, projected future changes in mean air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and precipitation climatology and inter-annual <span class="hlt">variability</span> over the Mediterranean region were simulated. For performing this aim, the future changes in annual and seasonal averages for the future period of 2070-2100 with respect to the period from 1970 to 2000 were investigated. Global climate model outputs of the World Climate Research Program's (WCRP's) Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 3 (CMIP3) multi-model dataset were used. SRES A2, A1B and B1 emission scenarios' outputs of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) were used in future climate model projections. Future surface mean air <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> of the larger Mediterranean basin increase mostly in summer and least in winter, and precipitation amounts decreases in all seasons at almost all parts of the basin. Future climate signals for surface air <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> and precipitation totals will be much larger than the inter-model standard deviation. Inter-annual <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> increases evidently in summer season and decreases in the northern part of the domain in the winter season, while precipitation <span class="hlt">variability</span> increases in almost all parts of domain. Probability distribution functions are found to be shifted and flattened for future period compared to reference period. This indicates that occurrence frequency and intensity of extreme weather conditions will increase in the future period. This work has been supported by Bogazici University BAP under project number 7362. One of the authors (MLK) was partially supported by Mercator-IPC Fellowship Program.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ozturk, Tugba; Pelin Ceber, Zeynep; Türke?, Murat; Kurnaz, M. Levent</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">332</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23568485"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Temperature</span> and precipitation drive temporal <span class="hlt">variability</span> in aquatic carbon and GHG concentrations and fluxes in a peatland catchment.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The aquatic pathway is increasingly being recognized as an important component of catchment carbon and greenhouse gas (GHG) budgets, particularly in peatland systems due to their large carbon store and strong hydrological connectivity. In this study, we present a complete 5-year data set of all aquatic carbon and GHG species from an ombrotrophic Scottish peatland. Measured species include particulate and dissolved forms of organic carbon (POC, DOC), dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), CO2 , CH4 and N2 O. We show that short-term <span class="hlt">variability</span> in concentrations exists across all species and this is strongly linked to discharge. Seasonal cyclicity was only evident in DOC, CO2 and CH4 concentration; however, <span class="hlt">temperature</span> correlated with monthly means in all species except DIC. Although the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> correlation with monthly DOC and POC concentrations appeared to be related to biological productivity in the terrestrial system, we suggest the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> correlation with CO2 and CH4 was primarily due to in-stream <span class="hlt">temperature</span>-dependent solubility. Interannual <span class="hlt">variability</span> in total aquatic carbon concentration was strongly correlated with catchment gross primary productivity (GPP) indicating a strong potential terrestrial aquatic linkage. DOC represented the largest aquatic carbon flux term (19.3 ± 4.59 g C m(-2)  yr(-1) ), followed by CO2 evasion (10.0 g C m(-2)  yr(-1) ). Despite an estimated contribution to the total aquatic carbon flux of between 8 and 48%, evasion estimates had the greatest uncertainty. Interannual <span class="hlt">variability</span> in total aquatic carbon export was low in comparison with <span class="hlt">variability</span> in terrestrial biosphere-atmosphere exchange, and could be explained primarily by <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and precipitation. Our results therefore suggest that climatic change is likely to have a significant impact on annual carbon losses through the aquatic pathway, and as such, aquatic exports are fundamental to the understanding of whole catchment responses to climate change. PMID:23568485</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Dinsmore, K J; Billett, M F; Dyson, K E</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">333</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/47603333"> <span id="translatedtitle">Short term <span class="hlt">variability</span> of Particle fluxes and its relation to <span class="hlt">variability</span> in sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and chlorophyll a field detected by Ocean Color and <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Scanner (OCTS) off Sanriku, northwestern North Pacific in the spring of 1997</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">A sediment trap experiment was carried out in conjunction with an over flight of Ocean Color <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Scanner (OCTS) on\\u000a board Advanced Earth Observing Satellite (ADEOS) at 40?N, 143?E off Sanriku in April to May 1997. Short term <span class="hlt">variability</span> of\\u000a particle fluxes was examined at depths of 450 m and 600 m from April 6 to May 1 with a</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Toshiro Saino; Shaoling Shang; Yoshihisa Mino; Koji Suzuki; Hideaki Nomura; Sei-ichi Saitoh; Hideo Miyake; Toshiyuki Masuzawa; Koh Harada</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1998-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">334</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19950047289&hterms=GLOBAL+TEMPERATURES&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3DGLOBAL%2BTEMPERATURES"> <span id="translatedtitle">Decadal <span class="hlt">variability</span> of the Tropical Atlantic Ocean Surface <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> in shipboard measurements and in a Global Ocean-Atmosphere model</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (SST) <span class="hlt">variability</span> was investigated in a 200-yr integration of a global model of the coupled oceanic and atmospheric general circulations developed at the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL). The second 100 yr of SST in the coupled model's tropical Atlantic region were analyzed with a variety of techniques. Analyses of SST time series, averaged over approximately the same subregions as the Global Ocean Surface <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Atlas (GOSTA) time series, showed that the GFDL SST anomalies also undergo pronounced quasi-oscillatory decadal and multidecadal <span class="hlt">variability</span> but at somewhat shorter timescales than the GOSTA SST anomalies. Further analyses of the horizontal structures of the decadal timescale <span class="hlt">variability</span> in the GFDL coupled model showed the existence of two types of <span class="hlt">variability</span> in general agreement with results of the GOSTA SST time series analyses. One type, characterized by timescales between 8 and 11 yr, has high spatial coherence within each hemisphere but not between the two hemispheres of the tropical Atlantic. A second type, characterized by timescales between 12 and 20 yr, has high spatial coherence between the two hemispheres. The second type of <span class="hlt">variability</span> is considerably weaker than the first. As in the GOSTA time series, the multidecadal <span class="hlt">variability</span> in the GFDL SST time series has approximately opposite phases between the tropical North and South Atlantic Oceans. Empirical orthogonal function analyses of the tropical Atlantic SST anomalies revealed a north-south bipolar pattern as the dominant pattern of decadal <span class="hlt">variability</span>. It is suggested that the bipolar pattern can be interpreted as decadal <span class="hlt">variability</span> of the interhemispheric gradient of SST anomalies. The decadal and multidecadal timescale <span class="hlt">variability</span> of the tropical Atlantic SST, both in the actual and in the GFDL model, stands out significantly above the background 'red noise' and is coherent within each of the time series, suggesting that specific sets of processes may be responsible for the choice of the decadal and multidecadal timescales. Finally, it must be emphasized that the GFDL coupled ocean-atmosphere model generates the decadal and multidecadal timescale <span class="hlt">variability</span> without any externally applied force, solar or lunar, at those timescales.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Mehta, Vikram M.; Delworth, Thomas</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1995-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">335</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/901464"> <span id="translatedtitle">Large-scale spatial <span class="hlt">variability</span> of riverbed <span class="hlt">temperature</span> gradients in Snake River fall Chinook salmon spawning areas</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In the Snake River basin of the Pacific northwestern United States, hydroelectric dam operations are often based on the predicted emergence timing of salmon fry from the riverbed. The spatial <span class="hlt">variability</span> and complexity of surface water and riverbed <span class="hlt">temperature</span> gradients results in emergence timing predictions that are likely to have large errors. The objectives of this study were to quantify the thermal heterogeneity between the river and riverbed in fall Chinook salmon spawning areas and to determine the effects of thermal heterogeneity on fall Chinook salmon emergence timing. This study quantified river and riverbed <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> at 15 fall Chinook salmon spawning sites distributed in two reaches throughout 160 km of the Snake River in Hells Canyon, Idaho, USA, during three different water years. <span class="hlt">Temperatures</span> were measured during the fall Chinook salmon incubation period with self-contained data loggers placed in the river and at three different depths below the riverbed surface. At all sites <span class="hlt">temperature</span> increased with depth into the riverbed, including significant differences (p<0.05) in mean water <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of up to 3.8°C between the river and the riverbed among all the sites. During each of the three water years studied, river and riverbed <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> varied significantly among all the study sites, among the study sites within each reach, and between sites located in the two reaches. Considerable <span class="hlt">variability</span> in riverbed <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> among the sites resulted in fall Chinook salmon emergence timing estimates that varied by as much as 55 days, depending on the source of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> data used for the estimate. Monitoring of riverbed <span class="hlt">temperature</span> gradients at a range of spatial scales throughout the Snake River would provide better information for managing hydroelectric dam operations, and would aid in the design and interpretation of future empirical research into the ecological significance of physical riverine processes.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hanrahan, Timothy P.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">336</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013Cryo...55...73C"> <span id="translatedtitle">A calorimeter for multilayer insulation (MLI) performance measurements at <span class="hlt">variable</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Here we describe a concentric cylindrical calorimeter with radiation guards developed to measure the thermal performance of multilayer insulation (MLI) for low <span class="hlt">temperature</span> applications. One unique feature of this calorimeter is its ability to independently control the boundary <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> between room <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and about 15 K using two single-stage Gifford-McMahon cryocoolers. Also, unlike the existing calorimeters that use the evaporation rate of a liquid cryogen to measure the heat load, in the present system the total heat transfer through the MLI is measured by recording the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> difference across a calibrated heat load support rod that connects the cold inner cylinder to the lower <span class="hlt">temperature</span> cryocooler. This design allows the continuous mapping of MLI performance over a much wider <span class="hlt">temperature</span> range with independently controlled boundary conditions. The calorimeter is also suitable for performing a variety of radiation heat transfer experiments including the determination of the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> dependence of the total emissivity.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Celik, D.; Hurd, J.; Klimas, R.; Van Sciver, S. W.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">337</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19720007292&hterms=general+heat+transfer+equation&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dgeneral%2Bheat%2Btransfer%2Bequation"> <span id="translatedtitle">Analysis of heat transfer in a porous cooled wall with <span class="hlt">variable</span> pressure and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> along the coolant exit boundary</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Fluid from a reservior at constant pressure and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> is forced through a porous wall of uniform thickness. The boundary through which the fluid exits has specified variations in pressure and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> along it in one direction so that the flow and heat transfer are two-dimensional. The local fluid and matrix <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> are assumed to be equal and therefore a single energy equation governs the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> distribution within the wall. The solution is obtained by transforming this energy equation into potential plane coordinates, which results in a separable equation. A technique yielding an integral equation is used to adapt the general solution so that it satisfies the <span class="hlt">variable</span>-pressure boundary condition. Analytical expressions are given for the normal exit velocity and heat flux along the exit boundary. Illustrative examples are carried out which indicate to what extent the solution is locally one-dimensional.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Siegel, R.; Goldstein, M. E.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1972-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">338</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.6058H"> <span id="translatedtitle">The role of surface vs. root-zone soil moisture <span class="hlt">variability</span> for soil moisture-<span class="hlt">temperature</span> coupling</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Hot extremes have been shown to be induced by antecedent surface moisture deficits in several regions. While most previous studies on this topic relied on modeling results or precipitation-based surface moisture information (particularly the standardized precipitation index, SPI), we use here a new merged remote sensing (RS) soil moisture product that combines active and passive microwave sensors to investigate the relation between the number of hot days (NHD) and preceding soil moisture deficits. Along with analyses of temporal <span class="hlt">variabilities</span> of surface vs. root-zone soil moisture, this sheds light on the role of different soil depths for soil moisture-<span class="hlt">temperature</span> coupling. The global patterns of soil moisture-NHD correlations from RS data and from SPI as used in previous studies are comparable. Nonetheless, the strength of the relationship appears underestimated with RS-based soil moisture compared to SPI-based estimates, particularly in regions of strong soil moisture-<span class="hlt">temperature</span> coupling. This is mainly due to the fact that the temporal hydrological <span class="hlt">variability</span> is less pronounced in the RS data than in the SPI estimates in these regions, and large dry/wet anomalies appear underestimated. Comparing temporal <span class="hlt">variabilities</span> of surface and root-zone soil moisture in in-situ observations reveals a drop of surface-layer <span class="hlt">variability</span> below that of root-zone when dry conditions are considered. This feature is a plausible explanation for the observed weaker relationship of RS-based soil moisture (representing the surface layer) with NHD as it leads to a gradual decoupling of the surface layer from <span class="hlt">temperature</span> under dry conditions, while root-zone soil moisture sustains more of its temporal <span class="hlt">variability</span>.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hirschi, Martin; Mueller, Brigitte; Dorigo, Wouter; Seneviratne, Sonia I.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">339</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19900018907&hterms=noaa&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dnoaa"> <span id="translatedtitle">A <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> comparison study of Seasat scatterometer winds with winds observed from islands in the tropical Pacific</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The winds derived from the Seasat-A Satellite Scatterometer (SASS) measurements have been the subject of great interest since the 1978 mission, because of the promise of radically improved wind observations over the world ocean. Due to the early end of the mission, only a few of the planned ground truth validation experiments could be made, and the subsequent lack of sufficient high quality independent wind data for comparison has limited the ability to resolve critical issues regarding the scatterometer's performance and the correct interpretation of its signal. Operational weather observations were made of ocean winds independent of Seasat mission plans during the Seasat mission period; the results are reported of a comparison study using such observations. Previous verification with in situ winds has been primarily in middle latitudes (GOASEX, JASIN, and NDBO buoys); winds observed from nine tropical Pacific islands are compared with nearly contemporaneous measurements taken by SASS during overpasses of the islands.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Davison, Jerry; Harrison, D. E.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1989-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">340</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21339108"> <span id="translatedtitle">Building enterprise-wide resilience by integrating business continuity capability into <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> business culture and technology.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper follows the development of the business continuity planning (BCP) programme at Lehman Brothers following the events of September 11th. Previous attempts to implement a `traditional' form of BCP had been ineffective, but following the events, the firm began to look at BCP in a new light. This paper deals with three main themes: creating a culture of resiliency, leveraging technology, and building flexible plans. Distributing accountability for BCP to business line managers, integrating BCP change management into the normal course of business, and providing every employee with personalised BCP information breeds a culture of resiliency where people are empowered to react to events without burdensome, hierarchical response and recovery procedures. Building a strong relationship with one's application development community can result in novel, customised BCP solutions; existing systems and data structures can be used to enhance an existing BCP. Even the best plans are often challenged by events; understanding that flexibility is essential to effective incident response is a critical element in the development of a proper business continuity plan. PMID:21339108</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Alesi, Patrick</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#">4</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#">5</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#">6</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#">7</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#">8</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#">9</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#">10</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> </div><!-- page_17 div --> <div id="page_18" class="hiddenDiv"> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#">4</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#">5</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#">6</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#">7</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#">8</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#">9</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#">10</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">341</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20090007480&hterms=emma&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Demma"> <span id="translatedtitle">Performance of a Herriott Cell, Designed for <span class="hlt">Variable</span> <span class="hlt">Temperatures</span> between 296 and 20 K</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We designed, fabricated and tested a multipath Herriott cell (or off-axis spherical mirror interferometer) to achieve low <span class="hlt">temperature</span> absorption measurements. The cell is fabricated entirely from copper and the 15 cm radius of curvature copper mirrors have gold coated reflective surfaces. The cell was tested at <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> between 296 and 30 K with a folded absorption path length of 5.37 m utilizing a lead salt tunable diode laser. Short term <span class="hlt">temperature</span> stability (1 h) of the Herriott cell is better than 0.005 K under normal operating conditions with a <span class="hlt">temperature</span> uniformity better than 0.01 K (not measurable). The cell was tested by performing collisional cooling experiments on 13C16O2 in helium at <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> between 70 and 20 K and by performing more traditional pressure broadening and shift measurements on molecular infrared absorption lines at <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> between 300 and about 80 K on 13C16O2 methane.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Mondelain, Didier; Camy-Peyret, Claude; Mantz, Arlan W.; Tang, Emma; Valentin, Alain</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">342</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/56320087"> <span id="translatedtitle">Gravity Wave Variance in LIMS <span class="hlt">Temperatures</span>. Part I: <span class="hlt">Variability</span> and Comparison with Background Winds</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Small-scale features in <span class="hlt">temperature</span> data from the Limb Infrared Monitor of the Stratosphere satellite experiment are isolated by subtracting profiles of globally mapped <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> (containing zonal waves 0-6) from inverted <span class="hlt">temperature</span> profiles. These features are interpreted as internal gravity waves. The preponderance of the variance is associated with the longest wavelengths, corresponding to the lowest frequencies (inertio-gravity waves). The data</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Eric J. Fetzer; John C. Gille</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1994-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">343</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/52121487"> <span id="translatedtitle">Mid-Pliocene Sea-Surface <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> <span class="hlt">Variability</span> in the Eastern Equatorial Pacific Ocean</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">A pronounced east-west sea-surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (SST) gradient exists in the modern equatorial Pacific Ocean; upwelling of warmer water in the Eastern Equatorial Pacific (EEP) and hence a reduction in the zonal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> gradient characterizes El Nino conditions. Published alkenone-derived <span class="hlt">temperature</span> estimates as well as Mg\\/Ca paleothermometry provide evidence of higher than present day SST in the east during the mid-Pliocene.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">R. P. Caballero; H. J. Dowsett</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">344</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://jes.apl.washington.edu/arnone/Reports/TRES_25_0708_22.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Temporal and spatial <span class="hlt">variability</span> of satellite sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and ocean colour in the Japan\\/East Sea</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Temporal and spatial <span class="hlt">variability</span> of Sea Surface <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> (SST) and ocean colour in the Japan\\/East Sea (JES) are examined during winter and spring using satellite data from Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) and Sea-viewing Wide Field of view Sensor (SeaWiFS). The timing of the spring phytoplankton bloom and the locations of the chlorophyll fronts are related to changes in</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">RICHARD W. GOULD; Robert A. Arnone</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">345</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/51481352"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Variable</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy: Electronic and physical properties of single and two component thin films</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">A newly acquired, commercial scanning tunneling microscope (STM) designed to work in ultra high vacuum at <span class="hlt">variable</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> down to 50 K was used for scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy (STM\\/STS) studies of organic adsorbates on metal surfaces. Au(111) substrates were prepared by evaporation of gold onto mica. Cobalt(II) phthalocyanine (CoPc), cobalt(II) tetraphenyl porphyrin (CoTPP), and vanadyl(II) phthalocyanine (VOPc) were</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Daniel Edward Barlow</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2001-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">346</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/57717147"> <span id="translatedtitle">Dynamic Performance of an Electronic Zone Air <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Control Loop in a Typical <span class="hlt">Variable</span>-Air-Volume Air Conditioning System</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Variable</span>-Air-Volume (VAV) air conditioning systems are highly dynamic and nonlinear. Few detailed stability studies have been conducted on a practical or typical VAV zone air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> control loop. In this study, numerical nonlinear dynamic models were built from validated component models of a commercially available thermostat, damper controller-actuators, terminal unit in a typical branch duct, and a simplified fully-mixed zone</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Charles Y. S. Hung; H. N. Lam; Alan Dunn</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1999-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">347</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/42397083"> <span id="translatedtitle">Physical <span class="hlt">variables</span> and foreign policy decision making: Daily <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and the pre?World War I crisis</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this article the author attempts to synthesize the search for relative effects of contextual <span class="hlt">variables</span> with the expanding physiological\\/physical investigation of decision making. One component of man's physical environment?daily air <span class="hlt">temperature</span>?is examined in order to test the applicability of results from social?psychological experimentation to decision making in international relations. By scrutinizing the pre?World War I situation the author finds</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Harvey Starr</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1977-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">348</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040082159&hterms=marine+phytoplankton&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dmarine%2Bphytoplankton"> <span id="translatedtitle">Large Scale <span class="hlt">Variability</span> of Phytoplankton Blooms in the Arctic and Peripheral Seas: Relationships with Sea Ice, <span class="hlt">Temperature</span>, Clouds, and Wind</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Spatially detailed satellite data of mean color, sea ice concentration, surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, clouds, and wind have been analyzed to quantify and study the large scale regional and temporal <span class="hlt">variability</span> of phytoplankton blooms in the Arctic and peripheral seas from 1998 to 2002. In the Arctic basin, phytoplankton chlorophyll displays a large symmetry with the Eastern Arctic having about fivefold higher concentrations than those of the Western Arctic. Large monthly and yearly <span class="hlt">variability</span> is also observed in the peripheral seas with the largest blooms occurring in the Bering Sea, Sea of Okhotsk, and the Barents Sea during spring. There is large interannual and seasonal <span class="hlt">variability</span> in biomass with average chlorophyll concentrations in 2002 and 2001 being higher than earlier years in spring and summer. The seasonality in the latitudinal distribution of blooms is also very different such that the North Atlantic is usually most expansive in spring while the North Pacific is more extensive in autumn. Environmental factors that influence phytoplankton growth were examined, and results show relatively high negative correlation with sea ice retreat and strong positive correlation with <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in early spring. Plankton growth, as indicated by biomass accumulation, in the Arctic and subarctic increases up to a threshold surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of about 276-277 degree K (3-4 degree C) beyond which the concentrations start to decrease suggesting an optimal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> or nutrient depletion. The correlation with clouds is significant in some areas but negligible in other areas, while the correlations with wind speed and its components are generally weak. The effects of clouds and winds are less predictable with weekly climatologies because of unknown effects of averaging <span class="hlt">variable</span> and intermittent physical forcing (e.g. over storm event scales with mixing and upwelling of nutrients) and the time scales of acclimation by the phytoplankton.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Comiso, Josefino C.; Cota, Glenn F.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">349</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.maths.soton.ac.uk/EMIS/journals/HOA/JAM/Volume2003_2/86.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Finite difference solution of radiation effects on MHD unsteady free-convection flow over vertical plate with <span class="hlt">variable</span> surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">An analysis is performed to study radiation effects on\\u000amagnetohydrodynamic (MHD) unsteady free-convection flow past a semi-infinite vertical plate with <span class="hlt">variable</span> surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in the presence of transversal uniform magnetic field. The boundary layer equations are transformed into a linear algebraic system by an implicit finite-difference method. A parametric study is performed to illustrate the influence of radiation parameter, magnetic</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">M. A. Abd El-Naby; Elsayed M. E. Elbarbary; Nader Y. Abdelazem</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">350</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16563604"> <span id="translatedtitle">Adaptive management and water <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> within a South African river system: what are the management options?</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Water <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, and in particular daily maximum water <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, are a critical water quality parameter. An understanding of associated resource management issues, including links between water <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> and aquatic diversity values, should be part of any management programme that considers river systems. Simple rule-based models have been shown to be appropriate tools within an adaptive management approach, both because of their heuristic value and in their application for scenario generation. Such a model was developed to simulate changes in the condition factor of Chiloglanis anoterus [Crass, R.S., 1960. Notes on the freshwater fishes of Natal with descriptions of 4 new species. Annals of the Natal Museum 14, 405-458] (Pisces: Mochokidae) in response to annual frequency of exceedance of a threshold <span class="hlt">temperature</span> under three broad environmental scenarios for part of the Sabie River falling within South Africa's Kruger National Park. This model has potential for application within the adaptive management programme being implemented by the Kruger National Park. Results show that under broad scenarios of a 10% reduction in mean daily flow rates, or a 2 degrees C increase in mean daily air <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, system <span class="hlt">variability</span> is likely to increase relative to reference conditions . It is suggested that so-called "thresholds of probable concern" (TPCs), which are based on current levels of "natural" system <span class="hlt">variability</span>, are useful as management targets for achieving a "desired future state" for the river system. The model, recognised as a preliminary hypothesis, highlights a lack of knowledge regarding the nature of system <span class="hlt">variability</span>, and the correspondingly wide confidence limits of the proposed TPC restricts its utility in a short-term management context. Thus, it is now recognised that its value lies more in its use as a long-term modelling tool to reflect water <span class="hlt">temperature</span> responses to flow <span class="hlt">variability</span>. This highlights the fact that research outcomes may not always be those intended at the beginning of a project and that opportunities to implement these may be lost as lags in understanding relative to project lifetimes often exist. PMID:16563604</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Rivers-Moore, N A; Jewitt, G P W</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">351</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014WRR....50.3428L"> <span id="translatedtitle">Sensitivity of summer stream <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> to climate <span class="hlt">variability</span> in the Pacific Northwest</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">the thermal response of streams to a warming climate is important for prioritizing native fish conservation efforts. While there are plentiful estimates of air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> responses to climate change, the sensitivity of streams, particularly small headwater streams, to warming <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> is less well understood. A substantial body of literature correlates subannual scale <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variations in air and stream <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> driven by annual cycles in solar angle; however, these may be a low-precision proxy for climate change driven changes in the stream energy balance. We analyzed summer stream <span class="hlt">temperature</span> records from forested streams in the Pacific Northwest for interannual correlations to air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and standardized annual streamflow departures. A significant pattern emerged where cold streams always had lower sensitivities to air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variation, while warm streams could be insensitive or sensitive depending on geological or vegetation context. A pattern where cold streams are less sensitive to direct <span class="hlt">temperature</span> increases is important for conservation planning, although substantial questions may yet remain for secondary effects related to flow or vegetation changes induced by climate change.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Luce, Charles; Staab, Brian; Kramer, Marc; Wenger, Seth; Isaak, Dan; McConnell, Callie</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">352</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.springerlink.com/index/u446584r206755wt.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">The dielectric properties of mica paper in <span class="hlt">variable</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and humidity</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The complex capacitance of mica paper is influenced exponentially by variations in the reciprocal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and the relative humidity. This response is dominated by the peripheral line contacts between mica flakes, rather than by the surface impedance of the mica flakes between these contacts. The resulting complex capacitance shows low-frequency dispersion at high humidities and high <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, and a less</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">M. Ashraf Chaudhry; Andrew K. Jonscher</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1985-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">353</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/2007WR006145"> <span id="translatedtitle">Identifying spatial <span class="hlt">variability</span> of groundwater discharge in a wetland stream using a distributed <span class="hlt">temperature</span> sensor</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Discrete zones of groundwater discharge in a stream within a peat-dominated wetland were identified on the basis of variations in streambed <span class="hlt">temperature</span> using a distributed <span class="hlt">temperature</span> sensor (DTS). The DTS gives measurements of the spatial (??1 m) and temporal (15 min) variation of streambed <span class="hlt">temperature</span> over a much larger reach of stream (>800 m) than previous methods. Isolated <span class="hlt">temperature</span> anomalies observed along the stream correspond to focused groundwater discharge zones likely caused by soil pipes within the peat. The DTS also recorded variations in the number of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> anomalies, where higher numbers correlated well with a gaining reach identified by stream gauging. Focused zones of groundwater discharge showed essentially no change in position over successive measurement periods. Results suggest DTS measurements will complement other techniques (e.g., seepage meters and stream gauging) and help further improve our understanding of groundwater-surface water dynamics in wetland streams. Copyright 2007 by the American Geophysical Union.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lowry, C. S.; Walker, J. F.; Hunt, R. J.; Anderson, M. P.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">354</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19800062242&hterms=tooth&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3D%2522tooth%2522"> <span id="translatedtitle">Analytical and experimental spur gear tooth <span class="hlt">temperature</span> as affected by operating <span class="hlt">variables</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A gear tooth <span class="hlt">temperature</span> analysis was performed using a finite element method combined with a calculated heat input, calculated oil jet impingement depth, and estimated heat transfer coefficients. Experimental measurements of gear tooth average surface <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> and instantaneous surface <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> were made with a fast response infrared radiometric microscope. Increased oil jet pressure had a significant effect on both average and peak surface <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> at both high load and speeds. Increasing the speed at constant load and increasing the load at constant speed causes a significant rise in average and peak surface <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> of gear teeth. The oil jet pressure required for adequate cooling at high speed and load conditions must be high enough to get full depth penetration of the teeth. Calculated and experimental results were in good agreement with high oil jet penetration but showed poor agreement with low oil jet penetration depth.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Townsend, D. P.; Akin, L. S.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1980-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">355</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19800010129&hterms=tooth&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3D%2522tooth%2522"> <span id="translatedtitle">Analytical and experimental spur gear tooth <span class="hlt">temperature</span> as affected by operating <span class="hlt">variables</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A gear tooth <span class="hlt">temperature</span> analysis was performed using a finite element method combined with a calculated heat input, calculated oil jet impingement depth, and estimated heat transfer coefficients. Experimental measurements of gear tooth average surface <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> and instanteous surface <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> were made with a fast response infrared radiometric microscope. Increased oil jet pressure had a significant effect on both average and peak surface <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> at both high load and speeds. Increasing the speed at constant load and increasing the load at constant speed causes a significant rise in average and peak surface <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> of gear teeth. The oil jet pressure required for adequate cooling at high speed and load conditions must be high enough to get full depth penetration of the teeth. Calculated and experimental results were in good agreement with high oil jet penetration but showed poor agreement with low oil jet penetration depth.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Townsend, D. P.; Akin, L. S.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1980-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">356</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70027101"> <span id="translatedtitle">The Schaake shuffle: A method for reconstructing space-time <span class="hlt">variability</span> in forecasted precipitation and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> fields</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A number of statistical methods that are used to provide local-scale ensemble forecasts of precipitation and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> do not contain realistic spatial covariability between neighboring stations or realistic temporal persistence for subsequent forecast lead times. To demonstrate this point, output from a global-scale numerical weather prediction model is used in a stepwise multiple linear regression approach to downscale precipitation and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> to individual stations located in and around four study basins in the United States. Output from the forecast model is downscaled for lead times up to 14 days. Residuals in the regression equation are modeled stochastically to provide 100 ensemble forecasts. The precipitation and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> ensembles from this approach have a poor representation of the spatial <span class="hlt">variability</span> and temporal persistence. The spatial correlations for downscaled output are considerably lower than observed spatial correlations at short forecast lead times (e.g., less than 5 days) when there is high accuracy in the forecasts. At longer forecast lead times, the downscaled spatial correlations are close to zero. Similarly, the observed temporal persistence is only partly present at short forecast lead times. A method is presented for reordering the ensemble output in order to recover the space-time <span class="hlt">variability</span> in precipitation and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> fields. In this approach, the ensemble members for a given forecast day are ranked and matched with the rank of precipitation and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> data from days randomly selected from similar dates in the historical record. The ensembles are then reordered to correspond to the original order of the selection of historical data. Using this approach, the observed intersite correlations, intervariable correlations, and the observed temporal persistence are almost entirely recovered. This reordering methodology also has applications for recovering the space-time <span class="hlt">variability</span> in modeled streamflow. ?? 2004 American Meteorological Society.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Clark, M.; Gangopadhyay, S.; Hay, L.; Rajagopalan, B.; Wilby, R.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">357</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.springerlink.com/index/p886234284717414.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Long-term measurement of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variabilities</span> off Mindanao Island by the ocean acoustic tomography</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Oceanic <span class="hlt">variabilities</span> off Mindanao Island, Philippines where the North Equatorial Current branches into the Kuroshio and the Mindanao Current were measurerd for a period from 14 Feb.–1 Jun. 1992 by the oceean acoustic tomography (OAT). From the beginning of April, the travel time of acoustic rays propagating over a horizontal distance of about 250km, through the depth range of 80–4700</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Gang Yuan; Iwao Nakao; Hidetoshi Fujimori; Arata Kaneko</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1995-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">358</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1998AcSpA..54..659O"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Variable</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> NMR studies on the conformations of tonalensin in solution</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">NMR studies on tonalensin 1, a diterpene containing a ten membered ring, made evident the presence of three conformational isomers in solution. At room <span class="hlt">temperature</span> compound 1 exists as a mixture of the conformers 1A and 1B in a ratio 1:1 in a CDC1 3 solution and 1.5:1 in a Me 2CO-d 6/DMSO-d 6 solution. At lower <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> a third conformer, 1C, was detected. It was responsible for the line broadening observed for 1A. <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> dependent 2D NMR experiments have been employed to elucidate the automerization of compound 1.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ortega, Alfredo; Maldonado, Emma; Díaz, Eduardo; Reynolds, William F.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1998-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">359</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/68718"> <span id="translatedtitle">Interannual <span class="hlt">variability</span> of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> at a depth of 125 meters in the North Atlantic Ocean</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Analyses of historical ocean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> data at a depth of 125 meters in the North Atlantic Ocean indicate that from 1950-1990 the subtropical and subartic gyres exhibited linear trends that were opposite in phase. In addition, multivariate analyses of yearly mean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> anomaly fields between 20{degrees}N and 70{degrees}N in the North Atlantic show a characteristic space-time <span class="hlt">temperature</span> oscillation from 1947 to 1990. A quasidecadal oscillation, first-identified at Ocean Weather Station C, is part of a basin-wide feature. Gyre and basin-scale variations such as these provide the observational basis for climate diagnostic and modeling studies.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Levitus, S.; Boyer, T.P. [National Oceanographic Data Center, Washington, DC (United States); Antonov, J.I. [State Hydrological Institute, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1994-10-07</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">360</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009ems..confE.179G"> <span id="translatedtitle">Impact of the ocean diurnal variations on the intraseasonal <span class="hlt">variability</span> of Sea Surface <span class="hlt">Temperatures</span> in the Atlantic Ocean</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Some recent studies have shown that the ocean diurnal cycle could increase the intraseasonal <span class="hlt">variability</span> of the Sea Surface <span class="hlt">Temperatures</span> (SST) in the Tropics (Shinoda and Hendon, 1998; Bernie et al, 2005; Shinoda, 2005). This study aims at extending these analyses to the mid-latitudes. The non linear processes by which the ocean diurnal variations can affect the intraseasonal sea surface <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> (SST) <span class="hlt">variability</span> are investigated. To conduct these analyses, the CNRMOM1D 1-dimensional ocean model is forced with ERA40 reanalysis data with a 1 hour frequency in solar heat flux ( 6h hours for the other forcing fields ). The turbulent vertical mixing scheme (Gaspar et al., 1988) is based on the parameterisation of the second-order turbulent moments expressed as a function of the turbulent kinetic energy. The model has 124 vertical levels with a vertical resolution of 1m near the surface and 500m at the bottom. This high vertical resolution combined with a high temporal forcing resolution allows to simulate a realistic diurnal cycle of the oceanic upper-layers. This experiment is compared with one forced on a daily time-step. The comparison between both experiments highlights an impact of the ocean diurnal variations on the amplitude of the intraseasonal SST <span class="hlt">variability</span> in the Tropics and on its timing in the mid-latitudes. In the mid-latitudes, diurnal variations in wind stress and non solar heat flux are shown to affect the daily mean SST. Since such a <span class="hlt">temperature</span> anomaly associated with the ocean diurnal variations persists for 15 to 40 days in the midlatitudes, the ocean diurnal variations are shown to affect the intraseasonal SST <span class="hlt">variability</span>.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Guemas, V.; Salas-Mélia, D.; Kageyama, M.; Giordani, H.; Voldoire, A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#">4</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#">5</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#">6</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#">7</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#">8</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#">9</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#">10</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> </div><!-- page_18 div --> <div id="page_19" class="hiddenDiv"> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#">4</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#">5</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#">6</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#">7</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#">8</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#">9</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#">10</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">361</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008LPICo1447.9064B"> <span id="translatedtitle">Solar Cycle <span class="hlt">Variability</span> of Mars Dayside Exospheric <span class="hlt">Temperatures</span>: MTGCM Interpretation of MGS Drag Data</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The response of the Mars' exospheric <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> to long-term solar flux changes was recently established using MGS drag data [Forbes et al. 2008]. New MGCM-MTGCM simulations are conducted to examine the key thermal balance processes responsible.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bougher, S. W.; McDunn, T.; Forbes, J. M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">362</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/eimsapi.dispdetail?deid=149585"> <span id="translatedtitle">INFLUENCE OF SUMMER <span class="hlt">TEMPERATURE</span> SPATIAL <span class="hlt">VARIABILITY</span> ON DISTRIBUTION AND CONDITION OF JUVENILE COHO SALMON</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p class="result-summary">abstract <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> during the summer months can influence the distribution, abundance and physiology of stream salmonids such as coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch). Effects can be direct, via physiological responses, as well as indirect, via limited food resources, alter...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">363</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6393772"> <span id="translatedtitle">High-<span class="hlt">temperature</span> electrical resistivity of rare-earth metals with <span class="hlt">variable</span> valence</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The electrical resistivity of compounds of rare-earth metals at high <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> is calculated on the basis of allowance for the background mechanism of scattering and the hybridization of local electron states with the states of conduction electrons. An analytic expression is obtained for resistivity in a strong hybridization approximation. It follows from the expression that electrical resistivity may have a negative <span class="hlt">temperature</span> coefficient within a broad range of high <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. The use of a three-band (s, d, f) model makes it possible to explain experimental data on the resistivity of certain rare-earth metals, particularly the connection between the sign of the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> coefficient of electrical resistivity and the curvature of the relation (T).</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Povzner, A.A.; Abel'skii, S.S.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1986-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">364</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=ADA569981"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Variability</span> of the Surface Circulation and <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> in the Adriatic Sea.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">My long-term goals are to contribute to the understanding of the dynamics of marginal seas such as the Adriatic by collecting and interpreting observations of currents and water mass properties (e.g., <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, salinity, chlorophyll concentration). In ...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">P. Poulain</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1998-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">365</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.H33F1459S"> <span id="translatedtitle">Temporal <span class="hlt">Variability</span> in Vertical Groundwater Fluxes and the Effect of Solar Radiation on Streambed <span class="hlt">Temperatures</span> Based on Vertical High Resolution Distributed <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Sensing</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Due to its large spatial and temporal <span class="hlt">variability</span>, groundwater discharge to streams is difficult to quantify. Methods using vertical streambed <span class="hlt">temperature</span> profiles to estimate vertical fluxes are often of coarse vertical spatial resolution and neglect to account for the natural heterogeneity in thermal conductivity of streambed sediments. Here we report on a field investigation in a stream, where air, stream water and streambed sediment <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> were measured by Distributed <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Sensing (DTS) with high spatial resolution to; (i) detect spatial and temporal <span class="hlt">variability</span> in groundwater discharge based on vertical streambed <span class="hlt">temperature</span> profiles, (ii) study the thermal regime of streambed sediments exposed to different solar radiation influence, (iii) describe the effect of solar radiation on the measured streambed <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. The study was carried out at a field site located along Holtum stream, in Western Denmark. The 3 m wide stream has a sandy streambed with a cobbled armour layer, a mean discharge of 200 l/s and a mean depth of 0.3 m. Streambed <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> were measured with a high-resolution DTS system (HR-DTS). By helically wrapping the fiber optic cable around two PVC pipes of 0.05 m and 0.075 m outer diameter over 1.5 m length, <span class="hlt">temperature</span> measurements were recorded with 5.7 mm and 3.8 mm vertical spacing, respectively. The HR-DTS systems were installed 0.7 m deep in the streambed sediments, crossing both the sediment-water and the water-air interface, thus yielding high resolution water and air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> data as well. One of the HR-DTS systems was installed in the open stream channel with only topographical shading, while the other HR-DTS system was placed 7 m upstream, under the canopy of a tree, thus representing the shaded conditions with reduced influence of solar radiation. <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> measurements were taken with 30 min intervals between 16 April and 25 June 2013. The thermal conductivity of streambed sediments was calibrated in a 1D flow and heat transport model (HydroGeoSphere). Subsequently, time series of vertical groundwater fluxes were computed based on the high-resolution vertical streambed sediment <span class="hlt">temperature</span> profiles by coupling the model with PEST. The calculated vertical flux time series show spatial differences in discharge between the two HR-DTS sites. A similar temporal <span class="hlt">variability</span> in vertical fluxes at the two test sites can also be observed, most likely linked to rainfall-runoff processes. The effect of solar radiation as streambed conduction is visible both at the exposed and shaded test site in form of increased diel <span class="hlt">temperature</span> oscillations up to 14 cm depth from the streambed surface, with the test site exposed to solar radiation showing larger diel <span class="hlt">temperature</span> oscillations.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sebok, E.; Karan, S.; Engesgaard, P. K.; Duque, C.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">366</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013IJAME..18..945M"> <span id="translatedtitle">Mass Transfer with Chemical Reaction on Flow Past an Accelerated Vertical Plate with <span class="hlt">Variable</span> <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> and Thermal Radiation</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">An exact solution of an unsteady radiative flow past a uniformly accelerated infinite vertical plate with <span class="hlt">variable</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and mass diffusion is presented here, taking into account the homogeneous chemical reaction of first order. The plate <span class="hlt">temperature</span> as well as concentration near the plate is raised linearly with time. The dimensionless governing equations are solved using the Laplace-transform technique. The velocity, <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and concentration fields are studied for different physical parameters such as the thermal Grashof number, mass Grashof number, Schmidt number, Prandtl number, radiation parameter, chemical reaction parameter and time. It is observed that the velocity increases with increasing values of the thermal Grashof number or mass Grashof number. But the trend is just reversed with respect to the thermal radiation parameter. It is also observed that the velocity increases with the decreasing chemical reaction parameter</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Muthucumaraswamy, R.; Balachandran, P.; Ganesan, K.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">367</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22251550"> <span id="translatedtitle">An optics-based <span class="hlt">variable-temperature</span> assay system for characterizing thermodynamics of biomolecular reactions on solid support</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A biological state is equilibrium of multiple concurrent biomolecular reactions. The relative importance of these reactions depends on physiological <span class="hlt">temperature</span> typically between 10?°C and 50?°C. Experimentally the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> dependence of binding reaction constants reveals thermodynamics and thus details of these biomolecular processes. We developed a <span class="hlt">variable-temperature</span> opto-fluidic system for real-time measurement of multiple (400–10?000) biomolecular binding reactions on solid supports from 10?°C to 60?°C within ±0.1?°C. We illustrate the performance of this system with investigation of binding reactions of plant lectins (carbohydrate-binding proteins) with 24 synthetic glycans (i.e., carbohydrates). We found that the lectin-glycan reactions in general can be enthalpy-driven, entropy-driven, or both, and water molecules play critical roles in the thermodynamics of these reactions.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Fei, Yiyan; Landry, James P.; Zhu, X. D., E-mail: xdzhu@physics.ucdavis.edu [Department of Physics, University of California, One Shields Avenue, Davis, California 95616 (United States); Li, Yanhong; Yu, Hai; Lau, Kam; Huang, Shengshu; Chokhawala, Harshal A.; Chen, Xi [Department of Chemistry, University of California, One Shields Avenue, Davis, California 95616 (United States)] [Department of Chemistry, University of California, One Shields Avenue, Davis, California 95616 (United States)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-11-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">368</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JPCM...25.5303C"> <span id="translatedtitle">Conductance of partially disordered graphene: crossover from <span class="hlt">temperature</span>-dependent to field-dependent <span class="hlt">variable</span>-range hopping</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We report an analysis of low-<span class="hlt">temperature</span> measurements of the conductance of partially disordered reduced graphene oxide, finding that the data follow a simple crossover scenario. At room <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, the conductance is dominated by two-dimensional (2D) electric field-assisted, thermally driven (Pollak-Riess) <span class="hlt">variable</span>-range hopping (VRH) through highly disordered regions. However, at lower <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> T, we find a smooth crossover to follow the exp(-E0/E)1/3 field-driven (Shklovskii) 2D VRH conductance behaviour when the electric field E exceeds a specific crossover value {E}_{{C}}(T)_{{2D}}=({E}_{{a}}{E}_{0}^{1/3}/3)^{3/4} determined by the scale factors E0 and Ea for the high-field and intermediate-field regimes respectively. Our crossover scenario also accounts well for experimental data reported by other authors for three-dimensional disordered carbon networks, suggesting wide applicability.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Cheah, C. Y.; Gómez-Navarro, C.; Jaurigue, L. C.; Kaiser, A. B.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">369</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19750022661&hterms=triple&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3Dtriple%2Bx"> <span id="translatedtitle">Climatic change by cloudiness linked to the spatial <span class="hlt">variability</span> of sea surface <span class="hlt">temperatures</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">An active role in modifying the earth's climate is suggested for low cloudiness over the circumarctic oceans. Such cloudiness, linked to the spatial differences in ocean surface <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, was studied. The temporal variations from year to year of ocean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> patterns can be pronounced and therefore, the low cloudiness over this region should also show strong temporal variations, affecting the albedo of the earth and therefore the climate. Photographs are included.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Otterman, J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1975-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">370</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ruby.fgcu.edu/courses/twimberley/EnviroPhilo/Cliver.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Solar <span class="hlt">variability</span> and climate change: Geomagnetic aa index and global surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">During the past ~120 years, Earth's surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> is correlated with both decadal averages and solar cycle minimum values of the geomagnetic aa index. The correlation with aa minimum values suggests the existence of a long-term (low-frequency) component of solar irradiance that underlies the 11-year cyclic component. Extrapolating the aa-<span class="hlt">temperature</span> correlations to Maunder Minimum geomagnetic conditions implies that solar forcing</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">E. W. Cliver; V. Boriakoff; J. Feynman</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1998-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">371</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007JGRD..11212103L"> <span id="translatedtitle">On the <span class="hlt">variability</span> of summer air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> during the last 28 years in Athens</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The increase of living standards in buildings and the high, summer maximum air-<span class="hlt">temperature</span> values during the last years have important economic, technical, social, and environmental consequences. Analysis of the summer ambient <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> is thus necessary to investigate, among others, the important impact on energy consumption. Ambient <span class="hlt">temperature</span> data from the National Observatory of Athens station for the period 1950-2004 are presented. The number of hours with air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> above 30°C, as well as the degree hour values (DH) in base of 30°C are estimated and statistically analyzed in order to evaluate passive, hybrid, and conventional cooling systems and techniques. The general conclusion of this study is that during the last 15 years there is a dramatic increase of the number of hours with high air <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> that leads to an increasing persistence of hot weather conditions. This corresponds, however, to the rising part of the air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> cyclic change which does not verify yet the estimated significant increasing tendency.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Livada, I.; Santamouris, M.; Assimakopoulos, M. N.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">372</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19870004322&hterms=gradient+elasticity&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dgradient%2Belasticity"> <span id="translatedtitle">Effect of design <span class="hlt">variables</span>, <span class="hlt">temperature</span> gradients and speed of life and reliability of a rotating disk</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A generalized methodology to predict the fatigue life and reliability of a rotating disk such as used for aircraft engine turbines and compressors is advanced. The approach incorporates the computed life of elemental stress volumes to predict system life and reliability. Disk speed and thermal gradients as well as design <span class="hlt">variables</span> such as disk diameter and thickness and bolt hole size, number and location are considered.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Zaretsky, E. V.; Smith, T. E.; August, R.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1986-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">373</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/48955394"> <span id="translatedtitle">Sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and salinity <span class="hlt">variability</span> at Bermuda during the end of the Little Ice Age</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">We use geochemical and isotope measurements on a 225-year old brain coral (Diploria labyrinthiformis) from the south shore of Bermuda (64°W, 32°N) to construct a record of decadal-to-centennial-scale climate <span class="hlt">variability</span>. The coral was collected alive, and annual density bands visible in X radiographs delineate cold and warm seasons allowing for precise dating. Coral skeletons incorporate strontium (Sr) and calcium (Ca)</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Nathalie F. Goodkin; Konrad A. Hughen; William B. Curry; Scott C. Doney; Dorinda R. Ostermann</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">374</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004GMS...147..247V"> <span id="translatedtitle">Interannual Indian rainfall <span class="hlt">variability</span> and Indian Ocean sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> anomalies</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">It is shown that interannual variations in Indian continental rainfall during the southwest monsoon can be usefully represented by two regional rainfall indices. Indian rainfall is concentrated in two regions, each with strong mean and variance in precipitation: the Western Ghats (WG) and the Ganges-Mahanadi Basin (GB) region. Interannual <span class="hlt">variability</span> of rainfall averaged over each of the two regions (WG and GB) is uncorrelated; however, the rainfall over these two regions together explains 90% of the interannual variance of All-India rainfall (AIR). The lack of correlation between WG and GB rainfall suggests that different mechanisms may account for their <span class="hlt">variability</span>. During the period 1982-2001, rainfall <span class="hlt">variability</span> over each of these two regions exhibits distinct relationships to Indian Ocean SST: warm SSTA over the western Arabian Sea at the monsoon onset is associated with increased WG rainfall (r = 0.77), while cool SSTA off of Java and Sumatra is associated with increased GB rainfall (r = -0.55). The connection between SSTA and AIR is considerably weaker, and represents the superposition of that associated with each region. We find the relationship with WG rainfall is robust, while that with GB results from a single exceptional year. Each region also exhibits distinct relationships to El Niño SSTA indices.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Vecchi, Gabriel A.; Harrison, D. E.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">375</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUSM.A33D..07A"> <span id="translatedtitle">Trends and <span class="hlt">variability</span> of daily and extreme <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and precipitation in the Caribbean region, 1961-2010</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A workshop was held at the University of the West Indies, Jamaica, in May 2012 to build capacity in climate data rescue and to enhance knowledge about climate change in the Caribbean region. Scientists brought their daily surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and precipitation data for an assessment of quality and homogeneity and for the preparation of climate change indices helpful for studying climate change in their region. This study presents the trends in daily and extreme <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and precipitation indices in the Caribbean region for records spanning the 1961-2010 and 1986-2010 intervals. Overall, the results show a warming of the surface air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> at land stations. Region-wide, annual means of the daily minimum <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> (+1.4°C) have increased more than the annual means of the daily maximum <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> (+0.9°C) leading to significant decrease in the diurnal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> range. The frequency of warm days and warm nights has increased by more than 15% while 9% fewer cool days and 13% fewer cool night were found over the 50-year interval. These frequency trends are further reflected in a rise of the annual extreme high and low <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> by ~1°C. Changes in precipitation indices are less consistent and the trends are generally weak. Small positive trends were found in annual total precipitation, daily intensity, maximum number of consecutive dry days and heavy rainfall events particularly during the period 1986- 2010. Finally, aside from the observed climate trends, correlations between these indices and the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) annual index suggest a coupling between land <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> and, to a lesser extent, precipitation extremes on the one hand, and the AMO signal of the North Atlantic surface sea <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Allen, T. L.; Stephenson, T. S.; Vincent, L.; Van Meerbeeck, C.; McLean, N.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">376</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010HMR....64..125W"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Temperature</span> effects on zoeal morphometric traits and intraspecific <span class="hlt">variability</span> in the hairy crab Cancer setosus across latitude</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Phenotypic plasticity is an important but often ignored ability that enables organisms, within species-specific physiological limits, to respond to gradual or sudden extrinsic changes in their environment. In the marine realm, the early ontogeny of decapod crustaceans is among the best known examples to demonstrate a <span class="hlt">temperature</span>-dependent phenotypic response. Here, we present morphometric results of larvae of the hairy crab Cancer setosus, the embryonic development of which took place at different <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> at two different sites (Antofagasta, 23°45' S; Puerto Montt, 41°44' S) along the Chilean Coast. Zoea I larvae from Puerto Montt were significantly larger than those from Antofagasta, when considering embryonic development at the same <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. Larvae from Puerto Montt reared at 12 and 16°C did not differ morphometrically, but sizes of larvae from Antofagasta kept at 16 and 20°C did, being larger at the colder <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. Zoea II larvae reared in Antofagasta at three <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> (16, 20, and 24°C) showed the same pattern, with larger larvae at colder <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. Furthermore, larvae reared at 24°C, showed deformations, suggesting that 24°C, which coincides with <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> found during strong EL Niño events, is indicative of the upper larval thermal tolerance limit. C. setosus is exposed to a wide <span class="hlt">temperature</span> range across its distribution range of about 40° of latitude. Phenotypic plasticity in larval offspring does furthermore enable this species to locally respond to the inter-decadal warming induced by El Niño. Morphological plasticity in this species does support previously reported energetic trade-offs with <span class="hlt">temperature</span> throughout early ontogeny of this species, indicating that plasticity may be a key to a species’ success to occupy a wide distribution range and/or to thrive under highly <span class="hlt">variable</span> habitat conditions.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Weiss, Monika; Thatje, Sven; Heilmayer, Olaf</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">377</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011PalOc..26.4206R"> <span id="translatedtitle">Early Holocene <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> in the Nordic Seas: The role of oceanic heat advection versus changes in orbital forcing</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The separate roles of oceanic heat advection and orbital forcing on influencing early Holocene <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> in the eastern Nordic Seas is investigated. The effect of changing orbital forcing on the ocean <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> is tested using the 1DICE model, and the 1DICE results are compared with new and previously published <span class="hlt">temperature</span> reconstructions from a transect of five cores located underneath the pathway of Atlantic water, from the Faroe-Shetland Channel in the south to the Barents Sea in the north. The stronger early Holocene summer insolation at high northern latitudes increased the summer mixed layer <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, however, ocean <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> underneath the summer mixed layer did not increase significantly. The absolute maximum in summer mixed layer <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> occurred between 9 and 6 ka BP, representing the Holocene Thermal Maximum in the eastern Nordic Seas. In contrast, maximum in northward oceanic heat transport through the Norwegian Atlantic Current occurred approximately 10 ka BP. The maximum in oceanic heat transport at 10 ka BP occurred due to a major reorganization of the Atlantic Ocean circulation, entailing strong and deep rejuvenation of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation, combined with changes in the North Atlantic gyre dynamic causing enhanced transport of heat and salt into the Nordic Seas.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Risebrobakken, BjøRg; Dokken, Trond; Smedsrud, Lars Henrik; Andersson, Carin; Jansen, Eystein; Moros, Matthias; Ivanova, Elena V.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">378</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24675554"> <span id="translatedtitle">Analysis of trait mean and <span class="hlt">variability</span> versus <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in trematode cercariae: is there scope for adaptation to global warming?</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The potential of species for evolutionary adaptation in the context of global climate change has recently come under scrutiny. Estimates of phenotypic variation in biological traits may prove valuable for identifying species, or groups of species, with greater or lower potential for evolutionary adaptation, as this variation, when heritable, represents the basis for natural selection. Assuming that measures of trait <span class="hlt">variability</span> reflect the evolutionary potential of these traits, we conducted an analysis across trematode species to determine the potential of these parasites as a group to adapt to increasing <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. Firstly, we assessed how the mean number of infective stages (cercariae) emerging from infected snail hosts as well as the survival and infectivity of cercariae are related to <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. Secondly and importantly in the context of evolutionary potential, we assessed how coefficients of variation for these traits are related to <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, in both cases controlling for other factors such as habitat, acclimatisation, latitude and type of target host. With increasing <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, an optimum curve was found for mean output and mean infectivity, and a linear decrease for survival of cercariae. For coefficients of variation, <span class="hlt">temperature</span> was only an important predictor in the case of cercarial output, where results indicated that there is, however, no evidence for limited trait variation at the higher <span class="hlt">temperature</span> range. No directional trend was found for either variation of survival or infectivity. These results, characterising general patterns among trematodes, suggest that all three traits considered may have potential to change through adaptive evolution. PMID:24675554</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Studer, A; Poulin, R</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">379</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..1412365D"> <span id="translatedtitle">Low-frequency Sahel rainfall <span class="hlt">variability</span> and Atlantic Sea Surface <span class="hlt">Temperatures</span> during the last century</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This study revisits the question of the Atlantic SSTs-Sahel rainfall teleconnection <span class="hlt">variability</span> along the 20th century using gridded data sets (SST, rainfall), selected Sahel rainfall time-series (Dakar in Senegal; Nioro du Sahel and Mopti in Mali; Niamey, Maradi and Maine-Soroa in Niger) and climate indices (AMO and TSA). In this study, we introduce a mixed time-series and spatial approach based on the spectral analysis (continuous wavelet transform and wavelet coherence and phase), which enables accurately assess the temporal, spatial and frequency non-stationarity of Atlantic SSTs-Sahel rainfall teleconnections. West African rainfalls show a pronounced negative trend over the Sahel since the late 1960s. Several dominant <span class="hlt">variability</span> modes are observed according to the nearness of Atlantic Ocean. Three non-stationary areas of Sahel rainfall are thus revealed: Atlantic Coast (Dakar), Central Sahel (Nioro du Sahel and Mopti) and Eastern Sahel (Niamey, Maradi and Maine-Soroa). Previous hypothesis highlight the positive and negative weights of the North and (Tropical) South Atlantic SSTs respectively. Nevertheless, the statistical time-frequency study reveals an independent rainfall teleconnections with the North and (Tropical) South Atlantic SSTs. Increased rainfall over the Sahel is related to the positive phase of the AMO, due to a northward shift of the ITCZ. But behind 10°W-0°, the influence of North Atlantic SSTs <span class="hlt">variability</span> is weak. In addition, as in the 50's the quasi-decadal teleconnections (9-19yrs) between Sahel rainfall and the North Atlantic SSTs can be associated with NAO patterns. A cold (warm) SSTs anomaly over the Tropical South Atlantic is associated with wet (dry) rainfall anomaly over the Sahel, and opposite anomaly over the Gulf of Guinea. But, this teleconnection is not geographically stable. Before 1970's, Western Sahel rainfall (including the coastal zone; Dakar, Nioro du Sahel, Mopti) appears to be statistically teleconnected with multi-decadal <span class="hlt">variability</span> of South Atlantic SSTs. While since 1970's, Eastern Sahel rainfall (Niamey, Maradi, Maine-Soroa) appears to be teleconnected with quasi-decadal <span class="hlt">variability</span> of Tropical South Atlantic SST. This study is focused on the Atlantic, but the longitudinal heterogeneity of Sahel rainfall is also dependent of land surfaces (albedo, vegetation cover and soil moisture) and the contrast between Indian and Atlantic SSTs, that modulating ascendance/subsidence in the east-west circulation. Nevertheless, over the 20th century, combinations of these various states of Atlantic SSTs explain a large part of annual Sahel rainfall amount fluctuations. The superposition of various teleconnections modulating an enhanced rainfall led to wet anomaly, and conversely for dry anomaly.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Dieppois, B.; Durand, A.; Fournier, M.; Diedhiou, A.; Fontaine, B.; Massei, N.; Nouaceur, Z.; Sebag, D.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">380</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/27295480"> <span id="translatedtitle">Seasonal and Diurnal <span class="hlt">Variability</span> in Airborne Mold from an Indoor Residential Environment in Northern New York</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">It is well known that characterization of airborne bioaerosols in indoor environments is a challenge because of inherent irregularity in concentrations, which are influenced by many environmental factors. The primary aim of this study was to quantify the <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> of airborne fungal levels in a single residential environment over multiple seasons. Indoor air quality practitioners must recognize the inherent</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ryan LeBouf; Liesel Yesse; Alan Rossner; Chart Chiemchaisri; Wilai Chiemchaisri; Sayan Tudsri; Sunil Kumar; Josias Zietsman; Muhammad Bari; Aaron Rand; Bhushan Gokhale; Dominique Lord; Jenny Sanderson; Patrick Hettiaratchi; Carlos Hunte; Omar Hurtado; Alejandro Keller; Chettiyappan Visvanathan; Melissa Weitz; Jeffrey Coburn; Edgar Salinas; Ahmed Soliman; Robert Jacko; Nancy Burton; Atin Adhikari; Yulia Iossifova; Sergey Grinshpun; Tiina Reponen; James Wilson; Maureen Mullen; Andrew Bollman; Kirstin Thesing; Manish Salhotra; Frank Divita; James Neumann; Jason Price; James DeMocker; Mae Gustin; Jody Ericksen; George Fernandez; Deborah Luecken; Alan Cimorelli; Wei-Hsin Chen; Shan-Wen Du; Hsi-Hsien Yang; Jheng-Syun Wu; Diane Ivy; James Mulholland; Armistead Russell</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#">4</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#">5</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#">6</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#">7</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#">8</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#">9</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#">10</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a>