Science.gov

Sample records for dead sensor diagnosis

  1. Pedestrian dead reckoning using a novel sensor module that interfaces with modern smart devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stimac, Philip J.; Demar, Richard W.; Hewitt, Gregory F. S.; McKenna, Mark J.; Jordan, Eric M.; Fordham, Matthew; Haas, John W.

    2015-05-01

    Tracking individuals in areas such as dense urban environments and building interiors is desirable for numerous critical applications, but has been problematic mainly because of the unreliability or unavailability of GPS in many locations of interest. To date, tracking applications that utilize inertial sensors within smart devices have had varied degrees of success: accuracy typically dips below that of standard GPS within minutes and depends strongly on the quality of the sensors in the device, as well as the location that the device is carried on the body. In this paper we present a sensor module that interfaces with modern smart devices and which utilizes a low-cost, commercial-off-the-shelf, 9-axis IMU and pressure sensor to provide an advanced pedestrian dead reckoning solution. The sensor module is designed to communicate with the smart device (e.g., iOS, Android or Windows) via the audio jack and is intended for use as a beltmounted pedestrian tracker. In addition to describing the device hardware and functionality, we present our approach to processing the sensor module data streams to determine a user's position. Results using the prototype sensor module in operationally relevant scenarios is presented and discussed.

  2. Breath sensors for lung cancer diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Adiguzel, Yekbun; Kulah, Haluk

    2015-03-15

    The scope of the applications of breath sensors is abundant in disease diagnosis. Lung cancer diagnosis is a well-fitting health-related application of this technology, which is of utmost importance in the health sector, because lung cancer has the highest death rate among all cancer types, and it brings a high yearly global burden. The aim of this review is first to provide a rational basis for the development of breath sensors for lung cancer diagnostics from a historical perspective, which will facilitate the transfer of the idea into the rapidly evolving sensors field. Following examples with diagnostic applications include colorimetric, composite, carbon nanotube, gold nanoparticle-based, and surface acoustic wave sensor arrays. These select sensor applications are widened by the state-of-the-art developments in the sensors field. Coping with sampling sourced artifacts and cancer staging are among the debated topics, along with the other concerns like proteomics approaches and biomimetic media utilization, feature selection for data classification, and commercialization. PMID:25461148

  3. Isolability of faults in sensor fault diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharifi, Reza; Langari, Reza

    2011-10-01

    A major concern with fault detection and isolation (FDI) methods is their robustness with respect to noise and modeling uncertainties. With this in mind, several approaches have been proposed to minimize the vulnerability of FDI methods to these uncertainties. But, apart from the algorithm used, there is a theoretical limit on the minimum effect of noise on detectability and isolability. This limit has been quantified in this paper for the problem of sensor fault diagnosis based on direct redundancies. In this study, first a geometric approach to sensor fault detection is proposed. The sensor fault is isolated based on the direction of residuals found from a residual generator. This residual generator can be constructed from an input-output or a Principal Component Analysis (PCA) based model. The simplicity of this technique, compared to the existing methods of sensor fault diagnosis, allows for more rational formulation of the isolability concepts in linear systems. Using this residual generator and the assumption of Gaussian noise, the effect of noise on isolability is studied, and the minimum magnitude of isolable fault in each sensor is found based on the distribution of noise in the measurement system. Finally, some numerical examples are presented to clarify this approach.

  4. Modeling Sensor Reliability in Fault Diagnosis Based on Evidence Theory

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Kaijuan; Xiao, Fuyuan; Fei, Liguo; Kang, Bingyi; Deng, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Sensor data fusion plays an important role in fault diagnosis. Dempster–Shafer (D-R) evidence theory is widely used in fault diagnosis, since it is efficient to combine evidence from different sensors. However, under the situation where the evidence highly conflicts, it may obtain a counterintuitive result. To address the issue, a new method is proposed in this paper. Not only the statistic sensor reliability, but also the dynamic sensor reliability are taken into consideration. The evidence distance function and the belief entropy are combined to obtain the dynamic reliability of each sensor report. A weighted averaging method is adopted to modify the conflict evidence by assigning different weights to evidence according to sensor reliability. The proposed method has better performance in conflict management and fault diagnosis due to the fact that the information volume of each sensor report is taken into consideration. An application in fault diagnosis based on sensor fusion is illustrated to show the efficiency of the proposed method. The results show that the proposed method improves the accuracy of fault diagnosis from 81.19% to 89.48% compared to the existing methods. PMID:26797611

  5. Modeling Sensor Reliability in Fault Diagnosis Based on Evidence Theory.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Kaijuan; Xiao, Fuyuan; Fei, Liguo; Kang, Bingyi; Deng, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Sensor data fusion plays an important role in fault diagnosis. Dempster-Shafer (D-R) evidence theory is widely used in fault diagnosis, since it is efficient to combine evidence from different sensors. However, under the situation where the evidence highly conflicts, it may obtain a counterintuitive result. To address the issue, a new method is proposed in this paper. Not only the statistic sensor reliability, but also the dynamic sensor reliability are taken into consideration. The evidence distance function and the belief entropy are combined to obtain the dynamic reliability of each sensor report. A weighted averaging method is adopted to modify the conflict evidence by assigning different weights to evidence according to sensor reliability. The proposed method has better performance in conflict management and fault diagnosis due to the fact that the information volume of each sensor report is taken into consideration. An application in fault diagnosis based on sensor fusion is illustrated to show the efficiency of the proposed method. The results show that the proposed method improves the accuracy of fault diagnosis from 81.19% to 89.48% compared to the existing methods. PMID:26797611

  6. Sensor capsule for diagnosis of gastric disorders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holen, J. T.

    1972-01-01

    Motility and pH sensor capsule is developed to monitor gastric acidity, pressure, and temperature. Capsule does not interfere with digestion. Sensor is capsule which includes pH electrode, Pitran pressure transducer, and thermistor temperature sensor all potted in epoxy and enclosed in high density polyethylene sheath.

  7. Distributed model-based nonlinear sensor fault diagnosis in wireless sensor networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lo, Chun; Lynch, Jerome P.; Liu, Mingyan

    2016-01-01

    Wireless sensors operating in harsh environments have the potential to be error-prone. This paper presents a distributive model-based diagnosis algorithm that identifies nonlinear sensor faults. The diagnosis algorithm has advantages over existing fault diagnosis methods such as centralized model-based and distributive model-free methods. An algorithm is presented for detecting common non-linearity faults without using reference sensors. The study introduces a model-based fault diagnosis framework that is implemented within a pair of wireless sensors. The detection of sensor nonlinearities is shown to be equivalent to solving the largest empty rectangle (LER) problem, given a set of features extracted from an analysis of sensor outputs. A low-complexity algorithm that gives an approximate solution to the LER problem is proposed for embedment in resource constrained wireless sensors. By solving the LER problem, sensors corrupted by non-linearity faults can be isolated and identified. Extensive analysis evaluates the performance of the proposed algorithm through simulation.

  8. Multiple sensor tracking of submarine groundwater discharge: concept study along the Dead Sea.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siebert, Christian; Mallast, Ulf; Rödiger, Tino; Ionescu, Danny; Schwonke, Friedhelm; Hall, John K.; Sade, Aharon R.; Pohl, Thomas; Merkel, Broder

    2014-05-01

    As a result of the continuously declining water level of the Dead Sea, vast areas of its former lakebed are exposed. That unconsolidated sequence of clay minerals and evaporates (e.g. aragonite, gypsum, halite) generally reacts as aquiclude - preventing direct drainage of the surrounding mountain freshwater aquifers. The high density differences between the hypersaline Dead Sea (1.24 g/cm3) and the approaching fresh water generates a flat dipping and stable Ghyben-Herzberg interface. However, a network of open fissures and cracks enables these freshwaters to regionally penetrate both, aquiclude and interface and to finally enter the Dead Sea on- and offshore. These offshore springs, also termed sublake groundwater discharge (SGD), are neither qualitatively nor quantitatively analysed yet. This is the reason why it is one of the most doubtful variables in existing balances of the lake's water budget and strongly requires improvement. To disclose pathways from the feeding mountain aquifers to the springs, intense hydrochemical and microbial investigations were carried out both, onshore and submarine. The waters have their origin in a variety of hard rock aquifers of Cretaceous age. After draining into the Dead Sea sediments, waters carry the easily soluble components (gypsum, halite) and the abundant organic matter, erodes and transports the hardly soluble minerals (clay and aragonite) and admix with briny pore water, respectively, which are all hosted in the sediment body. Diving campaigns allowed to map at least parts of the submarine spring cluster and to correlate their locations with neo-tectonic patterns. However, comprehensive mapping solely by divers is unfeasible due to the complexity and density of spring locations. The subsurface morphology is characterised by craters, walls, gullies and cones, occasionally nested and intensely anastomosed. To comprehensively understand reasons for specific discharge locations and their shapes, high-precision and high

  9. Chip-Based Sensors for Disease Diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Zhichao

    Nucleic acid analysis is one of the most important disease diagnostic approaches in medical practice, and has been commonly used in cancer biomarker detection, bacterial speciation and many other fields in laboratory. Currently, the application of powerful research methods for genetic analysis, including the polymerase chain reaction (PCR), DNA sequencing, and gene expression profiling using fluorescence microarrays, are not widely used in hospitals and extended-care units due to high-cost, long detection times, and extensive sample preparation. Bioassays, especially chip-based electrochemical sensors, may be suitable for the next generation of rapid, sensitive, and multiplexed detection tools. Herein, we report three different microelectrode platforms with capabilities enabled by nano- and microtechnology: nanoelectrode ensembles (NEEs), nanostructured microelectrodes (NMEs), and hierarchical nanostructured microelectrodes (HNMEs), all of which are able to directly detect unpurified RNA in clinical samples without enzymatic amplification. Biomarkers that are cancer and infectious disease relevant to clinical medicine were chosen to be the targets. Markers were successfully detected with clinically-relevant sensitivity. Using peptide nucleic acids (PNAs) as probes and an electrocatalytic reporter system, NEEs were able to detect prostate cancer-related gene fusions in tumor tissue samples with 100 ng of RNA. The development of NMEs improved the sensitivity of the assay further to 10 aM of DNA target, and multiplexed detection of RNA sequences of different prostate cancer-related gene fusion types was achieved on the chip-based NMEs platform. An HNMEs chip integrated with a bacterial lysis device was able to detect as few as 25 cfu bacteria in 30 minutes and monitor the detection in real time. Bacterial detection could also be performed in neat urine samples. The development of these versatile clinical diagnostic tools could be extended to the detection of various

  10. Open Circuit Resonant Sensors for Composite Damage Detection and Diagnosis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mielnik, John J., Jr.

    2011-01-01

    Under the Integrated Vehicle Health Management (IVHM) program work was begun to investigate the feasibility of sensor systems for detecting and diagnosing damage to aircraft composite structures and materials. Specific interest for this study was in damage initiated by environmental storm hazards and the direct effect of lightning strikes on the material structures of a composite aircraft in flight. A series of open circuit resonant sensors was designed, fabricated, characterized, and determined to be a potentially viable means for damage detection and diagnosis of composite materials. The results of this research and development effort are documented in this report.

  11. TOPICAL REVIEW: Biological and chemical sensors for cancer diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simon, Elfriede

    2010-11-01

    The great challenge for sensor systems to be accepted as a relevant diagnostic and therapeutic tool for cancer detection is the ability to determine the presence of relevant biomarkers or biomarker patterns comparably to or even better than the traditional analytical systems. Biosensor and chemical sensor technologies are already used for several clinical applications such as blood glucose or blood gas measurements. However, up to now not many sensors have been developed for cancer-related tests because only a few of the biomarkers have shown clinical relevance and the performance of the sensor systems is not always satisfactory. New genomic and proteomic tools are used to detect new molecular signatures and identify which combinations of biomarkers may detect best the presence or risk of cancer or monitor cancer therapies. These molecular signatures include genetic and epigenetic signatures, changes in gene expressions, protein biomarker profiles and other metabolite profile changes. They provide new changes in using different sensor technologies for cancer detection especially when complex biomarker patterns have to be analyzed. To address requirements for this complex analysis, there have been recent efforts to develop sensor arrays and new solutions (e.g. lab on a chip) in which sampling, preparation, high-throughput analysis and reporting are integrated. The ability of parallelization, miniaturization and the degree of automation are the focus of new developments and will be supported by nanotechnology approaches. This review recaps some scientific considerations about cancer diagnosis and cancer-related biomarkers, relevant biosensor and chemical sensor technologies, their application as cancer sensors and consideration about future challenges.

  12. Sensor-based fault diagnosis in a flight expert system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ali, M.; Scharnhorst, D. A.

    1985-01-01

    A prototype of a knowledge-based flight expert system (FLES) has been developed to assist airplane pilots in monitoring, analyzing, and diagnosing faults and to provide support in reducing the pilot's own mistakes. A sensor simulation model has been developed to provide FLES with the airplane status information during the diagnostic process. The simulator is based partly on the Advanced Concept System (ACS), a future-generation airplane, and partly on the Boeing 737, an existing airplane. The architecture of FLES contains several subsystems. One of the major subsystems performs fault diagnosis in the electrical system of the ACS. This paper describes the mechanism and functionality of the automatic diagnosis performed in this expert system.

  13. Rule-based fault diagnosis of hall sensors and fault-tolerant control of PMSM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Ziyou; Li, Jianqiu; Ouyang, Minggao; Gu, Jing; Feng, Xuning; Lu, Dongbin

    2013-07-01

    Hall sensor is widely used for estimating rotor phase of permanent magnet synchronous motor(PMSM). And rotor position is an essential parameter of PMSM control algorithm, hence it is very dangerous if Hall senor faults occur. But there is scarcely any research focusing on fault diagnosis and fault-tolerant control of Hall sensor used in PMSM. From this standpoint, the Hall sensor faults which may occur during the PMSM operating are theoretically analyzed. According to the analysis results, the fault diagnosis algorithm of Hall sensor, which is based on three rules, is proposed to classify the fault phenomena accurately. The rotor phase estimation algorithms, based on one or two Hall sensor(s), are initialized to engender the fault-tolerant control algorithm. The fault diagnosis algorithm can detect 60 Hall fault phenomena in total as well as all detections can be fulfilled in 1/138 rotor rotation period. The fault-tolerant control algorithm can achieve a smooth torque production which means the same control effect as normal control mode (with three Hall sensors). Finally, the PMSM bench test verifies the accuracy and rapidity of fault diagnosis and fault-tolerant control strategies. The fault diagnosis algorithm can detect all Hall sensor faults promptly and fault-tolerant control algorithm allows the PMSM to face failure conditions of one or two Hall sensor(s). In addition, the transitions between health-control and fault-tolerant control conditions are smooth without any additional noise and harshness. Proposed algorithms can deal with the Hall sensor faults of PMSM in real applications, and can be provided to realize the fault diagnosis and fault-tolerant control of PMSM.

  14. Fault diagnosis for micro-gas turbine engine sensors via wavelet entropy.

    PubMed

    Yu, Bing; Liu, Dongdong; Zhang, Tianhong

    2011-01-01

    Sensor fault diagnosis is necessary to ensure the normal operation of a gas turbine system. However, the existing methods require too many resources and this need can't be satisfied in some occasions. Since the sensor readings are directly affected by sensor state, sensor fault diagnosis can be performed by extracting features of the measured signals. This paper proposes a novel fault diagnosis method for sensors based on wavelet entropy. Based on the wavelet theory, wavelet decomposition is utilized to decompose the signal in different scales. Then the instantaneous wavelet energy entropy (IWEE) and instantaneous wavelet singular entropy (IWSE) are defined based on the previous wavelet entropy theory. Subsequently, a fault diagnosis method for gas turbine sensors is proposed based on the results of a numerically simulated example. Then, experiments on this method are carried out on a real micro gas turbine engine. In the experiment, four types of faults with different magnitudes are presented. The experimental results show that the proposed method for sensor fault diagnosis is efficient. PMID:22163734

  15. Fault Diagnosis for Micro-Gas Turbine Engine Sensors via Wavelet Entropy

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Bing; Liu, Dongdong; Zhang, Tianhong

    2011-01-01

    Sensor fault diagnosis is necessary to ensure the normal operation of a gas turbine system. However, the existing methods require too many resources and this need can’t be satisfied in some occasions. Since the sensor readings are directly affected by sensor state, sensor fault diagnosis can be performed by extracting features of the measured signals. This paper proposes a novel fault diagnosis method for sensors based on wavelet entropy. Based on the wavelet theory, wavelet decomposition is utilized to decompose the signal in different scales. Then the instantaneous wavelet energy entropy (IWEE) and instantaneous wavelet singular entropy (IWSE) are defined based on the previous wavelet entropy theory. Subsequently, a fault diagnosis method for gas turbine sensors is proposed based on the results of a numerically simulated example. Then, experiments on this method are carried out on a real micro gas turbine engine. In the experiment, four types of faults with different magnitudes are presented. The experimental results show that the proposed method for sensor fault diagnosis is efficient. PMID:22163734

  16. A multi-fault diagnosis method for sensor systems based on principle component analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Daqi; Bai, Jie; Yang, Simon X

    2010-01-01

    A model based on PCA (principal component analysis) and a neural network is proposed for the multi-fault diagnosis of sensor systems. Firstly, predicted values of sensors are computed by using historical data measured under fault-free conditions and a PCA model. Secondly, the squared prediction error (SPE) of the sensor system is calculated. A fault can then be detected when the SPE suddenly increases. If more than one sensor in the system is out of order, after combining different sensors and reconstructing the signals of combined sensors, the SPE is calculated to locate the faulty sensors. Finally, the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed method is demonstrated by simulation and comparison studies, in which two sensors in the system are out of order at the same time. PMID:22315537

  17. Diagnosis and sensor validation through knowledge of structure and function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scarl, Ethan A.; Jamieson, John R.; Delaune, Carl I.

    1987-01-01

    The liquid oxygen expert system 'LES' is proposed as the first capable of diagnostic reasoning from sensor data, using model-based knowledge of structure and function to find the expected state of all system objects, including sensors. The approach is generally algorithmic rather than heuristic, and represents uncertainties as sets of possibilities. Functional relationships are inverted to determine hypothetical values for potentially faulty objects, and may include conditional functions not normally considered to have inverses.

  18. Sensor fault diagnosis for fast steering mirror system based on Kalman filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hongju; Bao, Qiliang; Yang, Haifeng; Tao, Sunjie

    2015-10-01

    In this paper, to improve the reliability of a two-axis fast steering mirror system with minimum hardware consumption, a fault diagnosis method based on Kalman filter was developed. The dynamics model of the two-axis FSM was established firstly, and then the state-space form of the FSM was adopted. A bank of Kalman filters for fault detection was designed based on the state-space form. The effects of the sensor faults on the innovation sequence were investigated, and a decision approach called weighted sum-squared residual (WSSR) was adopted to isolate the sensor faults. Sensor faults could be detected and isolated when the decision statistics changed. Experimental studies on a prototype system show that the faulty sensor can be isolated timely and accurately. Meanwhile, the mathematical model of FSM system was used to design fault diagnosis scheme in the proposed method, thus the consumption of the hardware and space is decreased.

  19. Fault detection, isolation, and diagnosis of status self-validating gas sensor arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yin-sheng; Xu, Yong-hui; Yang, Jing-li; Shi, Zhen; Jiang, Shou-da; Wang, Qi

    2016-04-01

    The traditional gas sensor array has been viewed as a simple apparatus for information acquisition in chemosensory systems. Gas sensor arrays frequently undergo impairments in the form of sensor failures that cause significant deterioration of the performance of previously trained pattern recognition models. Reliability monitoring of gas sensor arrays is a challenging and critical issue in the chemosensory system. Because of its importance, we design and implement a status self-validating gas sensor array prototype to enhance the reliability of its measurements. A novel fault detection, isolation, and diagnosis (FDID) strategy is presented in this paper. The principal component analysis-based multivariate statistical process monitoring model can effectively perform fault detection by using the squared prediction error statistic and can locate the faulty sensor in the gas sensor array by using the variables contribution plot. The signal features of gas sensor arrays for different fault modes are extracted by using ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD) coupled with sample entropy (SampEn). The EEMD is applied to adaptively decompose the original gas sensor signals into a finite number of intrinsic mode functions (IMFs) and a residual. The SampEn values of each IMF and the residual are calculated to reveal the multi-scale intrinsic characteristics of the faulty sensor signals. Sparse representation-based classification is introduced to identify the sensor fault type for the purpose of diagnosing deterioration in the gas sensor array. The performance of the proposed strategy is compared with other different diagnostic approaches, and it is fully evaluated in a real status self-validating gas sensor array experimental system. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed strategy provides an excellent solution to the FDID of status self-validating gas sensor arrays.

  20. Fault detection, isolation, and diagnosis of status self-validating gas sensor arrays.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yin-Sheng; Xu, Yong-Hui; Yang, Jing-Li; Shi, Zhen; Jiang, Shou-da; Wang, Qi

    2016-04-01

    The traditional gas sensor array has been viewed as a simple apparatus for information acquisition in chemosensory systems. Gas sensor arrays frequently undergo impairments in the form of sensor failures that cause significant deterioration of the performance of previously trained pattern recognition models. Reliability monitoring of gas sensor arrays is a challenging and critical issue in the chemosensory system. Because of its importance, we design and implement a status self-validating gas sensor array prototype to enhance the reliability of its measurements. A novel fault detection, isolation, and diagnosis (FDID) strategy is presented in this paper. The principal component analysis-based multivariate statistical process monitoring model can effectively perform fault detection by using the squared prediction error statistic and can locate the faulty sensor in the gas sensor array by using the variables contribution plot. The signal features of gas sensor arrays for different fault modes are extracted by using ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD) coupled with sample entropy (SampEn). The EEMD is applied to adaptively decompose the original gas sensor signals into a finite number of intrinsic mode functions (IMFs) and a residual. The SampEn values of each IMF and the residual are calculated to reveal the multi-scale intrinsic characteristics of the faulty sensor signals. Sparse representation-based classification is introduced to identify the sensor fault type for the purpose of diagnosing deterioration in the gas sensor array. The performance of the proposed strategy is compared with other different diagnostic approaches, and it is fully evaluated in a real status self-validating gas sensor array experimental system. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed strategy provides an excellent solution to the FDID of status self-validating gas sensor arrays. PMID:27131696

  1. Beyond sensor-assisted diagnosis of used products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pochampally, Kishore K.; Vadde, Srikanth; Kamarthi, Sagar V.; Gupta, Surendra M.

    2004-12-01

    It is difficult to obtain information regarding compositions and remaining life periods of used products. Hence, they often undergo partial or complete disassembly for subsequent re-processing (remanufacturing and/or recycling). However, researchers are now studying sensor embedded products (SEPs), the composition and remaining life of which can be obtained at the end of their use from sensors. This paper addresses decision-making regarding the futurity of an SEP at its end of use: whether to disassemble it for subsequent recycling/remanufacturing or to repair it for subsequent sale on a second-hand market. We identify some important factors that must be considered before making a decision. Using a numerical example, we propose a simple approach that employs Bayesian updating and fuzzy set theory to aid the decision-making process.

  2. Induction machine fault diagnosis using an external radial flux sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romary, R.; Corton, R.; Thailly, D.; Brudny, J. F.

    2005-11-01

    This paper presents a method for detecting faults in the induction machine using a flux sensor which measures the external radial leakage magnetic field of the machine. The procedure uses the spectral lines that correspond to the slotting effect which causes harmonics in the machine air gap. These harmonic frequencies, which are about a few kHz occur in a part of the spectra which is not very dense compared to the one that corresponds to the low frequencies due to the supply or the rotor revolution speed. The considered components can also be detected in the radial magnetic field flowing out of the machine. It can be shown that specific faults lead to additional spectral lines which appear clearly near the original ones due to the slotting effect. Two faults, which can be detected with the same magnetic flux sensor, are presented in this paper: the first one corresponds to a broken rotor bar, the second one is a stator inter turn short circuit.

  3. Sensor Fault Detection and Diagnosis Simulation of a Helicopter Engine in an Intelligent Control Framework

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Litt, Jonathan; Kurtkaya, Mehmet; Duyar, Ahmet

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents an application of a fault detection and diagnosis scheme for the sensor faults of a helicopter engine. The scheme utilizes a model-based approach with real time identification and hypothesis testing which can provide early detection, isolation, and diagnosis of failures. It is an integral part of a proposed intelligent control system with health monitoring capabilities. The intelligent control system will allow for accommodation of faults, reduce maintenance cost, and increase system availability. The scheme compares the measured outputs of the engine with the expected outputs of an engine whose sensor suite is functioning normally. If the differences between the real and expected outputs exceed threshold values, a fault is detected. The isolation of sensor failures is accomplished through a fault parameter isolation technique where parameters which model the faulty process are calculated on-line with a real-time multivariable parameter estimation algorithm. The fault parameters and their patterns can then be analyzed for diagnostic and accommodation purposes. The scheme is applied to the detection and diagnosis of sensor faults of a T700 turboshaft engine. Sensor failures are induced in a T700 nonlinear performance simulation and data obtained are used with the scheme to detect, isolate, and estimate the magnitude of the faults.

  4. Diagnosis of Thermal Efficiency of Advanced Combined Cycle Power Plants Using Optical Torque Sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umezawa, Shuichi

    A new optical torque measurement method was applied to diagnosis of thermal efficiency of advanced combined cycle, i.e. ACC, plants. Since the ACC power plant comprises a steam turbine and a gas turbine and both of them are connected to the same generator, it is difficult to identify which turbine in the plant deteriorates the performance when the plant efficiency is reduced. The sensor measures axial distortion caused by power transmission by use of He-Ne laser beams, small stainless steel reflectors having bar-code patterns, and a technique of signal processing featuring high frequency. The sensor was applied to the ACC plants of TOKYO ELECTRIC POWER COMPANY, TEPCO, following the success in the application to the early combined cycle plants of TEPCO. The sensor performance was inspected over a year. After an improvement related to the signal process, it is considered that the sensor performance has reached a practical use level.

  5. Silicon Nanowire Sensors Enable Diagnosis of Patients via Exhaled Breath.

    PubMed

    Shehada, Nisreen; Cancilla, John C; Torrecilla, Jose S; Pariente, Enrique S; Brönstrup, Gerald; Christiansen, Silke; Johnson, Douglas W; Leja, Marcis; Davies, Michael P A; Liran, Ori; Peled, Nir; Haick, Hossam

    2016-07-26

    Two of the biggest challenges in medicine today are the need to detect diseases in a noninvasive manner and to differentiate between patients using a single diagnostic tool. The current study targets these two challenges by developing a molecularly modified silicon nanowire field effect transistor (SiNW FET) and showing its use in the detection and classification of many disease breathprints (lung cancer, gastric cancer, asthma, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease). The fabricated SiNW FETs are characterized and optimized based on a training set that correlate their sensitivity and selectivity toward volatile organic compounds (VOCs) linked with the various disease breathprints. The best sensors obtained in the training set are then examined under real-world clinical conditions, using breath samples from 374 subjects. Analysis of the clinical samples show that the optimized SiNW FETs can detect and discriminate between almost all binary comparisons of the diseases under examination with >80% accuracy. Overall, this approach has the potential to support detection of many diseases in a direct harmless way, which can reassure patients and prevent numerous unpleasant investigations. PMID:27383408

  6. Robust Dead Reckoning System for Mobile Robots Based on Particle Filter and Raw Range Scan

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Zhuohua; Cai, Zixing; Min, Huaqing

    2014-01-01

    Robust dead reckoning is a complicated problem for wheeled mobile robots (WMRs), where the robots are faulty, such as the sticking of sensors or the slippage of wheels, for the discrete fault models and the continuous states have to be estimated simultaneously to reach a reliable fault diagnosis and accurate dead reckoning. Particle filters are one of the most promising approaches to handle hybrid system estimation problems, and they have also been widely used in many WMRs applications, such as pose tracking, SLAM, video tracking, fault identification, etc. In this paper, the readings of a laser range finder, which may be also interfered with by noises, are used to reach accurate dead reckoning. The main contribution is that a systematic method to implement fault diagnosis and dead reckoning in a particle filter framework concurrently is proposed. Firstly, the perception model of a laser range finder is given, where the raw scan may be faulty. Secondly, the kinematics of the normal model and different fault models for WMRs are given. Thirdly, the particle filter for fault diagnosis and dead reckoning is discussed. At last, experiments and analyses are reported to show the accuracy and efficiency of the presented method. PMID:25192318

  7. Diagnosis of Thermal Efficiency of Combined Cycle Power Plants Using Optical Torque Sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umezawa, Shuichi

    A new optical torque measurement method is proposed for diagnosis of thermal efficiency of combined cycle power plants. In the case that the plant comprises a steam turbine and a gas turbine, both of which are connected to the same generator, it is difficult to identify which turbine causes deterioration of performance when the plant efficiency is reduced. Therefore, an optical torque sensor has been developed to measure the output of each turbine, which are important data to analyze performance of each machineries in a plant. The sensor measures axial distortion caused by power transmission by use of He-Ne laser beams, small stainless steel reflectors having bar-code patterns, and a technique of signal processing featuring high frequency. It was applied to TOKYO ELECTRIC POWER COMPANY (TEPCO) commercial plants. Following system improvements, it is concluded that error factors can be eliminated and sensor performance can reach a practical use level.

  8. Fault detection, isolation, and diagnosis of self-validating multifunctional sensors.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jing-Li; Chen, Yin-Sheng; Zhang, Li-Li; Sun, Zhen

    2016-06-01

    A novel fault detection, isolation, and diagnosis (FDID) strategy for self-validating multifunctional sensors is presented in this paper. The sparse non-negative matrix factorization-based method can effectively detect faults by using the squared prediction error (SPE) statistic, and the variables contribution plots based on SPE statistic can help to locate and isolate the faulty sensitive units. The complete ensemble empirical mode decomposition is employed to decompose the fault signals to a series of intrinsic mode functions (IMFs) and a residual. The sample entropy (SampEn)-weighted energy values of each IMFs and the residual are estimated to represent the characteristics of the fault signals. Multi-class support vector machine is introduced to identify the fault mode with the purpose of diagnosing status of the faulty sensitive units. The performance of the proposed strategy is compared with other fault detection strategies such as principal component analysis, independent component analysis, and fault diagnosis strategies such as empirical mode decomposition coupled with support vector machine. The proposed strategy is fully evaluated in a real self-validating multifunctional sensors experimental system, and the experimental results demonstrate that the proposed strategy provides an excellent solution to the FDID research topic of self-validating multifunctional sensors. PMID:27370486

  9. Fault detection, isolation, and diagnosis of self-validating multifunctional sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jing-li; Chen, Yin-sheng; Zhang, Li-li; Sun, Zhen

    2016-06-01

    A novel fault detection, isolation, and diagnosis (FDID) strategy for self-validating multifunctional sensors is presented in this paper. The sparse non-negative matrix factorization-based method can effectively detect faults by using the squared prediction error (SPE) statistic, and the variables contribution plots based on SPE statistic can help to locate and isolate the faulty sensitive units. The complete ensemble empirical mode decomposition is employed to decompose the fault signals to a series of intrinsic mode functions (IMFs) and a residual. The sample entropy (SampEn)-weighted energy values of each IMFs and the residual are estimated to represent the characteristics of the fault signals. Multi-class support vector machine is introduced to identify the fault mode with the purpose of diagnosing status of the faulty sensitive units. The performance of the proposed strategy is compared with other fault detection strategies such as principal component analysis, independent component analysis, and fault diagnosis strategies such as empirical mode decomposition coupled with support vector machine. The proposed strategy is fully evaluated in a real self-validating multifunctional sensors experimental system, and the experimental results demonstrate that the proposed strategy provides an excellent solution to the FDID research topic of self-validating multifunctional sensors.

  10. Optimal design of the absolute positioning sensor for a high-speed maglev train and research on its fault diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dapeng; Long, Zhiqiang; Xue, Song; Zhang, Junge

    2012-01-01

    This paper studies an absolute positioning sensor for a high-speed maglev train and its fault diagnosis method. The absolute positioning sensor is an important sensor for the high-speed maglev train to accomplish its synchronous traction. It is used to calibrate the error of the relative positioning sensor which is used to provide the magnetic phase signal. On the basis of the analysis for the principle of the absolute positioning sensor, the paper describes the design of the sending and receiving coils and realizes the hardware and the software for the sensor. In order to enhance the reliability of the sensor, a support vector machine is used to recognize the fault characters, and the signal flow method is used to locate the faulty parts. The diagnosis information not only can be sent to an upper center control computer to evaluate the reliability of the sensors, but also can realize on-line diagnosis for debugging and the quick detection when the maglev train is off-line. The absolute positioning sensor we study has been used in the actual project. PMID:23112619

  11. Optimal Design of the Absolute Positioning Sensor for a High-Speed Maglev Train and Research on Its Fault Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Dapeng; Long, Zhiqiang; Xue, Song; Zhang, Junge

    2012-01-01

    This paper studies an absolute positioning sensor for a high-speed maglev train and its fault diagnosis method. The absolute positioning sensor is an important sensor for the high-speed maglev train to accomplish its synchronous traction. It is used to calibrate the error of the relative positioning sensor which is used to provide the magnetic phase signal. On the basis of the analysis for the principle of the absolute positioning sensor, the paper describes the design of the sending and receiving coils and realizes the hardware and the software for the sensor. In order to enhance the reliability of the sensor, a support vector machine is used to recognize the fault characters, and the signal flow method is used to locate the faulty parts. The diagnosis information not only can be sent to an upper center control computer to evaluate the reliability of the sensors, but also can realize on-line diagnosis for debugging and the quick detection when the maglev train is off-line. The absolute positioning sensor we study has been used in the actual project. PMID:23112619

  12. Development of a Fluorescence-Based Sensor for Rapid Diagnosis of Cyanide Exposure

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Although commonly known as a highly toxic chemical, cyanide is also an essential reagent for many industrial processes in areas such as mining, electroplating, and synthetic fiber production. The “heavy” use of cyanide in these industries, along with its necessary transportation, increases the possibility of human exposure. Because the onset of cyanide toxicity is fast, a rapid, sensitive, and accurate method for the diagnosis of cyanide exposure is necessary. Therefore, a field sensor for the diagnosis of cyanide exposure was developed based on the reaction of naphthalene dialdehyde, taurine, and cyanide, yielding a fluorescent β-isoindole. An integrated cyanide capture “apparatus”, consisting of sample and cyanide capture chambers, allowed rapid separation of cyanide from blood samples. Rabbit whole blood was added to the sample chamber, acidified, and the HCN gas evolved was actively transferred through a stainless steel channel to the capture chamber containing a basic solution of naphthalene dialdehyde (NDA) and taurine. The overall analysis time (including the addition of the sample) was <3 min, the linear range was 3.13–200 μM, and the limit of detection was 0.78 μM. None of the potential interferents investigated (NaHS, NH4OH, NaSCN, and human serum albumin) produced a signal that could be interpreted as a false positive or a false negative for cyanide exposure. Most importantly, the sensor was 100% accurate in diagnosing cyanide poisoning for acutely exposed rabbits. PMID:24383576

  13. Fault diagnosis and temperature sensor recovery for an air-handling unit

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, W.Y.; Shin, D.R.; House, J.M.

    1997-12-31

    The presence of faults and the influence they have on system operation is a real concern in the heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) community. A fault can be defined as an inadmissible or unacceptable property of a system or a component. Unless corrected, faults can lead to increased energy use, shorter equipment life, and uncomfortable and/or unhealthy conditions for building occupants. This paper describes the use of a two-stage artificial neural network for fault diagnosis in a simulated air-handling unit. The stage one neural network is trained to identify the subsystem in which a fault occurs. The stage two neural network is trained to diagnose the specific cause of a fault at the subsystem level. Regression equations for the supply and mixed-air temperatures are obtained from simulation data and are used to compute input parameters to the neutral networks. Simulation results are presented that demonstrate that, after a successful diagnosis of a supply air temperature sensor fault, the recovered estimate of the supply air temperature obtained from the regression equation can be used in a feedback control loop to bring the supply air temperature back to the setpoint value. Results are also presented that illustrate the evolution of the diagnosis of the two-stage artificial neural network from normal operation to various fault modes of operation.

  14. "I Owe Her So Much; Without Her I Would Be Dead": Developing a Model of Mother-Infant Bonding Following a Maternal Antenatal HIV Diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Willcocks, Kate; Evangeli, Michael; Anderson, Jane; Zetler, Sarah; Scourse, Rosalind

    2016-01-01

    Women can face a period of psychological vulnerability following antenatal HIV diagnosis, affecting feelings about both the pregnancy and motherhood. Our study explored the impact of being diagnosed with HIV during pregnancy on mother-infant bonding. Grounded Theory was used to assess perceived challenges and facilitating factors for mother-infant bonding for 10 mothers given an HIV diagnosis during pregnancy. Data analysis led to a model of mother-infant bonding composed of four theoretical codes: (a) facing barriers to bonding, (b) feeling disconnected from the baby, (c) developing a special bond, and (d) strengthening and moving on. Challenges with bonding emerged primarily during early stages after diagnosis and birth, with maternal resilience and positivity about the future developing as the infant HIV testing process progressed. Study recommendations include more timely information regarding vertical transmission and more targeted psychological support along with greater promotion of services to support women diagnosed with HIV antenatally. PMID:26382253

  15. Privacy-Preserving Self-Helped Medical Diagnosis Scheme Based on Secure Two-Party Computation in Wireless Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Qiaoyan; Zhang, Yudong; Li, Wenmin

    2014-01-01

    With the continuing growth of wireless sensor networks in pervasive medical care, people pay more and more attention to privacy in medical monitoring, diagnosis, treatment, and patient care. On one hand, we expect the public health institutions to provide us with better service. On the other hand, we would not like to leak our personal health information to them. In order to balance this contradiction, in this paper we design a privacy-preserving self-helped medical diagnosis scheme based on secure two-party computation in wireless sensor networks so that patients can privately diagnose themselves by inputting a health card into a self-helped medical diagnosis ATM to obtain a diagnostic report just like drawing money from a bank ATM without revealing patients' health information and doctors' diagnostic skill. It makes secure self-helped disease diagnosis feasible and greatly benefits patients as well as relieving the heavy pressure of public health institutions. PMID:25126107

  16. Privacy-preserving self-helped medical diagnosis scheme based on secure two-party computation in wireless sensor networks.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yi; Wen, Qiaoyan; Zhang, Yudong; Li, Wenmin

    2014-01-01

    With the continuing growth of wireless sensor networks in pervasive medical care, people pay more and more attention to privacy in medical monitoring, diagnosis, treatment, and patient care. On one hand, we expect the public health institutions to provide us with better service. On the other hand, we would not like to leak our personal health information to them. In order to balance this contradiction, in this paper we design a privacy-preserving self-helped medical diagnosis scheme based on secure two-party computation in wireless sensor networks so that patients can privately diagnose themselves by inputting a health card into a self-helped medical diagnosis ATM to obtain a diagnostic report just like drawing money from a bank ATM without revealing patients' health information and doctors' diagnostic skill. It makes secure self-helped disease diagnosis feasible and greatly benefits patients as well as relieving the heavy pressure of public health institutions. PMID:25126107

  17. Biomarkers for serum diagnosis of infectious diseases and their potential application in novel sensor platforms.

    PubMed

    Goulart, Luiz R; Vieira, Carlos U; Freschi, Ana Paula P; Capparelli, Fausto E; Fujimura, Patricia T; Almeida, Juliana F; Ferreira, Lucas F; Goulart, Isabela M B; Brito-Madurro, Ana Graci; Madurro, Joao M

    2010-01-01

    Nanotechnological tools and biomarkers for diagnosis and prognosis, as well as strategies for disease control and monitoring populations at higher risk, are continuous worldwide challenges for infectious diseases. Phage display and monoclonal antibody combinatorial libraries are important sources for biomarker discovery and for improved diagnostic strategies. Mimetic peptides were selected against polyclonal antibodies from patients with dengue fever, leprosy, and leishmaniasis as model diseases, and from immunized chickens with total antigens from all three pathogens. Selected single or combined multi-epitope peptide biomarkers were further associated with four different sensor platforms, classified as affinity biosensors, that may be suitable as general protocols for field diagnosis. We have also developed two methods for nanoparticle agglutination assays (a particle gel agglutination test and a magnetic microparticle [MMP]-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay [ELISA]) and two electrochemical biosensors (impedimetric and amperometric) for DNA and antibody detection. For the agglutination tests, micro- and nanoparticles were coupled with filamentous bacteriophages displaying the selected mimotopes on their surfaces, which has favored the formation of the antigen-antibody or peptide-protein complexes, amplifying the optical detection in ELISA assays or after the chromatographic separation of the microagglutinates. We have also demonstrated a proof-of-concept for the electrochemical biosensors by using electrodes modified with novel functionalized polymers. These electrochemical biosensors have proven to be fast, very sensitive, and specific for the detection of pathogen DNA and circulating antibodies of patients, which may become important in a wide range of diagnostic devices for many infectious agents. PMID:20370630

  18. Investigating Aquatic Dead Zones

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Testa, Jeremy; Gurbisz, Cassie; Murray, Laura; Gray, William; Bosch, Jennifer; Burrell, Chris; Kemp, Michael

    2010-01-01

    This article features two engaging high school activities that include current scientific information, data, and authentic case studies. The activities address the physical, biological, and chemical processes that are associated with oxygen-depleted areas, or "dead zones," in aquatic systems. Students can explore these dead zones through both…

  19. Day of the Dead

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dann, Tammy; Murphy, Amy

    2012-01-01

    Foreign Language in Elementary School (FLES) teachers in the West Des Moines schools incorporate the Day of the Dead into the fourth grade curriculum each year. The teachers discuss the Day of the Dead celebration at the Art Center, and many ask for volunteers from fourth grade to participate in the event. Student presentations include a wide…

  20. [The dead mother].

    PubMed

    Green, A

    1993-03-01

    This study is not concerned, as the title might suggest, with the actual death of the mother but with the child's experience of a mother who is physically present but internally absent due to depression. The child simultaneously introjects and splits off the mother imago, making mourning and "burial" equally impossible. The consequence of this cathectic deprivation is what the author calls "psychic holes" or "white depression". Green attributes to the dead mother a similar structuring function for the psychic apparatus to that attributed to the dead father in Freud's Totem and Taboo, and places the dead mother complex side by side with the Oedipus complex. PMID:8465007

  1. Vibration sensor-based bearing fault diagnosis using ellipsoid-ARTMAP and differential evolution algorithms.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chang; Wang, Guofeng; Xie, Qinglu; Zhang, Yanchao

    2014-01-01

    Effective fault classification of rolling element bearings provides an important basis for ensuring safe operation of rotating machinery. In this paper, a novel vibration sensor-based fault diagnosis method using an Ellipsoid-ARTMAP network (EAM) and a differential evolution (DE) algorithm is proposed. The original features are firstly extracted from vibration signals based on wavelet packet decomposition. Then, a minimum-redundancy maximum-relevancy algorithm is introduced to select the most prominent features so as to decrease feature dimensions. Finally, a DE-based EAM (DE-EAM) classifier is constructed to realize the fault diagnosis. The major characteristic of EAM is that the sample distribution of each category is realized by using a hyper-ellipsoid node and smoothing operation algorithm. Therefore, it can depict the decision boundary of disperse samples accurately and effectively avoid over-fitting phenomena. To optimize EAM network parameters, the DE algorithm is presented and two objectives, including both classification accuracy and nodes number, are simultaneously introduced as the fitness functions. Meanwhile, an exponential criterion is proposed to realize final selection of the optimal parameters. To prove the effectiveness of the proposed method, the vibration signals of four types of rolling element bearings under different loads were collected. Moreover, to improve the robustness of the classifier evaluation, a two-fold cross validation scheme is adopted and the order of feature samples is randomly arranged ten times within each fold. The results show that DE-EAM classifier can recognize the fault categories of the rolling element bearings reliably and accurately. PMID:24936949

  2. Dead Sea Scrolls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    A consortium of researchers from Jet Propulsion Laboratory and three other organizations used charged coupled devices (CCDs) and other imaging enhancement technology to decipher previously unreadable portions of the Dead Sea Scrolls. The technique has potentially important implications for archeology.

  3. Performance limitations of label-free sensors in molecular diagnosis using complex samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varma, Manoj

    2016-03-01

    Label-free biosensors promised a paradigm involving direct detection of biomarkers from complex samples such as serum without requiring multistep sample processing typical of labelled methods such as ELISA or immunofluorescence assays. Label-free sensors have witnessed decades of development with a veritable zoo of techniques available today exploiting a multitude of physical effects. It is appropriate now to critically assess whether label-free technologies have succeeded in delivering their promise with respect to diagnostic applications, particularly, ambitious goals such as early cancer detection using serum biomarkers, which require low limits of detection (LoD). Comparison of nearly 120 limits of detection (LoD) values reported by labelled and label-free sensing approaches over a wide range of detection techniques and target molecules in serum revealed that labeled techniques achieve 2-3 orders of magnitude better LoDs. Data from experiments where labelled and label-free assays were performed simultaneously using the same assay parameters also confirm that the LoD achieved by labelled techniques is 2 to 3 orders of magnitude better than that by label-free techniques. Furthermore, label-free techniques required significant signal amplification, for e.g. using nanoparticle conjugated secondary antibodies, to achieve LoDs comparable to labelled methods substantially deviating from the original "direct detection" paradigm. This finding has important implications on the practical limits of applying label-free detection methods for molecular diagnosis.

  4. Enhanced Sensitivity of Gas Sensor Based on Poly(3-hexylthiophene) Thin-Film Transistors for Disease Diagnosis and Environment Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Cavallari, Marco R.; Izquierdo, José E. E.; Braga, Guilherme S.; Dirani, Ely A. T.; Pereira-da-Silva, Marcelo A.; Rodríguez, Estrella F. G.; Fonseca, Fernando J.

    2015-01-01

    Electronic devices based on organic thin-film transistors (OTFT) have the potential to supply the demand for portable and low-cost gadgets, mainly as sensors for in situ disease diagnosis and environment monitoring. For that reason, poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) as the active layer in the widely-used bottom-gate/bottom-contact OTFT structure was deposited over highly-doped silicon substrates covered with thermally-grown oxide to detect vapor-phase compounds. A ten-fold organochloride and ammonia sensitivity compared to bare sensors corroborated the application of this semiconducting polymer in sensors. Furthermore, P3HT TFTs presented approximately three-order higher normalized sensitivity than any chemical sensor addressed herein. The results demonstrate that while TFTs respond linearly at the lowest concentration values herein, chemical sensors present such an operating regime mostly above 2000 ppm. Simultaneous alteration of charge carrier mobility and threshold voltage is responsible for pushing the detection limit down to units of ppm of ammonia, as well as tens of ppm of alcohol or ketones. Nevertheless, P3HT transistors and chemical sensors could compose an electronic nose operated at room temperature for a wide range concentration evaluation (1–10,000 ppm) of gaseous analytes. Targeted analytes include not only biomarkers for diseases, such as uremia, cirrhosis, lung cancer and diabetes, but also gases for environment monitoring in food, cosmetic and microelectronics industries. PMID:25912354

  5. Open Circuit Resonant (SansEC) Sensor for Composite Damage Detection and Diagnosis in Aircraft Lightning Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Chuantong; Dudley, Kenneth L.; Szatkowski, George N.

    2012-01-01

    Composite materials are increasingly used in modern aircraft for reducing weight, improving fuel efficiency, and enhancing the overall design, performance, and manufacturability of airborne vehicles. Materials such as fiberglass reinforced composites (FRC) and carbon-fiber-reinforced polymers (CFRP) are being used to great advantage in airframes, wings, engine nacelles, turbine blades, fairings, fuselage and empennage structures, control surfaces and coverings. However, the potential damage from the direct and indirect effects of lightning strikes is of increased concern to aircraft designers and operators. When a lightning strike occurs, the points of attachment and detachment on the aircraft surface must be found by visual inspection, and then assessed for damage by maintenance personnel to ensure continued safe flight operations. In this paper, a new method and system for aircraft in-situ damage detection and diagnosis are presented. The method and system are based on open circuit (SansEC) sensor technology developed at NASA Langley Research Center. SansEC (Sans Electric Connection) sensor technology is a new technical framework for designing, powering, and interrogating sensors to detect damage in composite materials. Damage in composite material is generally associated with a localized change in material permittivity and/or conductivity. These changes are sensed using SansEC. Unique electrical signatures are used for damage detection and diagnosis. NASA LaRC has both experimentally and theoretically demonstrated that SansEC sensors can be effectively used for in-situ composite damage detection.

  6. "Living versus Dead":

    PubMed Central

    Chakrabarti, Pratik

    2010-01-01

    Summary The Semple antirabies vaccine was developed by David Semple in India in 1911. Semple introduced a peculiarly British approach within the Pasteurian tradition by using carbolized dead virus. This article studies this unique phase of vaccine research between 1910 and 1935 to show that in the debates and laboratory experiments around the potency and safety of vaccines, categories like "living" and "dead" were often used as ideological and moral denominations. These abstract and ideological debates were crucial in defining the final configuration of the Semple vaccine, the most popular antirabies vaccine used globally, and also in shaping international vaccination policies. PMID:21037397

  7. The Dead Sea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    The Dead Sea is the lowest point on Earth at 418 meters below sea level, and also one of the saltiest bodies of water on Earth with a salinity of about 300 parts-per-thousand (nine times greater than ocean salinity). It is located on the border between Jordan and Israel, and is fed by the Jordan River. The Dead Sea is located in the Dead Sea Rift, formed as a result of the Arabian tectonic plate moving northward away from the African Plate. The mineral content of the Dead Sea is significantly different from that of ocean water, consisting of approximately 53% magnesium chloride, 37% potassium chloride and 8% sodium chloride. In the early part of the 20th century, the Dead Sea began to attract interest from chemists who deduced that the Sea was a natural deposit of potash and bromine. From the Dead Sea brine, Israel and Jordan produce 3.8 million tons potash, 200,000 tons elemental bromine, 45,000 tons caustic soda, 25, 000 tons magnesium metal, and sodium chloride. Both countries use extensive salt evaporation pans that have essentially diked the entire southern end of the Dead Sea.

    With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

    ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER provides scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop

  8. Airdata sensor based position estimation and fault diagnosis in aerial refueling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sevil, Hakki Erhan

    Aerial refueling is the process of transferring fuel from one aircraft (the tanker) to another (the receiver) during flight. In aerial refueling operations, the receiver aircraft is exposed to nonuniform wind field induced by tanker aircraft, and this nonuniform wind field leads to differences in readings of airdata sensors placed at different locations on the receiver aircraft. There are advantages and disadvantages of this phenomenon. As an advantage, it is used as a mechanism to estimate relative position of the receiver aircraft inside the nonuniform wind field behind the tanker. Using the difference in the measurements from multiple identical sensors, a model of the nonuniform wind field that is organized as maps of the airspeed, side slip angle and angle of attack as functions of the relative position is prepared. Then, using the developed algorithms, preformed maps and instant sensor readings, the relative position receiver aircraft is determined. The disadvantage of the phenomenon is that the differences in readings of airdata sensors cause false fault detections in a redundant-sensor-based Fault Detection and Isolation (FDI) system developed based on the assumption of identical sensor readings from three airdata sensors. Such FDI algorithm successfully performs detection and isolation of sensor faults when the receiver aircraft flies solo or outside the wake of the tanker aircraft. However, the FDI algorithm yields false fault detection when the receiver aircraft enters the tanker's wake. This problem can be eliminated by modifying the FDI algorithm. For the robustness, the expected values of the sensor measurements are incorporated in the FDI algorithm, instead of the assumption of identical measurements from the sensors. The expected values, which depend on the position of the receiver relative to the tanker, are obtained from the maps of the nonuniform wind field as functions of the relative position. The new robust FDI detects and isolates sensor

  9. Dynamic Nanoparticle-Based Flexible Sensors: Diagnosis of Ovarian Carcinoma from Exhaled Breath.

    PubMed

    Kahn, Nicole; Lavie, Ofer; Paz, Moran; Segev, Yakir; Haick, Hossam

    2015-10-14

    Flexible sensors based on molecularly modified gold nanoparticles (GNPs) were integrated into a dynamic cross-reactive diagnostic sensing array. Each bending state of the GNP-based flexible sensor gives unique nanoparticle spatial organization, altering the interaction between GNP ligands and volatile organic compounds (VOCs), which increases the amount of data obtainable from each sensor. Individual dynamic flexible sensor could selectively detect parts per billion (ppb) level VOCs that are linked with ovarian cancers in exhaled breath and discriminate them from environmental VOCs that exist in exhaled breath samples, but do not relate to ovarian cancer per se. Strain-related response successfully discriminated between exhaled breath collected from control subjects and those with ovarian cancer, with data from a single sensor being sufficient to obtain 82% accuracy, irrespective of important confounding factors, such as tobacco consumption and comorbidities. The approach raises the hope of achieving an extremely simple, inexpensive, portable, and noninvasive diagnostic procedure for cancer and other diseases. PMID:26352191

  10. Performance Diagnosis using Optical Torque Sensor for Selection of a Steam Supply Plant among Advanced Combined Cycle Power Plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umezawa, Shuichi

    A newly developed optical torque sensor was applied to select a steam supply plant among advanced combined cycle, i.e. ACC, power plants of the Tokyo Electric Power Company. The sensor uses laser beams focused on small stainless steel reflectors having bar-code patterns attached on the surface of the rotating shaft, and a technique of signal processing using a correlation function featuring high frequency. The plant that supplied steam was selected on the basis of diagnosis of each steam turbine performance of the plants. Heat balance program was developed to analyze steam turbine performance using data of turbine output measured by the torque sensor and data measured by existing instruments of the power station. The steam turbine that supplied steam was determined by the present method using the optical torque sensor. The accuracy of the method to determine the steam supply plant was analyzed. It was then confirmed that the accuracy was greatly improved as compared with that of existing method.

  11. A regenerative label-free fiber optic sensor using surface plasmon resonance for clinical diagnosis of fibrinogen

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Tan Tai; Bea, Sun Oh; Kim, Dong Min; Yoon, Won Jung; Park, Jin-Won; An, Seong Soo A; Ju, Heongkyu

    2015-01-01

    Purpose We present the regenerative label-free fiber optical biosensor that exploits surface plasmon resonance for quantitative detection of fibrinogen (Fbg) extracted from human blood plasma. Materials and methods The sensor head was made up of a multimode optical fiber with its polymer cladding replaced by metal composite of nanometer thickness made of silver, aluminum, and nickel. The Ni layer coated allowed a direct immobilization of histidine-tagged peptide (HP) on its metal surface without an additional cross-linker in between. On the coated HP layer, immunoglobulin G was then immobilized for specific capturing of Fbg. Results We demonstrated a real-time quantitative detection of Fbg concentrations with limit of detection of ~10 ng/mL. The fact that the HP layer could be removed by imidazole with acid also permitted us to demonstrate the regeneration of the outermost metal surface of the sensor head for the sensor reusability. Conclusion The sensor detection limit was estimated to be ~10 pM, which was believed to be sensitive enough for detecting Fbg during the clinical diagnosis of cardiovascular diseases, myocardial infarction, strokes, and Alzheimer’s diseases. PMID:26347331

  12. Design and fabrication of a flexible MEMS-based electromechanical sensor array for breast cancer diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Pandya, Hardik J.; Park, Kihan; Desai, Jaydev P.

    2015-01-01

    The use of flexible micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) based device provides a unique opportunity in bio-medical robotics such as characterization of normal and malignant tissues. This paper reports on design and development of a flexible MEMS-based sensor array integrating mechanical and electrical sensors on the same platform to enable the study of the change in electro-mechanical properties of the benign and cancerous breast tissues. In this work, we present the analysis for the electrical characterization of the tissue specimens and also demonstrate the feasibility of using the sensor for mechanical characterization of the tissue specimens. Eight strain gauges acting as mechanical sensors were fabricated using poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) conducting polymer on poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) as the substrate material. Eight electrical sensors were fabricated using SU-8 pillars on gold (Au) pads which were patterned on the strain gauges separated by a thin insulator (SiO2 1.0μm). These pillars were coated with gold to make it conducting. The electromechanical sensors are integrated on the same substrate. The sensor array covers 180μm × 180μm area and the size of the complete device is 20mm in diameter. The diameter of each breast tissue core used in the present study was 1mm and the thickness was 8μm. The region of interest was 200μm × 200μm. Microindentation technique was used to characterize the mechanical properties of the breast tissues. The sensor is integrated with conducting SU-8 pillars to study the electrical property of the tissue. Through electro-mechanical characterization studies using this MEMS-based sensor, we were able to measure the accuracy of the fabricated device and ascertain the difference between benign and cancer breast tissue specimens. PMID:26526747

  13. Dead Sea rhodopsins revisited.

    PubMed

    Bodaker, Idan; Suzuki, Marcelino T; Oren, Aharon; Béjà, Oded

    2012-12-01

    The Dead Sea is a unique hypersaline ecosystem with near toxic magnesium levels (∼2 M), dominance of divalent cations and a slightly acidic pH. Previously, we reported a haloarchaeon related to Halobacterium salinarum to dominate in a microbial bloom that developed in 1992 in the upper water layers of the lake following massive freshwater runoff. Whether this clade also dominated an earlier bloom in 1980-1982 cannot be ascertained as no samples for cultivation-independent analysis were preserved. The presence of the light-driven proton pump bacteriorhodopsin was reported in the 1980-1982 bloom of prokaryotes that had developed in the Dead Sea. To test the hypothesis that bacteriorhodopsin proton pumping may play a major role in determining what type of haloarchaea may dominate in specific bloom conditions, we compared rhodopsin genes recovered from Dead Sea biomass collected in different periods with genes coding for retinal proteins in isolated haloarchaea. Novel bacteriorhodopsin and sensory rhodopsin genes were found in samples collected in 2007 and 2010. The fact that no rhodopsin genes were recovered from samples collected during the 1992 bloom, which was dominated by a single species, suggests that different clades were present in the 1980-1982 and 1992 blooms, and that bacteriorhodopsin proton pumping did not necessarily play a determinative role in the dominance of specific halophiles in the blooms. PMID:23760932

  14. Open Circuit Resonant (SansEC) Sensor Technology for Lightning Mitigation and Damage Detection and Diagnosis for Composite Aircraft Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Szatkowski, George N.; Dudley, Kenneth L.; Smith, Laura J.; Wang, Chuantong; Ticatch, Larry A.

    2014-01-01

    Traditional methods to protect composite aircraft from lightning strike damage rely on a conductive layer embedded on or within the surface of the aircraft composite skin. This method is effective at preventing major direct effect damage and minimizes indirect effects to aircraft systems from lightning strike attachment, but provides no additional benefit for the added parasitic weight from the conductive layer. When a known lightning strike occurs, the points of attachment and detachment on the aircraft surface are visually inspected and checked for damage by maintenance personnel to ensure continued safe flight operations. A new multi-functional lightning strike protection (LSP) method has been developed to provide aircraft lightning strike protection, damage detection and diagnosis for composite aircraft surfaces. The method incorporates a SansEC sensor array on the aircraft exterior surfaces forming a "Smart skin" surface for aircraft lightning zones certified to withstand strikes up to 100 kiloamperes peak current. SansEC sensors are open-circuit devices comprised of conductive trace spiral patterns sans (without) electrical connections. The SansEC sensor is an electromagnetic resonator having specific resonant parameters (frequency, amplitude, bandwidth & phase) which when electromagnetically coupled with a composite substrate will indicate the electrical impedance of the composite through a change in its resonant response. Any measureable shift in the resonant characteristics can be an indication of damage to the composite caused by a lightning strike or from other means. The SansEC sensor method is intended to diagnose damage for both in-situ health monitoring or ground inspections. In this paper, the theoretical mathematical framework is established for the use of open circuit sensors to perform damage detection and diagnosis on carbon fiber composites. Both computational and experimental analyses were conducted to validate this new method and system for

  15. Reliability of measured data for pH sensor arrays with fault diagnosis and data fusion based on LabVIEW.

    PubMed

    Liao, Yi-Hung; Chou, Jung-Chuan; Lin, Chin-Yi

    2013-01-01

    Fault diagnosis (FD) and data fusion (DF) technologies implemented in the LabVIEW program were used for a ruthenium dioxide pH sensor array. The purpose of the fault diagnosis and data fusion technologies is to increase the reliability of measured data. Data fusion is a very useful statistical method used for sensor arrays in many fields. Fault diagnosis is used to avoid sensor faults and to measure errors in the electrochemical measurement system, therefore, in this study, we use fault diagnosis to remove any faulty sensors in advance, and then proceed with data fusion in the sensor array. The average, self-adaptive and coefficient of variance data fusion methods are used in this study. The pH electrode is fabricated with ruthenium dioxide (RuO2) sensing membrane using a sputtering system to deposit it onto a silicon substrate, and eight RuO2 pH electrodes are fabricated to form a sensor array for this study. PMID:24351636

  16. Reliability of Measured Data for pH Sensor Arrays with Fault Diagnosis and Data Fusion Based on LabVIEW

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Yi-Hung; Chou, Jung-Chuan; Lin, Chin-Yi

    2013-01-01

    Fault diagnosis (FD) and data fusion (DF) technologies implemented in the LabVIEW program were used for a ruthenium dioxide pH sensor array. The purpose of the fault diagnosis and data fusion technologies is to increase the reliability of measured data. Data fusion is a very useful statistical method used for sensor arrays in many fields. Fault diagnosis is used to avoid sensor faults and to measure errors in the electrochemical measurement system, therefore, in this study, we use fault diagnosis to remove any faulty sensors in advance, and then proceed with data fusion in the sensor array. The average, self-adaptive and coefficient of variance data fusion methods are used in this study. The pH electrode is fabricated with ruthenium dioxide (RuO2) sensing membrane using a sputtering system to deposit it onto a silicon substrate, and eight RuO2 pH electrodes are fabricated to form a sensor array for this study. PMID:24351636

  17. Specific capture of target bacteria onto sensor surfaces for infectious disease diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jong-Hoon; Inoue, Shinnosuke; Cangelosi, Gerard A.; Lee, Kyong-Hoon; Chung, Jae-Hyun

    2014-04-01

    A long-sought goal for infectious disease care is a rapid and accurate diagnostic tool that is compatible with the needs of low-resource settings. To identify target biomarkers of infectious diseases, immunoassays utilizing the binding affinity between antigen and antibody have been widely used. In immunoassays, the interaction between antigen and antibody on sensor surfaces should be precisely controlled for specific identification of targets. This paper studies the specific capturing mechanisms of target bacteria onto sensor surfaces through investigation of combined effects of capillary action and binding affinity. As a model system, cells of both Escherichia coli and the Bacillus Calmette-Guérin strain of Mycobacterium bovis were used to study specific and nonspecific capturing mechanisms onto a microtip sensor. The capillary action was observed to arrange the concentrated cells onto the two-dimensional sensor surface. Due to the capillary-induced organization of target cells on the antibody-functionalized sensor surface, the number of the captured target cells was three times greater than that of the non-targeted cells. The capturing and detection capabilities varied with the width of a microtip. The specific capturing mechanism can be used to enhance the sensitivity and specificity of an immunoassay.

  18. A hybrid optic-fiber sensor network with the function of self-diagnosis and self-healing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Shibo; Liu, Tiegen; Ge, Chunfeng; Chen, Cheng; Zhang, Hongxia

    2014-11-01

    We develop a hybrid wavelength division multiplexing optical fiber network with distributed fiber-optic sensors and quasi-distributed FBG sensor arrays which detect vibrations, temperatures and strains at the same time. The network has the ability to locate the failure sites automatically designated as self-diagnosis and make protective switching to reestablish sensing service designated as self-healing by cooperative work of software and hardware. The processes above are accomplished by master-slave processors with the help of optical and wireless telemetry signals. All the sensing and optical telemetry signals transmit in the same fiber either working fiber or backup fiber. We take wavelength 1450nm as downstream signal and wavelength 1350nm as upstream signal to control the network in normal circumstances, both signals are sent by a light emitting node of the corresponding processor. There is also a continuous laser wavelength 1310nm sent by each node and received by next node on both working and backup fibers to monitor their healthy states, but it does not carry any message like telemetry signals do. When fibers of two sensor units are completely damaged, the master processor will lose the communication with the node between the damaged ones.However we install RF module in each node to solve the possible problem. Finally, the whole network state is transmitted to host computer by master processor. Operator could know and control the network by human-machine interface if needed.

  19. Onboard Nonlinear Engine Sensor and Component Fault Diagnosis and Isolation Scheme

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tang, Liang; DeCastro, Jonathan A.; Zhang, Xiaodong

    2011-01-01

    A method detects and isolates in-flight sensor, actuator, and component faults for advanced propulsion systems. In sharp contrast to many conventional methods, which deal with either sensor fault or component fault, but not both, this method considers sensor fault, actuator fault, and component fault under one systemic and unified framework. The proposed solution consists of two main components: a bank of real-time, nonlinear adaptive fault diagnostic estimators for residual generation, and a residual evaluation module that includes adaptive thresholds and a Transferable Belief Model (TBM)-based residual evaluation scheme. By employing a nonlinear adaptive learning architecture, the developed approach is capable of directly dealing with nonlinear engine models and nonlinear faults without the need of linearization. Software modules have been developed and evaluated with the NASA C-MAPSS engine model. Several typical engine-fault modes, including a subset of sensor/actuator/components faults, were tested with a mild transient operation scenario. The simulation results demonstrated that the algorithm was able to successfully detect and isolate all simulated faults as long as the fault magnitudes were larger than the minimum detectable/isolable sizes, and no misdiagnosis occurred

  20. Dead pixel correction techniques for dual-band infrared imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Chuong T.; Mould, Nick; Regens, James L.

    2015-07-01

    We present two new dead pixel correction algorithms for dual-band infrared imagery. Specifically, we address the problem of repairing unresponsive elements in the sensor array using signal processing techniques to overcome deficiencies in image quality that are present following the nonuniformity correction process. Traditionally, dead pixel correction has been performed almost exclusively using variations of the nearest neighbor technique, where the value of the dead pixel is estimated based on pixel values associated with the neighboring image structure. Our approach differs from existing techniques, for the first time we estimate the values of dead pixels using information from both thermal bands collaboratively. The proposed dual-band statistical lookup (DSL) and dual-band inpainting (DIP) algorithms use intensity and local gradient information to estimate the values of dead pixels based on the values of unaffected pixels in the supplementary infrared band. The DSL algorithm is a regression technique that uses the image intensities from the reference band to estimate the dead pixel values in the band undergoing correction. The DIP algorithm is an energy minimization technique that uses the local image gradient from the reference band and the boundary values from the affected band to estimate the dead pixel values. We evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithms with 50 dual-band videos. Simulation results indicate that the proposed techniques achieve perceptually and quantitatively superior results compared to existing methods.

  1. Long term reliability and machine operation diagnosis with fiber optic sensors at large turbine generators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bosselmann, T.; Strack, S.; Villnow, M.; Weidner, J. R.; Willsch, M.

    2013-05-01

    The increasing quantity of renewable energy in electric power generation leads to a higher flexibility in the operation of conventional power plants. The turbo generator has to face the influence of frequent start-stop-operation on thermal movement and vibration of the stator end windings. Large indirect cooled turbo generators have been equipped with FBG strain and temperature sensors to monitor the influence of peak load operation. Fiber optic accelerometers measure the vibration of the end windings at several turbine generators since many years of operation. The long term reliability of fiber optic vibration, temperature and strain sensors has been successfully proved during years of online operation. The analysis of these data in correlation to significant operation parameter lead to important diagnostic information.

  2. Current Sensor Fault Diagnosis Based on a Sliding Mode Observer for PMSM Driven Systems

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Gang; Luo, Yi-Ping; Zhang, Chang-Fan; Huang, Yi-Shan; Zhao, Kai-Hui

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes a current sensor fault detection method based on a sliding mode observer for the torque closed-loop control system of interior permanent magnet synchronous motors. First, a sliding mode observer based on the extended flux linkage is built to simplify the motor model, which effectively eliminates the phenomenon of salient poles and the dependence on the direct axis inductance parameter, and can also be used for real-time calculation of feedback torque. Then a sliding mode current observer is constructed in αβ coordinates to generate the fault residuals of the phase current sensors. The method can accurately identify abrupt gain faults and slow-variation offset faults in real time in faulty sensors, and the generated residuals of the designed fault detection system are not affected by the unknown input, the structure of the observer, and the theoretical derivation and the stability proof process are concise and simple. The RT-LAB real-time simulation is used to build a simulation model of the hardware in the loop. The simulation and experimental results demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed method. PMID:25970258

  3. Current Sensor Fault Diagnosis Based on a Sliding Mode Observer for PMSM Driven Systems.

    PubMed

    Huang, Gang; Luo, Yi-Ping; Zhang, Chang-Fan; Huang, Yi-Shan; Zhao, Kai-Hui

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes a current sensor fault detection method based on a sliding mode observer for the torque closed-loop control system of interior permanent magnet synchronous motors. First, a sliding mode observer based on the extended flux linkage is built to simplify the motor model, which effectively eliminates the phenomenon of salient poles and the dependence on the direct axis inductance parameter, and can also be used for real-time calculation of feedback torque. Then a sliding mode current observer is constructed in αβ coordinates to generate the fault residuals of the phase current sensors. The method can accurately identify abrupt gain faults and slow-variation offset faults in real time in faulty sensors, and the generated residuals of the designed fault detection system are not affected by the unknown input, the structure of the observer, and the theoretical derivation and the stability proof process are concise and simple. The RT-LAB real-time simulation is used to build a simulation model of the hardware in the loop. The simulation and experimental results demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed method. PMID:25970258

  4. Physically-based modeling of speed sensors for fault diagnosis and fault tolerant control in wind turbines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, Wolfgang; Jungjohann, Jonas; Schulte, Horst

    2014-12-01

    In this paper, a generic physically-based modeling framework for encoder type speed sensors is derived. The consideration takes into account the nominal fault-free and two most relevant fault cases. The advantage of this approach is a reconstruction of the output waveforms in dependence of the internal physical parameter changes which enables a more accurate diagnosis and identification of faulty incremental encoders i.a. in wind turbines. The objectives are to describe the effect of the tilt and eccentric of the encoder disk on the digital output signals and the influence of the accuracy of the speed measurement in wind turbines. Simulation results show the applicability and effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  5. Dead of night.

    PubMed

    Balter, Leon

    2010-07-01

    Dead of Night, the first psychoanalytic horror film, was produced in England in 1945, immediately after the end of World War II--that is, after the English population had suffered systematic Nazi terror from imminent invasion, incessant aerial bombing, and rocket-bombs. This film continued the prewar format of horror films based on themes of the supernatural and the hubris and excesses of science. However, it introduced psychoanalysis as the science in question. The film is structured on two levels: a genteel English country weekend to which witty and urbane guests have been invited; and five horror stories told by the guests. Psychoanalytic insights into this film structure are used here to explain how the film induces horror in the audience. PMID:20726184

  6. New Life From Dead Trees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeGraaf, Richard M.

    1978-01-01

    There are numerous bird species that will nest only in dead or dying trees. Current forestry practices include clearing forests of these snags, or dead trees. This practice is driving many species out of the forests. An illustrated example of bird succession in and on a tree is given. (MA)

  7. Aircraft Engine Sensor/Actuator/Component Fault Diagnosis Using a Bank of Kalman Filters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kobayashi, Takahisa; Simon, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    In this report, a fault detection and isolation (FDI) system which utilizes a bank of Kalman filters is developed for aircraft engine sensor and actuator FDI in conjunction with the detection of component faults. This FDI approach uses multiple Kalman filters, each of which is designed based on a specific hypothesis for detecting a specific sensor or actuator fault. In the event that a fault does occur, all filters except the one using the correct hypothesis will produce large estimation errors, from which a specific fault is isolated. In the meantime, a set of parameters that indicate engine component performance is estimated for the detection of abrupt degradation. The performance of the FDI system is evaluated against a nonlinear engine simulation for various engine faults at cruise operating conditions. In order to mimic the real engine environment, the nonlinear simulation is executed not only at the nominal, or healthy, condition but also at aged conditions. When the FDI system designed at the healthy condition is applied to an aged engine, the effectiveness of the FDI system is impacted by the mismatch in the engine health condition. Depending on its severity, this mismatch can cause the FDI system to generate incorrect diagnostic results, such as false alarms and missed detections. To partially recover the nominal performance, two approaches, which incorporate information regarding the engine s aging condition in the FDI system, will be discussed and evaluated. The results indicate that the proposed FDI system is promising for reliable diagnostics of aircraft engines.

  8. Dead reckoning pedometer

    DOEpatents

    Eakle, Jr., Robert F.; Hofstetter, Kenneth J.

    2003-04-15

    A system to determine the location of a person within a structure utilizes a magnetometer, magnets, pressure sensors and a CPU to calculate the length and direction of each step. The data may be displayed to the wearer, preferably on a map or floorplan and may be broadcast to persons outside the structure.

  9. Optical and dielectric sensors based on antimicrobial peptides for microorganism diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Rafael R.; Avelino, Karen Y. P. S.; Ribeiro, Kalline L.; Franco, Octavio L.; Oliveira, Maria D. L.; Andrade, Cesar A. S.

    2014-01-01

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are natural compounds isolated from a wide variety of organisms that include microorganisms, insects, amphibians, plants, and humans. These biomolecules are considered as part of the innate immune system and are known as natural antibiotics, presenting a broad spectrum of activities against bacteria, fungi, and/or viruses. Technological innovations have enabled AMPs to be utilized for the development of novel biodetection devices. Advances in nanotechnology, such as the synthesis of nanocomposites, nanoparticles, and nanotubes have permitted the development of nanostructured platforms with biocompatibility and greater surface areas for the immobilization of biocomponents, arising as additional tools for obtaining more efficient biosensors. Diverse AMPs have been used as biological recognition elements for obtaining biosensors with more specificity and lower detection limits, whose analytical response can be evaluated through electrochemical impedance and fluorescence spectroscopies. AMP-based biosensors have shown potential for applications such as supplementary tools for conventional diagnosis methods of microorganisms. In this review, conventional methods for microorganism diagnosis as well new strategies using AMPs for the development of impedimetric and fluorescent biosensors are highlighted. AMP-based biosensors show promise as methods for diagnosing infections and bacterial contaminations as well as applications in quality control for clinical analyses and microbiological laboratories. PMID:25191319

  10. Non-invasive toluene sensor for early diagnosis of lung cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saxena, Rahul; Srivastava, Sudha

    2016-04-01

    Here we present, quantification of volatile organic compounds in human breath for early detection of lung cancer to increase survival probability. Graphene oxide nanosheets synthesized by modified Hummer's method were employed as a sensing element to detect the presence of toluene in the sample. Optical and morphological characterization of synthesized nanomaterial was performed by UV-Visible spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) respectively. Spectroscopic assay shows a linearly decreasing intensity of GO absorption peak with increasing toluene concentration with a linear range from 0-200 pM. While impedimetric sensor developed on a graphene oxide nanosheetsmodified screen printed electrodes displayed a decreasing electron transfer resistance increasing toluene with much larger linear range of 0-1000 pM. Reported techniques are advantageous as these are simple, sensitive and cost effective, which can easily be extended for primary screening of other VOCs.

  11. Development and evaluation of optical needle depth sensor for percutaneous diagnosis and therapies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palmer, Keryn; Alelyunas, David; McCann, Connor; Yoshimitsu, Kitaro; Kato, Takahisa; Song, Sang-Eun; Hata, Nobuhiko

    2014-03-01

    Current methods of needle insertion during percutaneous CT and MRI guided procedures lack precision in needle depth sensing. The depth of the needle insertion is currently monitored through depth markers drawn on the needle and later confirmed by intra-procedural imaging; until this confirmation, the physicians' judgment that the target is reached is solely based on the depth markers, which are not always clearly visible. We have therefore designed an optical sensing device which provides continuous feedback of needle insertion depth and degree of rotation throughout insertion. An optical mouse sensor was used in conjunction with a microcontroller board, Arduino Due, to acquire needle position information. The device is designed to be attached to a needle guidance robot developed for MRI-guided prostate biopsy in order to aid the manual insertion. An LCD screen and three LEDs were employed with the Arduino Due to form a hand-held device displaying needle depth and rotation. Accuracy of the device was tested to evaluate the impact of insertion speed and rotation. Unlike single dimensional needle depth sensing developed by other researchers, this two dimensional sensing device can also detect the rotation around the needle axis. The combination of depth and rotation sensing would be greatly beneficial for the needle steering approaches that require both depth and rotation information. Our preliminary results indicate that this sensing device can be useful in detecting needle motion when using an appropriate speed and range of motion.

  12. Sensor technologies and non-destructive monitoring for dampness diagnosis in cultural heritage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inmaculada Martínez Garrido, María; Gómez Heras, Miguel; Fort González, Rafael; Valles Iriso, Javier; José Varas Muriel, María

    2016-04-01

    This work presents a case study based on results of monitoring campaigns developed in San Juan Bautista church in Talamanca de Jarama (Madrid, Spain). This Church was built in the twelfth-thirteenth centuries (Romanesque style) with dolostone ashlars. It was reconstructed in the sixteenth century (Renaissance style) with rubble stone and mortar, brick and an earth fill. Different sections on walls and floors (north and south oriented) have been selected based on a preliminary study of moisture distribution on stone and masonry wall. The behavior of different materials has been studied according to the influence of indoor (microclimatic conditions) and outdoor conditions (weather conditions) and taking into account constructive facts. Several sensing technologies as dataloggers and wireless sensor networks (WSN) together to other non invasive techniques as thermal imaging, portable moisture meter, electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) and ground-penetrating radar (GPR) have been conducted. By means of this study it has been possible to establish an analysis methodology to determine the dampness origin in each case. Conclusions related to the each technique according to its effectiveness in the detection of decay problems have been established. Research funded by Geomateriales 2(S2013/MIT-2914) and Deterioration of stone materials in the interior of historic buildings as a result induced variation of its microclimate (CGL2011-27902) projects. The cooperation received from the Complutense University of Madrid's Research Group Alteración y Conservación de los Materiales Pétreos del Patrimonio (ref. 921349), the Laboratory Network in Science and Technology for Heritage Conservation (RedLabPat, CEI Moncloa) and the Diocese of Alcalá is gratefully acknowledged.

  13. Is Piaget's Epistemic Subject Dead?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawson, Anton E.

    1991-01-01

    Argues that the Piaget's epistemic subject is not supported by evidence and contains weaknesses. Concludes that the epistemic subject is dead and that continued acceptance of this aspect of Piagetian theory would be counterproductive. (PR)

  14. The use of a gas chromatography-sensor system combined with advanced statistical methods, towards the diagnosis of urological malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Aggio, Raphael B. M.; de Lacy Costello, Ben; White, Paul; Khalid, Tanzeela; Ratcliffe, Norman M.; Persad, Raj; Probert, Chris S. J.

    2016-01-01

    Prostate cancer is one of the most common cancers. Serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is used to aid the selection of men undergoing biopsies. Its use remains controversial. We propose a GC-sensor algorithm system for classifying urine samples from patients with urological symptoms. This pilot study includes 155 men presenting to urology clinics, 58 were diagnosed with prostate cancer, 24 with bladder cancer and 73 with haematuria and or poor stream, without cancer. Principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to assess the discrimination achieved, while linear discriminant analysis (LDA) and support vector machine (SVM) were used as statistical models for sample classification. Leave-one-out cross-validation (LOOCV), repeated 10-fold cross-validation (10FoldCV), repeated double cross-validation (DoubleCV) and Monte Carlo permutations were applied to assess performance. Significant separation was found between prostate cancer and control samples, bladder cancer and controls and between bladder and prostate cancer samples. For prostate cancer diagnosis, the GC/SVM system classified samples with 95% sensitivity and 96% specificity after LOOCV. For bladder cancer diagnosis, the SVM reported 96% sensitivity and 100% specificity after LOOCV, while the DoubleCV reported 87% sensitivity and 99% specificity, with SVM showing 78% and 98% sensitivity between prostate and bladder cancer samples. Evaluation of the results of the Monte Carlo permutation of class labels obtained chance-like accuracy values around 50% suggesting the observed results for bladder cancer and prostate cancer detection are not due to over fitting. The results of the pilot study presented here indicate that the GC system is able to successfully identify patterns that allow classification of urine samples from patients with urological cancers. An accurate diagnosis based on urine samples would reduce the number of negative prostate biopsies performed, and the frequency of surveillance cystoscopy

  15. The use of a gas chromatography-sensor system combined with advanced statistical methods, towards the diagnosis of urological malignancies.

    PubMed

    Aggio, Raphael B M; de Lacy Costello, Ben; White, Paul; Khalid, Tanzeela; Ratcliffe, Norman M; Persad, Raj; Probert, Chris S J

    2016-03-01

    Prostate cancer is one of the most common cancers. Serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is used to aid the selection of men undergoing biopsies. Its use remains controversial. We propose a GC-sensor algorithm system for classifying urine samples from patients with urological symptoms. This pilot study includes 155 men presenting to urology clinics, 58 were diagnosed with prostate cancer, 24 with bladder cancer and 73 with haematuria and or poor stream, without cancer. Principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to assess the discrimination achieved, while linear discriminant analysis (LDA) and support vector machine (SVM) were used as statistical models for sample classification. Leave-one-out cross-validation (LOOCV), repeated 10-fold cross-validation (10FoldCV), repeated double cross-validation (DoubleCV) and Monte Carlo permutations were applied to assess performance. Significant separation was found between prostate cancer and control samples, bladder cancer and controls and between bladder and prostate cancer samples. For prostate cancer diagnosis, the GC/SVM system classified samples with 95% sensitivity and 96% specificity after LOOCV. For bladder cancer diagnosis, the SVM reported 96% sensitivity and 100% specificity after LOOCV, while the DoubleCV reported 87% sensitivity and 99% specificity, with SVM showing 78% and 98% sensitivity between prostate and bladder cancer samples. Evaluation of the results of the Monte Carlo permutation of class labels obtained chance-like accuracy values around 50% suggesting the observed results for bladder cancer and prostate cancer detection are not due to over fitting. The results of the pilot study presented here indicate that the GC system is able to successfully identify patterns that allow classification of urine samples from patients with urological cancers. An accurate diagnosis based on urine samples would reduce the number of negative prostate biopsies performed, and the frequency of surveillance cystoscopy

  16. DESERVE - Dead Sea Research Venue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohsen, A.; Weber, M. H.; Kottmeier, C.

    2013-12-01

    DESERVE 'Dead Sea Research Venue' focuses on the Dead Sea region as it is a unique environment and may be considered as one of the most inspiring natural laboratories on Earth. The Dead Sea Region is an exceptional ecosystem whose seismic activity has influenced all facets of the development, from ground water availability to human evolution. DESERVE addresses three grand challenges: Environmental Risks, Water Availability, Climate Change and comprises long term monitoring of geophysical parameters, studies of coupled processes in the atmosphere, hydrosphere and lithosphere as well as modeling of prediction and remediation strategies of geogenic risks. The Dead Sea has been selected for this integrated approach because it constitutes an outstanding 'natural laboratory' to study these phenomena, as - all 3 challenges are critical in this region. - the region is especially sensitive to climate change and human influences such as ground and surface water over-exploitation for agriculture and industrial purposes. - environmental processes are subject to boundary conditions that cannot be found elsewhere on Earth - understanding their interactions and the future evolution of the whole Dead Sea region are of key importance for economic development in peaceful cooperation. Results obtained in the Dead Sea region are also of prototype relevance for other (semi)-arid terminal basins of the world.

  17. Climate change and dead zones.

    PubMed

    Altieri, Andrew H; Gedan, Keryn B

    2015-04-01

    Estuaries and coastal seas provide valuable ecosystem services but are particularly vulnerable to the co-occurring threats of climate change and oxygen-depleted dead zones. We analyzed the severity of climate change predicted for existing dead zones, and found that 94% of dead zones are in regions that will experience at least a 2 °C temperature increase by the end of the century. We then reviewed how climate change will exacerbate hypoxic conditions through oceanographic, ecological, and physiological processes. We found evidence that suggests numerous climate variables including temperature, ocean acidification, sea-level rise, precipitation, wind, and storm patterns will affect dead zones, and that each of those factors has the potential to act through multiple pathways on both oxygen availability and ecological responses to hypoxia. Given the variety and strength of the mechanisms by which climate change exacerbates hypoxia, and the rates at which climate is changing, we posit that climate change variables are contributing to the dead zone epidemic by acting synergistically with one another and with recognized anthropogenic triggers of hypoxia including eutrophication. This suggests that a multidisciplinary, integrated approach that considers the full range of climate variables is needed to track and potentially reverse the spread of dead zones. PMID:25385668

  18. Dead Star Rumbles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Composite of Supernova Remnant Cassiopeia A This Spitzer Space Telescope composite shows the supernova remnant Cassiopeia A (white ball) and surrounding clouds of dust (gray, orange and blue). It consists of two processed images taken one year apart. Dust features that have not changed over time appear gray, while those that have changed are colored blue or orange. Blue represents an earlier time and orange, a later time.

    These observations illustrate that a blast of light from Cassiopeia A is waltzing outward through the dusty skies. This dance, called an 'infrared echo,' began when the remnant erupted about 50 years ago.

    Cassiopeia A is the remnant of a once massive star that died in a violent supernova explosion 325 years ago. It consists of a dead star, called a neutron star, and a surrounding shell of material that was blasted off as the star died. This remnant is located 10,000 light-years away in the northern constellation Cassiopeia.

    An infrared echo is created when a star explodes or erupts, flashing light into surrounding clumps of dust. As the light zips through the dust clumps, it heats them up, causing them to glow successively in infrared, like a chain of Christmas bulbs lighting up one by one. The result is an optical illusion, in which the dust appears to be flying outward at the speed of light. This apparent motion can be seen here by the shift in colored dust clumps.

    Echoes are distinct from supernova shockwaves, which are made up material that is swept up and hurled outward by exploding stars.

    This infrared echo is the largest ever seen, stretching more than 50 light-years away from Cassiopeia A. If viewed from Earth, the entire movie frame would take up the same amount of space as two full moons.

    Hints of an older infrared echo from Cassiopeia A's supernova explosion hundreds of years ago can also be seen.

    The earlier Spitzer image was taken on November 30

  19. Application of HFCT and UHF Sensors in On-Line Partial Discharge Measurements for Insulation Diagnosis of High Voltage Equipment

    PubMed Central

    Álvarez, Fernando; Garnacho, Fernando; Ortego, Javier; Sánchez-Urán, Miguel Ángel

    2015-01-01

    Partial discharge (PD) measurements provide valuable information for assessing the condition of high voltage (HV) insulation systems, contributing to their quality assurance. Different PD measuring techniques have been developed in the last years specially designed to perform on-line measurements. Non-conventional PD methods operating in high frequency bands are usually used when this type of tests are carried out. In PD measurements the signal acquisition, the subsequent signal processing and the capability to obtain an accurate diagnosis are conditioned by the selection of a suitable detection technique and by the implementation of effective signal processing tools. This paper proposes an optimized electromagnetic detection method based on the combined use of wideband PD sensors for measurements performed in the HF and UHF frequency ranges, together with the implementation of powerful processing tools. The effectiveness of the measuring techniques proposed is demonstrated through an example, where several PD sources are measured simultaneously in a HV installation consisting of a cable system connected by a plug-in terminal to a gas insulated substation (GIS) compartment. PMID:25815452

  20. Application of HFCT and UHF sensors in on-line partial discharge measurements for insulation diagnosis of high voltage equipment.

    PubMed

    Álvarez, Fernando; Garnacho, Fernando; Ortego, Javier; Sánchez-Urán, Miguel Ángel

    2015-01-01

    Partial discharge (PD) measurements provide valuable information for assessing the condition of high voltage (HV) insulation systems, contributing to their quality assurance. Different PD measuring techniques have been developed in the last years specially designed to perform on-line measurements. Non-conventional PD methods operating in high frequency bands are usually used when this type of tests are carried out. In PD measurements the signal acquisition, the subsequent signal processing and the capability to obtain an accurate diagnosis are conditioned by the selection of a suitable detection technique and by the implementation of effective signal processing tools. This paper proposes an optimized electromagnetic detection method based on the combined use of wideband PD sensors for measurements performed in the HF and UHF frequency ranges, together with the implementation of powerful processing tools. The effectiveness of the measuring techniques proposed is demonstrated through an example, where several PD sources are measured simultaneously in a HV installation consisting of a cable system connected by a plug-in terminal to a gas insulated substation (GIS) compartment. PMID:25815452

  1. Damage and Fault Diagnosis of In-service Structure via Statistical Comparison of Relation between Sensor measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwasaki, Atsushi; Todoroki, Akira; Shimamura, Yoshinobu; Sugiya, Tsuneya; Izumi, Satoshi; Sakai, Shinsuke

    The present study is about an automatic diagnostic method for the structural health monitoring. In this study, a new diagnostic method applicable to existing structures from the present moment is proposed. In the proposed method, structural condition is diagnosed without information about damaged condition. The proposed method statistically diagnoses structural condition by means of investigating the change of a response surface. The response surface is calculated as a regression model of relationship between multiple sensors. The shape of the response surface is changed reflecting the change of the structural condition. In this method, the change of the response surface is statistically investigated with the F-test. In the F-test, the threshold of normal or damaged condition is decided with only theoretical F-probability distribution. This theoretical F-distribution is easily calculated using the response surface parameters. Therefore, diagnosis is conducted by means of only intact data used for the reference data. This means the proposed method doesn't require information about the damaged condition. In this study, the health monitoring system of the jet fan was developed to investigate the effectiveness of the proposed method. In this study, field test was conducted using an actual jet fan in a tunnel. In the field test, robustness of the proposed method was investigated. As a result, the structural condition of the jet fan was successfully diagnosed and effectiveness of proposed method was confirmed.

  2. 46 CFR 171.117 - Dead covers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Dead covers. 171.117 Section 171.117 Shipping COAST... Dead covers. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, each port light with the sill located below the margin line must have a hinged, inside dead cover. (b) The dead cover on a port...

  3. [Parasitic dead-end: update].

    PubMed

    Magnaval, J F

    2006-08-01

    Parasitic dead-ends occur when a parasite is unable to establish a permanent interaction in an unnatural host. Although the likelihood of successful reproduction by the pathogenic agent is nul, parasitic dead-end heralds capture of new parasites and therefore expansion of the host range. Angiostrongyliasis due to A. cantonensis or A. costaricensis, anisakiasis, Ancylostoma caninum infection, gnathostomiasis and sparganosis are undoubtedly emerging zoonoses of particular medical interest. Prevention of these diseases relies on abstinence from eating raw meat from invertebrates or cold-blooded (poikilotherm) vertebrates (e.g. used in exotic dishes). These guidelines must be included in recommendations to travelers. PMID:16999036

  4. HIV and Tuberculosis: a Deadly Human Syndemic

    PubMed Central

    Kwan, Candice K.; Ernst, Joel D.

    2011-01-01

    Summary: A syndemic is defined as the convergence of two or more diseases that act synergistically to magnify the burden of disease. The intersection and syndemic interaction between the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and tuberculosis (TB) epidemics have had deadly consequences around the world. Without adequate control of the TB-HIV syndemic, the long-term TB elimination target set for 2050 will not be reached. There is an urgent need for additional resources and novel approaches for the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of both HIV and TB. Moreover, multidisciplinary approaches that consider HIV and TB together, rather than as separate problems and diseases, will be necessary to prevent further worsening of the HIV-TB syndemic. This review examines current knowledge of the state and impact of the HIV-TB syndemic and reviews the epidemiological, clinical, cellular, and molecular interactions between HIV and TB. PMID:21482729

  5. A Study on Electronic Nose for Clinical Breath Diagnosis of Lung Cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Di; Wang, Le; Yu, Jin; Wang, Ping; Hu, Yanjie; Ying, Kejing

    2009-05-01

    Lung cancer is one of the most deadly diseases and the leading cause of cancer death in both men and women. The high mortality in patients with lung cancer results, in part, from the lack of effective tools to diagnose the disease at an early stage before it has spread to regional nodes or has metastasized beyond the lung. The electronic nose combined with a diagnosis model which based on the biomarkers can provide a non-invasive and more convenient method. The article presented an improved e-Nose based on surface acoustic wave (SAW) gas sensors and an a diagnosis model to diagnose lung cancer.

  6. Who are the Unclaimed Dead?

    PubMed

    Quinet, Kenna; Nunn, Samuel; Ballew, Alfarena

    2016-01-01

    Unclaimed dead are deceased persons with no known next of kin (NoK) or NoK was located but did not claim the deceased. Unclaimed dead in Marion County, Indiana, 2004-2011, are examined. Comparisons are provided of the unclaimed to the claimed dead population and county death patterns. Race, gender, marital status, age, location, manner and cause of death, NoK, and days to disposition are analyzed. The unclaimed dead were disproportionately male, slightly more likely to be Black, younger at death, died from natural causes, had unknown marital status, were equally likely as not to have NoK, did not die in a hospital, and were subject to autopsy. Nearly half the unclaimed had NoK who did not claim the body; the other half had no identifiable NoK. Unclaimed were more likely to have an autopsy and to die from external causes. Most unclaimed were identified by means outside fingerprints or DNA. PMID:26524620

  7. Dead Reckoning Pedometer Graphical User Interface

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2003-04-26

    The Dead Reckoning Pedometer Graphical User Interface (DRP GUI) software is tasked with maturing the technology described in a WSRC patent application. This patent application describes an electronic navigation system that records human foot movements, in three dimensions, for the purpose of determining position, distance, and speed of a walking person. The simiplest form of the apparatus consists of a magnetometer (an instrument that measures magnetic field strength) on one foot and a small permanentmore » magnet on another foot with pressure sensors on each foot. When a person takes a step, the foot will hit the ground and produce a signal on the pressure sensor. This will trigger a reading of the magnetometer so that the relative position of one foot to the other can be calculated. This same process is repeated for each step. The DRP could be very useful for tracking emergency personnel such as firemen, policemen, and paramedics when they travel within a building. Technologies such as global positioning systems to not work within buildings. The goal of the DRP GUI V1.0.0 software is to provide a three-dimensional graphical user interface that will allow WSRC to demonstrate the DRP concepts to potential patent licensees. It is hoped that a partnership will allow WSRC and another company to further develop the DRP technology and software into a commercial product.« less

  8. Dead Time of Single Photon Avalanche Diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neri, L.; Tudisco, S.; Musumeci, F.; Scordino, A.; Fallica, G.; Mazzillo, M.; Zimbone, M.

    2011-06-01

    Single Photon Avalanche Diode (SPAD) is the new generation of Geiger-Muller counter device developed in semiconductor technology [S. Privitera et al. Sensors Journal, vol 8 Iss. 8 (2008) 4636; S. Tudisco et al. IEEE Sensors Journal vol 8 ISS 7-8 (2008) 1324; S. Cova et al. Applied Optics 35 (1996) 1956]. Physical dead time model and noise production process has been analyzed and their corrections have been performed [S.H. Lee, R.P. Gardner, M. Jae, Nucl. Instr. and Meth. in Phys. Res. B 263 (2007) 46]. We have been able to extract the real amount of incident photon rate up to 10 7cps using a device with 0.97μs total deadtime. We also developed the equation of the noise count rate vs incoming photon rate, supported by Montecarlo simulation and experimental data. We marked the difference between dark rate and noise count rate, and introduced the noise rate inside the hybrid deadtime equation used for SPAD device.

  9. FAQ: West Nile Virus and Dead Birds

    MedlinePlus

    ... Education Public Service Videos West Nile Virus & Dead Birds Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On this ... dead bird sightings to local authorities. How do birds get infected with West Nile virus? West Nile ...

  10. Comparison of different feature reduction methods in the improvement of gas diagnosis of a temperature modulated resistive gas sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosseini-Golgoo, S. M.; Ebrahimpour, N.

    2016-03-01

    The present study aims to analyze dynamic responses of a temperature modulated resistive gas sensor with the emphasis on the comparison of different feature reduction methods. For this purpose, four selected feature reduction methods consist of Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA), Principal Component Analysis (PCA), Generalized-LDA (GDA) and Kernel-PCA (KPCA) are applied and compared. The sensor selected for the experiment is a tin oxide based sensor, FIS commercial type. A staircase voltage with the step length of 40 s and voltage range of 1-5 V constitutes the input of the sensor. Sensor system was modeled by ARMAX linear model. The effects of induced gases were recorded as parameter vectors in the data obtained by the model. After applying the methods of feature reductions, the performance of gas separation was compared. It was found out that LDA and GDA yielded the best data classification.

  11. 7 CFR 322.29 - Dead bees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Dead bees. 322.29 Section 322.29 Agriculture..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BEES, BEEKEEPING BYPRODUCTS, AND BEEKEEPING EQUIPMENT Importation and Transit of Restricted Articles § 322.29 Dead bees. (a) Dead bees imported into or transiting the United States must...

  12. 7 CFR 322.29 - Dead bees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Dead bees. 322.29 Section 322.29 Agriculture..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BEES, BEEKEEPING BYPRODUCTS, AND BEEKEEPING EQUIPMENT Importation and Transit of Restricted Articles § 322.29 Dead bees. (a) Dead bees imported into or transiting the United States must...

  13. 7 CFR 322.29 - Dead bees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Dead bees. 322.29 Section 322.29 Agriculture..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BEES, BEEKEEPING BYPRODUCTS, AND BEEKEEPING EQUIPMENT Importation and Transit of Restricted Articles § 322.29 Dead bees. (a) Dead bees imported into or transiting the United States must...

  14. 7 CFR 322.29 - Dead bees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Dead bees. 322.29 Section 322.29 Agriculture..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BEES, BEEKEEPING BYPRODUCTS, AND BEEKEEPING EQUIPMENT Importation and Transit of Restricted Articles § 322.29 Dead bees. (a) Dead bees imported into or transiting the United States must...

  15. 7 CFR 322.29 - Dead bees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Dead bees. 322.29 Section 322.29 Agriculture..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BEES, BEEKEEPING BYPRODUCTS, AND BEEKEEPING EQUIPMENT Importation and Transit of Restricted Articles § 322.29 Dead bees. (a) Dead bees imported into or transiting the United States must...

  16. 32 CFR 632.4 - Deadly force.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Deadly force. 632.4 Section 632.4 National... INVESTIGATIONS USE OF FORCE BY PERSONNEL ENGAGED IN LAW ENFORCEMENT AND SECURITY DUTIES § 632.4 Deadly force. (a) Deadly force is destructive physical force directed against a person or persons (e.g., firing a...

  17. 32 CFR 632.4 - Deadly force.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Deadly force. 632.4 Section 632.4 National... INVESTIGATIONS USE OF FORCE BY PERSONNEL ENGAGED IN LAW ENFORCEMENT AND SECURITY DUTIES § 632.4 Deadly force. (a) Deadly force is destructive physical force directed against a person or persons (e.g., firing a...

  18. 32 CFR 632.4 - Deadly force.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Deadly force. 632.4 Section 632.4 National... INVESTIGATIONS USE OF FORCE BY PERSONNEL ENGAGED IN LAW ENFORCEMENT AND SECURITY DUTIES § 632.4 Deadly force. (a) Deadly force is destructive physical force directed against a person or persons (e.g., firing a...

  19. 32 CFR 632.4 - Deadly force.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Deadly force. 632.4 Section 632.4 National... INVESTIGATIONS USE OF FORCE BY PERSONNEL ENGAGED IN LAW ENFORCEMENT AND SECURITY DUTIES § 632.4 Deadly force. (a) Deadly force is destructive physical force directed against a person or persons (e.g., firing a...

  20. 32 CFR 632.4 - Deadly force.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Deadly force. 632.4 Section 632.4 National... INVESTIGATIONS USE OF FORCE BY PERSONNEL ENGAGED IN LAW ENFORCEMENT AND SECURITY DUTIES § 632.4 Deadly force. (a) Deadly force is destructive physical force directed against a person or persons (e.g., firing a...

  1. Assessing dead space. A meaningful variable?

    PubMed

    Hedenstierna, G; Sandhagen, B

    2006-06-01

    The recording of dead space will give information on how much of total ventilation that reaches both ventilated and perfused alveoli and thus allows gas exchange between alveoli and pulmonary blood. Realising that CO2 retention can be an effect not only of low total ventilation but also of increased dead space is one important information. Moreover, dead space will give insight into the matching of ventilation and perfusion. This is because dead space is affected by a number of factors: 1) tubings and valves that the subject has to rebreath through (apparatus dead space), 2/ Airways (anatomical dead space), 3/ Non-perfused but ventilated alveoli, e.g. pulmonary embolus (alveolar dead space), 4/ Excessive ventilation of alveoli in relation to their perfusion that can be seen in chronic obstructive lung disease (another form of alveolar dead space), and 5/ So called "shunt dead space" that is an erroneous description of right to left lung shunt that brings the higher CO2 concentration in venous blood to the arterial side thereby producing an arterial-to-end-tidal CO2 difference. The dead spaces 2-5 are called physiological dead space. The recording of dead spaces can be done according to the Riley three-compartment model or by analysis of the expired CO2 curve. However, both are subjected to potential errors that have to be considered to make a dead space recording meaningful. A correct measurement and calculation of the dead space will give valuable information on the ventilatory support of the critically ill patient and can also be a valuable diagnostic tool. It should therefore not be forgotten in the intensive care setting. PMID:16682925

  2. Design and fabrication of a flexible MEMS-based electro-mechanical sensor array for breast cancer diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandya, Hardik J.; Park, Kihan; Desai, Jaydev P.

    2015-07-01

    The use of flexible micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS)-based devices provides a unique opportunity in bio-medical robotics such as the characterization of normal and malignant tissues. This paper reports on the design and development of a flexible MEMS-based sensor array integrating mechanical and electrical sensors on the same platform to enable the study of the change in electro-mechanical properties of benign and cancerous breast tissues. In this work, we present the analysis of the electrical characterization of the tissue specimens and also demonstrate the feasibility of using the sensor for the mechanical characterization of tissue specimens. Eight strain gauges acting as mechanical sensors were fabricated using poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) conducting polymer on poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) as the substrate material. Eight electrical sensors were fabricated using SU-8 pillars on gold (Au) pads which were patterned on the strain gauges separated by a thin insulator (SiO2 1.0 μm). These pillars were coated with gold to make them conducting. The electro-mechanical sensors are integrated on the same substrate. The sensor array covers a 180 μm  ×  180 μm area and the size of the complete device is 20 mm in diameter. The diameter of each breast tissue core used in the present study was 1 mm and the thickness was 8 μm. The region of interest was 200 μm  ×  200 μm. A microindentation technique was used to characterize the mechanical properties of the breast tissues. The sensor is integrated with conducting SU-8 pillars to study the electrical property of the tissue. Through electro-mechanical characterization studies using this MEMS-based sensor, we were able to measure the accuracy of the fabricated device and ascertain the difference between benign and cancers breast tissue specimens.

  3. Are Brain Dead Individuals Dead? Grounds for Reasonable Doubt.

    PubMed

    Brugger, E Christian

    2016-06-01

    According to the biological definition of death, a human body that has not lost the capacity to holistically organize itself is the body of a living human individual. Reasonable doubt against the conclusion that it has lost the capacity exists when the body appears to express it and no evidence to the contrary is sufficient to rule out reasonable doubt against the conclusion that the apparent expression is a true expression (i.e., when the conclusion that what appears to be holistic organization is in fact holistic organization remains a reasonable explanatory hypothesis in light of the best evidence to the contrary). This essay argues that the evidence and arguments against the conclusion that the signs of complex bodily integration exhibited in ventilated brain dead bodies are true expressions of somatic integration are unpersuasive; that is, they are not adequate to exclude reasonable doubt against the conclusion that BD bodies are dead. Since we should not treat as corpses what for all we know might be living human beings, it follows that we have an obligation to treat BD individuals as if they were living human beings. PMID:27075192

  4. Is Piaget's epistemic subject dead?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawson, Anton E.

    Niaz (1990) presents arguments in favor of the retention of Piaget's epistemic subject as a theoretical construct to guide research and practice in science education and psychology. The intent of this article is to point out the weaknesses of those arguments and to suggest that the weight of evidence argues against the existence of the logical thinker postulated by Piaget. Therefore, contrary to Niaz's conclusion that the acceptance of Piaget's epistemic subject will facilitate the development of cognitive theories with greater explanatory power, the conclusion is reached that Piaget's epistemic subject is dead and that continued acceptance of this aspect of Piagetian theory would be counterproductive.

  5. Eating the dead in Madagascar.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Gwyn

    2013-12-01

    Cannibalism has been poorly understood and has seldom been studied, since it was often suppressed by missionaries and colonial administrators, and very few societies still practise it. Cannibalistic practices are more complex than was originally thought. They may be supported in societies under stress or in times of famine, to reflect aggression and antisocial behaviour (in cases where the bodies of enemies killed in battle or people who have harmed the family are eaten), or to honour a dead kinsman. It was, for example, noted in Madagascar during the imperial campaigns of Ranavalona I in the period 1829 - 1853. Two types of cannibalism have been described: exocannibalism, where enemies were consumed, and endocannibalism, where dead relatives were eaten to assist their passing to the world of the ancestors, or to prolong contact with beloved and admired family members and absorb their good qualities. This article reviews some of the beliefs and motivations that surrounded the cannibalistic practices of the people of Madagascar in the 19th century.  PMID:24300654

  6. Evaluating dead lodgepole pine for products

    SciTech Connect

    Fahey, T.D.

    1980-12-01

    Dead lodgepole pine is a resource in abundance in the intermountain region of the US. Possible uses for dead pine range from small power poles to fuel and fiber. The potential to use significant volumes depends on how well the resource meets specifications for products and the volume of products that the market will accept. In this report values for products that can be produced from dead trees are evaluated based on ovendry tons of fiber for both logs and products.

  7. Design of a nanoscale time-of-flight sensor and an integrated multiscale module for the point-of-care diagnosis of stroke

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrus, Matthew

    Stroke is a leading cause of death and disability in the United States, however, there remains no rapid diagnostic test for differentiating between ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke within the three-hour treatment window. Here we describe the design of a multiscale microfluidic module with an embedded time-of-flight nanosensor for the clinical diagnosis of stroke. The nanosensor described utilizes two synthetic pores in series, relying on resistive pulse sensing (RPS) to measure the passage of molecules through the time-of-flight tube. Once the nanosensor design was completed, a multiscale module to process patient samples and house the sensors was designed in a similar iterative process. This design utilized pillar arrays, called "pixels" to immobilize oligonucleotides from patient samples for ligase detection reactions (LDR) to be carried out. COMSOL simulations were performed to understand the operation and behavior of both the nanosensor and the modular chip once the designs were completed.

  8. Fault diagnosis for manifold absolute pressure sensor(MAP) of diesel engine based on Elman neural network observer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yingmin; Zhang, Fujun; Cui, Tao; Zhou, Jinlong

    2016-03-01

    Intake system of diesel engine is a strong nonlinear system, and it is difficult to establish accurate model of intake system; and bias fault and precision degradation fault of MAP of diesel engine can't be diagnosed easily using model-based methods. Thus, a fault diagnosis method based on Elman neural network observer is proposed. By comparing simulation results of intake pressure based on BP network and Elman neural network, lower sampling error magnitude is gained using Elman neural network, and the error is less volatile. Forecast accuracy is between 0.015-0.017 5 and sample error is controlled within 0-0.07. Considering the output stability and complexity of solving comprehensively, Elman neural network with a single hidden layer and with 44 nodes is presented as intake system observer. By comparing the relations of confidence intervals of the residual value between the measured and predicted values, error variance and failures in various fault types. Then four typical MAP faults of diesel engine can be diagnosed: complete failure fault, bias fault, precision degradation fault and drift fault. The simulation results show: intake pressure is observable and selection of diagnostic strategy parameter reasonably can increase the accuracy of diagnosis; the proposed fault diagnosis method only depends on data and structural parameters of observer, not depends on the nonlinear model of air intake system. A fault diagnosis method is proposed not depending system model to observe intake pressure, and bias fault and precision degradation fault of MAP of diesel engine can be diagnosed based on residuals.

  9. More Dead than Dead: Perceptions of Persons in the Persistent Vegetative State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Kurt; Knickman, T. Anne; Wegner, Daniel M.

    2011-01-01

    Patients in persistent vegetative state (PVS) may be biologically alive, but these experiments indicate that people see PVS as a state curiously more dead than dead. Experiment 1 found that PVS patients were perceived to have less mental capacity than the dead. Experiment 2 explained this effect as an outgrowth of afterlife beliefs, and the…

  10. 42 CFR 71.55 - Dead bodies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Dead bodies. 71.55 Section 71.55 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES QUARANTINE, INSPECTION, LICENSING FOREIGN QUARANTINE Importations § 71.55 Dead bodies. The remains of a person who died of a communicable...

  11. 42 CFR 71.55 - Dead bodies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Dead bodies. 71.55 Section 71.55 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES QUARANTINE, INSPECTION, LICENSING FOREIGN QUARANTINE Importations § 71.55 Dead bodies. The remains of a person who died of a communicable...

  12. 49 CFR 236.798 - Section, dead.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Section, dead. 236.798 Section 236.798 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Section, dead. A section of track, either within a track circuit or between two track circuits, the...

  13. 49 CFR 236.798 - Section, dead.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Section, dead. 236.798 Section 236.798 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Section, dead. A section of track, either within a track circuit or between two track circuits, the...

  14. 49 CFR 236.798 - Section, dead.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Section, dead. 236.798 Section 236.798 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Section, dead. A section of track, either within a track circuit or between two track circuits, the...

  15. 49 CFR 236.798 - Section, dead.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Section, dead. 236.798 Section 236.798 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Section, dead. A section of track, either within a track circuit or between two track circuits, the...

  16. 42 CFR 71.55 - Dead bodies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Dead bodies. 71.55 Section 71.55 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES QUARANTINE, INSPECTION, LICENSING FOREIGN QUARANTINE Importations § 71.55 Dead bodies. The remains of a person who died of a communicable...

  17. 49 CFR 236.798 - Section, dead.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Section, dead. 236.798 Section 236.798 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Section, dead. A section of track, either within a track circuit or between two track circuits, the...

  18. There's Life in Those Dead Logs!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biggs, Devin; Miller, Todd; Hall, Dee

    2006-01-01

    Although it is unspectacular in appearance, dead wood is one of the most ecologically important resources in forests. Fallen logs, dead standing trees, stumps, and even cavities in live trees fulfill a wide range of roles. Prominent among these is that they provide habitat for many organisms, especially insects. Fourth-grade students at Fox…

  19. 49 CFR 236.55 - Dead section; maximum length.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Dead section; maximum length. 236.55 Section 236... Instructions: All Systems Track Circuits § 236.55 Dead section; maximum length. Where dead section exceeds 35... over such dead section is less than 35 feet, the maximum length of the dead section shall not...

  20. 49 CFR 236.55 - Dead section; maximum length.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Dead section; maximum length. 236.55 Section 236... Instructions: All Systems Track Circuits § 236.55 Dead section; maximum length. Where dead section exceeds 35... over such dead section is less than 35 feet, the maximum length of the dead section shall not...

  1. 49 CFR 236.55 - Dead section; maximum length.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Dead section; maximum length. 236.55 Section 236... Instructions: All Systems Track Circuits § 236.55 Dead section; maximum length. Where dead section exceeds 35... over such dead section is less than 35 feet, the maximum length of the dead section shall not...

  2. 49 CFR 236.55 - Dead section; maximum length.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Dead section; maximum length. 236.55 Section 236... Instructions: All Systems Track Circuits § 236.55 Dead section; maximum length. Where dead section exceeds 35... over such dead section is less than 35 feet, the maximum length of the dead section shall not...

  3. 49 CFR 236.55 - Dead section; maximum length.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Dead section; maximum length. 236.55 Section 236... Instructions: All Systems Track Circuits § 236.55 Dead section; maximum length. Where dead section exceeds 35... over such dead section is less than 35 feet, the maximum length of the dead section shall not...

  4. A single-step enzyme immunoassay capillary sensor composed of functional multilayer coatings for the diagnosis of marker proteins.

    PubMed

    Funano, Shun-ichi; Sugahara, Masato; Henares, Terence G; Sueyoshi, Kenji; Endo, Tatsuro; Hisamoto, Hideaki

    2015-03-01

    A single-step, easy-to-use enzyme immunoassay capillary sensor, composed of functional multilayer coatings, was developed in this study. The coatings were composed of substrate-immobilized hydrophobic coating, hydrogel coating, and soluble coating containing an enzyme-labeled antibody. The response mechanism involved a spontaneous immunoreaction triggered by capillary action-mediated introduction of a sample antigen solution and subsequent separation of unreacted enzyme-labeled antibodies and antigen-enzyme-labeled antibody complexes by the molecular sieving effect of the hydrogel. An enzyme reaction at the substrate-immobilized hydrophobic coating/hydrogel coating interface resulted in a protein-selective fluorescence response. An antigen concentration-dependent response was obtained for diagnostic marker protein samples (hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), 7.14-16.7 mg mL(-1); alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), 1.4-140 ng mL(-1); C-reactive protein (CRP), 0.5-10 μg mL(-1)) that cover a clinically important concentration range. The successful measurement of CRP in diluted serum samples demonstrated the application of this capillary sensor. PMID:25599100

  5. Raising the dead without a Red Sea-Dead Sea canal? Hydro-economics and governance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenberg, D. E.

    2010-12-01

    Seven decades of extractions have dramatically reduced Jordan River flows, lowered the Dead Sea level, opened sink holes, and caused other environmental problems. The fix Jordan, Israel, and the Palestinians propose would build an expensive multipurpose canal from the Red Sea to the Dead Sea that would also generate hydropower and desalinated water. This paper compares the Red-Dead project to alternatives that may also raise the Dead Sea level. Hydro-economic model results for the Jordan-Israel-Palestinian inter-tied water systems show two restoration alternatives are more economically viable than the proposed Red-Dead project. Many decentralized new supply, wastewater reuse, conveyance, conservation, and leak reduction projects and programs in each country can together increase economic benefits and reliably deliver up to 900 MCM/year to the Dead Sea. Similarly, a smaller Red-Dead project that only generates hydropower can deliver large flows to the Dead Sea when the sale price of generated electricity is sufficiently high. However, for all restoration options, net benefits fall and water scarcity rises as flows to the Dead Sea increase. This finding suggests (i) each country has no individual incentive to return water to the Dead Sea, and (ii) outside institutions that seek to raise the Dead must also offer countries direct incentives to deliver water to the Sea besides building the countries new infrastructure.

  6. 9 CFR 82.6 - Interstate movement of dead birds and dead poultry from a quarantined area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Interstate movement of dead birds and... (END) § 82.6 Interstate movement of dead birds and dead poultry from a quarantined area. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section for dressed carcasses, dead birds and dead poultry, including...

  7. 9 CFR 82.6 - Interstate movement of dead birds and dead poultry from a quarantined area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Interstate movement of dead birds and... movement of dead birds and dead poultry from a quarantined area. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section for dressed carcasses, dead birds and dead poultry, including any parts of the birds...

  8. 9 CFR 82.6 - Interstate movement of dead birds and dead poultry from a quarantined area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Interstate movement of dead birds and... (END) § 82.6 Interstate movement of dead birds and dead poultry from a quarantined area. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section for dressed carcasses, dead birds and dead poultry, including...

  9. 9 CFR 82.6 - Interstate movement of dead birds and dead poultry from a quarantined area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Interstate movement of dead birds and... (END) § 82.6 Interstate movement of dead birds and dead poultry from a quarantined area. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section for dressed carcasses, dead birds and dead poultry, including...

  10. 9 CFR 82.6 - Interstate movement of dead birds and dead poultry from a quarantined area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interstate movement of dead birds and... (END) § 82.6 Interstate movement of dead birds and dead poultry from a quarantined area. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section for dressed carcasses, dead birds and dead poultry, including...

  11. Dead Tracts in Dentine 1

    PubMed Central

    Fish, E. W.

    1928-01-01

    (1) When the dentinal tubules are opened or sufficiently irritated, their contents coagulate and die. (2) Following this, the pulp lays down an impermeable barrier of lime salts (secondary dentine) to protect itself from contact with the dead tubules. Alternatively the pulp itself dies. (3) The evidence that exposed dentine always dies is as follows: (a) Such dentine is insensitive right through to the secondary dentine. (b) The injured dentine is found experimentally to be shut off from the pulp in such a way that fluids cannot enter it. It thus lacks the necessary body fluids to support life. (c) Under an injury the primary dentine is seen to stop abruptly at the original pulp margin, and to be sealed off with a homogeneous barrier of lime salts before the tubules of the secondary dentine start. The tubules of the secondary dentine take origin below this homogeneous layer in fine branches and obviously have no connexion with the injured primary tubules. (d) The injured tubules although walled off from the pulp remain permeable from the mouth and have therefore not died by slow calcification. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7 PMID:19986764

  12. Experimental verification of the four-sensor probe model for flow diagnosis in air water flow in vertical pipe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pradhan, S.; Mishra, R.

    2012-05-01

    Measuring the volumetric flow rate of each of the flowing components is required to be monitored in production logging applications. Hence it is necessary to measure the flow rates of gas, oil and water in vertical and inclined oil wells. An increasing level of interest has been shown by the researchers in developing system for the flow rate measurement in multiphase flows. This paper describes the experimental methodology using a miniature, local four-sensor probe for the measurement of dispersed flow parameters in bubbly two-phase flow for spherical bubbles. To establish interdependent among different parameters corresponding to dispersed flow, the available model has been used to experimentally obtain different parameters such as volume fraction, velocity and bubble shape of the dispersed phase in the bubbly air-water flow.

  13. High resolution diagnosis and monitoring of extreme precipitation events using multi-sensor multi-platform remotely sensed data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aumann, H. H.; Desouza-Machado, S. G.; Behrangi, A.

    2010-12-01

    The study of extreme precipitation/storm events is of significant value due to their socioeconomic impacts and their applications in aviation and hydroclimatic studies. The emergence of various satellite sensors aboard multiple platforms creates unprecedented opportunities to study storm events statistically and with case studies. High spectral resolution data from the Advanced Infrared Sounder (AIRS), the Advanced Microwave Temperature Sounder (AMSU) and the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer for EOS (AMSRE), were used for a statistical analysis of very deep convective systems. It was found that combination of information from atmospheric window, water vapor and temperature sounding channels can provide strong insights to diagnose such deep convective systems near the tropopause. Associated with deep convective clouds is a local upward displacement of the tropopause , a cold bulge which can be seen directly in the brightness temperatures of AIRS and AMSU channels with weighting functions peaking between 40 and 2 hPa. The bulge is not resolved by the analysis in numerical weather prediction models. Such extreme systems yield very intense precipitation, as indicated by the measurements from AMSRE, and are likely associated with high vertical wind speeds. Since AIRS data can be used to emulate the spectral bands offered by the GOES and the Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI) infrared sensors, we investigate, if such extreme events can be detected and monitored from geostationary platforms, such as GOES and SEVIRI, with very high time and space resolution. As a case study, we discuss the combination of high resolution (time and space) infrared/water vapor data from geostationary platforms and AIRS data to analyze the conditions for the Air France flight 447 crash on June 1, 2009. We present encouraging first results and discuss the future extension of this work.

  14. Indoor localization using pedestrian dead reckoning updated with RFID-based fiducials.

    PubMed

    House, Samuel; Connell, Sean; Milligan, Ian; Austin, Daniel; Hayes, Tamara L; Chiang, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    We describe a low-cost wearable system that tracks the location of individuals indoors using commonly available inertial navigation sensors fused with radio frequency identification (RFID) tags placed around the smart environment. While conventional pedestrian dead reckoning (PDR) calculated with an inertial measurement unit (IMU) is susceptible to sensor drift inaccuracies, the proposed wearable prototype fuses the drift-sensitive IMU with a RFID tag reader. Passive RFID tags placed throughout the smart-building then act as fiducial markers that update the physical locations of each user, thereby correcting positional errors and sensor inaccuracy. Experimental measurements taken for a 55 m × 20 m 2D floor space indicate an over 1200% improvement in average error rate of the proposed RFID-fused system over dead reckoning alone. PMID:22256097

  15. Detection of dead regions in the cochlea: relevance for combined electric and acoustic stimulation.

    PubMed

    Moore, Brian C J; Glasberg, Brian; Schlueter, Anne

    2010-01-01

    A dead region is a region in the cochlea where the inner hair cells and/or the auditory neurones are functioning very poorly, if at all. People who are being considered for a combination of a cochlear implant and a hearing aid typically have a dead region in the parts of the cochlea that normally respond to medium and high frequencies, but have some functional hearing at lower frequencies. For such people, it may be useful to determine the edge frequency, f(e), of any dead region. This may be relevant to choosing the most appropriate insertion depth of the electrode array, and to the way that frequencies in the input signal are mapped to acoustic and electric stimulation. It may also be helpful in interpreting the results of research studies. This paper reviews methods for diagnosing dead regions and defining the value of f(e). It is argued that the value of f(e) cannot be determined reliably from the audiogram, although a dead region is likely to be present at a given frequency when the hearing loss at that frequency is 70 dB or more. When a sinusoidal signal is reported as sounding highly distorted or noise-like, a dead region may be present at the signal frequency, but again this is not a reliable indicator. The TEN test is a simple clinical method for diagnosis of dead regions. Where this test gives a positive diagnosis, it is recommended that psychophysical tuning curves be measured to define the value of f(e) more precisely. PMID:19955720

  16. Dead pixel replacement in LWIR microgrid polarimeters.

    PubMed

    Ratliff, Bradley M; Tyo, J Scott; Boger, James K; Black, Wiley T; Bowers, David L; Fetrow, Matthew P

    2007-06-11

    LWIR imaging arrays are often affected by nonresponsive pixels, or "dead pixels." These dead pixels can severely degrade the quality of imagery and often have to be replaced before subsequent image processing and display of the imagery data. For LWIR arrays that are integrated with arrays of micropolarizers, the problem of dead pixels is amplified. Conventional dead pixel replacement (DPR) strategies cannot be employed since neighboring pixels are of different polarizations. In this paper we present two DPR schemes. The first is a modified nearest-neighbor replacement method. The second is a method based on redundancy in the polarization measurements.We find that the redundancy-based DPR scheme provides an order-of-magnitude better performance for typical LWIR polarimetric data. PMID:19547086

  17. Regular Exercise: Antidote for Deadly Diseases?

    MedlinePlus

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160326.html Regular Exercise: Antidote for Deadly Diseases? High levels of physical ... Aug. 9, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Getting lots of exercise may reduce your risk for five common diseases, ...

  18. Dead pixel replacement in LWIR microgrid polarimeters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ratliff, Bradley M.; Tyo, J. Scott; Boger, James K.; Black, Wiley T.; Bowers, David L.; Fetrow, Matthew P.

    2007-06-01

    LWIR imaging arrays are often affected by nonresponsive pixels, or “dead pixels.” These dead pixels can severely degrade the quality of imagery and often have to be replaced before subsequent image processing and display of the imagery data. For LWIR arrays that are integrated with arrays of micropolarizers, the problem of dead pixels is amplified. Conventional dead pixel replacement (DPR) strategies cannot be employed since neighboring pixels are of different polarizations. In this paper we present two DPR schemes. The first is a modified nearest-neighbor replacement method. The second is a method based on redundancy in the polarization measurements.We find that the redundancy-based DPR scheme provides an order-of-magnitude better performance for typical LWIR polarimetric data.

  19. For Men, Ignoring Diabetes Can Be Deadly

    MedlinePlus

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Diabetes For Men, Ignoring Diabetes Can Be Deadly Past Issues / Fall 2009 Table ... Man's Guide to Living Well with Diabetes. Simpler Diabetes Care: Estimated Average Glucose (eAG) The American Diabetes ...

  20. Surviving Sepsis: Taming a Deadly Immune Response

    MedlinePlus

    ... disclaimer . Subscribe Surviving Sepsis Taming a Deadly Immune Response Many people have never heard of sepsis, or ... tract infection) and then a powerful and harmful response by your body’s own immune system . “With sepsis, ...

  1. Dead space: the physiology of wasted ventilation.

    PubMed

    Robertson, H Thomas

    2015-06-01

    An elevated physiological dead space, calculated from measurements of arterial CO2 and mixed expired CO2, has proven to be a useful clinical marker of prognosis both for patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome and for patients with severe heart failure. Although a frequently cited explanation for an elevated dead space measurement has been the development of alveolar regions receiving no perfusion, evidence for this mechanism is lacking in both of these disease settings. For the range of physiological abnormalities associated with an increased physiological dead space measurement, increased alveolar ventilation/perfusion ratio (V'A/Q') heterogeneity has been the most important pathophysiological mechanism. Depending on the disease condition, additional mechanisms that can contribute to an elevated physiological dead space measurement include shunt, a substantial increase in overall V'A/Q' ratio, diffusion impairment, and ventilation delivered to unperfused alveolar spaces. PMID:25395032

  2. Irregular Heartbeat More Deadly in Blacks

    MedlinePlus

    ... fullstory_159510.html Irregular Heartbeat More Deadly in Blacks: Study They were twice as likely to suffer ... 22, 2016 WEDNESDAY, June 22, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Black Americans with a common heart rhythm disorder are ...

  3. Scientists Try to Stop Another Deadly Virus

    MedlinePlus

    ... Try to Stop Another Deadly Virus Junin, an Ebola-like disease in Argentina, has a death rate ... companies that developed a similar treatment against the Ebola virus during the 2014-2015 outbreak. That drug, ...

  4. Cochlear dead regions constrain the benefit of combining acoustic stimulation with electric stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ting; Dorman, Michael F.; Gifford, Rene; Moore, Brian C.J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The aims of this study were to (i) detect the presence and edge frequency (fe) of a cochlear dead region in the ear with residual acoustic hearing for bimodal cochlear implant (CI) users, and (ii) determine whether amplification based on the presence or absence of a dead region would improve speech understanding and sound quality. Design Twenty two listeners with a CI in one ear and residual acoustic hearing in the non-implanted ear were tested. Eleven listeners had a cochlear dead region in the acoustic-hearing ear and eleven did not. Dead regions were assessed with the threshold equalizing noise (TEN) and the sweeping noise, psychophysical tuning curve (SWPTC) tests. Speech understanding was assessed with monosyllabic words and the AzBio sentences at +10 dB signal-to-noise ratio. Speech and music quality judgments were obtained with the Judgment of Sound Quality questionnaire. Results For this population, using shifted tips of the PTCs as a basis for diagnosis, the TEN had high sensitivity (0.91) and poor specificity (0.55). The value of fe was lower when estimated with the SWPTC test than with the TEN test. For the listeners with cochlear dead regions, speech understanding, speech quality and music quality were best when no amplification was applied for frequencies within the dead region. For listeners without dead regions, speech understanding was best with full-bandwidth amplification and was reduced when amplification was not applied when the audiometric threshold exceeded 80 dB HL. Conclusion Our data suggest that, to improve bimodal benefit for listeners who combine electric and acoustic stimulation, audiologists should routinely test for the presence of cochlear dead regions and determine amplification bandwidth accordingly. PMID:24950254

  5. Fault diagnosis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbott, Kathy

    1990-01-01

    The objective of the research in this area of fault management is to develop and implement a decision aiding concept for diagnosing faults, especially faults which are difficult for pilots to identify, and to develop methods for presenting the diagnosis information to the flight crew in a timely and comprehensible manner. The requirements for the diagnosis concept were identified by interviewing pilots, analyzing actual incident and accident cases, and examining psychology literature on how humans perform diagnosis. The diagnosis decision aiding concept developed based on those requirements takes abnormal sensor readings as input, as identified by a fault monitor. Based on these abnormal sensor readings, the diagnosis concept identifies the cause or source of the fault and all components affected by the fault. This concept was implemented for diagnosis of aircraft propulsion and hydraulic subsystems in a computer program called Draphys (Diagnostic Reasoning About Physical Systems). Draphys is unique in two important ways. First, it uses models of both functional and physical relationships in the subsystems. Using both models enables the diagnostic reasoning to identify the fault propagation as the faulted system continues to operate, and to diagnose physical damage. Draphys also reasons about behavior of the faulted system over time, to eliminate possibilities as more information becomes available, and to update the system status as more components are affected by the fault. The crew interface research is examining display issues associated with presenting diagnosis information to the flight crew. One study examined issues for presenting system status information. One lesson learned from that study was that pilots found fault situations to be more complex if they involved multiple subsystems. Another was pilots could identify the faulted systems more quickly if the system status was presented in pictorial or text format. Another study is currently under way to

  6. Remote diagnosis server

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deb, Somnath (Inventor); Ghoshal, Sudipto (Inventor); Malepati, Venkata N. (Inventor); Kleinman, David L. (Inventor); Cavanaugh, Kevin F. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    A network-based diagnosis server for monitoring and diagnosing a system, the server being remote from the system it is observing, comprises a sensor for generating signals indicative of a characteristic of a component of the system, a network-interfaced sensor agent coupled to the sensor for receiving signals therefrom, a broker module coupled to the network for sending signals to and receiving signals from the sensor agent, a handler application connected to the broker module for transmitting signals to and receiving signals therefrom, a reasoner application in communication with the handler application for processing, and responding to signals received from the handler application, wherein the sensor agent, broker module, handler application, and reasoner applications operate simultaneously relative to each other, such that the present invention diagnosis server performs continuous monitoring and diagnosing of said components of the system in real time. The diagnosis server is readily adaptable to various different systems.

  7. Necrotising myositis, the deadly impersonator.

    PubMed

    Rahman, A; Abou-Foul, A K; Yusaf, A; Holton, J; Cogswell, L

    2014-01-01

    We report two cases of patients with necrotising myositis who presented initially with limb pain and swelling on a background of respiratory complaints. Patient 1, a previously well 38-year-old female, underwent various investigations in the emergency department for excessive lower limb pain and a skin rash. Patient 2, a 61-year-old female with a background of rheumatoid arthritis and hypertension, presented to accident and emergency feeling generally unwell and was treated for presumed respiratory sepsis. Both deteriorated rapidly and were referred to the plastic surgery team with soft tissue necrosis, impending multiorgan failure and toxaemia. Large areas of necrotic muscle and skin were debrided, which grew group A streptococci, Streptococcus pyogenes. Patient 1 had a high above knee amputation of the left leg with extensive debridement of the right. Despite aggressive surgical intervention and microbiological input with intensive care support, patient 2 died. These two cases highlight the importance of early diagnosis and prompt surgical and pharmacological intervention in managing this life-threatening disease. Pain is the primary symptom with skin changes being a late and subtle sign in a septic patient. The Laboratory Risk Indicator for Necrotising Fasciitis (LRINEC) may be of use if there is concern to aid diagnosis of this life-threatening disease. PMID:25506031

  8. "Dead End Kids in Dead End Jobs"? Reshaping Debates on Young People in Jobs without Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quinn, Jocey; Lawy, Robert; Diment, Kim

    2008-01-01

    Young people who are in "jobs without training" (JWT) are commonly seen as "dead end kids in dead end jobs". They have been identified as a problem group who need to be encouraged back into formal education and training. Following the Leitch report and the new policy goal to involve all young people in education and training up to the age of 18,…

  9. Can the dead be brought into disrepute?

    PubMed

    Masterton, Malin; Hansson, Mats G; Höglund, Anna T; Helgesson, Gert

    2007-01-01

    Queen Christina of Sweden was unconventional in her time, leading to hypotheses on her gender and possible hermaphroditic nature. If genetic analysis can substantiate the latter claim, could this bring the queen into disrepute 300 years after her death? Joan C. Callahan has argued that if a reputation changes, this constitutes a change only in the group of people changing their views and not in the person whose reputation it is. Is this so? This paper analyses what constitutes change and draws out the implications to the reputation of the dead. It is argued that a reputation is a relational property which can go through changes. The change is "real" for the group changing their views on Queen Christina and of a Cambridge kind for the long dead queen herself. Cambridge changes result in new properties being acquired, some of which can be of significance. Although the dead cannot go through any non-relational changes, it is possible for the dead to change properties through Cambridge changes. In this sense changes in reputation do affect the dead, and thus Queen Christina can acquire a new property, in this case possibly a worse reputation. PMID:17549606

  10. Pedestrian dead reckoning for MARG navigation using a smartphone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Zengshan; Zhang, Yuan; Zhou, Mu; Liu, Yu

    2014-12-01

    The demand for navigating pedestrian by using a hand-held mobile device increased remarkably over the past few years, especially in GPS-denied scenario. We propose a new pedestrian dead reckoning (PDR)-based navigation algorithm by using magnetic, angular rate, and gravity (MARG) sensors which are equipped in existing commercial smartphone. Our proposed navigation algorithm consists of step detection, stride length estimation, and heading estimation. To eliminate the gauge step errors of the random bouncing motions, we designed a reliable algorithm for step detection. We developed a BP neural network-based stride length estimation algorithm to apply to different users. In response to the challenge of magnetic disturbance, a quaternion-based extended Kalman filter (EKF) is introduced to determine the user's heading direction for each step. The performance of our proposed pedestrian navigation algorithm is verified by using a smartphone in providing accurate, reliable, and continuous location tracking services.

  11. Dead Zone Accretion Flows in Protostellar Disks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, Neal; Sano, T.

    2008-01-01

    Planets form inside protostellar disks in a dead zone where the electrical resistivity of the gas is too high for magnetic forces to drive turbulence. We show that much of the dead zone nevertheless is active and flows toward the star while smooth, large-scale magnetic fields transfer the orbital angular momentum radially outward. Stellar X-ray and radionuclide ionization sustain a weak coupling of the dead zone gas to the magnetic fields, despite the rapid recombination of free charges on dust grains. Net radial magnetic fields are generated in the magnetorotational turbulence in the electrically conducting top and bottom surface layers of the disk, and reach the midplane by ohmic diffusion. A toroidal component to the fields is produced near the midplane by the orbital shear. The process is similar to the magnetization of the solar tachocline. The result is a laminar, magnetically driven accretion flow in the region where the planets form.

  12. Effect of dead material in a calorimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Green, D.

    1995-10-01

    The existence of dead material in any practical calorimeter system is simply a fact of life. The task for the designer, then, is to understand the impact on the Physics in question, and strive to minimize it. The aim of this note is to use the ``Hanging File`` test data, which has fined grained individual readout of about 100 depth segments, to explore impact of dead material on the mean and r.m.s. of the hadronic distribution. The amount and location of the dead material is varied. It important to remember that the Hanging File data was calibrated, EM to HCAL compartment, so as to minimize the electron to pion energy dependence. In practical terms e/pie was made = 1.0 at an incident energy of about 100 GeV. Note that the PB(EM) + FE(HCAL) calorimeter was not a compensating device.

  13. Dead-time Corrected Disdrometer Data

    DOE Data Explorer

    Bartholomew, Mary Jane

    2008-03-05

    Original and dead-time corrected disdrometer results for observations made at SGP and TWP. The correction is based on the technique discussed in Sheppard and Joe, 1994. In addition, these files contain calculated radar reflectivity factor, mean Doppler velocity and attenuation for every measurement for both the original and dead-time corrected data at the following wavelengths: 0.316, 0.856, 3.2, 5, and 10cm (W,K,X,C,S bands). Pavlos Kollias provided the code to do these calculations.

  14. Chemical sensors

    SciTech Connect

    Janata, J.; Josowicz, M.; DeVaney, D.M. )

    1994-06-15

    This review of chemical sensors contains the following topics of interest: books and reviews; reviews of sensors by their type; fabrication and selectivity; data processing; thermal sensors; mass sensors (fabrication, gas sensors, and liquid sensors); electrochemical sensors (potentiometric sensors, amperometric sensors, and conductometric sensors); and optical sensors (fabrication, liquid sensors, biosensors, and gas sensors). 795 refs., 1 tab.

  15. 42 CFR 71.55 - Dead bodies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Dead bodies. 71.55 Section 71.55 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES QUARANTINE, INSPECTION, LICENSING FOREIGN... listed in § 71.32(b) may not be brought into a U.S. port unless the body is (a) properly embalmed...

  16. 42 CFR 71.55 - Dead bodies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Dead bodies. 71.55 Section 71.55 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES QUARANTINE, INSPECTION, LICENSING FOREIGN... listed in § 71.32(b) may not be brought into a U.S. port unless the body is (a) properly embalmed...

  17. Effect of Dead Algae on Soil Permeability

    SciTech Connect

    Harvey, R.S.

    2003-02-21

    Since existing basins support heavy growths of unicellular green algae which may be killed by temperature variation or by inadvertent pH changes in waste and then deposited on the basin floor, information on the effects of dead algae on soil permeability was needed. This study was designed to show the effects of successive algal kills on the permeability of laboratory soil columns.

  18. 46 CFR 171.117 - Dead covers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Dead covers. 171.117 Section 171.117 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SUBDIVISION AND STABILITY SPECIAL RULES PERTAINING TO VESSELS CARRYING PASSENGERS Openings in the Side of a Vessel Below the Bulkhead or Weather Deck §...

  19. 46 CFR 171.117 - Dead covers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Dead covers. 171.117 Section 171.117 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SUBDIVISION AND STABILITY SPECIAL RULES PERTAINING TO VESSELS CARRYING PASSENGERS Openings in the Side of a Vessel Below the Bulkhead or Weather Deck §...

  20. 46 CFR 171.117 - Dead covers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Dead covers. 171.117 Section 171.117 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SUBDIVISION AND STABILITY SPECIAL RULES PERTAINING TO VESSELS CARRYING PASSENGERS Openings in the Side of a Vessel Below the Bulkhead or Weather Deck §...

  1. ON HYDRODYNAMIC MOTIONS IN DEAD ZONES

    SciTech Connect

    Oishi, Jeffrey S.; Mac Low, Mordecai-Mark E-mail: mordecai@amnh.or

    2009-10-20

    We investigate fluid motions near the midplane of vertically stratified accretion disks with highly resistive midplanes. In such disks, the magnetorotational instability drives turbulence in thin layers surrounding a resistive, stable dead zone. The turbulent layers in turn drive motions in the dead zone. We examine the properties of these motions using three-dimensional, stratified, local, shearing-box, non-ideal, magnetohydrodynamical simulations. Although the turbulence in the active zones provides a source of vorticity to the midplane, no evidence for coherent vortices is found in our simulations. It appears that this is because of strong vertical oscillations in the dead zone. By analyzing time series of azimuthally averaged flow quantities, we identify an axisymmetric wave mode particular to models with dead zones. This mode is reduced in amplitude, but not suppressed entirely, by changing the equation of state from isothermal to ideal. These waves are too low frequency to affect sedimentation of dust to the midplane, but may have significance for the gravitational stability of the resulting midplane dust layers.

  2. Cheatgrass Dead Zones in Northern Nevada

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Reports of areas of cheatgrass die-off are becoming more frequent. In 2009, we investigated cheatgrass die-off in north-central Nevada. Dead zones ranged from several to hundreds of acres in size and were largely unvegetated and covered by cheatgrass litter with a distinct gray cast. We collected re...

  3. 46 CFR 171.117 - Dead covers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Dead covers. 171.117 Section 171.117 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SUBDIVISION AND STABILITY SPECIAL RULES PERTAINING TO VESSELS CARRYING PASSENGERS Openings in the Side of a Vessel Below the Bulkhead or Weather Deck §...

  4. Unified dead-time compensation structure for SISO processes with multiple dead times.

    PubMed

    Normey-Rico, Julio E; Flesch, Rodolfo C C; Santos, Tito L M

    2014-11-01

    This paper proposes a dead-time compensation structure for processes with multiple dead times. The controller is based on the filtered Smith predictor (FSP) dead-time compensator structure and it is able to control stable, integrating, and unstable processes with multiple input/output dead times. An equivalent model of the process is first computed in order to define the predictor structure. Using this equivalent model, the primary controller and the predictor filter are tuned to obtain an internally stable closed-loop system which also attempts some closed-loop specifications in terms of set-point tracking, disturbance rejection, and robustness. Some simulation case studies are used to illustrate the good properties of the proposed approach. PMID:25245526

  5. Sugar-Free Gum Can Be Deadly for Dogs

    MedlinePlus

    ... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_158834.html Sugar-Free Gum Can Be Deadly for Dogs Keep ... could be deadly. Xylitol, the substance that gives sugar-free gum its sweetness, is dangerous to dogs, ...

  6. Obesity More Deadly for Men Than Women: Study

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_159852.html Obesity More Deadly for Men Than Women: Study Losing ... 14, 2016 WEDNESDAY, July 13, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Obesity is nearly three times more deadly for men ...

  7. Gulf of Mexico dead zone - the last 150 years

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Osterman, Lisa; Swarzenski, P.W.; Poore, R.Z.

    2006-01-01

    'Gulf of Mexico Dead Zone-The Last 150 Years' discusses the dead zone that forms seasonally in the northern Gulf of Mexico when subsurface waters become depleted in dissolved oxygen and cannot support most life.

  8. 46 CFR 111.10-7 - Dead ship.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Dead ship. 111.10-7 Section 111.10-7 Shipping COAST... REQUIREMENTS Power Supply § 111.10-7 Dead ship. (a) The generating plant of each self-propelled vessel must provide the electrical services necessary to start the main propulsion plant from a dead ship...

  9. 46 CFR 111.10-7 - Dead ship.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Dead ship. 111.10-7 Section 111.10-7 Shipping COAST... REQUIREMENTS Power Supply § 111.10-7 Dead ship. (a) The generating plant of each self-propelled vessel must provide the electrical services necessary to start the main propulsion plant from a dead ship...

  10. 46 CFR 111.10-7 - Dead ship.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Dead ship. 111.10-7 Section 111.10-7 Shipping COAST... REQUIREMENTS Power Supply § 111.10-7 Dead ship. (a) The generating plant of each self-propelled vessel must provide the electrical services necessary to start the main propulsion plant from a dead ship...

  11. 46 CFR 111.10-7 - Dead ship.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Dead ship. 111.10-7 Section 111.10-7 Shipping COAST... REQUIREMENTS Power Supply § 111.10-7 Dead ship. (a) The generating plant of each self-propelled vessel must provide the electrical services necessary to start the main propulsion plant from a dead ship...

  12. 46 CFR 111.10-7 - Dead ship.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Dead ship. 111.10-7 Section 111.10-7 Shipping COAST... REQUIREMENTS Power Supply § 111.10-7 Dead ship. (a) The generating plant of each self-propelled vessel must provide the electrical services necessary to start the main propulsion plant from a dead ship...

  13. 46 CFR 108.161 - Dead end corridors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Dead end corridors. 108.161 Section 108.161 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Means of Escape § 108.161 Dead end corridors. No dead end...

  14. 46 CFR 190.10-30 - Dead end corridors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Dead end corridors. 190.10-30 Section 190.10-30 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Means of Escape § 190.10-30 Dead end corridors. (a) Dead end corridors, or the equivalent,...

  15. 46 CFR 92.10-30 - Dead end corridors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Dead end corridors. 92.10-30 Section 92.10-30 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Means of Escape § 92.10-30 Dead end corridors. (a) Dead end corridors, or...

  16. 46 CFR 190.10-30 - Dead end corridors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Dead end corridors. 190.10-30 Section 190.10-30 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Means of Escape § 190.10-30 Dead end corridors. (a) Dead end corridors, or the equivalent,...

  17. 46 CFR 108.161 - Dead end corridors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Dead end corridors. 108.161 Section 108.161 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Means of Escape § 108.161 Dead end corridors. No dead end...

  18. 46 CFR 108.161 - Dead end corridors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Dead end corridors. 108.161 Section 108.161 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Means of Escape § 108.161 Dead end corridors. No dead end...

  19. 46 CFR 92.10-30 - Dead end corridors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Dead end corridors. 92.10-30 Section 92.10-30 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Means of Escape § 92.10-30 Dead end corridors. (a) Dead end corridors, or...

  20. 46 CFR 92.10-30 - Dead end corridors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Dead end corridors. 92.10-30 Section 92.10-30 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Means of Escape § 92.10-30 Dead end corridors. (a) Dead end corridors, or...

  1. 46 CFR 72.10-30 - Dead end corridors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Dead end corridors. 72.10-30 Section 72.10-30 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Means of Escape § 72.10-30 Dead end corridors. (a) Dead end corridors, or the equivalent, more than...

  2. 46 CFR 108.161 - Dead end corridors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Dead end corridors. 108.161 Section 108.161 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Means of Escape § 108.161 Dead end corridors. No dead end...

  3. 46 CFR 108.161 - Dead end corridors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Dead end corridors. 108.161 Section 108.161 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Means of Escape § 108.161 Dead end corridors. No dead end...

  4. 46 CFR 92.10-30 - Dead end corridors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Dead end corridors. 92.10-30 Section 92.10-30 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Means of Escape § 92.10-30 Dead end corridors. (a) Dead end corridors, or...

  5. 46 CFR 72.10-30 - Dead end corridors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Dead end corridors. 72.10-30 Section 72.10-30 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Means of Escape § 72.10-30 Dead end corridors. (a) Dead end corridors, or the equivalent, more than...

  6. 46 CFR 190.10-30 - Dead end corridors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Dead end corridors. 190.10-30 Section 190.10-30 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Means of Escape § 190.10-30 Dead end corridors. (a) Dead end corridors, or the equivalent,...

  7. 46 CFR 72.10-30 - Dead end corridors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Dead end corridors. 72.10-30 Section 72.10-30 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Means of Escape § 72.10-30 Dead end corridors. (a) Dead end corridors, or the equivalent, more than...

  8. 46 CFR 190.10-30 - Dead end corridors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Dead end corridors. 190.10-30 Section 190.10-30 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Means of Escape § 190.10-30 Dead end corridors. (a) Dead end corridors, or the equivalent,...

  9. 46 CFR 190.10-30 - Dead end corridors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Dead end corridors. 190.10-30 Section 190.10-30 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Means of Escape § 190.10-30 Dead end corridors. (a) Dead end corridors, or the equivalent,...

  10. 46 CFR 92.10-30 - Dead end corridors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Dead end corridors. 92.10-30 Section 92.10-30 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Means of Escape § 92.10-30 Dead end corridors. (a) Dead end corridors, or...

  11. 46 CFR 72.10-30 - Dead end corridors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Dead end corridors. 72.10-30 Section 72.10-30 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Means of Escape § 72.10-30 Dead end corridors. (a) Dead end corridors, or the equivalent, more than...

  12. 46 CFR 72.10-30 - Dead end corridors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Dead end corridors. 72.10-30 Section 72.10-30 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Means of Escape § 72.10-30 Dead end corridors. (a) Dead end corridors, or the equivalent, more than...

  13. Preventing Deadly Conflict: Toward a World without War.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francis, Greg

    Although some people believed that the end of the Cold War would herald a new age of peace, the 1990s have seen more than five million people die in over 35 deadly conflicts. New technologies have made warfare ever more deadly. There is, however, a breadth of options available to prevent or control deadly conflict in the world. This curriculum…

  14. 14 CFR 1203b.106 - Use of deadly force.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Use of deadly force. 1203b.106 Section... AUTHORITY AND USE OF FORCE BY NASA SECURITY FORCE PERSONNEL § 1203b.106 Use of deadly force. Deadly force shall be used only in those circumstances where the security force officer reasonably believes...

  15. 14 CFR § 1203b.106 - Use of deadly force.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Use of deadly force. § 1203b.106 Section Â... AUTHORITY AND USE OF FORCE BY NASA SECURITY FORCE PERSONNEL § 1203b.106 Use of deadly force. NASA security force personnel may use deadly force only when necessary, that is, when the officer has a...

  16. 10 CFR 1047.7 - Use of deadly force.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Use of deadly force. 1047.7 Section 1047.7 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) LIMITED ARREST AUTHORITY AND USE OF FORCE BY PROTECTIVE FORCE OFFICERS General Provisions § 1047.7 Use of deadly force. (a) Deadly force means that force which...

  17. 14 CFR 1203b.106 - Use of deadly force.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2011-01-01 2010-01-01 true Use of deadly force. 1203b.106 Section 1203b... AUTHORITY AND USE OF FORCE BY NASA SECURITY FORCE PERSONNEL § 1203b.106 Use of deadly force. Deadly force shall be used only in those circumstances where the security force officer reasonably believes...

  18. 10 CFR 1047.7 - Use of deadly force.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Use of deadly force. 1047.7 Section 1047.7 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) LIMITED ARREST AUTHORITY AND USE OF FORCE BY PROTECTIVE FORCE OFFICERS General Provisions § 1047.7 Use of deadly force. (a) Deadly force means that force which...

  19. 10 CFR 1047.7 - Use of deadly force.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Use of deadly force. 1047.7 Section 1047.7 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) LIMITED ARREST AUTHORITY AND USE OF FORCE BY PROTECTIVE FORCE OFFICERS General Provisions § 1047.7 Use of deadly force. (a) Deadly force means that force which...

  20. 14 CFR 1203b.106 - Use of deadly force.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Use of deadly force. 1203b.106 Section... AUTHORITY AND USE OF FORCE BY NASA SECURITY FORCE PERSONNEL § 1203b.106 Use of deadly force. Deadly force shall be used only in those circumstances where the security force officer reasonably believes...

  1. 10 CFR 1047.7 - Use of deadly force.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Use of deadly force. 1047.7 Section 1047.7 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) LIMITED ARREST AUTHORITY AND USE OF FORCE BY PROTECTIVE FORCE OFFICERS General Provisions § 1047.7 Use of deadly force. (a) Deadly force means that force which...

  2. 10 CFR 1047.7 - Use of deadly force.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Use of deadly force. 1047.7 Section 1047.7 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) LIMITED ARREST AUTHORITY AND USE OF FORCE BY PROTECTIVE FORCE OFFICERS General Provisions § 1047.7 Use of deadly force. (a) Deadly force means that force which...

  3. 14 CFR 1203b.106 - Use of deadly force.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Use of deadly force. 1203b.106 Section... AUTHORITY AND USE OF FORCE BY NASA SECURITY FORCE PERSONNEL § 1203b.106 Use of deadly force. Deadly force shall be used only in those circumstances where the security force officer reasonably believes...

  4. 9 CFR 314.8 - Dead animal carcasses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Dead animal carcasses. 314.8 Section 314.8 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY... Dead animal carcasses. (a) With the exception of dead livestock which have died en route and...

  5. 9 CFR 314.8 - Dead animal carcasses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Dead animal carcasses. 314.8 Section 314.8 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY... Dead animal carcasses. (a) With the exception of dead livestock which have died en route and...

  6. 9 CFR 314.8 - Dead animal carcasses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Dead animal carcasses. 314.8 Section 314.8 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY... Dead animal carcasses. (a) With the exception of dead livestock which have died en route and...

  7. 9 CFR 314.8 - Dead animal carcasses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Dead animal carcasses. 314.8 Section 314.8 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY... Dead animal carcasses. (a) With the exception of dead livestock which have died en route and...

  8. 9 CFR 314.8 - Dead animal carcasses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Dead animal carcasses. 314.8 Section 314.8 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY... Dead animal carcasses. (a) With the exception of dead livestock which have died en route and...

  9. Estimating the Dead Space Volume Between a Headform and N95 Filtering Facepiece Respirator Using Microsoft Kinect.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ming; Lei, Zhipeng; Yang, James

    2015-01-01

    N95 filtering facepiece respirator (FFR) dead space is an important factor for respirator design. The dead space refers to the cavity between the internal surface of the FFR and the wearer's facial surface. This article presents a novel method to estimate the dead space volume of FFRs and experimental validation. In this study, six FFRs and five headforms (small, medium, large, long/narrow, and short/wide) are used for various FFR and headform combinations. Microsoft Kinect Sensors (Microsoft Corporation, Redmond, WA) are used to scan the headforms without respirators and then scan the headforms with the FFRs donned. The FFR dead space is formed through geometric modeling software, and finally the volume is obtained through LS-DYNA (Livermore Software Technology Corporation, Livermore, CA). In the experimental validation, water is used to measure the dead space. The simulation and experimental dead space volumes are 107.5-167.5 mL and 98.4-165.7 mL, respectively. Linear regression analysis is conducted to correlate the results from Kinect and water, and R(2) = 0.85. PMID:25800663

  10. Zero dead volume tube to surface seal

    DOEpatents

    Benett, William J.; Folta, James A.

    2000-01-01

    A method and apparatus for connecting a tube to a surface that creates a dead volume seal. The apparatus is composed of three components, a body, a ferrule, and a threaded fitting. The ferrule is compressed onto a tube and a seal is formed between the tube and a device retained in the body by threading the fitting into the body which provides pressure that seals the face of the ferrule to a mating surface on the device. This seal can be used at elevated temperatures depending on the materials used. While the invention has been developed for use with micro-machined silicon wafers used in Capillary Gas Chromatograph (GC), it can be utilized anywhere for making a gas or fluid face seal to the surface of a device that has near zero dead volume.

  11. Potential Evaporite Biomarkers from the Dead Sea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, Penny A.; Wentworth, Susan J.; Thomas-Keprta, Kathie; Allen, Carlton C.; McKay, David S.

    2001-01-01

    The Dead Sea is located on the northern branch of the African-Levant Rift systems. The rift system, according to one model, was formed by a series of strike slip faults, initially forming approximately two million years ago. The Dead Sea is an evaporite basin that receives freshwater from springs and from the Jordan River. The Dead Sea is different from other evaporite basins, such as the Great Salt Lake, in that it possesses high concentrations of magnesium and has an average pH of 6.1. The dominant cation in the Great Salt Lake is sodium, and the pH is 7.7. Calcium concentrations are also higher in the Dead Sea than in the Great Salt Lake. Both basins are similar in that the dominant anion is chlorine and the salinity levels are approximately 20 %. Other common cations that have been identified from the waters of the Dead Sea and the Great Salt Lake include sodium and potassium. A variety of Archea, Bacteria, and a single genus of a green algal, Dunaliella, has been described from the Dead Sea. Earlier studies concentrated on microbial identification and analysis of their unique physiology that allows them to survive in this type of extreme environment. Potential microbial fossilization processes, microbial fossils, and the metallic ions associated with fossilization have not been studied thoroughly. The present study is restricted to identifying probable microbial morphologies and associated metallic ions. XRD (X Ray Diffraction) analysis indicates the presence of halite, quartz, and orthoclase feldspar. In addition to these minerals, other workers have reported potassium chloride, magnesium bromide, magnesium chloride, calcium chloride, and calcium sulfate. Halite, calcium sulfate, and orthoclase were examined in this report for the presence of microbes, microbially induced deposits or microbial alteration. Neither the gypsum nor the orthoclase surfaces possesses any obvious indications of microbial life or fossilization. The sand-sized orthoclase particles are

  12. Dead layer measurements on diode detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danagoulian, Areg; Barron-Palos, Libertad; Klein, Andreas; Wilburn, Scott

    2007-10-01

    The goal of the abBA experiment involves coincidence measurements of protons and electrons from the neutron beta decay. While electron detection is rather straightforward, the detection of the protons is complicated due to their low energies. In order to understand the detector reponse and to determine the lower cut off value for the energy a technique for determining the thickness of the dead layer has been developed. A discussion of the measurement and of the results will be presented.

  13. Improving measurement of Chesapeake Bay's dead zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, Colin

    2013-09-01

    In the 1930s, researchers first noticed that the Chesapeake Bay had a dead zone, an expanse of water with drastically reduced concentrations of oxygen. In the 1980s, hypoxia—low-oxygen conditions—gave way in some places to anoxia—a near-total depletion of dissolved oxygen. A lack of oxygen makes the water inhospitable for many marine organisms, and the Chesapeake Bay is the focus of major ecosystem rehabilitation efforts.

  14. A facial mask comprising Dead Sea mud.

    PubMed

    Abu-Jdayil, Basim; Mohameed, Hazim A

    2006-01-01

    Many investigators have proved that Dead Sea salt and mud are useful in treating skin disorders and skin diseases. Therefore, the black mud has been extensively used as a base for the preparation of soaps, creams, and unguents for skin care. This study concerns a facial mask made mainly of Dead Sea mud. The effects of temperature and shearing conditions on the rheological behavior of the facial mask were investigated. The mud facial mask exhibited a shear thinning behavior with a yield stress. It was found that the apparent viscosity of the mask has a strong dependence on the shear rate as well as on the temperature. The facial mask exhibited a maximum yield stress and very shear thinning behavior at 40 degrees C, which is attributed to the gelatinization of the polysaccharide used to stabilize the mud particles. On the other hand, the mud mask exhibited a time-independent behavior at low temperatures and shear rates and changed to a thixotropic behavior upon increasing both the temperature and the shear rate. The shear thinning and thixotropic behaviors have a significant importance in the ability of the facial mask to spread on the skin: the Dead Sea mud mask can break down for easy spreading, and the applied film can gain viscosity instantaneously to resist running. Moreover, particle sedimentation, which in this case would negatively affect consumer acceptance of the product, occurs slowly due to high viscosity at rest conditions. PMID:17256074

  15. Surviving deadness in the analytic experience.

    PubMed

    Koritar, Endre

    2014-12-01

    The transference/countertransference (third space) analysis is considered to be central in the therapeutic effectiveness of the analytic process. Less emphasis has been placed on the actual experiences of analyst and analysand in the conflictual reenactment of third space experience and its resolution. This paper recounts the shared experience of a patient who was silent throughout most of the analysis, and my reaction, in fantasy and enactment, to this disturbing experience-both for him and for myself. I argue that it is the affective re-experiencing of past repressed trauma in the analytic space that has a therapeutic impact, leading to growth in the patient and also the therapist. I contrast Freud's emphasis on insight, making the unconscious conscious, with Ferenczi's suggestion that the therapeutic impact lies in the repetition of past traumatic experience in the analysis but with the possibility of a different outcome with a more benign object, leading to symbolic representation of repressed trauma. Re-experiencing and symbolization, in the third space, of past traumatic experience can be an exit point from the endless repetition of trauma in internal and external object relations, leading to a new beginning in the patient's life. Immersed in the experience of deadness in the analysis, which had become a dead womb, the struggle to remain alive and thinking led to a rupture out of the dead womb, like the Caesura of birth, into aliveness and the ability to mentalize what had previously remained unmentalized. PMID:25434889

  16. Warming set stage for deadly heat wave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, Colin

    2012-04-01

    In the summer of 2010, soaring temperatures and widespread forest fires ravaged western Russia, killing 55,000 and causing $15 billion in economic losses. In the wake of the record-setting heat wave, two studies sought to identify the contribution that human activities made to the event. One showed that temperatures seen during the deadly heat wave fell within the bounds of natural variability, while another attributed the heat wave to human activity, arguing that anthropogenic warming increased the chance of record-breaking temperatures occurring. Merging the stances of both studies, Otto et al. sought to show that while human contributions to climate change did not necessarily cause the deadly heat wave, they did play a role in setting the stage for its occurrence. Using an ensemble of climate simulations, the authors assessed the expected magnitude and frequency of an event like the 2010 heat wave under both 1960s and 2000s environmental conditions. The authors found that although the average temperature in July 2010 was 5°C higher than the average July temperature from the past half decade, the deadly heat wave was within the natural variability of 1960s, as well as 2000s, climate conditions

  17. Vertical Mixing in the Dead Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gertman, Isaac; Ozer, Tal; Katsenelson, Boris; Lensky, Nadav

    2015-04-01

    For hundreds of years, the Dead Sea was characterized by a stable haline stratification, supported by runoff. The penetration of the winter convection was limited to an upper mixed layer (UML) of about 30-50 m. Below the UML, a stable halocline prevented the mixing. As a result of the runoff reduction, the UML salinity increased and the gravitational stability diminished. During the winter of 1978-1979, the sea water overturned, ending the long-term stable hydrological regime. Since 1979, the haline stratification structure reoccurred twice after extremely rainy winters, in 1980-82 and 1992-1995. In other years, the sea was entirely mixed by winter thermal convection ( which occurs from November to March ) and had a seasonal pycnocline beneath the UML during summer. Profiles of temperature and quasi-salinity (density anomaly from 1000 kg/m3 for the chosen reference temperature of 32° C) during the last 19 years, show the formation of summer ``overturning halocline'' beneath the UML, and the thermocline that supports the stable stratification. Another warm and saline layer is formed also during the summer period near the bottom. This layer spreads from the southern part of the sea, where end-brine is discharged to the sea from the Israeli and Jordanian salt plants' evaporation ponds. The end-brine has extremely high salinity (˜ 350 g/kg) and, in spite of the high temperatures ( ˜ 45° C), high density (1350 kg/m^3), it therefore spreads as a gravitational current in the Dead Sea deep basin. Estimation of the density ratio (Rρ) for the Dead Sea water (where measurements of water salinity is quite difficult) was done using quasi-salinity (σ32) and potential temperature (θ): Rρ= [α(partialθ/partial z)]/[β(partial σ32/partial z)], where α and β are temperature expansion and quasi-salinity contraction coefficients respectively. The values of α and β for the Dead Sea water were defined from water samples collected during 2008. The Rρ values confirm that

  18. Comet 'Bites the Dust' Around Dead Star

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Infrared Spectrometer Graph

    This artist's concept illustrates a comet being torn to shreds around a dead star, or white dwarf, called G29-38. NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope observed a cloud of dust around this white dwarf that may have been generated from this type of comet disruption. The findings suggest that a host of other comet survivors may still orbit in this long-dead solar system.

    The white dwarf G29-38 began life as a star that was about three times as massive as our sun. Its death involved the same steps that the sun will ultimately undergo billions of years from now. According to theory, the G29-38 star became brighter and brighter as it aged, until it bloated up into a dying star called a red giant. This red giant was large enough to engulf and evaporate any terrestrial planets like Earth that happened to be in its way. Later, the red giant shed its outer atmosphere, leaving behind a shrunken skeleton of star, called a white dwarf. If the star did host a planetary system, outer planets akin to Jupiter and Neptune and a remote ring of icy comets would remain.

    The Spitzer observations provide observational evidence for this orbiting outpost of comet survivors. Astronomers speculate that one such comet was knocked into the inner regions of G29-38, possibly by an outer planet. As the comet approached very close to the white dwarf, it may have been torn apart by the star's tidal forces. Eventually, all that would be left of the comet is a disk of dust.

    This illustration shows a comet in the process of being pulverized: part of it still exists as a chain of small clumps, while the rest has already spread out into a dusty disk. Comet Shoemaker-Levy 9 broke apart in a similar fashion when it plunged into Jupiter in 1994. Evidence for Comets Found in Dead Star's Dust The graph of data, or spectrum, from NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope indicates that a dead star, or white dwarf, called G29

  19. Online Robot Dead Reckoning Localization Using Maximum Relative Entropy Optimization With Model Constraints

    SciTech Connect

    Urniezius, Renaldas

    2011-03-14

    The principle of Maximum relative Entropy optimization was analyzed for dead reckoning localization of a rigid body when observation data of two attached accelerometers was collected. Model constraints were derived from the relationships between the sensors. The experiment's results confirmed that accelerometers each axis' noise can be successfully filtered utilizing dependency between channels and the dependency between time series data. Dependency between channels was used for a priori calculation, and a posteriori distribution was derived utilizing dependency between time series data. There was revisited data of autocalibration experiment by removing the initial assumption that instantaneous rotation axis of a rigid body was known. Performance results confirmed that such an approach could be used for online dead reckoning localization.

  20. Long-term heart rate fluctuations in postoperative and brain-dead patients.

    PubMed

    Tamura, T; Maekawa, T; Nakajima, K; Sadamitsu, D; Tateishi, A

    1998-11-01

    Long-term heart rate fluctuations in postoperative and brain-dead patients were investigated. Heart rates were monitored continuously, and the data were stored, edited, and interpolated to allow for data lost during calibration and disconnection of the sensors for various treatments. Heart rate power spectra were calculated using the fast Fourier transform method. The power spectra of the patients who recovered showed that the heart rate fluctuated and produced a 1/f relationship, termed 1/f fluctuations, whereas those of patients who died in the intensive care unit (ICU) consisted of white-noise-like signals. The power spectra in brain-dead patients showed a 1/f relationship under steady-state conditions, while the power density and variation of the frequency distribution were lower than those in a normal subject. Therefore, 1/f fluctuations appear to be universal and occur independent of the central nervous system. PMID:9844751

  1. Nonlinear dead water resistance at subcritical speed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grue, John

    2015-08-01

    The dead water resistance F 1 = /1 2 C d w ρ S U 2 (ρ fluid density, U ship speed, S wetted body surface, Cdw resistance coefficient) on a ship moving at subcritical speed along the upper layer of a two-layer fluid is calculated by a strongly nonlinear method assuming potential flow in each layer. The ship dimensions correspond to those of the Polar ship Fram. The ship draught, b0, is varied in the range 0.25h0-0.9h0 (h0 the upper layer depth). The calculations show that Cdw/(b0/h0)2 depends on the Froude number only, in the range close to critical speed, Fr = U/c0 ˜ 0.875-1.125 (c0 the linear internal long wave speed), irrespective of the ship draught. The function Cdw/(b0/h0)2 attains a maximum at subcritical Froude number depending on the draught. Maximum Cdw/(b0/h0)2 becomes 0.15 for Fr = 0.76, b0/h0 = 0.9, and 0.16 for Fr = 0.74, b0/h0 = 1, where the latter extrapolated value of the dead water resistance coefficient is about 60 times higher than the frictional drag coefficient and relevant for the historical dead water observations. The nonlinear Cdw significantly exceeds linear theory (Fr < 0.85). The ship generated waves have a wave height comparable to the upper layer depth. Calculations of three-dimensional wave patterns at critical speed compare well to available laboratory experiments. Upstream solitary waves are generated in a wave tank of finite width, when the layer depths differ, causing an oscillation of the force. In a wide ocean, a very wide wave system develops at critical speed. The force approaches a constant value for increasing time.

  2. The five deadly sins of science publishing

    PubMed Central

    Tracz, Vitek

    2015-01-01

    Science cannot progress without scientists reporting their findings. And yet researchers have given control of this central pillar of the scientific process to science publishers, who are in the business of serving the interests of their journals; these are not always the same as the interests of science. This editorial describes the problems with the process of preparing and publishing research findings, and with judging their veracity and significance, and then explains how we at Faculty of 1000 are starting to tackle the ‘deadly sins’ of science publishing. PMID:26097694

  3. A Whole-Cell Surface Plasmon Resonance Sensor Based on a Leucine Auxotroph of Escherichia coli Displaying a Gold-Binding Protein: Usefulness for Diagnosis of Maple Syrup Urine Disease.

    PubMed

    Woo, Min-Ah; Park, Jung Hun; Cho, Daeyeon; Sim, Sang Jun; Kim, Moon Il; Park, Hyun Gyu

    2016-03-01

    We developed a whole-cell surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensor based on a leucine auxotroph of Escherichia coli displaying a gold-binding protein (GBP) in response to cell growth and applied this sensor to the diagnosis of maple syrup urine disease, which is represented by the elevated leucine level in blood. The leucine auxotroph was genetically engineered to grow displaying GBP in a proportion to the concentration of target amino acid leucine. The GBP expressed on the surface of the auxotrophs directly bound to the golden surface of an SPR chip without the need for any additional treatment or reagents, which consequently produced SPR signals used to determine leucine levels in a test sample. Gold nanoparticles (GNPs) were further applied to the SPR system, which significantly enhanced the signal intensity up to 10-fold by specifically binding to GBP expressed on the cell surface. Finally, the diagnostic utility of our system was demonstrated by its employment in reliably determining different statuses of maple syrup urine disease based on a known cutoff level of leucine. This new approach based on an amino acid-auxotrophic E. coli strain expressing a GBP that binds to an SPR sensor holds great promise for detection of other metabolic diseases of newborn babies including homocystinuria and phenylketonuria, which are also associated with abnormal levels of amino acids. PMID:26828904

  4. Microfluidic separation of live and dead yeast cells using reservoir-based dielectrophoresis

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Saurin; Showers, Daniel; Vedantam, Pallavi; Tzeng, Tzuen-Rong; Qian, Shizhi; Xuan, Xiangchun

    2012-01-01

    Separating live and dead cells is critical to the diagnosis of early stage diseases and to the efficacy test of drug screening, etc. This work demonstrates a novel microfluidic approach to dielectrophoretic separation of yeast cells by viability. It exploits the cell dielectrophoresis that is induced by the inherent electric field gradient at the reservoir-microchannel junction to selectively trap dead yeast cells and continuously separate them from live ones right inside the reservoir. This approach is therefore termed reservoir-based dielectrophoresis (rDEP). It has unique advantages as compared to existing dielectrophoretic approaches such as the occupation of zero channel space and the elimination of any mechanical or electrical parts inside microchannels. Such an rDEP cell sorter can be readily integrated with other components into lab-on-a-chip devices for applications to biomedical diagnostics and therapeutics. PMID:23853679

  5. Asteroid 'Bites the Dust' Around Dead Star

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope set its infrared eyes upon the dusty remains of shredded asteroids around several dead stars. This artist's concept illustrates one such dead star, or 'white dwarf,' surrounded by the bits and pieces of a disintegrating asteroid. These observations help astronomers better understand what rocky planets are made of around other stars.

    Asteroids are leftover scraps of planetary material. They form early on in a star's history when planets are forming out of collisions between rocky bodies. When a star like our sun dies, shrinking down to a skeleton of its former self called a white dwarf, its asteroids get jostled about. If one of these asteroids gets too close to the white dwarf, the white dwarf's gravity will chew the asteroid up, leaving a cloud of dust.

    Spitzer's infrared detectors can see these dusty clouds and their various constituents. So far, the telescope has identified silicate minerals in the clouds polluting eight white dwarfs. Because silicates are common in our Earth's crust, the results suggest that planets similar to ours might be common around other stars.

  6. Dead Sea Minerals loaded polymeric nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Dessy, Alberto; Kubowicz, Stephan; Alderighi, Michele; Bartoli, Cristina; Piras, Anna Maria; Schmid, Ruth; Chiellini, Federica

    2011-10-15

    Therapeutic properties of Dead Sea Water (DSW) in the treatment of skin diseases such as atopic dermatitis, psoriasis and photo aging UV damaged skin have been well established. DSW is in fact rich in minerals such as calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, zinc and strontium which are known to exploit anti-inflammatory effects and to promote skin barrier recovery. In order to develop a Dead Sea Minerals (DSM) based drug delivery system for topical therapy of skin diseases, polymeric nanoparticles based on Poly (maleic anhydride-alt-butyl vinyl ether) 5% grafted with monomethoxy poly(ethyleneglycol) 2000 MW (PEG) and 95% grafted with 2-methoxyethanol (VAM41-PEG) loaded with DSM were prepared by means of a combined miniemulsion/solvent evaporation process. The resulting nanoparticles were characterized in terms of dimension, morphology, biocompatibility, salt content and release. Cytocompatible spherical nanoparticles possessing an average diameter of about 300 nm, a time controlled drug release profile and a high formulation yield were obtained. PMID:21676600

  7. The hydrodynamics of dead radio galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reynolds, Christopher S.; Heinz, Sebastian; Begelman, Mitchell C.

    2002-05-01

    We present a numerical investigation of dead, or relic, radio galaxies and the environmental impact that radio galaxy activity has on the host galaxy or galaxy cluster. We perform axisymmetric hydrodynamical calculations of light, supersonic, back-to-back jets propagating in a β -model galaxy/cluster atmosphere. We then shut down the jet activity and let the resulting structure evolve passively. The dead source undergoes an initial phase of pressure driven expansion until it achieves pressure equilibrium with its surroundings. Thereafter, buoyancy forces drive the evolution and lead to the formation of two oppositely directed plumes that float high into the galaxy/cluster atmosphere. These plumes entrain a significant amount of low entropy material from the galaxy/cluster core and lift it high into the atmosphere. An important result is that a large fraction (at least half) of the energy injected by the jet activity is thermalized in the interstellar medium (ISM)/intracluster medium (ICM) core. The whole ISM/ICM atmosphere inflates in order to regain hydrostatic equilibrium. This inflation is mediated by an approximately spherical disturbance which propagates into the atmosphere at the sound speed. The fact that such a large fraction of the injected energy is thermalized suggests that radio galaxies may have an important role in the overall energy budget of rich ISM/ICM atmospheres. In particular, they may act as a strong and highly time-dependent source of negative feedback for galaxy/cluster cooling flows.

  8. Vector Graph Assisted Pedestrian Dead Reckoning Using an Unconstrained Smartphone

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Jiuchao; Pei, Ling; Ma, Jiabin; Ying, Rendong; Liu, Peilin

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents a hybrid indoor positioning solution based on a pedestrian dead reckoning (PDR) approach using built-in sensors on a smartphone. To address the challenges of flexible and complex contexts of carrying a phone while walking, a robust step detection algorithm based on motion-awareness has been proposed. Given the fact that step length is influenced by different motion states, an adaptive step length estimation algorithm based on motion recognition is developed. Heading estimation is carried out by an attitude acquisition algorithm, which contains a two-phase filter to mitigate the distortion of magnetic anomalies. In order to estimate the heading for an unconstrained smartphone, principal component analysis (PCA) of acceleration is applied to determine the offset between the orientation of smartphone and the actual heading of a pedestrian. Moreover, a particle filter with vector graph assisted particle weighting is introduced to correct the deviation in step length and heading estimation. Extensive field tests, including four contexts of carrying a phone, have been conducted in an office building to verify the performance of the proposed algorithm. Test results show that the proposed algorithm can achieve sub-meter mean error in all contexts. PMID:25738763

  9. Vector graph assisted pedestrian dead reckoning using an unconstrained smartphone.

    PubMed

    Qian, Jiuchao; Pei, Ling; Ma, Jiabin; Ying, Rendong; Liu, Peilin

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents a hybrid indoor positioning solution based on a pedestrian dead reckoning (PDR) approach using built-in sensors on a smartphone. To address the challenges of flexible and complex contexts of carrying a phone while walking, a robust step detection algorithm based on motion-awareness has been proposed. Given the fact that step length is influenced by different motion states, an adaptive step length estimation algorithm based on motion recognition is developed. Heading estimation is carried out by an attitude acquisition algorithm, which contains a two-phase filter to mitigate the distortion of magnetic anomalies. In order to estimate the heading for an unconstrained smartphone, principal component analysis (PCA) of acceleration is applied to determine the offset between the orientation of smartphone and the actual heading of a pedestrian. Moreover, a particle filter with vector graph assisted particle weighting is introduced to correct the deviation in step length and heading estimation. Extensive field tests, including four contexts of carrying a phone, have been conducted in an office building to verify the performance of the proposed algorithm. Test results show that the proposed algorithm can achieve sub-meter mean error in all contexts. PMID:25738763

  10. Gait Analysis Using Wearable Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Tao, Weijun; Liu, Tao; Zheng, Rencheng; Feng, Hutian

    2012-01-01

    Gait analysis using wearable sensors is an inexpensive, convenient, and efficient manner of providing useful information for multiple health-related applications. As a clinical tool applied in the rehabilitation and diagnosis of medical conditions and sport activities, gait analysis using wearable sensors shows great prospects. The current paper reviews available wearable sensors and ambulatory gait analysis methods based on the various wearable sensors. After an introduction of the gait phases, the principles and features of wearable sensors used in gait analysis are provided. The gait analysis methods based on wearable sensors is divided into gait kinematics, gait kinetics, and electromyography. Studies on the current methods are reviewed, and applications in sports, rehabilitation, and clinical diagnosis are summarized separately. With the development of sensor technology and the analysis method, gait analysis using wearable sensors is expected to play an increasingly important role in clinical applications. PMID:22438763

  11. Gait analysis using wearable sensors.

    PubMed

    Tao, Weijun; Liu, Tao; Zheng, Rencheng; Feng, Hutian

    2012-01-01

    Gait analysis using wearable sensors is an inexpensive, convenient, and efficient manner of providing useful information for multiple health-related applications. As a clinical tool applied in the rehabilitation and diagnosis of medical conditions and sport activities, gait analysis using wearable sensors shows great prospects. The current paper reviews available wearable sensors and ambulatory gait analysis methods based on the various wearable sensors. After an introduction of the gait phases, the principles and features of wearable sensors used in gait analysis are provided. The gait analysis methods based on wearable sensors is divided into gait kinematics, gait kinetics, and electromyography. Studies on the current methods are reviewed, and applications in sports, rehabilitation, and clinical diagnosis are summarized separately. With the development of sensor technology and the analysis method, gait analysis using wearable sensors is expected to play an increasingly important role in clinical applications. PMID:22438763

  12. Turbulence, Transport, and Waves in Ohmic Dead Zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gole, Daniel; Simon, Jacob B.; Lubow, Stephen H.; Armitage, Philip J.

    2016-07-01

    We use local numerical simulations to study a vertically stratified accretion disk with a resistive mid-plane that damps magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence. This is an idealized model for the dead zones that may be present at some radii in protoplanetary and dwarf novae disks. We vary the relative thickness of the dead and active zones to quantify how forced fluid motions in the dead zone change. We find that the residual Reynolds stress near the mid-plane decreases with increasing dead zone thickness, becoming negligible in cases where the active to dead mass ratio is less than a few percent. This implies that purely Ohmic dead zones would be vulnerable to episodic accretion outbursts via the mechanism of Martin & Lubow. We show that even thick dead zones support a large amount of kinetic energy, but this energy is largely in fluid motions that are inefficient at angular momentum transport. Confirming results from Oishi & Mac Low, the perturbed velocity field in the dead zone is dominated by an oscillatory, vertically extended circulation pattern with a low frequency compared to the orbital frequency. This disturbance has the properties predicted for the lowest order r mode in a hydrodynamic disk. We suggest that in a global disk similar excitations would lead to propagating waves, whose properties would vary with the thickness of the dead zone and the nature of the perturbations (isothermal or adiabatic). Flows with similar amplitudes would buckle settled particle layers and could reduce the efficiency of pebble accretion.

  13. The ecosystem service value of living versus dead biogenic reef

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheehan, E. V.; Bridger, D.; Attrill, M. J.

    2015-03-01

    Mixed maerl beds (corralline red algae) comprise dead thalli with varying amounts of live maerl fragments, but previously it was not known whether the presence of the live maerl increases the ecosystem service 'habitat provision' of the dead maerl for the associated epibenthos. A 'flying array' towed sled with high definition video was used to film transects of the epibenthos in dead maerl and mixed maerl beds in two locations to the north and south of the English Channel (Falmouth and Jersey). Mixed maerl beds supported greater number of taxa and abundance than dead beds in Falmouth, while in Jersey, mixed and dead beds supported similar number of taxa and dead beds had a greater abundance of epifauna. Scallops tended to be more abundant on mixed beds than dead beds. Tube worms were more abundant on mixed beds in Falmouth and dead beds in Jersey. An increasing percentage occurrence of live maerl thalli correlated with increasing number of taxa in Falmouth but not Jersey. It was concluded that while live thalli can increase the functional role of dead maerl beds for the epibenthos, this is dependent on location and response variable. As a result of this work, maerl habitat in SE Jersey has been protected from towed demersal fishing gear.

  14. What leads from dead-end?

    PubMed Central

    Matin, A.

    2008-01-01

    The 129 mouse strain develops congenital testicular germ cell tumors (TGCTs) at a low frequency. TGCTs in mice resemble the testicular tumors (teratomas) that occur in human infants. The genes that cause these tumors in 129 have not been identified. The defect at the Ter locus increases TGCT incidence such that 94% of 129-Ter/Ter males develop TGCTs. The primary effect of the Ter mutation is progressive loss of primordial germ cells (PGCs) during embryonic development. This results in sterility in adult Ter/Ter mice on all mouse strain backgrounds. However, on the 129 background, Ter causes tumor development in addition to sterility. Therefore, Ter acts as a modifier of 129-derived TGCT susceptibility genes. Ter was identified to be a mutation that inactivates the Dead-end1 (Dnd1) gene. In this perspective, I discuss the possible areas of future investigations to elucidate the mechanism of TGCT development due to Dnd1 inactivation. PMID:17464447

  15. What leads from dead-end?

    PubMed

    Matin, A

    2007-06-01

    The 129 mouse strain develops congenital testicular germ cell tumors (TGCTs) at a low frequency. TGCTs in mice resemble the testicular tumors (teratomas) that occur in human infants. The genes that cause these tumors in 129 have not been identified. The defect at the Ter locus increases TGCT incidence such that 94% of 129-Ter/Ter males develop TGCTs. The primary effect of the Ter mutation is progressive loss of primordial germ cells (PGCs) during embryonic development. This results in sterility in adult Ter/Ter mice on all mouse strain backgrounds. However, on the 129 background, Ter causes tumor development in addition to sterility. Therefore, Ter acts as a modifier of 129-derived TGCT susceptibility genes. Ter was identified to be a mutation that inactivates the Dead-end1 (Dnd1) gene. In this perspective, I discuss the possible areas of future investigations to elucidate the mechanism of TGCT development due to Dnd1 inactivation. PMID:17464447

  16. Lighting up a Dead Star's Layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    This image from NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope shows the scattered remains of an exploded star named Cassiopeia A. Spitzer's infrared detectors 'picked' through these remains and found that much of the star's original layering had been preserved.

    In this false-color image, the faint, blue glow surrounding the dead star is material that was energized by a shock wave, called the forward shock, which was created when the star blew up. The forward shock is now located at the outer edge of the blue glow. Stars are also seen in blue. Green, yellow and red primarily represent material that was ejected in the explosion and heated by a slower shock wave, called the reverse shock wave.

    The picture was taken by Spitzer's infrared array camera and is a composite of 3.6-micron light (blue); 4.5-micron light (green); and 8.0-micron light (red).

  17. AGSM Intelligent Devices/Smart Sensors Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harp, Janicce Leshay

    2014-01-01

    This project provides development and qualification of Smart Sensors capable of self-diagnosis and assessment of their capability/readiness to support operations. These sensors will provide pressure and temperature measurements to use in ground systems.

  18. Speaking to the dead: images of the dead in contemporary art.

    PubMed

    O'Neill, Mary

    2011-05-01

    In this article I explore works by three artists in which we can see images that relate to bereavement. In the work of the first two, Araya Rasdjarmrearnsook and Andres Serrano, we can see photographic images (still and moving) of human corpses, which have been criticized as morbid and unhealthy. However I argue that it is not in fact images of death or the dead that are problematic but those images which present or evoke evidence of the emotions associated with death, and create a situation where we imagine the circumstances of our own deaths or the death of those we love. Images of the dead are acceptable as long as they do not cause pain to the living, as in a video game fantasy or a fiction, or are seen as other and distant. In the second group of works, by Gustgav Metzger, The Absent Dead: The Surrogate Body, the body is not present either because the death has taken place at a distance, either in time or geographically, or both, and a new site must be created. In this section, I discuss Metzger's auto-destructive art and argue that these works, through their ephemerality, embody a form of 'meaning making' and a possibility of the benefits of grief as described by Parkes. PMID:21593051

  19. Zombie Vortices: The Dead Zones of Protoplanetary Disks are Not Dead

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Chung-Hsiang; Marcus, Philip; Pei, Suyang; Barranco, Joe; Hassanzadeh, Pedram; Lecoanet, Daniel

    2014-11-01

    Numerical simulations, using both the anelastic and fully compressible equations of motion, show that the ``dead zones'' of protoplanetary disks (PPDs) around forming stars are unstable and filled with vortex-dominated turbulence with Mach and Rossby numbers of order 0.2 - 0.3. The dead zones are regions in which the temperature is too cool for the gas to ionize and be destabilized by instabilities associated with the magnetic field. The ``dead zones'' were thought, by most authors, to be stable to all purely-hydrodynamic instabilities because the flow has an angular momentum that increases with increasing radius in a PPD and is therefore stable by Rayleigh's theorem. However, that theorem in not applicable to stratified flows, such as those in a PPD. We summarize our simulations with emphasis on the finite-amplitude trigger of the instability and show that when the trigger is Kolmogorov noise, the Mach number of the noise that is needed to create instability is proportional to Re - 1 / 2 , where Re is the Reynolds number of the initial noise.

  20. Zero-dead-time operation of interleaved atomic clocks.

    PubMed

    Biedermann, G W; Takase, K; Wu, X; Deslauriers, L; Roy, S; Kasevich, M A

    2013-10-25

    We demonstrate a zero-dead-time operation of atomic clocks. This clock reduces sensitivity to local oscillator noise, integrating as nearly 1/τ whereas a clock with dead time integrates as 1/τ(1/2) under identical conditions. We contend that a similar scheme may be applied to improve the stability of optical clocks. PMID:24206471

  1. Recipe for Hypoxia: Playing the Dead Zone Game

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kastler, Jessica A.

    2009-01-01

    Dead zones--areas experiencing low levels of dissolved oxygen--are growing in shallow ocean waters around the world. Research has shown that dead zones form as a result of a specific type of pollution, called nutrient enrichment or eutrophication, and are found in almost every coastal zone where humans have large populations. Concepts related to…

  2. 37 CFR 1.42 - When the inventor is dead.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false When the inventor is dead. 1.42 Section 1.42 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE... for A Patent § 1.42 When the inventor is dead. In case of the death of the inventor, the...

  3. 37 CFR 1.422 - When the inventor is dead.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false When the inventor is dead. 1.422 Section 1.422 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE... File An International Application § 1.422 When the inventor is dead. In case of the death of...

  4. 37 CFR 1.422 - When the inventor is dead.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false When the inventor is dead. 1.422 Section 1.422 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE... File An International Application § 1.422 When the inventor is dead. In case of the death of...

  5. 37 CFR 1.422 - When the inventor is dead.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false When the inventor is dead. 1.422 Section 1.422 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE... File An International Application § 1.422 When the inventor is dead. In case of the death of...

  6. 37 CFR 1.42 - When the inventor is dead.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false When the inventor is dead. 1.42 Section 1.42 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE... for A Patent § 1.42 When the inventor is dead. In case of the death of the inventor, the...

  7. 37 CFR 1.42 - When the inventor is dead.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false When the inventor is dead. 1.42 Section 1.42 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE... for A Patent § 1.42 When the inventor is dead. In case of the death of the inventor, the...

  8. The water balance of the Dead Sea: an integrated approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Weshah, Radwan A.

    2000-01-01

    The Dead Sea is the lowest spot on Earth. It is a closed saline lake located in the middle of the Jordan Rift Valley between Lake Tiberias and the Red Sea. Its major tributaries are the Jordan River itself and the Dead Sea side wadis. The Dead Sea has a unique ecosystem and its water has curative, industrial and recreational significance. The level of the Dead Sea has been continuously falling since the early 1930s at an average rate of 0·7 m per year. The water level, as of February 1998, is about 410·9 m below mean sea level. In this paper, a water balance model is developed for the Dead Sea by considering different hydrological components of this water balance, including precipitation, runoff, evaporation and groundwater flow. This model is calibrated based on historical levels of the Dead Sea. Different scenarios are investigated, including the proposed Dead Sea-Red Sea Canal. This project is supposed to halt the shrinking of the Dead Sea and restore it to pre-1950 levels in the next century.

  9. Day of the Dead: A Mexican-American Celebration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoyt-Goldsmith, Diane

    This children's book describes how a Mexican-American family celebrates the traditional Mexican holiday, Day of the Dead (Dia de Muertos). The book centers on 10-year-old twins, Ximena and Azucena, who live in Sacramento, California, with their two brothers, older sister, and parents. The Day of the Dead takes place on the first and second day of…

  10. Simulation of Simple Controlled Processes with Dead-Time.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Keith R.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    The determination of closed-loop response of processes containing dead-time is typically not covered in undergraduate process control, possibly because the solution by Laplace transforms requires the use of Pade approximation for dead-time, which makes the procedure lengthy and tedious. A computer-aided method is described which simplifies the…

  11. Estimation of climate change impact on dead fuel moisture at local scale by using weather generators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pellizzaro, Grazia; Bortolu, Sara; Dubrovsky, Martin; Arca, Bachisio; Ventura, Andrea; Duce, Pierpaolo

    2015-04-01

    The moisture content of dead fuel is an important variable in fire ignition and fire propagation. Moisture exchange in dead materials is controlled by physical processes, and is clearly dependent on atmospheric changes. According to projections of future climate in Southern Europe, changes in temperature, precipitation and extreme events are expected. More prolonged drought seasons could influence fuel moisture content and, consequently, the number of days characterized by high ignition danger in Mediterranean ecosystems. The low resolution of the climate data provided by the general circulation models (GCMs) represents a limitation for evaluating climate change impacts at local scale. For this reason, the climate research community has called to develop appropriate downscaling techniques. One of the downscaling approaches, which transform the raw outputs from the climate models (GCMs or RCMs) into data with more realistic structure, is based on linking a stochastic weather generator with the climate model outputs. Weather generators linked to climate change scenarios can therefore be used to create synthetic weather series (air temperature and relative humidity, wind speed and precipitation) representing present and future climates at local scale. The main aims of this work are to identify useful tools to determine potential impacts of expected climate change on dead fuel status in Mediterranean shrubland and, in particular, to estimate the effect of climate changes on the number of days characterized by critical values of dead fuel moisture. Measurements of dead fuel moisture content (FMC) in Mediterranean shrubland were performed by using humidity sensors in North Western Sardinia (Italy) for six years. Meteorological variables were also recorded. Data were used to determine the accuracy of the Canadian Fine Fuels Moisture Code (FFM code) in modelling moisture dynamics of dead fuel in Mediterranean vegetation. Critical threshold values of FFM code for

  12. Dead-time compensation for a logarithmic display rate meter

    DOEpatents

    Larson, J.A.; Krueger, F.P.

    1987-10-05

    An improved circuit is provided for application to a radiation survey meter that uses a detector that is subject to dead time. The circuit compensates for dead time over a wide range of count rates by producing a dead-time pulse for each detected event, a live-time pulse that spans the interval between dead-time pulses, and circuits that average the value of these pulses over time. The logarithm of each of these values is obtained and the logarithms are subtracted to provide a signal that is proportional to a count rate that is corrected for the effects of dead time. The circuit produces a meter indication and is also capable of producing an audible indication of detected events. 5 figs.

  13. Dead-time compensation for a logarithmic display rate meter

    DOEpatents

    Larson, John A.; Krueger, Frederick P.

    1988-09-20

    An improved circuit is provided for application to a radiation survey meter that uses a detector that is subject to dead time. The circuit compensates for dead time over a wide range of count rates by producing a dead-time pulse for each detected event, a live-time pulse that spans the interval between dead-time pulses, and circuits that average the value of these pulses over time. The logarithm of each of these values is obtained and the logarithms are subtracted to provide a signal that is proportional to a count rate that is corrected for the effects of dead time. The circuit produces a meter indication and is also capable of producing an audible indication of detected events.

  14. Virtual Sensor Test Instrumentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Roy

    2011-01-01

    Virtual Sensor Test Instrumentation is based on the concept of smart sensor technology for testing with intelligence needed to perform sell-diagnosis of health, and to participate in a hierarchy of health determination at sensor, process, and system levels. A virtual sensor test instrumentation consists of five elements: (1) a common sensor interface, (2) microprocessor, (3) wireless interface, (4) signal conditioning and ADC/DAC (analog-to-digital conversion/ digital-to-analog conversion), and (5) onboard EEPROM (electrically erasable programmable read-only memory) for metadata storage and executable software to create powerful, scalable, reconfigurable, and reliable embedded and distributed test instruments. In order to maximize the efficient data conversion through the smart sensor node, plug-and-play functionality is required to interface with traditional sensors to enhance their identity and capabilities for data processing and communications. Virtual sensor test instrumentation can be accessible wirelessly via a Network Capable Application Processor (NCAP) or a Smart Transducer Interlace Module (STIM) that may be managed under real-time rule engines for mission-critical applications. The transducer senses the physical quantity being measured and converts it into an electrical signal. The signal is fed to an A/D converter, and is ready for use by the processor to execute functional transformation based on the sensor characteristics stored in a Transducer Electronic Data Sheet (TEDS). Virtual sensor test instrumentation is built upon an open-system architecture with standardized protocol modules/stacks to interface with industry standards and commonly used software. One major benefit for deploying the virtual sensor test instrumentation is the ability, through a plug-and-play common interface, to convert raw sensor data in either analog or digital form, to an IEEE 1451 standard-based smart sensor, which has instructions to program sensors for a wide variety of

  15. Modeling the circulation of the Dead Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brenner, Steve; Lensky, Nadav; Gertman, Isaac

    2015-04-01

    The Dead Sea is a hypersaline, terminal lake located at the lowest point on the land surface of the Earth. Its current level is more than 429 m below MSL, and due to a negative water balance (mainly anthropogenic), the lake level has been dropping at an average rate of more than 1 m/yr for more than 30 years. The mean salinity has also been steadily increasing and today is close to 280 psu. The region of the Dead Sea is a unique landscape that has important historical, cultural, and economic value and therefore such an extreme change of the lake has significant environmental and economic consequences. In recent years there has been a notable increase in observing and monitoring of the lake through continuous measurements from several fixed buoys as well as during quasi-regular cruises. In order to complement the measurements and improve our understanding of the dynamics of this unique lake a three dimensional circulation model is being developed. Previous modeling efforts were limited mainly to a one dimensional column model which was coupled to a comprehensive physio-chemical model and used for long term multi-decadal simulations. In this study the focus is on understanding the dynamical processes that control the lake-wide circulation on time scales ranging from days to seasons. The first step was to replace the equation of state with an equation appropriate for the hypersaline conditions, in addition to some minor tuning of the turbulence closure scheme. Results will be presented from preliminary simulations of the wind driven circulation in various seasons. A case study of a recent unusual winter flooding event, during which the lake level rose by more than 20 cm over a two month period, will also be presented. The model successfully simulated the observed transition from holomictic to meromictic conditions and epilimnion dilution during this event, as well as the restoration of holomictic conditions when the level started to drop again. The relationship

  16. Is Space-based Interferometry Dead?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leisawitz, David; Benford, D.; Blain, A.; Carr, J.; Fich, M.; Fischer, J.; Goldsmith, P.; Greaves, J.; Griffin, M.; Helou, G.; Ivison, R.; Kuchner, M.; Lyon, R.; Matsuo, H.; Rinehart, S. A.; Serabyn, E.; Shibai, H.; Silverberg, R.; Staguhn, J.; Unwin, S.; Wilner, D.; Wootten, A.; Wright, E. L.

    2011-05-01

    In the wake of the Decadal Survey and a January 2011 meeting of NASA's Exoplanet Exploration Program Analysis Group (ExoPAG), one might be tempted to conclude that space interferometry is dead. We explain why this slogan is hyperbole, summarize the steps currently being taken to prepare for a space-based far-IR interferometer, and reiterate the science case for an imaging and spectroscopic interferometer - SPIRIT - that would operate in space at long infrared wavelengths. Space-based interferometry is alive and well, but the center of activity has shifted to a spectral region (25 to 400 microns) in which no alternative measurement technique can provide information essential to answering several scientific questions deemed compelling by the Decadal Survey. Astrophysicists will use SPIRIT to: discover how the conditions for habitability arise during planetary system formation; find and characterize exoplanets by measuring their sculpting effects on protoplanetary and debris disks; and study the formation, merger history, and star formation history of galaxies.

  17. Neutropenic Enterocolitis: New Insights Into a Deadly Entity.

    PubMed

    Sachak, Taha; Arnold, Michael A; Naini, Bita V; Graham, Rondell P; Shah, Sejal S; Cruise, Michael; Park, Jason Y; Clark, Lindsey; Lamps, Laura; Frankel, Wendy L; Theodoropoulos, Nicole; Arnold, Christina A

    2015-12-01

    Neutropenic enterocolitis (NE) is a deadly ileocecal-based disease seen in patients with a recent history of chemotherapy. As histology is not included in the current diagnostic criteria, the pathologic features of NE are poorly understood. We undertook a multi-institutional study of NE, and report helpful clinical clues, such as immunosuppression (n=20/20), recent chemotherapy (n=17/18), neutropenia (n=16/18) gastrointestinal symptoms (n=19/19), abnormal imaging studies of the cecum/right colon (n=11/14), and positive microbiological studies (n=13/15). Fever (n=9/15) and sepsis (n=8/16) were also common. Pathologically, the cecum/right colon was always involved (n=17/17), but findings were identified in other bowel segments as well. NE lesions consisted of patchy necrosis (n=18/20), infiltrating organisms (n=17/20), hemorrhage (n=15/20), ulcer (n=15/19), edema (n=15/20), and depletion of inflammatory cells (n=15/20). Seventy-nine percent (n=15/19) of patients with histologically confirmed NE died: 47% (n=7/15) of these deaths were attributed to NE and the remainder to the patients' underlying conditions. Importantly, we observed a clinical diagnostic discordancy rate of 35% (n=9/26): 15% (n=3/20) of histologically confirmed NE were clinically unsuspected, and 26% (n=6/23) of clinically suspected NE represented a different disease process. Alternative diagnoses included unspecified colitis, infection, graft-versus-host disease, relapsed malignancy, mycophenolate injury, appendicitis, and ischemia. The causes of death in patients with NE mimics included unrecognized appendicitis and unrecognized graft-versus-host disease. To improve diagnostic accuracy, we propose that histology be required for a diagnosis of "definitive NE," with other clinically suspicious cases reported as "suspicious for NE" until all other possible diagnoses have been reasonably excluded. PMID:26414225

  18. Design and performance analysis of a low-cost aided dead reckoning navigator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gebre-Egziabher, Demoz

    The Federal Aviation Administration is leading the National Airspace System (NAS) modernization effort, in part, by supplanting traditional air traffic services with the Global Positioning System (GPS) aided by the Wide and Local Area Augmentation Systems (WAAS & LAAS). Making GPS the primary-means of navigation will enhance safety, flexibility and efficiency of operations for all aircraft ranging from single engine general aviation aircraft to complex commercial jet-liners. This transformation of the NAS will be gradual and the build-up to a primary-means GPS capability is expected to occur concurrently with the de-commissioning of a significant number of existing ground-based navigational facilities. If an alternate means of navigation is not available during this transition period, temporary interruptions of GPS services due to intentional or unintentional interference could present significant problems for aircraft lacking backup navigation capability. To successfully deal with such outage scenarios, a NAS architecture consisting of a skeletal network of Distance Measuring Equipment (DME) transponders to provide a redundant navigation capability alongside GPS/WAAS during this transition period is proposed. DME range measurements fused with a low cost dead-reckoning system can provide a navigation performance comparable to VOR and LORAN. This navigation scheme allows reducing the number of operational radio-navigation aids while maintaining an adequate coverage for navigation during the transition to a primary-means GPS NAS. The dead-reckoning navigation system is based on the fusion of a single low-end DME receiver with low cost inertial, air-data and magnetic sensors. These sensors are already part of the newer general aviation aircraft's suite of navigation sensors. Estimator architectures for fusing the information from the various sensors is presented. The performance of this navigator depends on the calibration and on-line estimation of sensor errors

  19. Revival of "dead" memristive devices: case of WO3-x.

    PubMed

    Tan, Zheng-Hua; Yang, Rui; Terabe, Kazuya; Yin, Xue-Bing; Guo, Xin

    2016-01-21

    Inappropriate operation could make a memristive device "dead" and cause the loss of resistive switching performance. In this study, the revival of "dead" devices was investigated in the case of WO3-x-based memristive devices. It is believed that inappropriate operation with a high-voltage pulse creates an ordered structure of oxygen vacancies and such an ordered structure makes the normal reset process fail. By precisely controlled voltage sweeping at certain compliance currents, a "dead" device can be revived. The revival operation disrupts the ordered structure by Joule heating and recovers Schottky-like barrier modulation-based switching. PMID:26685986

  20. Uncertainty evaluation of dead zone of diagnostic ultrasound equipment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Souza, R. M.; Alvarenga, A. V.; Braz, D. S.; Petrella, L. I.; Costa-Felix, R. P. B.

    2016-07-01

    This paper presents a model for evaluating measurement uncertainty of a feature used in the assessment of ultrasound images: dead zone. The dead zone was measured by two technicians of the INMETRO's Laboratory of Ultrasound using a phantom and following the standard IEC/TS 61390. The uncertainty model was proposed based on the Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement. For the tested equipment, results indicate a dead zone of 1.01 mm, and based on the proposed model, the expanded uncertainty was 0.17 mm. The proposed uncertainty model contributes as a novel way for metrological evaluation of diagnostic imaging by ultrasound.

  1. Groundwater-Lake Interaction in the Dead Sea Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiro, Y.; Weinstein, Y.; Starinsky, A.; Yechieli, Y.

    2011-12-01

    The Dead Sea hypersaline water system is unique in terms of its unusual geochemical composition, rapid lake level changes and water composition of the brines discharging along its shoreline. The Dead Sea can be used as a natural lab for studying groundwater-seawater interaction and saline water hydrological circulation along the aquifer-sea boundary. It provides an opportunity to follow the geochemical processes along a flow path from the lake into the aquifer and back into the lake. The lake level has been dropping since the 1960's due to human interference in its water budget, reaching a rate of 1 m/yr in recent years. Saline water circulation in coastal aquifers may be a major process that governs trace element mass balances in coastal areas. This study uses radium isotopes in order to quantify the lake water circulation in the Dead Sea aquifer. There are four naturally-occurring radium isotopes, with half-lives ranging from 3.7 days to 1600 years which are chain products of uranium and thorium isotopes. Radium isotopes are usually enriched in saline groundwater and therefore are good candidates for estimating seawater or hypersaline lake water circulation in the aquifer. Compared to most natural water bodies, the Dead Sea is extremely enriched in radium and barium, where both 226Ra and 228Ra activities and Ba concentration (145, 1-2 dpm/L and 5 mg/L, respectively) are 2-3 orders of magnitude higher than in ocean water, whereas the salinity of the Dead Sea is only 10 times higher. Circulated Dead Sea water in the aquifer contains decreased concentrations of 226Ra (60 dpm/L), Ba (1.5 mg/L), Sr (300 relative to 340 mg/L in the Dead Sea) and Sulfate (250 relative to 392 mg/L). We suggest that the low 226Ra and Ba concentrations are due to precipitation of barite and celestine from the supersaturated Dead Sea water on entering the aquifer. 228Ra and the shorter-lived 224Ra and 223Ra, which have much lower activities in the Dead Sea (up to 1.8, 3 and 0.8 dpm

  2. Probable Carbonate Fossilization Processes Within Dead Sea Microbial Remains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, P. A.; Wentworth, S. J.; Thomas-Keprta, K. L.; Allen, C. C.; McKay, D. S.

    2001-01-01

    Microbial fossilization processes in the Dead Sea is primarily associated with the calcium cation. The putative fossilized microbes do not represent the reported living microbial population. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  3. Assessment and Management of Dead-Wood Habitat

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hagar, Joan

    2007-01-01

    Introduction The Bureau of Land Management (BLM) is in the process of revising its resource management plans for six districts in western and southern Oregon as the result of the settlement of a lawsuit brought by the American Forest Resource Council. A range of management alternatives is being considered and evaluated including at least one that will minimize reserves on O&C lands. In order to develop the bases for evaluating management alternatives, the agency needs to derive a reasonable range of objectives for key issues and resources. Dead-wood habitat for wildlife has been identified as a key resource for which decision-making tools and techniques need to be refined and clarified. Under the Northwest Forest Plan, reserves were to play an important role in providing habitat for species associated with dead wood (U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service and U.S. Department of the Interior Bureau of Land Management, 1994). Thus, the BLM needs to: 1) address the question of how dead wood will be provided if reserves are not included as a management strategy in the revised Resource Management Plan, and 2) be able to evaluate the effects of alternative land management approaches. Dead wood has become an increasingly important conservation issue in managed forests, as awareness of its function in providing wildlife habitat and in basic ecological processes has dramatically increased over the last several decades (Laudenslayer et al., 2002). A major concern of forest managers is providing dead wood habitat for terrestrial wildlife. Wildlife in Pacific Northwest forests have evolved with disturbances that create large amounts of dead wood; so, it is not surprising that many species are closely associated with standing (snags) or down, dead wood. In general, the occurrence or abundance of one-quarter to one-third of forest-dwelling vertebrate wildlife species, is strongly associated with availability of suitable dead-wood habitat (Bunnell et al., 1999; Rose et al

  4. SECTION 1, WITH BIVOUAC OF THE DEAD TABLET IN FOREGROUND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    SECTION 1, WITH BIVOUAC OF THE DEAD TABLET IN FOREGROUND AND FLAGPOLE IN BACKGROUND. VIEW TO EAST. - Crown Hill Cemetery, Crown Hill National Cemetery, 700 West Thirty-eighth Street, Indianapolis, Marion County, IN

  5. Opioid Painkillers Raise Deadly Heart Risks for Some: Study

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_159361.html Opioid Painkillers Raise Deadly Heart Risks for Some: Study ... the dangers of overdose among patients prescribed powerful opioid painkillers such as Oxycontin and fentanyl are well ...

  6. Sugar-Free Gum Can Be Deadly for Dogs

    MedlinePlus

    ... html Sugar-Free Gum Can Be Deadly for Dogs Keep all products containing the sweetener xylitol out ... 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Here's an alert for all dog lovers: Sugarless chewing gum isn't good for ...

  7. Metagenomic insights into important microbes from the Dead Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thrash, C.; Baker, B.; Seitz, K.; Temperton, B.; Gillies, L.; Rabalais, N. N.; Mason, O. U.

    2015-12-01

    Coastal regions of eutrophication-driven oxygen depletion are widespread and increasing in number. Also known as dead zones, these regions take their name from the deleterious effects of hypoxia (dissolved oxygen less than 2 mg/L) on shrimp, demersal fish, and other animal life. Dead zones result from nutrient enrichment of primary production, concomitant consumption by chemoorganotrophic aerobic microorganisms, and strong stratification that prevents ventilation of bottom water. One of the largest dead zones in the world occurs seasonally in the northern Gulf of Mexico (nGOM), where hypoxia can reach up to 22,000 square kilometers. While this dead zone shares many features with more well-known marine oxygen minimum zones, it is nevertheless understudied with regards to the microbial assemblages involved in biogeochemical cycling. We performed metagenomic and metatranscriptomic sequencing on six samples from the 2013 nGOM dead zone from both hypoxic and oxic bottom waters. Assembly and binning led to the recovery of over fifty partial to nearly complete metagenomes from key microbial taxa previously determined to be numerically abundant from 16S rRNA data, such as Thaumarcheaota, Marine Group II Euryarchaeota, SAR406, SAR324, Synechococcus spp., and Planctomycetes. These results provide information about the roles of these taxa in the nGOM dead zone, and opportunities for comparing this region of low oxygen to others around the globe.

  8. Overview of Fiber-Optical Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Depaula, Ramon P.; Moore, Emery L.

    1987-01-01

    Design, development, and sensitivity of sensors using fiber optics reviewed. State-of-the-art and probable future developments of sensors using fiber optics described in report including references to work in field. Serves to update previously published surveys. Systems incorporating fiber-optic sensors used in medical diagnosis, navigation, robotics, sonar, power industry, and industrial controls.

  9. The Dead Sea, The Lake and Its Setting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brink, Uri ten

    I cannot think of a subject more befitting the description of interdisciplinary research with societal relevance than the study of the Dead Sea, a terminal lake of the Jordan River in Israel and Jordan. The scientific study of the Dead Sea is intimately connected with politics, religion, archeology, economic development, tourism, and environmental change.The Dead Sea is a relatively closed geologic and limnologic system with drastic physical changes often occurring on human timescales and with a long human history to observe these changes. Research in this unique area covers diverse aspects such as active subsidence and deformation along strike-slip faults; vertical stratification and stability of the water column; physical properties of extremely saline and dense (1234 kg/m3) water; spontaneous precipitation of minerals in an oversaturated environment; origin of the unusual chemical composition of the brine; existence of life in extreme environments; use of lake level fluctuations as a paleoclimatic indicator; and effects on the environment of human intervention versus natural climatic variability. Although the Dead Sea covers a small area on a global scale, it is nevertheless one of the largest natural laboratories for these types of research on Earth. These reasons make the Dead Sea a fascinating topic for the curious mind.

  10. Use of High Sensitivity GNSS Receiver Doppler Measurements for Indoor Pedestrian Dead Reckoning

    PubMed Central

    He, Zhe; Renaudin, Valérie; Petovello, Mark G.; Lachapelle, Gérard

    2013-01-01

    Dead-reckoning (DR) algorithms, which use self-contained inertial sensors combined with gait analysis, have proven to be effective for pedestrian navigation purposes. In such DR systems, the primary error is often due to accumulated heading drifts. By tightly integrating global navigation satellite system (GNSS) Doppler measurements with DR, such accumulated heading errors can usually be accurately compensated. Under weak signal conditions, high sensitivity GNSS (HSGNSS) receivers with block processing techniques are often used, however, the Doppler quality of such receivers is relatively poor due to multipath, fading and signal attenuation. This often limits the benefits of integrating HSGNSS Doppler with DR. This paper investigates the benefits of using Doppler measurements from a novel direct vector HSGNSS receiver with pedestrian dead-reckoning (PDR) for indoor navigation. An indoor signal and multipath model is introduced which explains how conventional HSGNSS Doppler measurements are affected by indoor multipath. Velocity and Doppler estimated by using direct vector receivers are introduced and discussed. Real experimental data is processed and analyzed to assess the veracity of proposed method. It is shown when integrating HSGNSS Doppler with PDR algorithm, the proposed direct vector method are more helpful than conventional block processing method for the indoor environments considered herein. PMID:23539033

  11. Microenvironments of reduced salinity harbour biofilms in Dead Sea underwater springs.

    PubMed

    Häusler, Stefan; Noriega-Ortega, Beatriz E; Polerecky, Lubos; Meyer, Volker; de Beer, Dirk; Ionescu, Danny

    2014-04-01

    The Dead Sea is a hypersaline lake where only few types of organisms can grow. Recently, abundant and diverse microbial life was discovered in biofilms covering rocks and permeable sediments around underwater freshwater springs and seeps. We used a newly developed salinity mini-sensor (spatial resolution 300 μm) to investigate the salinity environment around these biofilms in a flume that simulates an underwater spring. Compared with the hypersaline bulk water, salinity at the sediment surface decreased to zero at seeping velocities of 7 cm s(-1). At similar flow velocities, salinity above rocks decreased to 100-200 g L(-1) at a distance of 300 μm from the surface. This depended on the position on the rock, and coincided with locations of natural biofilms. The salinity reduction substantially diminished at flow velocities of 3.5 cm s(-1). We suggest that locally decreased salinity due to freshwater input is one of the main factors that make areas around underwater freshwater springs and seeps in the Dead Sea more favourable for life. However, due to frequent fluctuations in the freshwater flow, the locally decreased salinity is unstable. Therefore, microorganisms that inhabit these environments must be capable of withstanding large and rapid salinity fluctuations. PMID:24596288

  12. Use of high sensitivity GNSS receiver Doppler measurements for indoor pedestrian dead reckoning.

    PubMed

    He, Zhe; Renaudin, Valérie; Petovello, Mark G; Lachapelle, Gérard

    2013-01-01

    Dead-reckoning (DR) algorithms, which use self-contained inertial sensors combined with gait analysis, have proven to be effective for pedestrian navigation purposes. In such DR systems, the primary error is often due to accumulated heading drifts. By tightly integrating global navigation satellite system (GNSS) Doppler measurements with DR, such accumulated heading errors can usually be accurately compensated. Under weak signal conditions, high sensitivity GNSS (HSGNSS) receivers with block processing techniques are often used, however, the Doppler quality of such receivers is relatively poor due to multipath, fading and signal attenuation. This often limits the benefits of integrating HSGNSS Doppler with DR. This paper investigates the benefits of using Doppler measurements from a novel direct vector HSGNSS receiver with pedestrian dead-reckoning (PDR) for indoor navigation. An indoor signal and multipath model is introduced which explains how conventional HSGNSS Doppler measurements are affected by indoor multipath. Velocity and Doppler estimated by using direct vector receivers are introduced and discussed. Real experimental data is processed and analyzed to assess the veracity of proposed method. It is shown when integrating HSGNSS Doppler with PDR algorithm, the proposed direct vector method are more helpful than conventional block processing method for the indoor environments considered herein. PMID:23539033

  13. MAGNETIZED ACCRETION AND DEAD ZONES IN PROTOSTELLAR DISKS

    SciTech Connect

    Dzyurkevich, Natalia; Henning, Thomas; Turner, Neal J.; Kley, Wilhelm

    2013-03-10

    The edges of magnetically dead zones in protostellar disks have been proposed as locations where density bumps may arise, trapping planetesimals and helping form planets. Magneto-rotational turbulence in magnetically active zones provides both accretion of gas on the star and transport of mass to the dead zone. We investigate the location of the magnetically active regions in a protostellar disk around a solar-type star, varying the disk temperature, surface density profile, and dust-to-gas ratio. We also consider stellar masses between 0.4 and 2 M{sub Sun }, with corresponding adjustments in the disk mass and temperature. The dead zone's size and shape are found using the Elsasser number criterion with conductivities including the contributions from ions, electrons, and charged fractal dust aggregates. The charged species' abundances are found using the approach proposed by Okuzumi. The dead zone is in most cases defined by the ambipolar diffusion. In our maps, the dead zone takes a variety of shapes, including a fish tail pointing away from the star and islands located on and off the midplane. The corresponding accretion rates vary with radius, indicating locations where the surface density will increase over time, and others where it will decrease. We show that density bumps do not readily grow near the dead zone's outer edge, independently of the disk parameters and the dust properties. Instead, the accretion rate peaks at the radius where the gas-phase metals freeze out. This could lead to clearing a valley in the surface density, and to a trap for pebbles located just outside the metal freezeout line.

  14. Comprehensive Measurements of Wind Systems at the Dead Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metzger, Jutta; Corsmeier, Ulrich; Kalthoff, Norbert; Wieser, Andreas; Alpert, Pinhas; Lati, Joseph

    2016-04-01

    The Dead Sea is a unique place on earth. It is located at the lowest point of the Jordan Rift valley and its water level is currently at -429 m above mean sea level (amsl). To the West the Judean Mountains (up to 1000 m amsl) and to the East the Moab mountains (up to 1300 m amsl) confine the north-south oriented valley. The whole region is located in a transition zone of semi-arid to arid climate conditions and together with the steep orography, this forms a quite complex and unique environment. The Virtual Institute DEad SEa Research Venue (DESERVE) is an international project funded by the German Helmholtz Association and was established to study coupled atmospheric, hydrological, and lithospheric processes in the changing environment of the Dead Sea. Previous studies showed that the valley's atmosphere is often governed by periodic wind systems (Bitan, 1974), but most of the studies were limited to ground measurements and could therefore not resolve the three dimensional development and evolution of these wind systems. Performed airborne measurements found three distinct layers above the Dead Sea (Levin, 2005). Two layers are directly affected by the Dead Sea and the third is the commonly observed marine boundary layer over Israel. In the framework of DESERVE a field campaign with the mobile observatory KITcube was conducted to study the three dimensional structure of atmospheric processes at the Dead Sea in 2014. The combination of several in-situ and remote sensing instruments allows temporally and spatially high-resolution measurements in an atmospheric volume of about 10x10x10 km3. With this data set, the development and evolution of typical local wind systems, as well as the impact of regional scale wind conditions on the valley's atmosphere could be analyzed. The frequent development of a nocturnal drainage flow with wind velocities of over 10 m s‑1, the typical lake breeze during the day, its onset and vertical extension as well as strong downslope

  15. Dead-time effects in microchannel-plate imaging detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zombeck, Martin V.; Fraser, George W.

    1991-01-01

    The observed counting rates of microchannel plate (MCP) based detectors for high resolution observations of celestial EUV and X-ray sources vary over many orders of magnitude; the counting capability of an individual channel, however, is not high, and is associated with dead-times ranging from 0.1 msec to 1 sec. The dead-time increases with the area illuminated; attention is presently given to laboratory determinations of the count rate characteristics of a MCP detector as a function of illuminated area, and a model is developed for these results' use in the interpretation of space observations.

  16. Simplified dead-time compensator for multiple delay SISO systems.

    PubMed

    Torrico, Bismark Claure; Correia, Wilkley Bezerra; Nogueira, Fabrício Gonzalez

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a dead-time compensation structure able to deal with stable and unstable multiple delay single input single output (SISO) systems. The proposed method aims to simplify the primary controller by replacing it for FIR filters placed at the feedback path. Such modification reduces the total number of parameters to be tuned which facilitates the overall design in comparison with other primary controllers normally considered. Simulation results show a better performance for the proposed control approach compared with other dead-time compensator (DTC) recently proposed in the literature. PMID:26593966

  17. Computer simulation of processes in the dead-end furnace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zavorin, A. S.; Khaustov, S. A.; Zaharushkin, Russia N. A.

    2014-10-01

    We study turbulent combustion of natural gas in the reverse flame of fire-tube boiler simulated with the ANSYS Fluent 12.1.4 engineering simulation software. Aerodynamic structure and volumetric pressure fields of the flame were calculated. The results are presented in graphical form. The effect of the twist parameter for a drag coefficient of dead-end furnace was estimated. Finite element method was used for simulating the following processes: the combustion of methane in air oxygen, radiant and convective heat transfer, turbulence. Complete geometric model of the dead-end furnace based on boiler drawings was considered.

  18. A 37-year-old woman found dead in a Jacuzzi: A case report.

    PubMed

    Asl, Nahiddadashzadeh; Taftachi, Farrokh; Memarian, Azadeh; Kordrostami, Roya; Zavareh, FatemehNoorian; Mehrpisheh, Shahrokh

    2016-09-01

    One of the main problems in forensic medicine is the autopsy diagnosis of drowning, especially in the case of delay in the victim's recovery. The body of a 37-year-old woman was delivered to Kahrizak autopsy centre for post mortem. She was drowned in a public Jacuzzi because when she bent down to pick up her hairpin from the bottom of the Jacuzzi, her right arm became stuck in the drainage pipe and was sucked in. Unfortunately, she was not resuscitated after being pulled out of the Jacuzzi. The ambulance arrived too late, and she was already dead on arrival at the hospital. Her family pursued a claim against the managers and personnel of the pool for poor security management and failure to resuscitate. A forensic examination was needed to determine the manner of her death (natural, accidental, suicide and homicide). PMID:26955826

  19. Extreme Dead Sea drying event during the last interglacial from the ICDP Dead Sea Deep Drill Core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldstein, S.; Stein, M.; Ben-Avraham, Z.; Agnon, A.; Ariztegui, D.; Brauer, A.; Haug, G.; Ito, E.; Kitagawa, H.; Torfstein, A.; Yasuda, Y.

    2012-04-01

    The ICDP funded Dead Sea Deep Drilling Project (DSDDP) recovered the longest and most complete paleo-environmental record in the Middle East, drilling holes in a deep and a shallow site extending to ~450 meters. The Dead Sea expands during the glacials and contracts during interglacials, and the sediments are an archive of the evolving climatic conditions. During glacials the sediments comprise intervals of marl (aragonite, gypsum and detritus) and during interglacials they are salts and marls. We estimate that the deep site core spans ~200 kyr (to early MIS 7). A dramatic discovery is a ~40 cm interval of rounded pebbles at ~235 m below the lake floor, the only clean pebbly unit in the entire core. It appears to be a beach layer, near the deepest part of the Dead Sea, lying above ~35 meters of mainly salt. If it is a beach layer, it implies an almost complete dry-down of the paleo-Dead Sea. The pebble layer lies within the last interglacial interval. Our initial attempt to estimate the age of the possible dry down shows an intriguing correlation between the salt-mud stratigraphy of the Dead Sea core and the oxygen isotope record of Soreq Cave, whereby excursions to light oxygen in the speleothems correspond to periods of salt deposition. Through this comparison, we estimate that the dry down occurred during MIS 5e. The occurrence of ~35 meters of mainly salt along with the pebble layer demonstrates a severe dry interval during MIS 5. This observation has implications for the Middle East today, where the Dead Sea level is dropping as all the countries in the area use the runoff. GCM models indicate a more arid future in the region. The core shows that the runoff nearly stopped during a past warm period without human intervention.

  20. An intra-body molecular communication networks framework for continuous health monitoring and diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Chahibi, Youssef; Balasingham, Ilangko

    2015-01-01

    Intra-body communication networks are designed to interconnect nano- or micro-sized sensors located inside the body for health monitoring and drug delivery. The most promising solutions are made of implanted nanosensors to timely monitor the body for the presence of specific diseases and pronounce a diagnosis without the intervention of a physician. In this manner, several deadly health conditions such as heart attacks are avoided through the early in vivo detection of their biomarkers. In reality, nanosensors are challenged by the individual specificities, molecular noise, limited durability, and low energy resources. In this paper, a framework is proposed for estimating and detecting diseases and localizing the nanosensors. This framework is based on molecular communication, a novel communication paradigm where information is conveyed through molecules. Through the case study of the shedding of endothelial cells as an early biomarker for heart attack, the intra-body molecular communication networks framework is shown to resolve major issues with in vivo nanosensors and lay the foundations of low-complexity biomedical signal processing algorithms for continuous disease monitoring and diagnosis. PMID:26737190

  1. Noninvasive biomedical sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ling, Daniel; Bullock, Audra

    2003-07-01

    A non-invasive biomedical sensor for monitoring glucose levels is described. The sensor utilizes laser light to determine glucose levels in urine, but could also be used for drug screening and diagnosis of other medical conditions. The glucose measurement is based on modulation spectroscopy with harmonic analysis. Active signal processing and filtering are used to increase the signal-to-noise ratio and decreases the measurement time to allow for real time sample analysis. Preliminary data are given which show the concentration of glucose in a control sample. Future applications of this technology, for example, as a portable multipurpose bio-medical analysis tool, are explored.

  2. Pablo Remembers: The Fiesta of the Day of the Dead.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ancona, George

    This children's book describes how Pablo, a young Mexican boy, and his family celebrate the Day of the Dead (El Dia de Los Muertos). This holiday takes place on the first and second day of November and honors relatives and friends who have died. The holiday celebrates their spiritual return to Earth to share a special feast with the living, and…

  3. Michoacan People, Customs, and the Day of the Dead.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maulhardt, Mary

    This curriculum guide is intended: (1) to expose students to the people and customs of Michoacan, Mexico; (2) to explore the meaning of traditional Day of the Dead customs through hands-on experiences; and (3) to build the self-esteem of second language learners of Mexican descent. During the study, students whose primary language is Spanish read…

  4. How Long Has Grandpa Been Dead and Other Forensic Mysteries

    ScienceCinema

    Baden, Michael [MD, New York Police, New York, New York, United States

    2009-09-01

    Was the baby born alive? Can a child's brain really be shaken hard enough to cause death? Was the body dead before going into the water? Does a lightening strike cause any unique changes in the body? Why are hair and maggots becoming so important to the forensic scientist? Let's talk.

  5. Assays to Detect West Nile Virus in Dead Birds

    PubMed Central

    Therrien, Joseph E.; Benson, Robert; Kramer, Laura; Kauffman, Elizabeth B.; Eidson, Millicent; Campbell, Scott

    2005-01-01

    Using oral swab samples to detect West Nile virus in dead birds, we compared the Rapid Analyte Measurement Platform (RAMP) assay with VecTest and real-time reverse-transcriptase–polymerase chain reaction. The sensitivities of RAMP and VecTest for testing corvid species were 91.0% and 82.1%, respectively. PMID:16318736

  6. Giving Thanks: Observing Thanksgiving, Kwanzaa, and Day of the Dead.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dever, Martha T.; Barta, James J.

    1997-01-01

    Describes a primary-grade curriculum unit organized around the theme of "giving thanks" and encompassing the holidays of Thanksgiving, Kwanzaa, and Day of the Dead. Provides historical background and cultural context for each holiday, engagement activities, investigation activities, sharing activities, and a short list of related children's…

  7. FORMATION OF CIRCUMBINARY PLANETS IN A DEAD ZONE

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, Rebecca G.; Armitage, Philip J.; Alexander, Richard D.

    2013-08-10

    Circumbinary planets have been observed at orbital radii where binary perturbations may have significant effects on the gas disk structure, on planetesimal velocity dispersion, and on the coupling between turbulence and planetesimals. Here, we note that the impact of all of these effects on planet formation is qualitatively altered if the circumbinary disk structure is layered, with a non-turbulent midplane layer (dead zone) and strongly turbulent surface layers. For close binaries, we find that the dead zone typically extends from a radius close to the inner disk edge up to a radius of around 10-20 AU from the center of mass of the binary. The peak in the surface density occurs within the dead zone, far from the inner disk edge, close to the snow line, and may act as a trap for aerodynamically coupled solids. We suggest that circumbinary planet formation may be easier near this preferential location than for disks around single stars. However, dead zones around wide binaries are less likely, and hence planet formation may be more difficult there.

  8. Dead Zones in LX-17 and PBX 9502

    SciTech Connect

    Souers, P C; Andreski, H G; Batteux, J; Bratton, B; Cabacungan, C; Cook, III, C F; Fletcher, S; Garza, R; Grimsley, D; Handly, J; Hernandez, A; McMaster, P; Molitoris, J D; Palmer, R; Prindiville, J; Rodriguez, J; Schneberk, D; Wong, B; Vitello, P

    2005-09-06

    Pin and X-ray corner-turning data have been taken on ambient LX-17 and PBX 9052, and the results are listed in tables as an aid to future modeling. The results have been modeled at 4 zones/mm with a reactive flow approach that varies the burn rate as a function of pressure. A single rate format is used to simulate failure and detonation in different pressure regimes. A pressure cut-off must also be reached to initiate the burn. Corner-turning and failure are modeled using an intermediate pressure rate region, and detonation occurs at high pressure. The TATB booster is also modeled using reactive flow, and X-ray tomography is used to partition the ram-pressed hemisphere into five different density regions. The model reasonably fits the bare corner-turning experiment but predicts a smaller dead zone with steel confinement, in contradiction with experiment. The same model also calculates the confined and unconfined cylinder detonation velocities and predicts the failure of the unconfined cylinder at 3.75 mm radius. The PBX 9502 shows a smaller dead zone than LX-17. An old experiment that showed a large apparent dead zone in Comp B was repeated with X-ray transmission and no dead zone was seen. This confirms the idea that a variable burn rate is the key to modeling. The model also produces initiation delays, which are shorter than those found in time-to-detonation.

  9. Remembering Important People On The Day Of The Dead

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curriculum Review, 2005

    2005-01-01

    This article describes a project that can help students learn more about historic figures-or remember lost loved ones--with this Day of the Dead project from Frida Kahlo and Diego Rivera. The purpose is to remember the wonderful things the person did, and to celebrate his or her life. Directions for construction, as well as a suggested list of…

  10. Identifying and Extinguishing Dysfunctional and Deadly Organizational Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mawhinney, Thomas C.

    2009-01-01

    It is possible to define an organization's culture in terms of its dominant behavioral practices and their molar consequences, from the shop floor to the executive suite (Redmon & Mason, 2001). Dysfunctional and potentially deadly practices (for the organization as a whole) can be "latent." They often go undetected until their dramatic…

  11. How Long Has Grandpa Been Dead and Other Forensic Mysteries

    SciTech Connect

    Baden, Michael

    2006-05-17

    Was the baby born alive? Can a child's brain really be shaken hard enough to cause death? Was the body dead before going into the water? Does a lightening strike cause any unique changes in the body? Why are hair and maggots becoming so important to the forensic scientist? Let's talk.

  12. Are RNAi and miRNA therapeutics truly dead?

    PubMed

    Conde, João; Artzi, Natalie

    2015-03-01

    Only a few years ago pharmaceutical companies were excited about the potential of RNA interference (RNAi). Now, financial volatility and subsequent dissolutions of in-house facilities by pharmaceutical companies have had media channels pronouncing that RNAi therapeutics are dead. However, advances in nanomedicine may now help the vast potential of RNAi therapeutics to be fulfilled. PMID:25595555

  13. From diagnosis to social diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Brown, Phil; Lyson, Mercedes; Jenkins, Tania

    2011-09-01

    In the past two decades, research on the sociology of diagnosis has attained considerable influence within medical sociology. Analyzing the process and factors that contribute to making a diagnosis amidst uncertainty and contestation, as well as the diagnostic encounter itself, are topics rich for sociological investigation. This paper provides a reformulation of the sociology of diagnosis by proposing the concept of 'social diagnosis' which helps us recognize the interplay between larger social structures and individual or community illness manifestations. By outlining a conceptual frame, exploring how social scientists, medical professionals and laypeople contribute to social diagnosis, and providing a case study of how the North American Mohawk Akwesasne reservation dealt with rising obesity prevalence to further illustrate the social diagnosis idea, we embark on developing a cohesive and updated framework for a sociology of diagnosis. This approach is useful not just for sociological research, but has direct implications for the fields of medicine and public health. Approaching diagnosis from this integrated perspective potentially provides a broader context for practitioners and researchers to understand extra-medical factors, which in turn has consequences for patient care and health outcomes. PMID:21705128

  14. Monitoring and modeling of sinkholes affecting the Jordanian coast of the Dead Sea through satellite interferometric techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tessari, Giulia; Pasquali, Paolo; Floris, Mario

    2016-04-01

    Differential Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (DInSAR) techniques have been applied to investigate sinkholes affecting the Jordanian coast of the Dead Sea. The Dead Sea is a hyper saline terminal lake located in a pull-apart basin. Most of the area is characterized by highly karstic and fractured rock formations that are connected with faults. Karstic conduits extend from the land into the sea. Since the 1960s, the Dead Sea level is dropping at an increasing rate: from about 60 cm/yr in the 1970s up to 1 m/yr in the 2000s. From about the mid-1980s, sinkholes appeared more and more frequently over and around the emerged mudflats and salt flats. Strong subsidence and landslides also affect some segments of the coast. Nowadays, several thousands of sinkholes attest that the degradation of the Dead Sea coast is worsening. Deformation analysis has been focused on the Ghor Al Haditha area, located in the South-Eastern part of the lake coast. SAR data acquired by three different sensors, ERS, ENVISAT and COSMO- SkyMed have been analysed. 70 ERS images from 1992 to 2009 and 30 ENVISAT images from 2003 to 2010 have been processed. SBAS technique has been applied to define surface velocity and displacement maps. Results obtained from the SBAS technique, applied to ERS and Envisat data, highlight a diffuse subsiding of the entire Eastern coast of the Dead Sea. It was not possible to detect single sinkholes because of the resolution of these sensors (25m2) and the small size of each punctual event that is generally varying from a few meters to a hundred meters diameter. Furthermore, SBAS has been applied to 23 COSMO-SkyMed SAR satellite images from December 2011 to May 2013. The high resolution of these data (3m x 3m) and the short revisiting time allowed precise information of the displacement of punctual sinkholes beyond the overall subsidence of the coast. A specific sinkhole has been identified in order to understand its temporal evolution. The considered

  15. Current sensor

    DOEpatents

    Yakymyshyn, Christopher Paul; Brubaker, Michael Allen; Yakymyshyn, Pamela Jane

    2007-01-16

    A current sensor is described that uses a plurality of magnetic field sensors positioned around a current carrying conductor. The sensor can be hinged to allow clamping to a conductor. The current sensor provides high measurement accuracy for both DC and AC currents, and is substantially immune to the effects of temperature, conductor position, nearby current carrying conductors and aging.

  16. Water input requirements of the rapidly shrinking Dead Sea.

    PubMed

    Abu Ghazleh, Shahrazad; Hartmann, Jens; Jansen, Nils; Kempe, Stephan

    2009-05-01

    The deepest point on Earth, the Dead Sea level, has been dropping alarmingly since 1978 by 0.7 m/a on average due to the accelerating water consumption in the Jordan catchment and stood in 2008 at 420 m below sea level. In this study, a terrain model of the surface area and water volume of the Dead Sea was developed from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission data using ArcGIS. The model shows that the lake shrinks on average by 4 km(2)/a in area and by 0.47 km(3)/a in volume, amounting to a cumulative loss of 14 km(3) in the last 30 years. The receding level leaves almost annually erosional terraces, recorded here for the first time by Differential Global Positioning System field surveys. The terrace altitudes were correlated among the different profiles and dated to specific years of the lake level regression, illustrating the tight correlation between the morphology of the terrace sequence and the receding lake level. Our volume-level model described here and previous work on groundwater inflow suggest that the projected Dead Sea-Red Sea channel or the Mediterranean-Dead Sea channel must have a carrying capacity of >0.9 km(3)/a in order to slowly re-fill the lake to its former level and to create a sustainable system of electricity generation and freshwater production by desalinization. Moreover, such a channel will maintain tourism and potash industry on both sides of the Dead Sea and reduce the natural hazard caused by the recession. PMID:19252888

  17. Stress tensor and focal mechanisms in the Dead Sea basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofstetter, A.; Dorbath, C.; Dorbath, L.; Braeuer, B.; Weber, M.

    2016-04-01

    We use the recorded seismicity, confined to the Dead Sea basin and its boundaries, by the Dead Sea Integrated Research (DESIRE) portable seismic network and the Israel and Jordan permanent seismic networks for studying the mechanisms of earthquakes in the Dead Sea basin. The observed seismicity in the Dead Sea basin is divided into nine regions according to the spatial distribution of the earthquakes and the known tectonic features. The large number of recording stations and the adequate station distribution allowed the reliable determinations of 494 earthquake focal mechanisms. For each region, based on the inversion of the observed polarities of the earthquakes, we determine the focal mechanisms and the associated stress tensor. For 159 earthquakes, out of the 494 focal mechanisms, we could determine compatible fault planes. On the eastern side, the focal mechanisms are mainly strike-slip mechanism with nodal planes in the N-S and E-W directions. The azimuths of the stress axes are well constrained presenting minimal variability in the inversion of the data, which is in agreement with the Eastern Boundary fault on the east side of the Dead Sea basin and what we had expected from the regional geodynamics. However, larger variabilities of the azimuthal and dip angles are observed on the western side of the basin. Due to the wider range of azimuths of the fault planes, we observe the switching of σ1 and σ2 or the switching of σ2 and σ3 as major horizontal stress directions. This observed switching of stress axes allows having dip-slip and normal mechanisms in a region that is dominated by strike-slip motion.

  18. Extreme drying event in the Dead Sea basin during MIS5 from the ICDP Dead Sea Deep Drill Core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldstein, S. L.; Stein, M.; Ben-Avraham, Z.; Agnon, A.; Ariztegui, D.; Brauer, A.; Haug, G. H.; Ito, E.; Kitagawa, H.; Torfstein, A.; Yasuda, Y.; The Icdp-Dsddp Scientific Party

    2011-12-01

    The ICDP funded Dead Sea Deep Drilling Project (DSDDP) recovered the longest and most complete paleo-environmental record in the Middle East, drilling holes of ~450 and ~350 meters in length in deep (~300 m below the lake level) and shallow sites (~3 mbll) respectively. The Dead Sea expands during the glacials and contracts during interglacials, and the sediments comprise a geological archive of the evolving environmental conditions (e.g. rains, floods, dust-storms, droughts). Dead Sea sediments include inorganic aragonite, allowing for dating by U-series (e.g. Haase-Schramm et al. GCA 2004). The deep site cores were opened and described in June 2011. The cores are composed mainly of alternating intervals of marl (aragonite, gypsum and detritus) during glacials, and salts and marls during interglacials. From this stratigraphy we estimate that the deep site core spans ~200 kyr (to the boundary of MIS 6 and 7). A dramatic discovery is a ~40 cm thick interval of partly rounded pebbles at ~235 m below the lake floor. This is the only clean pebbly unit in the entire core. It appears to be a beach layer, near the deepest part of the Dead Sea, lying above ~35 meters of mainly salt. If it is a beach layer, it implies an almost complete dry-down of the paleo-Dead Sea. The pebble layer lies within the last interglacial interval. Our initial attempt to more precisely estimate the age of the possible dry down shows an intriguing correlation between the salt-mud stratigraphy of the Dead Sea core and the oxygen isotope record of Soreq Cave, whereby excursions to light oxygen in the speleothems correspond to periods of salt deposition. Through this comparison, we estimate that the possible dry down occurred during MIS 5e. The occurrence of ~35 meters of mainly salt along with the pebble layer demonstrates a severe dry interval during MIS 5. This observation has implications for the Middle East today, where the Dead Sea level is dropping as all the countries in the area use the

  19. SlDEAD31, a Putative DEAD-Box RNA Helicase Gene, Regulates Salt and Drought Tolerance and Stress-Related Genes in Tomato.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Mingku; Chen, Guoping; Dong, Tingting; Wang, Lingling; Zhang, Jianling; Zhao, Zhiping; Hu, Zongli

    2015-01-01

    The DEAD-box RNA helicases are involved in almost every aspect of RNA metabolism, associated with diverse cellular functions including plant growth and development, and their importance in response to biotic and abiotic stresses is only beginning to emerge. However, none of DEAD-box genes was well characterized in tomato so far. In this study, we reported on the identification and characterization of two putative DEAD-box RNA helicase genes, SlDEAD30 and SlDEAD31 from tomato, which were classified into stress-related DEAD-box proteins by phylogenetic analysis. Expression analysis indicated that SlDEAD30 was highly expressed in roots and mature leaves, while SlDEAD31 was constantly expressed in various tissues. Furthermore, the expression of both genes was induced mainly in roots under NaCl stress, and SlDEAD31 mRNA was also increased by heat, cold, and dehydration. In stress assays, transgenic tomato plants overexpressing SlDEAD31 exhibited dramatically enhanced salt tolerance and slightly improved drought resistance, which were simultaneously demonstrated by significantly enhanced expression of multiple biotic and abiotic stress-related genes, higher survival rate, relative water content (RWC) and chlorophyll content, and lower water loss rate and malondialdehyde (MDA) production compared to wild-type plants. Collectively, these results provide a preliminary characterization of SlDEAD30 and SlDEAD31 genes in tomato, and suggest that stress-responsive SlDEAD31 is essential for salt and drought tolerance and stress-related gene regulation in plants. PMID:26241658

  20. Analysis of archaeal communities in Gulf of Mexico dead zone sediments.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sediments may contribute significantly to Louisiana continental shelf “dead zone” hypoxia but limited information hinders comparison of sediment biogeochemistry between norm-oxic and hypoxic seasons. Dead zone sediment cores collected during hypoxia (September 2006) had higher l...

  1. Coding for Communication Channels with Dead-Time Constraints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moision, Bruce; Hamkins, Jon

    2004-01-01

    Coding schemes have been designed and investigated specifically for optical and electronic data-communication channels in which information is conveyed via pulse-position modulation (PPM) subject to dead-time constraints. These schemes involve the use of error-correcting codes concatenated with codes denoted constrained codes. These codes are decoded using an interactive method. In pulse-position modulation, time is partitioned into frames of Mslots of equal duration. Each frame contains one pulsed slot (all others are non-pulsed). For a given channel, the dead-time constraints are defined as a maximum and a minimum on the allowable time between pulses. For example, if a Q-switched laser is used to transmit the pulses, then the minimum allowable dead time is the time needed to recharge the laser for the next pulse. In the case of bits recorded on a magnetic medium, the minimum allowable time between pulses depends on the recording/playback speed and the minimum distance between pulses needed to prevent interference between adjacent bits during readout. The maximum allowable dead time for a given channel is the maximum time for which it is possible to satisfy the requirement to synchronize slots. In mathematical shorthand, the dead-time constraints for a given channel are represented by the pair of integers (d,k), where d is the minimum allowable number of zeroes between ones and k is the maximum allowable number of zeroes between ones. A system of the type to which the present schemes apply is represented by a binary- input, real-valued-output channel model illustrated in the figure. At the transmitting end, information bits are first encoded by use of an error-correcting code, then further encoded by use of a constrained code. Several constrained codes for channels subject to constraints of (d,infinity) have been investigated theoretically and computationally. The baseline codes chosen for purposes of comparison were simple PPM codes characterized by M-slot PPM

  2. Occurrence of organohalogens at the Dead Sea Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tubbesing, Christoph; Kotte, Karsten; Keppler, Frank; Krause, Torsten; Bahlmann, Enno; Schöler, Heinfried

    2013-04-01

    Most arid and semi-arid regions are characterized by evaporites, which are assured sources for volatile organohalogens (VOX) [1]. These compounds play an important role in tropospheric and stratospheric chemistry. The Dead Sea between Israel and Jordan is the world's most famous and biggest all-season water covered salt lake. In both countries chemical plants like the Dead Sea Works and the Arab Potash Company are located at the southern part of the Dead Sea and mine various elements such as bromine and magnesium. Conveying sea water through constructed evaporation pans multifarious salts are enriched and precipitated. In contrast, the Northern basin and main part of the Dead Sea has remained almost untouched by industrial salt production. Its fresh water supply from the Jordan River is constantly decreasing, leading to further increased salinity. During a HALOPROC campaign (Natural Halogenation Processes in the Environment) we collected various samples including air, soils, sediments, halophytic plants, ground- and seawater from the Northern and Southern basin of the Israeli side of the Dead Sea. These samples were investigated for the occurrence of halocarbons using different analytical techniques. Most samples were analyzed for volatile organohalogens such as haloalkanes using gas chromatography- mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Interestingly, there is a strong enrichment of trihalomethanes (THM), especially all chlorinated and brominated ones and also the iodinated compound dichloroiodomethane were found in the Southern basin. In addition, volatile organic carbons (VOC) such as ethene and some other alkenes were analyzed by a gas chromatography-flame ionisation detector (GC-FID) to obtain further information about potential precursors of halogenated compounds. Halophytic plants were investigated for their potential to release chloromethane and bromomethane but also for their stable carbon and hydrogen isotope composition. For this purpose, a plant chamber was

  3. El Dia de los Muertos -- Libreto. (The Day of the Dead -- Notebook.)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Espinoza, Delia; Lopez, Santiago, III

    On November 2, all Mexican Americans remember their dead as Mexico does on that same day. Called "El Dia de los Muertos" (Day of the Dead), the dead are remembered posthumously with flowers, candles, music, prayers, chants, and wreaths. The people go to cemeteries to clean tombs, lay fresh or artificial flowers on them, and pray for peace for each…

  4. 78 FR 62354 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “The Dead Sea Scrolls...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-18

    ... Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``The Dead Sea Scrolls: Life and Faith in Ancient Times'' Formerly Titled ``The Dead Sea Scrolls: Life and Faith in Biblical Times'' ACTION... exhibition ``The Dead Sea Scrolls: Life and Faith in Biblical Times.'' The referenced notice was corrected...

  5. 77 FR 64373 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “The Dead Sea Scrolls...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-19

    ... Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``The Dead Sea Scrolls: Life and Faith in Ancient Times,'' Formerly Titled ``The Dead Sea Scrolls: Life and Faith in Biblical Times... the exhibition ``The Dead Sea Scrolls: Life and Faith in Biblical Times.'' The referenced notice...

  6. 78 FR 24462 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition; Determinations: “The Dead Sea Scrolls...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-25

    ... Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition; Determinations: ``The Dead Sea Scrolls: Life and Faith in Ancient Times'' Formerly Titled ``The Dead Sea Scrolls: Life and Faith in Biblical Times... the exhibition ``The Dead Sea Scrolls: Life and Faith in Biblical Times.'' The referenced notice...

  7. 78 FR 16565 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “The Dead Sea Scrolls...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-15

    ... Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``The Dead Sea Scrolls: Life and Faith in Ancient Times'' Formerly Titled ``The Dead Sea Scrolls: Life and Faith in Biblical Times'' ACTION... exhibition ``The Dead Sea Scrolls: Life and Faith in Biblical Times.'' The referenced notice was corrected...

  8. 50 CFR 18.26 - Collection of certain dead marine mammal parts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Collection of certain dead marine mammal... IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) MARINE MAMMALS General Exceptions § 18.26 Collection of certain dead marine mammal parts. (a) Any bones, teeth or ivory of any dead marine mammal may be collected...

  9. 50 CFR 18.26 - Collection of certain dead marine mammal parts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Collection of certain dead marine mammal... IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) MARINE MAMMALS General Exceptions § 18.26 Collection of certain dead marine mammal parts. (a) Any bones, teeth or ivory of any dead marine mammal may be collected...

  10. 50 CFR 18.26 - Collection of certain dead marine mammal parts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Collection of certain dead marine mammal... IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) MARINE MAMMALS General Exceptions § 18.26 Collection of certain dead marine mammal parts. (a) Any bones, teeth or ivory of any dead marine mammal may be collected...

  11. 50 CFR 18.26 - Collection of certain dead marine mammal parts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Collection of certain dead marine mammal... IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) MARINE MAMMALS General Exceptions § 18.26 Collection of certain dead marine mammal parts. (a) Any bones, teeth or ivory of any dead marine mammal may be collected...

  12. 50 CFR 18.26 - Collection of certain dead marine mammal parts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Collection of certain dead marine mammal... IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) MARINE MAMMALS General Exceptions § 18.26 Collection of certain dead marine mammal parts. (a) Any bones, teeth or ivory of any dead marine mammal may be collected...

  13. 9 CFR 325.20 - Transportation and other transactions concerning dead, dying, disabled, or diseased livestock...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... concerning dead, dying, disabled, or diseased livestock, and parts of carcasses of livestock that died... other transactions concerning dead, dying, disabled, or diseased livestock, and parts of carcasses of... transporting in commerce, or importing any dead, dying, disabled or diseased animals or parts of the...

  14. 9 CFR 325.20 - Transportation and other transactions concerning dead, dying, disabled, or diseased livestock...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... concerning dead, dying, disabled, or diseased livestock, and parts of carcasses of livestock that died... other transactions concerning dead, dying, disabled, or diseased livestock, and parts of carcasses of... transporting in commerce, or importing any dead, dying, disabled or diseased animals or parts of the...

  15. 9 CFR 325.20 - Transportation and other transactions concerning dead, dying, disabled, or diseased livestock...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... concerning dead, dying, disabled, or diseased livestock, and parts of carcasses of livestock that died... other transactions concerning dead, dying, disabled, or diseased livestock, and parts of carcasses of... transporting in commerce, or importing any dead, dying, disabled or diseased animals or parts of the...

  16. Estimation of Maximum Likelihood of the Unextendable Dead Time Period in a Flow of Physical Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gortsev, A. M.; Solov'ev, A. A.

    2016-03-01

    A flow of physical events (photons, electrons, etc.) is studied. One of the mathematical models of such flows is the MAP-flow of events. The flow circulates under conditions of the unextendable dead time period, when the dead time period is unknown. The dead time period is estimated by the method of maximum likelihood from observations of arrival instants of events.

  17. Raising the dead: war, reparation, and the politics of memory.

    PubMed Central

    Summerfield, D.

    1995-01-01

    All societies attach a different range of meanings to war than to natural disasters, and questions of societal recognition, reparation, and justice are generally central. Most modern conflict has been grounded in the use of terror to control and silence whole populations. Those abusing power typically refuse to acknowledge their dead victims, as if they had never existed and were mere wraiths in the memories of those left behind. This denial, and the impunity of those who maintain it, must be challenged if survivors are to make sense of their losses and the social fabric is to mend. For the names and fate of the dead to be properly lodged in the public record of their times also illuminates the costs that may flow from the philosophies and practices of the Western led world order, ones which health workers should be in a position to influence. Images p495-a p496-a p496-b PMID:7647648

  18. Physical and chemical characterization of Dead Sea mud

    SciTech Connect

    Khlaifat, Abdelaziz; Al-Khashman, Omar; Qutob, Hani

    2010-05-15

    A laboratory analysis was performed to determine the physical and chemical properties of 24 Dead Sea mud samples collected from three different locations on the eastern shore of the Dead Sea. Several analytical techniques were used to determine the chemical and mineralogical compositions of those samples including atomic absorption spectrometry and X-ray diffraction. Physical parameters such as specific gravity, Atterberg limits, grain size, specific surface area, cation exchange capacity, pH and electrical conductivity were also studied. The main focus of the work was to document mud characteristics and to study the interrelation between physical and chemical properties. The mud samples were quite rich in minerals. Strontium was the most abundant trace element in the samples (range: 410-810 ppm) followed by barium (range: 155-380 ppm), vanadium (range: 209-264 ppm) and lead (range: 108-114 ppm). There were significant differences in the elemental contents of mud samples collected from different locations.

  19. Behavioral response of a chimpanzee mother toward her dead infant.

    PubMed

    Cronin, Katherine A; van Leeuwen, Edwin J C; Mulenga, Innocent Chitalu; Bodamer, Mark D

    2011-05-01

    The mother-offspring bond is one of the strongest and most essential social bonds. Following is a detailed behavioral report of a female chimpanzee 2 days after her 16-month-old infant died, on the first day that the mother is observed to create distance between her and the corpse. A series of repeated approaches and retreats to and from the body are documented, along with detailed accounts of behaviors directed toward the dead infant by the mother and other group members. The behavior of the mother toward her dead infant not only highlights the maternal contribution to the mother-infant relationship but also elucidates the opportunities chimpanzees have to learn about the sensory cues associated with death, and the implications of death for the social environment. PMID:21259302

  20. The death effect in literary evaluation: reverence for the dead?

    PubMed

    Green, Joseph P; Mohler, Eric W

    It is commonly believed that the value of art and other creative works increases after the death of the artist. In an attempt to examine this so-called death effect we presented a short story to N = 431 undergraduate students asking how much money they would hypothetically spend to purchase a literary work. We experimentally manipulated: 1) whether the author died or moved after publishing a short story, and, 2) the gender of the author. Participants randomly received one of four possible biographical descriptions about the author. We predicted that participants would offer higher purchase prices and subjectively evaluate the work more positively when they believed the author was dead. Results were consistent with this hypothesis perhaps reflecting a certain reverence for the dead. We also found that evaluations of the story were more favorable when the purported gender of the author matched that of the participant. PMID:24834666

  1. Low-Dead-Volume Inlet for Vacuum Chamber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naylor, Guy; Arkin, C.

    2010-01-01

    Gas introduction from near-ambient pressures to high vacuum traditionally is accomplished either by multi-stage differential pumping that allows for very rapid response, or by a capillary method that allows for a simple, single-stage introduction, but which often has a delayed response. Another means to introduce the gas sample is to use the multi-stage design with only a single stage. This is accomplished by using a very small conductance limit. The problem with this method is that a small conductance limit will amplify issues associated with dead -volume. As a result, a high -vacuum gas inlet was developed with low dead -volume, allowing the use of a very low conductance limit interface. Gas flows through the ConFlat flange at a relatively high flow rate at orders of magnitude greater than through the conductance limit. The small flow goes through a conductance limit that is a double-sided ConFlat.

  2. Low-Dead-Volume Inlet for Vacuum Chamber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naylor, Guy; Arkin, C.

    2011-01-01

    Gas introduction from near-ambient pressures to high vacuum traditionally is accomplished either by multi-stage differential pumping that allows for very rapid response, or by a capillary method that allows for a simple, single-stage introduction, but which often has a delayed response. Another means to introduce the gas sample is to use the multi-stage design with only a single stage. This is accomplished by using a very small conductance limit. The problem with this method is that a small conductance limit will amplify issues associated with dead-volume. As a result, a high-vacuum gas inlet was developed with low dead-volume, allowing the use of a very low conductance limit interface. Gas flows through the ConFlat flange at a relatively high flow rate at orders of magnitude greater than through the conductance limit. The small flow goes through a conductance limit that is a double-sided ConFlat.

  3. Incidental Diagnosis of Diffuse Intrinsic Pontine Glioma in Children

    PubMed Central

    Wright, K. D.; Sabin, N. D.; Cheuk, D.; McNall-Knapp, R. Y.; Shurtleff, S. A.; Gajjar, A.; Broniscer, A.

    2014-01-01

    Children with diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG) have a short onset, rapidly progressive neurologic decline before diagnosis. Therefore, incidental diagnosis of such an aggressive cancer is counterintuitive, yet our experience shows DIPG may occur as part of a spectrum of incidentally diagnosed pediatric brain cancers. Although children with incidentally diagnosed DIPG may experience a longer survival, it remains a potentially deadly cancer despite treatment with radiotherapy. Histologic confirmation is warranted when feasible in such patients to confirm diagnosis. Moreover, recent advances in genome-wide analyses may suggest incidentally diagnosed DIPGs are biologically distinct from the majority of these cancers. PMID:25598012

  4. [Serotonin dysfunctions in the background of the seven deadly sins].

    PubMed

    Janka, Zoltán

    2003-11-20

    The symbolic characters of the Seven Deadly Sins can be traced from time to time in the cultural history of human mankind, being directly specified in certain artistic products. Such are, among others, the painting entitled "The Seven Deadly Sins and the Four Lost Things" by Hieronymus Bosch and the poems Divina Commedia and The Foerie Queene by Dante Alighieri and Edmund Spenser, respectively. However, there are several paragraphs referring to these behaviours of the Seven Deadly Sins in the Bible and in the dramas of William Shakespeare. The objective of the present review is to propose that dysfunctions in the central serotonergic system might be involved in the neurobiology of these 'sinful' behaviour patterns. Evidences indicate that behaviour traits such as Accidia (Sloth), Luxuria (Lust, Lechery), Superbia (Pride), Ira (Wrath, Anger), Invidia (Envy), Avaritia (Greed, Avarice), and Gula (Gluttony) can relate to the functional alterations of serotonin in the brain. Results of biochemical and molecular genetic (polymorphism) studies on the human serotonergic system (receptor, transporter, enzyme), findings of functional imaging techniques, effects of depletion (or supplementation) of the serotonin precursor tryptophan, data of challenge probe investigations directed to testing central serotonergic functions, alterations in the peripheral serotonin measures (platelet), and the changes in the CSF 5-hydroxy-indoleacetic acid content indicate such serotonergic involvement. Furthermore, results of animal experiments on behaviour change (aggressive, dominant or submissive, appetite, alcohol preference) attributed to serotonin status modification and the clinically evidenced therapeutic efficacy of pharmacological interventions, based on the modulation and perturbation of the serotonergic system (e.g. selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors), in treating the 'sinful' behaviour forms and analogous pathological states reaching the severity of psychiatric disorders

  5. Court says HIV-infected penis, semen are deadly weapons.

    PubMed

    1997-12-26

    The Texas Court of Appeals, 3rd District, upheld the conviction of an HIV-positive man charged with using his penis and semen as deadly weapons. [Name removed] [name removed] was convicted by a jury for aggravated sexual assault and indecency with a child and is currently serving life in prison. [Name removed] had sex with the 16-year-old victim, known as [name removed], and forced a young boy living at his house, [name removed]., to have sex with her as well. During the appeal, attorney Carlos Garcia claimed that the State failed to prove that [name removed] knowingly and intentionally used a deadly weapon. The court overruled this stating that HIV is transmitted during sexual intercourse, that HIV causes the fatal disease AIDS, that [name removed] did not use a condom during sex with [name removed] E., and that [name removed] admitted knowing he had been HIV positive for seven or eight years. Although [name removed]. was found dead in [name removed]'s yard, he was not charged with her murder; [name removed]. died of exposure. The District Attorney charged [name removed] with aggravated sexual assault instead of the murder because it was a stronger case. PMID:11364899

  6. DEAD ZONE IN THE POLAR-CAP ACCELERATOR OF PULSARS

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Alexander Y.; Beloborodov, Andrei M.

    2013-01-10

    We study plasma flows above pulsar polar caps using time-dependent simulations of plasma particles in the self-consistent electric field. The flow behavior is controlled by the dimensionless parameter {alpha} = j/c{rho}{sub GJ}, where j is the electric current density and {rho}{sub GJ} is the Goldreich-Julian charge density. The region of the polar cap where 0 < {alpha} < 1 is a {sup d}ead zone{sup -}in this zone, particle acceleration is inefficient and pair creation is not expected even for young, rapidly rotating pulsars. Pulsars with polar caps near the rotation axis are predicted to have a hollow-cone structure of radio emission, as the dead zone occupies the central part of the polar cap. Our results apply to charge-separated flows of electrons (j < 0) or ions (j > 0). In the latter case, we consider the possibility of a mixed flow consisting of different ion species, and observe the development of two-stream instability. The dead zone at the polar cap is essential for the development of an outer gap near the null surface {rho}{sub GJ} = 0.

  7. Gulf of Mexico dead zone - 1000 year record

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Osterman, L.E.; Poore, R.Z.; Swarzenski, P.W.

    2010-01-01

    An area of oxygen-depleted bottom- and subsurfacewater (hypoxia = dissolved oxygen Since systematic measurement of the extent of the dead zone was begun in 1985, the overall pattern indicates that the area of the dead zone is increasing. Several studies have concluded that the expansion of the Louisiana shelf dead zone is related to increased nutrients (primarily nitrogen, but possibly also phosphorous) in the Mississippi River drainage basin and is responsible for the degradation of Gulf of Mexico marine habitats. The goal of this research is to augment information on the recent expansion of Louisiana shelf hypoxia and to investigate the temporal and geographic extent of the lowoxygen bottom-water conditions prior to 1985 in sediment cores collected from the Louisiana shelf. We use a specific low-oxygen faunal proxy termed the PEB index based on the cumulative percentage of three foraminifers (= % Protononion atlanticum, + % Epistominella vitrea, + % Buliminella morgani) that has been shown statistically to represent the modern seasonal Louisiana hypoxia zone. Our hypothesis is that the increased relative abundance of PEB species in dated sediment cores accurately tracks past seasonal low-oxygen conditions on the Louisiana shelf.

  8. Palaeomagnetism of greigite bearing sediments from the Dead Sea, Israel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frank, U.; Nowaczyk, N. R.; Negendank, J. F. W.

    2007-03-01

    Detailed magnetostratigraphic investigations were carried out on five sediment cores obtained from three sites on the northwestern shore of the Dead Sea, Israel. The sediments are heterogeneous, composed of fine clastic layers alternating with authigenic aragonite. The magnetic remanence is carried by Ti-magnetite and greigite, reflecting a detrital as well as an authigenic phase. Directions of the characteristic remanent magnetization were obtained from stepwise AF-demagnetization of the natural remanent magnetization and subsequent principle component analysis. The acquisition of a gyroremanent magnetization in a noticeable amount of the samples could be linked to core disturbances. The depth-age models, based on AMS14C datings on plant remains, yielded an age of 10.04 ka cal. BP for the base of the longest profile from site Ein Gedi, a continuous lacustrine sediment sequence. The profiles from the two other sites representing near shore sedimentation are interrupted by a hiatus in sedimentation. Comparison of the inclination and declination records from all Dead Sea cores and nearby sited lakes suggest that low frequency variations documented in the Dead Sea sediments are likely of geomagnetic origin.

  9. Temperature profiles and sterilization within a dead-ended tube.

    PubMed

    Young, J H; Ferko, B L

    1992-01-01

    Use of steam-in-place (SIP) sterilization has increased as the complexity of biotechnology processing equipment has increased. Extensive biological testing is required prior to use of this equipment as no quantitative guidelines exist for the design of SIP sterilizable equipment. Dead-ended geometries present the most difficult challenge to SIP sterilization, but data are not available as to the effects of tube orientation, length and diameter on time required for sterilization. This study examines the effects on sterilization of location within a dead-ended tube and orientation of the tube with respect to the gravitational vector. Temperature profiles and biological kill of Bacillus stearothermophilus were determined for four tube orientations. Kill kinetics were characterized by time to start of kill and cycle log reduction (CLR) times. Both values increased with increasing distance up the tube and orientation of the tube in a more horizontal position. CLR values were as much as ten times greater than those resulting from saturated steam. Projected sterilization times were determined and found to be very dependent on tube orientation. Recommendations are given for sterilization and validation testing of dead-ended geometries. PMID:1453280

  10. Organ donation in the Philippines: should the dead do more?

    PubMed

    de Castro, Leonardo D

    2014-01-01

    This paper asks whether the Philippines should focus on ways of dealing with end-stage renal disease by getting more transplantable kidneys from the dead. Would it be more ethical to put the burden to donate on the dead (who have already lost their chance to consent) than on the living (who can consent)? Given the risks involved in undergoing nephrectomy and the lack of benefits arising from the procedure to donors, the dead should be the first to put their kidneys on the line. In the Philippines, unfortunately, living donors have had to bear the greater burden in this regard. Starting with a brief account of developments surrounding the impact of the Declaration of Istanbul on the situation in the Philippines as well as in other countries, the paper examines what the living have been expected to do, what they have actually done, and what lessons the experience with living donors offers for the understanding of cadaver transplants. The paper then looks at possible ways of increasing the sources of kidneys for transplantation and asks if these ways could be implemented successfully and ethically in the Philippines. PMID:25160964

  11. Improving Inertial Pedestrian Dead-Reckoning by Detecting Unmodified Switched-on Lamps in Buildings

    PubMed Central

    Jiménez, Antonio R.; Zampella, Francisco; Seco, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores how inertial Pedestrian Dead-Reckoning (PDR) location systems can be improved with the use of a light sensor to measure the illumination gradients created when a person walks under ceiling-mounted unmodified indoor lights. The process of updating the inertial PDR estimates with the information provided by light detections is a new concept that we have named Light-matching (LM). The displacement and orientation change of a person obtained by inertial PDR is used by the LM method to accurately propagate the location hypothesis, and vice versa; the LM approach benefits the PDR approach by obtaining an absolute localization and reducing the PDR-alone drift. Even from an initially unknown location and orientation, whenever the person passes below a switched-on light spot, the location likelihood is iteratively updated until it potentially converges to a unimodal probability density function. The time to converge to a unimodal position hypothesis depends on the number of lights detected and the asymmetries/irregularities of the spatial distribution of lights. The proposed LM method does not require any intensity illumination calibration, just the pre-storage of the position and size of all lights in a building, irrespective of their current on/off state. This paper presents a detailed description of the light-matching concept, the implementation details of the LM-assisted PDR fusion scheme using a particle filter, and several simulated and experimental tests, using a light sensor-equipped Galaxy S3 smartphone and an external foot-mounted inertial sensor. The evaluation includes the LM-assisted PDR approach as well as the fusion with other signals of opportunity (WiFi, RFID, Magnetometers or Map-matching) in order to compare their contribution in obtaining high accuracy indoor localization. The integrated solution achieves a localization error lower than 1 m in most of the cases. PMID:24394599

  12. Improving inertial Pedestrian Dead-Reckoning by detecting unmodified switched-on lamps in buildings.

    PubMed

    Jiménez, Antonio R; Zampella, Francisco; Seco, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores how inertial Pedestrian Dead-Reckoning (PDR) location systems can be improved with the use of a light sensor to measure the illumination gradients created when a person walks under ceiling-mounted unmodified indoor lights. The process of updating the inertial PDR estimates with the information provided by light detections is a new concept that we have named Light-matching (LM). The displacement and orientation change of a person obtained by inertial PDR is used by the LM method to accurately propagate the location hypothesis, and vice versa; the LM approach benefits the PDR approach by obtaining an absolute localization and reducing the PDR-alone drift. Even from an initially unknown location and orientation, whenever the person passes below a switched-on light spot, the location likelihood is iteratively updated until it potentially converges to a unimodal probability density function. The time to converge to a unimodal position hypothesis depends on the number of lights detected and the asymmetries/irregularities of the spatial distribution of lights. The proposed LM method does not require any intensity illumination calibration, just the pre-storage of the position and size of all lights in a building, irrespective of their current on/off state. This paper presents a detailed description of the light-matching concept, the implementation details of the LM-assisted PDR fusion scheme using a particle filter, and several simulated and experimental tests, using a light sensor-equipped Galaxy S3 smartphone and an external foot-mounted inertial sensor. The evaluation includes the LM-assisted PDR approach as well as the fusion with other signals of opportunity (WiFi, RFID, Magnetometers or Map-matching) in order to compare their contribution in obtaining high accuracy indoor localization. The integrated solution achieves a localization error lower than 1 m in most of the cases. PMID:24394599

  13. Electrochemical Sensors for Clinic Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, You; Xu, Hui; Zhang, Jianming; Li, Guang

    2008-01-01

    Demanded by modern medical diagnosis, advances in microfabrication technology have led to the development of fast, sensitive and selective electrochemical sensors for clinic analysis. This review addresses the principles behind electrochemical sensor design and fabrication, and introduces recent progress in the application of electrochemical sensors to analysis of clinical chemicals such as blood gases, electrolytes, metabolites, DNA and antibodies, including basic and applied research. Miniaturized commercial electrochemical biosensors will form the basis of inexpensive and easy to use devices for acquiring chemical information to bring sophisticated analytical capabilities to the non-specialist and general public alike in the future.

  14. Photoelastic sensors

    SciTech Connect

    Kulakov, G.I.

    1985-07-01

    This paper presents the result of a study of photoelastic sensors which makes it possible to explain many mechanical and physical features of the operation of annular photoelastic borehole sensors and to plan ways of utilizing these features for interpreting the sensor readings.

  15. Unraveling the 'DEAD-box' helicases of Plasmodium falciparum.

    PubMed

    Tuteja, Renu; Pradhan, Arun

    2006-07-01

    The causative agent for the most fatal form of malaria, Plasmodium falciparum, has developed insecticide and drug resistance with time. Therefore combating this disease is becoming increasingly difficult and this calls for finding alternate ways to control malaria. One of the feasible ways could be to find out inhibitors/drugs specific for the indispensable enzymes of malaria parasite such as helicases. These helicases, which contain intrinsic nucleic acid-dependent ATPase activity, are capable of enzymatically unwinding energetically stable duplex nucleic acids into single-stranded templates and are required for all the nucleic acid transactions. Most of the helicases contain a set of nine extremely conserved amino acid sequences, which are called 'helicase motifs'. Due to the presence of the DEAD (Asp-Glu-Ala-Asp) in one of the conserved motifs, this family is also known as the 'DEAD-box' family. In this review, using bioinformatic approach, we describe the 'DEAD-box' helicases of malaria parasite P. falciparum. An in depth analysis shows that the parasite contains 22 full-length genes, some of which are homologues of well-characterized helicases of this family from other organisms. Recently we have cloned and characterized the first member of this family, which is a homologue of p68 and is expressed during the schizont stage of the development of the parasite [Pradhan, A., Chauhan, V.S., Tuteja, R., 2005a. A novel 'DEAD-box' DNA helicase from Plasmodium falciparum is homologous to p68. Mol. Biochem. Parasitol. 140, 55-60.; Pradhan A., Chauhan V.S., Tuteja R., 2005b. Plasmodium falciparum DNA helicase 60 is a schizont stage specific, bipolar and dual helicase stimulated by PKC phosphorylation. Mol. Biochem. Parasitol. 144, 133-141.]. It will be really interesting to clone and characterize other members of the 'DEAD-box' family and understand their role in the replication and transmission of the parasite. These detailed studies may help to identify a parasite

  16. 5000 yr of paleoseismicity along the southern Dead Sea fault

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klinger, Y.; Le Béon, M.; Al-Qaryouti, M.

    2015-07-01

    The 1000-km-long left-lateral Dead Sea fault is a major tectonic structure of the oriental Mediterranean basin, bounding the Arabian Plate to the west. The fault is located in a region with an exceptionally long and rich historical record, allowing to document historical seismicity catalogues with unprecedented level of details. However, if the earthquake time series is well documented, location and lateral extent of past earthquakes remain often difficult to establish, if only based on historical testimonies. We excavated a palaeoseismic trench in a site located in a kilometre-size extensional jog, south of the Dead Sea, in the Wadi Araba. Based on the stratigraphy exposed in the trench, we present evidence for nine earthquakes that produced surface ruptures during a time period spanning 5000 yr. Abundance of datable material allows us to tie the five most recent events to historical earthquakes with little ambiguities, and to constrain the possible location of these historical earthquakes. The events identified at our site are the 1458 C.E., 1212 C.E., 1068 C.E., one event during the 8th century crisis, and the 363 C.E. earthquake. Four other events are also identified, which correlation with historical events remains more speculative. The magnitude of earthquakes is difficult to assess based on evidence at one site only. The deformation observed in the excavation, however, allows discriminating between two classes of events that produced vertical deformation with one order of amplitude difference, suggesting that we could distinguish earthquakes that started/stopped at our site from earthquakes that potentially ruptured most of the Wadi Araba fault. The time distribution of earthquakes during the past 5000 yr is uneven. The early period shows little activity with return interval of ˜500 yr or longer. It is followed by a ˜1500-yr-long period with more frequent events, about every 200 yr. Then, for the past ˜550 yr, the fault has switched back to a quieter mode

  17. Effect of the Dead Sea-Red Sea canal modelling on the prediction of the Dead Sea conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asmar, B. N.; Ergenzinger, Peter

    2003-06-01

    A project to link the Dead Sea to the Red Sea via a canal is undergoing extensive study. In previous works, a generalized mathematical model describing the state of the Dead Sea and a simulation model to implement it have been developed. The model is extended to include the proposed canal project and investigates two alternative modelling canal scenarios: (1) introducing the canal water inflow into the bottom layer or (2) the top layer of the sea. The predicted general effects of the canal are the restoration of the water level of the sea to pre-1970s level; an increase in the total evaporation rate and a decrease in the top layer salinity. Implementing scenario 1, the model predicts that: the water level of the Dead Sea will exceed the desired level design value and therefore shorter filling time can be used; seasonal stratification will persist; total evaporation rate will increase Modestly; there will a small decrease in the salinity of the top layer but a substantial decrease in the salinity of the bottom layer, which will hurt industries severely; there will be a continuation of seasonal crystallization of aragonite and gypsum. Implementing scenario 2 the model predicts that: the water level of the Dead Sea will be maintained at the desired level design value; stratification will be re-established, with the formation of a permanent two-layer system; there will be a substantial increase in the total evaporation rate; the salinity of the top layer will decrease significantly but there will be continuous slower salinity increase in the bottom layer; the crystallization of aragonite will cease, but seasonal gypsum crystallization can be expected to continue as soon as the filling period ends and the canal shifts into normal operation.

  18. Dermatomyositis: Diagnosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... of bundles of muscle fibers, and capillaries are scarce in these regions. About Dermatomyositis (DM) Signs and Symptoms Diagnosis Causes/Inheritance Medical Management Research Living With Dermatomyositis (DM) News Not Always Smooth Sailing- A Quest Article April 30, 2007 Putting Out the Fire- A ...

  19. Stretchable E-Skin Apexcardiogram Sensor.

    PubMed

    You, Insang; Kim, Bongsoo; Park, Jaeyoon; Koh, Kunsuk; Shin, Sangbaie; Jung, Sungjune; Jeong, Unyong

    2016-08-01

    A new strategy to measure the apex cardiogram with electronic skin technology is presented. An electronic skin apexcardiogram sensor, which can compensate the conventional electrocardiogram for cardiac diagnosis, is demonstrated through a highly sensitive and stretchable strain sensor with gold-nanoparticle composites. PMID:27168420

  20. Comparative Growth and Development of Spiders Reared on Live and Dead Prey

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Yu; Zhang, Fan; Gui, Shaolan; Qiao, Huping; Hose, Grant C.

    2013-01-01

    Scavenging (feeding on dead prey) has been demonstrated across a number of spider families, yet the implications of feeding on dead prey for the growth and development of individuals and population is unknown. In this study we compare the growth, development, and predatory activity of two species of spiders that were fed on live and dead prey. Pardosa astrigera (Lycosidae) and Hylyphantes graminicola (Lyniphiidae) were fed live or dead fruit flies, Drosophila melanogaster. The survival of P. astrigera and H. graminicola was not affected by prey type. The duration of late instars of P. astrigera fed dead prey were longer and mature spiders had less protein content than those fed live prey, whereas there were no differences in the rate of H. graminicola development, but the mass of mature spiders fed dead prey was greater than those fed live prey. Predation rates by P. astrigera did not differ between the two prey types, but H. graminicola had a higher rate of predation on dead than alive prey, presumably because the dead flies were easier to catch and handle. Overall, the growth, development and reproduction of H. graminicola reared with dead flies was better than those reared on live flies, yet for the larger P. astrigera, dead prey may suit smaller instars but mature spiders may be best maintained with live prey. We have clearly demonstrated that dead prey may be suitable for rearing spiders, although the success of the spiders fed such prey appears size- and species specific. PMID:24386248

  1. Freshening of the Dead Sea during the Last Glacial Revealed By Porewater Composition in ICDP Dead Sea Deep-Drill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazar, B.; Sivan, O.; Yechieli, Y.; Levy, E. J.; Antler, G.; Gavrieli, I.; Stein, M.

    2014-12-01

    The geological evolution of the brine lakes that filled the Dead Sea basin has been extensively studied on the sedimentary exposures and drill cores on the Sea marginal terraces of the modern Dead Sea. These geological sections documented the history of the epilimnion (upper brine) of the hypersaline lake during its high stands periods. The cores drilled during 2011 by ICDP in the deep basin of the Dead Sea at water depth of 300 m provided the first opportunity to study the history of the deepest part of the hypolimnion (deep brine) by measuring the chemical and isotopic composition of pore-fluids. The vertical profiles of chloride (Cl-) sodium (Na+) and oxygen isotopes (δ18O) in the pore brines revealed a substantial decrease in salinity of the hypolimnion during the high stand of the last glacial Lake Lisan (the last glacial predecessor of the modern Dead Sea), particularly during MIS2 (~31-17 ka BP). Diffusion-deposition model indicated that Cl- concentration of the deep hypolimnetic brine decreased gradually to less than 2/3 of its present value. The δ18O at the same time increased to maximum of ~7‰ (3‰ higher than today). Beforehand, during the interglacial and later during the post-glacial and the Holocene the Cl- concentrations and δ18O values were similar to those of the modern Dead Sea. The slow dilution of the deep Ca-chloride brine was caused probably by continuous turbulent mixing of the hypolimnion with the less saline high δ18O epilimnetic brine, across the epilimnion/hypolimnion interface (EHI). The increase in δ18O during the salinity decrease of Lake Lisan was a result of evaporative fractionation of the less saline epilimnetic brine. The post-glacial δ18O decrease while salinity increased is attributed to the "reversed" δ18O fractionation during evaporation of very high salinity brine. Increase in the Na/Cl ratio due to dissolution of halite without reaching halite saturation was also observed during the freshening period.

  2. Space Radar Image of Jerusalem and the Dead Sea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This space radar image shows the area surrounding the Dead Sea along the West Bank between Israel and Jordan. This region is of major cultural and historical importance to millions of Muslims, Jews and Christians who consider it the Holy Land. The yellow area at the top of the image is the city of Jericho. A portion of the Dead Sea is shown as the large black area at the top right side of the image. The Jordan River is the white line at the top of the image which flows into the Dead Sea. Jerusalem, which lies in the Judaean Hill Country, is the bright, yellowish area shown along the left center of the image. Just below and to the right of Jerusalem is the town of Bethlehem. The city of Hebron is the white, yellowish area near the bottom of the image. The area around Jerusalem has a history of more than 2,000 years of settlement and scientists are hoping to use these data to unveil more about this region's past. The Jordan River Valley is part of an active fault and rift system that extends from southern Turkey and connects with the east African rift zone. This fault system has produced major earthquakes throughout history and some scientists theorize that an earthquake may have caused the fall of Jericho's walls. The Dead Sea basin is formed by active earthquake faulting and contains the lowest place on the Earth's surface at about 400 meters (1,300 feet) below sea level. It was in caves along the northern shore of the Dead Sea that the Dead Sea Scrolls were found in 1947. The blue and green areas are generally regions of undeveloped hills and the dark green areas are the smooth lowlands of the Jordan River valley. This image is 73 kilometers by 45 kilometers (45 miles by 28 miles) and is centered at 31.7 degrees north latitude, 35.4 degrees east longitude. North is toward the upper left. The colors are assigned to different radar frequencies and polarizations as follows: red is L-band, horizontally transmitted and vertically received; green is L-band, horizontally

  3. Melanoma Diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horsch, Alexander

    The chapter deals with the diagnosis of the malignant melanoma of the skin. This aggressive type of cancer with steadily growing incidence in white populations can hundred percent be cured if it is detected in an early stage. Imaging techniques, in particular dermoscopy, have contributed significantly to improvement of diagnostic accuracy in clinical settings, achieving sensitivities for melanoma experts of beyond 95% at specificities of 90% and more. Automatic computer analysis of dermoscopy images has, in preliminary studies, achieved classification rates comparable to those of experts. However, the diagnosis of melanoma requires a lot of training and experience, and at the time being, average numbers of lesions excised per histology-proven melanoma are around 30, a number which clearly is too high. Further improvements in computer dermoscopy systems and their competent use in clinical settings certainly have the potential to support efforts of improving this situation. In the chapter, medical basics, current state of melanoma diagnosis, image analysis methods, commercial dermoscopy systems, evaluation of systems, and methods and future directions are presented.

  4. Seasonal variations of halite saturation in the Dead Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sirota, Ido; Arnon, Ali; Lensky, Nadav

    2016-04-01

    Thermohaline stratification in hypersaline lakes expected having influence upon the brine's degree of saturation, due to the dependency of halite solubility on temperature and salinity. Spatio-temporal variations of halite degree of saturation is unknown, thus, a systematic field study is requires in order to quantify super and under-saturation of the brine. The Dead Sea is a hypersaline terminal lake, experiencing a continuous level drop since the mid-20th century. Transition to monomictic conditions at the beginning of the 1980's caused supersaturation of the brine and initiated precipitation of halite. Evaporation from the brine surface results in an upper warmer-saltier layer (epilimnion), separated from the lower colder-less salty layer (hypolimnion) by a 20-30m deep thermocline. However, linkage between limnologic seasonal cycle and halite degree of saturation is unclear. Direct evidence of brine density and temperature, halite crystallization rates and photography of Dead Sea floor reflect limnological conditions and halite crystallization pattern, and were therefore used in this study. Here we show simultaneous existence of opposite evaporitic environments, governed by depth, in the Dead Sea. During summer, the epilimnion is under-saturated with respect to halite, and halite dissolution dominates, while the hypolimnion is super-saturated with respect to halite, thus, precipitation dominates. During winter continuous halite precipitation is evident along the water column. Our results show that non-uniform vertical halite precipitation can occur in a compositional homogeneous water body, controlled by the limnologic conditions. These findings can be used for interpretation of depositional environment of halite sequences.

  5. Machine learning techniques for fault isolation and sensor placement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carnes, James R.; Fisher, Douglas H.

    1993-01-01

    Fault isolation and sensor placement are vital for monitoring and diagnosis. A sensor conveys information about a system's state that guides troubleshooting if problems arise. We are using machine learning methods to uncover behavioral patterns over snapshots of system simulations that will aid fault isolation and sensor placement, with an eye towards minimality, fault coverage, and noise tolerance.

  6. Statistical Fault Detection & Diagnosis Expert System

    SciTech Connect

    Wegerich, Stephan

    1996-12-18

    STATMON is an expert system that performs real-time fault detection and diagnosis of redundant sensors in any industrial process requiring high reliability. After a training period performed during normal operation, the expert system monitors the statistical properties of the incoming signals using a pattern recognition test. If the test determines that statistical properties of the signals have changed, the expert system performs a sequence of logical steps to determine which sensor or machine component has degraded.

  7. Ecological functions of tetrodotoxin in a deadly polyclad flatworm

    PubMed Central

    Ritson-Williams, Raphael; Yotsu-Yamashita, Mari; Paul, Valerie J.

    2006-01-01

    The deadly neurotoxin tetrodotoxin (TTX) is found in a variety of animal phyla and, because of its toxicity, is most often assumed to deter predation. On the tropical Pacific island of Guam, we found an undescribed flatworm (planocerid sp. 1) that contains high levels of TTX and its analogs. Through ecological experiments, we show that TTXs do not protect these flatworms from some predators but instead are used to capture mobile prey. TTX is known to have multiple ecological functions, which has probably led to its widespread presence among prokaryotes and at least 10 metazoan phyla. PMID:16492790

  8. Sensor web

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delin, Kevin A. (Inventor); Jackson, Shannon P. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A Sensor Web formed of a number of different sensor pods. Each of the sensor pods include a clock which is synchronized with a master clock so that all of the sensor pods in the Web have a synchronized clock. The synchronization is carried out by first using a coarse synchronization which takes less power, and subsequently carrying out a fine synchronization to make a fine sync of all the pods on the Web. After the synchronization, the pods ping their neighbors to determine which pods are listening and responded, and then only listen during time slots corresponding to those pods which respond.

  9. Kinematic Model-Based Pedestrian Dead Reckoning for Heading Correction and Lower Body Motion Tracking

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Min Su; Ju, Hojin; Song, Jin Woo; Park, Chan Gook

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we present a method for finding the enhanced heading and position of pedestrians by fusing the Zero velocity UPdaTe (ZUPT)-based pedestrian dead reckoning (PDR) and the kinematic constraints of the lower human body. ZUPT is a well known algorithm for PDR, and provides a sufficiently accurate position solution for short term periods, but it cannot guarantee a stable and reliable heading because it suffers from magnetic disturbance in determining heading angles, which degrades the overall position accuracy as time passes. The basic idea of the proposed algorithm is integrating the left and right foot positions obtained by ZUPTs with the heading and position information from an IMU mounted on the waist. To integrate this information, a kinematic model of the lower human body, which is calculated by using orientation sensors mounted on both thighs and calves, is adopted. We note that the position of the left and right feet cannot be apart because of the kinematic constraints of the body, so the kinematic model generates new measurements for the waist position. The Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) on the waist data that estimates and corrects error states uses these measurements and magnetic heading measurements, which enhances the heading accuracy. The updated position information is fed into the foot mounted sensors, and reupdate processes are performed to correct the position error of each foot. The proposed update-reupdate technique consequently ensures improved observability of error states and position accuracy. Moreover, the proposed method provides all the information about the lower human body, so that it can be applied more effectively to motion tracking. The effectiveness of the proposed algorithm is verified via experimental results, which show that a 1.25% Return Position Error (RPE) with respect to walking distance is achieved. PMID:26561814

  10. Kinematic Model-Based Pedestrian Dead Reckoning for Heading Correction and Lower Body Motion Tracking.

    PubMed

    Lee, Min Su; Ju, Hojin; Song, Jin Woo; Park, Chan Gook

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we present a method for finding the enhanced heading and position of pedestrians by fusing the Zero velocity UPdaTe (ZUPT)-based pedestrian dead reckoning (PDR) and the kinematic constraints of the lower human body. ZUPT is a well known algorithm for PDR, and provides a sufficiently accurate position solution for short term periods, but it cannot guarantee a stable and reliable heading because it suffers from magnetic disturbance in determining heading angles, which degrades the overall position accuracy as time passes. The basic idea of the proposed algorithm is integrating the left and right foot positions obtained by ZUPTs with the heading and position information from an IMU mounted on the waist. To integrate this information, a kinematic model of the lower human body, which is calculated by using orientation sensors mounted on both thighs and calves, is adopted. We note that the position of the left and right feet cannot be apart because of the kinematic constraints of the body, so the kinematic model generates new measurements for the waist position. The Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) on the waist data that estimates and corrects error states uses these measurements and magnetic heading measurements, which enhances the heading accuracy. The updated position information is fed into the foot mounted sensors, and reupdate processes are performed to correct the position error of each foot. The proposed update-reupdate technique consequently ensures improved observability of error states and position accuracy. Moreover, the proposed method provides all the information about the lower human body, so that it can be applied more effectively to motion tracking. The effectiveness of the proposed algorithm is verified via experimental results, which show that a 1.25% Return Position Error (RPE) with respect to walking distance is achieved. PMID:26561814

  11. Method for detection of a few pathogenic bacteria and determination of live versus dead cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horikawa, Shin; Chen, I.-Hsuan; Du, Songtao; Liu, Yuzhe; Wikle, Howard C.; Suh, Sang-Jin; Barbaree, James M.; Chin, Bryan A.

    2016-05-01

    This paper presents a method for detection of a few pathogenic bacteria and determination of live versus dead cells. The method combines wireless phage-coated magnetoelastic (ME) biosensors and a surface-scanning dectector, enabling real-time monitoring of the growth of specific bacteria in a nutrient broth. The ME biosensor used in this investigation is composed of a strip-shaped ME resonator upon which an engineered bacteriophage is coated to capture a pathogen of interest. E2 phage with high binding affinity for Salmonella Typhimurium was used as a model study. The specificity of E2 phage has been reported to be 1 in 105 background bacteria. The phage-coated ME biosensors were first exposed to a low-concentration Salmonella suspension to capture roughly 300 cells on the sensor surface. When the growth of Salmonella in the broth occurs, the mass of the biosensor increases, which results in a decrease in the biosensor's resonant frequency. Monitoring of this mass- induced resonant frequency change allows for real-time detection of the presence of Salmonella. Detection of a few bacteria is also possible by growing them to a sufficient number. The surface-scanning detector was used to measure resonant frequency changes of 25 biosensors sequentially in an automated manner as a function of time. This methodology offers direct, real-time detection, quantification, and viability determination of specific bacteria. The rate of the sensor's resonant frequency change was found to be largely dependent on the number of initially bound cells and the efficiency of cell growth.

  12. The forgotten tragedy of unidentified dead in the Mediterranean.

    PubMed

    Cattaneo, C; Tidball Binz, M; Penados, L; Prieto, J; Finegan, O; Grandi, M

    2015-05-01

    The need to identify the dead - an issue of paramount importance for the forensic sciences - and its importance for humanitarian, administrative, judicial and other purposes are universal values enshrined by domestic and international law. However, for hundreds of men, women and children, migrants, who die every year in their attempt to cross the Mediterranean Sea to reach Europe this fundamental right remains unfulfilled. In order to address and bring solutions to this tragedy the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) carried out an assessment in 2012 and 2013 across European Mediterranean countries affected by irregular immigration across the sea (Italy, Greece, Malta, Portugal, France, Spain). An international meeting in 2013 among Southern European countries led to recommendations which should serve as a road-map for action. They are already guiding activities of the ICRC and other participant institutions. The Council of Europe, which endorsed the recommendations, has since stepped up its efforts to prevent and resolve the humanitarian consequences of migration, including the unidentified dead. Among other things it has called on its Member States to "set up a proper system of data collection of the mortal remains of people who lose their lives in the Mediterranean and make it swiftly accessible to relatives". PMID:25770023

  13. Degradation of Dead Microbial Biomass in a Marine Sediment

    PubMed Central

    Novitsky, James A.

    1986-01-01

    The availability of dead microbial biomass in a marine beach sand to degradation and mineralization was examined. Microbial sand populations were labeled with [14C]glutamic acid, [3H]adenine, or [3H]thymidine and killed with chloroform. Live sand or seawater (or both) was added to the sterile labeled sand, and biochemical components of the populations were monitored for 10 days. Labeled RNA was degraded more quickly than labeled DNA, but both nucleic acids were degraded to approximately the same extent (60 to 70%). 3H2O was a major acid-soluble breakdown product. RNA (and possibly DNA) breakdown products were reincorporated into DNA (and possibly RNA) during the incubation period. In addition to metabolite salvage, 32% of the total macromolecular 14C was respired in the 10-day period regardless of whether sand or seawater was used as the inoculum. Respiration was essentially complete in 3 days, whereas nucleic acid degradation continued throughout the 10-day incubation. The results indicate that dead microbial biomass is a labile component of the sediment ecosystem. PMID:16347148

  14. The dead zones: oxygen-starved coastal waters.

    PubMed

    Joyce, S

    2000-03-01

    After the great Mississippi River flood of 1993, the hypoxic (or low-oxygen) "dead zone" in the Gulf of Mexico more than doubled its size, reaching an all-time high of over 7,700 square miles in July of 1999. Scientists attribute the Gulf of Mexico dead zone largely to nutrient runoff from agriculture in the Mississippi River basin. During the warm months, these nutrients fuel eutrophication, or high organic production, causing large algal blooms. When the algae decay, the result is hypoxia. Reports of such hypoxic events around the world have been increasing since the mid 1960s. Eutrophication and hypoxia have resulted in mortality of bottom-dwelling life in dozens of marine ecosystems and have stressed fisheries worldwide. Some algal blooms can alter the function of coastal ecosystems or, potentially, threaten human health. Anthropogenic nutrient loading from sources such as agriculture, fossil fuel emissions, and climate events is believed to be related to the global increase in frequency, size, and duration of certain algal blooms. PMID:10706539

  15. Early Jurassic black shales: Global anoxia or regional "Dead Zones"?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van de Schootbrugge, B.; Payne, J.; Wignall, P.

    2012-12-01

    The so-called "Schwarzer Jura" or "Black Jurassic" in Germany is informally used to designate a series of organic-rich sediments that roughly span the Early Jurassic (201.6 - 175.6 Myr), and which culminate in the Toarcian Oceanic Anoxic Event. Based on organic and inorganic geochemical as well as (micro)palaeontological data from several recently drilled cores, black shales deposited directly following the end-Triassic extinction (201.6 Ma) during the Hettangian are extremely similar to Toarcian black shales. Both events are characterized by laminated black shales that contain high amounts of the biomarker isorenieratane, a fossilized pigment derived from green sulphur bacteria. Furthermore, the two intervals show similar changes in phytoplankton assemblages from chromophyte (red) to chlorophyte (green) algae. Combined, the evidence suggests that photic zone euxinia developed repeatedly during the Early Jurassic, making wide swaths of shelf area inhospitable to benthic life. In the oceans today such areas are called "Dead Zones" and they are increasing in number and extent due to the combined effects of man-made eutrophication and global warming. During the Early Jurassic, regional anoxic events developed in response to flood basalt volcanism, which triggered global warming, increased run-off, and changes in ocean circulation. The patchiness of Early Jurassic anoxia allows comparisons to be made with present-day "Dead Zones", while at the same time ocean de-oxygenation in the past may serve to predict future perturbations in the Earth system.

  16. Murdered father; dead father: revisiting the Oedipus complex.

    PubMed

    Perelberg, Rosine J

    2009-08-01

    This paper recovers the notion of the sacrifice of sexuality as the central, tragic, element of the oedipal structure. This notion has been largely abandoned in the psychoanalytic literature that has tended to reduce the oedipal structure to processes of exclusion. The paper traces the development of the theoretical and clinical transformations of Freud 's ideas on the role of the father and suggests that they allow us to more fully comprehend the Oedipus complex proposed by Freud. A paradox is explored: the killing of the father is, in Freud 's view, the requirement for the creation of the social order which, from then on, prohibits all killings. The father, however, has to be killed metaphorically only, as the actual exclusion of the father lies at the origin of so many psychopathologies from violence to the psychoses and perversions. The paper analyses the fundamental asymmetry that is present in the Oedipal structure and suggests that the three elements of the oedipal triangle constitute the law (of the dead father, that institutes the sacrifice of sexuality), desire (for the lost object) and identification (with both father and mother). Two clinical examples are discussed. In the first, one can identify a perverse structure in which the father has been murdered; in the second, there is a progressive construction of the dead (symbolic) father in the analytic process. PMID:19709021

  17. Contests with deadly weapons: telson sparring in mantis shrimp (Stomatopoda)

    PubMed Central

    Green, P. A.; Patek, S. N.

    2015-01-01

    Mantis shrimp strike with extreme impact forces that are deadly to prey. They also strike conspecifics during territorial contests, yet theoretical and empirical findings in aggressive behaviour research suggest competitors should resolve conflicts using signals before escalating to dangerous combat. We tested how Neogonodactylus bredini uses two ritualized behaviours to resolve size-matched contests: meral spread visual displays and telson (tailplate) strikes. We predicted that (i) most contests would be resolved by meral spreads, (ii) meral spreads would reliably signal strike force and (iii) strike force would predict contest success. The results were unexpected for each prediction. Contests were not resolved by meral spreads, instead escalating to striking in 33 of 34 experiments. The size of meral spread components did not strongly correlate with strike force. Strike force did not predict contest success; instead, winners delivered more strikes. Size-matched N. bredini avoid deadly combat not by visual displays, but by ritualistically and repeatedly striking each other's telsons until the loser retreats. We term this behaviour ‘telson sparring', analogous to sparring in other weapon systems. We present an alternative framework for mantis shrimp contests in which the fight itself is the signal, serving as a non-lethal indicator of aggressive persistence or endurance. PMID:26399976

  18. May we practise endotracheal intubation on the newly dead?

    PubMed Central

    Ardagh, M

    1997-01-01

    Endotracheal intubation (ETI) is a valuable procedure which must be learnt and practised, and performing ETI on cadavers is probably the best way to do this, although lesser alternatives do exist. Performing ETI on a cadaver is viewed with a real and reasonable repugnance and if it is done without proper authorisation it might be illegal. Some form of consent is required. Presumed consent would preferably be governed by statute and should only occur if the community is well informed and therefore in a position of being able to decline. Currently neither statute nor adequate informing exists. Endotracheal intubation on the newly dead may be justifiable according to a Guttman scale if the patient has already consented to organ donation and if further research supports the relevance of the Guttman scale to this question. A "mandated choice" with prior individual consent as a matter of public policy is the best of these solutions, however until such a solution is in place we may not practise endotracheal intubation on the newly dead. PMID:9358348

  19. Preservation of organs from brain dead donors with hyperbaric oxygen.

    PubMed

    Bayrakci, Benan

    2008-08-01

    Hyperbaric oxygen therapy is a technology that involves oxygen treatment at supra-atmospheric pressures in high concentrations, generating increased levels of physically dissolved oxygen in blood plasma. This form of transported oxygen, compared with oxygen chemically bound to hemoglobin, is able to enter tissues with minimal or almost no blood flow. Experimental studies have suggested that hyperoxemia provided by hyperbaric oxygen may be beneficial in the treatment of reperfusion injury. Organs procured from brain-dead hyperbaric oxygen-treated donors may have less cellular injury from ischemia, reperfusion, and no-reflow phenomenon, thus yielding organs in an optimized state for transplantation. This current report consists of a gratifying experience about hyperbaric oxygen treatment playing a possible role on preservation of donor organs in vivo. In the siblings reported here, improved organ function prior to transplantation and the successful organ functioning after transplantation suggests the possible beneficial effect of hyperbaric oxygen treatment on the ischemic insult generated from brain death and repetitive cardiac arrests. Hyperbaric oxygen seems to be a promising candidate as a bridge to transplantation, keeping the donated organs viable until the harvesting procedure can take place for potential brain dead donors. This experience may lead to further investigations on hyperbaric oxygen's role in donor organ preservation. PMID:18672481

  20. Management of the dead in Tacloban City after Typhoon Haiyan

    PubMed Central

    de los Reyes, Vikki Carr; Sucaldito, Ma Nemia; De Guzman, Alethea; Sy, Luis; Zapanta, Ma Justina; Avelino, Ferchito; Feliciano, Joselito; Tayag, Enrique

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The post-disaster management of the dead involves a series of steps including on-site identification, transfer, storage and examination of bodies and delivery to families for burial. Two weeks after Typhoon Haiyan, a team from the Department of Health (DOH) was tasked with identifying the dead in Tacloban City. Methods A suitable site for the collection of bodies was identified and an algorithm and standard data collection form developed. The retrieval of bodies was coordinated with the Bureau of Fire Protection personnel. Upon receipt of a body, two team members conducted a systematic external examination. Findings were documented, photos were taken and each body was assigned a unique number. Results The DOH team examined 128 bodies. Of these, the majority (86%) were complete bodies; 95% were decomposed and two were skeletonized. Two thirds (66%) were adults, sex was identifiable for 92%, and the male to female ratio was 1:1.4. The majority of adults were females. Only 11% were presumptively identified from documents in clothing; 89% remained unidentified. Conclusion From the limited setting of this study, we describe the process of rapid body processing post-Haiyan. We prioritized rapid processing over more technically complicated means of identification, including DNA testing. Our protocol showed a dignified and efficient way of identifying corpses. As local and regional laboratory capacity increases in the Philippines, the collection of DNA specimens may become part of the identification algorithm. PMID:26767135

  1. Using and respecting the dead human body: an anatomist's perspective.

    PubMed

    Jones, D Gareth

    2014-09-01

    In his stimulating article enquiring into what the living owe the dead, Wilkinson (2013, Clin. Anat. DOI: 10.1002/ca.22263) sought to unpack a range of ethical questions of considerable interest to anatomists. In this, he looked closely at the extent to which we are or are not to respect all the prior wishes of the deceased, and the implications of this for the role of the family in providing consent, the use of unclaimed bodies, and the public display of bodies. Some of his conclusions challenge widely encountered views by anatomists. In this response I have re-visited these topics in an attempt to ground his arguments in the experience of anatomists, by emphasizing the many intimate connections that exist between each of these areas. The following emerge as issues for further debate. I accept that the wishes of the deceased are preeminent, so that authorities should make every effort to abide by these. This reiterates the importance of body bequests over against unclaimed bodies, and provides a context for assessing the role of family consent. This has repercussions for all activities employing dead bodies, from the dissecting room to public plastination exhibitions. In determining the extent to which the wishes of the deceased are followed the input of other interested parties is a relevant consideration. An ethical assessment of the public display of bodies needs to take into account the nature of the plastination process. PMID:24753363

  2. A multidisciplinary glider survey of an open ocean dead-zone eddy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karstensen, Johannes; Schütte, Florian; Pietri, Alice; Krahmann, Gerd; Fiedler, Björn; Löscher, Carolin; Grundle, Damian; Hauss, Helena; Körtzinger, Arne; Testor, Pierre; Viera, Nuno

    2016-04-01

    The physical (temperature, salinity) and biogeochemical (oxygen, nitrate, chlorophyll fluorescence, turbidity) structure of an anticyclonic modewater eddy, hosting an open ocean dead zone, is investigated using observational data sampled in high temporal and spatial resolution with autonomous gliders in March and April 2014. The core of the eddy is identified in the glider data as a volume of fresher (on isopycnals) water in the depth range from the mixed layer base (about 70m) to about 200m depth. The width is about 80km. The core aligns well with the 40 μmolkg‑1 oxygen contour. From two surveys about 1 month apart, changes in the minimal oxygen concentrations (below 5μmolkg‑1) are observed that indicate that small scale processes are in operation. Several scales of coherent variability of physical and biogeochemical variable are identified - from a few meters to the mesoscale. One of the gliders carried an autonomous Nitrate (N) sensor and the data is used to analyse the possible nitrogen pathways within the eddy. Also the highest N is accompanied by lowest oxygen concentrations, the AOU:N ratio reveals a preferred oxygen cycling per N.

  3. Internal bioerosion in dead and live hard corals in intertidal zone of Hormuz Island (Persian Gulf).

    PubMed

    Jafari, Mohammad Ali; Seyfabadi, Jafar; Shokri, Mohammad Reza

    2016-04-30

    Internal macrobioeroders and their erosion rate in three live and dead coral genera (Favia, Platygyra and Porites) from the intertidal zone of the Hormuz Island were studied by collecting five live and five dead colonies from each genus, from which 4 mm cross-sections were cut and photographed. Photos were analyzed using the Coral Point Count with Excel extensions. Totally, 9 taxa were identified: four bivalve species, one sponge, three polychaetes, and one barnacle. Bioerosion rate did not significantly differ among the three live corals, but among the dead ones only Porites was significantly more eroded than Favia. Sponge had the highest role in the erosion of the dead Platygyra, while barnacles were the most effective eroding organism in the live Platygyra. Polychaetes, followed by bivalves, were the most destructive bioeroders on the dead and live Porites. Further, none of the bioeroding organisms had selectively chosen either the dead or live Favia. PMID:26654335

  4. Density-surfactant-motivated removal of DNAPL trapped in dead-end fractures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeo, In Wook; Ji, Sung-Hoon; Lee, Kang-Kun

    2003-05-01

    Three kinds of experiments were conducted to test existing methods and develop an effective methodology for the remediation of DNAPL trapped in vertical dead-end fractures. A water-flushing method failed to remove TCE from vertical dead-end fractures where no fluid flow occurs. A water-flushing experiment implies that existing remediation methods, utilizing water-based remedial fluid such as surfactant-enhanced method, have difficulty in removing DNAPL trapped from the vertical downward dead-end fractures, because of no water flow through dead-end fractures, capillary, and gravity forces. Fluid denser than TCE was injected into the fracture network, but did not displace TCE from the vertical dead-end fractures. Based on the analysis of the experiments, the increase in the density of the dense fluid and the addition of surfactant to the dense fluid were suggested, and this composite dense fluid with surfactant effectively removed TCE from the vertical dead-end fractures.

  5. The Effect of dead-timeless silicon strip readout at CDF II

    SciTech Connect

    A. Affolder et al.

    2002-03-12

    The Run IIa CDF Silicon Upgrade has recently finished installation. The detector uses revision D of the SVX3 readout IC. This final revision incorporated new features in order to improve the potential of dead-timeless operation. This paper describes measurements of dead-timeless effects on silicon strip readout on the test bench. This paper also describes tests of the dynamic pedestal subtraction circuitry, which is shown to improve greatly the dead-timeless performance of the silicon systems.

  6. Measuring Helicase Inhibition of the DEAD-box Protein Dbp2 by Yra1

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Wai Kit; Tran, Elizabeth J.

    2016-01-01

    Despite the highly conserved helicase core, individual DEAD-box proteins are specialized in diverse RNA metabolic processes. One mechanism that determines DEAD-box protein specificity is enzymatic regulation by other protein cofactors. In this chapter, we describe a protocol for purifying the Saccharomyces cerevisiae DEAD-box RNA helicase Dbp2 and RNA-binding protein Yra1 and subsequent analysis of helicase regulation. The experiments described here can be adapted to RNA helicase and purified co-factor. PMID:25579587

  7. Temperature Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Weed Instrument Inc. produces a line of thermocouples - temperature sensors - for a variety of industrial and research uses. One of the company's newer products is a thermocouple specially designed for high accuracy at extreme temperatures above 3,000 degrees Fahrenheit. Development of sensor brought substantial increases in Weed Instrument sales and employment.

  8. Chemical sensors

    DOEpatents

    Lowell, J.R. Jr.; Edlund, D.J.; Friesen, D.T.; Rayfield, G.W.

    1991-07-02

    Sensors responsive to small changes in the concentration of chemical species are disclosed. The sensors comprise a mechanochemically responsive polymeric film capable of expansion or contraction in response to a change in its chemical environment. They are operatively coupled to a transducer capable of directly converting the expansion or contraction to a measurable electrical response. 9 figures.

  9. Chemical sensors

    SciTech Connect

    Hubbard, C.W.; Gordon, R.L.

    1987-05-01

    The revolution in analytical chemistry promised by recent developments in the field of chemical sensors has potential for significant positive impact on both research and production activities conducted by and for the Department of Energy. Analyses which were, in the past, performed only with a roomful of expensive equipment can now be performed with miniature solid-state electronic devices or small optical probes. Progress in the development of chemical sensors has been rapid, and the field is currently growing at a great rate. In accordance, Pacific Northwest Laboratory initiated a survey of recent literature so that contributors to active programs in research on analytical methods could be made aware of principles and applications of this new technology. This report presents the results of that survey. The sensors discussed here are divided into three types: micro solid-state devices, optical sensors, and piezoelectric crystal devices. The report is divided into three corresponding sections. The first section, ''Micro Solid-State Devices,'' discusses the design, operation, and application of electronic sensors that are produced in much the same way as standard solid-state electronic devices. The second section, ''Optrodes,'' covers the design and operation of chemical sensors that use fiber optics to detect chemically induced changes in optical properties. The final section, ''Piezoelectric Crystal Detectors,'' discusses two types of chemical sensors that depend on the changes in the properties of an oscillating piezoelectric crystal to detect the presence of certain materials. Advantages and disadvantages of each type of sensor are summarized in each section.

  10. Biliary pancreatitis. Deadly threat to the elderly. Is it a real threat?

    PubMed Central

    Malik, Arshad Mehmood

    2015-01-01

    Objective/Introduction Gallstone pancreatitis is a deadly disease and especially so in the elderly. This study highlights the incidence, pattern and management of acute biliary pancreatitis in the elderly patients to find out the outcome of management. Methods All patients of acute abdomen regardless of the age and gender of the patients were admitted in our unit at Liaquat University of Medical and Health Sciences and different private hospitals in Hyderabad during 3 years commencing from June 2009 to June 2011. The data was collected on a proforma by the author as soon as the patients were received from the emergency. After admission the patients with the diagnosis of acute biliary pancreatitis on initial workup were inducted in this study. The variables studied included the incidence, severity and management outcome in patients 55 years and above compared to younger patients below 55 years. Results A total number of 650 patients regardless of gender with acute severe abdominal pain were brought to the emergency of which 131(20.15%) were diagnosed as acute biliary pancreatitis after initial work up. Out of the total patients diagnosed as acute pancreatitis, 63(48.09%) patients were <55 years of age and remaining 68(51.90%) patients were >55 years of age. The overall mortality in this study was 20.63 %( n=13) in elderly patients (> 55 years of age) in both the sexes despite all possible treatment measures. Conclusion Elderly people respond poorly to the acute insult to pancreatitis. PMID:25901131

  11. Effect of dead leaves on early spring dust emission in East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Jung-Yoon; Tanaka, Taichu Y.; Mikami, Masao

    2014-04-01

    Dead leaves remaining after the growing season can suppress dust emission by wind erosion, but this has not been considered in numerical models of dust emission. We investigated the effect of dead leaves by analyzing surface meteorological data and numerical simulations for early spring Asian dust events, and propose a parameterization of the dead-leaf effect. World Meteorological Organization (WMO) synoptic data indicate that high vegetation cover from the previous year can increase the threshold friction velocity for early spring of the following year. The reduction rate of dead leaves is calculated using 10-year averaged monthly vegetation cover data derived from the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), assuming that the amount of dead leaves decreases linearly, and the amount of dead leaves is included in calculating threshold friction velocity. To investigate the effect of dead leaves in simulations of Asian dust events, case studies were carried out with and without the dead-leaf effect for early spring Asian dust events using a Weather Research and Forecasting with Chemistry (WRF-Chem) model with a new dust emission scheme. Including the dead-leaf effect improved the model results, and the modeled surface concentrations are similar to the observed PM10 concentrations.

  12. Dead zone characteristics of SQS and GM modes in Kr-, Ar- and Ne-Mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Nohtomi, A.; Sakae, T.; Matoba, M. ); Koori, N. )

    1992-08-01

    In this paper, dead zones of a gas counter are studied systematically for various gas mixtures at gas pressures equal to and lower than 1 atm. Evaluated values of the dead zone for the self-quenching streamer (SQS) mode were 190-390 [mu]s [center dot] at 1 atm. Characteristics of the dead zone were explained by considering the effect of SQS ions. The critical gas pressure, at which the operation mode changes form the SQS mode to the GM mode, was determined for each gas mixture on the basis of the dead zone measurement. Operation mode diagrams of the counter were drawn according to those results.

  13. THE ROLE OF DEAD WOOD IN MAINTAINING ARTHROPOD DIVERSITY ON THE FOREST FLOOR.

    SciTech Connect

    Hanula, James L.; Horn, Scott; Wade, Dale D.

    2006-08-01

    Abstract—Dead wood is a major component of forests and contributes to overall diversity, primarily by supporting insects that feed directly on or in it. Further, a variety of organisms benefit by feeding on those insects. What is not well known is how or whether dead wood influences the composition of the arthropod community that is not solely dependent on it as a food resource, or whether woody debris influences prey available to generalist predators. One group likely to be affected by dead wood is ground-dwelling arthropods. We studied the effect of adding large dead wood to unburned and frequently burned pine stands to determine if dead wood was used more when the litter and understory plant community are removed. We also studied the effect of annual removal of dead wood from large (10-ha) plots over a 5-year period on ground-dwelling arthropods. In related studies, we examined the relationships among an endangered woodpecker that forages for prey on live trees, its prey, and dead wood in the forest. The results of these and other studies show that dead wood can influence the abundance and diversity of the ground-dwelling arthropod community and of prey available to generalist predators not foraging directly on dead trees.

  14. Use of lactose against the deadly biological toxin ricin.

    PubMed

    Nagatsuka, Takehiro; Uzawa, Hirotaka; Ohsawa, Isaac; Seto, Yasuo; Nishida, Yoshihiro

    2010-04-01

    Developing a technology for detecting and decontaminating biological toxins is needed. Ricin from Ricinus communis is a highly poisonous toxin; it was formerly used for an assassination in London and in postal attacks in the United States. Ricin is readily available from castor beans and could be used as a biological agent. We propose using glycotechnology against the illegal use of ricin. Lactose (a natural ligand of this toxin) was incorporated into polyacrylamide-based glycopolymers at variable sugar densities (18-100%) and evaluated with surface plasmon resonance (SPR) spectroscopy and the real agent, ricin. Glycopolymers (18-65% lactose densities) effectively interfered with the toxin-lactoside adhesion event (>99% efficiency within 20 min). This supported the notion of using the mammary sugar lactose against a deadly biological toxin. PMID:20369893

  15. Investigation of acoustically dead materials for resonant ultrasound spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Betts, Jonathan; Maiorov, Boris; Ramshaw, Brad; Shehter, Arkady; Migliori, Albert

    2015-03-01

    Resonant Ultrasound Spectroscopy is used to excite mechanical resonances in solid samples. By precisely knowing the resonant frequency the complete elastic tensor of the sample can be calculated. In practice unwanted resonances are also created in the sample holder structure, these resonances are not related to the sample and can often confuse the measurement. To reduce this problem we have investigated the use of acoustically ``dead'' materials. We present data from various natural and synthetic materials. We also present RUS sample holder designs that can be used from <4K up to 700K and in magnet fields up to 45T. The elastic tensor of poly-crystal beryllium will be presented as a demonstration of the system performance.

  16. Metagenome of a versatile chemolithoautotroph from expanding oceanic dead zones.

    PubMed

    Walsh, David A; Zaikova, Elena; Howes, Charles G; Song, Young C; Wright, Jody J; Tringe, Susannah G; Tortell, Philippe D; Hallam, Steven J

    2009-10-23

    Oxygen minimum zones, also known as oceanic "dead zones," are widespread oceanographic features currently expanding because of global warming. Although inhospitable to metazoan life, they support a cryptic microbiota whose metabolic activities affect nutrient and trace gas cycling within the global ocean. Here, we report metagenomic analyses of a ubiquitous and abundant but uncultivated oxygen minimum zone microbe (SUP05) related to chemoautotrophic gill symbionts of deep-sea clams and mussels. The SUP05 metagenome harbors a versatile repertoire of genes mediating autotrophic carbon assimilation, sulfur oxidation, and nitrate respiration responsive to a wide range of water-column redox states. Our analysis provides a genomic foundation for understanding the ecological and biogeochemical role of pelagic SUP05 in oxygen-deficient oceanic waters and its potential sensitivity to environmental changes. PMID:19900896

  17. Life in the end-Permian dead zone

    PubMed Central

    Looy, Cindy V.; Twitchett, Richard J.; Dilcher, David L.; Van Konijnenburg-Van Cittert, Johanna H. A.; Visscher, Henk

    2001-01-01

    The fossil record of land plants is an obvious source of information on the dynamics of mass extinctions in the geological past. In conjunction with the end-Permian ecological crisis, ≈250 million years ago, palynological data from East Greenland reveal some unanticipated patterns. We document the significant time lag between terrestrial ecosystem collapse and selective extinction among characteristic Late Permian plants. Furthermore, ecological crisis resulted in an initial increase in plant diversity, instead of a decrease. Paradoxically, these floral patterns correspond to a “dead zone” in the end-Permian faunal record, characterized by a paucity of marine invertebrate megafossils. The time-delayed, end-Permian plant extinctions resemble modeled “extinction debt” responses of multispecies metapopulations to progressive habitat destruction. PMID:11427710

  18. Between My Body and My "Dead Body": Narratives of Coma.

    PubMed

    Meoded Danon, Limor

    2016-01-01

    This article is based on narrative research that focuses on corporeal experience during coma and during the rehabilitation process. Seventeen participants from different areas of Israel who had been in various kinds of coma states reveal what the corporeal experience of coma is. The participants are divided into three types of narrative protagonists--"dead-alive," "rational," and "emissaries." Each of the participants redefined the boundaries of the body, especially in cases when they spoke of experiences they did not understand as corporeal, for example, out-of-body experiences, near-death experiences, or experiences of being between the earthly and unearthly. Their struggle to find suitable words to tell their coma stories emphasizes these boundaries between experiencing and telling, which crossed the normative discursive border of the medical establishment and illustrates the ambiguous nature of human existence. PMID:25810464

  19. DNAPL invasion into a partially saturated dead-end fracture

    SciTech Connect

    gwsu@lbl.gov

    2004-06-17

    The critical height for DNAPL entry into a partially watersaturated, dead-end fracture is derived and compared to laboratoryobservations. Experiments conducted in an analog, parallel-plate fracturedemonstrate that DNAPL accumulates above the water until the height ofthe DNAPL overcomes the sum of the capillary forces at the DNAPL-airinterface and at the DNAPL-water interface. These experiments also showthat DNAPL preferentially enters the water at locations where DNAPL haspreviously entered, and the entry heights for these subsequent entriesare lower than the heights measured for the initial invasion. The wettingcontact angle at the DNAPL-water interface becomes larger at thelocations where the DNAPL has already entered the water because ofresidual DNAPL on the fracture walls, which results in lowering thecritical entry height at those locations. The experiments alsodemonstrate that a DNAPL lens can remain nearly immobile above the waterfor a period of time before eventually redistributing itself and enteringthe water.

  20. Hendra and Nipah viruses: why are they so deadly?

    PubMed

    Marsh, Glenn A; Wang, Lin-Fa

    2012-06-01

    Henipavirus, including Hendra and Nipah viruses, is a group of emerging bat-borne paramyxoviruses which were responsible for severe disease outbreaks in humans, horses and pigs. The mortality rate of human infection varies between 50 and 100%, making them one of the most deadly viruses known to infect humans. Its use of highly conserved cell surface molecules (ephrin) as entry receptors and its highly effective replication and fusion strategies are believed to be important characteristics responsible for its high pathogenicity. Henipavirus also encodes multiple accessory proteins which play a key role in evasion of host innate immune responses. Our recent study on the mechanism of IFN antagonism by henipaviruses indicated that a better understanding of the virus-host interaction provides great potential to develop new therapeutic strategies against these viruses. PMID:22483665

  1. Metagenome of a Versatile Chemolithoautotroph from Expanding Oceanic Dead Zones

    SciTech Connect

    Walsh, David A.; Zaikova, Elena; Howes, Charles L.; Song, Young; Wright, Jody; Tringe, Susannah G.; Tortell, Philippe D.; Hallam, Steven J.

    2009-07-15

    Oxygen minimum zones (OMZs), also known as oceanic"dead zones", are widespread oceanographic features currently expanding due to global warming and coastal eutrophication. Although inhospitable to metazoan life, OMZs support a thriving but cryptic microbiota whose combined metabolic activity is intimately connected to nutrient and trace gas cycling within the global ocean. Here we report time-resolved metagenomic analyses of a ubiquitous and abundant but uncultivated OMZ microbe (SUP05) closely related to chemoautotrophic gill symbionts of deep-sea clams and mussels. The SUP05 metagenome harbors a versatile repertoire of genes mediating autotrophic carbon assimilation, sulfur-oxidation and nitrate respiration responsive to a wide range of water column redox states. Thus, SUP05 plays integral roles in shaping nutrient and energy flow within oxygen-deficient oceanic waters via carbon sequestration, sulfide detoxification and biological nitrogen loss with important implications for marine productivity and atmospheric greenhouse control.

  2. Integration of the equations of movement in dead reckoning navigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banachowicz, A.; Wolski, A.

    2012-04-01

    Calculations of position coordinates in dead reckoning navigation essentially comes down to the integration of ship movements assuming an initial condition (position) of the ship. This corresponds to Cauchy's problem. However, in this case the ship's velocity vector as a derivative of its track (trajectory) is not a given function, but comes from navigational measurements performed in discrete time instants. Due to the discrete character of velocity vector or acceleration measurements, ship's movement equations particularly qualify for numerical calculations. In this case the equation nodes are the time instants of measurements and navigational parameter values read out at those instants. This article presents the applications of numerical integration of differential equations (movement) for measurements of velocity vectors and acceleration vector (inertial navigation systems). The considerations are illustrated with navigational measurements recorded during sea trials of the rescue ship integrated system.

  3. Open ocean dead zones in the tropical North Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karstensen, J.; Fiedler, B.; Schütte, F.; Brandt, P.; Körtzinger, A.; Fischer, G.; Zantopp, R.; Hahn, J.; Visbeck, M.; Wallace, D.

    2015-04-01

    Here we present first observations, from instrumentation installed on moorings and a float, of unexpectedly low (<2 μmol kg-1) oxygen environments in the open waters of the tropical North Atlantic, a region where oxygen concentration does normally not fall much below 40 μmol kg-1. The low-oxygen zones are created at shallow depth, just below the mixed layer, in the euphotic zone of cyclonic eddies and anticyclonic-modewater eddies. Both types of eddies are prone to high surface productivity. Net respiration rates for the eddies are found to be 3 to 5 times higher when compared with surrounding waters. Oxygen is lowest in the centre of the eddies, in a depth range where the swirl velocity, defining the transition between eddy and surroundings, has its maximum. It is assumed that the strong velocity at the outer rim of the eddies hampers the transport of properties across the eddies boundary and as such isolates their cores. This is supported by a remarkably stable hydrographic structure of the eddies core over periods of several months. The eddies propagate westward, at about 4 to 5 km day-1, from their generation region off the West African coast into the open ocean. High productivity and accompanying respiration, paired with sluggish exchange across the eddy boundary, create the "dead zone" inside the eddies, so far only reported for coastal areas or lakes. We observe a direct impact of the open ocean dead zones on the marine ecosystem as such that the diurnal vertical migration of zooplankton is suppressed inside the eddies.

  4. Measuring dead-space in acute lung injury.

    PubMed

    Kallet, R H

    2012-11-01

    Several recent studies have advanced our understanding of dead-space ventilation in patients with acute lung injury/acute respiratory distress syndrome (ALI/ARDS). They have demonstrated the utility of measuring physiologic dead-space-to-tidal volume ratio (VD/VT) and related variables in assessing outcomes as well as therapeutic interventions. These studies have included the evaluation of mortality risk, pulmonary perfusion, as well as the effectiveness of drug therapy, prone positioning, positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) titration, and inspiratory pattern in improving gas exchange. In patients with ALI/ARDS managed with lung-protective ventilation a significant relationship between elevated VD/VT and increased mortality continues to be reported in both early and intermediate phases of ALI/ARDS. Some clinical evidence now supports the suggestion that elevated VD/VT in part reflects the severity of pulmonary vascular endothelial damage. Monitoring VD/VT also appears useful in assessing alveolar recruitment when titrating PEEP and may be a particularly expedient method for assessing the effectiveness of prone positioning. It also has revealed how subtle manipulations of inspiratory time and pattern can improve CO(2) excretion. Much of this has been accomplished using volumetric capnography. This allows for more sophisticated measurements of pulmonary gas exchange function including: alveolar VD/VT, the volume of CO(2) excretion and the slope of the alveolar plateau which reflects ventilation: perfusion heterogeneity. Many of these measurements now can be made non-invasively which should only increase the research and clinical utility of volumetric capnography in studying and managing patients with ALI/ARDS. PMID:22858884

  5. Palynology, sedimentology and palaeoecology of the late Holocene Dead Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neumann, Frank Harald; Kagan, Elisa J.; Schwab, Markus J.; Stein, Mordechai

    2007-06-01

    Palynological and sedimentological studies were performed at two Holocene profiles in erosion gullies (Ze'elim and Ein Feshkha) which dissect the retreating western shore of the Dead Sea. The aim of the project was to analyse possible links between climate, lithology, and vegetation development. The section in Ze'elim shows both lacustrine and fluvial sediments, whereas sedimentation at Ein Feshkha is predominantly lacustrine. The Ze'elim profile, previously used for paleo-lake reconstruction provides an opportunity to compare climate triggered lake levels as paleo-hydrological indicators and vegetation history by use of palynology. The vegetation development in Ze'elim and Ein Feshkha is influenced by both climate and human impact. The pollen record of Ze'elim begins in the Pottery Neolithic, the section of Ein Feshkha in the Late Bronze Age, both records end in the Middle Ages. The Ze'elim section is characterized by sedimentary hiati between the beginning of the Chalcolithic Period until the Middle Bronze Age and within the Late Bronze Age. Settlement periods during the Middle Bronze Age, Iron Age and Hellenistic-Roman-Byzantine Period are indicated by high values of anthropogenic indicators and/or Mediterranean trees. Collapses of agriculture, which can be related to climate effects, are evident during the Late Bronze Age, during the Iron Age and at the end of the Byzantine Period when the lake level curve indicates arid conditions. A comparison of the two pollen records, from different environments, illustrates a more prominent influence of Mediterranean vegetation and cultivated plants in the pollen diagram of Ein Feshkha. The southern Dead Sea region (at the desert fringe) is more vulnerable to regional climate change.

  6. Sensor technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sokoloski, Martin M.

    1988-01-01

    The objective is to provide necessary expertise and technology to advance space remote sensing of terrestrial, planetary, and galactic phenomena through the use of electromagnetic and electro-optic properties of gas, liquid, and solid state materials technology. The Sensor Technology Program is divided into two subprograms: a base research and development part and a Civil Space Technology Initiative (CSTI) part. The base research and development consists of research on artificially grown materials such as quantum well and superlattice structure with the potential for new and efficient means for detecting electromagnetic phenomena. Research is also being done on materials and concepts for detector components and devices for measuring high energy phenomena such as UV, X-, and gamma rays that are required observables in astrophysis and solar physics missions. The CSTI program is more mission driven and is balanced among four major disciplines: detector sensors; submillimeter wave sensors; LIDAR/DIAL sensors; and cooler technology.

  7. A Novel Permanent Magnetic Angular Acceleration Sensor

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Hao; Feng, Hao

    2015-01-01

    Angular acceleration is an important parameter for status monitoring and fault diagnosis of rotary machinery. Therefore, we developed a novel permanent magnetic angular acceleration sensor, which is without rotation angle limitations and could directly measure the instantaneous angular acceleration of the rotating system. The sensor rotor only needs to be coaxially connected with the rotating system, which enables convenient sensor installation. For the cup structure of the sensor rotor, it has a relatively small rotational inertia. Due to the unique mechanical structure of the sensor, the output signal of the sensor can be directed without a slip ring, which avoids signal weakening effect. In this paper, the operating principle of the sensor is described, and simulated using finite element method. The sensitivity of the sensor is calibrated by torsional pendulum and angle sensor, yielding an experimental result of about 0.88 mV/(rad·s−2). Finally, the angular acceleration of the actual rotating system has been tested, using both a single-phase asynchronous motor and a step motor. Experimental result confirms the operating principle of the sensor and indicates that the sensor has good practicability. PMID:26151217

  8. A Novel Permanent Magnetic Angular Acceleration Sensor.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Hao; Feng, Hao

    2015-01-01

    Angular acceleration is an important parameter for status monitoring and fault diagnosis of rotary machinery. Therefore, we developed a novel permanent magnetic angular acceleration sensor, which is without rotation angle limitations and could directly measure the instantaneous angular acceleration of the rotating system. The sensor rotor only needs to be coaxially connected with the rotating system, which enables convenient sensor installation. For the cup structure of the sensor rotor, it has a relatively small rotational inertia. Due to the unique mechanical structure of the sensor, the output signal of the sensor can be directed without a slip ring, which avoids signal weakening effect. In this paper, the operating principle of the sensor is described, and simulated using finite element method. The sensitivity of the sensor is calibrated by torsional pendulum and angle sensor, yielding an experimental result of about 0.88 mV/(rad·s(-2)). Finally, the angular acceleration of the actual rotating system has been tested, using both a single-phase asynchronous motor and a step motor. Experimental result confirms the operating principle of the sensor and indicates that the sensor has good practicability. PMID:26151217

  9. Wireless sensor

    DOEpatents

    Lamberti, Vincent E.; Howell, JR, Layton N.; Mee, David K.; Sepaniak, Michael J.

    2016-02-09

    Disclosed is a sensor for detecting a target material. The sensor includes a ferromagnetic metal and a molecular recognition reagent coupled to the ferromagnetic metal. The molecular recognition reagent is operable to expand upon exposure to vapor or liquid from the target material such that the molecular recognition reagent changes a tensile stress upon the ferromagnetic metal. The target material is detected based on changes in the magnetic switching characteristics of the ferromagnetic metal caused by the changes in the tensile stress.

  10. Dead time and count loss determination for radiation detection systems in high count rate applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patil, Amol

    This research is focused on dead time and the subsequent count loss estimation in radiation detection systems. The dead time is the minimum amount of time required between two events to permit detection of those events individually by a radiation detection system. If events occur during the system dead time, they are lost. Such lost information can be important in many applications including high-precision spectroscopy, positron emission tomography (PET), and the scanning of spent nuclear fuel. Understanding of the behavior of radiation detection systems is important; thus this work included a comprehensive review of dead time and pulse pile-up models and methods. The most common way to estimate detector dead time is by one-parameter approximations known as nonparalyzable and paralyzable models. This research proposes a two parameter model that estimates the detector paralysis factor and the dead time based on a graphical method. To determine the two parameters characteristics of a detection system, this work tested a novel technique to saturate the detector using a decaying source. The modified decaying source method, unlike other methods, does not assume the idealized behavior of detection system in use and calculates the overall dead time of the detection system. The paralysis factor for high purity germanium detection system was estimated approaching 100% and the dead time was on the order of 5--10 micros which compares well with the literature.

  11. Wanted dead or alive: scavenging versus predation by three insect predators

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many generalist insect predators may engage in facultative scavenging. If an apparent predator frequently consumes dead prey instead of live prey then the biological control services provided by that predator may be overestimated. The use of unique protein markers on live and dead prey of the same s...

  12. Live-timer method of automatic dead-time correction for precision counting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Porges, K. G.; Rudnick, S. J.

    1969-01-01

    Automatic correction for dead time losses in nuclear counting experiments is implemented by a simple live timer arrangement in which each counting interval is extended for compensation for the dead time during that interval. this method eliminates repetitious manual calculations, source of error, and dependence upon paralysis shifts.

  13. 76 FR 63341 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “The Dead Sea Scrolls...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``The Dead Sea Scrolls: Life and Faith..., 2003), I hereby determine that the objects to be included in the exhibition ``The Dead Sea...

  14. 9 CFR 325.20 - Transportation and other transactions concerning dead, dying, disabled, or diseased livestock...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... transporting in commerce, or importing any dead, dying, disabled or diseased animals or parts of the carcasses... sale or transportation, in commerce, or import any dead livestock if its hide or skin has been removed; (b) Sell, transport, offer for sale or transportation, or receive for transportation, in...

  15. 9 CFR 325.20 - Transportation and other transactions concerning dead, dying, disabled, or diseased livestock...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... transporting in commerce, or importing any dead, dying, disabled or diseased animals or parts of the carcasses... sale or transportation, in commerce, or import any dead livestock if its hide or skin has been removed; (b) Sell, transport, offer for sale or transportation, or receive for transportation, in...

  16. Exploring the Interface Between Religion and Contact with the Dead Among Older Mexican Americans

    PubMed Central

    Krause, Neal; Bastida, Elena

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the current study is to examine the relationship between religion and post death contact among older Mexican Americans. Four major themes emerged from 52 in-depth interviews that were conducted with Older Mexican Americans residing in Texas. First, many older study participants told us they had contact with the dead, but others indicated this was not possible. Second, the form in which contact with the dead was made varied greatly. Some older Mexican Americans reported they had visual contact with the dead, while others said they only made contact with the dead through dreams. Third, although some older Mexican American study participants believed that it was in the best interests of the dead to contact the living, others felt the dead should instead be in Heaven with God. Fourth, the participants in our study reported that having contact with the dead provides a number of important social and psychological benefits. In the process of discussing these themes, an emphasis is placed on how beliefs and experiences with the dead interface with religion. In addition, we also explore how post death contact may be associated with health and well-being in late life. PMID:21399735

  17. Brainstem Encoding of Aided Speech in Hearing Aid Users with Cochlear Dead Region(s)

    PubMed Central

    Hassaan, Mohammad Ramadan; Ibraheem, Ola Abdallah; Galhom, Dalia Helal

    2016-01-01

    Introduction  Neural encoding of speech begins with the analysis of the signal as a whole broken down into its sinusoidal components in the cochlea, which has to be conserved up to the higher auditory centers. Some of these components target the dead regions of the cochlea causing little or no excitation. Measuring aided speech-evoked auditory brainstem response elicited by speech stimuli with different spectral maxima can give insight into the brainstem encoding of aided speech with spectral maxima at these dead regions. Objective  This research aims to study the impact of dead regions of the cochlea on speech processing at the brainstem level after a long period of hearing aid use. Methods  This study comprised 30 ears without dead regions and 46 ears with dead regions at low, mid, or high frequencies. For all ears, we measured the aided speech-evoked auditory brainstem response using speech stimuli of low, mid, and high spectral maxima. Results  Aided speech-evoked auditory brainstem response was producible in all subjects. Responses evoked by stimuli with spectral maxima at dead regions had longer latencies and smaller amplitudes when compared with the control group or the responses of other stimuli. Conclusion  The presence of cochlear dead regions affects brainstem encoding of speech with spectral maxima perpendicular to these regions. Brainstem neuroplasticity and the extrinsic redundancy of speech can minimize the impact of dead regions in chronic hearing aid users. PMID:27413404

  18. 14 CFR 1203b.105 - Use of non-deadly physical force when making an arrest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Use of non-deadly physical force when... ADMINISTRATION SECURITY PROGRAMS; ARREST AUTHORITY AND USE OF FORCE BY NASA SECURITY FORCE PERSONNEL § 1203b.105 Use of non-deadly physical force when making an arrest. When a security force officer has the right...

  19. 14 CFR 1203b.105 - Use of non-deadly physical force when making an arrest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2011-01-01 2010-01-01 true Use of non-deadly physical force when making... ADMINISTRATION SECURITY PROGRAMS; ARREST AUTHORITY AND USE OF FORCE BY NASA SECURITY FORCE PERSONNEL § 1203b.105 Use of non-deadly physical force when making an arrest. When a security force officer has the right...

  20. 10 CFR 1049.6 - Exercise of arrest authority-Use of non-deadly force.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Exercise of arrest authority-Use of non-deadly force. 1049... OF FORCE BY PROTECTIVE FORCE OFFICERS OF THE STRATEGIC PETROLEUM RESERVE § 1049.6 Exercise of arrest authority—Use of non-deadly force. (a) When a Protective Force Officer is authorized to make an arrest...

  1. 10 CFR 1049.6 - Exercise of arrest authority-Use of non-deadly force.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Exercise of arrest authority-Use of non-deadly force. 1049... OF FORCE BY PROTECTIVE FORCE OFFICERS OF THE STRATEGIC PETROLEUM RESERVE § 1049.6 Exercise of arrest authority—Use of non-deadly force. (a) When a Protective Force Officer is authorized to make an arrest...

  2. 10 CFR 1049.6 - Exercise of arrest authority-Use of non-deadly force.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Exercise of arrest authority-Use of non-deadly force. 1049... OF FORCE BY PROTECTIVE FORCE OFFICERS OF THE STRATEGIC PETROLEUM RESERVE § 1049.6 Exercise of arrest authority—Use of non-deadly force. (a) When a Protective Force Officer is authorized to make an arrest...

  3. 14 CFR 1203b.105 - Use of non-deadly physical force when making an arrest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Use of non-deadly physical force when... ADMINISTRATION SECURITY PROGRAMS; ARREST AUTHORITY AND USE OF FORCE BY NASA SECURITY FORCE PERSONNEL § 1203b.105 Use of non-deadly physical force when making an arrest. When a security force officer has the right...

  4. 10 CFR 1049.6 - Exercise of arrest authority-Use of non-deadly force.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Exercise of arrest authority-Use of non-deadly force. 1049... OF FORCE BY PROTECTIVE FORCE OFFICERS OF THE STRATEGIC PETROLEUM RESERVE § 1049.6 Exercise of arrest authority—Use of non-deadly force. (a) When a Protective Force Officer is authorized to make an arrest...

  5. 14 CFR 1203b.105 - Use of non-deadly physical force when making an arrest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Use of non-deadly physical force when... ADMINISTRATION SECURITY PROGRAMS; ARREST AUTHORITY AND USE OF FORCE BY NASA SECURITY FORCE PERSONNEL § 1203b.105 Use of non-deadly physical force when making an arrest. When a security force officer has the right...

  6. 10 CFR 1049.6 - Exercise of arrest authority-Use of non-deadly force.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Exercise of arrest authority-Use of non-deadly force. 1049... OF FORCE BY PROTECTIVE FORCE OFFICERS OF THE STRATEGIC PETROLEUM RESERVE § 1049.6 Exercise of arrest authority—Use of non-deadly force. (a) When a Protective Force Officer is authorized to make an arrest...

  7. Postfire Succession of Ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) Nesting in Dead Wood of Northern Boreal Forest.

    PubMed

    Boucher, Philippe; Hébert, Christian; Francoeur, André; Sirois, Luc

    2015-10-01

    Dead wood decomposition begins immediately after tree death and involves a large array of invertebrates. Ecological successions are still poorly known for saproxylic organisms, particularly in boreal forests. We investigated the use of dead wood as nesting sites for ants along a 60-yr postfire chronosequence in northeastern coniferous forests. We sampled a total of 1,625 pieces of dead wood, in which 263 ant nests were found. Overall, ant abundance increased during the first 30 yr after wildfire, and then declined. Leptothorax cf. canadensis Provancher, the most abundant species in our study, was absent during the first 2 yr postfire, but increased steadily until 30 yr after fire, whereas Myrmica alaskensis Wheeler, second in abundance, was found at all stages of succession in the chronosequence. Six other species were less frequently found, among which Camponotus herculeanus (Linné), Formica neorufibarbis Emery, and Formica aserva Forel were locally abundant, but more scarcely distributed. Dead wood lying on the ground and showing numerous woodborer holes had a higher probability of being colonized by ants. The C:N ratio was lower for dead wood colonized by ants than for noncolonized dead wood, showing that the continuous occupation of dead wood by ants influences the carbon and nitrogen dynamics of dead wood after wildfire in northern boreal forests. PMID:26314011

  8. Examining the Impact of External Influences on Police Use of Deadly Force over Time.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Michael D.

    2002-01-01

    Used interrupted time-series analysis (ARIMA) to study the impact of legislation and judicial intervention on the use of deadly force by police officers in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Findings generally suggest that dynamic changes in the internal working environment can outweigh the influence of external mechanisms on deadly force use. Findings…

  9. Contact with the Dead, Religion, and Death Anxiety among Older Mexican Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krause, Neal; Bastida, Elena

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to see if contact with the dead is associated with lower death anxiety among older Mexican Americans. The data come from a nationwide survey of older Mexican Americans (N = 1,005). The study model specifies that (a) older Mexican Americans who have experienced contact with the dead are more likely to see the…

  10. "Stop or I'll Shoot": Racial Differences in Support for Police Use of Deadly Force.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cullen, Francis T.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Explores the impact of race on support for police use of deadly force on fleeing felons. Analysis of a phone survey of 239 Cincinnati residents revealed that both black and white's approval of deadly force depended on the degree of danger and the commission of a violent or nonviolent crime. (MJP)

  11. 9 CFR 309.3 - Dead, dying, disabled, or diseased and similar livestock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Dead, dying, disabled, or diseased and... AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION ANTE-MORTEM INSPECTION § 309.3 Dead, dying, disabled, or...-ambulatory disabled after passing ante-mortem inspection. Non-ambulatory disabled cattle that are offered...

  12. 9 CFR 309.3 - Dead, dying, disabled, or diseased and similar livestock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Dead, dying, disabled, or diseased and... AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION ANTE-MORTEM INSPECTION § 309.3 Dead, dying, disabled, or...-ambulatory disabled after passing ante-mortem inspection. Non-ambulatory disabled cattle that are offered...

  13. 9 CFR 309.3 - Dead, dying, disabled, or diseased and similar livestock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Dead, dying, disabled, or diseased and... AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION ANTE-MORTEM INSPECTION § 309.3 Dead, dying, disabled, or...-ambulatory disabled after passing ante-mortem inspection. Non-ambulatory disabled cattle that are offered...

  14. 9 CFR 309.3 - Dead, dying, disabled, or diseased and similar livestock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Dead, dying, disabled, or diseased and... AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION ANTE-MORTEM INSPECTION § 309.3 Dead, dying, disabled, or...-ambulatory disabled after passing ante-mortem inspection. Non-ambulatory disabled cattle that are offered...

  15. 9 CFR 309.3 - Dead, dying, disabled, or diseased and similar livestock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Dead, dying, disabled, or diseased and... AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION ANTE-MORTEM INSPECTION § 309.3 Dead, dying, disabled, or...-ambulatory disabled after passing ante-mortem inspection. Non-ambulatory disabled cattle that are offered...

  16. Exploring the Interface Between Religion and Contact with the Dead Among Older Mexican Americans.

    PubMed

    Krause, Neal; Bastida, Elena

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the current study is to examine the relationship between religion and post death contact among older Mexican Americans. Four major themes emerged from 52 in-depth interviews that were conducted with Older Mexican Americans residing in Texas. First, many older study participants told us they had contact with the dead, but others indicated this was not possible. Second, the form in which contact with the dead was made varied greatly. Some older Mexican Americans reported they had visual contact with the dead, while others said they only made contact with the dead through dreams. Third, although some older Mexican American study participants believed that it was in the best interests of the dead to contact the living, others felt the dead should instead be in Heaven with God. Fourth, the participants in our study reported that having contact with the dead provides a number of important social and psychological benefits. In the process of discussing these themes, an emphasis is placed on how beliefs and experiences with the dead interface with religion. In addition, we also explore how post death contact may be associated with health and well-being in late life. PMID:21399735

  17. Vibration sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Amita; Singh, Ranvir; Ahmad, Amir; Kumar, Mahesh

    2003-10-01

    Today, vibration sensors with low and medium sensitivities are in great demand. Their applications include robotics, navigation, machine vibration monitoring, isolation of precision equipment & activation of safety systems e.g. airbags in automobiles. Vibration sensors have been developed at SSPL, using silicon micromachining to sense vibrations in a system in the 30 - 200 Hz frequency band. The sensing element in the silicon vibration sensor is a seismic mass suspended by thin silicon hinges mounted on a metallized glass plate forming a parallel plate capacitor. The movement of the seismic mass along the vertical axis is monitored to sense vibrations. This is obtained by measuring the change in capacitance. The movable plate of the parallel plate capacitor is formed by a block connected to a surrounding frame by four cantilever beams located on sides or corners of the seismic mass. This element is fabricated by silicon micromachining. Several sensors in the chip sizes 1.6 cm x 1.6 cm, 1 cm x 1 cm and 0.7 cm x 0.7 cm have been fabricated. Work done on these sensors, techniques used in processing and silicon to glass bonding are presented in the paper. Performance evaluation of these sensors is also discussed.

  18. Continuous cold atom inertial sensor with 1 nrad.s-1 rotation stability(Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geiger, Remi; Dutta, Indranil; Savoie, Denis; Fang, Bess; Guarrido Alzar, Carlos; Venon, Bertrand; Landragin, Arnaud

    2016-04-01

    We report the first operation of a cold atom inertial sensor without dead time. Dead times in conventional cold atom interferometers originate from the preparation of a cold atom source prior to its injection in the interferometer and where information on inertial signals is lost. We use a sequence where we simultaneously prepare a cold atom source and operate a light pulse atom interferometer to circumvent the dead time limitation. Therefore the sensor continuously captures all the dynamics with respect to an inertial frame. We show that the continuous operation does not degrade the sensitivity and stability of the atom interferometer, by demonstrating a rotation sensitivity level of less than 1 nrad/s after 10 000 s of integration time. Such a sensitivity level improves previous results by more than an order of magnitude and opens applications of cold atom gyroscopes in inertial navigation and geophysics.

  19. Robust model reference adaptive output feedback tracking for uncertain linear systems with actuator fault based on reinforced dead-zone modification.

    PubMed

    Bagherpoor, H M; Salmasi, Farzad R

    2015-07-01

    In this paper, robust model reference adaptive tracking controllers are considered for Single-Input Single-Output (SISO) and Multi-Input Multi-Output (MIMO) linear systems containing modeling uncertainties, unknown additive disturbances and actuator fault. Two new lemmas are proposed for both SISO and MIMO, under which dead-zone modification rule is improved such that the tracking error for any reference signal tends to zero in such systems. In the conventional approach, adaption of the controller parameters is ceased inside the dead-zone region which results tracking error, while preserving the system stability. In the proposed scheme, control signal is reinforced with an additive term based on tracking error inside the dead-zone which results in full reference tracking. In addition, no Fault Detection and Diagnosis (FDD) unit is needed in the proposed approach. Closed loop system stability and zero tracking error are proved by considering a suitable Lyapunov functions candidate. It is shown that the proposed control approach can assure that all the signals of the close loop system are bounded in faulty conditions. Finally, validity and performance of the new schemes have been illustrated through numerical simulations of SISO and MIMO systems in the presence of actuator faults, modeling uncertainty and output disturbance. PMID:25744053

  20. FRIT for Systems with Dead-Zone and Its Application to Ultrasonic Motors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wakasa, Yuji; Kanagawa, Shinji; Tanaka, Kanya; Nishimura, Yuki

    Ultrasonic motors (USMs) intrinsically have a dead-zone property which is sensitive to load changes. This paper proposes a fictitious reference iterative tuning (FRIT) method for systems with a dead-zone property such as USMs. The standard FRIT method is basically developed for linear systems and may not give a satisfactory control performance for noninvertible nonlinear systems including USMs. In contrast, the proposed FRIT method can achieve such a performance by introducing a right inverse of a dead-zone function as a dead-zone compensator. In the optimization process of FRIT, the so-called covariance matrix adaptation evolution strategy (CMA-ES) is used for simultaneously searching a dead-zone parameter as well as controller parameters. CMA-ES is a kind of stochastic multi-point search techniques and is effective for nondifferentiable and nonconvex optimization problems. Experimental results for a USM are given to show the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  1. Long-Time Sustainability of Rossby Wave Instability in Protoplanetary Disks with Dead Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, S.; Li, H.

    2015-10-01

    We have run 2D simulations to investigate the generation and sustainability of Rossby wave instability (RWI) in proto-planetary disks with constant viscosity and for disks with low viscosity regions (dead zone). For the constant viscosity case, the development of RWI requires a low viscosity and life time of the RWI is short. We also find that the vortex, when it migrates, does so much faster than the disk's viscous drift rate. For disks with dead zone case, a much larger viscosity can be used and the RWI vortex can be sustained for a long time, even the life time of the disk, depending on the width and depth of the dead zone. For a narrow dead zone, the vortex depicts a periodic pattern with a period inversely proportional to the viscosity. If the dead-zone width exceeds some threshold, the periodicity of the RWI disappears.

  2. Optimal Sensor Allocation for Fault Detection and Isolation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Azam, Mohammad; Pattipati, Krishna; Patterson-Hine, Ann

    2004-01-01

    Automatic fault diagnostic schemes rely on various types of sensors (e.g., temperature, pressure, vibration, etc) to measure the system parameters. Efficacy of a diagnostic scheme is largely dependent on the amount and quality of information available from these sensors. The reliability of sensors, as well as the weight, volume, power, and cost constraints, often makes it impractical to monitor a large number of system parameters. An optimized sensor allocation that maximizes the fault diagnosibility, subject to specified weight, volume, power, and cost constraints is required. Use of optimal sensor allocation strategies during the design phase can ensure better diagnostics at a reduced cost for a system incorporating a high degree of built-in testing. In this paper, we propose an approach that employs multiple fault diagnosis (MFD) and optimization techniques for optimal sensor placement for fault detection and isolation (FDI) in complex systems. Keywords: sensor allocation, multiple fault diagnosis, Lagrangian relaxation, approximate belief revision, multidimensional knapsack problem.

  3. Severe dead-zone eddies in the open North Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karstensen, J.; Fiedler, B.; Brandt, P.; Körtzinger, A.; Zantopp, R.; Wallace, D.; Krahmann, G.; Visbeck, M.; Hahn, J.

    2012-04-01

    Ocean volumes with very low dissolved oxygen, so called "dead-zones", have been observed in many coastal areas of the world ocean. Dead-zones are characterized by a dissolved oxygen content below 2 mg/l (approx. 60 µmol/kg) and making them inhabitable for many marine organisms. Here we report on severe dead-zones in the open North Atlantic, several hundreds of kilometres away from the coast, where so far concentrations below about 40 µmol/L have not been reported. The severe dead-zones are contained within mesoscale eddies that originate from the West African upwelling region and propagate slowly (100km per month) westward. Local dynamics isolate the dead-zone eddy from surrounding waters and create, within the rather well oxygenated North Atlantic, a biogeochemical realm comparable to the major oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) of the Pacific and Indian Ocean. Below a well oxygenated upper mixed-layer of some 20 to 50m depth follows a drastic drop in oxygen, which is the actual dead-zone. In one the most dramatic case of a North Atlantic dead-zone eddy, the oxygen content right below the mixed layer (50m depth) was approximately 0 µmol/kg, while the 60µmol/kg dead-zone threshold was reached at about 200m depth, resulting in a dead-zone 150m deep. It was found that mobile marine organisms are unable to follow their diurnal vertical migration and are trapped in the mixed layer, above the dead-zone, instead. Our data suggest that most severe low-oxygen ocean conditions (~0 µmol/L) are created just below the surface mixed layer in anti-cyclonic Mode Water type eddies, but still significant (~15 µmol/L) concentrations were observed in a cyclonic eddy.

  4. Nanoparticles as biochemical sensors

    PubMed Central

    El-Ansary, Afaf; Faddah, Layla M

    2010-01-01

    There is little doubt that nanoparticles offer real and new opportunities in many fields, such as biomedicine and materials science. Such particles are small enough to enter almost all areas of the body, including cells and organelles, potentially leading to new approaches in nanomedicine. Sensors for small molecules of biochemical interest are of critical importance. This review is an attempt to trace the use of nanomaterials in biochemical sensor design. The possibility of using nanoparticles functionalized with antibodies as markers for proteins will be elucidated. Moreover, capabilities and applications for nanoparticles based on gold, silver, magnetic, and semiconductor materials (quantum dots), used in optical (absorbance, luminescence, surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy, surface plasmon resonance), electrochemical, and mass-sensitive sensors will be highlighted. The unique ability of nanosensors to improve the analysis of biochemical fluids is discussed either through considering the use of nanoparticles for in vitro molecular diagnosis, or in the biological/biochemical analysis for in vivo interaction with the human body. PMID:24198472

  5. Analysis of the November 1999 Dead Sea Calibration Shots

    SciTech Connect

    Rodgers, A J; Myers, S; Mayeda, K; Walter, W

    2000-07-21

    In November 1999 three chemical explosions were conducted in the Dead Sea for the purposes of calibrating the International Monitoring System (IMS) for the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT). These shots were organized and conducted by the Geophysical Institute of Israel (GII). Large chemical explosions are the most valuable form of ground truth as the location, depth and origin time are very well known. We focus on the two largest shots (M{sub w} {ge} 3.6) and performed several types of analysis of the regional recordings and travel times of these shots. These data provide valuable new information about the region and offer an opportunity to test monitoring strategies. A crustal and uppermost mantle velocity model was inferred from the travel times of the regional phases: Pn, Pg and Sg. This effort utilized a grid search method to find suitable models of the structure. Results indicate that the crust is relatively thin (32 km) with lower than average crustal velocities (mean V{sub P} = 6.1-6.2 km/s). We located each shot treating the other shot as a calibration explosion. Locations were computed using both station static corrections and kriged correction surfaces. Results show that the locations with static corrections can be better or worse than the locations without corrections. However, the locations with kriged correction surfaces are consistently better than those without corrections or with static corrections because kriging properly accounts for residual statistics. Measures of the S-wave coda for regional events provide a stable estimate of event size (moment magnitude, M{sub w}) and the event source spectrum. S-wave coda envelope amplitudes were calibrated to moments estimated from long-period waveform modeling. We measured moment and body-wave magnitudes and source spectra for many events in the region. The Dead Sea shots show spectral peaking associated with shallow events. Finally, analysis of regional broadband recordings from the Saudi

  6. Global effects of the DEAD-box RNA helicase DeaD (CsdA) on gene expression over a broad range of temperatures

    PubMed Central

    Vakulskas, Christopher A.; Pannuri, Archana; Cortés-Selva, Diana; Zere, Tesfalem R.; Ahmer, Brian M.; Babitzke, Paul; Romeo, Tony

    2014-01-01

    Summary In Escherichia coli, activity of the global regulatory RNA binding protein CsrA is antagonized by two noncoding sRNAs, CsrB and CsrC, which sequester it away from its lower affinity mRNA targets. Transcription of csrB/C requires the BarA-UvrY two component signal transduction system, which responds to short chain carboxylates. We show that two DEAD-box RNA helicases, DeaD and SrmB, activate csrB/C expression by different pathways. DeaD facilitates uvrY translation by counteracting the inhibitory effect of long distance basepairing between the uvrY mRNA leader and coding region, while SrmB does not affect UvrY or UvrY-phosphate levels. Contrary to the prevailing notion that these helicases act primarily at low temperatures, DeaD and SrmB activated csrB expression over a wide temperature range. High-throughput sequencing of RNA isolated by crosslinking immunoprecipitation (HITS-CLIP) revealed in vivo interactions of DeaD with 39 mRNAs, including those of uvrY and 9 other regulatory genes. Studies on the expression of several of the identified genes revealed regulatory effects of DeaD in all cases and diverse temperature response patterns. Our findings uncover an expanded regulatory role for DeaD, which is mediated through novel mRNA targets, important global regulators and under physiological conditions that were considered to be incompatible with its function. PMID:24708042

  7. Towards an easy-to-use tuberculosis diagnosis through exhaled breath analysis: a liquid fluorimeter with an excitation at 265 nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hue, J.; Dupoy, M.; Vignoud, S.; Ricaud, J. L.; Tran-Thi, T.; Karpe, S.; Novelli-Rousseau, A.; Mallard, F.

    2013-03-01

    The struggle against tuberculosis is one of the World Health Organization priorities. Identifying in a short time, patients with active tuberculosis, would bring a tremendous improvement to the current situation. Recovering from this infectious and deadly disease (2 million of death per year) is possible with a correct diagnosis to give an appropriate treatment. Unfortunately, most common tuberculosis diagnoses have few drawbacks: - skin tests: not reliable at 100% and need an incubation of 2 days before the diagnosis, - blood tests: costly and sophisticated technology, - chest X-ray: the first step before the sputum tests used for a bacterial culture with a final diagnosis given within 2 weeks. A tuberculosis test based on exhaled breath analysis is a prospective and noninvasive solution, cheap and easy to use and to transport. This test lies on a fluoregenic detection of niacin, a well-known mycobacterium tuberculosis specific metabolite. In this paper, it is assumed that the selected probe is specific to niacin and that exhaled breath does not contain any interfering species. To address this problem, a fluorimeter is developed with a cheap and cooled CCD ( 2k$) as a sensor, to easily determine the suitable "fluorescent zone". In comparing aqueous solutions with and without niacin, 250 pM of niacin have been detected. With a commercial fluorimeter (Fluorolog from Horiba), only 200 nM of niacin are detected. The present detection remains 10 times above the estimated targeted value for a tuberculosis test. The excitation source is a LED, which typically emits 20 °W at 265 nm through an optical fiber. The emission signal is detected around 545 nm. A typical light exposure lasts 700 seconds. Analysis of biomarkers with a liquid fluorimeter is generic and promising as health diagnosis.

  8. Research sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Englund, David R.

    1988-05-01

    The work described is part of a program (Englund and Seasholtz, 1988) to develop sensors and sensing techniques for research applications on aircraft turbine engines. In general, the sensors are used to measure the environment at a given location within a turbine engine or to measure the response of an engine component to the imposed environment. Locations of concern are generally in the gas path and, for the most part, are within the hot section. Specific parameters of concern are dynamic gas temperature, heat flux, airfoil surface temperature, and strain on airfoils and combustor liners. To minimize the intrusiveness of surface-mounted sensors, a considerable effort was expended to develop thin-film sensors for surface temperature, strain, and heat flux measurements. In addition, an optical system for viewing the interior of an operating combustor was developed. Most of the work described is sufficiently advanced that the sensors were used and useful data were obtained. The notable exception is the work to develop a high-temperature static strain measuring capability; the work is still in progress.

  9. Gravitational Heating Helps Make Massive Galaxies Red and Dead

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johansson, Peter H.; Naab, Thorsten; Ostriker, Jeremiah P.

    2009-05-01

    We study the thermal formation history of four simulated galaxies that were shown by Naab et al. to reproduce a number of observed properties of elliptical galaxies. The temperature of the gas in the galaxies is steadily increasing with decreasing redshift, although much of the gas has a cooling time shorter than the Hubble time. The gas is being heated and kept hot by gravitational heating processes through the release of potential energy from infalling stellar clumps. The energy is dissipated in supersonic collisions of infalling gas lumps with the ambient gas and through the dynamical capturing of satellite systems causing gravitational wakes that transfer energy to the surrounding gas. Furthermore, dynamical friction from the infalling clumps pushes out dark matter (DM), lowering the central DM density by up to a factor of 2 from z = 3 to z = 0. In galaxies in which the late formation history (z lsim 2) is dominated by minor merging and accretion, the energy released (E ~ 5 × 1059 erg) from gravitational feedback is sufficient to form red and dead elliptical galaxies by z ~ 1 even in the absence of supernova and AGN feedback.

  10. Dead zones enhance key fisheries species by providing predation refuge.

    PubMed

    Altieri, Andrew H

    2008-10-01

    Natural stress gradients can reduce predation intensity and increase prey abundances. Whether the harsh conditions of anthropogenic habitat degradation can similarly reduce predation intensity and structure community dynamics remains largely unexplored. Oxygen depletion in coastal waters (hypoxia) is a form of degradation that has recently emerged as one of the greatest threats to coastal ecosystems worldwide due to increased rates of eutrophication and climate change. I conducted field experiments and surveys to test whether relaxed predation could explain the paradoxically high abundance of clams that have sustained a fishery in a degraded estuary with chronic hypoxic conditions. Hypoxia reduced predation on all experimental species but enhanced the long-term survivorship of only sufficiently hypoxia-tolerant prey due to periodic extreme conditions. As a consequence, only the harvested quahog clam (Mercenaria mercenaria) thrived in hypoxic areas that were otherwise rendered dead zones with depauperate diversity and low abundances of other species. This suggests that enhanced populations of some key species may be part of a predictable nonlinear community response that sustains ecosystem services and masks overall downward trends of habitat degradation. PMID:18959318

  11. Improving IMES Localization Accuracy by Integrating Dead Reckoning Information

    PubMed Central

    Fujii, Kenjiro; Arie, Hiroaki; Wang, Wei; Kaneko, Yuto; Sakamoto, Yoshihiro; Schmitz, Alexander; Sugano, Shigeki

    2016-01-01

    Indoor positioning remains an open problem, because it is difficult to achieve satisfactory accuracy within an indoor environment using current radio-based localization technology. In this study, we investigate the use of Indoor Messaging System (IMES) radio for high-accuracy indoor positioning. A hybrid positioning method combining IMES radio strength information and pedestrian dead reckoning information is proposed in order to improve IMES localization accuracy. For understanding the carrier noise ratio versus distance relation for IMES radio, the signal propagation of IMES radio is modeled and identified. Then, trilateration and extended Kalman filtering methods using the radio propagation model are developed for position estimation. These methods are evaluated through robot localization and pedestrian localization experiments. The experimental results show that the proposed hybrid positioning method achieved average estimation errors of 217 and 1846 mm in robot localization and pedestrian localization, respectively. In addition, in order to examine the reason for the positioning accuracy of pedestrian localization being much lower than that of robot localization, the influence of the human body on the radio propagation is experimentally evaluated. The result suggests that the influence of the human body can be modeled. PMID:26828492

  12. Presumed consent for transplantation: a dead issue after Alder Hey?

    PubMed

    English, V; Sommerville, A

    2003-06-01

    In the wake of scandals about the unauthorised retention of organs following postmortem examination, the issue of valid consent (or the lack of it) has returned to the forefront. Emphasis is put on obtaining explicit authorisation from the patient or family prior to any medical intervention, including those involving the dead. Although the controversies in the UK arose from the retention of human material for education or research rather than therapy, concern has been expressed that public mistrust could also adversely affect organ donation for transplantation. At the same time, however, the British Medical Association (BMA) continues to call for a shift to a system of presumed consent for organ transplantation. This apparent inconsistency can be justified because valid distinctions exist between the reasons requiring explicit consent for retention and the acceptability of presumed consent for transplantation. This paper argues for introducing a system of presumed consent for organ donation, given the overwhelming expressions of public support for transplantation. Ongoing legislative review in the UK provides an ideal chance to alter the default position to one where potential donors can simply acquiesce or opt out of donation. Combined with consultation with their relatives, this could be a much better method of realising individuals' wishes. It would also achieve a better balance between the duties owed to the deceased and those owed to people awaiting a transplant. PMID:12796433

  13. MODELING MAGNETOROTATIONAL TURBULENCE IN PROTOPLANETARY DISKS WITH DEAD ZONES

    SciTech Connect

    Okuzumi, Satoshi; Hirose, Shigenobu

    2011-12-01

    Turbulence driven by magnetorotational instability (MRI) crucially affects the evolution of solid bodies in protoplanetary disks. On the other hand, small dust particles stabilize MRI by capturing ionized gas particles needed for the coupling of the gas and magnetic fields. To provide an empirical basis for modeling the coevolution of dust and MRI, we perform three-dimensional, ohmic-resistive MHD simulations of a vertically stratified shearing box with an MRI-inactive 'dead zone' of various sizes and with a net vertical magnetic flux of various strengths. We find that the vertical structure of turbulence is well characterized by the vertical magnetic flux and three critical heights derived from the linear analysis of MRI in a stratified disk. In particular, the turbulent structure depends on the resistivity profile only through the critical heights and is insensitive to the details of the resistivity profile. We discover scaling relations between the amplitudes of various turbulent quantities (velocity dispersion, density fluctuation, vertical diffusion coefficient, and outflow mass flux) and vertically integrated accretion stresses. We also obtain empirical formulae for the integrated accretion stresses as a function of the vertical magnetic flux and the critical heights. These empirical relations allow us to predict the vertical turbulent structure of a protoplanetary disk for a given strength of the magnetic flux and a given resistivity profile.

  14. DEAD-box protein facilitated RNA folding in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Liebeg, Andreas; Mayer, Oliver

    2010-01-01

    In yeast mitochondria the DEAD-box helicase Mss116p is essential for respiratory growth by acting as group I and group II intron splicing factor. Here we provide the first structure-based insights into how Mss116p assists RNA folding in vivo. Employing an in vivo chemical probing technique, we mapped the structure of the ai5γ group II intron in different genetic backgrounds to characterize its intracellular fold. While the intron adopts the native conformation in the wt yeast strain, we found that the intron is able to form most of its secondary structure, but lacks its tertiary fold in the absence of Mss116p. This suggests that ai5γ is largely unfolded in the mss116-knockout strain and requires the protein at an early step of folding. Notably, in this unfolded state misfolded substructures have not been observed. As most of the protein-induced conformational changes are located within domain D1, Mss116p appears to facilitate the formation of this largest domain, which is the scaffold for docking of other intron domains. These findings suggest that Mss116p assists the ordered assembly of the ai5γ intron in vivo. PMID:21045551

  15. Improving IMES Localization Accuracy by Integrating Dead Reckoning Information.

    PubMed

    Fujii, Kenjiro; Arie, Hiroaki; Wang, Wei; Kaneko, Yuto; Sakamoto, Yoshihiro; Schmitz, Alexander; Sugano, Shigeki

    2016-01-01

    Indoor positioning remains an open problem, because it is difficult to achieve satisfactory accuracy within an indoor environment using current radio-based localization technology. In this study, we investigate the use of Indoor Messaging System (IMES) radio for high-accuracy indoor positioning. A hybrid positioning method combining IMES radio strength information and pedestrian dead reckoning information is proposed in order to improve IMES localization accuracy. For understanding the carrier noise ratio versus distance relation for IMES radio, the signal propagation of IMES radio is modeled and identified. Then, trilateration and extended Kalman filtering methods using the radio propagation model are developed for position estimation. These methods are evaluated through robot localization and pedestrian localization experiments. The experimental results show that the proposed hybrid positioning method achieved average estimation errors of 217 and 1846 mm in robot localization and pedestrian localization, respectively. In addition, in order to examine the reason for the positioning accuracy of pedestrian localization being much lower than that of robot localization, the influence of the human body on the radio propagation is experimentally evaluated. The result suggests that the influence of the human body can be modeled. PMID:26828492

  16. ATP and potassium ions: a deadly combination for astrocytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, David G.; Wang, Junjie; Keane, Robert W.; Scemes, Eliana; Dahl, Gerhard

    2014-04-01

    The ATP release channel Pannexin1 (Panx1) is self-regulated, i.e. the permeant ATP inhibits the channel from the extracellular space. The affinity of the ATP binding site is lower than that of the purinergic P2X7 receptor allowing a transient activation of Panx1 by ATP through P2X7R. Here we show that the inhibition of Panx1 by ATP is abrogated by increased extracellular potassium ion concentration ([K+]o) in a dose-dependent manner. Since increased [K+]o is also a stimulus for Panx1 channels, it can be expected that a combination of ATP and increased [K+]o would be deadly for cells. Indeed, astrocytes did not survive exposure to these combined stimuli. The death mechanism, although involving P2X7R, does not appear to strictly follow a pyroptotic pathway. Instead, caspase-3 was activated, a process inhibited by Panx1 inhibitors. These data suggest that Panx1 plays an early role in the cell death signaling pathway involving ATP and K+ ions. Additionally, Panx1 may play a second role once cells are committed to apoptosis, since Panx1 is also a substrate of caspase-3.

  17. Sterilization of various diameter dead-ended tubes.

    PubMed

    Young, J H

    1993-06-01

    Effect of tube diameter on steam-in-place sterilization of dead-ended tubes was studied by examining temperature profiles and rates of kill of Bacillus stearothermophilus spores. Time required for sterilization was determined for 9.4-cm-long tubes with various inside diameters from 0.4 to 1.7 cm. Sterilization time increased with decreasing tube diameter. Experimentally measured kill kinetics in 1.7-cm tubes were in agreement with those predicted if measured temperatures represented saturated steam. A 12-log spore reduction was achieved in 1.7-cm diameter vertical and horizontal tubes in less than 63 minutes. For smaller diameter tubes, entrapped air remained after 2 hours and rates of kill were very dependent on position within the tube, tube diameter, and tube orientation with respect to the gravitational vector. Times to achieve a 1-log drop in spore population in the smaller tubes were as much as 10 times greater than those expected if measured temperatures represented saturated steam. Sterilization was not achieved throughout the 0.4-cm tubes. Recommendations are made for including steam bleeders or using prevaccum cycles for these smaller diameter tubes. PMID:18609656

  18. Simultaneous heavy metal removal mechanism by dead macrophytes.

    PubMed

    Miretzky, Patricia; Saralegui, Andrea; Fernández Cirelli, Alicia

    2006-01-01

    The use of dead, dried aquatic plants, for water removal of metals derived from industrial activities as a simple biosorbent material has been increasing in the last years. The mechanism of simultaneous metal removal (Cd2+, Ni2+, Cu2+, Zn2+ and Pb2+) by 3 macrophytes biomass (Spirodela intermedia, Lemna minor and Pistia stratiotes) was investigated. L. minor biomass presented the highest mean removal percentage and P. stratiotes the lowest for all metals tested. Pb2+ and Cd2+ were more efficiently removed by the three of them. The simultaneous metal sorption data were analysed according to Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. Data fitted the Langmuir model only for Ni and Cd, but Freundlich isotherm for all metals tested, as it was expected. The K(F) values showed that Pb was the metal more efficiently removed from water solution. The adsorption process for the three species studied followed first order kinetics. The mechanism involved in biosorption resulted ion exchange between monovalent metals as counter ions present in the macrophytes biomass and heavy metal ions and protons taken up from water. No significant differences were observed in the metal exchange amounts while using multi-metal or individual metal solutions. PMID:15990152

  19. Water Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Mike Morris, former Associate Director of STAC, formed pHish Doctor, Inc. to develop and sell a pH monitor for home aquariums. The monitor, or pHish Doctor, consists of a sensor strip and color chart that continually measures pH levels in an aquarium. This is important because when the level gets too high, ammonia excreted by fish is highly toxic; at low pH, bacteria that normally break down waste products stop functioning. Sales have run into the tens of thousands of dollars. A NASA Tech Brief Technical Support Package later led to a salt water version of the system and a DoE Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) grant for development of a sensor for sea buoys. The company, now known as Ocean Optics, Inc., is currently studying the effects of carbon dioxide buildup as well as exploring other commercial applications for the fiber optic sensor.

  20. Natural Oxidation of Bromide to Bromine in Evaporated Dead Sea Brines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gavrieli, Ittai; Golan, Rotem; Lazar, Boaz; Baer, Gidi; Zakon, Yevgeni; Ganor, Jiwchar

    2016-04-01

    Highly evaporated Dead Sea brines are found in isolated sinkholes along the Dead Sea. Many of these brines reach densities of over 1.3 kg/L and pH<5 and are the product of evaporation of Dead Sea brine that drain into the sinkholes. The low pH and the reddish to brownish hue of these brines were an enigma until recently. Despite the rather high total alkalinity (TA) of the Dead Sea (3.826 mmol/kg) the pH of the Dead Sea brine is known to be slightly acidic with a value of ~6.3. In comparison, seawater with the same alkalinity would have a pH value well above 8.3, meaning that H+ activity is 100 fold lower than that of Dead Sea brine. In the present work we assess the apparent dissociation constant value of boric acid (K`B) for the Dead Sea brine and use it to explain the brine's low pH value. We then show that pH decreases further as the brine evaporates and salinity increases. Finally we explain the reddish hue of the hypersaline brines in the sinkholes as due to the presence of dissolved bromine. The latter is the product of oxidation of dissolved bromide, a process that is enabled by the low pH of the hypersaline brines and their high bromide concentration.

  1. Effect of detector dead time on the performance of optical direct-detection communication links

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, C.-C.

    1988-01-01

    Avalanche photodiodes (APDs) operating in the Geiger mode can provide a significantly improved single-photon detection sensitivity over conventional photodiodes. However, the quenching circuit required to remove the excess charge carriers after each photon event can introduce an undesirable dead time into the detection process. The effect of this detector dead time on the performance of a binary pulse-position-modulated (PPM) channel is studied by analyzing the error probability. It is shown that, when background noise is negligible, the performance of the detector with dead time is similar to that of a quantum-limited receiver. For systems with increasing background intensities, the error rate of the receiver starts to degrade rapidly with increasing dead time. The power penalty due to detector dead time is also evaluated and shown to depend critically on badkground intensity as well as dead time. Given the expected background strength in an optical channel, therefore, a constraint must be placed on the bandwidth of the receiver to limit the amount of power penalty due to detector dead time.

  2. Simulation of Rate-Related (Dead-Time) Losses In Passive Neutron Multiplicity Counting Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, L.G.; Norman, P.I.; Leadbeater, T.W.; Croft, S.; Philips, S.

    2008-07-01

    Passive Neutron Multiplicity Counting (PNMC) based on Multiplicity Shift Register (MSR) electronics (a form of time correlation analysis) is a widely used non-destructive assay technique for quantifying spontaneously fissile materials such as Pu. At high event rates, dead-time losses perturb the count rates with the Singles, Doubles and Triples being increasingly affected. Without correction these perturbations are a major source of inaccuracy in the measured count rates and assay values derived from them. This paper presents the simulation of dead-time losses and investigates the effect of applying different dead-time models on the observed MSR data. Monte Carlo methods have been used to simulate neutron pulse trains for a variety of source intensities and with ideal detection geometry, providing an event by event record of the time distribution of neutron captures within the detection system. The action of the MSR electronics was modelled in software to analyse these pulse trains. Stored pulse trains were perturbed in software to apply the effects of dead-time according to the chosen physical process; for example, the ideal paralysable (extending) and non-paralysable models with an arbitrary dead-time parameter. Results of the simulations demonstrate the change in the observed MSR data when the system dead-time parameter is varied. In addition, the paralysable and non-paralysable models of deadtime are compared. These results form part of a larger study to evaluate existing dead-time corrections and to extend their application to correlated sources. (authors)

  3. DEAD-Box Helicase Proteins Disrupt RNA Tertiary Structure Through Helix Capture

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Cynthia; Potratz, Jeffrey P.; Cannon, Brian; Simpson, Zachary B.; Ziehr, Jessica L.; Tijerina, Pilar; Russell, Rick

    2014-01-01

    DEAD-box helicase proteins accelerate folding and rearrangements of highly structured RNAs and RNA–protein complexes (RNPs) in many essential cellular processes. Although DEAD-box proteins have been shown to use ATP to unwind short RNA helices, it is not known how they disrupt RNA tertiary structure. Here, we use single molecule fluorescence to show that the DEAD-box protein CYT-19 disrupts tertiary structure in a group I intron using a helix capture mechanism. CYT-19 binds to a helix within the structured RNA only after the helix spontaneously loses its tertiary contacts, and then CYT-19 uses ATP to unwind the helix, liberating the product strands. Ded1, a multifunctional yeast DEAD-box protein, gives analogous results with small but reproducible differences that may reflect its in vivo roles. The requirement for spontaneous dynamics likely targets DEAD-box proteins toward less stable RNA structures, which are likely to experience greater dynamic fluctuations, and provides a satisfying explanation for previous correlations between RNA stability and CYT-19 unfolding efficiency. Biologically, the ability to sense RNA stability probably biases DEAD-box proteins to act preferentially on less stable misfolded structures and thereby to promote native folding while minimizing spurious interactions with stable, natively folded RNAs. In addition, this straightforward mechanism for RNA remodeling does not require any specific structural environment of the helicase core and is likely to be relevant for DEAD-box proteins that promote RNA rearrangements of RNP complexes including the spliceosome and ribosome. PMID:25350280

  4. Effect of Detector Dead Time on the Performance of Optical Direct-Detection Communication Links

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, C.-C.

    1988-01-01

    Avalanche photodiodes (APDs) operating in the Geiger mode can provide a significantly improved single-photon detect ion sensitivity over conventional photodiodes. However, the quenching circuit required to remove the excess charge carriers after each photon event can introduce an undesirable dead time into the detection process. The effect of this detector dead time on the performance of a binary pulse-position-modulted (PPM) channel is studied by analyzing the error probability. It is shown that, when back- ground noise is negligible, the performance of the detector with dead time is similar to that o f a quantum-limited receiver. For systems with increasing background intensities, the error rate of the receiver starts to degrade rapidly with increasing dead time. The power penalty due to detector dead time is also evaluated and shown to depend critically on background intensity as well as dead time. Given the expected background strength in an optical channel, therefore, a constraint must be placed on the bandwidth of the receiver to limit the amount of power penalty due to detector dead time.

  5. Microcantilever sensors

    SciTech Connect

    Thundat, T.; Warmack, R.J.; Oden, P.I. |; Dasktos, P.G.; Chen, G.Y. |

    1996-04-01

    Novel sensors based on bending and resonance frequency changes of (coated silicon) microcantilevers are discussed. Adsorption-induced resonance frequency changes of microcantilevers can be due to a combination of mass loading and change of spring constant resulting from adsorption of chemicals on the surface. Cantilevers also undergo static bending due to adsorption-induced differential surface stress if the adsorption is confined to one surface. Hence cantilever deflection as well as resonance frequency change can be used as the basis for development of novel chemcal sensors.

  6. THE QUANTITY AND TURNOVER OF DEAD WOOD IN PERMANENT FOREST PLOTS IN SIX LIFE ZONES OF VENEZUELA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Dead wood can be an important component of the carbon pool in many forests, but few measurements have been made of this pool in tropical forests. To fill this gap, we determined the quantity of dead wood (downed and standing dead) in 25 long-term (up to 30 yr) permanent forest pl...

  7. Theory of particle detection and multiplicity counting with dead time effects

    SciTech Connect

    Pal, L.; Pazsit, I.

    2013-07-01

    The subject of this paper is the investigation of the effect of the dead time on the statistics of the particle detection process. A theoretical treatment is provided with the application of the methods of renewal theory. The detector efficiency and various types of the dead time are accounted for. Exact analytical results are derived for the probability distribution functions, the expectations and the variances of the number of detected particles. Explicit solutions are given for a few representative cases. The results should serve for the evaluation of the measurements in view of the dead time correction effects for the higher moments of the detector counts. (authors)

  8. Inheriting discontinued bonds: trauma-descendant relations with the genocide dead.

    PubMed

    Kidron, Carol A

    2014-01-01

    Despite the scholarship on continuing bonds with the dead and the critique of pathologizing paradigms in trauma theory, little is known of the engagement between trauma descendants and relatives who perished prior to their birth. A sample of 55 Holocaust descendants was recruited in Israel to participate in semistructured ethnographic interviews. Descendants reported on the normalized presence of and engagement with the dead and the restoration of previously "discontinued" bonds. Findings were consistent with the scholarship on the therapeutic role of continuing bonds and with meta-analyses normalizing descendant psychosocial legacies. Jewish-Israeli paradigms of memory facilitated therapeutic bonds with the dead. PMID:24593011

  9. Gas sensor

    DOEpatents

    Schmid, Andreas K.; Mascaraque, Arantzazu; Santos, Benito; de la Figuera, Juan

    2014-09-09

    A gas sensor is described which incorporates a sensor stack comprising a first film layer of a ferromagnetic material, a spacer layer, and a second film layer of the ferromagnetic material. The first film layer is fabricated so that it exhibits a dependence of its magnetic anisotropy direction on the presence of a gas, That is, the orientation of the easy axis of magnetization will flip from out-of-plane to in-plane when the gas to be detected is present in sufficient concentration. By monitoring the change in resistance of the sensor stack when the orientation of the first layer's magnetization changes, and correlating that change with temperature one can determine both the identity and relative concentration of the detected gas. In one embodiment the stack sensor comprises a top ferromagnetic layer two mono layers thick of cobalt deposited upon a spacer layer of ruthenium, which in turn has a second layer of cobalt disposed on its other side, this second cobalt layer in contact with a programmable heater chip.

  10. Chemical sensors

    DOEpatents

    Lowell, Jr., James R.; Edlund, David J.; Friesen, Dwayne T.; Rayfield, George W.

    1991-01-01

    Sensors responsive to small changes in the concentration of chemical species are disclosed, comprising (a) a mechanochemically responsive polymeric film capable of expansion or contraction in response to a change in its chemical environment, operatively coupled to (b) a transducer capable of directly converting said expansion or contraction to a measurable electrical response.

  11. Chemical sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rauh, R. David (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A sensor for detecting a chemical substance includes an insertion element having a structure which enables insertion of the chemical substance with a resulting change in the bulk electrical characteristics of the insertion element under conditions sufficient to permit effective insertion; the change in the bulk electrical characteristics of the insertion element is detected as an indication of the presence of the chemical substance.

  12. Sensor apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Deason, Vance A [Idaho Falls, ID; Telschow, Kenneth L [Idaho Falls, ID

    2009-12-22

    A sensor apparatus and method for detecting an environmental factor is shown that includes an acoustic device that has a characteristic resonant vibrational frequency and mode pattern when exposed to a source of acoustic energy and, futher, when exposed to an environmental factor, produces a different resonant vibrational frequency and/or mode pattern when exposed to the same source of acoustic energy.

  13. Sinkhole formation and subsidence along the Dead Sea coast, Israel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yechieli, Yoseph; Abelson, Meir; Baer, Gideon

    2015-12-01

    More than 4,000 sinkholes have formed since the 1980s within a 60-km-long and 1-km-wide strip along the western coast of the Dead Sea (DS) in Israel. Their formation rate accelerated in recent years to >400 sinkholes per year. They cluster mostly in specific sites up to 1,000 m long and 200 m wide, which align parallel to the general direction of the fault systems associated with the DS Rift. The abrupt appearance of the sinkholes reflects changes to the groundwater regime around the shrinking DS. The eastward retreat of the shoreline and the lake-level drop (1 m/year in recent years) cause an eastward and downward migration of the fresh/saline groundwater interface. Consequently, a subsurface salt layer, which was previously enveloped by saline groundwater, is gradually being invaded and submerged by relatively fresh groundwater, and cavities form due to the rapid dissolution of the salt. Collapse of the overlying sediments into these cavities results in sinkholes at the surface. An association between sinkhole sites and land subsidence is revealed by interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) measurements. On a broad scale (hundreds of meters), subsidence occurs due to compaction of fine-grained sediments as groundwater levels decline along the retreating DS shoreline. At smaller scales (tens of meters), subsidence appears above subsurface cavities in association with the sinkholes, serving in many cases as sinkhole precursors, a few weeks to more than a year before their actual appearance at the surface. This paper overviews the processes of sinkhole formation and their relation to land subsidence.

  14. Sinkhole formation and subsidence along the Dead Sea coast, Israel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yechieli, Yoseph; Abelson, Meir; Baer, Gideon

    2016-05-01

    More than 4,000 sinkholes have formed since the 1980s within a 60-km-long and 1-km-wide strip along the western coast of the Dead Sea (DS) in Israel. Their formation rate accelerated in recent years to >400 sinkholes per year. They cluster mostly in specific sites up to 1,000 m long and 200 m wide, which align parallel to the general direction of the fault systems associated with the DS Rift. The abrupt appearance of the sinkholes reflects changes to the groundwater regime around the shrinking DS. The eastward retreat of the shoreline and the lake-level drop (1 m/year in recent years) cause an eastward and downward migration of the fresh/saline groundwater interface. Consequently, a subsurface salt layer, which was previously enveloped by saline groundwater, is gradually being invaded and submerged by relatively fresh groundwater, and cavities form due to the rapid dissolution of the salt. Collapse of the overlying sediments into these cavities results in sinkholes at the surface. An association between sinkhole sites and land subsidence is revealed by interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) measurements. On a broad scale (hundreds of meters), subsidence occurs due to compaction of fine-grained sediments as groundwater levels decline along the retreating DS shoreline. At smaller scales (tens of meters), subsidence appears above subsurface cavities in association with the sinkholes, serving in many cases as sinkhole precursors, a few weeks to more than a year before their actual appearance at the surface. This paper overviews the processes of sinkhole formation and their relation to land subsidence.

  15. Statistical Fault Detection & Diagnosis Expert System

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1996-12-18

    STATMON is an expert system that performs real-time fault detection and diagnosis of redundant sensors in any industrial process requiring high reliability. After a training period performed during normal operation, the expert system monitors the statistical properties of the incoming signals using a pattern recognition test. If the test determines that statistical properties of the signals have changed, the expert system performs a sequence of logical steps to determine which sensor or machine component hasmore » degraded.« less

  16. Contact lens sensors in ocular diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Farandos, Nicholas M; Yetisen, Ali K; Monteiro, Michael J; Lowe, Christopher R; Yun, Seok Hyun

    2015-04-22

    Contact lenses as a minimally invasive platform for diagnostics and drug delivery have emerged in recent years. Contact lens sensors have been developed for analyzing the glucose composition of tears as a surrogate for blood glucose monitoring and for the diagnosis of glaucoma by measuring intraocular pressure. However, the eye offers a wider diagnostic potential as a sensing site and therefore contact lens sensors have the potential to improve the diagnosis and treatment of many diseases and conditions. With advances in polymer synthesis, electronics and micro/nanofabrication, contact lens sensors can be produced to quantify the concentrations of many biomolecules in ocular fluids. Non- or minimally invasive contact lens sensors can be used directly in a clinical or point-of-care setting to monitor a disease state continuously. This article reviews the state-of-the-art in contact lens sensor fabrication, their detection, wireless powering, and readout mechanisms, and integration with mobile devices and smartphones. High-volume manufacturing considerations of contact lenses are also covered and a case study of an intraocular pressure contact lens sensor is provided as an example of a successful product. This Review further analyzes the contact lens market and the FDA regulatory requirements for commercialization of contact lens sensors. PMID:25400274

  17. BIVOUAC OF DEAD TABLET, “THE MUFFLED DRUM’S SAD ROLL HAS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    BIVOUAC OF DEAD TABLET, “THE MUFFLED DRUM’S SAD ROLL HAS BEAT,” SECTION 6. VIEW TO SOUTH. - Hot Springs National Cemetery, Virginia Medical Center 500 North Fifth Street, Hot Springs, Fall River County, SD

  18. CHLORINE DECAY AND BIOFILM STUDIES IN A PILOT SCALE DRINKING WATER DISTRIBUTION DEAD END PIPE SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chlorine decay experiments using a pilot-scale water distribution dead end pipe system were conducted to define relationships between chlorine decay and environmental factors. These included flow rate, biomass concentration and biofilm density, and initial chlorine concentrations...

  19. BIVOUAC OF DEAD TABLET, “NO VISION OF THE MORROW’S STRIFE,” ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    BIVOUAC OF DEAD TABLET, “NO VISION OF THE MORROW’S STRIFE,” SECTION 4. VIEW TO SOUTH. - Hot Springs National Cemetery, Virginia Medical Center 500 North Fifth Street, Hot Springs, Fall River County, SD

  20. A grateful dead analysis: the relationship between concert and listening behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Rodriguez, Marko A; Gintautas, Vadas; Pepe, Alberto

    2008-01-01

    The Grateful Dead was an American band born out of the 1960s San Francisco, California psychedelic movement, that played music together from 1965 to 1995. Despite relatively little popular radio airtime, while on tour the Grateful Dead enjoyed a cult-like following from a fan base that numbered in the millions. Still today, some ten years after dissolution, the band remains popular according to online music services, such as last.fm. This article presents a comparative analysis between 1,590 of the Grateful Dead's live concert set lists from 1972 to 1995 and 2,616,990 Grateful Dead listening events by last.fm users from August 2005 to October 2007. While there is a strong correlation between how songs were played in concert and how they were listened to by last.fm members, the outlying songs in this trend identify interesting aspects of the band and their present-day fans.

  1. Restoring Life to the Dead Zone: Addressing Gulf Hypoxia, a National Problem

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    2000-01-01

    The hypoxic zone in the Gulf of Mexico, the so-called 'dead zone' lacking enough oxygen to support most marine life, is one of the largest environmental issues of the decade. Practical solutions, based on sound science, are needed.

  2. Why Stroke in Middle Age Is More Deadly for Blacks Than Whites

    MedlinePlus

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_159167.html Why Stroke in Middle Age Is More Deadly for Blacks ... THURSDAY, June 2, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- A higher stroke rate -- not differences in care after a stroke -- ...

  3. Real-time dynamic simulation of angular velocity and suppression of dead zone in IFOG

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Hong; Huan, Yunpeng; Wang, Ansu; Luan, Jinwen

    2015-02-01

    The mechanism of the dead zone in closed-loop IFOGs is theoretically analyzed. The digital closed-loop transfer model for fiber-optic gyroscope is modified and the electronic cross-coupling interference from the feedback channel in the output signal of the detector in the forward channel is added. Using this model, we achieve a real-time dynamic simulation for the dead zone. The simulation results are basically consistent with experiment results. Before the electronic cross-coupling has been eliminated, the dead zone of the high-precision fiber-optic gyro is about , while the medium precision fiber-optic gyro is . After modifying the modulator circuit boards, the dead zone and the noise of the IFOG are of the same order of magnitude, better than and , respectively.

  4. Examining the impact of external influences on police use of deadly force over time.

    PubMed

    White, Michael D

    2003-02-01

    Prior deadly force research has sought to identify appropriate mechanisms that can effectively control police officers' decisions to use deadly force. However, the relative impact of external discretion control policies on police shooting behavior remains largely unknown. Using data from Philadelphia for a period of more than two decades, this article employs interrupted time-series analysis (ARIMA) to examine the impact of legislation and judicial intervention on use of deadly force by Philadelphia police officers. The article also considers the impact of larger, community-level characteristics on levels of deadly force. Findings produced modest support for the potential effect of external discretion control policies and community-level factors on police shooting behavior but generally suggest that dynamic changes in the internal working environment can outweigh the influence of the external mechanisms. PMID:12568060

  5. Dead wood relative to slope severity in mesic loess bluff hardwood forests

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Twedt, Daniel J.

    2012-01-01

    To aid in identification of land within Vicksburg National Military Park that was subjected to forest restoration during the 1930s, I evaluated the hypothesized relationships between maximum live tree diameter or dead wood (standing and down) and severity of slope. Disproportionate mortality among early-successional, pioneer tree species suggested maturation of pioneer upland hardwood forests. As such, input and decomposition of dead wood have likely approached equilibrium. Thus, I did not detect a useful predictive relationship between dead wood (standing or down) or maximum diameter of live trees and severity of slope. Lack of relationships between slope and large diameter trees or volume of dead wood resulted in an inability to evaluate former land use based on these parameters.

  6. Intelligent fault isolation and diagnosis for communication satellite systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tallo, Donald P.; Durkin, John; Petrik, Edward J.

    1992-01-01

    Discussed here is a prototype diagnosis expert system to provide the Advanced Communication Technology Satellite (ACTS) System with autonomous diagnosis capability. The system, the Fault Isolation and Diagnosis EXpert (FIDEX) system, is a frame-based system that uses hierarchical structures to represent such items as the satellite's subsystems, components, sensors, and fault states. This overall frame architecture integrates the hierarchical structures into a lattice that provides a flexible representation scheme and facilitates system maintenance. FIDEX uses an inexact reasoning technique based on the incrementally acquired evidence approach developed by Shortliffe. The system is designed with a primitive learning ability through which it maintains a record of past diagnosis studies.

  7. People Who Have Committed a Certain Sin Ought to Be Dead

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leenaars, Antoon A.

    2006-01-01

    People who have committed a certain sin ought to be dead; I am a person who has committed that sin; therefore, I ought to be dead. Thus is the logic of a suicidal mind. Lester, Szaz, and others argue the "sinner" should always be allowed to kill him/herself. Shneidman, Leenaars and others do not agree. Once one knows the suicidal mind, it is easy…

  8. Fault self-diagnosis designing method of the automotive electronic control system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Yangyan; Yang, Zhigang; Fu, Xiaolin

    2005-12-01

    The fault self-diagnosis system is an important component of an the automotive electronic control system. Designers of automotive electronic control systems urgently require or need a complete understanding of the self-diagnosis designing method of the control system in order to apply it in practice. Aiming at this exigent need, self-diagnosis methods of designing sensors, electronic control unit (ECU), and actuators, which are the three main parts of automotive electronic control systems, are discussed in this paper. According to the fault types and characteristics of commonly used sensors, self-diagnosis designing methods of the sensors are discussed. Then fault diagnosis techniques of sensors utilizing signal detection and analytical redundancy are analysed and summarized respectively, from the viewpoint of the self-diagnosis designing method. Also, problems about failure self-diagnosis of ECU are analyzed here. For different fault types of an ECU, setting up a circuit monitoring method and a self-detection method of the hardware circuit are adopted respectively. Using these two methods mentioned above, a real-time and on-line technique of failure self-diagnosis is presented. Furthermore, the failure self-diagnosis design method of ECU are summarized. Finally, common faults of actuators are analyzed and the general design method of the failure self-diagnosis system is presented. It is suggested that self-diagnosis design methods relative to the failure of automotive electronic control systems can offer a useful approach to designers of control systems.

  9. Role of brain death and the dead-donor rule in the ethics of organ transplantation.

    PubMed

    Truog, Robert D; Robinson, Walter M

    2003-09-01

    The "dead-donor rule" requires patients to be declared dead before the removal of life-sustaining organs for transplantation. The concept of brain death was developed, in part, to allow patients with devastating neurologic injury to be declared dead before the occurrence of cardiopulmonary arrest. Brain death is essential to current practices of organ retrieval because it legitimates organ removal from bodies that continue to have circulation and respiration, thereby avoiding ischemic injury to the organs. The concept of brain death has long been recognized, however, to be plagued with serious inconsistencies and contradictions. Indeed, the concept fails to correspond to any coherent biological or philosophical understanding of death. We review the evidence and arguments that expose these problems and present an alternative ethical framework to guide the procurement of transplantable organs. This alternative is based not on brain death and the dead-donor rule, but on the ethical principles of nonmaleficence (the duty not to harm, or primum non nocere) and respect for persons. We propose that individuals who desire to donate their organs and who are either neurologically devastated or imminently dying should be allowed to donate their organs, without first being declared dead. Advantages of this approach are that (unlike the dead-donor rule) it focuses on the most salient ethical issues at stake, and (unlike the concept of brain death) it avoids conceptual confusion and inconsistencies. Finally, we point out parallel developments, both domestically and abroad, that reflect both implicit and explicit support for our proposal. PMID:14501972

  10. Relationships between dead wood and arthropods in the Southeastern United States.

    SciTech Connect

    Ulyshen, Michael, Darragh

    2009-05-01

    The importance of dead wood to maintaining forest diversity is now widely recognized. However, the habitat associations and sensitivities of many species associated with dead wood remain unknown, making it difficult to develop conservation plans for managed forests. The purpose of this research, conducted on the upper coastal plain of South Carolina, was to better understand the relationships between dead wood and arthropods in the southeastern United States. In a comparison of forest types, more beetle species emerged from logs collected in upland pine-dominated stands than in bottomland hardwood forests. This difference was most pronounced for Quercus nigra L., a species of tree uncommon in upland forests. In a comparison of wood postures, more beetle species emerged from logs than from snags, but a number of species appear to be dependent on snags including several canopy specialists. In a study of saproxylic beetle succession, species richness peaked within the first year of death and declined steadily thereafter. However, a number of species appear to be dependent on highly decayed logs, underscoring the importance of protecting wood at all stages of decay. In a study comparing litter-dwelling arthropod abundance at different distances from dead wood, arthropods were more abundant near dead wood than away from it. In another study, grounddwelling arthropods and saproxylic beetles were little affected by large-scale manipulations of dead wood in upland pine-dominated forests, possibly due to the suitability of the forests surrounding the plots.

  11. Hydrological and biogeochemical variation of stemflow from live, stressed, and dead codominant deciduous canopy trees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frost, E. E.; Levia, D. F.

    2011-12-01

    Stemflow, a critical localized point source of both water and nutrients in forested ecosystems, was examined as a function of species and mortality in a mid-Atlantic deciduous forest. Thirty trees across two species, Fagus grandifolia [American beech] and Liriodendron tulipifera [yellow poplar], and three mortality classes, live, stressed, and dead, were sampled and analyzed on an event basis for one year. Significant interspecific differences in volume and nutrient content of stemflow were found that were attributable to differences in canopy structure between the species. Funneling ratios across all three mortality classes were significantly different for F. grandifolia and between dead and live/stressed classes for L. tulipifera. Stemflow volumes from the dead trees of both species were a fraction of that from live and stressed trees. This was attributable to increased relative water storage capacities, canopy crown position, and the lack of surface area contributing to stemflow generation in upper canopy. Concentrations of nutrients in stemflow from dead trees were significantly higher than those found in both live and stressed stems for most nutrients analyzed. Enrichment ratios from dead stems were generally lower given the reduced volumes observed. Given the multi-decadal impact of standing dead trees in forest ecosystems and the uncertainty of changes in morality patterns in forests, additional research is warranted to further quantify the hydrobiochemical impact of stemflow from dying stems over their entire lifecycle.

  12. Dead time effects in non-line-of-sight ultraviolet communications.

    PubMed

    Drost, Robert J; Sadler, Brian M; Chen, Gang

    2015-06-15

    By exploiting unique properties of the atmospheric propagation of radiation in the deep-ultraviolet band (200-300 nm), ultraviolet communications (UVC) offers the novel possibility of establishing non-line-of-sight (NLOS) optical links. UVC systems often employ photon-counting receivers, which may exhibit nonideal behavior owing to dead time, a period of time after the detection of a photon during which such a receiver is unable to detect subsequently impinging photons. In this paper, we extend a NLOS UVC channel model to account for dead time and then use this extended model to study the effects of dead time in representative system scenarios. Experimentally collected channel-sounding data is then used for model validation and real-world illustration of these effects. Finally, we investigate the effect of dead time on communication performance. The results demonstrate that dead time can have a significant impact in practical communication scenarios and suggest the usefulness of the proposed modeling framework in developing receiver designs that compensate for dead time effects. PMID:26193553

  13. Identifying critical factors influencing the disposal of dead pigs by farmers in China.

    PubMed

    Wu, Linhai; Xu, Guoyan; Wang, Xiaoli

    2016-01-01

    Disposal of dead pigs by pig farmers may have a direct impact on pork safety, public health, and the ecological environment in China. Drawing on the existing literature, this study analyzed and summarized the main factors that could affect the disposal of dead pigs by pig farmers by conducting a survey of 654 pig farmers in Funing County, Jiangsu Province, China. The purpose of this analysis was to investigate the disposal of dead pigs in China and provide useful regulatory strategies for the government. The interrelationships among dimensions and factors that affect the disposal of dead pigs by farmers were analyzed, and critical factors were identified by a hybrid multi-criteria decision-making method, which is a combination of decision-making trial and evaluation laboratory (DEMATEL) and analytic network process (ANP). Our results demonstrated that production characteristics were the most important dimensions and that costs and profits, scale of farming, pattern of farming, knowledge of relevant laws and regulations, and knowledge of pig disease and prevention were the five most critical factors affecting the disposal of dead pigs by farmers in China at this stage. The significance of this study lies in further discussing some management policies for the Chinese government regarding strengthen regulation of disposing dead pigs. PMID:26330314

  14. Simulation of two generalised Newtonian fluids flow in micropore with dead end

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamyabi, Ata; Ramazani, S. A. Ahmad

    2011-03-01

    This research deals with the numerical simulation of Carreau and power-law fluids flow in an open capillary of a reservoir. The capillary is connected to a dead end. The finite volume method (FVM) on a structured and co-located grid has been used. The numerical method has been validated through the comparison of numerical results against the analytical solutions of power-law fluid flow in a planar channel. The effects of fluids, the operating conditions and the aspect ratio of dead end at the low Reynolds (Re) numbers on the oil sweeping from the dead end are investigated. The simulation results show that by increasing the power-law exponent in the case of power-law fluids, the swept depth in the dead end increases. However, according to the results, the effect of Re number on the flow pattern and the oil sweeping from the dead end is insignificant at the investigated conditions. In the case of Carreau model, at the conditions investigated, the swept area increases as the power-law exponent increases, but the Reynolds number has still minor effects on the flow pattern. Also, as the aspect ratio of dead end increases, the sweep efficiency increases.

  15. Analog sensitive chemical inhibition of the DEAD-box protein DDX3.

    PubMed

    Floor, Stephen N; Barkovich, Krister J; Condon, Kendall J; Shokat, Kevan M; Doudna, Jennifer A

    2016-03-01

    Proper maintenance of RNA structure and dynamics is essential to maintain cellular health. Multiple families of RNA chaperones exist in cells to modulate RNA structure, RNA-protein complexes, and RNA granules. The largest of these families is the DEAD-box proteins, named after their catalytic Asp-Glu-Ala-Asp motif. The human DEAD-box protein DDX3 is implicated in diverse biological processes including translation initiation and is mutated in numerous cancers. Like many DEAD-box proteins, DDX3 is essential to cellular health and exhibits dosage sensitivity, such that both decreases and increases in protein levels can be lethal. Therefore, chemical inhibition would be an ideal tool to probe the function of DDX3. However, most DEAD-box protein active sites are extremely similar, complicating the design of specific inhibitors. Here, we show that a chemical genetic approach best characterized in protein kinases, known as analog-sensitive chemical inhibition, is viable for DDX3 and possibly other DEAD-box proteins. We present an expanded active-site mutant that is tolerated in vitro and in vivo, and is sensitive to chemical inhibition by a novel bulky inhibitor. Our results highlight a course towards analog sensitive chemical inhibition of DDX3 and potentially the entire DEAD-box protein family. PMID:26650549

  16. Pressure sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Mee, David K.; Ripley, Edward B.; Nienstedt, Zachary C.; Nienstedt, Alex W.; Howell, Jr., Layton N.

    2015-09-29

    Disclosed is a passive, in-situ pressure sensor. The sensor includes a sensing element having a ferromagnetic metal and a tension inducing mechanism coupled to the ferromagnetic metal. The tension inducing mechanism is operable to change a tensile stress upon the ferromagnetic metal based on a change in pressure in the sensing element. Changes in pressure are detected based on changes in the magnetic switching characteristics of the ferromagnetic metal when subjected to an alternating magnetic field caused by the change in the tensile stress. The sensing element is embeddable in a closed system for detecting pressure changes without the need for any penetrations of the system for power or data acquisition by detecting changes in the magnetic switching characteristics of the ferromagnetic metal caused by the tensile stress.

  17. Corrosion sensor

    DOEpatents

    Glass, R.S.; Clarke, W.L. Jr.; Ciarlo, D.R.

    1994-04-26

    A corrosion sensor array is described incorporating individual elements for measuring various elements and ions, such as chloride, sulfide, copper, hydrogen (pH), etc. and elements for evaluating the instantaneous corrosion properties of structural materials. The exact combination and number of elements measured or monitored would depend upon the environmental conditions and materials used which are subject to corrosive effects. Such a corrosion monitoring system embedded in or mounted on a structure exposed to the environment would serve as an early warning system for the onset of severe corrosion problems for the structure, thus providing a safety factor as well as economic factors. The sensor array is accessed to an electronics/computational system, which provides a means for data collection and analysis. 7 figures.

  18. Corrosion sensor

    DOEpatents

    Glass, Robert S.; Clarke, Jr., Willis L.; Ciarlo, Dino R.

    1994-01-01

    A corrosion sensor array incorporating individual elements for measuring various elements and ions, such as chloride, sulfide, copper, hydrogen (pH), etc. and elements for evaluating the instantaneous corrosion properties of structural materials. The exact combination and number of elements measured or monitored would depend upon the environmental conditions and materials used which are subject to corrosive effects. Such a corrosion monitoring system embedded in or mounted on a structure exposed to the environment would serve as an early warning system for the onset of severe corrosion problems for the structure, thus providing a safety factor as well as economic factors. The sensor array is accessed to an electronics/computational system, which provides a means for data collection and analysis.

  19. Sensor assembly

    DOEpatents

    Bennett, Thomas E.; Nelson, Drew V.

    2004-04-13

    A ribbon-like sensor assembly is described wherein a length of an optical fiber embedded within a similar lengths of a prepreg tow. The fiber is ""sandwiched"" by two layers of the prepreg tow which are merged to form a single consolidated ribbon. The consolidated ribbon achieving a generally uniform distribution of composite filaments near the embedded fiber such that excess resin does not ""pool"" around the periphery of the embedded fiber.

  20. Gas Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    High Technology Sensors, Inc.'s Model SS-250 carbon dioxide detector uses a patented semiconductor optical source that efficiently creates infrared radiation, which is focused through an airway on a detector. Carbon dioxide passing through the airway absorbs the radiation causing the detector to generate a signal. The small size and low power requirements of the SS-250 make it attractive for incorporation in a variety of medical instruments.

  1. Chemical sensors

    DOEpatents

    Lowell, Jr., James R.; Edlund, David J.; Friesen, Dwayne T.; Rayfield, George W.

    1992-01-01

    Sensors responsive to small changes in the concentration of chemical species are disclosed, comprising a mechanicochemically responsive polymeric film capable of expansion or contraction in response to a change in its chemical environment, either operatively coupled to a transducer capable of directly converting the expansion or contraction to a measurable electrical or optical response, or adhered to a second inert polymeric strip, or doped with a conductive material.

  2. Chemical sensors

    DOEpatents

    Lowell, J.R. Jr.; Edlund, D.J.; Friesen, D.T.; Rayfield, G.W.

    1992-06-09

    Sensors responsive to small changes in the concentration of chemical species are disclosed, comprising a mechanicochemically responsive polymeric film capable of expansion or contraction in response to a change in its chemical environment, either operatively coupled to a transducer capable of directly converting the expansion or contraction to a measurable electrical or optical response, or adhered to a second inert polymeric strip, or doped with a conductive material. 12 figs.

  3. Position sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Auer, Siegfried (Inventor)

    1988-01-01

    A radiant energy angle sensor is provided wherein the sensitive portion thereof comprises a pair of linear array detectors with each detector mounted normal to the other to provide X and Y channels and a pair of slits spaced from the pair of linear arrays with each of the slits positioned normal to its associated linear array. There is also provided electrical circuit means connected to the pair of linear array detectors and to separate X and Y axes outputs.

  4. Thermo-mechanical Model of the Dead Sea Transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobolev, S. V.; Babeyko, A. Y.; Garfunkel, Z.

    2002-12-01

    The Dead Sea transform system (DST) is the boundary between the Arabian and African plates, where left-lateral transform motion has largely accommodated the opening of the Red Sea basin during the last 15-20 My. One of the key questions related to this plate boundary is whether the DST crosses the crust and mantle lithosphere, and how the rheologically different units composing the lithosphere interact during strong deformation? Another major question is how important is the rifting (transform-perpendicular extension) deformation component at the DST? We address these questions using the internally consistent finite element thermo-mechanical modelling of the lithospheric deformation constrained by high-resolution geophysical observations and especially by the recent geophysical data of the DESERT Project. From our modelling, we conclude that the DST lithospheric structure is controlled by the plate-scale transform displacement within a relatively cold and strong lithosphere. In such a lithosphere, shear strain is localized in a narrow (20-40 km wide) vertical decoupling zone (VDZ), which crosses the entire lithosphere and even continues into the asthenosphere. In the upper crust the deformation localizes at one or two major faults located at the top of this zone. The location of the VDZ is controlled by the temperature of the uppermost mantle prior to the transform motion. Most of the lithospheric structures imaged along the DESERT seismic line is explained by the 105 km transform motion combined with less than 4 km transform-perpendicular extension. Uplift of the Arabian Shield adjacent to the DST can be explained by young (<20 Ma) thinning of the lithosphere at and east of the plate boundary. Such lithospheric thinning is consistent with seismological observations, with the low present-day surface heat flow and with the high temperatures derived from mantle xenoliths brought up by Neogene-Quaternary basalts. Taking into account the timing of the onset of the

  5. Multi-Model Diagnosis Method for Lung Cancer based on MOS-SAW Breath Detecting e-Nose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yishan; Yu, Kai; Wang, Di; Zhao, Cong; Wang, Lin; Wang, Ping

    2011-09-01

    MOS-SAW breath detecting e-Nose combines the metal oxide semiconductor (MOS) sensors and the SAW sensor. We introduce a multi-model diagnosis method, which is used to process the signals of the MOS-SAW e-Nose, to establish the diagnosis models, and to detect unknown samples.

  6. Deadly proposal: a case of catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia.

    PubMed

    Heiner, Jason D; Bullard-Berent, Jeffrey H; Inbar, Shmuel

    2011-11-01

    Catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (CPVT) is a rare adrenergically mediated arrhythmogenic disorder classically induced by exercise or emotional stress and found in structurally normal hearts. It is an important cause of cardiac syncope and sudden death in childhood. Catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia is a genetic cardiac channelopathy with known mutations involving genes affecting intracellular calcium regulation. We present a case of a 14-year-old boy who had cardiopulmonary arrest after an emotionally induced episode of CPVT while attempting to invite a girl to the school dance. Review of his presenting cardiac rhythm, induction of concerning ventricular arrhythmias during an exercise stress test, and genetic testing confirmed the diagnosis of CPVT. He recovered fully and was treated with β-blocker therapy and placement of an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator. In this report, we discuss this rare but important entity, including its molecular foundation, clinical presentation, basics of diagnosis, therapeutic options, and implications of genetic testing for family members. We also compare CPVT to other notable cardiomyopathic and channelopathic causes of sudden death in youth including hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia, long QT syndrome, short QT syndrome, and Brugada syndrome. PMID:22068070

  7. Are Women Over-Represented in Dead-End Jobs? A Swedish Study Using Empirically Derived Measures of Dead-End Jobs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bihagen, Erik; Ohls, Marita

    2007-01-01

    It has been claimed that women experience fewer career opportunities than men do mainly because they are over-represented in "Dead-end Jobs" (DEJs). Using Swedish panel data covering 1.1 million employees with the same employer in 1999 and 2003, measures of DEJ are empirically derived from analyses of wage mobility. The results indicate that women…

  8. Artificial neural network cardiopulmonary modeling and diagnosis

    DOEpatents

    Kangas, Lars J.; Keller, Paul E.

    1997-01-01

    The present invention is a method of diagnosing a cardiopulmonary condition in an individual by comparing data from a progressive multi-stage test for the individual to a non-linear multi-variate model, preferably a recurrent artificial neural network having sensor fusion. The present invention relies on a cardiovascular model developed from physiological measurements of an individual. Any differences between the modeled parameters and the parameters of an individual at a given time are used for diagnosis.

  9. Artificial neural network cardiopulmonary modeling and diagnosis

    DOEpatents

    Kangas, L.J.; Keller, P.E.

    1997-10-28

    The present invention is a method of diagnosing a cardiopulmonary condition in an individual by comparing data from a progressive multi-stage test for the individual to a non-linear multi-variate model, preferably a recurrent artificial neural network having sensor fusion. The present invention relies on a cardiovascular model developed from physiological measurements of an individual. Any differences between the modeled parameters and the parameters of an individual at a given time are used for diagnosis. 12 figs.

  10. Immunity-based diagnosis for a motherboard.

    PubMed

    Shida, Haruki; Okamoto, Takeshi; Ishida, Yoshiteru

    2011-01-01

    We have utilized immunity-based diagnosis to detect abnormal behavior of components on a motherboard. The immunity-based diagnostic model monitors voltages of some components, CPU temperatures, and fan speeds. We simulated abnormal behaviors of some components on the motherboard, and we utilized the immunity-based diagnostic model to evaluate motherboard sensors in two experiments. These experiments showed that the immunity-based diagnostic model was an effective method for detecting abnormal behavior of components on the motherboard. PMID:22163857

  11. Airborne laser scanning based quantification of dead-ice melting in recently deglaciated terrain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klug, C.; Sailer, R.; Schümberg, M.; Stötter, J.

    2012-04-01

    Dead-ice is explained as stagnant glacial ice, not influenced by glacier flow anymore. Whenever glaciers have negative mass balances and an accumulation of debris-cover on the surface, dead-ice may form. Although, there are numerous conceptual process-sediment-landform models for the melt-out of dead-ice bodies and areas of dead-ice environments at glacier margins are easily accessible, just a few quantitative studies of dead-ice melting have been carried out so far. Processes and rates of dead-ice melting are commonly believed to be controlled by climate and debris-cover properties, but there is still a lack of knowledge about this fact. This study has a focus on the quantification of process induced volumetric changes caused by dead-ice melting. The research for this project was conducted at Hintereisferner (Ötztal Alps, Austria), Gepatschferner (Ötztal Alps, Austria) and Schrankar (Stubai Alps, Austria), areas for which a good data basis of ALS (Airborne Laser Scanning) measurements is available. 'Hintereisferner' can be characterized as a typical high alpine environment in mid-latitudes, which ranges between approximately 2250 m and 3740 m a.s.l.. The Hintereisferner region has been investigated intensively since many decades. Two dead ice bodies at the orographic right side and one at the orographic left side of the Hintereisferner glacier terminus (approx. at 2500 m to 2550 m a.s.l.) were identified. Since 2001, ALS measurements have been carried out regularly at Hintereisferner resulting in a unique data record of 21 ALS flight campaigns, allowing long-term explorations of the two dead-ice areas. The second study area of 'Gepatschferner' in the Kaunertal ranges between 2060 m and 3520 m a.s.l. and is the second largest glacier of Austria. Near the glacier tongue at the orographic right side a significant dead ice body has formed. The ALS data used for quantification include a period of time of 4 years (2006 - 2010). 'Schrankar' is located in the Western

  12. Anatomical pathology is dead? Long live anatomical pathology.

    PubMed

    Nicholls, John M; Francis, Glenn D

    2011-10-01

    The standard diagnostic instrument used for over 150 years by anatomical pathologists has been the optical microscope and glass slide. The advent of immunohistochemistry in the routine laboratory in the 1980s, followed by in situ hybridisation in the 1990s, has increased the armamentaria available to the diagnostic pathologist, and this technology has led to changed patient management in a limited number of neoplastic diseases. The first decade of the 21 century has seen an increasing number of publications using proteomic technologies that promise to change disease diagnosis and management, the traditional role of an anatomical pathologist. Despite the plethora of publications on proteomics and pathology, to date there are actually limited data where proteomic technologies do appear to be of greater diagnostic value than the standard histological slide. Though proteomic techniques will become more prevalent in the future, it will need the expertise of an anatomical pathologist to dissect out and validate this added information. PMID:21876472

  13. Prenatal diagnosis of achondrogenesis.

    PubMed

    Golbus, M S; Hall, B D; Filly, R A; Poskanzer, L B

    1977-09-01

    Severe rhizomelic and mesomelic dwarfism was demonstrated in a 20-week gestation fetus by amniography. A systematic progressive approach to prenatal diagnosis in the absence of a definitive diagnosis and the use of contrast radiography is discussed. PMID:894421

  14. Pubic "Crab" Lice Diagnosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Treatment FAQs Malathion FAQs Epidemiology & Risk Factors Disease Biology Diagnosis Treatment Prevention & Control Resources for Health Professionals ... Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) Epidemiology & Risk Factors Disease Biology Diagnosis Treatment Prevention & Control Resources for Health Professionals ...

  15. Head Lice: Diagnosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Treatment FAQs Malathion FAQs Epidemiology & Risk Factors Disease Biology Diagnosis Treatment Prevention & Control Resources for Health Professionals ... Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) Epidemiology & Risk Factors Disease Biology Diagnosis Treatment Prevention & Control Resources for Health Professionals ...

  16. Body Lice Diagnosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Treatment FAQs Malathion FAQs Epidemiology & Risk Factors Disease Biology Diagnosis Treatment Prevention & Control Resources for Health Professionals ... Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) Epidemiology & Risk Factors Disease Biology Diagnosis Treatment Prevention & Control Resources for Health Professionals ...

  17. Tetanus: Diagnosis and Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... Links Tetanus Vaccination Maternal and Neonatal Tetanus Elimination Diagnosis and Treatment Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... should be given along with treatment. Related Page Diagnosis/Treatment for Clinicians Related Links Tetanus Vaccination Maternal ...

  18. Bell's Palsy Diagnosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Stories Español Eye Health / Eye Health A-Z Bell's Palsy Sections What Is Bell's Palsy? Bell's Palsy Symptoms ... Bell's Palsy? Bell's Palsy Diagnosis Bell's Palsy Treatment Bell's Palsy Diagnosis Reviewed by: Philip R Rizzuto, MD FACS ...

  19. Comparative community genomics in the Dead Sea: an increasingly extreme environment.

    PubMed

    Bodaker, Idan; Sharon, Itai; Suzuki, Marcelino T; Feingersch, Roi; Shmoish, Michael; Andreishcheva, Ekaterina; Sogin, Mitchell L; Rosenberg, Mira; Maguire, Michael E; Belkin, Shimshon; Oren, Aharon; Béjà, Oded

    2010-03-01

    Owing to the extreme salinity ( approximately 10 times saltier than the oceans), near toxic magnesium levels (approximately 2.0 M Mg(2+)), the dominance of divalent cations, acidic pH (6.0) and high-absorbed radiation flux rates, the Dead Sea represents a unique and harsh ecosystem. Measures of microbial presence (microscopy, pigments and lipids) indicate that during rare bloom events after exceptionally rainy seasons, the microbial communities can reach high densities. However, most of the time, when the Dead Sea level is declining and halite is precipitating from the water column, it is difficult to reliably measure the presence of microorganisms and their activities. Although a number of halophilic Archaea have been previously isolated from the Dead Sea, polar lipid analyses of biomass collected during Dead Sea blooms suggested that these isolates were not the major components of the microbial community of these blooms. In this study, in an effort to characterize the perennial microbial community of the Dead Sea and compare it with bloom assemblages, we performed metagenomic analyses of concentrated biomass from hundreds of liters of brine and of microbial material from the last massive Dead Sea bloom. The difference between the two conditions was reflected in community composition and diversity, in which the bloom was different and less diverse from the residual brine population. The distributional patterns of microbial genes suggested Dead Sea community trends in mono- and divalent cation metabolisms as well as in transposable elements. This may indicate possible mechanisms and pathways enabling these microbes to survive in such a harsh environment. PMID:20033072

  20. Microbial and Chemical Characterization of Underwater Fresh Water Springs in the Dead Sea

    PubMed Central

    Ionescu, Danny; Siebert, Christian; Polerecky, Lubos; Munwes, Yaniv Y.; Lott, Christian; Häusler, Stefan; Bižić-Ionescu, Mina; Quast, Christian; Peplies, Jörg; Glöckner, Frank Oliver; Ramette, Alban; Rödiger, Tino; Dittmar, Thorsten; Oren, Aharon; Geyer, Stefan; Stärk, Hans-Joachim; Sauter, Martin; Licha, Tobias; Laronne, Jonathan B.; de Beer, Dirk

    2012-01-01

    Due to its extreme salinity and high Mg concentration the Dead Sea is characterized by a very low density of cells most of which are Archaea. We discovered several underwater fresh to brackish water springs in the Dead Sea harboring dense microbial communities. We provide the first characterization of these communities, discuss their possible origin, hydrochemical environment, energetic resources and the putative biogeochemical pathways they are mediating. Pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene and community fingerprinting methods showed that the spring community originates from the Dead Sea sediments and not from the aquifer. Furthermore, it suggested that there is a dense Archaeal community in the shoreline pore water of the lake. Sequences of bacterial sulfate reducers, nitrifiers iron oxidizers and iron reducers were identified as well. Analysis of white and green biofilms suggested that sulfide oxidation through chemolitotrophy and phototrophy is highly significant. Hyperspectral analysis showed a tight association between abundant green sulfur bacteria and cyanobacteria in the green biofilms. Together, our findings show that the Dead Sea floor harbors diverse microbial communities, part of which is not known from other hypersaline environments. Analysis of the water’s chemistry shows evidence of microbial activity along the path and suggests that the springs supply nitrogen, phosphorus and organic matter to the microbial communities in the Dead Sea. The underwater springs are a newly recognized water source for the Dead Sea. Their input of microorganisms and nutrients needs to be considered in the assessment of possible impact of dilution events of the lake surface waters, such as those that will occur in the future due to the intended establishment of the Red Sea−Dead Sea water conduit. PMID:22679498