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1

Under reporting of dementia deaths on death certificates: a systematic review of population-based cohort studies.  

PubMed

The purpose of this review is to assess the extent to which dementia is omitted as a cause of death from the death certificates of patients with dementia. A systematic literature search was performed to identify population-based cohort studies in which all participants were examined or screened for symptoms of dementia with a validated instrument followed by confirmation of any suspected cases with a clinical examination (two-phase investigation). Data were extracted in a standardized manner and assessed through the Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) initiative. Seven studies met the selection criteria. These were from the Americas (5 articles: 2 from Canada, 2 from the US, and 1 from Brazil) and Europe (2 articles: 1 from the UK and 1 from Spain). Each met at least 83% of the STROBE criteria. The reporting of dementia on death certificates was poor in these 7 studies, ranging from 7.2%-41.8%. Respiratory or circulatory-related problems were the most frequently reported causes of death among people who were demented but who were not reported as demented on death certificates. The use of death certificates for studying dementia grossly underestimates the occurrence of dementia in the population. The poor reporting of dementia on these certificates suggests a lack of awareness of the importance of dementia as a cause of death among medical personnel. There is an urgent need to provide better education on the importance of codification of dementia on death certificates in order to minimize errors in epidemiological studies on dementia. PMID:24583403

Romero, Juan Pablo; Benito-León, Julián; Louis, Elan D; Bermejo-Pareja, Félix

2014-01-01

2

Improving the accuracy of death certification  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: Population-based mortality statistics are derived from the information recorded on death certificates. This information is used for many important purposes, such as the development of public health programs and the allocation of health care resources. Although most physicians are confronted with the task of completing death certificates, many do not receive adequate training in this skill. Resulting inaccuracies in information undermine the quality of the data derived from death certificates. METHODS: An educational intervention was designed and implemented to improve internal medicine residents' accuracy in death certificate completion. A total of 229 death certificates (146 completed before and 83 completed after the intervention) were audited for major and minor errors, and the rates of errors before and after the intervention were compared. RESULTS: Major errors were identified on 32.9% of the death certificates completed before the intervention, a rate comparable to previously reported rates for internal medicine services in teaching hospitals. Following the intervention the major error rate decreased to 15.7% (p = 0.01). The reduction in the major error rate was accounted for by significant reductions in the rate of listing of mechanism of death without a legitimate underlying cause of death (15.8% v. 4.8%) (p = 0.01) and the rate of improper sequencing of death certificate information (15.8% v. 6.0%) (p = 0.03). INTERPRETATION: Errors are common in the completion of death certificates in the inpatient teaching hospital setting. The accuracy of death certification can be improved with the implementation of a simple educational intervention. PMID:9614825

Myers, K A; Farquhar, D R

1998-01-01

3

Place of death in the Czech Republic and Slovakia: a population based comparative study using death certificates data  

PubMed Central

Background Place of death represents an important indicator for end-of-life care policy making and is related to the quality of life of patients and their families. The aim of the paper is to analyse the place of death in the Czech Republic and Slovakia in 2011. Research questions were focused on factors influencing the place of death and specifically the likelihood of dying at home. Methods Whole population data from death certificates for all deaths in the Czech Republic and Slovakia in 2011 were used for bivariate and multivariate analyses. Separate analysis using binary logistic regression was conducted for subpopulation of patients who died from chronic conditions. Results The majority of population in both countries died in hospitals (58.4% the Czech Republic, 54.8% Slovakia), less than one-third died at home. In case of chronic conditions, death at home was significantly associated with underlying cause of death (cancer and heart failure), being male, age (older than 85, Slovakia only) and higher education (the Czech Republic only). Cancer and heart failure patients had higher chances to die at home than other chronic conditions. Conclusions Czech and Slovak patients with chronic conditions are more likely to die in hospitals than in some other European Union member countries. This finding should be addressed by policy makers in promoting home hospice care services and education in palliative care for staff in nursing homes and other end-of-life settings. PMID:24650214

2014-01-01

4

The validity of death certificates: routine validation of death certification and its effects on mortality statistics.  

PubMed

The 3478 death certificates (7.1% of all annual death certificates) of this study comprise those national death certificates in 1995 submitted for validation to the panel representing both medical and nosological expertise. As such, it is highly selected and represents, from the nosological point of view, the most inconsistently filled-in portion of Finnish death certificates. The routine validation procedure is essentially based on exploitation of the extra medical information, i.e. the case history, on the Finnish death certificate form. Altogether, 2813 (80.9%) out of 3478 certificates could be adjusted at the primary panel session; the rest required further clarification. The re-assignment of cause of death by the panel and the impact of panel adjustments on the national mortality statistics is assessed here by comparing the initial death certification and the finally registered underlying cause of death grouped into ICD-9 major categories with special reference to the subcategories of neoplasm, cardiovascular disease (HVD) and unnatural death. A statistically significant decline (p<0.0001) in deaths, both in the category of symptoms, signs and ill-defined conditions and in the pulmonary circulation disease subcategory of HVD with 37.6 and 35.1%, respectively, was observed. The decrease of 11.1% in the benign or NUD neoplasm subcategory and the increase of 8.6 and 7.0% in the categories of endocrine disease, and musculo-skeletal and connective tissue disease, respectively, are essential observations as to the quality of the cause of death register. The effect on the HVD major category was practically nil. At the HVD-subcategorial level, a decrease of 14.0% for diseases of the veins and lymphatics and other circulatory diseases and an increase of 3.5% for hypertensive diseases (HYP) were the two next most obvious alterations to the diseases of the pulmonary circulation, but were without statistical significance. For ischaemic heart disease and other subcategories, the effects were minor. The unnatural deaths as a whole increased in the final statistics with only 0.9%. In the study data, categorial changes ranged from the decrease of 75.2% for symptoms, signs and ill-defined conditions to the increase of 77.3% for endocrine diseases. In conclusion, the Finnish death certificate form, death certification practices and cause of death validation procedure seem to serve the coding of causes of death for mortality statistics appropriately. The results of the study form a relevant reference background to evaluation of epidemiological studies on mortality. PMID:11056267

Lahti, R A; Penttilä, A

2001-01-01

5

Use of death certificates for mesothelioma surveillance.  

PubMed Central

Data from the Massachusetts Cancer Registry and death certificates were linked for mesothelioma cases reported to the registry from 1982 through 1987 to determine the extent to which the cause of death information that is given on the death certificate is useful in identifying mesothelioma cases for disease surveillance. Only 12 percent of all persons reported with mesothelioma who had died were detected using underlying cause of death codes for cancers of the peritoneum and pleura, which are commonly used to identify mesothelioma cases. The rate increased to 83 percent when death certificates were reviewed manually for any mention of mesothelioma. Surveillance using only the coded cause of death data currently available will result in a large underascertainment of mesothelioma cases. PMID:1641448

Davis, L K; Martin, T R; Kligler, B

1992-01-01

6

Quality comparison of electronic versus paper death certificates in France, 2010  

PubMed Central

Background Electronic death certification was established in France in 2007. A methodology based on intrinsic characteristics of death certificates was designed to compare the quality of electronic versus paper death certificates. Methods All death certificates from the 2010 French mortality database were included. Three specific quality indicators were considered: (i) amount of information, measured by the number of causes of death coded on the death certificate; (ii) intrinsic consistency, explored by application of the International Classification of Disease (ICD) General Principle, using an international automatic coding system (Iris); (iii) imprecision, measured by proportion of death certificates where the selected underlying cause of death was imprecise. Multivariate models were considered: a truncated Poisson model for indicator (i) and binomial models for indicators (ii) and (iii). Adjustment variables were age, gender, and cause, place, and region of death. Results 533,977death certificates were analyzed. After adjustment, electronic death certificates contained 19% [17%-20%] more codes than paper death certificates for people deceased under 65 years, and 12% [11%-13%] more codes for people deceased over 65 years. Regarding deceased under and over 65 respectively, the ICD General Principle could be applied 2% [0%-4%] and 6% [5%-7%] more to electronic than to paper death certificates. The proportion of imprecise death certificates was 51% [46%-56%] lower for electronic than for paper death certificates. Conclusion The method proposed to evaluate the quality of death certificates is easily reproducible in countries using an automatic coding system. According to our criteria, electronic death certificates are better completed than paper death certificates. The transition to electronic death certificates is positive in many aspects and should be promoted. PMID:24533639

2014-01-01

7

BIRTH AND DEATH CERTIFICATES AS LEGAL EVIDENCE  

PubMed Central

Birth and death certificates have a legal value that statisticians do not always realize. Citizenship, marriage, distribution of property and even disproof of crime may depend on proper birth registration. Certificates should be in standard form with certain definite facts plainly stated, and all handling or copying should be done by officials. Imagesp5-a PMID:18010418

Hemenway, Henry Bixby

1921-01-01

8

Death Certificates Underestimate Infections as Proximal Causes of Death in the U.S  

PubMed Central

Background Death certificates are a primary data source for assessing the population burden of diseases; however, there are concerns regarding their accuracy. Diagnosis-Related Group (DRG) coding of a terminal hospitalization may provide an alternative view. We analyzed the rate and patterns of disagreement between death certificate data and hospital claims for patients who died during an inpatient hospitalization. Methods We studied respondents from the Health and Retirement Study (a nationally representative sample of older Americans who had an inpatient death documented in the linked Medicare claims from 1993–2007). Causes of death abstracted from death certificates were aggregated to the standard National Center for Health Statistics List of 50 Rankable Causes of Death. Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS)-DRGs were manually aggregated into a parallel classification. We then compared the two systems via 2×2, focusing on concordance. Our primary analysis was agreement between the two data sources, assessed with percentages and Cohen's kappa statistic. Results 2074 inpatient deaths were included in our analysis. 36.6% of death certificate cause-of-death codes agreed with the reason for the terminal hospitalization in the Medicare claims at the broad category level; when re-classifying DRGs without clear alignment as agreements, the concordance only increased to 61%. Overall Kappa was 0.21, or “fair.” Death certificates in this cohort redemonstrated the conventional top 3 causes of death as diseases of the heart, malignancy, and cerebrovascular disease. However, hospitalization claims data showed infections, diseases of the heart, and cerebrovascular disease as the most common diagnoses for the same terminal hospitalizations. Conclusion There are significant differences between Medicare claims and death certificate data in assigning cause of death for inpatients. The importance of infections as proximal causes of death is underestimated by current death certificate-based strategies. PMID:24878897

Govindan, Sushant; Shapiro, Letitia; Langa, Kenneth M.; Iwashyna, Theodore J.

2014-01-01

9

Sunlight and mortality from breast, ovarian, colon, prostate, and non-melanoma skin cancer: a composite death certificate based case-control study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To explore whether mortality from female breast, ovarian, colon, and prostate cancer were negatively associated with exposure to sunlight. Methods: A death certificate based case-control study of mortality was conducted into five cancers: female breast, ovarian, colon, prostate, and non-melanoma skin cancer (as a positive control) to exam- ine associations with residential and occupational exposure to sunlight. Cases were

D M Freedman; M Dosemeci; K McGlynn

2002-01-01

10

Death certification: a primer. Part I--an introduction to the death certificate.  

PubMed

Unlike the medical record, the death certificate is a public legal document that deserves the certifier's best intellectual effort to complete. The death certificate serves a variety of purposes, to include: A. Legal proof of death, usually necessary for a family to receive social security, health insurance, and other death benefits. B. A closure statement to the family from the physician documenting his or her final diagnosis. C. A family heirloom document that preserves a family history of causes of death (which may be invaluable in documenting hereditary diseases within a family). D. The death certificate is the backbone of national death statistics. Incorrect data from death certificates translates into incorrect state and national death rates for all causes. Cause of death assessment is inherently inaccurate (autopsy studies suggest that at least 10 percent of deaths have major unrecognized underlying disease processes that would have altered therapy had they been known). Even correct diagnostic assessments, however, can be lost to the system if they are improperly entered on to the death certificate. PMID:24851467

Randall, Brad

2014-05-01

11

Cause of death affects racial classification on death certificates.  

PubMed

Recent research suggests racial classification is responsive to social stereotypes, but how this affects racial classification in national vital statistics is unknown. This study examines whether cause of death influences racial classification on death certificates. We analyze the racial classifications from a nationally representative sample of death certificates and subsequent interviews with the decedents' next of kin and find notable discrepancies between the two racial classifications by cause of death. Cirrhosis decedents are more likely to be recorded as American Indian on their death certificates, and homicide victims are more likely to be recorded as Black; these results remain net of controls for followback survey racial classification, indicating that the relationship we reveal is not simply a restatement of the fact that these causes of death are more prevalent among certain groups. Our findings suggest that seemingly non-racial characteristics, such as cause of death, affect how people are racially perceived by others and thus shape U.S. official statistics. PMID:21298093

Noymer, Andrew; Penner, Andrew M; Saperstein, Aliya

2011-01-01

12

Age-based disparities in end-of-life decisions in Belgium: a population-based death certificate survey  

PubMed Central

Background A growing body of scientific research is suggesting that end-of-life care and decision making may differ between age groups and that elderly patients may be the most vulnerable to exclusion of due care at the end of life. This study investigates age-related disparities in the rate of end-of-life decisions with a possible or certain life shortening effect (ELDs) and in the preceding decision making process in Flanders, Belgium in 2007, where euthanasia was legalised in 2002. Comparing with data from an identical survey in 1998 we also study the plausibility of the ‘slippery slope’ hypothesis which predicts a rise in the rate of administration of life ending drugs without patient request, especially among elderly patients, in countries where euthanasia is legal. Method We performed a post-mortem survey among physicians certifying a large representative sample (n?=?6927) of death certificates in 2007, identical to a 1998 survey. Response rate was 58.4%. Results While the rates of non-treatment decisions (NTD) and administration of life ending drugs without explicit request (LAWER) did not differ between age groups, the use of intensified alleviation of pain and symptoms (APS) and euthanasia/assisted suicide (EAS), as well as the proportion of euthanasia requests granted, was bivariately and negatively associated with patient age. Multivariate analysis showed no significant effects of age on ELD rates. Older patients were less often included in decision making for APS and more often deemed lacking in capacity than were younger patients. Comparison with 1998 showed a decrease in the rate of LAWER in all age groups except in the 80+ age group where the rate was stagnant. Conclusion Age is not a determining factor in the rate of end-of-life decisions, but is in decision making as patient inclusion rates decrease with old age. Our results suggest there is a need to focus advance care planning initiatives on elderly patients. The slippery slope hypothesis cannot be confirmed either in general or among older people, as since the euthanasia law fewer LAWER cases were found. PMID:22708727

2012-01-01

13

Death certification: a primer, Part IV--problems in death certification.  

PubMed

Beyond errors in diagnosis, procedural errors in completing the cause of death statement for the death certificate can usually be placed into a few distinct categories. Physicians often forget, after struggling to deal with a litany of medical problems, that an external event, usually trauma, brought a patient into their care in the first place. In these instances, the death needs to be reported to the coroner and the coroner must certify the death (since it was the external event that actually started the chain of events leading to the death). Likewise, physicians also must recognize a death that was precipitated by seemingly simple and common trauma, such as a fall in an elderly individual (which may seem like a natural event), must be certified by the coroner. Another common error in death certification is listing the elements of the cause of death statement in the wrong order, i.e., an order where one listing is not directly caused by the process listed directly under it. While listing nonspecific processes, such as congestive heart failure, in the cause of death statement is perfectly acceptable, what caused these nonspecific processes must also be listed beneath them. If that cause is unknown, then that needs to be stated. Abbreviations, of any kind, should not be part of the cause of death statement. Physicians should certify deaths for those patients they are providing care for, and in whom death is the result of known medical conditions, regardless of whether they or other medical personnel were actually present (in attendance) to witness the death. PMID:25163225

Randall, Brad

2014-08-01

14

Inadequacies of death certification in Beirut: who is responsible?  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To assess the completeness of data on death certificates over the past 25 years in Beirut, Lebanon, and to examine factors associated with the absence of certifiers' signatures and the non-reporting of the underlying cause of death. METHODS: A systematic 20% sample comprising 2607 death certificates covering the 1974, 1984, 1994, 1997 and 1998 registration periods was retrospectively reviewed for certification practices and missing data. FINDINGS: The information on the death certificates was almost complete in respect of all demographic characteristics of the deceased persons except for occupation and month of birth. Data relating to these variables were missing on approximately 95% and 78% of the certificates, respectively. Around half of the certificates did not carry a certifier's signature. Of those bearing such a signature, 21.6% lacked documentation of the underlying cause of death. The certifier's signature was more likely to be absent on: certificates corresponding to the younger and older age groups than on those of persons aged 15-44 years; those of females than on those of males; those of persons who had been living remotely from the registration governorate than on those of other deceased persons; and those for which there had been delays in registration exceeding six months than on certificates for which registration had been quicker. For certificates that carried the certifier's signature there was no evidence that any of the demographic characteristics of the deceased person was associated with decreased likelihood of reporting an underlying cause of death. CONCLUSION: The responsibility for failure to report causes of death in Beirut lies with families who lack an incentive to call for a physician and with certifying physicians who do not carry out this duty. The deficiencies in death certification are rectifiable. However, any changes should be sensitive to the constraints of the organizational and legal infrastructure governing death registration practices and the medical educational systems in the country. PMID:12163919

Sibai, Abla M.; Nuwayhid, Iman; Beydoun, May; Chaaya, Monique

2002-01-01

15

Estimating Pneumonia Deaths of Post-Neonatal Children in Countries of Low or No Death Certification in 2008  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundPneumonia is the leading cause of child deaths globally. The aims of this study were to: a) estimate the number and global distribution of pneumonia deaths for children 1–59 months for 2008 for countries with low (<85%) or no coverage of death certification using single-cause regression models and b) compare these country estimates with recently published ones based on multi-cause

Evropi Theodoratou; Jian Shayne F. Zhang; Ivana Kolcic; Andrew M. Davis; Sunil Bhopal; Harish Nair; Kit Yee Chan; Li Liu; Hope Johnson; Igor Rudan; Harry Campbell; Rick Edward Paul

2011-01-01

16

Factors associated with the goal of treatment in the last week of life in old compared to very old patients: a population-based death certificate survey  

PubMed Central

Background Little is known about the type of care older people of different ages receive at the end of life. The goal of treatment is an important parameter of the quality of end-of-life care. This study aims to provide an evaluation of the main goal of treatment in the last week of life of people aged 86 and older compared with those between 75 and 85 and to examine how treatment goals are associated with age. Methods Population- based cross sectional survey in Flanders, Belgium. A stratified random sample of death certificates was drawn of people who died between 1 June and 30 November 2007. The effective study sample included 3,623 deaths (response rate: 58.4%). Non-sudden deaths of patients aged 75 years and older were selected (N?=?1681). Main outcome was the main goal of treatment in the last week of life (palliative care or life-prolonging/curative treatment). Results In patients older than 75, the main goal of treatment in the last week was in the majority of cases palliative care (77.9%). Patients between 75 and 85 more often received life-prolonging/curative treatment than older patients (26.6% vs. 15.8%). Most patient and health care characteristics are similarly related to the main goal of treatment in both age groups. The patient’s age was independently related to having comfort care as the main goal of treatment. The main goal of treatment was also independently associated with the patient’s sex, cause and place of death and the time already in treatment. Conclusion Age is independently related to the main goal of treatment in the last week of life with people over 85 being more likely to receive palliative care and less likely to receive curative/life-prolonging treatment compared with those aged 75–85. This difference could be due to the patient’s wishes but could also be the result of the attitudes of care givers towards the treatment of older people. PMID:24886232

2014-01-01

17

Place-of-residence errors on death certificates for two contiguous U. S. counties  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Based on death certificate data, the Texas Department of Health Bureau of Vital Statistics calculates age adjusted all-cause mortality rates for each Texas county yearly. In 1998 the calculated rates for two adjacent Texas counties was disparate. These counties contain one city (Amarillo) and are identical in size. This study examined the accuracy of recorded county of residence for

J Rush Pierce; Anne V Denison

2006-01-01

18

Occupational information on death certificates: a survey of state practices.  

PubMed Central

A national survey was conducted in 1979 to determine the extent to which state and local vital registration offices coded and stored occupational information reported on death certificates. This survey found that 11 states routinely code occupation, seven routinely code industry, and six have coded occupation and/or industry on a limited basis. State and federal cooperation is needed to facilitate increased use of mortality data for environmental and occupational health research. PMID:7212142

Kaminski, R; Brockert, J; Sestito, J; Frazier, T

1981-01-01

19

25 CFR 15.104 - Does the agency need a death certificate to prepare a probate file?  

...2014-04-01 false Does the agency need a death certificate to prepare a probate file...Process § 15.104 Does the agency need a death certificate to prepare a probate file...provide us with a certified copy of the death certificate if a death certificate...

2014-04-01

20

Estimating Pneumonia Deaths of Post-Neonatal Children in Countries of Low or No Death Certification in 2008  

PubMed Central

Background Pneumonia is the leading cause of child deaths globally. The aims of this study were to: a) estimate the number and global distribution of pneumonia deaths for children 1–59 months for 2008 for countries with low (<85%) or no coverage of death certification using single-cause regression models and b) compare these country estimates with recently published ones based on multi-cause regression models. Methods and Findings For 35 low child-mortality countries with <85% coverage of death certification, a regression model based on vital registration data of low child-mortality and >85% coverage of death certification countries was used. For 87 high child-mortality countries pneumonia death estimates were obtained by applying a regression model developed from published and unpublished verbal autopsy data from high child-mortality settings. The total number of 1–59 months pneumonia deaths for the year 2008 for these 122 countries was estimated to be 1.18 M (95% CI 0.77 M–1.80 M), which represented 23.27% (95% CI 17.15%–32.75%) of all 1–59 month child deaths. The country level estimation correlation coefficient between these two methods was 0.40. Interpretation Although the overall number of post-neonatal pneumonia deaths was similar irrespective to the method of estimation used, the country estimate correlation coefficient was low, and therefore country-specific estimates should be interpreted with caution. Pneumonia remains the leading cause of child deaths and is greatest in regions of poverty and high child-mortality. Despite the concerns about gender inequity linked with childhood mortality we could not estimate sex-specific pneumonia mortality rates due to the inadequate data. Life-saving interventions effective in preventing and treating pneumonia mortality exist but few children in high pneumonia disease burden regions are able to access them. To achieve the United Nations Millennium Development Goal 4 target to reduce child deaths by two-thirds in year 2015 will require the scale-up of access to these effective pneumonia interventions. PMID:21966425

Theodoratou, Evropi; Zhang, Jian Shayne F.; Kolcic, Ivana; Davis, Andrew M.; Bhopal, Sunil; Nair, Harish; Chan, Kit Yee; Liu, Li; Johnson, Hope; Rudan, Igor; Campbell, Harry

2011-01-01

21

Evaluating an educational intervention to improve the accuracy of death certification among trainees from various specialties  

PubMed Central

Background The inaccuracy of death certification can lead to the misallocation of resources in health care programs and research. We evaluated the rate of errors in the completion of death certificates among medical residents from various specialties, before and after an educational intervention which was designed to improve the accuracy in the certification of the cause of death. Methods A 90-min seminar was delivered to seven mixed groups of medical trainees (n = 166) from several health care institutions in Spain. Physicians were asked to read and anonymously complete a same case-scenario of death certification before and after the seminar. We compared the rates of errors and the impact of the educational intervention before and after the seminar. Results A total of 332 death certificates (166 completed before and 166 completed after the intervention) were audited. Death certificates were completed with errors by 71.1% of the physicians before the educational intervention. Following the seminar, the proportion of death certificates with errors decreased to 9% (p < 0.0001). The most common error in the completion of death certificates was the listing of the mechanism of death instead of the cause of death. Before the seminar, 56.8% listed respiratory or cardiac arrest as the immediate cause of death. None of the participants listed any mechanism of death after the educational intervention (p < 0.0001). Conclusion Major errors in the completion of the correct cause of death on death certificates are common among medical residents. A simple educational intervention can dramatically improve the accuracy in the completion of death certificates by physicians. PMID:18005414

Villar, Jesus; Perez-Mendez, Lina

2007-01-01

22

A Competency Based Certification System.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Carroll County Competency Based Teacher Certification (CBTC) Project is a cooperative effort of the Carroll County School System and the School of Education, West Georgia College, intended to develop a plan for identifying and measuring teacher competency areas and related teacher behaviors, and the extent to which these teacher behaviors…

Coker, Homer; Coker, Joan G.

23

38 CFR 10.25 - Payment of death claim on adjusted service certificate without bond.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Payment of death claim on adjusted service certificate without...Compensation; General § 10.25 Payment of death claim on adjusted service certificate without...the provisions of section 501 of the World War Adjusted Compensation Act, is...

2013-07-01

24

38 CFR 10.25 - Payment of death claim on adjusted service certificate without bond.  

...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Payment of death claim on adjusted service certificate without...Compensation; General § 10.25 Payment of death claim on adjusted service certificate without...the provisions of section 501 of the World War Adjusted Compensation Act, is...

2014-07-01

25

38 CFR 10.25 - Payment of death claim on adjusted service certificate without bond.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Payment of death claim on adjusted service certificate without...Compensation; General § 10.25 Payment of death claim on adjusted service certificate without...the provisions of section 501 of the World War Adjusted Compensation Act, is...

2012-07-01

26

38 CFR 10.25 - Payment of death claim on adjusted service certificate without bond.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Payment of death claim on adjusted service certificate without...Compensation; General § 10.25 Payment of death claim on adjusted service certificate without...the provisions of section 501 of the World War Adjusted Compensation Act, is...

2011-07-01

27

38 CFR 10.25 - Payment of death claim on adjusted service certificate without bond.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Payment of death claim on adjusted service certificate without...Compensation; General § 10.25 Payment of death claim on adjusted service certificate without...the provisions of section 501 of the World War Adjusted Compensation Act, is...

2010-07-01

28

Lack of recording of systemic lupus erythematosus in the death certificates of lupus patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. To determine to what extent the diagnosis of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) in deceased lupus patients is under- reported in death certificates, and the patient characteristics associated with such an occurrence. Methods. The death certificates of 76 of the 81 deceased SLE patients from two US lupus cohorts (LUMINA for Lupus in Minorities: Nature vs Nurture and CLU for

J. Calvo-Alen; R. Campbell Jr; M. Fernandez; J. D. Reveille; G. S. Cooper

2005-01-01

29

Occupation and bladder cancer: a death-certificate study.  

PubMed Central

Occupational statements on death certificates of 2,457 males aged 25-64 who died from bladder cancer in selected coastal and estaurine regions of England and Wales during 1965-1980 were studied. Excess mortality was found for deck and engine room crew of ships, railway workers, electrical and electronic workers, shoemakers and repairers, and tobacco workers. An excess of cases also occurred among food workers, particularly those employed in the bread and flour confectionary industry or involved in the extraction of animal and vegetable oils and fats. Use of a job-exposure matrix revealed elevated risk for occupations in which most workers were exposed to paints and pigments, benzene and cutting oils. PMID:1520596

Dolin, P. J.; Cook-Mozaffari, P.

1992-01-01

30

Accuracy in certification of cause of death in a tertiary care hospital--a retrospective analysis.  

PubMed

Every physician is duty bound to issue a "Cause of Death" certificate in the unfortunate event death of his/her patient. Incomplete and inaccurate entry in these certificates poses difficulty in obtaining reliable information pertaining to causes of mortality, leads to faulty public health surveillance, and causes hindrance in research. This study intends to evaluate the completeness and accuracy of Medical Certification of Cause of Death in our Institute and to formulate strategy to improve the quality of reporting of cause of death. During the period from January 2012 to December 2012, a total of 151 certificates of cause of death were issued by the faculty members of various departments. Maximum number of death certificates were issued for patients in the extremes of the age <10 years (n = 42, 27.82%) and in >60 years (n = 46, 30.46%). The various inadequacies observed by us are as follows: 40 (26.49%) cases had inaccurate cause of death, interval between onset and terminal event was missing in 94 (62.25%) cases, in 68 (45.03%)cases the seal with registration number of the physician was not available on the certificate, incomplete antecedent & underlying cause of death was found in 35 (23.18%) & 84 (55.63%) cases, in 66 (43.71%) cases there was use of abbreviations and the handwriting was illegible in 79(52.32%) cases. PMID:24794848

Dash, Shreemanta Kumar; Behera, Basanta Kumar; Patro, Shubhransu

2014-05-01

31

Place-of-residence errors on death certificates for two contiguous U. S. counties  

PubMed Central

Background Based on death certificate data, the Texas Department of Health Bureau of Vital Statistics calculates age adjusted all-cause mortality rates for each Texas county yearly. In 1998 the calculated rates for two adjacent Texas counties was disparate. These counties contain one city (Amarillo) and are identical in size. This study examined the accuracy of recorded county of residence for deaths in the two counties in 1998. In our jurisdiction, the county of residence is assigned by funeral homes. Methods A random sample of 20% of death certificates was selected. The accuracy of the county of residence was verified by using a large area map, Tax Appraisal District records, and U.S. Census Bureau databases. Inaccuracies in recording the county or zip code of residence was recorded. Results Eighteen of 354 (5.4%) death certificates recorded the incorrect county and 21 of 354 (5.9%) of death certificates recorded the zip code improperly. There was a 14.4% county recording error rate for one county compared to a 0.82% for the other county. The zip code error rate was similar for the two counties (5.9% vs. 5.8%). Of the county errors, 83% occurred for addresses within a zip code that contained addresses in both counties. Conclusion This study demonstrated a large error rate (14%) in recording county of residence for deaths in one county. A similar rate was not seen in an adjacent county. This led to significant miscalculation of mortality rates for two counties. We believe that errors may have arisen in part from use of internet programs by funeral homes to assign the county of residence. With some of these programs, the county is determined by zip code, and when a zip code straddles two counties, the program automatically assigns the county whose name appears first in the alphabet. This type of error could be avoided if funeral homes determined the county of residence from Tax Appraisal District or Census Bureau records, both of which are available on the internet. This type of error could also be avoided if vital statistics offices verified the county and zip code of residence using official sources. PMID:16800881

Pierce, J Rush; Denison, Anne V

2006-01-01

32

"Dead man knocking" issues surrounding medical certification of death in Scotland, c.1893-1960  

E-print Network

1 "Dead man knocking" ­ issues surrounding medical certification of death in Scotland, c.1893 registration, but the specific problem of medical certification, which was only one component ­ although I responsibilities thrust upon them by the registration system. The Registrar General had to cope with these problems

Glasgow, University of

33

Access to Death Certificates: What Should Research Ethics Committees Require for Approval?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: To present and discuss the reactions of research ethics committees (RECs) in a number of countries when asked for approval of a study requiring access to death certificates to identify the physicians signing the certificates and to send them a four-page questionnaire about medical decisions made at the patient's end-of-life that could possibly have hastened death.\\u000aMethods: A simple

Tore Nilstun; Colleen M Cartwright; Rurik Löfmark; Luc Deliens; Susanne Fischer; Guido Miccinesi; Michael Norup; Agnes Van Der Heide

2006-01-01

34

Colorectal cancer deaths as determined by expert committee and from death certificate: a comparison. The Minnesota Study.  

PubMed

For deaths during the first 13 years of follow-up of the Minnesota Colon Cancer Control Study, an expert committee using numerous medical documents, and a nosologist using only the death certificate independently determined whether colorectal cancer caused the death and, if not, whether the disease was present at death. Deaths due to colorectal cancer numbered 318 according to the nosologist and 323 according to the committee, a discrepancy of 1.5%, which is similar in magnitude to that in three previous studies. The nosologist and committee agreed that colorectal cancer caused the death in each of 290 individual cases; they disagreed widely on the number of deaths from other causes but with colorectal cancer. If it is important to know only the gross number of deaths from colorectal cancer, then the death certificate alone appears to be sufficiently accurate; if it is important to know the cause of death of individual subjects or the number dying from other causes but with colorectal cancer, then the expert committee method provides more accurate information. PMID:10360340

Ederer, F; Geisser, M S; Mongin, S J; Church, T R; Mandel, J S

1999-05-01

35

Unspecified injuries on death certificates: a source of bias in injury research.  

PubMed

Protective gear (for example, helmets and bulletproof vests) shields certain body regions from damaging energy. Failure to specify on death certificates the body region and nature of fatal injuries compromises the utility of mortality data for epidemiologic or prevention research. Of fatally injured California motorcyclists, 41% had no specific injuries listed on their death certificates in 1988. To examine the implications of this problem, the authors abstracted 186 coroner's or medical examiner's reports from four California counties with over 60% nonspecific injuries and one county with few such injuries. These data were merged with computerized death certificate files and with the Fatal Accident Reporting System. Among the 99 cases with nonspecific injury codes, 68% had head injuries, 63% had chest injuries, 58% had abdominal injuries, and 58% had extremity injuries. Reporting sensitivity in the four problem counties varied from 36% for head injury to less than 5% for abdominal, spinal, and extremity injury. The association between head injury and failure to wear a helmet was statistically significant using the coroner's diagnoses (p = 0.02), but not using death certificate diagnoses (p = 0.17). The value of mortality data to injury researchers would be enhanced by better reporting of the nature of injury on death certificates. PMID:1442752

Romano, P S; McLoughlin, E

1992-10-01

36

Hyaline membrane disease is underreported in a linked birth-infant death certificate database.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: This study compared the Missouri State Department of Health linked birth-infant death certificate database and medical records with respect to recording hyaline membrane disease in very low-birth-weight infants. METHODS: We reviewed the records for all 976 infants weighing 500 to 1500 g who were born to St. Louis, Mo, residents in 1989, 1991, and 1992. RESULTS: Eighteen percent of the birth certificates and 54% of the medical records documented hyaline membrane disease, resulting in 34% sensitivity and 99% specificity. CONCLUSIONS: The Missouri State Department of Health birth-infant death certificate database underestimates the incidence of hyaline membrane disease, which suggest that national statistics for the disease are also underestimated. PMID:9736884

Hamvas, A; Kwong, P; DeBaun, M; Schramm, W; Cole, F S

1998-01-01

37

Inaccuracy of Death Certificate Diagnosis of Tuberculosis and Potential Underdiagnosis of TB in a Region of High HIV Prevalence  

PubMed Central

Despite the South African antiretroviral therapy rollout, which should reduce the incidence of HIV-associated tuberculosis (TB), the number of TB-attributable deaths in KwaZuluNatal (KZN) remains high. TB is often diagnosed clinically, without microbiologic confirmation, leading to inaccurate estimates of TB-attributed deaths. This may contribute to avoidable deaths, and impact population-based TB mortality estimates. Objectives. (1) To measure the number of cases with microbiologically confirmed TB in a retrospective cohort of deceased inpatients with TB-attributed hospital deaths. (2) To estimate the rates of multi-drug resistant (MDR) and extensively drug resistant (XDR) TB in this cohort. Results. Of 2752 deaths at EDH between September 2006 and March 2007, 403 (15%) were attributed to TB on the death certificate. 176 of the TB-attributed deaths (44%) had a specimen sent for smear or culture; only 64 (36%) had a TB diagnosis confirmed by either test. Of the 39 culture-confirmed cases, 27/39 (69%) had fully susceptible TB and 27/39 (69%) had smear-negative culture-positive TB (SNTB). Two patients had drug monoresistance, three patients had MDR-TB, and one had XDR-TB. Conclusions. Most TB-attributed deaths in this cohort were not microbiologically confirmed. Of confirmed cases, most were smear-negative, culture positive and were susceptible to all first line drugs. PMID:22474486

Liu, Theresa T.; Wilson, Douglas; Dawood, Halima; Cameron, D. William; Alvarez, Gonzalo G.

2012-01-01

38

A Competency Based Teacher Certification System.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The development of a Competency Based Teacher Certification System is a cooperative effort of the Carroll County System and the School of Education, West Georgia College, supported by a grant from the Georgia State Department of Education. As a step toward solving the problem of recertifying teachers who possess basic credentials and have taught…

Coker, Homer

39

Death-certificate case-control study of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and occupation in men in North Carolina  

SciTech Connect

A death certificate-based case-control study was performed to investigate associations between occupation and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) in North Carolina. Cases consisted of 501 men who died of NHL (International Classification of Diseases codes 200 and 202) during the years 1968-1970, 1975-1977, and 1980-1982. Controls were selected from other noncancer deaths, and were frequency matched for age, year of death, and race. Occupation and industry were obtained from the death certificates and coded without knowledge of case-control status. An increased risk for men in professional, technical, and managerial occupations, compared with all others, was detected among whites (OR = 2.69, 1.95-3.72). Black men classified as having low exposures by an occupational exposure linkage system had an odds ratio of 1.74 (0.84-3.60). Because of this finding, the occupations were ranked by social class and a statistically significant linear relationship was noted in whites, with risk increasing from lower social class to upper social class. An increased risk was also detected among whites in the rubber, plastics, and synthetics industries (p = .03), and among blacks employed in machine trades occupations (OR = 3.63, 1.32-9.97) and structural work occupations (OR = 2.38, 0.93-6.05). An increased risk was also detected for black painters (p = .02), but not for whites. There was no association found between NHL and employment in the following areas: textile industry; farming; laborers; or occupations with exposures to asbestos or benzene. The association with farming was further examined in counties with high use of pesticides and herbicides, and no increased risk of NHL was detected. Cases were more likely to live in the western part of the state than the eastern. However, NHL mortality rates provided by the North Carolina State Center for Health Statistics did not confirm the relationship.

Schumacher, M.C.; Delzell, E.

1988-01-01

40

Occupational risk factors for brain tumors. A case-referent death-certificate analysis.  

PubMed

Numerous studies have suggested that employment in the oil refining and chemical manufacturing industries may be associated with excess brain tumor risk. A case-referent study was undertaken to evaluate brain tumor risk by occupation and industry in three geographic areas (northern New Jersey, Philadelphia, and the Gulf Coast of Louisiana) with a heavy concentration of these industries. Seven hundred and eighteen white men dying from brain tumor at age 30 years or older were ascertained from death certificates for 1978-1981. The referents were men who died of other causes, excluding epilepsy and stroke. Usual occupation and industry were obtained from the death certificates, and the maximum likelihood estimates of the relative risk were calculated for specific industries and occupations. Small nonsignificant excess risks of brain tumors were seen among persons whose usual employment was in the petroleum refining, electrical equipment manufacturing, health services, and educational services industries. Compared with other white-collar professionals, health diagnosticians, teachers, and artists/designers had a significantly elevated brain tumor risk. Among blue-collar workers, the only group with a significantly elevated brain tumor risk was precision metal workers, who are exposed to metal dusts and fumes and substances used as coolants, lubricants, and degreasers. PMID:3726493

Thomas, T L; Fontham, E T; Norman, S A; Stemhagen, A; Hoover, R N

1986-04-01

41

Certification and coding of two underlying causes of death in The Netherlands and other countries of the European Community.  

PubMed Central

Differences in certification and coding of causes of death between countries of the European Community were studied by sending sets of case histories to samples of certifying physicians. Completed certificates were coded by national coding offices and by by a WHO reference centre. Detection fractions ranged from 60% to 92% in a first study (concerning cases of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) and from 80% to 94% in a second study (concerning cases of cancer). A detailed analysis of the findings for the Netherlands, which performed very well in both studies, reveals a substantial frequency of errors in certification (as opposed to errors in diagnosis). Comparison of national and reference centre coding suggests that the Dutch coding process is to a certain extent adapted to the frequency of these certification errors, leading to deviations from WHO coding rules. It is concluded that certification and coding practices should be studied together and that further international standardisation of coding practices will not necessarily improve the validity of national cause of death statistics. PMID:3655636

Mackenbach, J P; Van Duyne, W M; Kelson, M C

1987-01-01

42

Certificate-Based Encryption and the Certificate Revocation Problem  

Microsoft Academic Search

We introduce the notion of certiflcate-based encryption. In thismodel,acertiflcate{or,moregenerally,asignature{actsnotonly as a certiflcate but also as a decryption key. To decrypt a message, a keyholder needs both its secret key and an up-to-date certiflcate from itsCA(orasignaturefromanauthorizer).Certiflcate-basedencryption combines the best aspects of identity-based encryption (implicit certi- flcation) and public key encryption (no escrow). We demonstrate how certiflcate-based encryption can be used to

Craig Gentry

2003-01-01

43

Carroll County Competency Based Teacher Certification Project. Librarian's Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reference materials, slides, cassettes, books, pamphlets, materials from other states, and articles used in the Carroll County, Georgia, Competency Based Teacher Certification Project, 1973-74, are listed. Brief annotations are included for both the reference materials and articles. (MJM)

Coker, Homer; Coker, Joan G.

44

Unintentional carbon monoxide-related deaths in the United States, 1979 through 1988  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE. To describe the epidemiology of recent unintentional carbon monoxide poisoning deaths in the United States. DESIGN. Descriptive analysis of carbon monoxide-related deaths in the United States from 1979 through 1988, based on death certificate reports compiled by the National Center for Health Statistics. POPULATION STUDIED. All US deaths, 1979 through 1988. RESULTS. We reviewed data from 56,133 death certificates

N. Cobb; R. A. Etzel

1991-01-01

45

A Certificate-Based Approach to Marketing Green Power and  

E-print Network

.S. power mix is supplied from renewable energy sources (excluding hydropower). The availability of "greenA Certificate-Based Approach to Marketing Green Power and Constructing New Wind Energy Facilities-Based Approach to Marketing Green Power and Constructing New Wind Energy Facilities Eric Blank Community

46

Impact of an educational intervention on errors in death certification: An observational study from the intensive care unit of a tertiary care teaching hospital  

PubMed Central

Background: A high incidence of errors occur while filling up death certificates in hospitals. The purpose of this study was to analyze the impact of an educational intervention on errors in death certification in an intensive care unit (ICU). Patients admitted to ICUs by virtue of being critically ill have a higher mortality than other hospitalized patients. This study was designed to see if any improvement could be brought about in filling death certificates. Materials and Methods: Educating sessions, interactive workshops, and monthly audits for the department resident doctors were conducted. One hundred and fifty death certificates were audited for major and minor errors (75 before and 75 after the educational intervention) over a period of 18 months. Fisher's exact test was applied to statistically analyze the data. Results: There was a significant decrease in major errors like mechanism without underlying cause of death (60.0 vs. 14.6%, P < 0.001), competing causes (88.0 vs. 13.3%, P < 0.001), and improper sequencing (89.3 vs. 36.0%, P < 0.001). There was also a significant decrease in minor errors such as use of abbreviations (89.3 vs. 29.3%, P < 0.001) and no time intervals (100.0 vs. 22.6%, P < 0.001). Conclusion: Authors conclude that death certification errors can be significantly reduced by educational interventional programs. PMID:24574598

Azim, Afzal; Singh, Parikshit; Bhatia, Parmeet; Baronia, Arvind K; Gurjar, Mohan; Poddar, Banani; Singh, Ratender K

2014-01-01

47

A Program Certification Assistant Based on Fully Automated Theorem Provers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We describe a certification assistant to support formal safety proofs for programs. It is based on a graphical user interface that hides the low-level details of first-order automated theorem provers while supporting limited interactivity: it allows users to customize and control the proof process on a high level, manages the auxiliary artifacts produced during this process, and provides traceability between the proof obligations and the relevant parts of the program. The certification assistant is part of a larger program synthesis system and is intended to support the deployment of automatically generated code in safety-critical applications.

Denney, Ewen; Fischer, Bernd

2005-01-01

48

Efficient Certificate-Based Signcryption Secure against Public Key Replacement Attacks and Insider Attacks  

PubMed Central

Signcryption is a useful cryptographic primitive that achieves confidentiality and authentication in an efficient manner. As an extension of signcryption in certificate-based cryptography, certificate-based signcryption preserves the merits of certificate-based cryptography and signcryption simultaneously. In this paper, we present an improved security model of certificate-based signcryption that covers both public key replacement attack and insider security. We show that an existing certificate-based signcryption scheme is insecure in our model. We also propose a new certificate-based signcryption scheme that achieves security against both public key replacement attacks and insider attacks. We prove in the random oracle model that the proposed scheme is chosen-ciphertext secure and existentially unforgeable. Performance analysis shows that the proposed scheme outperforms all the previous certificate-based signcryption schemes in the literature. PMID:24959606

Li, Jiguo

2014-01-01

49

United States non-Hodgkin's lymphoma surveillance by occupation 1984-1989: a twenty-four state death certificate study.  

PubMed

Death certificates from 23,890 male and female non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) cases and 119,450 noncancer controls from 24 states for the period 1984-1989 were used to generate hypotheses regarding occupational associations. Cases were frequency matched by age, race, and gender with five controls per case. Odds ratios were calculated for 231 industries and 509 occupations. Significant associations were observed for a variety of white-collar professionals (i.e., real estate agents, secretaries, bookkeepers, teachers, postal employees, business agents, engineers, chemists, and medical professionals) and blue-collar occupations (i.e., firefighters, farm managers, aircraft mechanics, electronic repairers, mining machine operators, and crane and tower operators). PMID:7645576

Figgs, L W; Dosemeci, M; Blair, A

1995-06-01

50

Performance criteria for verbal autopsy-based systems to estimate national causes of death: development and application to the Indian Million Death Study  

PubMed Central

Background Verbal autopsy (VA) has been proposed to determine the cause of death (COD) distributions in settings where most deaths occur without medical attention or certification. We develop performance criteria for VA-based COD systems and apply these to the Registrar General of India’s ongoing, nationally-representative Indian Million Death Study (MDS). Methods Performance criteria include a low ill-defined proportion of deaths before old age; reproducibility, including consistency of COD distributions with independent resampling; differences in COD distribution of hospital, home, urban or rural deaths; age-, sex- and time-specific plausibility of specific diseases; stability and repeatability of dual physician coding; and the ability of the mortality classification system to capture a wide range of conditions. Results The introduction of the MDS in India reduced the proportion of ill-defined deaths before age 70 years from 13% to 4%. The cause-specific mortality fractions (CSMFs) at ages 5 to 69 years for independently resampled deaths and the MDS were very similar across 19 disease categories. By contrast, CSMFs at these ages differed between hospital and home deaths and between urban and rural deaths. Thus, reliance mostly on urban or hospital data can distort national estimates of CODs. Age-, sex- and time-specific patterns for various diseases were plausible. Initial physician agreement on COD occurred about two-thirds of the time. The MDS COD classification system was able to capture more eligible records than alternative classification systems. By these metrics, the Indian MDS performs well for deaths prior to age 70 years. The key implication for low- and middle-income countries where medical certification of death remains uncommon is to implement COD surveys that randomly sample all deaths, use simple but high-quality field work with built-in resampling, and use electronic rather than paper systems to expedite field work and coding. Conclusions Simple criteria can evaluate the performance of VA-based COD systems. Despite the misclassification of VA, the MDS demonstrates that national surveys of CODs using VA are an order of magnitude better than the limited COD data previously available. PMID:24495287

2014-01-01

51

Space Based Range Demonstration and Certification (SBRDC)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This viewgraph presentation describes the development, utilization and testing of technologies for range safety and range user systems. The contents include: 1) Space Based Range (SBR) Goals and Objectives; 2) Today s United States Range; 3) Future Range; 4) Another Vision for the Future Range; 5) STARS Project Goals; 6) STARS Content; 7) STARS Configuration Flight Demonstrations 1 & 2; 8) Spaceport And Range Technologies STARS Objectives and Results; 9) Spaceport And Range Technologies STARS FD2 Objectives; 10) Range Safety Hardware; 11) Range User Hardware; and 12) Past/Future Flight Demo Plans

Sakahara, Robert

2005-01-01

52

The environmental impact statement: an important addition to the certification of early deaths.  

PubMed

An environmental impact statement (EIS) has been made in conjunction with a prospective study of 56 consecutive deaths of persons under 60 years of age in a local population. EIS is the cheapest and the quickest means by which to continually highlight the weaknesses of a national health system. PMID:683064

Pacy, H

1978-05-20

53

Reversal of English trend towards hospital death in dementia: a population-based study of place of death and associated individual and regional factors, 2001-2010  

PubMed Central

Background England has one of the highest rates of hospital death in dementia in Europe. How this has changed over time is unknown. This study aimed to analyse temporal trends in place of death in dementia over a recent ten year period. Methods Population-based study linking Office for National Statistics mortality data with regional variables, in England 2001–2010. Participants were adults aged over 60 with a death certificate mention of dementia. Multivariable Poisson regression was used to determine the proportion ratio (PR) for death in care home (1) and home/hospice (1) compared to hospital (0). Explanatory variables included individual factors (age, gender, marital status, underlying cause of death), and regional variables derived at area level (deprivation, care home bed provision, urbanisation). Results 388,899 deaths were included. Most people died in care homes (55.3%) or hospitals (39.6%). A pattern of increasing hospital deaths reversed in 2006, with a subsequent decrease in hospital deaths (?0.93% per year, 95% CI ?1.08 to ?0.79 p?deaths (0.60% per year, 95% CI 0.45 to 0.75 p?death was more likely with older age (PR 1.11, 1.10 to 1.13), and in areas with greater care home bed provision (PR 1.82, 1.79 to 1.85) and affluence (PR 1.29, 1.26 to 1.31). Few patients died at home (4.8%) or hospice (0.3%). Home/hospice death was more likely in affluent areas (PR 1.23, 1.18 to 1.29), for women (PR 1.61, 1.56 to 1.65), and for those with cancer as underlying cause of death (PR 1.84, 1.77 to 1.91), and less likely in the unmarried (PRs 0.51 to 0.66). Conclusions Two in five people with dementia die in hospital. However, the trend towards increasing hospital deaths has reversed, and care home bed provision is key to sustain this. Home and hospice deaths are rare. Initiatives which aim to support the end of life preferences for people with dementia should be investigated. PMID:24666928

2014-01-01

54

Market-based Certification and Management of Non-Timber Forest Products in Bhutan  

E-print Network

Market-based Certification and Management of Non-Timber Forest Products in Bhutan: Organic Setboonsarng. 2008. Market-based Certification and Management of Non-Timber Forest Products in Bhutan: Organic Development Bank Institute. Available: http://www.adbi.org/discussion- paper/2008/05/22/2541.bhutan

55

40 CFR 745.238 - Fees for accreditation and certification of lead-based paint activities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...for accreditation and certification of lead-based paint activities. 745.238...CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT LEAD-BASED PAINT POISONING PREVENTION IN CERTAIN RESIDENTIAL STRUCTURES Lead-Based Paint Activities §...

2010-07-01

56

40 CFR 745.238 - Fees for accreditation and certification of lead-based paint activities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...for accreditation and certification of lead-based paint activities. 745.238...CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT LEAD-BASED PAINT POISONING PREVENTION IN CERTAIN RESIDENTIAL STRUCTURES Lead-Based Paint Activities §...

2013-07-01

57

40 CFR 745.238 - Fees for accreditation and certification of lead-based paint activities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...for accreditation and certification of lead-based paint activities. 745.238...CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT LEAD-BASED PAINT POISONING PREVENTION IN CERTAIN RESIDENTIAL STRUCTURES Lead-Based Paint Activities §...

2011-07-01

58

40 CFR 745.238 - Fees for accreditation and certification of lead-based paint activities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...for accreditation and certification of lead-based paint activities. 745.238...CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT LEAD-BASED PAINT POISONING PREVENTION IN CERTAIN RESIDENTIAL STRUCTURES Lead-Based Paint Activities §...

2012-07-01

59

Using a State Teacher Certification Test to Assess an Inquiry-Based Science Education Program  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study, we looked at the impact of our specially designed inquiry-based science courses for pre-service elementary teachers on their science content knowledge as measured by a high-stakes state certification test for elementary education. We conducted a pre/post-analysis of the certification test scores of 1,003 pre-service teachers. Cohort…

Otto, Charlotte A.; Everett, Susan A.; Moyer, Richard H.; Zitzewitz, Paul W.

2012-01-01

60

The Role of Industry-Based Certifications in Career and Technical Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents a brief summary of statewide applications of industry-based certifications (IBCs). Many state systems and local institutions are developing additional creative ways of using IBCs to support learning and program objectives. The technology of assessment and certification is advancing, so the snapshot of "the current reality"…

Wilcox, Dave

2006-01-01

61

Death Investigation Certificate  

E-print Network

: Center for Forensic Science 414-229-0510 cfs@uwm.edu Other Recommended Courses� Chemistry 100 � Chemical combines medicine and law into a common discipline, incorporating multiple forensic specialty areas investigation has evolved into a discipline of forensic science using both forensic medical practitioners

Saldin, Dilano

62

News Certification and Legislation EBE RLA Definitions Wald Conclusions Evidence-Based Elections  

E-print Network

News Certification and Legislation EBE RLA Definitions Wald Conclusions Evidence-Based Elections The difference between theory and practice is smaller in theory than it is in practice. ­ Various #12;News

Stark, Philip B.

63

40 CFR 94.912 - Optional certification to land-based standards for auxiliary marine engines.  

...number. (ii) List the engine models you expect to produce under this...We produce each listed engine model for marine application without...application for certification how you plan to produce engines for both land-based and...

2014-07-01

64

5 CFR 843.311 - Annuity based on death of a separated employee.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 false Annuity based on death of a separated employee. 843.311... FEDERAL EMPLOYEES RETIREMENT SYSTEM-DEATH BENEFITS AND EMPLOYEE REFUNDS Current...Benefits § 843.311 Annuity based on death of a separated employee....

2011-01-01

65

5 CFR 843.311 - Annuity based on death of a separated employee.  

...2014-01-01 false Annuity based on death of a separated employee. 843.311... FEDERAL EMPLOYEES RETIREMENT SYSTEM-DEATH BENEFITS AND EMPLOYEE REFUNDS Current...Benefits § 843.311 Annuity based on death of a separated employee....

2014-01-01

66

5 CFR 843.311 - Annuity based on death of a separated employee.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 false Annuity based on death of a separated employee. 843.311... FEDERAL EMPLOYEES RETIREMENT SYSTEM-DEATH BENEFITS AND EMPLOYEE REFUNDS Current...Benefits § 843.311 Annuity based on death of a separated employee....

2012-01-01

67

5 CFR 843.311 - Annuity based on death of a separated employee.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Annuity based on death of a separated employee. 843.311... FEDERAL EMPLOYEES RETIREMENT SYSTEM-DEATH BENEFITS AND EMPLOYEE REFUNDS Current...Benefits § 843.311 Annuity based on death of a separated employee....

2010-01-01

68

38 CFR - § 3.1705 Burial allowance based on non-service-connected death.  

...allowance based on non-service-connected death. Section Pensions, Bonuses, and...allowance based on non-service-connected death. (a) General rule. VA will...date it receives notice of the veteran's death that the expenses incurred were...

2014-07-01

69

5 CFR 843.311 - Annuity based on death of a separated employee.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Annuity based on death of a separated employee. 843.311... FEDERAL EMPLOYEES RETIREMENT SYSTEM-DEATH BENEFITS AND EMPLOYEE REFUNDS Current...Benefits § 843.311 Annuity based on death of a separated employee....

2013-01-01

70

38 CFR 10.24 - Payment of death claim on lost, destroyed or mutilated adjusted service certificate with bond.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Payment of death claim on lost, destroyed or mutilated...Compensation; General § 10.24 Payment of death claim on lost, destroyed or mutilated...the provisions of section 501 of the World War Adjusted Compensation Act, is...

2013-07-01

71

38 CFR 10.24 - Payment of death claim on lost, destroyed or mutilated adjusted service certificate with bond.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Payment of death claim on lost, destroyed or mutilated...Compensation; General § 10.24 Payment of death claim on lost, destroyed or mutilated...the provisions of section 501 of the World War Adjusted Compensation Act, is...

2012-07-01

72

38 CFR 10.24 - Payment of death claim on lost, destroyed or mutilated adjusted service certificate with bond.  

...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Payment of death claim on lost, destroyed or mutilated...Compensation; General § 10.24 Payment of death claim on lost, destroyed or mutilated...the provisions of section 501 of the World War Adjusted Compensation Act, is...

2014-07-01

73

38 CFR 10.24 - Payment of death claim on lost, destroyed or mutilated adjusted service certificate with bond.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Payment of death claim on lost, destroyed or mutilated...Compensation; General § 10.24 Payment of death claim on lost, destroyed or mutilated...the provisions of section 501 of the World War Adjusted Compensation Act, is...

2010-07-01

74

38 CFR 10.24 - Payment of death claim on lost, destroyed or mutilated adjusted service certificate with bond.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Payment of death claim on lost, destroyed or mutilated...Compensation; General § 10.24 Payment of death claim on lost, destroyed or mutilated...the provisions of section 501 of the World War Adjusted Compensation Act, is...

2011-07-01

75

Studying Sudden and Unexpected Infant Deaths in a Time of Changing Death Certification and Investigation Practices: Evaluating Sleep-Related Risk Factors for Infant Death in New York City  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe an approach for quantifying and characterizing the extent to which sudden and unexpected infant deaths (SUIDs)\\u000a result from unsafe sleep environments (e.g., prone position, bedsharing, soft bedding); and present data on sleep-related\\u000a infant deaths in NYC. Using a combination of vital statistics and medical examiner data, including autopsy and death scene\\u000a investigation findings, we analyzed any death due

Lindsay Senter; Judith Sackoff; Kristen Landi; Lorraine Boyd

2011-01-01

76

40 CFR 745.229 - Certification of individuals and firms engaged in lead-based paint activities: public and...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Certification of individuals and firms engaged in lead-based paint activities: public and...CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT LEAD-BASED PAINT POISONING PREVENTION IN CERTAIN RESIDENTIAL STRUCTURES Lead-Based Paint Activities §...

2011-07-01

77

40 CFR 745.229 - Certification of individuals and firms engaged in lead-based paint activities: public and...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Certification of individuals and firms engaged in lead-based paint activities: public and...CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT LEAD-BASED PAINT POISONING PREVENTION IN CERTAIN RESIDENTIAL STRUCTURES Lead-Based Paint Activities §...

2010-07-01

78

40 CFR 745.229 - Certification of individuals and firms engaged in lead-based paint activities: public and...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Certification of individuals and firms engaged in lead-based paint activities: public and...CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT LEAD-BASED PAINT POISONING PREVENTION IN CERTAIN RESIDENTIAL STRUCTURES Lead-Based Paint Activities §...

2013-07-01

79

40 CFR 745.229 - Certification of individuals and firms engaged in lead-based paint activities: public and...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Certification of individuals and firms engaged in lead-based paint activities: public and...CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT LEAD-BASED PAINT POISONING PREVENTION IN CERTAIN RESIDENTIAL STRUCTURES Lead-Based Paint Activities §...

2012-07-01

80

Third Conference on Teacher Certification: Exploring the Bases for Reciprocity and Simplification of Evaluation Procedures.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document reports the activities of the 1971 Canadian Teachers' Federation (CTF) conference on teacher certification. The conference explored the bases for reciprocity and simplification of evaluation procedures. This report covers the conference proceeding including the opening remarks, recommendations of the 1970 CTF conference on teacher…

Canadian Teachers' Federation, Ottawa (Ontario).

81

Scientifically Based Research in Educational Products: Vendors and Consumers on Filling the Certification Gap  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The 2002 reauthorization of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act, or No Child Left Behind (NCLB) changed school law in the United States. Public schools can utilize federal funds to purchase only those educational products subject to scientifically based research. No dedicated certification intermediary (CI) exists to determine individual…

Caruthers, Bill J.

2009-01-01

82

5 CFR 843.310 - Annuity based on death of an employee.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 false Annuity based on death of an employee. 843.310 Section... FEDERAL EMPLOYEES RETIREMENT SYSTEM-DEATH BENEFITS AND EMPLOYEE REFUNDS Current...Benefits § 843.310 Annuity based on death of an employee. Except as...

2012-01-01

83

5 CFR 843.310 - Annuity based on death of an employee.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 false Annuity based on death of an employee. 843.310 Section... FEDERAL EMPLOYEES RETIREMENT SYSTEM-DEATH BENEFITS AND EMPLOYEE REFUNDS Current...Benefits § 843.310 Annuity based on death of an employee. Except as...

2011-01-01

84

5 CFR 843.310 - Annuity based on death of an employee.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Annuity based on death of an employee. 843.310 Section... FEDERAL EMPLOYEES RETIREMENT SYSTEM-DEATH BENEFITS AND EMPLOYEE REFUNDS Current...Benefits § 843.310 Annuity based on death of an employee. Except as...

2010-01-01

85

5 CFR 843.310 - Annuity based on death of an employee.  

...2014-01-01 false Annuity based on death of an employee. 843.310 Section... FEDERAL EMPLOYEES RETIREMENT SYSTEM-DEATH BENEFITS AND EMPLOYEE REFUNDS Current...Benefits § 843.310 Annuity based on death of an employee. Except as...

2014-01-01

86

5 CFR 843.310 - Annuity based on death of an employee.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Annuity based on death of an employee. 843.310 Section... FEDERAL EMPLOYEES RETIREMENT SYSTEM-DEATH BENEFITS AND EMPLOYEE REFUNDS Current...Benefits § 843.310 Annuity based on death of an employee. Except as...

2013-01-01

87

Multiple cause of death mortality patterns among Californians  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this study was to describe mortality patterns among the elderly using single versus multiple cause of death data and examine ways that multiple cause of death data can best be processed, analyzed and presented. Deaths among white California aged 65 and older for the years 1970, 1975 and 1980 were analyzed. Overall, mortality rates decreased over time, at all ages and for both sexes but more so for females, although the number of causes of death increased with age. Underlying cause mortality rates were compared to rates based on any mention of a cause on the death certificate; diabetes and atherosclerosis were more frequent causes of both than would be indicated by single cause statistics, and heart diseases other than ischemic heart disease increased in mentions on the death certificated while ischemic heart disease underlying mortality rates decreased. Pairs of causes of death showed increased likelihood of occurrence of a number of combinations of chronic diseases. In all pair combinations studied, the addition of another serious chronic disease lowered the mean age of death resulted in an older mean age of death. This result combined with higher number of causes per death but lower mortality rates among females raised interesting questions about interpreting more causes on death certificates as an indication of a sicker person at time of death. This study confirmed morbidity and mortality work on other that mortality of older adults in decreasing but that the number of causes of death per person is increasing. 82 refs., 30 figs., 59 tabs.

White, M.C.

1989-11-28

88

148 SDSU Curriculum Guide 2010 University Guidelines for Certificate Programs  

E-print Network

148 SDSU Curriculum Guide 2010 University Guidelines for Certificate Programs (Guidelines Based on Executive Order 806) Types of Certificate Programs San Diego State University offers two types of certificate programs: · Academic certificate programs, and · Professional certificate programs. Academic

Ponce, V. Miguel

89

Performance Evaluation of Certificate Based Authentication in Integrated Emerging 3G and Wi-Fi Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Certificate based authentication of parties provides a powerful means for verifying claimed identities, avoiding the necessity of distributing shared secrets beforehand. Whereas Wi-Fi networks present security deficiencies, they manage to highly penetrate into the wireless market in a great degree due to their low cost, easy administration, great capacity, IP-oriented nature, etc. Con- sidering Wi-Fi networking settings, administrated by different

Georgios Kambourakis; Angelos N. Rouskas; Dimitris Gritzalis

2004-01-01

90

Certification Aspects in Critical Embedded Software Development with Model Based Techniques: Detection of Unintended Functions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper, developed under contract with European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA), analyses in detail which may be the certification implications in the aeronautic industry associated to the application of model-level verification and validation techniques. Particularly, this paper focuses on the problematic of detecting unintended functions by applying Model Coverage Criteria at model level. This point is significantly important for the future extensive use of Model Based approaches in safety critical software, since the uncertainty in the system performance introduced by the unintended functions, which may also lead to unacceptable hazardous or catastrophic events, prevents the system to be compliance with certification requirements. The paper provides a definition and a categorization of unintended functions and gives some relevant examples to assess the efficiency of model- coverage techniques in the detection of UF. The paper explains how this analysis is supported by a methodology based on the study of sources for introducing unintended functions. Finally it is analysed the feasibility of using Model-level verification techniques to support the software certification process.

Atencia Yepez, A.; Autrán Cerqueira, J.; Urueña, S.; Jurado, R.

2012-01-01

91

On the Reliability of Vocational Workplace-Based Certifications  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The assessment of vocational workplace-based qualifications in England relies on human assessors (raters). These assessors observe naturally occurring, non-standardised evidence, unique to each learner and evaluate the learner as competent/not yet competent against content standards. Whilst these are considered difficult to measure, this study…

Harth, H.; Hemker, B.T.

2013-01-01

92

Occupational injury deaths of 16 and 17 year olds in the US: trends and comparisons with older workers  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: To examine patterns of occupational injury deaths of 16 and 17 year olds in the United States for the three year period 1990-2, examine trends since the 1980s, and compare fatality rates with those of older workers. METHODS: Occupational injury deaths were analyzed using the death certificate based National Traumatic Occupational Fatalities (NTOF) surveillance system. Fatality rates were calculated

D. N. Castillo; B. D. Malit

1997-01-01

93

Probabilistic thinking and death anxiety: a terror management based study.  

PubMed

Terror Management Theory has been utilized to understand how death can change behavioral outcomes and social dynamics. One area that is not well researched is why individuals willingly engage in risky behavior that could accelerate their mortality. One method of distancing a potential life threatening outcome when engaging in risky behaviors is through stacking probability in favor of the event not occurring, termed probabilistic thinking. The present study examines the creation and psychometric properties of the Probabilistic Thinking scale in a sample of young, middle aged, and older adults (n = 472). The scale demonstrated adequate internal consistency reliability for each of the four subscales, excellent overall internal consistency, and good construct validity regarding relationships with measures of death anxiety. Reliable age and gender effects in probabilistic thinking were also observed. The relationship of probabilistic thinking as part of a cultural buffer against death anxiety is discussed, as well as its implications for Terror Management research. PMID:25273680

Hayslip, Bert; Schuler, Eric R; Page, Kyle S; Carver, Kellye S

2014-01-01

94

A simple birth-death-migration individual-based model for biofilm development  

E-print Network

A simple birth-death-migration individual-based model for biofilm development Nabil Mabrouk structures. In this work we propose a minimal individual-based model capable of repro- ducing a large number only three main processes: birth (binary fission), death (or detachment) and surface migration

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

95

20 CFR 655.204 - Determinations based on temporary labor certification applications.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...working days after the temporary labor certification application has... (b) The SWA, using the job offer portion of its copy of the temporary labor certification application, shall promptly prepare a local job order and shall begin to...

2013-04-01

96

29 CFR 1919.50 - Eligibility for accreditation to certificate shore-based material handling devices covered by...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...to certificate shore-based material handling devices...of vessels or shore-based equipment or gear of...The owner of shore-based equipment affected...equipment, on the following conditions: (1) The designee...in the inspection and maintenance or design of the...

2010-07-01

97

Death on the brain: The psychological effects of the death penalty based on the views of those condemned to die  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to develop an understanding of the psychological aspect and effects that a sentence of death, and duration of detention, has on death row inmates. The instrument utilized was the Death Symptom Inventory (DSI) containing demographical items developed by the author of this study. The study was conducted with inmates that were under a death

Tierenney M Garrison

2008-01-01

98

Cause of death in cerebral palsy: a descriptive study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUNDCause specific research on death certification in chronic disease has rarely involved cerebral palsy.AIMSTo evaluate cause of death information in people known to have cerebral palsy by: describing the cause of death distribution; determining case ascertainment using death certification as the data source; and analysing the choice of wording and its arrangement in the “cause of death statement”.STUDY CASES AND

Gillian Maudsley; Jane L Hutton; Peter O D Pharoah

1999-01-01

99

Two New Reference Materials Based on Tobacco Leaves: Certification for over a Dozen of Toxic and Essential Elements  

PubMed Central

The preparation, certification, and characterization of two new biological certified reference materials for inorganic trace analysis have been presented. They are based on two different varieties of tobacco leaves, namely, Oriental Basma Tobacco Leaves (INCT-OBTL-5), grown in Greece, and Polish Virginia Tobacco Leaves (INCT-PVTL-6), grown in Poland. Certification of the materials was based on the statistical evaluation of results obtained in a worldwide interlaboratory comparison, in which 87 laboratories from 18 countries participated, providing 2568 laboratory averages on nearly 80 elements. It was possible to establish the certified values of concentration for many elements in the new materials, that is, 37 in INCT-OBTL-5 and 36 in INCT-PVTL-6, including several toxic ones like As, Cd, Hg, Pb, and so forth. The share and the role of instrumental analytical techniques used in the process of certification of the new CRMs are discussed. PMID:22536124

Samczynski, Zbigniew; Dybczynski, Rajmund S.; Polkowska-Motrenko, Halina; Chajduk, Ewelina; Pyszynska, Marta; Danko, Bozena; Czerska, Elzbieta; Kulisa, Krzysztof; Doner, Katarzyna; Kalbarczyk, Pawel

2012-01-01

100

23 CFR Appendix C to Part 1240 - Certification (Calendar Year 1998 Survey Based on Survey Approved Under 23 U.S.C. 153)  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 false Certification (Calendar Year 1998 Survey Based on Survey Approved Under 23 U.S.C. 153) C Appendix...to Part 1240—Certification (Calendar Year 1998 Survey Based on Survey Approved Under 23 U.S.C....

2011-04-01

101

23 CFR Appendix C to Part 1240 - Certification (Calendar Year 1998 Survey Based on Survey Approved Under 23 U.S.C. 153)  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Certification (Calendar Year 1998 Survey Based on Survey Approved Under 23 U.S.C. 153) C Appendix...to Part 1240—Certification (Calendar Year 1998 Survey Based on Survey Approved Under 23 U.S.C....

2010-04-01

102

Off-Line Electronic Cash Based on Secret-Key Certificates  

Microsoft Academic Search

An off-line electronic coin system is presented that offers multi-party security and unconditional privacy of payments. The system improves significantly on the efficiency of the previously most efficient such system known in the literature, due to application of a recently proposed technique called secret-key certificates. By definition of secret-key certificates, pairs consisting of a public key and a matching certificate

Stefan Brands

1995-01-01

103

Modular Certification  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Airplanes are certified as a whole: there is no established basis for separately certifying some components, particularly software-intensive ones, independently of their specific application in a given airplane. The absence of separate certification inhibits the development of modular components that could be largely "precertified" and used in several different contexts within a single airplane, or across many different airplanes. In this report, we examine the issues in modular certification of software components and propose an approach based on assume-guarantee reasoning. We extend the method from verification to certification by considering behavior in the presence of failures. This exposes the need for partitioning, and separation of assumptions and guarantees into normal and abnormal cases. We then identify three classes of property that must be verified within this framework: safe function, true guarantees, and controlled failure. We identify a particular assume-guarantee proof rule (due to McMillan) that is appropriate to the applications considered, and formally verify its soundness in PVS.

Rushby, John; Miner, Paul S. (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

104

School-Based Initial Vocational Education in the Republic of Ireland: The Parity of Esteem and Fitness for Purpose of the Leaving Certificate Applied  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Irish Leaving Certificate Applied (LCA) is a school-based, pre-vocational alternative to the "high stakes" established Leaving Certificate. Its origins lie in European Union funded "school to work" initiatives and it is currently taken to completion by some 5% of Irish senior cycle students. Since it was designed 20 years…

Gleeson, Jim; O'Flaherty, Joanne

2013-01-01

105

777 EMPENNAGE CERTIFICATION APPROACH  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY: This paper presents the Boeing approach to certification of the 777 composite empennage structure. The design team used carbon-fiber-reinforced plastic (CFRP) materials for the horizontal and vertical stabilizers, the elevators, and the rudder of the new 777 twinjet. Boeing based its approach to certification on analysis supported by coupon and component test evidence in compliance with guidelines issued by

A. Fawcettl; J. Trostle; S. Ward

106

ORACLE CERTIFICATION Oracle Database  

E-print Network

ORACLE CERTIFICATION Oracle Database Administration Certificate Program Train with the best. Get your Oracle Database Administration education from the number-one provider* of Oracle training-on, lab-based understanding of Oracle, the world's leading database platform, and long the product

Loudon, Catherine

107

Meeting the community halfway to reduce maternal deaths? Evidence from a community-based maternal death review in Uttar Pradesh, India  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Background: Uttar Pradesh (UP) is the most populous state in India with the second highest reported maternal mortality ratio in the country. In an effort to analyze the reasons for maternal deaths and implement appropriate interventions, the Government of India introduced Maternal Death Review guidelines in 2010. Methods: We assessed causes of and factors leading to maternal deaths in Unnao District, UP, through 2 methods. First, we conducted a facility gap assessment in 15 of the 16 block-level and district health facilities to collect information on the performance of the facilities in terms of treating obstetric complications. Second, teams of trained physicians conducted community-based maternal death reviews (verbal autopsies) in a sample of maternal deaths occurring between June 1, 2009, and May 31, 2010. Results: Of the 248 maternal deaths that would be expected in this district in a year, we identified 153 (62%) through community workers and conducted verbal autopsies with families of 57 of them. Verbal autopsies indicated that 23% and 30% of these maternal deaths occurred at home and on the way to a health facility, respectively. Most of the women who died had been taken to at least 2 health facilities. The facility assessment revealed that only the district hospital met the recommended criteria for either basic or comprehensive emergency obstetric and neonatal care. Conclusions: Life-saving treatment of obstetric complications was not offered at the appropriate level of government facilities in a representative district in UP, and an inadequate referral system provided fatal delays. Expensive transportation costs to get pregnant women to a functioning medical facility also contributed to maternal death. The maternal death review, coupled with the facility gap assessment, is a useful tool to address the adequacy of emergency obstetric and neonatal care services to prevent further maternal deaths. PMID:25276519

Raj, Sunil Saksena; Maine, Deborah; Sahoo, Pratap Kumar; Manthri, Suneedh; Chauhan, Kavita

2013-01-01

108

Practice in computer-based testing improves scores on the National Certification Examination for Nurse Anesthetists.  

PubMed

This retrospective study examined whether practice in computer-based tests (CBTs) in student registered nurse anesthetists improved scores on the National Certification Examination (NCE). A group of students with extensive practice in CBTs was compared with a group of students whose tests were administered primarily on paper. Groups were matched on age, grade point average (GPA), and gender (n = 73 each). Higher GPA was associated with higher NCE scores overall. Adjusted for GPA (with analysis of covariance), the mean NCE proficiency score (phi) in the CBT group was 2.68 (95% confidence interval, 2.54-2.82), which was higher than the mean score in the paper-based group of 2.36 (95% confidence interval, 2.22-2.50), with an effect size of 0.52. When subgroups were examined, CBT practice improved NCE scores only in those students with graduate GPA less than or equal to 3.50, with an effect size of 1.1. It was concluded that, controlling for GPA, student registered nurse anesthetists at a university with greater exposure to CBTs had higher scores on the NCE than a comparison group with less practice in CBTs. This difference was significant only in students with GPA of 3.50 or less, consistent with a beneficial effect of practice in CBTs. PMID:23248833

Dosch, Michael P

2012-08-01

109

38 CFR 51.20 - Application for recognition based on certification.  

...CONTINUED) PER DIEM FOR NURSING HOME CARE OF VETERANS IN STATE HOMES Obtaining Per Diem for Nursing Home Care in State Homes § 51.20...certification of a State home for nursing home care, a State must: (a)...

2014-07-01

110

38 CFR 51.20 - Application for recognition based on certification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) PER DIEM FOR NURSING HOME CARE OF VETERANS IN STATE HOMES Obtaining Per Diem for Nursing Home Care in State Homes § 51.20...certification of a State home for nursing home care, a State must:...

2010-07-01

111

38 CFR 51.20 - Application for recognition based on certification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) PER DIEM FOR NURSING HOME CARE OF VETERANS IN STATE HOMES Obtaining Per Diem for Nursing Home Care in State Homes § 51.20...certification of a State home for nursing home care, a State must:...

2011-07-01

112

38 CFR 51.20 - Application for recognition based on certification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) PER DIEM FOR NURSING HOME CARE OF VETERANS IN STATE HOMES Obtaining Per Diem for Nursing Home Care in State Homes § 51.20...certification of a State home for nursing home care, a State must:...

2012-07-01

113

38 CFR 51.20 - Application for recognition based on certification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) PER DIEM FOR NURSING HOME CARE OF VETERANS IN STATE HOMES Obtaining Per Diem for Nursing Home Care in State Homes § 51.20...certification of a State home for nursing home care, a State must:...

2013-07-01

114

23 CFR Appendix C to Part 1240 - Certification (Calendar Year 1998 Survey Based on Survey Approved Under 23 U.S.C. 153)  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-04-01 false Certification (Calendar Year 1998 Survey Based on Survey Approved Under 23 U.S.C. 153) C Appendix C to Part 1240 Highways NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION AND FEDERAL HIGHWAY...

2012-04-01

115

23 CFR Appendix C to Part 1240 - Certification (Calendar Year 1998 Survey Based on Survey Approved Under 23 U.S.C. 153)  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-04-01 false Certification (Calendar Year 1998 Survey Based on Survey Approved Under 23 U.S.C. 153) C Appendix C to Part 1240 Highways NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION AND FEDERAL HIGHWAY...

2013-04-01

116

23 CFR Appendix C to Part 1240 - Certification (Calendar Year 1998 Survey Based on Survey Approved Under 23 U.S.C. 153)  

... 2014-04-01 false Certification (Calendar Year 1998 Survey Based on Survey Approved Under 23 U.S.C. 153) C Appendix C to Part 1240 Highways NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION AND FEDERAL HIGHWAY...

2014-04-01

117

A Community-Based Evaluation of Sudden Death Associated with Therapeutic Levels of Methadone  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundPublished case reports have associated the therapeutic use of methadone with the occasional occurrence of sudden cardiac death. Because of the established utility of this drug and with the eventual goal of enhancing safety of use, we performed a community-based study to evaluate this association.

Sumeet S. Chugh; Carmen Socoteanu; Kyndaron Reinier; Justin Waltz; Jonathan Jui; Karen Gunson

2008-01-01

118

The Issue of Death and Dying: Employing Problem-Based Learning in Nursing Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Hong Kong nursing students used journals to problem-based learning (PBL) related to dying patients. Increased self-awareness, positive attitude toward death, and culturally sensitive care resulted. PBL methods included information searches, interviews with experts and patients, and tutorials for sharing feelings and information. (Contains 21…

Mok, Esther; Lee, Wai Man; Wong, Frances Kam-yuet

2002-01-01

119

Inference of Epidemiological Dynamics Based on Simulated Phylogenies Using Birth-Death and Coalescent Models  

PubMed Central

Quantifying epidemiological dynamics is crucial for understanding and forecasting the spread of an epidemic. The coalescent and the birth-death model are used interchangeably to infer epidemiological parameters from the genealogical relationships of the pathogen population under study, which in turn are inferred from the pathogen genetic sequencing data. To compare the performance of these widely applied models, we performed a simulation study. We simulated phylogenetic trees under the constant rate birth-death model and the coalescent model with a deterministic exponentially growing infected population. For each tree, we re-estimated the epidemiological parameters using both a birth-death and a coalescent based method, implemented as an MCMC procedure in BEAST v2.0. In our analyses that estimate the growth rate of an epidemic based on simulated birth-death trees, the point estimates such as the maximum a posteriori/maximum likelihood estimates are not very different. However, the estimates of uncertainty are very different. The birth-death model had a higher coverage than the coalescent model, i.e. contained the true value in the highest posterior density (HPD) interval more often (2–13% vs. 31–75% error). The coverage of the coalescent decreases with decreasing basic reproductive ratio and increasing sampling probability of infecteds. We hypothesize that the biases in the coalescent are due to the assumption of deterministic rather than stochastic population size changes. Both methods performed reasonably well when analyzing trees simulated under the coalescent. The methods can also identify other key epidemiological parameters as long as one of the parameters is fixed to its true value. In summary, when using genetic data to estimate epidemic dynamics, our results suggest that the birth-death method will be less sensitive to population fluctuations of early outbreaks than the coalescent method that assumes a deterministic exponentially growing infected population. PMID:25375100

Boskova, Veronika; Bonhoeffer, Sebastian; Stadler, Tanja

2014-01-01

120

Deaths: Final Data for 2005  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Objectives—This report presents final 2005 data on U.S. deaths; death rates; life expectancy; infant and maternal mortality; and trends by selected characteristics such as age, sex, Hispanic origin, race, marital status, educational attainment, injury at work, state of residence, and causeof death. Methods—This report presents descriptive tabulations of information reported on death certificates, which are completed by funeral directors,

Hsiang-ching Kung; Donna L. Hoyert; Jiaquan Xu; Sherry L. Murphy

121

Early Childhood Teacher Certification: State Tests and Preservice Knowledge Base Determinants.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined major characteristics of instruments commonly used in statewide teacher certification procedures and the possible relations of these characteristics to the uneven success rate among minority teaching candidates. The study analyzed raw scores and selected variables associated with 63 white female candidates who took the Georgia…

Morgan, Harry

122

Assessment of Deaths Attributable to Air Pollution: Should We Use Risk Estimates based on Time Series or on Cohort Studies?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Epidemiologic studies are crucial to the estimation of numbers of deaths attributable to air pollution. In this paper, the authors present a framework for distinguishing estimates of attributable cases based on time-series studies from those based on cohort studies, the latter being 5-10 times larger. The authors distinguish four categories of death associated with air pollution: A) air pollution increases

N. Künzli; S. Medina; R. Kaiser; P. Quénel; F. Horak; M. Studnicka

123

ATTESTATION OF CERTIFICATES A. ATTESTATION OF CERTIFICATES  

E-print Network

not leave the original certificates with the DOAA office. Institute will not be responsible for any loss. BATTESTATION OF CERTIFICATES A. ATTESTATION OF CERTIFICATES: Xerox copy of any certificate issued if presented along with the original certificate(s) on a working day during office hours. NOTE: Please do

Jagannatham, Aditya K.

124

ATTESTATION OF CERTIFICATES A. ATTESTATION OF CERTIFICATE  

E-print Network

not leave the original certificates with the DOAA office. Institute will not be responsible for any loss. BATTESTATION OF CERTIFICATES A. ATTESTATION OF CERTIFICATE: Xerox copy of any certificate issued if presented along with the original certificate(s) on a working day during office hours. NOTE: Please do

Jagannatham, Aditya K.

125

Does Marital Status Predict the Odds of Suicidal Death in Taiwan? A Seven-Year Population-Based Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using nationwide, 7-year population-based data for 1997-2003, we examined marital status to see if it predicted suicide among the ethnic Chinese population of Taiwan. Using cause of death data, with a case-control design, two groups--total adult suicide deaths, n = 17,850, the study group, and adult deaths other than suicide, n = 71,400 (randomly…

Yeh, Jui-Yuan; Xirasagar, Sudha; Liu, Tsai-Ching; Li, Chong-Yi; Lin, Herng-Ching

2008-01-01

126

Unintentional carbon monoxide-related deaths in the United States, 1979 through 1988  

SciTech Connect

OBJECTIVE. To describe the epidemiology of recent unintentional carbon monoxide poisoning deaths in the United States. DESIGN. Descriptive analysis of carbon monoxide-related deaths in the United States from 1979 through 1988, based on death certificate reports compiled by the National Center for Health Statistics. POPULATION STUDIED. All US deaths, 1979 through 1988. RESULTS. We reviewed data from 56,133 death certificates that contained codes implicating carbon monoxide as a contributing cause of death. Of these, 25,889 were suicides, 210 were homicides, 15,523 were associated with severe burns or house fires, and 11,547 were classified as unintentional. The number of unintentional deaths decreased steadily by about 63 deaths per year, from 1513 in 1979 to 878 in 1988. The highest death rates occurred in winter and among males, blacks, the elderly, and residents of northern states. Motor vehicle exhaust gas caused 6552 (57%) of the unintentional deaths; 5432 (83%) of these were associated with stationary automobiles. CONCLUSIONS. The rate of unintentional death from carbon monoxide poisoning is decreasing. This may be attributable to improvements in automobile pollution control systems and improved safety of cooking and heating appliances. Prevention programs should target young drivers, males, and the elderly.

Cobb, N.; Etzel, R.A. (Division of Environmental Hazards and Health Effects, Centers for Disease Control, Atlanta, GA (USA))

1991-08-07

127

A Lightweight Certificate-based Source Authentication Protocol for Group Communication in Hybrid Wireless\\/Satellite Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we describe an efficient authentication protocol for group communication in hybrid wireless networks with a satellite overlay. The proposed protocol uses a new class of lightweight, symmetric-key certificates called TESLA certificate. The certificates bind the identities of the senders to the anchor elements of their key chains; messages from the senders are authenticated by MACs computed with

Ayan Roy-Chowdhury; John S. Baras

128

A Lightweight Certificate-Based Source Authentication Protocol for Group Communications in Hybrid Wireless\\/Satellite Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract—In this paper, we describe an efficient authentication protocol for group communication in hybrid wireless networks with a satellite overlay. The proposed protocol uses a new class of lightweight, symmetric-key certificates called TESLA certificate. The certificates bind the identities of the senders to the anchor elements of their key chains; messages from the senders are authenticated by MACs computed with

Ayan Roy-Chowdhury; John S. Baras

2008-01-01

129

Deaths due to Unknown Foodborne Agents  

PubMed Central

This study reviews the available evidence on unknown pathogenic agents transmitted in food and examines the methods that have been used to estimate that such agents cause 3,400 deaths per year in the United States. The estimate of deaths was derived from hospital discharge and death certificate data on deaths attributed to gastroenteritis of unknown cause. Fatal illnesses due to unknown foodborne agents do not always involve gastroenteritis, and gastroenteritis may not be accurately diagnosed or reported on hospital charts or death certificates. The death estimate consequently omitted deaths from unknown foodborne agents that do not cause gastroenteritis and likely overstated the number of deaths from agents that cause gastroenteritis. Although the number of deaths from unknown foodborne agents is uncertain, the possible economic cost of these deaths is so large that increased efforts to identify the causal agents are warranted. PMID:15498153

2004-01-01

130

Certification trails for data structures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Certification trails are a recently introduced and promising approach to fault detection and fault tolerance. The applicability of the certification trail technique is significantly generalized. Previously, certification trails had to be customized to each algorithm application; trails appropriate to wide classes of algorithms were developed. These certification trails are based on common data-structure operations such as those carried out using these sets of operations such as those carried out using balanced binary trees and heaps. Any algorithms using these sets of operations can therefore employ the certification trail method to achieve software fault tolerance. To exemplify the scope of the generalization of the certification trail technique provided, constructions of trails for abstract data types such as priority queues and union-find structures are given. These trails are applicable to any data-structure implementation of the abstract data type. It is also shown that these ideals lead naturally to monitors for data-structure operations.

Sullivan, Gregory F.; Masson, Gerald M.

1993-01-01

131

Cell death following BNCT: a theoretical approach based on Monte Carlo simulations.  

PubMed

In parallel to boron measurements and animal studies, investigations on radiation-induced cell death are also in progress in Pavia, with the aim of better characterisation of the effects of a BNCT treatment down to the cellular level. Such studies are being carried out not only experimentally but also theoretically, based on a mechanistic model and a Monte Carlo code. Such model assumes that: (1) only clustered DNA strand breaks can lead to chromosome aberrations; (2) only chromosome fragments within a certain threshold distance can undergo misrejoining; (3) the so-called "lethal aberrations" (dicentrics, rings and large deletions) lead to cell death. After applying the model to normal cells exposed to monochromatic fields of different radiation types, the irradiation section of the code was purposely extended to mimic the cell exposure to a mixed radiation field produced by the (10)B(n,?) (7)Li reaction, which gives rise to alpha particles and Li ions of short range and high biological effectiveness, and by the (14)N(n,p)(14)C reaction, which produces 0.58 MeV protons. Very good agreement between model predictions and literature data was found for human and animal cells exposed to X- or gamma-rays, protons and alpha particles, thus allowing to validate the model for cell death induced by monochromatic radiation fields. The model predictions showed good agreement also with experimental data obtained by our group exposing DHD cells to thermal neutrons in the TRIGA Mark II reactor of the University of Pavia; this allowed to validate the model also for a BNCT exposure scenario, providing a useful predictive tool to bridge the gap between irradiation and cell death. PMID:21481595

Ballarini, F; Bakeine, J; Bortolussi, S; Bruschi, P; Cansolino, L; Clerici, A M; Ferrari, C; Protti, N; Stella, S; Zonta, A; Zonta, C; Altieri, S

2011-12-01

132

Environmental Certification  

E-print Network

... ° Subject matter for the Environmental Compliance Inspector tests ° Education and experience requirements origin, disability, sexual orientation or marital status. Copyright © 2007 by the California Water Environment Association California Water Environment Association Technical Certification Program 7677 Oakport

133

State-Specific Mortality from Stroke and Distribution of Place of Death  

E-print Network

In the United States, stroke is the third leading cause of death and one of the major causes of serious, long-term disability among adults. Each year, approximately 500,000 persons suffer a first-time stroke, and approximately 167,000 deaths are stroke-related (1). This report presents national and state-specific death rates for stroke in 1999, which indicate state-by-state variations in both stroke-related death rates and the proportions of stroke decedents who die before transport to an emergency department (ED). Prevention through public and medical education remains a key strategy for reducing stroke-related deaths and disability. CDC compiled national and state mortality data based on death certificates from state vital statistics offices (2). Demographic data were reported by funeral directors or provided by family members of the decedent. Stroke-related deaths are

unknown authors

134

Certification of Physical Education Teachers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author discusses various trends in the preparation of physical education teachers, including emphasis on Title IX requirements and handicapped child needs. Future directions in teacher certification are surveyed, and it is urged that certification be based upon sequential training programs rather than course accumulation-credit hour…

Bentz, Susan K.

135

Online Information Technologies Certificate Program  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study, Information Technologies Certificate Program which is based on synchronous and asynchronous communication methods over the Internet offered by cooperation of Middle East Technical University, Computer Engineering Department and Continuing Education Center were examined. This online certificate program started in May 1998 and it is…

Yukselturk, Erman

2005-01-01

136

Infant Maltreatment-Related Mortality in Alaska: Correcting the Count and Using Birth Certificates to Predict Mortality  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objectives: To accurately count the number of infant maltreatment-related fatalities and to use information from the birth certificates to predict infant maltreatment-related deaths. Methods: A population-based retrospective cohort study of infants born in Alaska for the years 1992 through 2005 was conducted. Risk factor variables were ascertained…

Parrish, Jared W.; Gessner, Bradford D.

2010-01-01

137

Does ISO 9000 certification improve business performance?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the issue of ISO 9000 certification and its perceived benefits for Singapore based companies. Using an empirical approach, the paper seeks to ascertain if certification has indeed improved the performance for listed and non-listed companies. The results from a survey of 146 firms suggest that while certification leads to better overall financial performance, non-listed certified firms experience

Clare Chow-Chua; Mark Goh; Tan Boon Wan

2003-01-01

138

Verbal Autopsy Methods to Ascertain Birth Asphyxia Deaths in a Community-based Setting in Southern Nepal  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES 1) Develop an approach to ascertain birth asphyxia deaths using verbal autopsy data from a community-based setting in Nepal, and 2) explore variations in birth asphyxia mortality fractions using different birth asphyxia case definitions and hierarchal classifications. PATIENTS AND METHODS Data were prospectively collected during a cluster-randomized, community-based trial of health interventions on neonatal mortality in Sarlahi, Nepal from 2002-2006. To assign cause of death, four computer-assigned, symptom-based asphyxia case definitions; Nepali physician classification; and our independent review of verbal autopsy open narratives were used. Varying hierarchal classification approaches to assign cause of death were also explored. RESULTS Birth asphyxia specific mortality ranged from 26%-54% depending on the computer case definition used. There was poor agreement between computer and physician classification of birth asphyxia (kappa 0.15). By comparing computer, physician, and our independent ascertainment of cause of death, we identified 246 cases of birth asphyxia (32% of neonatal deaths). Allowing for more than one cause of death, 30% and 42% of asphyxia cases also met criteria for prematurity and serious infection, respectively. When a hierarchy was used to assign a single cause of death, the birth asphyxia proportionate mortality was reduced to 12% when identification of deaths due to congenital anomalies, prematurity, and serious infections preceded birth asphyxia. CONCLUSIONS Use of varying verbal autopsy definitions and hierarchal approaches to assign cause of death may substantially affect estimates of birth asphyxia-specific mortality and analyses of risk factors. Verbal autopsy methods need to be standardized and validated in order to generate accurate global estimates to direct policy and resource allocation in low-middle income countries. PMID:18450880

Lee, Anne CC; Mullany, Luke C.; Tielsch, James M.; Katz, Joanne; Khatry, Subarna K.; LeClerq, Steven C.; Adhikari, Ramesh K.; Shrestha, Shardaram R.; Darmstadt, Gary L.

2008-01-01

139

Predictors of Death among Patients Who Completed Tuberculosis Treatment: A Population-Based Cohort Study  

PubMed Central

Background Mortality among patients who complete tuberculosis (TB) treatment is still high among vulnerable populations. The objective of the study was to identify the probability of death and its predictive factors in a cohort of successfully treated TB patients. Methods A population-based retrospective longitudinal study was performed in Barcelona, Spain. All patients who successfully completed TB treatment with culture-confirmation and available drug susceptibility testing between 1995–1997 were retrospectively followed-up until December 31, 2005 by the Barcelona TB Control Program. Socio-demographic, clinical, microbiological and treatment variables were examined. Mortality, TB Program and AIDS registries were reviewed. Kaplan-Meier and a Cox regression methods with time-dependent covariates were used for the survival analysis, calculating the hazard ratio (HR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results Among the 762 included patients, the median age was 36 years, 520 (68.2%) were male, 178 (23.4%) HIV-infected, and 208 (27.3%) were alcohol abusers. Of the 134 (17.6%) injecting drug users (IDU), 123 (91.8%) were HIV-infected. A total of 30 (3.9%) recurrences and 173 deaths (22.7%) occurred (mortality rate: 3.4/100 person-years of follow-up). The predictors of death were: age between 41–60 years old (HR: 3.5; CI:2.1–5.7), age greater than 60 years (HR: 14.6; CI:8.9–24), alcohol abuse (HR: 1.7; CI:1.2–2.4) and HIV-infected IDU (HR: 7.9; CI:4.7–13.3). Conclusions The mortality rate among TB patients who completed treatment is associated with vulnerable populations such as the elderly, alcohol abusers, and HIV-infected IDU. We therefore need to fight against poverty, and promote and develop interventions and social policies directed towards these populations to improve their survival. PMID:21980423

Millet, Juan-Pablo; Orcau, Angels; Rius, Cristina; Casals, Marti; de Olalla, Patricia Garcia; Moreno, Antonio; Nelson, Jeanne L.; Cayla, Joan A.

2011-01-01

140

Motor-vehicle applications for certification by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). (Latest citations from the NTIS data base). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning motor vehicle applications for certification by the Environmental Protection Agency. Certification applications are prepared by vehicle manufacturers themselves, who give detailed technical descriptions of the vehicles or engines they intend to market during the upcoming model year. These engineering data include explanations and/or drawings which describe engine/vehicle parameters such as engine design, fuel systems, ignition systems, and exhaust and evaporative emission control systems. Information on emissions test procedures, service accumulation procedures, fuels to be used, and proposed maintenance requirements to be followed during testing is also provided. Citations include the results of emissions testing, a statement of compliance with EPA regulations, production engine parameters, and a Summary Sheet Input Form on which issuance of an EPA Certificate of Conformity is based. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1992-04-01

141

Bioenergetic metabolites regulate base excision repair dependent cell death in response to DNA damage  

PubMed Central

Base excision repair (BER) protein expression is important for resistance to DNA damage-induced cytotoxicity. Conversely, BER imbalance (Polß deficiency or repair inhibition) enhances cytotoxicity of radiation and chemotherapeutic DNA-damaging agents. Whereas inhibition of critical steps in the BER pathway result in the accumulation of cytotoxic DNA double-strand breaks, we report that DNA damage-induced cytotoxicity due to deficiency in the BER protein Polß triggers cell death dependent on PARP activation yet independent of poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR)-mediated AIF nuclear translocation or PARG, suggesting that cytotoxicity is not from PAR or PAR-catabolite signaling. Cell death is rescued by the NAD+ metabolite NMN and is synergistic with inhibition of NAD+ biosynthesis, demonstrating that DNA damage-induced cytotoxicity mediated via BER inhibition is primarily dependent on cellular metabolite bioavailability. We offer a mechanistic justification for the elevated alkylation-induced cytotoxicity of Polß deficient cells, suggesting a linkage between DNA repair, cell survival and cellular bioenergetics. PMID:20068071

Tang, Jiang-bo; Goellner, Eva M.; Wang, Xiao-hong; Trivedi, Ram N.; Croix, Claudette M. St; Jelezcova, Elena; Svilar, David; Brown, Ashley R.; Sobol, Robert W.

2009-01-01

142

In the Market But Not of It: Fair Trade Coffee and Forest Stewardship Council Certification as Market-Based Social Change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary. — This paper discusses two well-known market-based social change initiatives, Fair Trade coffee and Forest Stewardship Council certification, which harness market forces to pursue social and environmental objectives. A serious challenge for both is to operate in the conventional market without undermining their original objectives. A global commodity chain analysis approach is combined with insights from economic sociology embeddedness

Peter Leigh Taylor

2005-01-01

143

Is Certification a Promising Way to Ensure Sustainable Resource Use? An Analysis Based on the Concept of 'Self-Enforcing Contracts'  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the past decade several certification schemes have been developed in order to promote sustainable resource use, especially in foreign countries where it is impossible to rely on direct enforcement of process standards. Based on the concept of 'Self-Enforcing Contracts' a model is developed simulating the simultaneous market equilibrium for certified natural resource units and physically identical units produced without

Christian Lippert

2005-01-01

144

"We Brought It upon Ourselves": University-Based Teacher Education and the Emergence of Boot-Camp-Style Routes to Teacher Certification  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The proliferation of boot-camp-style routes to teacher certification in the last two decades is seen by many university-based teacher educators as the result of the advancement of conservative interests aimed at de-professionalizing teaching. This essay argues that this view only accounts for one piece of the answer, the other one being that some…

Friedrich, Daniel

2014-01-01

145

Certification/Licensure Dictionary.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document helps districts implement the new teacher licensure standards and ensure that staff are assigned to classes they are qualified to teach. It identifies both the existing certification areas and the new licensure areas that are required for teaching specific courses. The areas included are: agriculture; business; career-based

Ohio State Dept. of Education, Columbus.

146

Forensic Science Certificate  

E-print Network

. Is Forensic Science Right for Me? Students in forensic science have a strong interest in chemistry, biologyForensic Science Certificate What do Forensic Scientists Do? Forensic scientists apply scientific conclusions about a crime based on the evidence. Some forensic scientists work in laboratories, while others

Saldin, Dilano

147

Instructional Design Certificate Program  

E-print Network

for their employees, training functions will continue to follow advances in instructional methodologies and newE-Learning Instructional Design Certificate Program Business extension.uci.edu/eid #12;Improve Your to provide the knowledge and skills needed for systematically planning and adapting design of modules based

Rose, Michael R.

148

Death Imagery and Death Anxiety.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigated the relationship between death imagery and death anxiety among 179 undergraduate students. Results reveal subjects with low death anxiety scores had more positive death images. Subjects who imagined death to be young had a more positive image of death. Death was seen as male by majority of respondents. (Author/BL)

McDonald, Rita T.; Hilgendorf, William A.

1986-01-01

149

Certificate Production and the Race toward Higher Degree Attainment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Complete College America and FutureWorks conducted an analysis of certificate production, the value of the certificate program, and the economic benefit it provides to the region and nation. The conclusion, based on labor market demand and both personal and economic returns, is that certificates count and the policy and trends around certificates

State Higher Education Executive Officers, 2010

2010-01-01

150

Controller certification  

Microsoft Academic Search

A modern problem from aerospace control involves the certification of a large set of potential controllers with either a single plant or a fleet of potential plant systems, with both plants and controllers being MIMO and, for the moment, linear. Experiments on a limited number of controller\\/plant pairs should establish the stability and a certain level of margin of the

Robert R. Bitmead

2008-01-01

151

Co-trimoxazole and sudden death in patients receiving inhibitors of renin-angiotensin system: population based study  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine whether the prescription of co-trimoxazole with an angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor or angiotensin receptor blocker is associated with sudden death. Design Population based nested case-control study. Setting Ontario, Canada, from 1 April 1994 to 1 January 2012. Participants Ontario residents aged 66 years or older treated with an angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor or angiotensin receptor blocker. Cases were those who died suddenly shortly after receiving an outpatient prescription for one of co-trimoxazole, amoxicillin, ciprofloxacin, norfloxacin, or nitrofurantoin. Each case was matched with up to four controls on age, sex, chronic kidney disease, and diabetes. Main outcome measure Odds ratio for the association between sudden death and exposure to each antibiotic relative to amoxicillin, after adjustment for predictors of sudden death according to a disease risk index. Results Of 39?879 sudden deaths, 1027 occurred within seven days of exposure to an antibiotic and were matched to 3733 controls. Relative to amoxicillin, co-trimoxazole was associated with an increased risk of sudden death (adjusted odds ratio 1.38, 95% confidence interval 1.09 to 1.76). The risk was marginally higher at 14 days (adjusted odds ratio 1.54, 1.29 to 1.84). This corresponds to approximately three sudden deaths within 14 days per 1000 co-trimoxazole prescriptions. Ciprofloxacin (a known cause of QT interval prolongation) was also associated with an increased risk of sudden death (adjusted odds ratio 1.29, 1.03 to 1.62), but no such risk was observed with nitrofurantoin or norfloxacin. Conclusions In older patients receiving angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers, co-trimoxazole is associated with an increased risk of sudden death. Unrecognized severe hyperkalemia may underlie this finding. When appropriate, alternative antibiotics should be considered in such patients. PMID:25359996

Fralick, Michael; Macdonald, Erin M; Gomes, Tara; Antoniou, Tony; Hollands, Simon; Mamdani, Muhammad M

2014-01-01

152

A district-based audit of the causes and circumstances of maternal deaths in South Kalimantan, Indonesia.  

PubMed Central

A district-based audit of maternal and perinatal mortality began during 1994 in three provinces of South Kalimantan, Indonesia. Both medical and non-medical factors were documented and an effort was made to progress from merely assessing substandard care to recommending improvements in access to care and the quality of care. Extensive discussions of cases of maternal death were held during regular meetings with providers, policy-makers and community members. The sources of information included verbal autopsies with family members and medical records. Between 1995 and 1999 the audit reviewed 130 maternal deaths. The leading causes of death were haemorrhage (41%) and hypertensive diseases (32%). Delays in decision-making and poor quality of care in health facilities were seen as contributory factors in 77% and 60% of the deaths, respectively. Economic constraints were believed to have contributed to 37% of the deaths. The distance between a patient's home and a health provider or facility did not appear to have a significant influence, nor did transport problems. The audit led to changes in the quality of obstetric care in the district. Its success was particularly attributable to the process of accountability of both health providers and policy-makers and to improved working relationships between health providers at different levels and between providers and the community. With a view to the continuation and further expansion of the audit it may be necessary to reconsider the role of the provincial team, the need of health providers for confidentiality, the added benefit of facility-based audits, the need to incorporate scientific evidence into the review process, and the possible consideration of severe complications as well as deaths. It may also be necessary to recognize that village midwives are not solely responsible for maternal deaths. PMID:11984609

Supratikto, Gunawan; Wirth, Meg E.; Achadi, Endang; Cohen, Surekha; Ronsmans, Carine

2002-01-01

153

Modifiable cardiovascular disease risk factors as predictors of dementia death: pooling of ten general population-based cohort studies  

PubMed Central

Background With drug treatment for dementia being of limited effectiveness, the role of primary prevention, in particular the predictive value of modifiable cardiovascular disease risk factors, may warrant exploration. The evidence base is, however, characterised by discordant findings and is modest in size. Accordingly, we examined the association of modifiable cardiovascular disease risk factors with dementia death. Design and methods We pooled raw data from 10 UK general population-based prospective cohort studies within the context of an individual participant meta-analysis. Results A total of 103,764 men and women were followed up for a mean of 8 years giving rise to 443 dementia-related deaths and 2612 cardiovascular disease deaths. Cardiovascular disease mortality was, as anticipated, associated with the full range of risk factors under study, including raised blood pressure, smoking, diabetes, physical inactivity. By contrast, dementia death was related to very few of the cardiovascular disease risk factors: of those classified as modifiable, only smoking was associated with a raised risk and higher levels of non-HDL with a lower risk. Conclusions In the present individual participant meta-analysis, there was limited evidence that cardiovascular disease risk factors were related to dementia death. PMID:24886432

2014-01-01

154

Rotavirus mortality in India: estimates based on a nationally representative survey of diarrhoeal deaths  

PubMed Central

Abstract Objective To estimate the number of rotavirus-associated deaths among Indian children younger than five years. Methods We surveyed more than 23?000 child deaths from a nationally representative survey of 1.1 million Indian households during 2001–2003. Diarrhoeal deaths were characterized by region, age and sex and were combined with the proportion of deaths attributable to rotavirus, as determined by hospital microbiologic data collected by the Indian Rotavirus Strain Surveillance Network from December 2005 to November 2007. Rotavirus vaccine efficacy data from clinical trials in developing countries were used to estimate the number of deaths preventable by a national vaccination programme. Data were analysed using Stata SE version 10. Findings Rotavirus caused an estimated 113?000 deaths (99% confidence interval, CI: 86?000–155?000); 50% (54?700) and 75% (85?400) occurred before one and two years of age, respectively. One child in 242 died from rotavirus infection before five years of age. Rotavirus-associated mortality rates overall, among girls and among boys were 4.14 (99% CI: 3.14–5.68), 4.89 (99% CI: 3.75–6.79) and 3.45 (99% CI: 2.58–4.66) deaths per 1000 live births, respectively. Rates were highest in Bihar, Uttar Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh, which together accounted for >?50% of deaths (64?400) nationally. Rotavirus vaccine could prevent 41?000–48?000 deaths among children aged 3–59 months. Conclusion The burden of rotavirus-associated mortality is high among Indian children, highlighting the potential benefits of rotavirus vaccination. PMID:23109739

Awasthi, Shally; Khera, Ajay; Bassani, Diego G; Kang, Gagandeep; Parashar, Umesh D; Kumar, Rajesh; Shet, Anita; Glass, Roger I; Jha, Prabhat

2012-01-01

155

A combined anatomic and electrophysiologic substrate based approach for sudden cardiac death risk stratification  

PubMed Central

Background Although left ventricle ejection fraction (LVEF) is the primary determinant for sudden cardiac death (SCD) risk stratification, in isolation, LVEF is a sub-optimal risk stratifier. We assessed whether a multi-marker strategy would provide more robust SCD risk stratification than LVEF alone. Methods We collected patient-level data (n=3355) from 6 studies assessing the prognostic utility of microvolt T-wave alternans (MTWA) testing. Two-thirds of the group was used for derivation (n=2242) and one-third for validation (n=1113). The discriminative capacity of the multivariable model was assessed using the area under the receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve (c-index). The primary endpoint was SCD at 24 months. Results In the derivation cohort, 59 patients experienced SCD by 24 months. Stepwise selection suggested that a model based on 3 parameters (LVEF, coronary artery disease [CAD] and MTWA status) provided optimal SCD risk prediction. In the derivation cohort, the c-index of the model was 0.817, which was significantly better than LVEF used as a single variable (0.637, p < 0.001). In the validation cohort, 36 patients experienced SCD by 24 months. The c-index of the model for predicting the primary endpoint was again significantly better than LVEF alone (0.774 vs. 0.671, p = 0.020). Conclusions A multivariable model based on presence of CAD, LVEF and MTWA status provides significantly more robust SCD risk prediction than LVEF as a single risk marker. These findings suggest that multi-marker strategies based on different aspects of the electro-anatomic substrate may be capable of improving primary prevention ICD treatment algorithms. PMID:24093856

Merchant, Faisal M.; Zheng, Hui; Bigger, Thomas; Steinman, Richard; Ikeda, Takanori; Pedretti, Roberto F.E.; Salerno-Uriarte, Jorge A.; Klersy, Catherine; Chan, Paul S.; Bartone, Cheryl; Hohnloser, Stefan H.; Ruskin, Jeremy N.; Armoundas, Antonis A.

2014-01-01

156

26 CFR 1.1402(e)(2)-1 - Time limitation for filing waiver certificate.  

...will be invalid. (b) Effect of death. Except as provided in §§ 1...a waiver certificate shall cease from his death. Thus, except as provided in such...purpose of this section net earnings from self-employment shall be...

2014-04-01

157

26 CFR 1.1402(e)(2)-1 - Time limitation for filing waiver certificate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...will be invalid. (b) Effect of death. Except as provided in §§ 1...a waiver certificate shall cease from his death. Thus, except as provided in such...purpose of this section net earnings from self-employment shall be...

2011-04-01

158

26 CFR 1.1402(e)(2)-1 - Time limitation for filing waiver certificate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...will be invalid. (b) Effect of death. Except as provided in §§ 1...a waiver certificate shall cease from his death. Thus, except as provided in such...purpose of this section net earnings from self-employment shall be...

2013-04-01

159

26 CFR 1.1402(e)(2)-1 - Time limitation for filing waiver certificate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...will be invalid. (b) Effect of death. Except as provided in §§ 1...a waiver certificate shall cease from his death. Thus, except as provided in such...purpose of this section net earnings from self-employment shall be...

2012-04-01

160

26 CFR 1.1402(e)(2)-1 - Time limitation for filing waiver certificate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...will be invalid. (b) Effect of death. Except as provided in §§ 1...a waiver certificate shall cease from his death. Thus, except as provided in such...purpose of this section net earnings from self-employment shall be...

2010-04-01

161

Comparison of Weight and Height-based Indices for Assessing the Risk of Death in Severely Malnourished Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

To compare the effectiveness of treating malnourished children in different centers, the authors believe there is a need to have a simple method of adjusting mortality rates so that differences in the nutritional status of the children are taken into account. The authors compared different anthropometric indices based on weight and height to predict the risk of death among severely

C. Prudhon; A. Briend; D. Laurier; M. H. N. Golden; J. Y. Mary

162

Reflection on family consent: based on a pregnant death in a Beijing hospital.  

PubMed

The 'family consent' process has been placed at the centre of Chinese clinical practice. Although there has been critical analysis of how the process functions in relation to the autonomy and rights of patients, there has been little examination of the perceptions and attitude of patients and their families and the medical professionals, in relation to moral dilemmas that arise in real cases in the bioethical discourse. When faced with a consent form in an emergency situation, the family member's capacity to act is reduced, as he/she becomes enmeshed in the hospital structure of tacit, socially-imposed rules. In a questionnaires based on a real death case in 2008, 70.9% of the surveyed medical professionals (n = 3,665) disagreed with performing surgery without the consent of the family even if the patient's life was in danger, while 36.6% of the surveyed patients (n = 1,198) hold the same position. This work demonstrates the weakness of the family consent process as a safeguard of patient's autonomy. Finally, I argue that saving the patient's life should be the overriding obligation rather than the respect for the surrogate's autonomous choice at such a decisive moment. PMID:21266002

Zhang, Xinqing

2012-12-01

163

Does marital status predict the odds of suicidal death in taiwan? A seven-year population-based study.  

PubMed

Using nationwide, 7-year population-based data for 1997-2003, we examined marital status to see if it predicted suicide among the ethnic Chinese population of Taiwan. Using cause of death data, with a case-control design, two groups-total adult suicide deaths, n = 17,850, the study group, and adult deaths other than suicide, n = 71,400 (randomly selected from age, sex, and geographic region matched controls, four per suicide)-were studied. Using multiple logistic regression analysis including age-marital status interaction, adjusted estimates show divorced status to be the most detrimental for suicide propensity, with males showing stronger effect size. Females never married, aged below 35 and 65-plus, and widowed 65-plus had lower suicide odds. PMID:18611128

Yeh, Jui-Yuan; Xirasagar, Sudha; Liu, Tsai-Ching; Li, Chong-Yi; Lin, Herng-Ching

2008-06-01

164

Predictors of Place of Death for Seniors in Ontario: A Population-Based Cohort Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Place of death was determined for all 58,689 seniors (age greater than or equal to 66 years) in Ontario who died during fiscal year 2001/2002. The relationship of place of death to medical and socio-demographic characteristics was examined using a multinomial logit model. Half (49.2 %) of these individuals died in hospital, 30.5 per cent died in a…

Motiwala, Sanober S.; Croxford, Ruth; Guerriere, Denise N.; Coyte, Peter C.

2006-01-01

165

Competency-Based Teacher Education and Certification Definitions: Synthesis and Schema.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document is divided into an introduction and two sections. Each section is divided into two parts: definition and synthesis. Section 1 is devoted to competency-based teacher education. The "definition" part presents 14 definitions of competency-based teacher education that have been culled from various authorities. The "synthesis" part lists…

Roth, Robert A.

166

Certification/enforcement analysis  

SciTech Connect

Industry compliance with minimum energy efficiency standards will be assured through a two-part program approach of certification and enforcement activities. The technical support document (TSD) presents the analyses upon which the proposed rule for assuring that consumer product comply with applicable energy efficiency standards is based. Much of the TSD is based upon support provided DOE by Vitro Laboratories. The OAO Corporation provided additional support in the development of the sampling plan incorporated in the proposed rule. Vitro's recommended approach to appliance certification and enforcement, developed after consideration of various program options, benefits, and impacts, establishes the C/E program framework, general criteria, and procedures for assuring a specified level of energy efficiency performance of covered consumer products. The results of the OAO analysis are given in Volume II of the TSD.

None

1980-06-01

167

Alternative certification science teachers' understanding and implementation of inquiry-based instruction in their beginning years of teaching  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this phenomenographic study was to: (a) understand how beginning science teachers recruited from various science disciplines and prepared in an Alternative Teacher Certification Program (ATCP) implemented inquiry during their initial years of teaching; (b) describe constraints and needs that these beginning science teachers perceived in implementing inquiry-based science instruction; and (c) understand the relation between what they learned in their ATCP and their practice of teaching science through inquiry. The participants of this study consisted of four ATCP teachers who are in their beginning years of teaching. Semi-structured interviews, classroom observation, field notes, and artifacts used as source of data collection. The beginning science teachers in this study held incomplete views of inquiry. These views of inquiry did not reflect inquiry as described in NRC (2000)---essential features of inquiry,---nor did they reflect views of faculty members involved in teaching science methods courses. Although the participants described themselves as reform-oriented, there were inconsistencies between their views and practices. Their practice of inquiry did not reflect inquiry either as outlined by essential features of inquiry (NRC, 2000) or inquiry as modeled in activities used in their ATCP. The research participants' perceived constraints and needs in their implementation of inquiry-based activities. Their perceived constraints included logistical and student constraints and school culture. The perceived needs included classroom management, pedagogical skills, practical knowledge, discipline, successful grade-specific models of inquiry, and access to a strong support system. Prior professional work experience, models and activities used in the ATCP, and benefits of inquiry to student learning were the declared factors that facilitated the research participants' practice of inquiry-based teaching.

Demir, Abdulkadir

168

The impact of an immunization training certificate program on the perceived knowledge, skills and attitudes of pharmacy students toward pharmacy-based immunizations  

PubMed Central

Objective To assess the impact of a national immunization training certificate program on the perceived knowledge, skills and attitudes of pharmacy students toward pharmacy-based immunizations. Methods The study design utilized a pre- and post-survey administered to pharmacy students before and after the American Pharmacists Association’s (APhA) Pharmacy-Based Immunization Delivery program. The primary outcome explored was a change in the perceived knowledge, skills, and attitudes of the pharmacy students. A five-point Likert scale (i.e. strongly agree = 5, strongly disagree = 1) was used for measuring the main outcomes, which was summated by adding the individual item scores in each section to form a composite score for each outcome. Results The certificate training program resulted in a significant improvement in knowledge (38.5% increase in score, p<0.001) and skills (34.5% increase in score, p<0.001), but not attitudes (1% increase in score, p=0.210). Conclusions The national immunization training certificate program had a positive impact on the perceived knowledge and skills of pharmacy students. However, no change was observed regarding students’ perceived attitudes toward pharmacy-based immunizations. PMID:25132877

Marcum, Zachary A.; Maffeo, Carrie M.; Kalsekar, Iftekhar

2009-01-01

169

78 FR 35115 - Listing of Color Additives Exempt From Certification; Mica-Based Pearlescent Pigments  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...tablets and gelatin capsules, and chewing gum. Mica-based pearlescent pigments...additives, Cosmetics, Drugs, Medical devices. Therefore, under the...tablets and gelatin capsules, and chewing gum. (ii) In amounts up to...

2013-06-12

170

Age-at-death estimation based on radiological and image analysis methods in clavicle in a current Spanish population.  

PubMed

Age-at-death estimation in adult individuals is one of the most challenging issues in forensic anthropology, namely, due to the large age intervals provided by the current methods, which demand the development of more reliable investigations. The clavicle has been studied as an age-at-death indicator in many researches for its accessibility, low biomechanical implication in locomotion and accuracy to predict age at death when other age indicators are not available. The present study was developed on a sample of 332 clavicles from adult individuals of known sex and age from the current Spanish population. They were x-rayed and digitalized, in a standardized way, using a Sedecal X-ray generator, model SHF 415. Three indices were calculated at the mid-diaphysis point (anterior index, posterior index, and total index) which relate the cortical thickness and the total clavicle thickness to age at death. The average grey level was also calculated in a 0.5-cm(2) area of the sternal and acromial ends (sternal grey average, acromial grey average), using Image J software. The data were subjected to a statistical analysis, using SPSS, version 15.0. The results show that average grey level has a weaker correlation with age than the variables which are based on the cortical thickness. On the other hand, the regression equations, which were calculated combining all the variables, provided smaller age-at-death intervals, demonstrating the usefulness of this method for adult age-at-death estimation in forensic anthropology. PMID:24664396

Benito, María; Sánchez, José Antonio; Codinha, Sónia

2014-05-01

171

Organ donation after death in Ontario: a population-based cohort study  

PubMed Central

Background: Shortfalls in deceased organ donation lead to shortages of solid organs available for transplantation. We assessed rates of deceased organ donation and compared hospitals that had clinical services for transplant recipients (transplant hospitals) to those that did not (general hospitals). Methods: We conducted a population-based cohort analysis involving patients who died from traumatic brain injury, subarachnoid hemorrhage, intracerebral hemorrhage or other catastrophic neurologic conditions in Ontario, Canada, between Apr. 1, 1994, and Mar. 31, 2011. We distinguished between acute care hospitals with and without transplant services. The primary outcome was actual organ donation determined through the physician database for organ procurement procedures. Results: Overall, 87 129 patients died from catastrophic neurologic conditions during the study period, of whom 1930 became actual donors. Our primary analysis excluded patients from small hospitals, reducing the total to 79 746 patients, of whom 1898 became actual donors. Patients who died in transplant hospitals had a distribution of demographic characteristics similar to that of patients who died in other large general hospitals. Transplant hospitals had an actual donor rate per 100 deaths that was about 4 times the donor rate at large general hospitals (5.0 v. 1.4, p < 0.001). The relative reduction in donations at general hospitals was accentuated among older patients, persisted among patients who were the most eligible candidates and amounted to about 121 fewer actual donors per year (adjusted odds ratio 0.58, 95% confidence interval 0.36–0.92). Hospital volumes were only weakly correlated with actual organ donation rates. Interpretation: Optimizing organ donation requires greater attention to large general hospitals. These hospitals account for most of the potential donors and missed opportunities for deceased organ donation. PMID:23549970

Redelmeier, Donald A.; Markel, Frank; Scales, Damon C.

2013-01-01

172

Motor-vehicle applications for certification by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). September 1979-July 1989 (Citations from the NTIS data base). Report for September 1979-July 1989  

SciTech Connect

This bibliography contains citations concerning motor-vehicle applications for certification by the Environmental Protection Agency. The manufacturer gives a detailed technical description of the vehicles or engines he intends to market during the upcoming model year. These engineering data include explanations and/or drawings which describe engine/vehicle parameters such as basic engine design, fuel systems, ignition systems, and exhaust and evaporative emission control systems. Information on emission-test procedures, service accumulation procedures, fuels to be used, and proposed maintenance requirements to be followed during testing is also provided. Results of emission testing, a statement of compliance with the regulations, production engine parameters, and a Summary Sheet Input Form on which issuance of Certificate of Conformity is based are included. (Contains 328 citations fully indexed and including a title list.)

Not Available

1989-08-01

173

Degree Information 37 Transcripted Graduate Certificate Programs  

E-print Network

in Entrepreneurship Certificate in Environmental Hazard Management Certificate in Facility Management Certificate in Sustainable Urbanism Certificate in Transportation Planning #12;38 Degree Information Certificate in Women

174

Community-based surveillance of paediatric deaths in Cross River State, Nigeria.  

PubMed

A house-to-house survey of paediatric deaths which occurred from January to December 1991 in the village of Nko, Cross River State, Nigeria, was carried out. Among the 471 total deaths recorded, the leading causes were malaria (29%), protein-energy malnutrition, pneumonia and diarrhoeal disease (11% each). Neonatal deaths were largely due to septicaemia, tetanus and birth asphyxia. Poor domestic and human waste disposal, lack of portable water and basic health facilities appear to be the important related factors to child health problems in this community. The provision of public toilets, safe water, primary health care centres and health education can definitely improve the health status of this rural community. Events in other rural communities in Nigeria are most likely to be similar to that in Nko. Such populations need to be identified and their problems urgently addressed. PMID:7855918

Ekanem, E E; Asindi, A A; Okoi, O U

1994-01-01

175

Coaching Certification. ERIC Digest.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This digest focuses on coaching certification, its importance, its current status, and types of certification programs currently in existence. The discussion also covers the status of women coaches and the issue of national certification requirements. The list of addresses of certification programs given includes commercial agencies state…

Schweitzer, Cathie

176

Group Accident Insurance Certificate  

E-print Network

Group Accident Insurance Certificate Regents of the University of New Mexico #12;#12;Life Insurance Company GROUP ACCIDENT CERTIFICATE THIS CERTIFICATE PROVIDES LIMITED COVERAGE. PLEASE READ YOUR. THIS CERTIFICATE IS ISSUED UNDER AN ACCIDENT ONLY POLICY. IT DOES NOT PAY BENEFITS FOR LOSS CAUSED BY SICKNESS. GA

New Mexico, University of

177

Ancient Mediterranean Certificate  

E-print Network

Program encompasses the study of the cultures and societies of ancient Greece and Rome. The certificateAncient Mediterranean Studies Certificate About Us The Ancient Mediterranean Studies Certificate The certificate in Ancient Mediterranean Studies requires completion of a minimum of 24 credits distributed

Saldin, Dilano

178

The Global Burden of Snakebite: A Literature Analysis and Modelling Based on Regional Estimates of Envenoming and Deaths  

PubMed Central

Background Envenoming resulting from snakebites is an important public health problem in many tropical and subtropical countries. Few attempts have been made to quantify the burden, and recent estimates all suffer from the lack of an objective and reproducible methodology. In an attempt to provide an accurate, up-to-date estimate of the scale of the global problem, we developed a new method to estimate the disease burden due to snakebites. Methods and Findings The global estimates were based on regional estimates that were, in turn, derived from data available for countries within a defined region. Three main strategies were used to obtain primary data: electronic searching for publications on snakebite, extraction of relevant country-specific mortality data from databases maintained by United Nations organizations, and identification of grey literature by discussion with key informants. Countries were grouped into 21 distinct geographic regions that are as epidemiologically homogenous as possible, in line with the Global Burden of Disease 2005 study (Global Burden Project of the World Bank). Incidence rates for envenoming were extracted from publications and used to estimate the number of envenomings for individual countries; if no data were available for a particular country, the lowest incidence rate within a neighbouring country was used. Where death registration data were reliable, reported deaths from snakebite were used; in other countries, deaths were estimated on the basis of observed mortality rates and the at-risk population. We estimate that, globally, at least 421,000 envenomings and 20,000 deaths occur each year due to snakebite. These figures may be as high as 1,841,000 envenomings and 94,000 deaths. Based on the fact that envenoming occurs in about one in every four snakebites, between 1.2 million and 5.5 million snakebites could occur annually. Conclusions Snakebites cause considerable morbidity and mortality worldwide. The highest burden exists in South Asia, Southeast Asia, and sub-Saharan Africa. PMID:18986210

Kasturiratne, Anuradhani; Wickremasinghe, A. Rajitha; de Silva, Nilanthi; Gunawardena, N. Kithsiri; Pathmeswaran, Arunasalam; Premaratna, Ranjan; Savioli, Lorenzo; Lalloo, David G; de Silva, H. Janaka

2008-01-01

179

Violent death in Connecticut, 2001 to 2004.  

PubMed

We reviewed medical examiner, law enforcement, crime laboratory data, and death certificates on all 1,530 violent deaths (homicide, suicide, undetermined firearm) in Connecticut occurring from 2001-2004. There was an average of 383 deaths (rate = 11.2 deaths per 100,000 persons annually). Overall, males aged 20 to 29 were at the greatest risk of violent death (rate = 30.5/100,000). Of all violent deaths 72% were suicides and 28% were homicides. Firearms were used in 33% of suicides and 58% of homicides. The rate of violent death is lower than most other states in the country. In Connecticut suicide is the leading cause of violent death overall; however, in areas characterized by the highest levels of poverty and lowest levels of education, homicide is the leading cause of violent death. PMID:18478984

Borrup, Kevin; Gelven, Erica S; Carver, H Wayne; Banco, Leonard; Lapidus, Garry

2008-04-01

180

147 SDSU Curriculum Guide 2010 Certificate Programs  

E-print Network

147 SDSU Curriculum Guide 2010 Certificate Programs Types of Certificate Programs General Guidelines for All Certificate Programs Academic Certificate Programs Professional Certificate programs Cosponsored Certificate Programs Other Certificates #12;148 SDSU Curriculum Guide 2010 University Guidelines

Ponce, V. Miguel

181

Certificates: Gateway to Gainful Employment and College Degrees  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Certificates are recognition of completion of a course of study based on a specific field, usually associated with a limited set of occupations. Certificates differ from other kinds of labor market credentials such as industry-based certifications and licenses, which typically involve passing an examination to prove a specific competency,…

Carnevale, Anthony P.; Rose, Stephen J.; Hanson, Andrew R.

2012-01-01

182

Building secure wireless access point based on certificate authentication and firewall captive portal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wireless local area network or WLAN more vulnerability than wired network even though WLAN has many advantages over wired. Wireless networks use radio transmissions to carry data between end users and access point. Therefore, it is possible for someone to sit in your office building's lobby or parking lot or parking lot to eavesdrop on the wireless network communication. This paper discussed securing wires local area network used WPA2 Enterprise based PEAP MS-CHAP and Captive portal firewall. We also divided the network for employer and visitor to increase the level of security. Our experiment showed that the WLAN could be broken using the attacker tool such as airodump, aireply, and aircrack.

Soewito, B.; Hirzi

2014-03-01

183

New York State Standards for BUILDING Leaders Candidates in university-based preparation programs who seek NYS certification as  

E-print Network

who seek NYS certification as School Building Leaders (SBL) must demonstrate the following nine to be a leader 2. Have a vision for schools that they constantly share and promote 3. Communicate clearly perspectives and alternative points of view, and building understanding through direct and precise questioning

Suzuki, Masatsugu

184

Vascular deaths in elderly neurological patients with leukoaraiosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVES: The prognostic significance of leukoaraiosis is still not completely elucidated. The objective was to examine survival and causes of death among elderly neurological patients with leukoaraiosis. METHODS: From 1 January 1994, vital status and causes of death were drawn from municipality lists and death certificates of 216 patients (mean age (SD) 70.6 (8.3) years) admitted to a geriatric unit

D Inzitari; M Cadelo; M L Marranci; G Pracucci; L Pantoni

1997-01-01

185

Ill-defined causes of death in Brazil: a redistribution method based on the investigation of such causes.  

PubMed

OBJECTIVE To propose a method of redistributing ill-defined causes of death (IDCD) based on the investigation of such causes. METHODS In 2010, an evaluation of the results of investigating the causes of death classified as IDCD in accordance with chapter 18 of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10) by the Mortality Information System was performed. The redistribution coefficients were calculated according to the proportional distribution of ill-defined causes reclassified after investigation in any chapter of the ICD-10, except for chapter 18, and used to redistribute the ill-defined causes not investigated and remaining by sex and age. The IDCD redistribution coefficient was compared with two usual methods of redistribution: a) Total redistribution coefficient, based on the proportional distribution of all the defined causes originally notified and b) Non-external redistribution coefficient, similar to the previous, but excluding external causes. RESULTS Of the 97,314 deaths by ill-defined causes reported in 2010, 30.3% were investigated, and 65.5% of those were reclassified as defined causes after the investigation. Endocrine diseases, mental disorders, and maternal causes had a higher representation among the reclassified ill-defined causes, contrary to infectious diseases, neoplasms, and genitourinary diseases, with higher proportions among the defined causes reported. External causes represented 9.3% of the ill-defined causes reclassified. The correction of mortality rates by the total redistribution coefficient and non-external redistribution coefficient increased the magnitude of the rates by a relatively similar factor for most causes, contrary to the IDCD redistribution coefficient that corrected the different causes of death with differentiated weights. CONCLUSIONS The proportional distribution of causes among the ill-defined causes reclassified after investigation was not similar to the original distribution of defined causes. Therefore, the redistribution of the remaining ill-defined causes based on the investigation allows for more appropriate estimates of the mortality risk due to specific causes. PMID:25210826

França, Elisabeth; Teixeira, Renato; Ishitani, Lenice; Duncan, Bruce Bartholow; Cortez-Escalante, Juan José; Morais Neto, Otaliba Libânio de; Szwarcwald, Célia Landman

2014-08-01

186

49 CFR 583.13 - Supplier certification and certificates.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Supplier certification and certificates. 583...AUTOMOBILE PARTS CONTENT LABELING § 583.13 Supplier certification and certificates. Each supplier shall certify the information on...

2010-10-01

187

[Unemployment, health, and death in postwar Netherlands: a macro-analysis based on statistical sources].  

PubMed

The social costs of unemployment in the Netherlands are examined, with particular emphasis on the relationships among unemployment, illness, and death. Using methodology developed by M. H. Brenner, the authors analyze data on mortality and unemployment in the Netherlands since World War II. The results do not show that higher unemployment leads to higher mortality. The suitability of the macro-social analytical methodology used is considered. (summary in ENG) PMID:12339563

Van Houwelingen, J; Tazelaar, F; Verbeek, A

1984-01-01

188

[Illness and death of the violin virtuoso Nicolò Paganini--interpretation based on new hair investigations].  

PubMed

The violin virtuoso Paganini died at Nice in 1840 after a long, severe illness. It is undisputed that Paganini was treated with mercury for suspected syphilis and lost all his teeth in 1828 because of that treatment. In the comprehensive literature published on this topic, most authors assume that the terminal complaints and his death were caused by tuberculosis. On the other hand, the hypothesis that he may have died from mercury poisoning was rejected, because there was no information available supporting this assumption. The authors performed morphological investigations using light microscopy and raster electron microscopy (REM). The examined hairs corresponded to a growth phase of > 1 year and < 3 years before death. Structural damage to the hairs indicate heavy metal intoxication in that phase of life; compatible results were supplied by the complex investigations using ICP mass spectrometry and TXRF, which revealed high concentrations of mercury. Using ICP-MS, the mean value for mercury found in the hair sample was 15.4 microg/g with a standard deviation of 0.7 microg/g. The values obtained when investigating segments of single hairs showed high dispersion, but overlapped with the values from the area investigated using ICP-MS. Information not yet considered in the literature support the diagnosis of syphilis and provide a complete and unambiguous explanation for Paganini's death on the basis of the mercury concentrations found. PMID:22448466

Kijewski, Harald; Beck, Jens; Reus, Ulrich

2012-01-01

189

Software Certification and Software Certificate Management Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Incremental certification and re-certification of code as it is developed and modified is a prerequisite for applying modem, evolutionary development processes, which are especially relevant for NASA. For example, the Columbia Accident Investigation Board (CAIB) report 121 concluded there is "the need for improved and uniform statistical sampling, audit, and certification processes". Also, re-certification time has been a limiting factor in making changes to Space Shuttle code close to launch time. This is likely to be an even bigger problem with the rapid turnaround required in developing NASA s replacement for the Space Shuttle, the Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV). Hence, intelligent development processes are needed which place certification at the center of development. If certification tools provide useful information, such as estimated time and effort, they are more likely to be adopted. The ultimate impact of such a tool will be reduced effort and increased reliability.

Denney, Ewen; Fischer, Bernd

2005-01-01

190

Privacy and Accountability in Certificate Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper addresses the threats to privacy that arise from certificate-based authentication and access control and ways of alleviating them. We explain in Sec. 2 how public-key certificates are used and what kind of information they may reveal. Sec. 3 de...

T. Aura, C. Ellison

2000-01-01

191

Changing Patterns in Place of Cancer Death in England: A Population-Based Study  

PubMed Central

Background Most patients with cancer prefer to die at home or in a hospice, but hospitals remain the most common place of death (PoD).This study aims to explore the changing time trends of PoD and the associated factors, which are essential for end-of-life care improvement. Methods and Findings The study analysed all cancer deaths in England collected by the Office for National Statistics during 1993–2010 (n?=?2,281,223). Time trends of age- and gender-standardised proportion of deaths in individual PoDs were evaluated using weighted piecewise linear regression. Variables associated with PoD (home or hospice versus hospital) were determined using proportion ratio (PR) derived from the log-binomial regression, adjusting for clustering effects. Hospital remained the most common PoD throughout the study period (48.0%; 95% CI 47.9%–48.0%), followed by home (24.5%; 95% CI 24.4%–24.5%), and hospice (16.4%; 95% CI 16.3%–16.4%). Home and hospice deaths increased since 2005 (0.87%; 95% CI 0.74%–0.99%/year, 0.24%; 95% CI 0.17%–0.32%/year, respectively, p<0.001), while hospital deaths declined (?1.20%; 95% CI ?1.41 to ?0.99/year, p<0.001). Patients who died from haematological cancer (PRs 0.46–0.52), who were single, widowed, or divorced (PRs 0.75–0.88), and aged over 75 (PRs 0.81–0.84 for 75–84; 0.66–0.72 for 85+) were less likely to die in home or hospice (p<0.001; reference groups: colorectal cancer, married, age 25–54). There was little improvement in patients with lung cancer of dying in home or hospice (PRs 0.87–0.88). Marital status became the second most important factor associated with PoD, after cancer type. Patients from less deprived areas (higher quintile of the deprivation index) were more likely to die at home or in a hospice than those from more deprived areas (lower quintile of the deprivation index; PRs 1.02–1.12). The analysis is limited by a lack of data on individual patients' preferences for PoD or a clinical indication of the most appropriate PoD. Conclusions More efforts are needed to reduce hospital deaths. Health care facilities should be improved and enhanced to support the increased home and hospice deaths. People who are single, widowed, or divorced should be a focus for end-of-life care improvement, along with known at risk groups such as haematological cancer, lung cancer, older age, and deprivation. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary PMID:23555201

Gao, Wei; Ho, Yuen K.; Verne, Julia; Glickman, Myer; Higginson, Irene J.

2013-01-01

192

E-Government Electronic Certification Services in Taiwan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ongoing E-Government Program in Taiwan has been started in 1997. It is based on the Government Service Network, which is a backbone infrastructure of the network transaction environment. During the first phase of this program in 1998, Taiwan established its first Certification Authority, namely, Government Certification Authority (GCA), and this launched the electronic certification services in Taiwan. From year

Chii-Wen Wu; Hwai-Ling Shan; Wen-Cheng Wang; Dung-Ming Shieh; Ming-Hsin Chang

193

A market-based approach to child nutrition: mothers’ demand for quality certification of infant foods in Bamako, Mali  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyses the potential impact of introducing quality certification to the market for infant foods in a very low-income country, where malnutrition is widespread. Using an experimental-economics approach, we find that a program to sample, test and certify the nutrient density of products could promote a more competitive market for low-cost fortified foods and be implemented on a self-financing

Diakalia Sanogo; William A. Masters

2002-01-01

194

Aetiology of sudden cardiac death in sport: a histopathologist's perspective  

PubMed Central

In the UK, when a young person dies suddenly, the coroner is responsible for establishing the cause of death. They will ask a consultant pathologist to carry out an autopsy in order to ascertain when, where and how that person died. Once the cause of death is established and is due to natural causes, the coroner can issue a death certificate. Importantly, the coroner is not particularly interested in the cause of death as long as it is due to natural causes, which avoids the need for an inquest (a public hearing about the death). However, if no identifiable cause is established at the initial autopsy, the coroner can refer the heart to a cardiac pathologist, since the cause of death is usually due to heart disease in most cases. Consultant histopathologists are responsible for the analysis of human tissue from both living individuals and the dead in order to make a diagnosis of disease. With recent advancements in the management protocols for routine autopsy practice and assessment following the sudden death of a young individual, this review describes the role of the consultant histopathologist in the event of a sudden death of a young athletic individual, together with the older middle-aged ‘weekend warrior’ athlete. It provides concise mechanisms for the main causes of sudden cardiac death (including coronary artery disease, cardiomyopathies, valve abnormalities, major vessel ruptures and electrical conduction abnormalities) based on detailed autopsy data from our specialised cardiac pathology laboratory. Finally, the review will discuss the role of the histopathologist in the event of a ‘negative’ autopsy. PMID:23097474

Sheppard, Mary N

2012-01-01

195

Psychosocial Functioning and Intelligence Both Partly Explain Socioeconomic Inequalities in Premature Death. A Population-Based Male Cohort Study  

PubMed Central

Objective The possible contributions of psychosocial functioning and intelligence differences to socioeconomic status (SES)-related inequalities in premature death were investigated. None of the previous studies focusing on inequalities in mortality has included measures of both psychosocial functioning and intelligence. Methods The study was based on a cohort of 49 321 men born 1949–1951 from the general community in Sweden. Data on psychosocial functioning and intelligence from military conscription at ?18 years of age were linked with register data on education, occupational class, and income at 35–39 years of age. Psychosocial functioning was rated by psychologists as a summary measure of differences in level of activity, power of initiative, independence, and emotional stability. Intelligence was measured through a multidimensional test. Causes of death between 40 and 57 years of age were followed in registers. Results The estimated inequalities in all-cause mortality by education and occupational class were attenuated with 32% (95% confidence interval: 20–45%) and 41% (29–52%) after adjustments for individual psychological differences; both psychosocial functioning and intelligence contributed to account for the inequalities. The inequalities in cardiovascular and injury mortality were attenuated by as much as 51% (24–76%) and 52% (35–68%) after the same adjustments, and the inequalities in alcohol-related mortality were attenuated by up to 33% (8–59%). Less of the inequalities were accounted for when those were measured by level of income, with which intelligence had a weaker correlation. The small SES-related inequalities in cancer mortality were not attenuated by adjustment for intelligence. Conclusions Differences in psychosocial functioning and intelligence might both contribute to the explanation of observed SES-related inequalities in premature death, but the magnitude of their contributions likely varies with measure of socioeconomic status and cause of death. Both psychosocial functioning and intelligence should be considered in future studies. PMID:24349174

Falkstedt, Daniel; Sorjonen, Kimmo; Hemmingsson, Tomas; Deary, Ian J.; Melin, Bo

2013-01-01

196

Proceedings of the sudden oak death second science symposium: the state of our knowledge A Case Study to Evaluate Ground-Based,  

E-print Network

Study to Evaluate Ground-Based, Wildland Survey Methods for Phytophthora ramorum in Coast Live Oak: Phytophthora ramorum, survey methods 1 An abstract of a poster presented at the Sudden Oak Death Second Science

Standiford, Richard B.

197

Rapid Detection of an ABT-737-Sensitive Primed for Death State in Cells Using Microplate-Based Respirometry  

PubMed Central

Cells that exhibit an absolute dependence on the anti-apoptotic BCL-2 protein for survival are termed “primed for death” and are killed by the BCL-2 antagonist ABT-737. Many cancers exhibit a primed phenotype, including some that are resistant to conventional chemotherapy due to high BCL-2 expression. We show here that 1) stable BCL-2 overexpression alone can induce a primed for death state and 2) that an ABT-737-induced loss of functional cytochrome c from the electron transport chain causes a reduction in maximal respiration that is readily detectable by microplate-based respirometry. Stable BCL-2 overexpression sensitized non-tumorigenic MCF10A mammary epithelial cells to ABT-737-induced caspase-dependent apoptosis. Mitochondria within permeabilized BCL-2 overexpressing cells were selectively vulnerable to ABT-737-induced cytochrome c release compared to those from control-transfected cells, consistent with a primed state. ABT-737 treatment caused a dose-dependent impairment of maximal O2 consumption in MCF10A BCL-2 overexpressing cells but not in control-transfected cells or in immortalized mouse embryonic fibroblasts lacking both BAX and BAK. This impairment was rescued by delivering exogenous cytochrome c to mitochondria via saponin-mediated plasma membrane permeabilization. An ABT-737-induced reduction in maximal O2 consumption was also detectable in SP53, JeKo-1, and WEHI-231 B-cell lymphoma cell lines, with sensitivity correlating with BCL-2:MCL-1 ratio and with susceptibility (SP53 and JeKo-1) or resistance (WEHI-231) to ABT-737-induced apoptosis. Multiplexing respirometry assays to ELISA-based determination of cytochrome c redistribution confirmed that respiratory inhibition was associated with cytochrome c release. In summary, cell-based respiration assays were able to rapidly identify a primed for death state in cells with either artificially overexpressed or high endogenous BCL-2. Rapid detection of a primed for death state in individual cancers by “bioenergetics-based profiling” may eventually help identify the subset of patients with chemoresistant but primed tumors who can benefit from treatment that incorporates a BCL-2 antagonist. PMID:22880001

Clerc, Pascaline; Carey, Gregory B.; Mehrabian, Zara; Wei, Michael; Hwang, Hyehyun; Girnun, Geoffrey D.; Chen, Hegang; Martin, Stuart S.; Polster, Brian M.

2012-01-01

198

Rates of readmission and death associated with leaving hospital against medical advice: a population-based study  

PubMed Central

Background: Leaving hospital against medical advice may have adverse consequences. Previous studies have been limited by evaluating specific types of patients, small sample sizes and incomplete determination of outcomes. We hypothesized that leaving hospital against medical advice would be associated with increases in subsequent readmission and death. Methods: In a population-based analysis involving all adults admitted to hospital and discharged alive in Manitoba from Apr. 1, 1990, to Feb. 28, 2009, we evaluated all-cause 90-day mortality and 30-day hospital readmission. We used multivariable regression, adjusted for age, sex, socioeconomic status, year of hospital admission, patient comorbidities, hospital diagnosis, past frequency of admission to hospital, having previously left hospital against medical advice and data clustering (patients with multiple admissions). For readmission, we assessed both between-person and within-person effects of leaving hospital against medical advice. Results: Leaving against medical advice occurred in 21 417 of 1 916 104 index hospital admissions (1.1%), and was associated with higher adjusted rates of 90-day mortality (odds ratio [OR] 2.51, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.18–2.89), and 30-day hospital readmission (within-person OR 2.10, CI 1.99–2.21; between-person OR 3.04, CI 2.79–3.30). In our additional analyses, elevated rates of readmission and death associated with leaving against medical advice were manifest within 1 week and persisted for at least 180 days after discharge. Interpretation: Adults who left the hospital against medical advice had higher rates of hospital readmission and death. The persistence of these effects suggests that they are not solely a result of incomplete treatment of acute illness. Interventions aimed at reducing these effects may need to include longitudinal interventions extending beyond admission to hospital. PMID:23979869

Garland, Allan; Ramsey, Clare D.; Fransoo, Randy; Olafson, Kendiss; Chateau, Daniel; Yogendran, Marina; Kraut, Allen

2013-01-01

199

Maintenance of Certification for Radiation Oncology  

SciTech Connect

Maintenance of Certification (MOC) recognizes that in addition to medical knowledge, several essential elements involved in delivering quality care must be developed and maintained throughout one's career. The MOC process is designed to facilitate and document professional development of American Board of Radiology (ABR) diplomates in the essential elements of quality care in Radiation Oncology and Radiologic Physics. ABR MOC has been developed in accord with guidelines of the American Board of Medical Specialties. All Radiation Oncology certificates issued since 1995 are 10-year, time-limited certificates; diplomates with time-limited certificates who wish to maintain specialty certification must complete specific requirements of the American Board of Radiology MOC program. Diplomates with lifelong certificates are not required to participate but are strongly encouraged to do so. Maintenance of Certification is based on documentation of participation in the four components of MOC: (1) professional standing, (2) lifelong learning and self-assessment, (3) cognitive expertise, and (4) performance in practice. Through these components, MOC addresses six competencies-medical knowledge, patient care, interpersonal and communication skills, professionalism, practice-based learning and improvement, and systems-based practice. Details of requirements for components 1, 2, and 3 of MOC are outlined along with aspects of the fourth component currently under development.

Kun, Larry E. [Radiation Oncology Trustees of the American Board of Radiology, Tucson, AZ (United States); Ang, Kian [Radiation Oncology Trustees of the American Board of Radiology, Tucson, AZ (United States); Erickson, Beth [Radiation Oncology Trustees of the American Board of Radiology, Tucson, AZ (United States); Harris, Jay [Radiation Oncology Trustees of the American Board of Radiology, Tucson, AZ (United States); Hoppe, Richard [Radiation Oncology Trustees of the American Board of Radiology, Tucson, AZ (United States); Leibel, Steve [Radiation Oncology Trustees of the American Board of Radiology, Tucson, AZ (United States); Davis, Larry [Assistant Executive Director for Radiation Oncology, American Board of Radiology, Tucson, AZ (United States); Hattery, Robert [Executive Director, American Board of Radiology, Tucson, AZ (United States)

2005-06-01

200

Aerosol delivery of programmed cell death protein 4 using polysorbitol-based gene delivery system for lung cancer therapy.  

PubMed

Abstract The development of a safe and effective gene delivery system is the most challenging obstacle to the broad application of gene therapy in the clinic. In this study, we report the development of a polysorbitol-based gene delivery system as an alternative gene carrier for lung cancer therapy. The copolymer was prepared by a Michael addition reaction between sorbitol diacrylate (SD) and spermine (SPE); the SD-SPE copolymer effectively condenses with DNA on the nanoscale and protects it from nucleases. SD-SPE/DNA complexes showed excellent transfection with low toxicity both in vitro and in vivo, and aerosol delivery of SD-SPE complexes with programmed cell death protein 4 DNA significantly suppressed lung tumorigenesis in K-ras(LA1) lung cancer model mice. These results demonstrate that SD-SPE has great potential as a gene delivery system based on its excellent biocompatibility and high gene delivery efficiency for lung cancer gene therapy. PMID:24983766

Kim, You-Kyoung; Xing, Lei; Chen, Bao-An; Xu, Fengguo; Jiang, Hu-Lin; Zhang, Can

2014-11-01

201

Death Runthrough  

E-print Network

Broadcast Transcript: At a certain age, we all begin to feel our mortality. Here in South Korea, they're doing something about it. Test runs for death. Well, they're not really practicing dying. They're practicing with death's accessories. That is...

Hacker, Randi

2011-11-16

202

Contribution of deaths related to alcohol use of socioeconomic variation in mortality: register based follow up study.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To estimate the contribution of excessive alcohol use to socioeconomic variation in mortality among men and women in Finland. DESIGN: Register based follow up study. SUBJECTS: The population covered by the 1985 and 1990 censuses, aged > or = 20 in the follow up period 1987-93. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Total mortality and alcohol related mortality from all causes, from diseases, and from accidents and violence according to socioeconomic position. The excess mortality among other classes compared with upper non-manual employees and differences in life expectancy between the classes were used to measure mortality differentials. RESULTS: Alcohol related mortality constituted 11% of all mortality among men aged > or = 20 and 2% among women and was higher among manual workers than among other classes. It accounted for 14% of the excess all cause mortality among manual workers over upper non-manual employees among men and 4% among women and for 24% and 9% of the differences in life expectancy, respectively. Half of the excess mortality from accidents and violence among male manual workers and 38% among female manual workers was accounted for by alcohol related deaths, whereas in diseases the role of alcohol was modest. The contribution of alcohol related deaths to relative mortality differentials weakened with age. CONCLUSIONS: Class differentials in alcohol related mortality are an important factor in the socioeconomic mortality differentials in Finland, especially among men, among younger age groups, and in mortality from accidents and violence. PMID:9253268

Makela, P.; Valkonen, T.; Martelin, T.

1997-01-01

203

Eighth Amendment & Death Penalty.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a lesson on capital punishment for juveniles based on three hypothetical cases. The goal of the lesson is to have students understand the complexities of decisions regarding the death penalty for juveniles. (JDH)

Shortall, Joseph M.; Merrill, Denise W.

1987-01-01

204

77 FR 46677 - Vehicle Certification; Contents of Certification Labels  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...NHTSA-2012-0093, Notice 1] RIN 2127-AL18 Vehicle Certification; Contents of Certification Labels AGENCY: National Highway Traffic Safety...Administration (NHTSA) regulations that prescribe the format and contents of certification labels that manufacturers are...

2012-08-06

205

Certification report for the CALMAC solar powered pump  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The certification of the CALMAC solar powered thermopump is presented. Each element of the specification is delineated, together with the verification, based on analysis, similarity, inspection, or testing.

1978-01-01

206

Certification Authentication  

E-print Network

. Authentication . DB2 Authorities . Privileges . Label­Based Access Control Stefan Brass: DBA privileges This is mostly a short repetition from ``Databases I''. Stefan Brass: DBA­Zertifizierung Universit with Examples IBM Press/Pearson, 2005, ISBN 0­13­185916­1, 895 pages. Stefan Brass: DBA­Zertifizierung Universit

Brass, Stefan

207

49 CFR 583.13 - Supplier certification and certificates.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AUTOMOBILE PARTS CONTENT LABELING § 583.13 Supplier certification and certificates. Each supplier shall certify the...

2013-10-01

208

CDC's National Violent Death Reporting System: background and methodology  

PubMed Central

Objectives: This paper describes a new surveillance system called the National Violent Death Reporting System (NVDRS), initiated by the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. NVDRS's mission is the collection of detailed, timely information on all violent deaths. Design: NVDRS is a population based, active surveillance system designed to obtain a complete census of all resident and occurrent violent deaths. Each state collects information on its own deaths from death certificates, medical examiner/coroner files, law enforcement records, and crime laboratories. Deaths occurring in the same incident are linked. Over 270 data elements can be collected on each incident. Setting: The 13 state health departments of Alaska, Colorado, Georgia, Maryland, Massachusetts, New Jersey, North Carolina, Oklahoma, Oregon, Rhode Island, South Carolina, Virginia, and Wisconsin. Subjects: Cases consist of violent deaths from suicide, homicide, undetermined intent, legal intervention, and unintentional firearm injury. Information is collected on suspects as well as victims. Interventions: None. Outcome measures: The quality of surveillance will be measured in terms of its acceptability, accuracy, sensitivity, timeliness, utility, and cost. Results: The system has just been started. There are no results as yet. Conclusions: NVDRS has achieved enough support to begin data collection efforts in selected states. This system will need to overcome the significant barriers to such a large data collection effort. Its success depends on the use of its data to inform and assess violence prevention efforts. If successful, it will open a new chapter in the use of empirical information to guide public policy around violence in the United States. PMID:14760027

Paulozzi, L; Mercy, J; Frazier, L; Annest, J

2004-01-01

209

Estimation of age at death based on aspartic acid racemization in elastic cartilage of the epiglottis.  

PubMed

Age estimation based on aspartic acid racemization (AAR) has been applied successfully to various tissues. For routine uses, AAR is analyzed in dentine. For cases in which teeth are unavailable, analyzing AAR in purified elastin has been shown to be an alternative method. The suitability of elastic cartilage from the epiglottis as an elastin source for age estimation based on AAR was tested. A total of 65 tissue samples (cartilage) of epiglottis and 45 samples of elastin purified from the elastic cartilage of epiglottis samples were analyzed. While the D-aspartic acid content of total tissue samples increased with age only slowly, its increase with age in purified elastin samples was similar to that in purified elastin from other tissues. The relationship between the D-aspartic acid content and age was shown to be close enough for age estimation based on AAR in purified elastin from the elastic cartilage of the epiglottis, provided a sufficient quality of elastin purification. Age estimation based on AAR in purified elastin from the epiglottis might serve as a valuable alternative in cases in which other tissues (e.g., teeth) are unavailable. PMID:24218015

Matzenauer, Christian; Reckert, Alexandra; Ritz-Timme, Stefanie

2014-11-01

210

An Identity and Certificate Manager  

E-print Network

We have designed and implemented a software library, called Identity and Certificate Manager (ICM), for managing, using, and exchanging application-level usernames, users' digital certificates, and cryptographic ...

Wu, Brian C

2007-01-01

211

Establishing cause of maternal death in Malawi via facility-based review and application of the ICD-MM classification.  

PubMed

Maternal death review (MDR) is an accepted process that is implemented across Malawi and 'underlying cause of death' is assigned by healthcare providers using a standard MDR form. Mixed-methods approach. Key informant interviews with eight stakeholders involved in MDR. Secondary analysis of MDR forms for 54 maternal deaths. Comparison of assigned cause of death by healthcare providers conducting MDR at health facility level with cause assigned by researchers using the International Classification of Diseases Maternal Mortality (ICD-MM) classification. MDR teams, analysts and policymakers reported facing challenges in completing the forms, analysing and using information. The concepts of underlying (primary) and contributing (secondary) causes of death are often misunderstood. Healthcare providers using only MDR forms reported cause of death as non-obstetric complications in 39.6% and pregnancy-related infection in 11.3% of cases. For 30.2% of cases, no clear clinical cause of death was recorded. The most commonly assigned underlying cause of death using ICD-MM was obstetric haemorrhage (32.1%), non-obstetric complications (24.5%) and pregnancy-related infection (22.6%). There was poor agreement between cause(s) of maternal death assigned by healthcare providers in the field and trained researchers using the new ICD-MM classification (? statistic; 0.219). The majority of cases could be reclassified using the ICD-MM and this provided a more specific cause of death. A more structured and user-friendly MDR form is required. Accurate classification of cause of death is important. Dissemination of, and training in the use of the new ICD-MM classification system will be helpful to healthcare providers conducting MDR in Malawi. PMID:25236641

Owolabi, H; Ameh, C A; Bar-Zeev, S; Adaji, S; Kachale, F; van den Broek, N

2014-09-01

212

Urban Studies Certificate  

E-print Network

Urban Studies Certificate Urban Studies at UWM Cities can be loud and crowded, but they also such as urban poverty, homelessness, transportation, or troubled schools, urban studies may be for you. The Urban Studies Certificate Program provides the undergraduate student with a coordinated set of courses

Saldin, Dilano

213

Graduate Certificate in Transportation  

E-print Network

Graduate Certificate in Transportation Nohad A. Toulan School of Urban Studies and Planning of Engineering and Computer Science integrated transportation systems. The Graduate Certificate in Transportation their capabilities. Students in the program can choose among a wide range of relevant courses in transportation

Bertini, Robert L.

214

Business Analyst Certificate Program  

E-print Network

Business Analyst Certificate Program BusinessandManagement extension.uci.edu/ba #12;Business Analyst Certificate Program Business Analysts Capture Requirements to Build What the Customer Wants. The Business Analyst serves as the key liaison between the client, stakeholders, and the solutions team

Rose, Michael R.

215

American Indian Studies Certificate  

E-print Network

American Indian Studies Certificate American Indian Studies at UWM The Certificate in American understanding of the Native American tribal nations in North America. All of the United States at one time was American Indian land; however, most of it was transferred gradually to the United States of America

Saldin, Dilano

216

Java Programming Certificate Program  

E-print Network

Java Programming Certificate Program COMPUTER PROGRAMMING The Java programming language lies that fuel the Internet economy. In addition, the portability inherent in Java is useful for programming This certificate program is designed for people who already have introductory Java programming experience

Loudon, Catherine

217

Java Programming Certificate Program  

E-print Network

Java Programming Certificate Program COMPUTER PROGRAMMING The Java programming language lies that fuel the Internet economy. In addition, the portability inherent in Java is useful for programming Enroll This certificate program is designed for people who already have introductory Java programming

Loudon, Catherine

218

Dig1 protects against cell death provoked by glyphosate-based herbicides in human liver cell lines  

PubMed Central

Background Worldwide used pesticides containing different adjuvants like Roundup formulations, which are glyphosate-based herbicides, can provoke some in vivo toxicity and in human cells. These pesticides are commonly found in the environment, surface waters and as food residues of Roundup tolerant genetically modified plants. In order to know their effects on cells from liver, a major detoxification organ, we have studied their mechanism of action and possible protection by precise medicinal plant extracts called Dig1. Methods The cytotoxicity pathways of four formulations of glyphosate-based herbicides were studied using human hepatic cell lines HepG2 and Hep3B, known models to study xenobiotic effects. We monitored mitochondrial succinate dehydrogenase activity and caspases 3/7 for cell mortality and protection by Dig1, as well as cytochromes P450 1A1, 1A2, 3A4 and 2C9 and glutathione-S-transferase to approach the mechanism of actions. Results All the four Roundup formulations provoke liver cell death, with adjuvants having stronger effects than glyphosate alone. Hep3B are 3-5 times more sensitive over 48 h. Caspases 3/7 are greatly activated in HepG2 by Roundup at non-cytotoxic levels, and some apoptosis induction by Roundup is possible together with necrosis. CYP3A4 is specifically enhanced by Roundup at doses 400 times less than used in agriculture (2%). CYP1A2 is increased to a lesser extent together with glutathione-S-transferase (GST) down-regulation. Dig 1, non cytotoxic and not inducing caspases by itself, is able to prevent Roundup-induced cell death in a time-dependant manner with an important efficiency of up to 89%, within 48 h. In addition, we evidenced that it prevents Caspases 3/7 activation and CYP3A4 enhancement, and not GST reduction, but in turn it slightly inhibited CYP2C9 when added before Roundup. Conclusion Roundup is able to provoke intracellular disruption in hepatic cell lines at different levels, but a mixture of medicinal plant extracts Dig1 can protect to some extent human cell lines against this pollutants. All this system constitutes a tool for studying liver intoxication and detoxification. PMID:20979644

2010-01-01

219

Certificate Translation for Optimizing Compilers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Proof Carrying Code provides trust in mobile code by requiring certificates that ensure the code adherence to specific conditions. The prominent approach to generate certificates for com- piled code is Certifying Compilation, that automatically generates certificates for simple safety properties. In this work, we present Certificate Translation, a novel extension for standard compilers that automatically transforms formal proofs for more

Gilles Barthe; Benjamin Grégoire; César Kunz; Tamara Rezk

2006-01-01

220

Graduate Certificate Program Graduate School  

E-print Network

Graduate Certificate Program Graduate School Texas Tech University July 26, 2005 Graduate for a graduate certificate program to the Graduate School where it will be evaluated by the Academic Programs Certificate Program The purpose for offering graduate certificates is to meet the supplemental education needs

Rock, Chris

221

Building Intercultural Competence through Intercultural Competency Certification of Undergraduate Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Intercultural Competency Certificate (CCI in Spanish) designed for the Universidad Popular Autonoma del Estado de Puebla (UPAEP University) is a theory based comprehensive plan to develop undergraduate students' intercultural competence. This Certificate is based in the Developmental Model of Intercultural Sensitivity (DMIS) developed by…

Janeiro, Maria G. Fabregas; Fabre, Ricardo Lopez; Nuno de la Parra, Jose Pablo

2014-01-01

222

FMLA Medical Certification Form Medical Certification  

E-print Network

(e.g., chemotherapy, physical therapy, dialysis). #12;FMLA Medical Certification Form 3 May 2011 two or more times by a health care provider, by a nurse or physician's assistant under direct, or by a nurse or physician's assistant under direct supervision of a health care provider; (2) Continues over

223

Underrepresentation of Heroin Involvement in Unintentional Drug Overdose Deaths in Allegheny County, PA.  

PubMed

Drugs contributing to overdose deaths are listed on death certificates, but their validity is rarely studied. To assess the accuracy of "morphine" and "codeine" listings on death certificates for unintentional overdose deaths in Allegheny County, PA, investigative and laboratory reports were reviewed. Deaths were reclassified as heroin-related if documentation showed 6-monoacetylmorphine in blood or urine, "stamp bags" or drug paraphernalia at scene, history of heroin use, or track marks. Deaths were considered morphine-related if notes indicated morphine use, prescription, or morphine at scene, or codeine-related if the codeine blood level exceeded morphine. Of 112 deaths with morphine but not heroin listed on the death certificate, 74 met heroin criteria and 21 morphine criteria. Of 20 deaths with both morphine and heroin listed, only one met morphine criteria. Of 34 deaths with codeine listed, only five were attributed to codeine. Consideration of patient history, death scene evidence, and expanded toxicology testing may improve the accuracy of death certificate drug listings. PMID:25041514

Mertz, Kristen J; Janssen, Jennifer K; Williams, Karl E

2014-11-01

224

40 CFR 745.226 - Certification of individuals and firms engaged in lead-based paint activities: target housing and...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...lead-based paint activities: target housing and child-occupied facilities. 745.226 ...POISONING PREVENTION IN CERTAIN RESIDENTIAL STRUCTURES Lead-Based Paint Activities § 745...lead-based paint activities: target housing and child-occupied facilities. (a)...

2013-07-01

225

40 CFR 745.226 - Certification of individuals and firms engaged in lead-based paint activities: target housing and...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...lead-based paint activities: target housing and child-occupied facilities. 745.226 ...POISONING PREVENTION IN CERTAIN RESIDENTIAL STRUCTURES Lead-Based Paint Activities § 745...lead-based paint activities: target housing and child-occupied facilities. (a)...

2011-07-01

226

IR spectroscopic characteristics of cell cycle and cell death probed by synchrotron radiation based Fourier transform IR spectromicroscopy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Synchrotron radiation based Fourier transform IR (SR-FTIR) spectromicroscopy allows the study of individual living cells with a high signal to noise ratio. Here we report the use of the SR-FTIR technique to investigate changes in IR spectral features from individual human lung fibroblast (IMR-90) cells in vitro at different points in their cell cycle. Clear changes are observed in the spectral regions corresponding to proteins, DNA, and RNA as a cell changes from the G(1)-phase to the S-phase and finally into mitosis. These spectral changes include markers for the changing secondary structure of proteins in the cell, as well as variations in DNA/RNA content and packing as the cell cycle progresses. We also observe spectral features that indicate that occasional cells are undergoing various steps in the process of cell death. The dying or dead cell has a shift in the protein amide I and II bands corresponding to changing protein morphologies, and a significant increase in the intensity of an ester carbonyl C===O peak at 1743 cm(-1) is observed. Copyright John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Biopolymers (Biospectroscopy) 57: 329-335, 2000.

Holman, H. Y.; Martin, M. C.; Blakely, E. A.; Bjornstad, K.; McKinney, W. R.

2000-01-01

227

Pre-existing atrial fibrillation and risk of arterial thromboembolism and death following pneumonia: a population-based cohort study  

PubMed Central

Objectives To examine the effect of pre-existing atrial fibrillation (AF) and associated therapy on the risk of arterial thromboembolism (ATE) and death following pneumonia. Design, setting and participants Population-based cohort study (1997–2012) of 88?315 patients with first-time hospitalisation with pneumonia in Northern Denmark. Results Of the included patients (median age 73.4?years), 8880 (10.1%) had pre-existing AF. The risk of ATE within 30?days of admission was 5.2% in patients with AF and 3.6% in patients without AF. After adjustment for higher age and comorbidity, the adjusted HR (aHR) with AF was 1.06 (95% CI 0.96 to 1.18). Among patients with AF, reduced risk of ATE was observed in vitamin-K antagonist users compared with non-users (aHR 0.74 (95% CI 0.61 to 0.91)). Thirty-day mortality was 20.1% in patients with AF and 13.9% in patients without AF. Corresponding 1-year mortalities were 43.7% and 30.3%. The aHRs for 30-day and 1-year mortality with AF were 1.00 (95% CI 0.94 to 1.05) and 1.01 (95% CI 0.98 to 1.05). In patients with AF, reduced mortality risk was observed in users of vitamin-K antagonists (aHR 0.70 (95% CI 0.63 to 0.77)) and ?-blockers (aHR 0.77 (95% CI 0.70 to 0.85). Increased mortality was found in digoxin users (aHR 1.16 (95% CI 1.06 to 1.28)). Conclusions Pre-existing AF is frequent in patients hospitalised with pneumonia and a marker of increased risk of ATE and death, explained by higher patient age and comorbidity. Prognosis is closely related to preadmission medical treatment for AF. PMID:25398678

Gamst, Jacob; Christiansen, Christian Fynbo; Rasmussen, Bodil Steen; Rasmussen, Lars Hvilsted; Thomsen, Reimar Wernich

2014-01-01

228

PEM public key certificate cache server  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Privacy Enhanced Mail (PEM) provides privacy enhancement services to users of Internet electronic mail. Confidentiality, authentication, message integrity, and non-repudiation of origin are provided by applying cryptographic measures to messages transferred between end systems by the Message Transfer System. PEM supports both symmetric and asymmetric key distribution. However, the prevalent implementation uses a public key certificate-based strategy, modeled after the X.509 directory authentication framework. This scheme provides an infrastructure compatible with X.509. According to RFC 1422, public key certificates can be stored in directory servers, transmitted via non-secure message exchanges, or distributed via other means. Directory services provide a specialized distributed database for OSI applications. The directory contains information about objects and then provides structured mechanisms for accessing that information. Since directory services are not widely available now, a good approach is to manage certificates in a centralized certificate server. This document describes the detailed design of a centralized certificate cache serve. This server manages a cache of certificates and a cache of Certificate Revocation Lists (CRL's) for PEM applications. PEMapplications contact the server to obtain/store certificates and CRL's. The server software is programmed in C and ELROS. To use this server, ISODE has to be configured and installed properly. The ISODE library 'libisode.a' has to be linked together with this library because ELROS uses the transport layer functions provided by 'libisode.a.' The X.500 DAP library that is included with the ELROS distribution has to be linked in also, since the server uses the DAP library functions to communicate with directory servers.

Cheung, T.

1993-12-01

229

The social patterning of deaths due to assault in Scotland, 1980–2005: population-based study  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectivesThe objectives of this study were to explore the extent of the social gradient for deaths due to assault and its impact on overall inequalities in mortality and to investigate the contribution to assault mortality of knives and other sharp weapons.DesignAn analysis of death records and contemporaneous population estimates was conducted.SettingThe authors investigated the social patterning of homicide in Scotland.ParticipantsThis

A. H. Leyland; R. Dundas

2010-01-01

230

[Relationship between alcohol consumption and external causes of death based on the forensic autopsy cases in Yamaguchi].  

PubMed

We analyzed forensic autopsy cases to assess the relationship between alcohol consumption and external causes of death. We divided 605 autopsy cases which had been performed from 2000 to 2011 at our department into Alcohol group (n = 172, 28.4%) and Non-alcohol group (n = 433, 71.6%) according to whether alcohol could be detected in the deceased's blood. The individuals' sex and age, season when the death occurred, cause of death, type of death and circumstances of death were analyzed. Alcohol group had a significantly higher ratio of males and younger ages (both p < 0.05). There was no significant between-group difference regarding the seasons when the deaths occurred. Alcohol group had significantly greater rates of spinal injuries, abdominal injuries, traffic accidents, and accidental drowning. "Bicycling" was revealed as a related factor of the traffic accidents only in Alcohol group. In contrast, "accident on the expressway," "riding a motorcycle," and "a passenger in a vehicle" were related factors only in Non-alcohol group. We concluded that the factors of male gender and middle-to-senior age are responsible for the increased risk of external causes of death after alcohol consumption, and that alcohol consumption is one of the risk factors for accidental death. In Japan, drunk-driving-related accidents have shown a downward trend whereas bicycling-related accidents have shown an upward trend, and similar results were obtained in the present study. The low awareness of drinking-induced pitfalls may be responsible for drinking-related bicycle accidents. PMID:25223086

Hakucho, Ayako; Kawamura, Haruka; Liu, Jinyao; Liu, Xu; Takase, Izumi; Fujimiya, Tatsuya

2014-06-01

231

Impact of documentation errors on accuracy of cause of death coding in an educational hospital in Southern Iran.  

PubMed

Accurate cause of death coding leads to organised and usable death information but there are some factors that influence documentation on death certificates and therefore affect the coding. We reviewed the role of documentation errors on the accuracy of death coding at Shahid Mohammadi Hospital (SMH), Bandar Abbas, Iran. We studied the death certificates of all deceased patients in SMH from October 2010 to March 2011. Researchers determined and coded the underlying cause of death on the death certificates according to the guidelines issued by the World Health Organization in Volume 2 of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Health Related Problems-10th revision (ICD-10). Necessary ICD coding rules (such as the General Principle, Rules 1-3, the modification rules and other instructions about death coding) were applied to select the underlying cause of death on each certificate. Demographic details and documentation errors were then extracted. Data were analysed with descriptive statistics and chi square tests. The accuracy rate of causes of death coding was 51.7%, demonstrating a statistically significant relationship (p=.001) with major errors but not such a relationship with minor errors. Factors that result in poor quality of Cause of Death coding in SMH are lack of coder training, documentation errors and the undesirable structure of death certificates. PMID:24948664

Haghighi, Mohammad Hosein Hayavi; Dehghani, Mohammad; Teshizi, Saeid Hoseini; Mahmoodi, Hamid

2014-01-01

232

Certification of training  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Training has been around as an informal process for countless years. Most higher order animals require some level of training in hunting, social skills, or other survival related skills to continue their existence beyond early infancy. Much of the training is accomplished through imitation, trial and error, and good luck. In some ways the essentials of training in aviation have not deviated from this original formula a great deal. One of the major changes in aviation and other technical areas is that more complex response chains based on a broader base of knowledge are now required. 'To certify' means many things according to the American Heritage dictionary of the English Language. These meanings range from 'to guarantee as meeting a standard' to 'to declare legally insane'. For this discussion, we will use the definition 'an action taken by some authoritative body that essentially guarantees that the instruction meets some defined standard'. In order to make this certification, the responsible body subjects the educational process, training, training device, or simulator to some type of examination to determine its adequacy or validity.

Gibson, Richard S.

1994-01-01

233

Forensic Toxicology Certificate  

E-print Network

Forensic Toxicology Certificate What is Forensic Toxicology? Forensic toxicology is a discipline of forensic science that is concerned with the study of toxic substances or poisons. Toxicology encompasses methods and procedures from many disciplines, including chemistry, biochemistry, epidemiology

Saldin, Dilano

234

Laminar Flow Aircraft Certification  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Various topics telative to laminar flow aircraft certification are discussed. Boundary layer stability, flaps for laminar flow airfoils, computational wing design studies, manufacturing requirements, windtunnel tests, and flow visualization are among the topics covered.

Williams, Louis J. (compiler)

1986-01-01

235

Viking site selection and certification  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The landing site selection and certification effort for the Viking mission to Mars is reviewed from the premission phase through the acquisition of data and decisions during mission operations and the immediate postlanding evaluation. The utility and limitations of the orbital television and infrared data and ground based radar observation of candidate and actual landing sites are evaluated. Additional instruments and types of observations which would have been useful include higher resolution cameras, radar altimeters, and terrain hazard avoidance capability in the landing system. Suggestions based on this experience that might be applied to future missions are included.

Masursky, H.; Crabill, N. L.

1981-01-01

236

The incidence of death among low-risk populations: a multi-level analysis  

E-print Network

This study utilized a multi-level model to examine the impact of religion as an occupation on mortality. Death certificate data were used to examine clergy mortality and compares them to census categorized professionals, counseling professionals...

Lewinski, Christi Nicole

2007-09-17

237

Subspecialty Certification by the American Board of Psychiatry and Neurology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: The authors describe the approval processes for subspecialties and the mechanisms for certification and recertification and review the status of training programs and numbers of diplomates with subspecialty certification. Methods: Published information and relevant data bases were reviewed. To date, 5,327 child and adolescent…

Juul, Dorthea; Scheiber, Stephen C.; Kramer, Thomas A. M.

2004-01-01

238

Developing an Online Certification Program for Nutrition Education Assistants  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To develop an online certification program for nutrition education paraprofessionals to increase knowledge and confidence and to overcome training barriers of programming time and travel expenses. Design: An online interactive certification course based on Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program-Education and Expanded Food and…

Christofferson, Debra; Christensen, Nedra; LeBlanc, Heidi; Bunch, Megan

2012-01-01

239

Death Circles  

E-print Network

niche as top predators along with bears. Humans, however, no longer have a symbiotic relationship with the natural world; we have created our own environment. Though we still feel a connection with nature, we are not capable of surviving within... of their nests in staggering numbers and killing everything that crosses their path. They are indigenous to my country, Costa Rica, which is known for not having a human army. In the death circle, a single ant leaves a scent trail for the rest to follow. Since...

Gomez, Randolph

2013-05-31

240

Mortality and cause of death in hip fracture patients aged 65 or older - a population-based study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  The high mortality of hip fracture patients is well documented, but sex- and cause-specific mortality after hip fracture has\\u000a not been extensively studied. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate mortality and cause of death in patients after\\u000a hip fracture surgery and to compare their mortality and cause of death to those in the general population.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Records of

Jorma Panula; Harri Pihlajamäki; Ville M Mattila; Pekka Jaatinen; Tero Vahlberg; Pertti Aarnio; Sirkka-Liisa Kivelä

2011-01-01

241

Certification activities are the inevitable result of rapid industry growth. But what opportunities do certification programs afford and who benefits?  

E-print Network

behavior, and provide assistance to employers. These goals echo the motivation for professional education, and experience requirements based on a set of tasks identified through job analysis. To earn provide educational certificate programs in GIS, granting certificates of accomplishment. Although so

Kurapov, Alexander

242

Impact of unlinked deaths and coding changes on mortality trends in the Swiss National Cohort  

PubMed Central

Background Results of epidemiological studies linking census with mortality records may be affected by unlinked deaths and changes in cause of death classification. We examined these issues in the Swiss National Cohort (SNC). Methods The SNC is a longitudinal study of the entire Swiss population, based on the 1990 (6.8 million persons) and 2000 (7.3 million persons) censuses. Among 1,053,393 deaths recorded 1991–2007 5.4% could not be linked using stringent probabilistic linkage. We included the unlinked deaths using pragmatic linkages and compared mortality rates for selected causes with official mortality rates. We also examined the impact of the 1995 change in cause of death coding from version 8 (with some additional rules) to version 10 of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD), using Poisson regression models with restricted cubic splines. Finally, we compared results from Cox models including and excluding unlinked deaths of the association of education, marital status, and nationality with selected causes of death. Results SNC mortality rates underestimated all cause mortality by 9.6% (range 2.4% - 17.9%) in the 85+ population. Underestimation was less pronounced in years nearer the censuses and in the 75–84 age group. After including 99.7% of unlinked deaths, annual all cause SNC mortality rates were reflecting official rates (relative difference between ?1.4% and +1.8%). In the 85+ population the rates for prostate and breast cancer dropped, by 16% and 21% respectively, between 1994 and 1995 coincident with the change in cause of death coding policy. For suicide in males almost no change was observed. Hazard ratios were only negligibly affected by including the unlinked deaths. A sudden decrease in breast (21% less, 95% confidence interval: 12% - 28%) and prostate (16% less, 95% confidence interval: 7% - 23%) cancer mortality rates in the 85+ population coincided with the 1995 change in cause of death coding policy. Conclusions Unlinked deaths bias analyses of absolute mortality rates downwards but have little effect on relative mortality. To describe time trends of cause-specific mortality in the SNC, accounting for the unlinked deaths and for the possible effect of change in death certificate coding was necessary. PMID:23289362

2013-01-01

243

Cervical screening and cervical cancer death among older women: a population-based, case-control study.  

PubMed

Recent research suggests that cervical screening of older women is associated with a considerable decrease in cervical cancer incidence. We sought to quantify the efficacy of cervical cytology screening to reduce death from this disease. Among enrollees of 2 US health plans, we compared Papanicolaou smear screening histories of women aged 55-79 years who died of cervical cancer during 1980-2010 (cases) to those of women at risk of cervical cancer (controls). Controls were matched 2:1 to cases on health plan, age, and enrollment duration. Cytology screening during the detectable preclinical phase, estimated as the 5-7 years before diagnosis during which cervical neoplasia is asymptomatic but cytologically detectable, was ascertained from medical records. A total of 39 cases and 80 controls were eligible. The odds ratio of cervical cancer death associated with screening during the presumed detectable preclinical phase was 0.26 (95% confidence interval: 0.10, 0.63) after adjustment for matching characteristics, smoking, marital status, and race/ethnicity using logistic regression. We estimate that cervical cytology screening of all women aged 55-79 years in the United States could avert 630 deaths annually. These results provide a minimum estimate of the efficacy of human papillomavirus DNA screening-a more sensitive test-to reduce cervical cancer death among older women. PMID:24685531

Rustagi, Alison S; Kamineni, Aruna; Weinmann, Sheila; Reed, Susan D; Newcomb, Polly; Weiss, Noel S

2014-05-01

244

Young People's Risk of Suicide Attempts in Relation to Parental Death: A Population-Based Register Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: The objective of this study was to examine the association between the death of a biological parent and subsequent suicide attempts by young people (aged 10-22 years), and to explore sociodemographic factors as modifying factors in the process. Methods: The study used a nested case-control design. The full study population was obtained…

Jakobsen, Ida Skytte; Christiansen, Erik

2011-01-01

245

Certificate in Arts Management The Certificate in Arts Management  

E-print Network

Certificate in Arts Management The Certificate in Arts Management is designed for those students interested in pursuing future careers in the management of arts organizations. It is also suitable for majors The Certificate in Arts Management is a program which may be completed alone or within a degree program

246

TRAINER CERTIFICATE PROGRAM Target Audience  

E-print Network

-end analysis * Systems approach to instructional design * Adult Learning Theory * Writing performance a needs assessment * Learn to apply adult learning principles. * A Trainer Certificate from the UniversityTRAINER CERTIFICATE PROGRAM Target Audience: * For emerging learning and development professionals

Azevedo, Ricardo

247

Rehabilitation Counselor Certification: Moving Forward  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article provides a brief history of the Commission on Rehabilitation Counselor Certification and presents recent changes and strategic goals for moving forward. Challenges and opportunities for the profession in relation to certification are also discussed. (Contains 3 tables.)

Saunders, Jodi L.; Barros-Bailey, Mary; Chapman, Cindy; Nunez, Patricia

2009-01-01

248

Certification et equivalence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The new economic and social equilibrium which is gradually coming about in Europe has significant consequences in terms of mobility, recognition of qualifications and certification. Specifically in the educational arena, questions are raised as to the social and vocational value of certificates, and the recognition of vocational skills. These skills are part of the wealth of the particular countries in the Community, and of each of the individuals who are now confronted by the enlarged economic and social space, in its varying forms. In this European context, what is examined here is more particularly the French situation, from the point of view of the evolution of the notion of certification and recognition of skills, and of policies both of qualification, and of initial and continuing training of the work force.

Colardyn, Danielle

1992-11-01

249

Policy-directed certificate retrieval  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Any large scale security architecture that uses certificates to provide security in a distributed system will need some automated support for moving certificates around in the network. We believe that for efficiency, this automated support should be tied closely to the consumer of the certificates: the policy verifier. As a proof of concept, we have built QCM, a prototype

Carl A. Gunter; Trevor Jim

2000-01-01

250

Board Certification in Counseling Psychology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although specialty board certification by the American Board of Professional Psychology (ABPP) has been a valued standard for decades, the vast majority of counseling psychologists do not pursue board certification in the specialty. The present article provides a brief history of board certification in general and some historical information about…

Crowley, Susan L.; Lichtenberg, James W.; Pollard, Jeffrey W.

2012-01-01

251

Pharmacy Technician Certification Board  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Pharmacy Technician Certification Board, the national credentialing body for pharmacy technicians "develops, maintains, promotes and administers a high-quality certification and recertification program for pharmacy technicians." As a way to meet these goals, the PTCB has developed a very useful site filled with resources for their users. Offering materials such as a practice exam, detailed information about the exam requirements and needs, career descriptions and occupational outlook estimates, newsletters and presentation materials, the site is a one-stop introduction to the field of pharmacy technician practice.

2007-01-02

252

Defining the Cause of Death in Hospitalised Patients with Acute Kidney Injury  

PubMed Central

Background The high mortality rates that follow the onset of acute kidney injury (AKI) are well recognised. However, the mode of death in patients with AKI remains relatively under-studied, particularly in general hospitalised populations who represent the majority of those affected. We sought to describe the primary cause of death in a large group of prospectively identified patients with AKI. Methods All patients sustaining AKI at our centre between 1st October 2010 and 31st October 2011 were identified by real-time, hospital-wide, electronic AKI reporting based on the Acute Kidney Injury Network (AKIN) diagnostic criteria. Using this system we are able to generate a prospective database of all AKI cases that includes demographic, outcome and hospital coding data. For those patients that died during hospital admission, cause of death was derived from the Medical Certificate of Cause of Death. Results During the study period there were 3,930 patients who sustained AKI; 62.0% had AKI stage 1, 20.6% had stage 2 and 17.4% stage 3. In-hospital mortality rate was 21.9% (859 patients). Cause of death could be identified in 93.4% of cases. There were three main disease categories accounting for three quarters of all mortality; sepsis (41.1%), cardiovascular disease (19.2%) and malignancy (12.9%). The major diagnosis leading to sepsis was pneumonia, whilst cardiovascular death was largely a result of heart failure and ischaemic heart disease. AKI was the primary cause of death in only 3% of cases. Conclusions Mortality associated with AKI remains high, although cause of death is usually concurrent illness. Specific strategies to improve outcomes may therefore need to target not just the management of AKI but also the most relevant co-existing conditions. PMID:23133643

Selby, Nicholas M.; Kolhe, Nitin V.; McIntyre, Christopher W.; Monaghan, John; Lawson, Nigel; Elliott, David; Packington, Rebecca; Fluck, Richard J.

2012-01-01

253

Midcourse Space Experiment Data Certification and Technology Transfer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Midcourse Space Experiment spacecraft, launched April 24, 1996, is expected to have a 5 year useful lifetime with a 12 month lifetime for the cryogenically cooled IR sensor. A pre-launch, ground based calibration of the instruments provided a basis for the pre-launch certification of the Level 2 data base these instruments produce. With the spacecraft in-orbit the certification of the instrument's Level 2 data base is being extended to the in-orbit environment.

Pollock, David B.

1998-01-01

254

Graduate Certificate in Assistive  

E-print Network

, rehabilitation counselors, physical therapists, music therapists, family members, and so on with disabilities · Teachers, occupational therapists, speech therapists, recreational therapists.ecu.edu/cs-educ/ci/sped/at/gradcert.cfm #12;2 What Does the Certificate Prepare You to Do? · Become school or clinic

255

School Nursing Certification Review  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The 2010 update to the resource you have been waiting for to help you prepare to take the National School Nurse Certification Exam. Dr. Janice Selekman DNSc, RN, NCSN, a recognized expert in pediatric nursing, and NASN Past President Linda C. Wolfe MEd, BSN, RN, NCSN, FNASN are the authors. This text was created in response to many years of…

Selekman, Janice; Wolfe, Linda C.

2010-01-01

256

Virginia Career Readiness Certificate  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes how Virginia responded to employer needs and created a blue print for the establishment of a demand driven workforce-credentialing system. This system serves the needs of job seekers and the competency-certification needs of hiring authorities. This is a true quality of life and economic development movement.

DuBois, Glenn; Westerman, Gloria

2007-01-01

257

Nutrition Online GRADUATE CERTIFICATE  

E-print Network

are online. Important Dates Please visit the program web site for application deadlines and program datesNutrition Online GRADUATE CERTIFICATE PROGRAMS Reach your career goals while you continue to work from anywhere in the world with three unique programs for mid-career professionals. Online Programs in

Tufts University

258

Second Language Education Certificate  

E-print Network

in Asia, South America and Europe. ESL training provides extensive travel opportunities in foreign of our German, Italian or Spanish Modern Languages pamphlets. This certificate allows you to approach in Europe and North America. Our individual expertise and skills in the field of second language acquisition

259

Higher Education Graduate Certificate  

E-print Network

2 Higher Education Graduate Certificate in Higher Education Administration Program Handbook College-1997 Fax (806) 742-2197 http://www.educ.ttu.edu Effective Fall 2012 #12;3 Higher Education GraduateCertificateinHigherEducationAdministrationProgram Program Overview The Higher Education Program is committed to excellence in preparing and supporting

Rock, Chris

260

Executive Coach Certification Program  

E-print Network

Certification Program (ECCP) will empower you as a coaching professional and provide the skills, structures and tools to deliver long term outcomes for your business. Workshop overview Globally recognised for its and creating sustainable transformation in a turbulent and demanding business environment. The ability

Liley, David

261

Certificates in Adult Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Certificates are awarded to adult candidates who satisfy the examiners that their standard of ability in everyday English is adequate for them to express themselves in writing and to take an active part in conversations about everyday topics. The examination, which makes use of the techniques of objective testing, is set by a central Examining…

Deutscher Volkshochschul-Verband, Frankfurt (West Germany).

262

Classifying Public Key Certificates  

Microsoft Academic Search

In spite of the fact that there are several companies that (try to) sell public key certificates, there is still no unified or standardized clas- sification scheme that can be used to compare and put into perspective the various oerings. In this paper, we try to start filling this gap and pro- pose a four-dimensional scheme that can be used

Javier Lopez; Rolf Oppliger; Günther Pernul

2005-01-01

263

Database Management Certificate Program  

E-print Network

Database Management Certificate Program DATABASE TECHNOLOGIES 13 Today, organizations in every to obtain general data analysis and management skills or apply both Oracle and Microsoft SQL Server database capabilities of relational databases in conjunction with the new "Big Data" management frameworks for data

Rose, Michael R.

264

Neonatal Death Dwarfism in a Girl with Distinctive Bone Dysplasia Compatible with Grebe Chondrodysplasia: Analysis by CT Scan-based Phenotype  

PubMed Central

We report on a female fetus noted to have severe malformative type of skeletal dysplasia on ultrasonography done at 35 weeks gestation. The girl died shortly after birth. Clinical examination showed a fetus with severe dwarfism, extensive long and short bones, and bone deficiencies associated with multiple dislocations. Computed tomography (CT) scan-based phenotype showed a complex constellation of malformations consistent with the diagnosis of Grebe syndrome. Parents being first cousins (consanguineous marriage) strongly suggests autosomal recessive pattern of inheritance. To our knowledge, this is the first report of neonatal death dwarfism of Grebe syndrome analyzed by CT scan-based phenotype. PMID:25337439

Al Kaissi, Ali; Chehida, Farid Ben; Ganger, Rudolf; Grill, Franz

2014-01-01

265

Near-Death Experience, Consciousness, and the Brain: A New Concept about the Continuity of Our Consciousness Based on Recent Scientific Research on Near-Death Experience in Survivors of Cardiac Arrest  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article first some general aspects of near-death experience will be discussed, followed by questions about consciousness and its relation to brain function. Details will be described from our prospective study on near-death experience in survivors of cardiac arrest in the Netherlands, which was published in the Lancet in 2001. In this study it could not be shown that

PIM VAN LOMMEL

2006-01-01

266

Organizational Resource Bundles and Institutional Change in the U.S. Organic Food and Agricultural Certification Sector  

Microsoft Academic Search

This analysis explores the competitive implications of new institutional standards within the organic certification industry based on a theoretical perspective that integrates institutional and resource-based theories. The authors provide a historical account of the development of certification standards and discussions of three certification agencies: Quality Assurance International (QAI), Oregon Tilth, Inc. (OTCO) and the Food Alliance (FA). They find that

R. SCOTT MARSHALL; STEPHEN S. STANDIFIRD

2005-01-01

267

USING RISK-BASED CORRECTIVE ACTION (RBCA) TO ASSESS (THEORETICAL) CANCER DEATHS AVERTED COMPARED TO THE (REAL) COST OF ENVIRONMENTAL REMEDIATION  

SciTech Connect

In 1978, on the basis of existing health studies at the time, the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project legislation was proposed that would authorize remedial action at inactive uranium processing sites and vicinity properties. The cost of the program to the Federal Government was expected to be $180 million. With the completion of this project, approximately 1300 theoretical cancer deaths were prevented in the next 100 years at a cost of $1.45 billion, based on the Fiscal Year 1998 Federal UMTRA budget. The individual site costs ranged from $0.2 million up to $18 billion spent per theoretical cancer death averted over the next 100 years. Resources required to sustain remediation activities such as this are subject to reduction over time, and are originally based on conservative assumptions that tend to overestimate risks to the general public. This evaluation used a process incorporating risk-based corrective action (RBCA); a three-tiered, decision-making process tailoring corrective action activities according to site-specific conditions and risks. If RBCA had been applied at the start of the UMTRA Project, and using a criterion of >1 excess cancer death prevented as justification to remediate the site, only 50% of the existing sites would have been remediated, yielding a cost savings of $303.6 million to the Federal Government and affected States, which share 10% of the cost. This cost savings equates to 21% of the overall project budget. In addition, only 22% of the vicinity properties had structural contamination contributing to elevated interior gamma exposure and radon levels. Focusing only on these particular properties could have saved an additional $269.3 million, yielding a total savings of $573 million; 40% of the overall project budget. As operational experience is acquired, including greater understanding of the radiological and nonradiological risks, decisions should be based on the RBCA process, rather than relying on conservative assumptions that tend to overestimate risks to the general public.

Miller, M. L.; Hylko, J. M.

2002-02-25

268

Expressing death risk as condensed life experience and death intensity.  

PubMed

Some risk exposures, including many medical and surgical procedures, typically carry hazards of death that are difficult to convey and appreciate in absolute terms. I propose presenting the death risk as a condensed life experience (i.e., the equivalent amount of life T that would carry the same cumulative mortality hazard for a person of the same age and sex based on life tables). For example, if the risk of death during an elective 1-hour procedure is 0.01%, and same-age and same-sex people have a 0.01% death risk over 1 month, one can inform the patient that "this procedure carries the same death risk as living 1 month of normal life." Comparative standards from other risky activities or from a person with the same disease at the same stage and same predictive profile could also be used. A complementary metric that may be useful to consider is the death intensity. The death intensity ? is the hazard function that shows the fold-risk estimate of dying compared with the reference person. The death intensity can vary substantially for different phases of the event, operation, or procedure (e.g., intraoperative, early postoperative, late postoperative), and this variability may also be useful to convey. T will vary depending on the time window for which it is computed. I present examples for calculating T and ? using literature data on accidents, ascent to Mount Everest, and medical and surgical procedures. PMID:23579043

Ioannidis, John P A

2013-08-01

269

Correction of vital statistics based on a proactive search of deaths and live births: evidence from a study of the North and Northeast regions of Brazil  

PubMed Central

Background In the last 20 years, Brazil has undergone dramatic changes in terms of socioeconomic development and health care. In the first decade of the 2000s, the Ministry of Health (MoH) developed a series of programs focused on reducing infant mortality, including the Family Health Program as a national policy for primary care. In this paper, we propose a method to correct underreporting of deaths and live births. After vital statistics are corrected, infant mortality trends are analyzed for the period 2000–2010 by macro-geographical region. Methods A proactive search of live births and deaths was carried out in the Amazon and Northeast regions in 2010 to find vital events that occurred in 2008 and were not reported to the Ministry of Health. The probabilistic sample of 133 municipalities was stratified by adequacy of vital information reporting. For each municipality, the adequacy analysis was based on the reported age-standardized mortality rate per 1,000 population and the ratio between reported and estimated live births. Correction factors were estimated by strata based on additional vital events found in the proactive search. The procedure was generalized to correct municipal vital statistics for the period 2000–2010. Results In the proactive search, 35% of non-reported deaths were found within the health system (hospitals and other health establishments), but 28% were found in non-official sources, like illegal cemeteries. In areas of extreme poverty and unreliable vital information, the estimated completeness of infant death reporting was only 33%. After correction of vital information, the estimated infant mortality rate decreased from 26.1 in 2000 to 16.0 in 2010, with an annual rate of decrease of 4.7%, greater than the required rate to achieve the Millennium Development Goal. Among Brazilian regions, the Northeast showed the largest decrease, from 38.4 to 20.1 per 1,000 live births. Conclusions The proactive search for vital events was shown to be a good strategy both in terms of understanding local irregularities and for correcting vital statistics. The methodology could be applied in other countries to routinely assess the pattern and extent of birth and death under-registration in order to improve the utility of these data to inform health policies. PMID:24966804

2014-01-01

270

Certified cause of death in children and young adults with cerebral palsy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The status of 732 children suffering from cerebral palsy from the South East Thames region (births from 1970-9) was ascertained at the end of 1989, and copies of death certificates of the 73 children who have died, aged 4 weeks to nearly 16 years, were obtained. Infantile cerebral palsy (ICD Code 343-) was coded as the underlying cause of death

P M Evans; E Alberman

1991-01-01

271

Mortality by Occupation, Industry, and Cause of Death; 24 Reporting States, 1984-1988.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Health departments from 24 states have provided occupational and industry coded death certificate data for at least 1 year from 1984 through 1988 for analysis. Occupational industry, and cause of death data were collected through this program for 1,062,00...

C. Burnett, H. M. Rosenberg, J. Maurer, M. Dosemeci

1997-01-01

272

Air Pollution and Infant Death in Southern California, 1989-2000  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE.We evaluated the influence of outdoor air pollution on infant death in the South Coast Air Basin of California, an area characterized by some of the worst air quality in the United States. METHODS.Linking birth and death certificates for infants who,died between,1989

Beate Ritz; Michelle Wilhelm; Yingxu Zhao

2009-01-01

273

RESEARCH ARTICLE Open Access Causes of death in patients with extranodal  

E-print Network

� as reported in the death certificate - were investigated, analyzing reported metastatic sites and histological subtypes separately. Survival was compared with metastatic cancer with a known primary tumor. Results with adenocarcinoma or undifferentiated histology. In adenocarcinoma, lung cancer was the most frequent cause of death

Hemminki, Akseli

274

Death threat, death concerns, and paranormal belief  

Microsoft Academic Search

Relationships among death threat, death concerns, and paranormal beliefs were investigated in a personal construct theory framework. First, the Threat Index measure of death threat and the Paranormal Belief Scale, which provides a measure of degree of belief in each of seven paranormal dimensions, were administered to 78 college students. As hypothesized, one paranormal belief dimension (traditional religious belief) was

Jerome Tobacyk

1983-01-01

275

Death without caspases, caspases without death  

E-print Network

Death without caspases, caspases without death Mary C. Abraham and Shai Shaham The Rockefeller University, 1230 York Avenue, New York, NY 10021, USA Apoptosis is a conserved cell-death process displaying characteristic morphological and molecular changes including activation of caspase proteases. Recent work

Shaham, Shai

276

Death Education for the Health Professional.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The perspectives of a number of health professionals based on their experiences in providing death education courses are presented in essays. In "Interdisciplinary Death Education in a Nursing School" (Helen L. Swain and Kathleen V. Cowles), the development of an undergraduate elective course in death, dying, and bereavement at the University of…

Benoliel, Jeanne Quint, Ed.

277

Linkages to Improve Mortality Data for American Indians and Alaska Natives: A New Model for Death Reporting?  

PubMed Central

Racial misclassification is a well-documented weakness of mortality data taken from death certificates. As a result, mortality statistics for American Indians and Alaska Natives (AI/ANs) present, at best, an inaccurate and misleading assessment of mortality in this population. Studies evaluating the quality of race/ethnicity reporting on death certificates have linked data from death certificates to other data sources collected when the decedent was still alive (e.g., Census, Current Population Survey). Such studies have shown substantial misclassification of AI/AN decedents. Despite limitations, linking mortality data from death certificates with data from other sources collected when decedents were living provides opportunities to evaluate and correct misclassification of populations such as AI/AN persons and facilitates the calculation and presentation of more accurate mortality statistics. PMID:24754614

Anderson, Robert N.; Copeland, Glenn; Hayes, John Mosely

2014-01-01

278

Death: 'nothing' gives insight.  

PubMed

According to a widely accepted belief, we cannot know our own death--death means 'nothing' to us. At first sight, the meaning of 'nothing' just implies the negation or absence of 'something'. Death then simply refers to the negation or absence of life. As a consequence, however, death has no meaning of itself. This leads to an ontological paradox in which death is both acknowledged and denied: death is … nothing. In this article, I investigate whether insight into the ontological paradox of the nothingness of death can contribute to a good end-of-life. By analysing Aquinas', Heidegger's and Derrida's understanding of death as nothingness, I explore how giving meaning to death on different ontological levels connects to, and at the same time provides resistance against, the harsh reality of death. By doing so, I intend to demonstrate that insight into the nothingness of death can count as a framework for a meaningful dealing with death. PMID:23054426

Ettema, Eric J

2013-08-01

279

Drug Overdose Deaths, Hospitalizations,  

E-print Network

Drug Overdose Deaths, Hospitalizations, and Emergency Department Visits in Kentucky, 2000 - 2012 #12; Kentucky Injury Preven on and Research Center Drug Overdose Deaths, Hospitaliza ons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Drug overdose deaths, 20002012

MacAdam, Keith

280

Deaths in World Trade Center terrorist attacks--New York City, 2001.  

PubMed

On September 11, 2001, terrorists flew two hijacked airplanes into the World Trade Center (WTC) in lower Manhattan in New York City (NYC), destroying both towers of the WTC. This report presents preliminary vital statistics on the deaths caused by the terrorist attacks and describes the procedures developed by the New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene (NYCDOHMH) to issue death certificates in response to the attacks. These data underscore the need for legal mechanisms to expedite the issuance of death certificates in the absence of human remains and the need for vital registration systems that can be relocated in case of emergency. PMID:12238537

2002-09-11

281

Building Operator Certification  

E-print Network

Building Operator Certification Energy Efficiency through Operator Training CATEE December 18, 2013 – San Antonio, TX Dennis Lilley, CEM, PMP ESL-KT-13-12-49 CATEE 2013: Clean Air Through Energy Efficiency Conference, San Antonio, Texas Dec. 16...,000 building engineers and maintenance technicians hold the BOC® credential ? Energy efficient operational practices ? Utility cost reduction ? Sustainable building operation for LEED® and ENERGY STAR® initiatives ESL-KT-13-12-49 CATEE 2013: Clean Air Through...

Lilley, D.

2013-01-01

282

GC/MS-based metabolomics approach to identify biomarkers differentiating survivals from death in crucian carps infected by Edwardsiella tarda.  

PubMed

Microbial disease problems constitute the largest single cause of economic losses in aquaculture. An understanding of immune system in aquaculture animals how to function in defense against bacterial infections is especially important to control these diseases and improve food quality and safety. In the present study, we use a crucian carp model to explore which pathways and metabolites are crucial for the defense against infection caused by Edwardsiella tarda EIB202. We establish the metabolic profile of crucian carps and then compare the metabolic difference between survivals and dead fish by self-control. We identify elevating unsaturated fatty acid biosynthesis and decreasing fructose and mannose metabolism as the most key pathways and increasing palmitic acid and decreasing d-mannose as the most crucial metabolites differentiating survivals from death in these fish infected by E. tarda. Our findings highlight the importance of metabolic strategy against bacterial infections. PMID:24837326

Guo, Chang; Huang, Xiao-Yan; Yang, Man-Jun; Wang, Sheng; Ren, Shi-Tong; Li, Hui; Peng, Xuan-Xian

2014-08-01

283

In vitro study of cell death with 5-aminolevulinic acid based photodynamic therapy to improve the efficiency of cancer treatment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a kind of photochemo therapeutic treatment that exerts its effect mainly through the induction of cell death. Distinct types of cell death may be elicited by different PDT regimes. In this study, efforts are underway to optimize PDT protocols for improved efficacy and combination of all three PDT mechanisms involved in the different human carcinomas cell narcosis. Our in vitro cell culture experiments with 5-aminolevulanic acid (ALA) a clinically approved photiosensitizer (PS) and 635 nm laser light have yielded promising results, as follow: (1) (human cervical cancer (HeLa) cell line incubated, for 18 h, with 30 ?g/ml of 5-ALA, treated with laser light dose of 50 J/cm2 can produce 85% of cell killing (2) human larynx carcinoma (Hep2c) cell line incubated, for 7 h, with 55 ?g/ml of 5-ALA, treated with laser light dose of 85 J/cm2 can produce 75% of cell killing (3) human liver cancer (HepG2) cell line incubated, for 22-48 h, with 262 ?g/ml of 5-ALA, treated with laser light dose of 120 J/cm2 can produce 95% of cell killing (4) human muscle cancer (RD) cell line incubated, for 47 h, with 250 ?g/ml of 5-ALA, treated with laser light dose of 80 J/cm2 can produce 76% of cell killing (5) Human embryonic kidney (HEK293T) cell line incu-bated, for 18 h, with 400 ?g/ml of 5-ALA, treated with laser light dose of 40 J/cm2 can produce 82% of cell killing confirming the efficacy of photodynamic therapy.

Firdous, S.; Nawaz, M.; Ikram, M.; Ahmed, M.

2012-03-01

284

US death rates from myeloproliferative neoplasms, and implications for cancer surveillance.  

PubMed

Myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN) may contribute to death from other causes due to complications and sequelae of MPN or its treatment. The present study found that the US death rate for MPN (polycythemia vera, essential thrombocythemia/thrombocytosis, and "chronic myeloproliferative disease") in 2005-2006 was twice as high using all causes of the death on the death certificate (6,488 deaths, age-standardized rate 1.06 per 100,000 per year) vs only the underlying cause (3,303 deaths, age-standardized rate 0.54 per 100,000 per year). This finding was consistent by age, gender, race (African American/black and white) and Hispanic ethnicity. Thus, surveillance of trends in MPN-related mortality rates in the population needs to take into account all causes of death on the death certificate, because MPN contributes to death from other causes such as thrombosis. MPN is a major cause of splanchnic vein thrombosis (SVT), and under-ascertainment of MPN-related deaths was suggested by the small proportion (3%) of all 848 US deaths in 2005-2006 with SVT coded as any cause of death that also had MPN coded. Increased clinical testing of peripheral blood for specific acquired genetic mutations, known since 2005 as being common in certain MPN and also in SVT, could lead to increased numbers of deaths certified as MPN-related and also incident cases of MPN reported to central cancer registries. PMID:22096879

Polednak, Anthony P

2011-01-01

285

Brainstem death: A comprehensive review in Indian perspective  

PubMed Central

With the advent of cardiopulmonary resuscitation techniques, the cardiopulmonary definition of death lost its significance in favor of brain death. Brain death is a permanent cessation of all functions of the brain in which though individual organs may function but lack of integrating function of the brain, lack of respiratory drive, consciousness, and cognition confirms to the definition that death is an irreversible cessation of functioning of the organism as a whole. In spite of medical and legal acceptance globally, the concept of brain death and brain-stem death is still unclear to many. Brain death is not promptly declared due to lack of awareness and doubts about the legal procedure of certification. Many brain dead patients are kept on life supporting systems needlessly. In this comprehensive review, an attempt has been made to highlight the history and concept of brain death and brain-stem death; the anatomical and physiological basis of brain-stem death, and criteria to diagnose brain-stem death in India. PMID:25249744

Dhanwate, Anant Dattatray

2014-01-01

286

EMPLOYEE MEDICAL CERTIFICATION HUMAN RESOURCES  

E-print Network

EMPLOYEE MEDICAL CERTIFICATION HUMAN RESOURCES Employee Support Services | One Washington Square or received genetic services, and genetic information of a fetus carried by an individual or an individual

Eirinaki, Magdalini

287

Training Certification University of Delaware  

E-print Network

Training Certification University of Delaware Bloodborne Pathogen Program This is to certify that I, (please print) ________________________________, have received training in, and understand, all the topics

Firestone, Jeremy

288

Certificate Translation for Optimizing Compilers Gilles Barthe  

E-print Network

outlines the principles of certificate translation, instantiated for a non optimizing compilerCertificate Translation for Optimizing Compilers Gilles Barthe IMDEA Software and Benjamin Gr. The prominent approach to generate certificates for com- piled code is Certifying Compilation

Gregoire, Benjamin - Institut National de Recherche en Informatique et en Automatique, Centre de recherche Sophia Antipolis

289

20 CFR 655.53 - Denied certification.  

...Certification Process and Enforcement of Attestations for Temporary Employment in Occupations Other Than Agriculture or Registered Nursing in the United States (H-2B Workers) Labor Certification Determinations § 655.53 Denied certification....

2014-04-01

290

7 CFR 35.7 - Certificate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS EXPORT GRAPES AND PLUMS Definitions § 35.7 Certificate. Certificate...inspection certificate, bearing the statement “meets Export Grape and Plum Act,” issued by the Federal or...

2011-01-01

291

7 CFR 35.7 - Certificate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS EXPORT GRAPES AND PLUMS Definitions § 35.7 Certificate. Certificate...inspection certificate, bearing the statement “meets Export Grape and Plum Act,” issued by the Federal or...

2010-01-01

292

14 CFR 133.11 - Certificate required.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS ROTORCRAFT EXTERNAL-LOAD OPERATIONS Certification Rules...subject to this part may conduct rotorcraft external-load operations within the United...violation of the terms of, a Rotorcraft External-Load Operator Certificate issued...

2010-01-01

293

The Graduate Certificate in Engineering Leadership  

E-print Network

The Graduate Certificate in Engineering Leadership Entirely Online and In Class New Jersey A GRADUATE CERTIFICATE IN ENGINEERING LEADERSHIP ? NJIT's graduate certificate in Engineering Leadership resonate with industry. WHY STUDY ENGINEERING LEADERSHIP AT NJIT? Engineering Leadership combines

Bieber, Michael

294

46 CFR 107.258 - Crane certification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Crane certification. 107.258 Section 107...Inspection and Certification § 107.258 Crane certification. (a) The Coast Guard...evidence of condition and suitability of cranes. The following organizations are...

2010-10-01

295

46 CFR 107.258 - Crane certification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Crane certification. 107.258 Section 107...Inspection and Certification § 107.258 Crane certification. (a) The Coast Guard...evidence of condition and suitability of cranes. The following organizations are...

2013-10-01

296

46 CFR 107.258 - Crane certification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Crane certification. 107.258 Section 107...Inspection and Certification § 107.258 Crane certification. (a) The Coast Guard...evidence of condition and suitability of cranes. The following organizations are...

2011-10-01

297

46 CFR 107.258 - Crane certification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Crane certification. 107.258 Section 107...Inspection and Certification § 107.258 Crane certification. (a) The Coast Guard...evidence of condition and suitability of cranes. The following organizations are...

2012-10-01

298

40 CFR 745.89 - Firm certification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...recertification before the firm's current certification expires...environmental compliance history of the firm, its principals...date that the firm's current certification expires...date that the firm's current certification expires...environmental compliance history of the firm, its...

2013-07-01

299

40 CFR 745.89 - Firm certification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...recertification before the firm's current certification expires...environmental compliance history of the firm, its principals...date that the firm's current certification expires...date that the firm's current certification expires...environmental compliance history of the firm, its...

2012-07-01

300

40 CFR 745.89 - Firm certification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...recertification before the firm's current certification expires...environmental compliance history of the firm, its principals...date that the firm's current certification expires...date that the firm's current certification expires...environmental compliance history of the firm, its...

2011-07-01

301

40 CFR 745.89 - Firm certification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...recertification before the firm's current certification expires...environmental compliance history of the firm, its principals...date that the firm's current certification expires...date that the firm's current certification expires...environmental compliance history of the firm, its...

2010-07-01

302

40 CFR 745.89 - Firm certification.  

...recertification before the firm's current certification expires...environmental compliance history of the firm, its principals...date that the firm's current certification expires...date that the firm's current certification expires...environmental compliance history of the firm, its...

2014-07-01

303

14 CFR 21.267 - Production certificates.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...application for an amendment to the production certificate; (b) After determining that the production certification requirements...of the user, the revised text is set forth as follows: § 21.267 Production certificates. (d)...

2010-01-01

304

Death patterns among Nigerian leaders  

PubMed Central

Abstract: Background: The aim of this study is to establish the patterns of death amongst Nigerian leaders since independence, thus providing a feasible avenue to avoid their recurrence if possible especially amongst the political elite who currently hold power. Methods: Using available unclassified authentic public information, all leaders who had ruled Nigeria since her independence on 1 October, 1960 until her 45th birthday on 1 October 2005, irrespective of whether they are dead or alive were included. Data was extracted and analyzed. Results: On 1 October 2005, Nigeria celebrated 45 years as a sovereign nation. Within this period, the country has had eleven leaders, all of whom were men. Only three (27.3%) were civilians, while eight (72.7%) were army generals. Of the eleven leaders, four (36.4%) had died before Nigeria reached its 45th birthday and all of these four (100%) died while still in office. Three of the dead leaders (75%) were assassinated, while one (25%) died suddenly in mysterious circumstances, believed to be the result of poisoning by unknown external powerful interest groups. Three of the deaths (75%) occurred during violent periods of Nigeria's checkered history (1966-1970 and 1993-1999), showing that periods of national and international strife appeared to be the weakest link in chains of events that led to their death while in office. Autopsies were neither requested nor performed on any of the dead leaders, signifying an entrenched culture of nonchalance, a lack of a coordinated national coroner's law and contempt for accurate and detailed death records. Worse still, no valid tenable death certificate has ever been issued. In other words, no attempt has been made to determine the cause of death of four of the nation's former leaders. Only hurried national burials were accorded two (50%) of them while the other two (50%), who died in the coup and revenge coup of 1966, were completely neglected, and not even given a decent national burial. Conclusions: The facts identified above will serve as a landmark to highlight an existing problem, and thus bring the issue to the attention of policy-makers and the political elite. The overall expected benefit is that nations like Nigeria can focus on the issue of orderly succession and the peaceful handing-over of government to duly transparently elected national leaders and all efforts should be made to avoid holding on to power unnecessarily. The tenets of democracy shall be upheld and transparent elections take place so as to reduce national tension and strife to the barest minimum. We also strongly recommend a review and improvement of Nigeria's national coroner's laws. PMID:21483200

Eze, Kenneth C; Ugochukwu, Ozoemenam M; Nzegwu, Martin A

2010-01-01

305

Abstract--In this paper, we propose two certificate mechanisms for preventing the Sybil attack in a vehicular ad hoc  

E-print Network

by at the RSU at a certain timepoint. By exploiting the spatial and temporal correlation between vehicles certificate-based approach, an RSU issues temporary certificates valid only in a particular area for a limited of the first certificate it is required that the RSU physically authenticate the vehicle. When driving

Turgut, Damla

306

How Well Do Birth Certificates Describe the Pregnancies They Report? The Washington State Experience with Low-Risk Pregnancies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: Birth certificates are a major source of population-based data on maternal and perinatal health, but their value depends on the accuracy of the data. This study assesses the validity of information recorded on the birth certificates for women in Washington State who were considered to be low risk at entry into care. Methods: Birth certificates were matched to data

Sharon A. Dobie; Laura-Mae Baldwin; Roger A. Rosenblatt; Meredith A. Fordyce; C. Holly A. Andrilla; L. Gary Hart

1998-01-01

307

Sudden infant death syndrome (crib death).  

PubMed

Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) is diagnosed by the absence of lethal autopsy findings, or in a resuscitatable, "near miss" form with cyanosis, apnea, and bradycardia. The event is unexpected, although a minor respiratory infection is common, and occurs during sleep, between 1 and 6 months of age. There is growing evidence that the victims have had previous hypoxic episodes. Although suffocation is no longer considered a tenable explanation, other forms of airway obstruction are still postulated by many; the evidence, however, favors hypoxia as the common feature. A lethal arrhythmia had been proposed by several groups, based on inappropriate reflex activity, "pathology" of the conduction system, and the long QT syndrome, but the evidence is against arrhythmia as the primary event in most cases of SIDS. Based on the reversible "near miss," apnea is likely as the primary event in SIDS. Several reflexes have the ability to produce apnea, in addition to the relatively common sleep apnea; the crucial aspect, rather, appears to be thefailure of the immature infant to resume respiration. The possibility exists that the infant, who did not have to breather for 9 months of fetal life, literally is not alarmed and aroused by the persistance of apnea. In human and animal studies, respiratory infections and sleep deprivation have been proved to increase the likelihood and duration of sleep apnea. If primary apnea continues for long (45 seconds or more), a dangerous positive feedback develops into hypoxic apnea. Hhis will persist until circulatory failure occurs, or until gasping occurs. The gasp is a highly effective mechanism at birth, but will occur too late for autoresuscitation after the anerobic capacity of fetal life dimineshes; we believe this capacity lasts for approximately 1 month, accounting for the hiatus of crib death, sparing the first month. The "near-miss" infant, after resuscitation, should be monitored at home, if practical, until 6 months of age. A simple cardiac monitor for bradycardia has definite advantage over an apnea monitor alone. PMID:16476

Guntheroth, W G

1977-06-01

308

Spotlight on Certification: ACA Conducts Professional Certification Opinion Survey.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Members of the American Camping Association (ACA) responding to a survey revealed that the ACA Professional Certification Program positively impacts camp professionals' ability to serve clients, their level of personal satisfaction, and their feelings of competence. However, respondents indicated that certification does not necessarily result in a…

Asterilla, G. Hope; Cox, James

1994-01-01

309

Missing information in birth certificates in Brussels after reinforcement of data collection, and variation according to immigration status. A population-based study  

PubMed Central

Background A problem repeatedly reported in birth certificate data is the presence of missing data. In 2008, a Centre for Perinatal Epidemiology was created inter alia to assist the Health Departments of Brussels-Capital City Region to check birth certificates. The purpose of this study is to assess the changes brought by the Centre in terms of completeness of data registration for the entire population and according to immigration status. Methods Birth certificates from the birth registry of 2008 and 2009 of Brussels were considered. We evaluated the initial missing information in January 2008 (baseline situation) and the corresponding rate at the end of 2008 after oral and written information had been given to the city civil servants and health providers. The data were evaluated again at the end of 2009 where no reinforcement rules were adopted. We also measured residual missing data after correction in socio-economic and medical data, for the entire population and according to maternal nationality of origin. Changes in registration of stillbirths were estimated by comparison to 2007 baseline data, and all multiple births were checked for complete identification of pairs. Results Missing information initially accounted for 64.0%, 20.8% and 19.5% of certificates in January 2008, December 2008, and 2009 respectively. After correction with lists sent back to the hospitals or city offices, the mean residual missing data rate was 2.1% in 2008 and 0.8% in 2009. Education level and employment status were missing more often in immigrant mothers compared to Belgian natives both in 2008 and 2009. Mothers from Sub-Saharan Africa had the highest missing rate of socio-economic data. The stillbirth rate increased from 4.6 ‰ in 2007 to 8.2 ‰ in 2009. All twin pairs were identified, but early loss of a co-twin before 22?weeks was rarely reported. Conclusions Reinforcement of data collection was associated with a decrease of missing information. The residual missing data rate was very low. The stillbirth rate was also improved but the early loss of a co-twin before 22?weeks seems to remain underreported. PMID:23137069

2012-01-01

310

10 CFR 76.65 - Inalienability of certificates.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...certificates. 76.65 Section 76.65 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) CERTIFICATION OF GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANTS Certification § 76.65 Inalienability of certificates. The certificate granted under the regulations in...

2011-01-01

311

10 CFR 76.51 - Conditions of certification.  

...certification. 76.51 Section 76.51 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) CERTIFICATION OF GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANTS Certification § 76.51 Conditions of certification. The Corporation shall comply with the certificate of...

2014-01-01

312

10 CFR 76.51 - Conditions of certification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...certification. 76.51 Section 76.51 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) CERTIFICATION OF GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANTS Certification § 76.51 Conditions of certification. The Corporation shall comply with the certificate of...

2010-01-01

313

10 CFR 76.65 - Inalienability of certificates.  

...certificates. 76.65 Section 76.65 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) CERTIFICATION OF GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANTS Certification § 76.65 Inalienability of certificates. The certificate granted under the regulations in...

2014-01-01

314

10 CFR 76.51 - Conditions of certification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...certification. 76.51 Section 76.51 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) CERTIFICATION OF GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANTS Certification § 76.51 Conditions of certification. The Corporation shall comply with the certificate of...

2012-01-01

315

10 CFR 76.65 - Inalienability of certificates.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...certificates. 76.65 Section 76.65 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) CERTIFICATION OF GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANTS Certification § 76.65 Inalienability of certificates. The certificate granted under the regulations in...

2012-01-01

316

10 CFR 76.51 - Conditions of certification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...certification. 76.51 Section 76.51 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) CERTIFICATION OF GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANTS Certification § 76.51 Conditions of certification. The Corporation shall comply with the certificate of...

2011-01-01

317

10 CFR 76.65 - Inalienability of certificates.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...certificates. 76.65 Section 76.65 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) CERTIFICATION OF GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANTS Certification § 76.65 Inalienability of certificates. The certificate granted under the regulations in...

2013-01-01

318

10 CFR 76.65 - Inalienability of certificates.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...certificates. 76.65 Section 76.65 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) CERTIFICATION OF GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANTS Certification § 76.65 Inalienability of certificates. The certificate granted under the regulations in...

2010-01-01

319

10 CFR 76.51 - Conditions of certification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...certification. 76.51 Section 76.51 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) CERTIFICATION OF GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANTS Certification § 76.51 Conditions of certification. The Corporation shall comply with the certificate of...

2013-01-01

320

7 CFR 201.75 - Interagency certification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Certified Seed § 201.75 Interagency certification. Interagency certification may be...

2010-01-01

321

5 CFR 430.404 - Certification criteria.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 430.404 Section 430.404 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT Performance Appraisal Certification for Pay Purposes § 430.404 Certification...

2012-01-01

322

5 CFR 430.404 - Certification criteria.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 430.404 Section 430.404 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT Performance Appraisal Certification for Pay Purposes § 430.404 Certification...

2011-01-01

323

5 CFR 430.404 - Certification criteria.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 430.404 Section 430.404 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT Performance Appraisal Certification for Pay Purposes § 430.404 Certification...

2013-01-01

324

Understanding perinatal death: a systematic analysis of new york city fetal and neonatal death vital record data and implications for improvement, 2007-2011.  

PubMed

We aimed to compare demographic, medical, and cause-of-death information reported for third-trimester fetal and neonatal death vital records collected in New York City (NYC) before and after implementation of the revised fetal death certificate to identify: (1) the limitations of combining fetal and neonatal death records for the purpose of perinatal death prevention; and (2) improvement opportunities for fetal death vital records registration. Using Chi squared tests, we compared data completeness and cause-of-death information between third-trimester NYC fetal (n = 1,930) and neonatal deaths (n = 735) from 2007 to 2011. We also compared fetal death data before and after the 2011 implementation of the 2003 United States (US) Standard Report of Fetal Death and an electronic reporting system. Compared with neonatal deaths, fetal death data were generally less complete (P < 0.0001). Fetal death data much more frequently reported an ill-defined cause of death (67 vs. 5 %). Most ill-defined reported causes of fetal death (73 %) were attributed to stillbirth synonyms (e.g., "fetal demise"). Ill-defined causes of fetal death decreased from 68 to 61 % (P < 0.01) after 2011. Both data completeness and ill-defined causes of death varied widely by hospital. In NYC, fetal deaths lack demographic, medical, and cause-of-death information compared with neonatal deaths, with implications for research that uses combined perinatal mortality data sets. Electronic implementation of the US Standard Report of Fetal Death minimally improved cause-of-death information. Substantial variability by hospital suggests opportunities for improvement exist. PMID:24522520

Lee, Erica J; Gambatese, Melissa; Begier, Elizabeth; Soto, Antonio; Das, Tara; Madsen, Ann

2014-10-01

325

[Applicability of the analysis by multiple cause of death by cervical cancer: the experience in Mexico].  

PubMed

Objective. The study explores the applicability of the multiple-cause-of-death analysis for cervical-uterine cancer. Methods. A proportional mortality hazard design and the analysis of all causes of death due to cervical-uterine cancer from 367 death certificates of women older than 18 years of age from the State of Mexico, and 515 age and year adjusted sample of death certificates of women from the same region who died from other causes. Results. A basic multiple cause of death of 2.9 was observed in the death certificates, i.e., for every basic cause there were 2.9 multiple causes. When adjusting the multiple-causes-of-death analysis for cervical-uterine cancer by age, education, marital and insurability status, the most contributing and associated causes of death were malignant tumors from unspecified sites [OR=18.98 (2.28-157.56) and OR=14.25 (1.67-121.0)] respectively; Diabetes Mellitus as a contributing [OR=1.82 (1.02-3.27) and associated cause [OR=7.78 (1.46-41.37], and systemic arterial hypertension as an associated cause [OR=3.00 (1.40-6.47)]. Conclusions. The multiple-cause-of-death analysis is an adequate to observe the diseases that contribute condition and are associated to the cervical-uterine cancer. PMID:22124921

Bustamante-Montes, Lilia Patricia; Alvarez-Solorza, Isabel; Valencia, Angel Domínguez; Hernández-Valero, María A; Tlachino, Gloria Toxqui; Huidobro, Lino González

2011-12-01

326

A hospital-based estimate of major causes of death among under-five children from a health facility in Lagos, Southwest Nigeria: possible indicators of health inequality  

PubMed Central

Introduction Current evidence on the root-causes of deaths among children younger than 5years is critical to direct international efforts to improve child survival, focus on health promotion and achieve Millennium Development Goal 4. We report a hospital-based estimate for 2005-2007 of the major causes of death in children in this age-group in south-west Nigeria. Methods We used retrospective data from the intensive care unit of a second-tier health facility to extract the presenting complaints, clinical diagnosis, treatment courses, prognosis and outcome among children aged 6—59months. SPSS-19 was used for data analysis. Results Of the 301 children (58% males, 42% females) admitted into the ICU within the period of study, 173 (26%) presented with complaints related to the gastrointestinal system, 138 (21%) with respiratory symptoms and 196 (29%) with complaints of fever. Overall, 708 investigations were requested for among which were full blood count (215, 30%) and blood slides for malaria parasite (166, 23%). Infection ranked highest (181, 31%) in clinicians’ diagnosis, followed by haematological health problems (109, 19%) and respiratory illnesses (101, 17%). There were negative correlations between outcome of the illness and patient’s weight (r=-0.195, p=0.001) and a strong positive correlation between prognosis and outcome of admission (r=0.196, p=0.001). Of the 59 (20%) children that died, presentation of respiratory tract illnesses were significantly higher in females (75%) than in males (39%) (?²=7.06; p=0.008) and diagnoses related to gastrointestinal pathology were significantly higher in males (18%) than in females (0%) (?²=4.07; p=0.05). Majority of the deaths (21%) occurred among children aged 1.0 to 1.9years old and among weight group of 5.1-15.0kg. Conclusion The major causes of deaths among under-five years old originate from respiratory, gastrointestinal and infectious diseases – diseases that were recognized as major causes of childhood mortality about half a century earlier. Realization of MDG4 - to reduce child mortality by two-thirds – is only possible if the government and donor agencies look beyond the health sector to find hidden causative factors such as education and housing and within the health sector such as vibrant maternal, new-born, and child health interventions. PMID:22873746

2012-01-01

327

Alternative Teacher Certification in Texas.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication describes alternative teacher certification programs in Texas that train interns who are generally mature, mid-career individuals. The document is organized into seven sections: (1) "Alternative Certification in Texas" discusses the history and background of the programs including legislation, the first alternative teacher…

Texas Education Agency, Austin.

328

Space assembled entry systems certification  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The approach taken to the issue, that 'How do you say you're 'good for go' if you space assemble an entry vehicle?', are: (1) shuttle orbiter thermal protection certification; (2) shuttle thermal protection system flight experience; and (3) space assembled entry system certification.

Curry, Donald M.

1993-01-01

329

Certificate and Transcript Policy Introduction  

E-print Network

is awarded to students following the completion of modules and award of credit and the granting of an award achieved credit at the University are entitled to receive a formal document confirming this. Students are sent an award certificate and certificate of credit following the publication of results. Students who

Aickelin, Uwe

330

Undergraduate International Certificate in Sociology  

E-print Network

2011-2012 Undergraduate International Certificate in Sociology Department of Sociology, University at Buffalo *** In an effort to help extend the University's global reach, the Department of Sociology now offers an International Certificate in Sociology as part of its undergraduate degree program

McCombe, Bruce D.

331

Certificate Issued Program Requirements Met  

E-print Network

: Province: City: Mailing Address: Phone (day): Email: First Name: Last Name: Student Number: Certificate & Addictions Certificate in Christian Studies Master Gardener Basic Training Program Post - Continuing Studies 3333 University Way Prince George, BC Canada V2N 4Z9 Phone: 250-960-5980 Fax: 250

Northern British Columbia, University of

332

Postoperative myocardial infarction and cardiac death. Predictive value of dipyridamole-thallium imaging and five clinical scoring systems based on multifactorial analysis  

SciTech Connect

Sixty-six patients unable to complete a standard preoperative exercise test because of physical limitations were studied to determine the predictive value of individual clinical parameters, of clinical scoring systems based on multifactorial analysis, and of dipyridamole-thallium imaging before major general and vascular surgery. Study endpoints were limited to postoperative myocardial infarction or cardiac death before hospital discharge. There were nine postoperative cardiac events (seven deaths and two nonfatal infarctions). There was no statistical correlation between cardiac events and preoperative clinical descriptors, including individual clinical parameters, the Dripps-American Surgical Association score, the Goldman Cardiac Risk Index score, the Detsky Modified Cardiac Risk Index score, Eagle's clinical markers of low surgical risk, and the probability of postoperative events as determined by Cooperman's equation. There were no cardiac events in 30 patients with normal dipyridamole-thallium scans or in nine patients with fixed myocardial perfusion defects. Of 21 patients with reversible perfusion defects who underwent surgery, nine had a postoperative cardiac event (sensitivity, 100%; specificity, 43%). In the six other patients with reversible defects, preoperative angiography showed severe coronary disease or cardiomyopathy. Thus in patients unable to complete a standard exercise stress test, postoperative outcome cannot be predicted clinically before major general and vascular surgery, whereas dipyridamole-thallium imaging successfully identified all patients who sustained a postoperative cardiac event.

Lette, J.; Waters, D.; Lassonde, J.; Dube, S.; Heyen, F.; Picard, M.; Morin, M. (Maisonneuve-Rosemont Hospital, Montreal (Canada))

1990-01-01

333

Software Certification for Temporal Properties With Affordable Tool Qualification  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It has been recognized that a framework based on proof-carrying code (also called semantic-based software certification in its community) could be used as a candidate software certification process for the avionics industry. To meet this goal, tools in the "trust base" of a proof-carrying code system must be qualified by regulatory authorities. A family of semantic-based software certification approaches is described, each different in expressive power, level of automation and trust base. Of particular interest is the so-called abstraction-carrying code, which can certify temporal properties. When a pure abstraction-carrying code method is used in the context of industrial software certification, the fact that the trust base includes a model checker would incur a high qualification cost. This position paper proposes a hybrid of abstraction-based and proof-based certification methods so that the model checker used by a client can be significantly simplified, thereby leading to lower cost in tool qualification.

Xia, Songtao; DiVito, Benedetto L.

2005-01-01

334

Firearm deaths by law enforcement.  

PubMed

The use of deadly force during law enforcement is a matter that compels public scrutiny. There were 42 gunshot deaths caused by police over a 4-year period in New York City. The decedents' average age was 31 years and ranged from 17 to 64 years. There were 41 males and one female; and 26 Black, nine Hispanic, and seven White decedents. Ethanol and/or drugs of abuse were detected in 78% (31/40) of the decedents. The vast majority of shootings occurred with the police responding to a crime and 90% of the decedents were armed (26 handguns, six knives, one axe, one metal pipe, and one toy gun). Vehicles were used as weapons in two incidents. A total of 177 bullets struck the 42 decedents. Fourteen decedents sustained single gunshot wounds (GSWs), and the remainder had multiple GSWs ranging from 2 to 21. In the majority of the cases in this study, the number of GSWs of the body was three or fewer. Thirteen decedents had at least one GSW of the back or buttocks, accounting for 25 of the total 177 wounds, and four of the 13 had GSWs of only the back. With the exception of the upper extremities, GSWs of all locations were more likely to penetrate than perforate. Although these deaths may be high profile, the certification is typically straightforward and the cause (i.e., GSW) and manner of death (homicide) are readily apparent. Although police shootings in which the decedent was unarmed and/or sustained numerous GSWs are widely reported by the lay press, these types of shootings were not typical in our study. PMID:19040676

Gill, James R; Pasquale-Styles, Melissa

2009-01-01

335

Geographical associations between aluminium in drinking water and death rates with dementia (including Alzheimer's disease), Parkinson's disease and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis in Norway  

Microsoft Academic Search

Comparisons of maps and correlation and regression analysis indicate a geographical association between aluminium (Al) in drinking water and registered death rates with dementia (coded from death certificates as the underlying or a contributory cause of death) in Norway. High levels of Al in drinking water are in most cases related to acid precipitation. In general, correlations between aggregate environmental

Trond Peder Flaten

1990-01-01

336

Death to Critique and Dissent? The Policies and Practices of New Managerialism and of 'Evidence-based Practice'  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, the author develops a critique of new managerialism and of its implications for the professional work of scholars and teachers. She then critiques 'evidence-based practice' as it is being developed for schools. She argues that it is only possible to make sense of the policies and practices of the evidence-based practice movement within the framework of new

BRONWYN DAVIES

2003-01-01

337

Certificates of Confidentiality and the Compelled Disclosure of Research Data  

PubMed Central

Certificates of Confidentiality have gained prominence in the context of efforts to build large-scale research platforms and new requirements for an unprecedented degree of data sharing. There is, however, a remarkable paucity of evidence upon which to base conclusions about the strength, applicability, and durability of the legal protections a Certificate affords. Here we describe a recent legal challenge in which a research participant’s data, collected under a Certificate, were subpoenaed as part of a criminal case that reached the North Carolina Court of Appeals. We show how, despite the legal protections ostensibly afforded by the Certificate and the vigorous objections of the Principal Investigator and institutional counsel, the research subject’s confidentiality was ultimately compromised in the course of the legal proceedings; further, we discuss the broader implications of this case for the research enterprise as a whole. PMID:19008431

Beskow, Laura M.; Dame, Lauren; Costello, E. Jane

2009-01-01

338

MCNP certification package  

SciTech Connect

In response to a Department of Energy (DOE) request, Westinghouse Savannah River Company committed to certify all computer codes used in critical calculations at the site. Since the Monte Carlo Neutron Photon Transport (MCNP) code will be used to perform critical analyses involving criticality and shielding, the code must be certified. Certification as applied to existing computer codes includes the verification and validation process, placing the code in configuration control, and establishing user qualification standards and training requirements. All software intended for use in critical calculations must be certified. This report is intended to fulfill the requirements for the certification of the MCNP code, version 4.2, built June 11, 1992, by J.H. Hightower on the SRS CRAY. This report does not release MCNP for use under production status for any application for which a MCNP validation document does not exist. These validation documents will describe the specific range of applicability, limitations on use, results and biases for a particular MCNP application.

Trumble, E.F.

1992-08-01

339

Cell death proteomics database: consolidating proteomics data on cell death.  

PubMed

Programmed cell death is a ubiquitous process of utmost importance for the development and maintenance of multicellular organisms. More than 10 different types of programmed cell death forms have been discovered. Several proteomics analyses have been performed to gain insight in proteins involved in the different forms of programmed cell death. To consolidate these studies, we have developed the cell death proteomics (CDP) database, which comprehends data from apoptosis, autophagy, cytotoxic granule-mediated cell death, excitotoxicity, mitotic catastrophe, paraptosis, pyroptosis, and Wallerian degeneration. The CDP database is available as a web-based database to compare protein identifications and quantitative information across different experimental setups. The proteomics data of 73 publications were integrated and unified with protein annotations from UniProt-KB and gene ontology (GO). Currently, more than 6,500 records of more than 3,700 proteins are included in the CDP. Comparing apoptosis and autophagy using overrepresentation analysis of GO terms, the majority of enriched processes were found in both, but also some clear differences were perceived. Furthermore, the analysis revealed differences and similarities of the proteome between autophagosomal and overall autophagy. The CDP database represents a useful tool to consolidate data from proteome analyses of programmed cell death and is available at http://celldeathproteomics.uio.no. PMID:23537399

Arntzen, Magnus Ø; Bull, Vibeke H; Thiede, Bernd

2013-05-01

340

Death by fraternity hazing.  

PubMed

Fraternity hazing can cause a variety of injuries and deaths. We recently had the opportunity to investigate a heat-related death that occurred during a college fraternity event. The original death investigation did not consider the circumstances of death, environmental conditions, or the subtle autopsy findings related to heat stroke. This case is intended to alert health care professionals that deaths on college campuses may be related to fraternity hazing and may require in-depth investigations. An analysis of the death and a discussion of heat-related injuries are presented. PMID:7771381

Boglioli, L R; Taff, M L

1995-03-01

341

Certification des structures d'hospitalisation domicile VS certification ISO 9000  

E-print Network

Certification des structures d'hospitalisation à domicile VS certification ISO 9000 RYM BEN comparative entre la certification ISO 9000 (International Organisation for Standardization) et la certification des HAD. Il s'agit de comparer la certification ISO 9000 à celle des établissements de santé et

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

342

Certification de l'exploitation communautaire du bois au Brsil : des initiatives durables en Amazonie ?  

E-print Network

Amazonie ? Community-based forest management certification in Brazil: a sustainable initiative? Isabel certification, community-based forest management Résumé L'Amazonie Brésilienne est un des derniers grands supported by WWF (World Wildlife Fund), there has been a significant growth of forest sustainable management

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

343

Study of State Certification/Licensure Requirements for Secondary Career and Technical Education Teachers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Teacher certification/licensure requirements across the United States are in constant flux. Career and technical education (CTE), with its many subject disciplines, has historically had two pathways to certification/licensure: a traditional degree-based program of courses, field experiences, and exit exams, and an alternative pathway based

Zirkle, Christopher J.; Martin, Lindsey; McCaslin, N. L.

2007-01-01

344

Religious characteristics and the death penalty.  

PubMed

Using one mock trial scenario, this study investigated whether religious and demographic factors were related to death penalty attitudes and sentencing verdicts. Those who favored the death penalty differed from those who had doubts about the penalty in gender, affiliation, fundamentalism, evangelism, literal Biblical interpretism, beliefs about God's attitudes toward murders, and perceptions of how their religious groups felt about the death penalty. These relationships generally held after mock jurors were death qualified. Gender, fundamentalism, literal interpretism, beliefs about God's death penalty position, and perceptions of how one's religious group felt about the death penalty predicted death penalty sentencing verdicts. Future research could determine whether using peremptory challenges to exclude potential jurors based on religion can help lawyers choose a more favorable jury. PMID:17546480

Miller, Monica K; Hayward, R David

2008-04-01

345

Individual choice in the definition of death  

PubMed Central

While there are numerous doubts, controversies and lack of consensus on alternative definitions of human death, it is argued that it is more ethical to allow people to choose either cessation of cardio?respiratory function or loss of entire brain function as the definition of death based on their own views. This paper presents the law of organ transplantation in Japan, which allows people to decide whether brain death can be used to determine their death in agreement with their family. Arguably, Japan could become a unique example of individual choice in the definition of death if the law is revised to allow individuals choose definition of death independently of their family. It suggests that such an approach is one of the reasonable policy options a country can adopt for legislation on issues related to the definition of death. PMID:17329384

Bagheri, A

2007-01-01

346

Security Equipment and Systems Certification Program (SESCP)  

SciTech Connect

Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and Underwriters Laboratories, Inc., (UL) have jointly established the Security Equipment and Systems Certification Program (SESCP). The goal of this program is to enhance industrial and national security by providing a nationally recognized method for making informed selection and use decisions when buying security equipment and systems. The SESCP will provide a coordinated structure for private and governmental security standardization review. Members will participate in meetings to identify security problems, develop ad-hoc subcommittees (as needed) to address these identified problems, and to maintain a communications network that encourages a meaningful exchange of ideas. This program will enhance national security by providing improved security equipment and security systems based on consistent, reliable standards and certification programs.

Steele, B.J. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Papier, I.I. [Underwriters Labs., Inc., Northbrook, IL (United States)

1996-06-20

347

Narcissism and the death instinct.  

PubMed

The myth of Narcissus is a myth of death resulting from the absence of desire in a love relationship, and a metaphor of the symbolic and imaginary death of the narcissistic person. Four of Freud's dreams are analysed in terms of their narcissistic structure. They reveal some important features in the implicit relationship between the feminine nature of the narcissistic body and the counterpart. They lead to a better formulation of the narcissistic state in terms of the relationship between the self and the counterpart. The narcissistic relationship is based on wishes and not desires. The object of the wish is not essential for the wish to emerge or to be sustained. As a result, the narcissistic relation is characterized by the absence of its aim and the impossibility of its satisfaction; and consequently it symbolizes death of the world or the self and is an imaginary death of both. In that sense, Freud's introduction of the concept of narcissism and his concept of the death instinct should be seen as connected, as they constitute a stage in psychoanalytic knowledge. It is difficult to understand narcissism detached from the concept of the death instinct without rendering the issues of meaning and interpretation irrelevant to the psychoanalytic act. PMID:6168597

Fayek, A

1981-01-01

348

Mitigating Circumstances in Death Penalty Decisions: Using Evidence-Based Research to Inform Social Work Practice in Capital Trials  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Providing an effective defense for individuals charged with capital crimes requires a diligent, thorough investigation by a mitigation specialist. However, research suggests that mitigation often plays a small role in the decision for life. Jurors often make sentencing decisions prematurely, basing those decisions on their personal reactions to…

Schroeder, Julie; Guin, Cecile C.; Pogue, Rene; Bordelon, Danna

2006-01-01

349

Dig1 protects against cell death provoked by glyphosate-based herbicides in human liver cell lines  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Worldwide used pesticides containing different adjuvants like Roundup formulations, which are glyphosate-based herbicides, can provoke some in vivo toxicity and in human cells. These pesticides are commonly found in the environment, surface waters and as food residues of Roundup tolerant genetically modified plants. In order to know their effects on cells from liver, a major detoxification organ, we have

Céline Gasnier; Nora Benachour; Emilie Clair; Carine Travert; Frédéric Langlois; Claire Laurant; Cécile Decroix-Laporte; Gilles-Eric Séralini

2010-01-01

350

Are Death Anxiety and Death Depression Distinct Entities?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Administered Death Anxiety Scale and Death Depression Scale to 200 individuals. Two scales correlated 0.55. Factor analysis of combined 32 items revealed factors: "death anxiety" having highest factor loadings with Death Anxiety Scale, "death depression" having highest factor loadings with Death Depression Scale, "death of others,""brevity of…

Alvarado, Katherine A.; And Others

1993-01-01

351

Field-testing ecological and economic benefits of coffee certification programs.  

PubMed

Coffee agroecosystems are critical to the success of conservation efforts in Latin America because of their ecological and economic importance. Coffee certification programs may offer one way to protect biodiversity and maintain farmer livelihoods. Established coffee certification programs fall into three distinct, but not mutually exclusive categories: organic, fair trade, and shade. The results of previous studies demonstrate that shade certification can benefit biodiversity, but it remains unclear whether a farmer's participation in any certification program can provide both ecological and economic benefits. To assess the value of coffee certification for conservation efforts in the region, we examined economic and ecological aspects of coffee production for eight coffee cooperatives in Chiapas, Mexico, that were certified organic, certified organic and fair trade, or uncertified. We compared vegetation and ant and bird diversity in coffee farms and forests, and interviewed farmers to determine coffee yield, gross revenue from coffee production, and area in coffee production. Although there are no shade-certified farms in the study region, we used vegetation data to determine whether cooperatives would qualify for shade certification. We found no differences in vegetation characteristics, ant or bird species richness, or fraction of forest fauna in farms based on certification. Farmers with organic and organic and fair-trade certification had more land under cultivation and in some cases higher revenue than uncertified farmers. Coffee production area did not vary among farm types. No cooperative passed shade-coffee certification standards because the plantations lacked vertical stratification, yet vegetation variables for shade certification significantly correlated with ant and bird diversity. Although farmers in the Chiapas highlands with organic and/or fair-trade certification may reap some economic benefits from their certification status, their farms may not protect as much biodiversity as shade-certified farms. Working toward triple certification (organic, fair trade, and shade) at the farm level may enhance biodiversity protection, increase benefits to farmers, and lead to more successful conservation strategies in coffee-growing regions. PMID:17650248

Philpott, Stacy M; Bichier, Peter; Rice, Robert; Greenberg, Russell

2007-08-01

352

Please supply: _______ Classic certificate(s) @ 35 each = _________  

E-print Network

with this completed form to the address given below. CARD HOLDER details Please debit my credit/debit card: ........................................................................................................................................... Card number.......................................................... DEGREE CERTIFICATE & TRANSCRIPT CREDIT/DEBIT CARD ORDER AND PAYMENT FORM Registry Services, University

Mumby, Peter J.

353

Renewable Energy Certificate Program  

SciTech Connect

This project was primarily to develop and implement a curriculum which will train undergraduate and graduate students at the University seeking a degree as well as training for enrollees in a special certification program to prepare individuals to be employed in a broad range of occupations in the field of renewable energy and energy conservation. Curriculum development was by teams of Saint Francis University Faculty in the Business Administration and Science Departments and industry experts. Students seeking undergraduate and graduate degrees are able to enroll in courses offered within these departments which will combine theory and hands-on training in the various elements of wind power development. For example, the business department curriculum areas include economic modeling, finance, contracting, etc. The science areas include meteorology, energy conversion and projection, species identification, habitat protection, field data collection and analysis, etc.

Gwendolyn S. Andersen

2012-07-17

354

Mitigating circumstances in death penalty decisions: using evidence-based research to inform social work practice in capital trials.  

PubMed

Providing an effective defense for individuals charged with capital crimes requires a diligent, thorough investigation by a mitigation specialist. However, research suggests that mitigation often plays a small role in the decision for life. Jurors often make sentencing decisions prematurely, basing those decisions on their personal reactions to the defendant (for example, fear, anger), their confusion about the rules of law, and their lack of understanding regarding their role and responsibilities. This article proposes an evidence-based conceptual model of the complicating problems surrounding mitigation practice and a focused discussion about how traditional social work mitigation strategies might be evolved to a set of best practices that more effectively ensure jurors' careful consideration of mitigation evidence. PMID:17152633

Schroeder, Julie; Guin, Cecile C; Pogue, Rene; Bordelon, Danna

2006-10-01

355

Children's Experience with Death.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Children's concepts of death grow with their age and development The three-year-old begins to notice that living things move and make sounds. The five-year-old thinks that life and death are reversable, but the six-year-old knows that death is final and brings sorrow. Children from eight through ten are interested in the causes of death and what…

Zeligs, Rose

356

Identity and Death Anxiety.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined relationships between death anxiety and Erikson's concept of ego identity in White male undergraduates (N=63). Found involvement in identity crisis or decision-making period appeared to have increased death anxiety. Recommends further research between death anxiety and ego identity development. (Author/ABL)

Sterling, Christopher M.; Van Horn, K. Roger

1989-01-01

357

Death Anxiety and Politics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explores the relationship between death anxiety and sociopolitical attitudes and political behavior. Data from a sample of 209 undergraduate students indicate that death anxiety is modestly related to attitudes reflecting a turning away from the social and political world. Death anxiety does not seem related to political behavior. (Author)

Peterson, Steven A.

1986-01-01

358

Management of Humane Death  

Microsoft Academic Search

Death is a biological fact but it has social, cultural, historical, religious, psychological and ethical aspects and often these are closely intertwined. The traditional definition of biological death is the cessation of heartbeat and respiration. Advances in modern medical technology have complicated this definition since these bodily functions can be maintained long after social and psychological death has occurred. Many

Kaiser Mahmood

359

Graduate Certificate in Dispute Resolution The Graduate Certificate in Dispute Resolution provides professional study and  

E-print Network

Graduate Certificate in Dispute Resolution The Graduate Certificate in Dispute Resolution provides professional study and certification to persons holding MADR courses: PCS 6100: Introduction to Peace and Security Studies (3 cr

Berdichevsky, Victor

360

8 CFR 214.4 - Denial of certification, denial of recertification or withdrawal of SEVP certification.  

...the information provided by the school or school system at the interview shall...certification will include appeal alternatives and filing instructions. Any...certification. (i) Operations at a school when SEVP certification is...

2014-01-01

361

7 CFR 1205.342 - Certification of cotton importer organizations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Certification of cotton importer organizations. 1205.342 Section 1205.342... Certification of Cotton Producer Organization § 1205.342 Certification of cotton importer organizations. Any importer...

2010-01-01

362

The Economics of Certificate Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Costs involved in certificate programs are examined in terms of direct expenses, staff, and institutional overhead. The discussion includes the income potential of such programs and start-up and maintenance expenses. (SK)

Robinson, Jane Hoopes

1991-01-01

363

CATALOG DESCRIPTION Graduate Certificate Program  

E-print Network

, neuropharmacology, behavior, and methods of neuroscience research. 1. Certificate requirements are the successful sciences, computer sciences and network modeling, biochemistry and behavior. FAU offers a graduate in Theoretical and Dynamical, Molecular and Cellular, Cognitive, and Behavioral Neuroscience. While administered

Fernandez, Eduardo

364

FAMILY MEDICAL CERTIFICATION HUMAN RESOURCES  

E-print Network

FAMILY MEDICAL CERTIFICATION HUMAN RESOURCES Employee Support Services | One Washington Square, and genetic information of a fetus carried by an individual or an individual's family member or an embryo

Eirinaki, Magdalini

365

Biology in Engineering Certificate Program  

E-print Network

Biology in Engineering Certificate Program Prof. Willis Tompkins Department of Biomedical by a multidisciplinary faculty committee for engineering students Provides opportunity to strengthen biology background in biology and medicine Provides a credential for special effort #12;Prerequisites Prior admission

Van Veen, Barry D.

366

An investigation of infant deaths following initial hepatitis B vaccination based on the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS), 1992-2002  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: To examine Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) and hepatitis B neonatal vaccination. Results: 170 reports related to neonatal hepa- titis B vaccination were filed with the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS) during 1992-2002. Of the 38 (22.4%) death reports, 29 were unexplained; 24 were classified as SIDS in the United States National Vital Statistics, and 4 were attributed

Valentina A. Soldatenkova; F. Edward Yazbak

367

Mortality and causes of death among violent offenders and victims-a Swedish population based longitudinal study  

PubMed Central

Background Most previous studies on mortality in violent offenders or victims are based on prison or hospital samples, while this study analyzed overall and cause specific mortality among violent offenders, victims, and individuals who were both offenders and victims in a general sample of 48,834 18-20 year-old men conscripted for military service in 1969/70 in Sweden. Methods Each person completed two non-anonymous questionnaires concerning family, psychological, and behavioral factors. The cohort was followed for 35 years through official registers regarding violent offenses, victimization, and mortality. The impact of violence, victimization, early risk factors and hospitalization for psychiatric diagnosis or alcohol and drug misuse during follow up on mortality was investigated using Cox proportional hazard regression analyses. Results Repeat violent offenses were associated with an eleven fold higher hazard of dying from a substance-related cause and nearly fourfold higher hazard of dying from suicide. These figures remained significantly elevated also in multivariate analyses, with a 3.03 and 2.39 hazard ratio (HR), respectively. Participants with experience of violence and inpatient care for substance abuse or psychiatric disorder had about a two to threefold higher risk of dying compared to participants with no substance use or psychiatric disorder. Conclusions Violent offending and being victimized are associated with excess mortality and a risk of dying from an alcohol or drug-related cause or suicide. Consequently, prevention of violent behavior might have an effect on overall mortality and suicide rates. Prevention of alcohol and drug use is also warranted. PMID:22251445

2012-01-01

368

The Underreporting of Lightning injuries and Deaths in Colorado.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reliable statistics on lightning deaths and injuries are needed to raise the awareness of the community to the lightning threat and to educate the public to avoid situations vulnerable to lightning injuries. The principal source of information for lightning casualty data in the United States is NOAA's Storm Data. However, several authors have claimed that this publication underreports lightning deaths and injuries. The authors have conducted a detailed investigation of this issue for Colorado from 1980 to 1991 for fatalities, and from 1988 to 1991 for injuries.It was found that Storm Data relies almost exclusively on newspapers for information on casualties due to lightning. A detailed examination of the flow of casualty information through newspapers to Storm Data revealed that information could be lost at several different stages in the reporting procedure.Colorado Health Department death certificates and Colorado Hospital Association hospital discharge records were used as benchmarks to quantify the degree of completeness of the Storm Data records. 11 was found that Storm Data underreported deaths by 28% over the 12 years relative to the death certificate records, and, that it underreported injuries requiring hospitalization by at least 42% compared to the hospital records. The authors suspect that the underreporting of injuries not needing hospitalization is even greater.

López, Raúl E.; Holle, Ronald L.; Heitkamp, Todd A.; Boyson, Michael; Cherington, Michael; Langford, Kenneth

1993-11-01

369

Islam and the Death Penalty  

Microsoft Academic Search

Capital punishment is not practiced by a majority of the world's states. Anti-capital punishment domestic policies have led to an international law of human rights that emphatically prohibits cruel and inhuman punishment. International concern for the abolition of capital punishment has prompted Islamic states that still endorse and practice the death penalty to respond with equally compelling concerns based on

William A. Schabas

2000-01-01

370

Experimental evaluation of the certification-trail method  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Certification trails are a recently introduced and promising approach to fault-detection and fault-tolerance. A comprehensive attempt to assess experimentally the performance and overall value of the method is reported. The method is applied to algorithms for the following problems: huffman tree, shortest path, minimum spanning tree, sorting, and convex hull. Our results reveal many cases in which an approach using certification-trails allows for significantly faster overall program execution time than a basic time redundancy-approach. Algorithms for the answer-validation problem for abstract data types were also examined. This kind of problem provides a basis for applying the certification-trail method to wide classes of algorithms. Answer-validation solutions for two types of priority queues were implemented and analyzed. In both cases, the algorithm which performs answer-validation is substantially faster than the original algorithm for computing the answer. Next, a probabilistic model and analysis which enables comparison between the certification-trail method and the time-redundancy approach were presented. The analysis reveals some substantial and sometimes surprising advantages for ther certification-trail method. Finally, the work our group performed on the design and implementation of fault injection testbeds for experimental analysis of the certification trail technique is discussed. This work employs two distinct methodologies, software fault injection (modification of instruction, data, and stack segments of programs on a Sun Sparcstation ELC and on an IBM 386 PC) and hardware fault injection (control, address, and data lines of a Motorola MC68000-based target system pulsed at logical zero/one values). Our results indicate the viability of the certification trail technique. It is also believed that the tools developed provide a solid base for additional exploration.

Sullivan, Gregory F.; Wilson, Dwight S.; Masson, Gerald M.; Itoh, Mamoru; Smith, Warren W.; Kay, Jonathan S.

1993-01-01

371

Ground-based observations of the long-term evolution and death of Saturn's 2010 Great White Spot  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on the long-term evolution of Saturn's sixth Great White Spot (GWS) event that initiated at northern mid-latitudes of the planet on December 5th, 2010 (Fletcher, L. et al. [2011]. Science 332, 1413-1417; Sánchez-Lavega, A. et al. [2011]. Nature 475, 71-74; Fischer, G. et al. [2011]. Nature 475, 75-77). We find from ground-based observations that the GWS formed a planetary-scale disturbance that encircled the planet in 50 days, covering the latitude band between 24.6° and 44.8°N (planetographic) or about 22,000 km in meridional extent and 280,000 km in full zonal circumference length. The head of the GWS was located at an averaged latitude of 40.8 ± 1°N in the peak of a westward jet and showed a mean linear drift in System III longitude of 2.793 deg/day, equivalent to a mean zonal velocity of u = -27.9 m s-1, with maximum speed fluctuations around this mean of -5.3 to +2.7 m s-1. The difference between the undisturbed jet peak velocity and the GWS head was ?u = -12 m s-1. Assuming the GWS has a deep origin at the water cloud a vertical extent of ?z ˜ 250 km is expected and we can derive a vertical shear of the zonal winds ?u/?z ˜ 5 × 10-5 s-1. The cloud morphology of the disturbance was sculpted by the winds at this latitude and their latitudinal shears, showing several distinct features: (1) A long-lived Dark Spot (DS, anticyclone vortex) placed at 41.5 ± 1.1°N with a speed u = -11.0 ± 0.1 m s-1 and a size of 7800 km (East-West) per 6000 km (North-South). (2) Two branches of zonally periodic features at both sides of the jet peak, a northern branch at 44.4°N (anticyclonic) and a southern branch at 32°N (cyclonic), with wavelengths in the range ˜ 5000-14,000 km. Precise long-term cloud tracking of disturbance features shows that they moved with speeds close to those of the prevailing winds, although differences up to ˜-45 m s-1 were measured, probably due to wave motion or to real wind changes produced by momentum transfers induced by the disturbance. Vortex DS and the GWS head encountered between the 15th and 19th of June 2011, disappearing within the resolution of our images. We present and discuss two simple hypothesis to explain the nature of this phenomenon. Taking into account our results together with previous historical events, we summarize the mysteries of GWS phenomena: seasonal forcing, occurrence at preferred latitudes only in the Northern hemisphere, no relation of the outbreaks with the wind profile structure and the existence of a continuous deep moist convection source to feed the disturbance.

Sánchez-Lavega, Agustín; del Río-Gaztelurrutia, Teresa; Delcroix, Marc; Legarreta, Jon J.; Gómez-Forrellad, Josep M.; Hueso, Ricardo; García-Melendo, Enrique; Pérez-Hoyos, Santiago; Barrado-Navascués, David; Lillo, Jorge; International Outer Planet Watch Team IOPW-PVOL

2012-08-01

372

Hardware cleanliness methodology and certification  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Inadequacy of mass loss cleanliness criteria for selection of materials for contamination sensitive uses, and processing of flight hardware for contamination sensitive instruments is discussed. Materials selection for flight hardware is usually based on mass loss (ASTM E-595). However, flight hardware cleanliness (MIL 1246A) is a surface cleanliness assessment. It is possible for materials (e.g. Sil-Pad 2000) to pass ASTM E-595 and fail MIL 1246A class A by orders of magnitude. Conversely, it is possible for small amounts of nonconforming material (Huma-Seal conformal coating) to not present significant cleanliness problems to an optical flight instrument. Effective cleaning (precleaning, precision cleaning, and ultra cleaning) and cleanliness verification are essential for contamination sensitive flight instruments. Polish cleaning of hardware, e.g. vacuum baking for vacuum applications, and storage of clean hardware, e.g. laser optics, is discussed. Silicone materials present special concerns for use in space because of the rapid conversion of the outgassed residues to glass by solar ultraviolet radiation and/or atomic oxygen. Non ozone depleting solvent cleaning and institutional support for cleaning and certification are also discussed.

Harvey, Gale A.; Lash, Thomas J.; Rawls, J. Richard

1995-01-01

373

A Fair Trade Approach to Community Forest Certification? A Framework for Discussion  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Forest certification has gained growing attention as a market-based instrument to make globalizing markets a force for mitigating rather than fostering environmental degradation. Yet in practice, market mechanisms currently appear to encourage concentration of forest certification in Northern temperate and boreal forests, rather than in the…

Taylor, Peter Leigh

2005-01-01

374

Certification Requirements and Teacher Quality: A Comparison of Alternative Routes to Teaching. Working Paper 64  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Traditionally, states have required individuals complete a program of study in a university-based teacher preparation program in order to be licensed to teach. In recent years, however, various "alternative certification" programs have been developed and the number of teachers obtaining teaching certificates through routes other than completing a…

Sass, Tim R.

2011-01-01

375

Graduating STEM Competent and Confident Teachers: The Creation of a STEM Certificate for Elementary Education Majors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A collaborative of STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) and education faculty developed a STEM certificate aimed at elementary education majors. A four-phase process model was used to create and evaluate courses. The certificate is comprised of three interdisciplinary, team-taught, lab-based courses: Environmental Biology,…

Murphy, Tony P.; Mancini-Samuelson, Gina J.

2012-01-01

376

Using Forest Certification to Strengthen Rural Communities: Cases from Northwest Russia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rapid globalization of forest products markets has placed many rural forest-based communities under considerable pressure to rapidly exploit forest resources. To counter, transnational environmental organizations have promoted programs for forest certification, seeking to use global market forces to support environmentally and socially responsible forest management. This paper reports the impacts of the Forest Stewardship Council certification program on four

E. Meidinger; M. S. Tysiachniouk

2006-01-01

377

ISO 9000 certification and quality management in Spain: results of a national survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

The increasing demand of mechanisms making easier the choice of a provider, both in the domestic and global markets, has contributed to ISO 9000 certification possession becoming a requisite for the development of commercial relations. The present article is based upon the results of an empirical research in which the effectiveness and reach of ISO 9000 certification is studied at

Carmen Escanciano; Esteban Fernández; Camilo Vázquez

2001-01-01

378

Examining Changes in Certification/Licensure Requirements and the International Medical Graduate Examinee Pool  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Changes in certification requirements and examinee characteristics are likely to influence the validity of the evidence associated with interpretations made based on test data. We examined whether changes in Educational Commission for Foreign Medical Graduates (ECFMG) certification requirements over time were associated with changes in internal…

McKinley, Danette W.; Hess, Brian J.; Boulet, John R.; Lipner, Rebecca S.

2014-01-01

379

Roadmap: Radiologic Imaging Sciences Nuclear Medicine (with certification and ATS Radiologic Technology)  

E-print Network

Roadmap: Radiologic Imaging Sciences ­ Nuclear Medicine (with certification and ATS Radiologic Technology) ­ Bachelor of Radiologic Imaging Sciences Technology [RE-BRIT-RIS-NMHO] Regional College Catalog Hours] Note: Students must have graduated from a hospital-based certificate program in radiologic

Sheridan, Scott

380

Roadmap: Radiologic Imaging Sciences -Computed Tomography (with certification and ATS Radiologic Technology) -  

E-print Network

Roadmap: Radiologic Imaging Sciences - Computed Tomography (with certification and ATS Radiologic Technology) - Bachelor of Radiologic and Imaging Sciences Technology [RE-BRIT-RIS-CTHA] Regional College Hours] Note: Students must have graduated from a hospital-based certificate program in radiologic

Sheridan, Scott

381

Roadmap: Radiologic Imaging Sciences Radiation Therapy (with certification and ATS Radiologic Technology) -  

E-print Network

Roadmap: Radiologic Imaging Sciences ­ Radiation Therapy ­ (with certification and ATS Radiologic Technology) - Bachelor of Radiologic Imaging Sciences Technology [RE-BRIT-RIS-RTHB] Regional College Catalog Hours] Note: Students must have graduated from a hospital-based certificate program in radiologic

Sheridan, Scott

382

NCAA Division I Athletics Certification Draft Written Plan for Conducting the Self-Study  

E-print Network

1 NCAA Division I Athletics Certification Draft Written Plan for Conducting the Self-Study November 10, 2005 (updated in December 2005 based on consultation with the NCAA) Outline A. Objectives") in connection with current NCAA athletics certification process is to produce an exemplary self-study report

California at Davis, University of

383

Management of PEM public key certificates using X.500 directory service: Some problems and solutions  

SciTech Connect

Internet Privacy Enhanced Mail (PEM) provides security services to users of Internet electronic mail. While the prevalent PEM implementation uses a public key certificate-based strategy, certificates are mostly distributed vie e-mail exchanges, which raises several security and performance issues. This paper discusses some problems with this strategy, explores the relevant issues, and develops an approach to address them.

Cheung, Terry C.

1993-08-01

384

Human factors certification: A useful concept?  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper considers what is involved in certification processes and their relation to human factors aspects of systems. It derives from recognition of a lack of understanding of the processes and purposes of certification. This was encountered when attempting to address the workshop topic by integrating an understanding of human factors with the observed processes of certification. The paper considers what human factors (HF) certification might be and then develops a simple model of the elements of a certification process. It then tries to relate these elements to the needs of the aviation communities and other parties with an interest in the certification of advance aviation technologies.

Jackson, Alistair

1994-01-01

385

Clarifying the discussion on brain death.  

PubMed

Definitions of death are based on subjective standards, priorities, and social conventions rather than on objective facts about the state of human physiology. It is the meaning assigned to the facts that determines when someone may be deemed to have died, not the facts themselves. Even though subjective standards for the diagnosis of death show remarkable consistency across communities, they are extrinsic. They are driven, implicitly or explicitly, by ideas about what benefits the community rather than what benefits the individual. The differences that do exist across communities generally reduce to questions about legitimacy and not fact. The questions at the core of the debate about brain death are better framed by asking: "Whom ought we deem to be dead?" rather than: "Who is dead." The rationale for equating brain death with death, therefore, extends well beyond somatic and biological concepts of death. PMID:11588657

Dagi, F T; Kaufman, R

2001-10-01

386

42 CFR 488.12 - Effect of survey agency certification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Effect of survey agency certification. 488.12 Section...CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION SURVEY, CERTIFICATION, AND ENFORCEMENT PROCEDURES...General Provisions § 488.12 Effect of survey agency certification....

2010-10-01

387

42 CFR 488.12 - Effect of survey agency certification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Effect of survey agency certification. 488.12 Section...CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION SURVEY, CERTIFICATION, AND ENFORCEMENT PROCEDURES...General Provisions § 488.12 Effect of survey agency certification....

2011-10-01

388

46 CFR 189.60-40 - Duration of Convention certificates.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Duration of Convention certificates. 189.60-40...CERTIFICATION Certificates Under International Convention for Safety of Life at Sea...189.60-40 Duration of Convention certificates. (a)...

2010-10-01

389

46 CFR 91.60-40 - Duration of Convention certificates.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Duration of Convention certificates. 91.60-40...CERTIFICATION Certificates Under International Convention for Safety of Life at Sea...91.60-40 Duration of Convention certificates. (a)...

2010-10-01

390

46 CFR 71.75-15 - Posting of Convention certificates.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Posting of Convention certificates. 71.75-15...CERTIFICATION Certificates Under the International Convention for Safety of Life at Sea, 1960 § 71.75-15 Posting of Convention certificates....

2010-10-01

391

25 CFR 307.12 - Certificates, dating, and signing thereof.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Certificates, dating, and signing thereof. 307.12 Section 307.12 Indians...GOVERNMENT CERTIFICATE OF GENUINENESS § 307.12 Certificates, dating, and signing thereof. When the certificate is...

2011-04-01

392

46 CFR 71.75-20 - Duration of certificates.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...PASSENGER VESSELS INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Certificates Under the International Convention for Safety of Life at Sea, 1960 § 71.75-20 Duration of certificates. (a) The certificates are issued for a period of not more than 12...

2010-10-01

393

Approaches to Certification of Reconfigurable IMA Paul Hollow1  

E-print Network

, failures or battle damage. IMA has many potential benefits including simplifying software upgrades, making, but poses difficulties for certification since current certification practice requires assessment of each. Under current certification procedures each system is assessed in isolation, and the certification

Nicholson, Mark

394

14 CFR 67.409 - Denial of medical certificate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Denial of medical certificate. 67.409 Section 67...TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRMEN MEDICAL STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION Certification Procedures § 67.409 Denial of medical certificate. (a) Any person who...

2011-01-01

395

14 CFR 67.409 - Denial of medical certificate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Denial of medical certificate. 67.409 Section 67...TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRMEN MEDICAL STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION Certification Procedures § 67.409 Denial of medical certificate. (a) Any person who...

2010-01-01

396

14 CFR 67.401 - Special issuance of medical certificates.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 false Special issuance of medical certificates. 67.401 Section 67...TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRMEN MEDICAL STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION Certification...Procedures § 67.401 Special issuance of medical certificates. (a) At the...

2011-01-01

397

14 CFR 67.401 - Special issuance of medical certificates.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Special issuance of medical certificates. 67.401 Section 67...TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRMEN MEDICAL STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION Certification...Procedures § 67.401 Special issuance of medical certificates. (a) At the...

2010-01-01

398

Reviving brain death: a functionalist view.  

PubMed

Recently both whole brain death (WBD) and higher brain death (HBD) have come under attack. These attacks, we argue, are successful, leaving supporters of both views without a firm foundation. This state of affairs has been described as "the death of brain death." Returning to a cardiopulmonary definition presents problems we also find unacceptable. Instead, we attempt to revive brain death by offering a novel and more coherent standard of death based on the permanent cessation of mental processing. This approach works, we claim, by being functionalist instead of being based in biology, consciousness, or personhood. We begin by explaining why an objective biological determination of death fails. We continue by similarly rejecting current arguments offered in support of HBD, which rely on consciousness and/or personhood. In the final section, we explain and defend our functionalist view of death. Our definition centers on mental processing, both conscious and preconscious or unconscious. This view provides the philosophical basis of a functional definition that most accurately reflects the original spirit of brain death when first proposed in the Harvard criteria of 1968. PMID:23784534

Lipuma, Samuel H; DeMarco, Joseph P

2013-10-01

399

14 CFR 121.207 - Provisionally certificated airplanes: Operating limitations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...false Provisionally certificated airplanes: Operating limitations. 121...AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Airplane Performance Operating Limitations...207 Provisionally certificated airplanes: Operating limitations....

2012-01-01

400

14 CFR 121.207 - Provisionally certificated airplanes: Operating limitations.  

...false Provisionally certificated airplanes: Operating limitations. 121...AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Airplane Performance Operating Limitations...207 Provisionally certificated airplanes: Operating limitations....

2014-01-01

401

14 CFR 121.207 - Provisionally certificated airplanes: Operating limitations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...false Provisionally certificated airplanes: Operating limitations. 121...AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Airplane Performance Operating Limitations...207 Provisionally certificated airplanes: Operating limitations....

2011-01-01

402

14 CFR 121.207 - Provisionally certificated airplanes: Operating limitations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Provisionally certificated airplanes: Operating limitations. 121...AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Airplane Performance Operating Limitations...207 Provisionally certificated airplanes: Operating limitations....

2010-01-01

403

14 CFR 121.207 - Provisionally certificated airplanes: Operating limitations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Provisionally certificated airplanes: Operating limitations. 121...AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Airplane Performance Operating Limitations...207 Provisionally certificated airplanes: Operating limitations....

2013-01-01

404

Gratitude lessens death anxiety  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated whether a brief gratitude induction could reduce death anxiety. 83 Chinese older adults (mean age = 62.7,\\u000a SD = 7.13) were randomly assigned into one of three conditions: gratitude, hassle, and neutral, in which they wrote different\\u000a types of life events before responding to measures of death anxiety and affect. Participants in the gratitude induction reported\\u000a lower death anxiety than the

Rosanna W. L. Lau; Sheung-Tak Cheng

2011-01-01

405

Suicide on death row.  

PubMed

The suicide rate on death row for the period 1976 through 1999 was found to be high (113 per 100,000 per year), some five times higher than the suicide rate for the male population of the United States. The death row suicide rate was predicted by features of the death row population (negatively with the population on death row) and by social indicators of the society as a whole (negatively with birth and divorce rates and positively with marriage rates). PMID:12353556

Lester, David; Tartaro, Christine

2002-09-01

406

Alcohol-related mortality by age and sex and its impact on life expectancy Estimates based on the Finnish death register  

Microsoft Academic Search

The level of alcohol-related mortality has been estimated for several populations, but few studies have reported plausible results on the connection between alcohol-related mortality and age and sex. The Finnish death register includes information on both the underlying and contributory causes of death and it yields an individual-level estimate of the contribution of alcohol in mortality. The data for 1987-1993

PIA MAKELA

407

Occupation and Environmental Heat-Associated Deaths in Maricopa County, Arizona: A Case-Control Study  

PubMed Central

Background Prior research shows that work in agriculture and construction/extraction occupations increases the risk of environmental heat-associated death. Purpose To assess the risk of environmental heat-associated death by occupation. Methods This was a case-control study. Cases were heat-caused and heat-related deaths occurring from May-October during the period 2002–2009 in Maricopa County, Arizona. Controls were selected at random from non-heat-associated deaths during the same period in Maricopa County. Information on occupation, age, sex, and race-ethnicity was obtained from death certificates. Logistic regression analysis was used to estimate odds ratios for heat-associated death. Results There were 444 cases of heat-associated deaths in adults (18+ years) and 925 adult controls. Of heat-associated deaths, 332 (75%) occurred in men; a construction/extraction or agriculture occupation was described on the death certificate in 115 (35%) of these men. In men, the age-adjusted odds ratios for heat-associated death were 2.32 (95% confidence interval 1.55, 3.48) in association with construction/extraction and 3.50 (95% confidence interval 1.94, 6.32) in association with agriculture occupations. The odds ratio for heat-associated death was 10.17 (95% confidence interval 5.38, 19.23) in men with unknown occupation. In women, the age-adjusted odds ratio for heat-associated death was 6.32 (95% confidence interval 1.48, 27.08) in association with unknown occupation. Men age 65 years and older in agriculture occupations were at especially high risk of heat-associated death. Conclusion The occurrence of environmental heat-associated death in men in agriculture and construction/extraction occupations in a setting with predictable periods of high summer temperatures presents opportunities for prevention. PMID:23734174

Petitti, Diana B.; Harlan, Sharon L.; Chowell-Puente, Gerardo; Ruddell, Darren

2013-01-01

408

SMART GRID TECHNOLOGIES (CERTIFICATE) www.ee.washington.edu/admissions/pmp/certificates  

E-print Network

SMART GRID TECHNOLOGIES (CERTIFICATE) www.ee.washington.edu/admissions/pmp/certificates NOT ADMITTING FOR FALL 2011 ~ NEXT OFFERING OF SMART GRID CERTIFICATE TENTATIVELY FALL 2012 The Certificate in Smart Grid Technologies & Management in Electrical Engineering serves the growing need for engineers

Washington at Seattle, University of

409

Application Instructions for: Cyber Security Fundamentals Certificate  

E-print Network

Application Instructions for: Cyber Security Fundamentals Certificate Naval Postgraduate School Center for Information Systems Security Studies and Research (CISR) Monterey, CA 93943 cyber@nps.edu #12;Cyber Security Fundamentals Certificate - Online Application Instructions 1. Go to https

410

40 CFR 82.164 - Reclaimer certification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) PROTECTION OF STRATOSPHERIC OZONE Recycling and Emissions Reduction § 82.164 Reclaimer certification...Avenue, NW., Washington, DC 20460; Attn: Section 608 Recycling Program Manager—Reclaimer Certification. (f)...

2013-07-01

411

40 CFR 82.164 - Reclaimer certification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) PROTECTION OF STRATOSPHERIC OZONE Recycling and Emissions Reduction § 82.164 Reclaimer certification...Avenue, NW., Washington, DC 20460; Attn: Section 608 Recycling Program Manager—Reclaimer Certification. (f)...

2011-07-01

412

40 CFR 82.164 - Reclaimer certification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) PROTECTION OF STRATOSPHERIC OZONE Recycling and Emissions Reduction § 82.164 Reclaimer certification...Avenue, NW., Washington, DC 20460; Attn: Section 608 Recycling Program Manager—Reclaimer Certification. (f)...

2012-07-01

413

40 CFR 82.164 - Reclaimer certification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) PROTECTION OF STRATOSPHERIC OZONE Recycling and Emissions Reduction § 82.164 Reclaimer certification...Avenue, NW., Washington, DC 20460; Attn: Section 608 Recycling Program Manager—Reclaimer Certification. (f)...

2010-07-01

414

47 CFR 54.904 - Carrier certification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) UNIVERSAL SERVICE Interstate Common Line Support Mechanism for Rate-of-Return Carriers § 54.904 Carrier certification. (a) Certification. Carriers that...

2010-10-01

415

47 CFR 54.809 - Carrier certification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...UNIVERSAL SERVICE Interstate Access Universal Service Support Mechanism § 54.809 Carrier certification. (a) Certification...Administrator of the interstate access universal service support mechanism, on or before the filing deadlines set forth in...

2010-10-01

416

5 CFR 430.403 - System certification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 430.403 Section 430.403 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT Performance Appraisal Certification for Pay Purposes § 430.403 System certification....

2011-01-01

417

5 CFR 430.403 - System certification.  

... 430.403 Section 430.403 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT Performance Appraisal Certification for Pay Purposes § 430.403 System certification....

2014-01-01

418

5 CFR 430.403 - System certification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 430.403 Section 430.403 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT Performance Appraisal Certification for Pay Purposes § 430.403 System certification....

2013-01-01

419

5 CFR 430.403 - System certification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 430.403 Section 430.403 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT Performance Appraisal Certification for Pay Purposes § 430.403 System certification....

2010-01-01

420

5 CFR 430.403 - System certification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 430.403 Section 430.403 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT Performance Appraisal Certification for Pay Purposes § 430.403 System certification....

2012-01-01

421

5 CFR 630.1207 - Medical certification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Medical certification. 630.1207 Section 630.1207...SERVICE REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Family and Medical Leave § 630.1207 Medical certification. (a) An agency may...

2010-01-01

422

5 CFR 630.1207 - Medical certification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Medical certification. 630.1207 Section 630.1207...SERVICE REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Family and Medical Leave § 630.1207 Medical certification. (a) An agency may...

2011-01-01

423

14 CFR 21.475 - Experimental certificates.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...PRODUCTS AND PARTS Designated Alteration Station Authorization Procedures § 21.475 Experimental certificates. The DAS shall, before issuing an experimental certificate, obtain from the Administrator any limitations and conditions that the...

2010-01-01

424

14 CFR 1217.104 - Certification forms.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Certification forms. 1217.104 Section 1217.104 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION DUTY-FREE ENTRY OF SPACE ARTICLES § 1217.104 Certification forms. To the extent an...

2010-01-01

425

14 CFR 1217.104 - Certification forms.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...false Certification forms. 1217.104 Section 1217.104 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION DUTY-FREE ENTRY OF SPACE ARTICLES § 1217.104 Certification forms. To the extent an...

2012-01-01

426

14 CFR 1217.104 - Certification forms.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... true Certification forms. 1217.104 Section 1217.104 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION DUTY-FREE ENTRY OF SPACE ARTICLES § 1217.104 Certification forms. To the extent an...

2011-01-01

427

14 CFR 1217.104 - Certification forms.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Certification forms. 1217.104 Section 1217.104 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION DUTY-FREE ENTRY OF SPACE ARTICLES § 1217.104 Certification forms. To the extent an...

2013-01-01

428

15 CFR 2012.3 - Export certificates.  

... 2014-01-01 false Export certificates. 2012.3 Section 2012.3 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating...IMPLEMENTATION OF TARIFF-RATE QUOTAS FOR BEEF § 2012.3 Export certificates. (a) Beef...

2014-01-01

429

15 CFR 2012.3 - Export certificates.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-01-01 false Export certificates. 2012.3 Section 2012.3 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating...IMPLEMENTATION OF TARIFF-RATE QUOTAS FOR BEEF § 2012.3 Export certificates. (a) Beef...

2013-01-01

430

15 CFR 2012.3 - Export certificates.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-01-01 false Export certificates. 2012.3 Section 2012.3 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating...IMPLEMENTATION OF TARIFF-RATE QUOTAS FOR BEEF § 2012.3 Export certificates. (a) Beef...

2011-01-01

431

15 CFR 2012.3 - Export certificates.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-01-01 false Export certificates. 2012.3 Section 2012.3 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating...IMPLEMENTATION OF TARIFF-RATE QUOTAS FOR BEEF § 2012.3 Export certificates. (a) Beef...

2010-01-01

432

Certificate of Conformance Program for Financial Reporting  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A request is made that once a school district has been awarded the "Certificate for Conformance" for compliance with accounting standards, the Certificate should remain with the district and be revoked only for cause. (Author/MLF)

Lewandowski, Raymond J.

1977-01-01

433

16 CFR 1207.9 - Product certification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR SWIMMING POOL SLIDES § 1207.9 Product certification. ...2063(a)(1)). (b) A certificate shall accompany the swimming pool slide (in the form of a permanent label on...

2010-01-01

434

77 FR 70176 - Previous Participation Certification  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...No. FR-5603-N-86] Previous Participation Certification AGENCY: Office of the...to evaluate participants' previous participation in government programs and ensure that...information: Title of Proposed: Previous Participation Certification. OMB Approval...

2012-11-23

435

Texas petrochemical plant gets certification  

SciTech Connect

It will soon be necessary for U.S. operators to show evidence of meeting European quality standards in order to be competitive for business within the European Economic Community. The maintenance organization at Ethyl Corp.'s Houston plant has taken such steps with ISO 9000 certification. ISO 9000 is a series of quality management and assurance standards published by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). Established in 1987, ISO 9000 through 9004 provide an effective method for auditing and registering quality systems in a large variety of operations in many countries of the world. The certification of the aluminum alkyls manufacture is the ISO 9000 pilot project. After a general background discussion of the ISO 9000 quality systems, the efforts of the Houston plant's maintenance organization in obtaining ISO 9002 certification is discussed in this paper.

Graham, J.F. (Ethyl Corp., Pasadena, TX (US))

1991-05-13

436

Post-mortem imaging as an alternative to autopsy in the diagnosis of adult deaths: a validation study  

PubMed Central

Summary Background Public objection to autopsy has led to a search for minimally invasive alternatives. Imaging has potential, but its accuracy is unknown. We aimed to identify the accuracy of post-mortem CT and MRI compared with full autopsy in a large series of adult deaths. Methods This study was undertaken at two UK centres in Manchester and Oxford between April, 2006, and November, 2008. We used whole-body CT and MRI followed by full autopsy to investigate a series of adult deaths that were reported to the coroner. CT and MRI scans were reported independently, each by two radiologists who were masked to the autopsy findings. All four radiologists then produced a consensus report based on both techniques, recorded their confidence in cause of death, and identified whether autopsy was needed. Findings We assessed 182 unselected cases. The major discrepancy rate between cause of death identified by radiology and autopsy was 32% (95% CI 26–40) for CT, 43% (36–50) for MRI, and 30% (24–37) for the consensus radiology report; 10% (3–17) lower for CT than for MRI. Radiologists indicated that autopsy was not needed in 62 (34%; 95% CI 28–41) of 182 cases for CT reports, 76 (42%; 35–49) of 182 cases for MRI reports, and 88 (48%; 41–56) of 182 cases for consensus reports. Of these cases, the major discrepancy rate compared with autopsy was 16% (95% CI 9–27), 21% (13–32), and 16% (10–25), respectively, which is significantly lower (p<0·0001) than for cases with no definite cause of death. The most common imaging errors in identification of cause of death were ischaemic heart disease (n=27), pulmonary embolism (11), pneumonia (13), and intra-abdominal lesions (16). Interpretation We found that, compared with traditional autopsy, CT was a more accurate imaging technique than MRI for providing a cause of death. The error rate when radiologists provided a confident cause of death was similar to that for clinical death certificates, and could therefore be acceptable for medicolegal purposes. However, common causes of sudden death are frequently missed on CT and MRI, and, unless these weaknesses are addressed, systematic errors in mortality statistics would result if imaging were to replace conventional autopsy. Funding Policy Research Programme, Department of Health, UK. PMID:22112684

Roberts, Ian SD; Benamore, Rachel E; Benbow, Emyr W; Lee, Stephen H; Harris, Jonathan N; Jackson, Alan; Mallett, Susan; Patankar, Tufail; Peebles, Charles; Roobottom, Carl; Traill, Zoe C

2012-01-01

437

An investigation of DUA caching strategies for public key certificates  

SciTech Connect

Internet Privacy Enhanced Mail (PEM) provides security services to users of Internet electronic mail. PEM is designed with the intention that it will eventually obtain public key certificates from the X.500 directory service. However, such a capability is not present in most PEM implementations today. While the prevalent PEM implementation uses a public key certificate-based strategy, certificates are mostly distributed via e-mail exchanges, which raises several security and performance issues. In this thesis research, we changed the reference PEM implementation to make use of the X.500 directory service instead of local databases for public key certificate management. The thesis discusses some problems with using the X.500 directory service, explores the relevant issues, and develops an approach to address them. The approach makes use of a memory cache to store public key certificates. We implemented a centralized cache server and addressed the denial-of-service security problem that is present in the server. In designing the cache, we investigated several cache management strategies. One result of our study is that the use of a cache significantly improves performance. Our research also indicates that security incurs extra performance cost. Different cache replacement algorithms do not seem to yield significant performance differences, while delaying dirty-writes to the backing store does improve performance over immediate writes.

Cheung, T.C.

1993-11-01

438

Framework for Certification of Fish Propagation, Protection and Monitoring Facilities. Final Report.  

SciTech Connect

A conceptual framework for certification of fish production and monitoring facilities including software templates to expedite implementation of the framework are presented. The framework is based on well established and widely utilized project management techniques. The implementation templates are overlays for Microsoft Professional Office software products: Excel, Word, and Project. Use of the software templates requires Microsoft Professional Office. The certification framework integrates two classical project management processes with a third process for facility certification. These processes are: (1) organization and definition of the project, (2) acquisition and organization of project documentation, and (3) facility certification. The certification process consists of systematic review of the production processes and the characteristics of the produced product. The criteria for certification review are the plans and specifications for the products and production processes that guided development of the facility. The facility is certified when the production processes are operating as designed and the product produced meets specifications. Within this framework, certification is a performance based process, not dissimilar from that practiced in many professions and required for many process, or a product meets professional/industry standards of performance. In the case of fish production facilities, the certifying authority may be diffuse, consisting of many entities acting through a process such as NEPA. A cornerstone of certification is accountability, over the long term, for the operation and products of a facility. This is particularly important for fish production facilities where the overall goal of the facility may require decades to accomplish.

Carlson, Thomas J.; Costello, Ronald J.

1997-06-01

439

Death Obsession in Palestinians  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors explored death obsession level and correlates among a sample (N=601) of Palestinians living in the city of Beit Jala, the village of Al-Khader, and the Aida refugee camp in the Bethlehem area. They live in war conditions; the houses of half of them have been demolished. The Death Obsession Scale (DOS) was administered. Its alpha…

Abdel-Khalek, Ahmed M.; Al-Arja, Nahida S.; Abdalla, Taysir

2006-01-01

440

Conflicting Thoughts about Death  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Most research on children's conception of death has probed their understanding of its biological aspects: its inevitability, irreversibility and terminal impact. Yet many adults subscribe to a religious conception implying that death marks the beginning of a new life. Two recent empirical studies confirm that in the course of development, children…

Harris, Paul L.

2011-01-01

441

Death Writ Large  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Mainstream thanatology has devoted its efforts to improving the understanding, care, and social integration of people who are confronted with life-threatening illness or bereavement. This article suggests that it might now be time to expand the scope and mission to include large-scale death and death that occurs through complex and multi-domain…

Kastenbaum, Robert

2004-01-01

442

Sudden cardiac death  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rate of cardiac deaths that are sudden is approximately 50%, and decreases with age. The causes of sudden cardiac death are diverse, and are a function of age. In children and adolescents, coronary anomalies, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and myocarditis are frequent substrates for lethal arrhythmias; in adults, coronary atherosclerosis and acquired forms of cardiomyopathy are the most common findings at

Renu Virmani; Allen P Burke; Andrew Farb

2001-01-01

443

Death Acceptance Through Ritual  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article summarizes the author's original research, which sought to discover the elements necessary for using death-related ritual as a psychotherapeutic technique for grieving people who experience their grief as “stuck,” “unending,” “maladaptive,” and so on. A death-related ritual is defined as a ceremony, directly involving at least 1 person and the symbols of the loss, and usually directly and

Nancy C. Reeves

2011-01-01

444

Death Acceptance through Ritual  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article summarizes the author's original research, which sought to discover the elements necessary for using death-related ritual as a psychotherapeutic technique for grieving people who experience their grief as "stuck," "unending," "maladaptive," and so on. A "death-related ritual" is defined as a ceremony, directly involving at least 1…

Reeves, Nancy C.

2011-01-01

445

Death Ritual: Anthropological  

Microsoft Academic Search

In all societies, when a person dies, family, friends, and neighbors respond in structured, patterned ways to the death. Cultural guidelines determine the treatment and disposal of the body and prescribe a period of mourning for close relatives. Death ritual, like much of human behavior, is an expression of a cultural blueprint, of attitudes, values and ideals passed down by

Perspectives Milton Cohen

446

Death with dignity.  

PubMed

The concept of death with dignity evolves over a nurse's career. A new nurse focuses on the patient as a person. As the nurse gains experience, she facilitates family grieving. As a seasoned professional, the nurse emphasizes the dignity that, through effective nursing, can be restored to dying. Preservation of dignity is found in the way we honor death. PMID:21140873

Mathiews, Ann Kimberlin

2010-01-01

447

Death with dignity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this article is to develop a conception of death with dignity and to examine whether it is vulnerable to the sort of criticisms that have been made of other conceptions. In this conception “death” is taken to apply to the process of dying; “dignity” is taken to be something that attaches to people because of their personal

Peter Allmark

2002-01-01

448

Death of white holes  

Microsoft Academic Search

We critically review Eardley's argument which shows that, due to accretion, white holes are eventually converted into black holes-the death of white holes. While Eardley's main conclusions remain unscathed, we question some of the details of his analysis. We argue, together with Lake and Roeder, and Blau, that the death of white holes is caused by the gravitational effects of

Claude Barrabès; Patrick R. Brady; Eric Poisson

1993-01-01

449

Near-death experiences.  

PubMed Central

Reactions to claims of near-death experiences (NDE) range from the popular view that this must be evidence for life after death, to outright rejection of the experiences as, at best, drug induced hallucinations or, at worse, pure invention. Twenty years, and much research, later, it is clear that neither extreme is correct. PMID:8683504

Blackmore, S J

1996-01-01

450

Physician-assisted death.  

PubMed Central

Physician-assisted death includes both euthanasia and assistance in suicide. The CMA urges its members to adhere to the principles of palliative care. It does not support euthanasia and assisted suicide. The following policy summary includes definitions of euthanasia and assisted suicide, background information, basic ethical principles and physician concerns about legalization of physician-assisted death. PMID:7632208

1995-01-01

451

Death in Denmark  

Microsoft Academic Search

Does it matter that the hearts of 'brainstem dead' patients may persist in beating spontaneously? Hostile reactions, to the Danish inclusion of cardiac criteria in the determination of death, betray reductionist views of human life at the core of 'brainstem' conceptions of death. Such views (whether centred on neurological function or on abstractions concerning 'personhood') supplant the richness of human

M Evans

1990-01-01

452

Programmed cell death  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this conference to provide a multidisciplinary forum for exchange of state-of-the-art information on the role programmed cell death plays in normal development and homeostasis of many organisms. This volume contains abstracts of papers in the following areas: invertebrate development; immunology/neurology; bcl-2 family; biochemistry; programmed cell death in viruses; oncogenesis; vertebrate development; and diseases.

NONE

1995-12-31

453

TRACEABILITY AND CERTIFICATION IN MEAT SUPPLY CHAINS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Food safety problems such as the BSE and dioxin crises focused attention on traceability systems and the certification of such systems. This study analyzes the status and perspectives of traceability systems and certification schemes, and reviews their potential costs and benefits. Results indicate that traceability and certification in meat supply chains comprise a very dynamic area with an increasing impact.

Miranda P. M. Meuwissen; Annet G. J. Velthuis; Henk Hogeveen; Ruud B. M. Huirne

2003-01-01

454

UK Dental Care Certificate of Coverage  

E-print Network

UK Dental Care Certificate of Coverage July 2013 ­ June 2014 www.mc.uky.edu/Dentistry/patients/ukdental.html #12;UK Dental Care Plans Certificate of Coverage Employee Benefit Booklet This Certificate is issued and administered by UK Dental Care plans, for persons who have selected the UK Dental Care plan benefit structure

Hayes, Jane E.

455

Certification and the Branding of HRD  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although calls continue to establish certification, several certifications for human resource development (HRD) practitioners already exist, although none use the name HRD. This Forum explores what those certification programs are and what their availability means to the development of the HRD "brand" (the impressions of the service derived from…

Carliner, Saul

2012-01-01

456

ISO 9000 series - Certification and performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, the relationship is studied between certification on the ISO 9000 series and the performance of organizations. It is often claimed that ISO certification generates an improvement in the performance of organizations. This research aims to find out if ISO certification indeed results in better performance outcomes for organizations. This is of importance, for example, for those organizations

Jeroen Singels; Gwenny Ruël; Henny van de Water

2001-01-01

457

ARTS LEADERSHIP Graduate Academic Certificate Program  

E-print Network

ARTS LEADERSHIP Graduate Academic Certificate Program The Certificate in Arts Leadership leadership. Within a broad definition of leadership as "a process whereby an individual influences a group of individuals to achieve a common goal," the Certificate in Arts Leadership addresses four essential components

Mohanty, Saraju P.

458

46 CFR 109.439 - Crane certificates.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Crane certificates. 109.439 Section 109...and Records Records § 109.439 Crane certificates. The master or person...following certificates and records for each crane are maintained on the unit: (a)...

2011-10-01

459

46 CFR 109.439 - Crane certificates.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Crane certificates. 109.439 Section 109...and Records Records § 109.439 Crane certificates. The master or person...following certificates and records for each crane are maintained on the unit: (a)...

2012-10-01

460

46 CFR 109.439 - Crane certificates.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Crane certificates. 109.439 Section 109...and Records Records § 109.439 Crane certificates. The master or person...following certificates and records for each crane are maintained on the unit: (a)...

2010-10-01

461

46 CFR 109.439 - Crane certificates.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Crane certificates. 109.439 Section 109...and Records Records § 109.439 Crane certificates. The master or person...following certificates and records for each crane are maintained on the unit: (a)...

2013-10-01

462

Request for Replacement Award (Certificate/Testamur)  

E-print Network

Declaration (outlining the reasons for loss or destruction of the original certificate) MUST accompany Express Post $20 EMS International Courier $35 Reason for Request Lost, stolen or destroyed Damaged certified as a true copy must be attached (ie Passport, Birth certificate, Deed Poll, Marriage certificate

Blows, Mark

463

Market Benefits of Chain of Custody Certification  

E-print Network

in accordance with a set of #12;122 Toshiaki Owari and Yoshihide Sawanobori standards considered environmentally certificate holders are mainly located in Europe and North America, Japan grants the largest number has dominated certification schemes in Japan, issuing more than 90% of all certificates. The chain

464

40 CFR 86.437-78 - Certification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...assure that any new motorcycle covered by the certificate...manufacturer may request a hearing on the Administrator's...does not request a hearing or present the required...certification. (b) New motorcycles produced by a manufacturer...assure that any new motorcycle covered by the certificate...manufacturer may request a hearing on the......

2010-07-01

465

Digital certificates: a survey of revocation methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Digital certificates form a basis that allows entities to trust each other. Due to different constraints, a certificate is only valid within a specific period of time. Coming from several threats, there are important reasons why its validity must be terminated sooner than assigned and thus, the certificate needs to be revoked. This paper provides a classification of revocation methods

Petra Wohlmacher

2000-01-01

466

EE Certification: Making Best Practice Standard Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Pursuing environmental education certification is difficult, so why do it? What does it mean to be certified? Who benefits? How? These are just a few of the compelling questions addressed in "EE Certification: Making Best Practice Standard Practice," a new article exploring advancements and challenges in state and national EE certification. A…

Glenn, Joanne M. Lozar

2006-01-01

467

Pennsylvania Nutrient Management Specialist Certification Program  

E-print Network

v.06.2011 Pennsylvania Nutrient Management Specialist Certification Program Certification Trainings the PAPlants program (https://www.paplants.state.pa.us/). In order to use the PAPlants program, registrants must be enrolled in the Nutrient Management Certification Program administered by the Pennsylvania

Guiltinan, Mark

468

Pennsylvania Nutrient Management Specialist Certification Training Program  

E-print Network

v.09.2013 Pennsylvania Nutrient Management Specialist Certification Training Program Certification the PAPlants program (https://www.paplants.state.pa.us/). In order to use the PAPlants program, registrants must be enrolled in the Nutrient Management Certification Program administered by the Pennsylvania

Guiltinan, Mark

469

[Causes of death of German refugee children in 1945].  

PubMed

In the last months of the second World War, 250,000 German refugees landed in Denmark. A third of them were children under the age of 15. Seven thousand German refugee children under the age of five died in Denmark in 1945. Using birth certificates and death certificates from the Danish national archives and burial lists from the German refugee cemetaries I have collected data to reveal causes of death, age distributions and time of the deaths of the 7000 fatal cases among children under the age of five. Three thousand children under the age of one, 2000 children one year old and 2000 children 2-4 years old died. Most of them died just before and after the German surrender, but many died in the months following the German surrender. The infant mortality was extremely high all during 1945. The infants died from diseases due to malnutrition, but the older the children the more likely the causes of death were due to infectious diseases such as pneumonia, measles, diphtheria and gastroenteritis. PMID:10741229

Lylloff, K

2000-02-28

470

Certification, accreditation, and quality control in behavior analysis  

PubMed Central

Implementing quality control measures in the discipline and professional practice of behavior analysis is a challenging, but nevertheless important, step in the evolution of our field. The Association for Behavior Analysis currently seeks to ensure quality in behavior analysis by sponsoring an accreditation program for graduate academic programs and by promoting certification of individual practitioners. The accreditation reviews are conducted by ABA, whereas certification status is awarded by an independent, nonprofit credentialing entity: the Behavior Analyst Certification Board, Inc. Among the challenges that ABA faces as it pursues various quality control measures, particularly in its educational programs, are (a) how extensively should academic programs specify the verbal and nonverbal terminal repertoires in all three branches of behavior analysis (applied, experimental, and conceptual); (b) how extensively should programs that emphasize applied behavior analysis integrate science-based criteria for the evaluation of interventions; and (c) how extensively should programs that emphasize service delivery include training in formal research methodology. PMID:22478354

Moore, J.; Shook, G. L.

2001-01-01

471

Fundamentals of Programming Certificate Graduate Certificate 18 Credits  

E-print Network

and Analysis One course per quarter, evenings, two nights a week CAREER CHANGE TO COMPUTER SCIENCE Starting in the summer of 2014 Computer Science & Software Engineering at Seattle University will offer a "Career Change. Fundamentals of Programming Graduate Certificate 3. Master of Science in Computer Science Program Admission

Carter, John

472

Life or death  

PubMed Central

The tumor suppressor p53 provides exquisite protection from cancer by balancing cell survival and death in response to stress. Sustained stress or irreparable damage trigger p53's killer functions to permanently eliminate genetically-altered cells as a potential source of cancer. To prevent the unnecessary loss of cells that could cause premature aging as a result of stem cell attrition, the killer functions of p53 are tightly regulated and balanced against protector functions that promote damage repair and support survival in response to low stress or mild damage. In molecular terms these p53-based cell fate decisions involve protein interactions with cofactors and modifying enzymes, which modulate the activation of distinct sets of p53 target genes. In addition, we demonstrate that part of this regulation occurs at the level of DNA binding. We show that the killer function of p53 requires the four DNA binding domains within the p53 tetramer to interact with one another. These intermolecular interactions enable cooperative binding of p53 to less perfect response elements in the genome, which are present in many target genes essential for apoptosis. Modulating p53 interactions within the tetramer could therefore present a novel promising strategy to fine-tune p53-based cell fate decisions. PMID:20948308

Schlereth, Katharina; Charles, Joel P; Bretz, Anne C

2010-01-01

473

Preventing deaths from rising opioid overdose in the US – the promise of naloxone antidote in community-based naloxone take-home programs  

PubMed Central

The opioid overdose epidemic is an alarming and serious public health problem in the United States (US) that has been escalating for 11 years. The 2011 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) demonstrated that 1 in 20 persons in the US aged 12 or older reported nonmedical use of prescription painkillers in the past year. Prescription drug overdose is now the leading cause of accidental death in the United States – surpassing motor vehicle accidents. Great efforts have been initiated to curb the overdose crisis. Notable examples of these efforts are (1) the Drug Enforcement Administration’s (DEA) National Take-Back Initiative instituted in 2010; (2) the Prescription Drug Monitoring Programs (PDMPs) implemented in most US states to provide practitioners with point-of-care information regarding a patient’s controlled substance use; (3) the naloxone rescue programs initiated in the community to avert mortality resulting from overdose. The use of naloxone rescue strategies has gained traction as an effective measure to prevent fatal opioid overdose. Many US federal-government agencies are working to make these strategies more accessible to first responders and community participants. This new approach faces many challenges, such as accessibility to naloxone and the equipment and training needed to administer it, but none is more challenging than the fear of legal repercussions. US federal-government agencies, local governments, health care institutions, and community-based organizations have begun to tackle these barriers, and naloxone take-home programs have gained recognition as a feasible and sensible preventive strategy to avoid a fatal result from opioid overdose. Although many challenges still need to be overcome, it is important for federal government research agencies to initiate and support independent and rigorous evaluation of these programs to inform policymakers how effective these programs can be to save lives and curb the opioid overdose public health crisis. PMID:24273417

Straus, Michele M; Ghitza, Udi E; Tai, Betty

2013-01-01

474

Analysis of the bereavement effect after the death of a spouse in the Amish: a population-based retrospective cohort study  

PubMed Central

Objective This study investigates the association between bereavement and the mortality of a surviving spouse among Amish couples. We hypothesised that the bereavement effect would be relatively small in the Amish due to the unusually cohesive social structure of the Amish that might attenuate the loss of spousal support. Design Population-based cohort study. Setting The USA. Participants 10?892 Amish couples born during 1725–1900 located in Pennsylvania, Ohio and Indiana. All the participants are deceased. Outcome measures The survival time is ‘age’; event is ‘death’. Hazard ratios (HRs) of widowed individuals with respect to gender, age at widowhood, remarriage, the number of surviving children and time since bereavement. Results We observed HRs for widowhood ranging from 1.06 to 1.26 over the study period (nearly all differences significant at p<0.05). Mortality risks tended to be higher in men than in women and in younger compared with older bereaved spouses. There were significantly increased mortality risks in widows and widowers who did not remarry. We observed a higher number of surviving children to be associated with increased mortality in men and women. Mortality risk following bereavement was higher in the first 6?months among men and women. Conclusions We conclude that bereavement effects remain apparent even in this socially cohesive Amish community. Remarriage is associated with a significant decrease in the mortality risk among Amish individuals. Contrary to results from previous studies, an increase in the number of surviving children was associated with decreased survival rate. PMID:24435888

Seifter, Ari; Singh, Sarabdeep; McArdle, Patrick F; Ryan, Kathleen A; Shuldiner, Alan R; Mitchell, Braxton D; Schaffer, Alejandro A

2014-01-01

475

Verbal autopsy of 48 000 adult deaths attributable to medical causes in Chennai (formerly Madras), India  

PubMed Central

Background In the city of Chennai, India, registration of the fact of death is almost complete but the cause of death is often inadequately recorded on the death certificate. A special verbal autopsy (VA) study of 48 000 adult deaths in Chennai during 1995–97 was conducted to arrive at the probable underlying cause of death and to measure cause specific mortality rates for Chennai. Methods Trained non-medical graduates with at least 15 years of formal education interviewed the surviving family members or an associate of the deceased to write a report on the complaints, symptoms, signs, duration and treatment details of illness prior to death. Each report was reviewed centrally by two physicians independently. The reliability was assessed by comparing deaths attributed to cancer by VA with records in Vital Statistics Department and Chennai Cancer Registry. Results The VA reduced the proportion of deaths attributed to unspecified medical causes and unknown causes from 37% to 7% in early adult life and middle age (25–69 yrs) and has yielded fewer unspecified causes (only 10%) than the death certificate. The sensitivity of VA to identify cancer was 94% in the age group 25–69. Conclusion VA is practicable for deaths in early adult life or middle age and is of more limited value in old age. A systematic program of VA of a representative sample of deaths could assign broad causes not only to deaths in childhood (as has previously been established) but also to deaths in early adult life and middle age. PMID:12014994

Gajalakshmi, Vendhan; Peto, Richard; Kanaka, Santhanakrishnan; Balasubramanian, Sivagurunathan

2002-01-01

476

Death of Salmonella, Escherichia coli O157:H7, and Listeria monocytogenes in shelf-stable, dairy-based, pourable salad dressings.  

PubMed

The objectives of this study were to determine the death rates of Salmonella, Escherichia coli O157:H7, and Listeria monocytogenes in three commercially manufactured full-fat ranch salad dressings, three reduced-fat ranch salad dressings, two full-fat blue cheese salad dressings, and two reduced-fat blue cheese salad dressings and to affirm the expectation that these dressings do not support the growth of these pathogens. The respective initial pH values of the four types of shelf-stable, dairy-based, pourable dressings were 2.87 to 3.72, 2.82 to 3.19, 3.08 to 3.87, and 2.83 to 3.49, respectively. Dressings were inoculated with low (2.4 to 2.5 log CFU/g) and high (5.3 to 5.9 log CFU/g) populations of separate five-strain mixtures of each pathogen and stored at 25 degrees C for up to 15 days. Regardless of the initial inoculum population, all test pathogens rapidly died in all salad dressings. Salmonella was undetectable by enrichment (<1 CFU/25-ml sample in three replicate trials) in all salad dressings within 1 day, and E. coli O157:H7 and L. monocytogenes were reduced to undetectable levels by enrichment between 1 and 8 days and 2 and 8 days, respectively. E. coli O157:H7 was not detected in 4 of the 10 salad dressings stored for 2 or more days and 9 of the 10 dressings stored for 6 or more days after inoculation. L. monocytogenes was detected in 9 of the 10 salad dressings stored for 3 days but in only one dressing, by enrichment, at 6 days, indicating that it had the highest tolerance among the three pathogens to the acidic environment imposed by the dressings. Overall, the type of dressing (i.e., ranch versus blue cheese) and level of fat in the dressings did not have a marked effect on the rate of inactivation of pathogens. Total counts and populations of lactic acid bacteria and yeasts and molds remained low or undetectable (<1.0 log CFU/ml) throughout the 15-day storage period. Based on these observations, shelf-stable, dairy-based, pourable ranch and blue cheese salad dressings manufactured by three companies and stored at 25 degrees C do not support the growth of Salmonella, E. coli O157:H7, and L. monocytogenes and should not be considered as potentially hazardous foods (time-temperature control for safety foods) as defined by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration Food Code. PMID:16629022

Beuchat, Larry R; Ryu, Jee-Hoon; Adler, Barbara B; Harrison, M David

2006-04-01

477

ServSafe Food Protection Manager Certification Training  

E-print Network

ServSafe® Food Protection Manager Certification Training for Retail Food Establishments and Cottage Food Producers (2013) If you have a disability for which you seek an ac- commodation, please no- tify meets the requirement for individuals wanting to produce and sell home-based food products in accordance

Stephens, Graeme L.

478

Total quality management, ISO 9000 certification and performance improvement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Records the research on the relationship between TQM, ISO 9000 certification and business performance improvement. The research is based on a survey conducted in Norway. Finds that the TQM criteria (or enablers) such as quality leadership, human resource development, quality information, etc. contribute to the improvement of customer satisfaction and business performance. However, none of these TQM enablers can guarantee

Hongyi Sun

2000-01-01

479

The FLES Methods Course: Key to K-12 Certification.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the components of a foreign language in the elementary school methods course in a state where K-12 certification in second languages is now mandated, describing course emphasis on integrated or content-based instruction, second-language acquisition, a practicum allowing participants to demonstrate innovative teaching techniques, and…

Mitchell, Jane Tucker; Redmond, Mary Lynn

1991-01-01

480

Computational Science and Engineering Certification for Computer Science  

E-print Network

steering committee representative of the CS department** or one of the CSE affiliated Computer ScienceComputational Science and Engineering Certification for Computer Science The Computational Science a solid base in problem solving using computation as a major tool for modeling complicated problems

Gilbert, Matthew

481

Classification of cell death  

PubMed Central

Different types of cell death are often defined by morphological criteria, without a clear reference to precise biochemical mechanisms. The Nomenclature Committee on Cell Death (NCCD) proposes unified criteria for the definition of cell death and of its different morphologies, while formulating several caveats against the misuse of words and concepts that slow down progress in the area of cell death research. Authors, reviewers and editors of scientific periodicals are invited to abandon expressions like ‘percentage apoptosis’ and to replace them with more accurate descriptions of the biochemical and cellular parameters that are actually measured. Moreover, at the present stage, it should be accepted that caspase-independent mechanisms can cooperate with (or substitute for) caspases in the execution of lethal signaling pathways and that ‘autophagic cell death’ is a type of cell death occurring together with (but not necessarily by) autophagic vacuolization. This study details the 2009 recommendations of the NCCD on the use of cell death-related terminology including ‘entosis’, ‘mitotic catastrophe’, ‘necrosis’, ‘necroptosis’ and ‘pyroptosis’. PMID:18846107

Kroemer, G; Galluzzi, L; Vandenabeele, P; Abrams, J; Alnemri, ES; Baehrecke, EH; Blagosklonny, MV; El-Deiry, WS; Golstein, P; Green, DR; Hengartner, M; Knight, RA; Kumar, S; Lipton, SA; Malorni, W; Nunez, G; Peter, ME; Tschopp, J; Yuan, J; Piacentini, M; Zhivotovsky, B; Melino, G

2009-01-01

482

Using verbal autopsy to measure causes of death: the comparative performance of existing methods  

PubMed Central

Background Monitoring progress with disease and injury reduction in many populations will require widespread use of verbal autopsy (VA). Multiple methods have been developed for assigning cause of death from a VA but their application is restricted by uncertainty about their reliability. Methods We investigated the validity of five automated VA methods for assigning cause of death: InterVA-4, Random Forest (RF), Simplified Symptom Pattern (SSP), Tariff method (Tariff), and King-Lu (KL), in addition to physician review of VA forms (PCVA), based on 12,535 cases from diverse populations for which the true cause of death had been reliably established. For adults, children, neonates and stillbirths, performance was assessed separately for individuals using sensitivity, specificity, Kappa, and chance-corrected concordance (CCC) and for populations using cause specific mortality fraction (CSMF) accuracy, with and without additional diagnostic information from prior contact with health services. A total of 500 train-test splits were used to ensure that results are robust to variation in the underlying cause of death distribution. Results Three automated diagnostic methods, Tariff, SSP, and RF, but not InterVA-4, performed better than physician review in all age groups, study sites, and for the majority of causes of death studied. For adults, CSMF accuracy ranged from 0.764 to 0.770, compared with 0.680 for PCVA and 0.625 for InterVA; CCC varied from 49.2% to 54.1%, compared with 42.2% for PCVA, and 23.8% for InterVA. For children, CSMF accuracy was 0.783 for Tariff, 0.678 for PCVA, and 0.520 for InterVA; CCC was 52.5% for Tariff, 44.5% for PCVA, and 30.3% for InterVA. For neonates, CSMF accuracy was 0.817 for Tariff, 0.719 for PCVA, and 0.629 for InterVA; CCC varied from 47.3% to 50.3% for the three automated methods, 29.3% for PCVA, and 19.4% for InterVA. The method with the highest sensitivity for a specific cause varied by cause. Conclusions Physician review of verbal autopsy questionnaires is less accurate than automated methods in determining both individual and population causes of death. Overall, Tariff performs as well or better than other methods and should be widely applied in routine mortality surveillance systems with poor cause of death certification practices. PMID:24405531

2014-01-01

483

Certification of Financial Aid Administrators  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The certification of financial aid administrators has been debated for over 37 years. A job satisfaction survey conducted by the National Association of Student Financial Aid Administrators (NASFAA, 2008a) revealed that college and university administrators' perceptions of the efficiency, effectiveness, and quality of the services provided by the…

Peterson, Stacey A.

2011-01-01

484

Student Medical Certificate STUDENT NUMBER: ______________________  

E-print Network

Student Medical Certificate STUDENT NUMBER: ______________________ I. TO BE COMPLETED BY STUDENT: I Date II. TO BE COMPLETED BY PHYSICIAN/NURSE PRACTITIONER When completing this form, please keep in mind that the student "was seen for medical reasons" or "was ill."] : [Note to Physician/Nurse Practitioner: I hereby

Lennard, William N.

485

Training for Certification: Seed Treatment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Cooperative Extension Service publication from Mississippi State University is a training guide for commercial pesticide applicators. Focusing specifically on the treatment of seeds with pesticides, this publication is meant to prepare one to take the written examination for Environmental Protection Agency Seed Treatment certification.…

Mississippi State Univ., State College. Cooperative Extension Service.

486

Certification Program Bridgeport Conference Center  

E-print Network

is a certification course that increases the geriatrics competency of all health professionals who care for and-social and ethical issues as well as interprofessional models of care. Target Audience: Physicians, Physician Assistants, Pharmacists, Nurses, Social Workers and others who are actively caring for and/or working

Mohaghegh, Shahab

487

SAFETY ASSESSMENT & CERTIFICATION FOR UAS  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part of the certification process to gain clearance to operate in unsegregated airspace, new UASs will require a robust Safety Assessment process. The authors have looked at the civil manned aircraft safety assessment process defined in ARP 4761 and the safety certi fication process in ARP4754, as used to demonstrate compliance with EASA \\/ FAA safety target requirements, in

Andrew R Evans; Mark Nicholson

488

PESTICIDE APPLICATOR CERTIFICATION MANUALS INSTRUCTIONS  

E-print Network

ORDER FORM PESTICIDE APPLICATOR CERTIFICATION MANUALS INSTRUCTIONS: All certified applicators $ Manuals are sent at a book rate (3rd Class). Allow 5 to 7 days for delivery. Please contact the Pesticide supervises the use of any restricted use pesticide for purposes of producing any agricultural commodity

Balasundaram, Balabhaskar "Baski"

489

PROGRAMME HANDBOOK FOUNDATION CERTIFICATE IN  

E-print Network

PROGRAMME HANDBOOK FOUNDATION CERTIFICATE IN ECONOMICS, FINANCE AND MANAGEMENT (FEFM) COHORT 1, write, speak and listen to the English language. Our Foundation Programme has been designed with great wish you a very happy stay in Exeter and look forward to working with you. John Hoskin Programme

Mumby, Peter J.

490

Divorce Certificate The marriage between  

E-print Network

Divorce Certificate The marriage between Ivanov last name Ivan Ivanovich first name, patronymic the Citizen of Russia citizenship and ethnicity(if indicated in the record in divorce registry) May 1, 1981, patronymic citizenship and ethnicity(if indicated in the record in divorce registry) date of birth

Comech, Andrew

491

CERTIFICATE PROGRAM Community Economic Development  

E-print Network

and social media. & A sustainable local economy is a complex system of exchanges, built on reciprocitySFU CERTIFICATE PROGRAM Community Economic Development GET THE SKILLS, KNOWLEDGE, NETWORKS TO BUILD SUSTAINABLE LOCAL ECONOMIES access to the most effective and efficient strategies access to hundreds of case

Kavanagh, Karen L.

492

Pre-Medical Studies Certificate  

E-print Network

or already hold a bachelor's degree in any discipline. Career Opportunities Most students use the knowledge. Others go into research, public health admin