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1

Improving the accuracy of death certification  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: Population-based mortality statistics are derived from the information recorded on death certificates. This information is used for many important purposes, such as the development of public health programs and the allocation of health care resources. Although most physicians are confronted with the task of completing death certificates, many do not receive adequate training in this skill. Resulting inaccuracies in information undermine the quality of the data derived from death certificates. METHODS: An educational intervention was designed and implemented to improve internal medicine residents' accuracy in death certificate completion. A total of 229 death certificates (146 completed before and 83 completed after the intervention) were audited for major and minor errors, and the rates of errors before and after the intervention were compared. RESULTS: Major errors were identified on 32.9% of the death certificates completed before the intervention, a rate comparable to previously reported rates for internal medicine services in teaching hospitals. Following the intervention the major error rate decreased to 15.7% (p = 0.01). The reduction in the major error rate was accounted for by significant reductions in the rate of listing of mechanism of death without a legitimate underlying cause of death (15.8% v. 4.8%) (p = 0.01) and the rate of improper sequencing of death certificate information (15.8% v. 6.0%) (p = 0.03). INTERPRETATION: Errors are common in the completion of death certificates in the inpatient teaching hospital setting. The accuracy of death certification can be improved with the implementation of a simple educational intervention.

Myers, K A; Farquhar, D R

1998-01-01

2

Current burden of sudden cardiac death: Multiple source surveillance versus retrospective death certificate-based review in a large U.S. community  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVES We sought to determine the annual incidence of sudden cardiac death (SCD) in the general population using a prospective approach. To assess the validity of retrospective surveillance, a simultaneous comparison was made with a death certificate-based method of determining SCD incidence. BACKGROUND Accurate surveillance and characterization of SCD in the general population is likely to significantly facilitate current and

Sumeet S. Chugh; Jonathan Jui; Karen Gunson; Eric C. Stecker; Benjamin T. John; Barbara Thompson; Nasreen Ilias; Catherine Vickers; Vivek Dogra; Mohamud Daya; Jack Kron; Zhi-Jie Zheng; George Mensah; John McAnulty

2004-01-01

3

Esophageal cancer among Brazilian agricultural workers: case-control study based on death certificates.  

PubMed

Several studies suggest that agricultural workers are at higher risk to develop and die by certain types of cancer. Esophageal cancer is not commonly listed among these types. However, some recent studies indicated that if there is an association between agricultural working and esophageal cancer, it s more likely to be observed among workers highly exposed to pesticides. In the present study, the magnitude of the association between agricultural working and esophageal cancer mortality was evaluated in a high pesticide use area in Brazil, through a death certificate-based case-control study. Cases were individuals from both genders, 30-59 years old, for whom basic cause of death was ascertained as cancer of the esophagus. For each case, one control was randomly selected from all possible controls for which the basic cause of death was ascertained as different from neoplasm and diseases of the digestive system. In addition, controls matched their cases by sex, age, year of death, and state of residence. Crude and adjusted odds ratios were then calculated to estimate the magnitude of the risk. Results showed that, in general, agricultural workers were at significantly higher risk to die by esophageal cancer, when compared to non-agricultural workers. Stratified analysis also revealed that the magnitude of such risk was slightly higher among illiterate agricultural workers, and simultaneous adjustment for several covariates showed that the risk was quantitatively higher among younger southern agricultural workers. These results suggest the esophageal cancer may be included among those types of cancer etiologically associated to agricultural working. PMID:21159552

Meyer, Armando; Alexandre, Pedro Celso Braga; Chrisman, Juliana de Rezende; Markowitz, Steven B; Koifman, Rosalina Jorge; Koifman, Sergio

2011-03-01

4

The validity of death certificates: routine validation of death certification and its effects on mortality statistics.  

PubMed

The 3478 death certificates (7.1% of all annual death certificates) of this study comprise those national death certificates in 1995 submitted for validation to the panel representing both medical and nosological expertise. As such, it is highly selected and represents, from the nosological point of view, the most inconsistently filled-in portion of Finnish death certificates. The routine validation procedure is essentially based on exploitation of the extra medical information, i.e. the case history, on the Finnish death certificate form. Altogether, 2813 (80.9%) out of 3478 certificates could be adjusted at the primary panel session; the rest required further clarification. The re-assignment of cause of death by the panel and the impact of panel adjustments on the national mortality statistics is assessed here by comparing the initial death certification and the finally registered underlying cause of death grouped into ICD-9 major categories with special reference to the subcategories of neoplasm, cardiovascular disease (HVD) and unnatural death. A statistically significant decline (p<0.0001) in deaths, both in the category of symptoms, signs and ill-defined conditions and in the pulmonary circulation disease subcategory of HVD with 37.6 and 35.1%, respectively, was observed. The decrease of 11.1% in the benign or NUD neoplasm subcategory and the increase of 8.6 and 7.0% in the categories of endocrine disease, and musculo-skeletal and connective tissue disease, respectively, are essential observations as to the quality of the cause of death register. The effect on the HVD major category was practically nil. At the HVD-subcategorial level, a decrease of 14.0% for diseases of the veins and lymphatics and other circulatory diseases and an increase of 3.5% for hypertensive diseases (HYP) were the two next most obvious alterations to the diseases of the pulmonary circulation, but were without statistical significance. For ischaemic heart disease and other subcategories, the effects were minor. The unnatural deaths as a whole increased in the final statistics with only 0.9%. In the study data, categorial changes ranged from the decrease of 75.2% for symptoms, signs and ill-defined conditions to the increase of 77.3% for endocrine diseases. In conclusion, the Finnish death certificate form, death certification practices and cause of death validation procedure seem to serve the coding of causes of death for mortality statistics appropriately. The results of the study form a relevant reference background to evaluation of epidemiological studies on mortality. PMID:11056267

Lahti, R A; Penttilä, A

2001-01-01

5

Population-based estimates of mortality associated with diabetes: use of a death certificate check box in North Dakota.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: Overall and cause-specific mortality among persons with diabetes in North Dakota was estimated and compared with estimates from previous population-based studies. METHODS: Data were derived from North Dakota death certificate data, which included unique information on decedents' diabetes status and Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System estimates of the diabetic and nondiabetic adult populations of North Dakota. RESULTS: The risk of death among adults with diabetes was 2.6 (2.2, 2.9) times that of adults without diabetes. Relative risks of death among adults with diabetes were at least twice as high for heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, accidents and adverse events, and kidney disease and 70% to 80% higher for pneumonia and influenza, malignant neoplasms, arterial disease, and other causes. Risks remained substantial in the oldest age group. These findings are comparable to results of other population-based studies. CONCLUSIONS: Diabetes status information enhanced the usefulness of death certificate data in examining mortality associated with diabetes and confirms that the effect of diabetes on death is substantial.

Tierney, E F; Geiss, L S; Engelgau, M M; Thompson, T J; Schaubert, D; Shireley, L A; Vukelic, P J; McDonough, S L

2001-01-01

6

Psychiatric disorders certified on death certificates in an English population  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Psychiatric disorders are sometimes certified on death certificates, but seldom selected as the underlying cause of death.\\u000a The majority of deaths with a certified psychiatric cause are usually omitted from official mortality statistics, which are\\u000a typically based on the underlying cause alone.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Aim  To report on death rates for psychiatric disorders, as certified on death certificates, including all mentioned causes as

Michael J. Goldacre; Marie E. Duncan; Myfanwy Griffith; Paula Cook-Mozaffari

2006-01-01

7

On the influence of data source in aggregated data studies: a comparative study of suicide information based on death certificates and judicial files  

Microsoft Academic Search

STUDY OBJECTIVE--The aim was to assess the differences in suicide data obtained from different database sources. DESIGN--Death certificate based data on suicidal deaths were compared with the information obtained from the non-natural death investigation files at the Public Prosecutor's Office. SETTING--The study was confined to the time period of 1981-1984 and to the residents of the district of Leuven (Belgium)

H van de Voorde; P Hooft; U Mulkers

1993-01-01

8

Death Certificates Underestimate Infections as Proximal Causes of Death in the U.S  

PubMed Central

Background Death certificates are a primary data source for assessing the population burden of diseases; however, there are concerns regarding their accuracy. Diagnosis-Related Group (DRG) coding of a terminal hospitalization may provide an alternative view. We analyzed the rate and patterns of disagreement between death certificate data and hospital claims for patients who died during an inpatient hospitalization. Methods We studied respondents from the Health and Retirement Study (a nationally representative sample of older Americans who had an inpatient death documented in the linked Medicare claims from 1993–2007). Causes of death abstracted from death certificates were aggregated to the standard National Center for Health Statistics List of 50 Rankable Causes of Death. Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS)-DRGs were manually aggregated into a parallel classification. We then compared the two systems via 2×2, focusing on concordance. Our primary analysis was agreement between the two data sources, assessed with percentages and Cohen's kappa statistic. Results 2074 inpatient deaths were included in our analysis. 36.6% of death certificate cause-of-death codes agreed with the reason for the terminal hospitalization in the Medicare claims at the broad category level; when re-classifying DRGs without clear alignment as agreements, the concordance only increased to 61%. Overall Kappa was 0.21, or “fair.” Death certificates in this cohort redemonstrated the conventional top 3 causes of death as diseases of the heart, malignancy, and cerebrovascular disease. However, hospitalization claims data showed infections, diseases of the heart, and cerebrovascular disease as the most common diagnoses for the same terminal hospitalizations. Conclusion There are significant differences between Medicare claims and death certificate data in assigning cause of death for inpatients. The importance of infections as proximal causes of death is underestimated by current death certificate-based strategies.

Govindan, Sushant; Shapiro, Letitia; Langa, Kenneth M.; Iwashyna, Theodore J.

2014-01-01

9

Use and accuracy of state death certificates for classification of sudden cardiac deaths in high-risk populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a large cohort of patients with known or suspected coronary disease, we evaluated the characteristics of 407 patients who died after hospital discharge and tested whether the state death certificate can be used to classify deaths as sudden cardiac versus nonsudden. Compared with a paramedic classification system based on heart rhythm, the death certificate-based classification resulted in a sensitivity

Nathan R. Every; Lori Parsons; Mark A. Hlatky; Kathryn M. McDonald; David Thom; Alfred P. Hallstrom; Jenny S. Martin; W. Douglas Weaver

1997-01-01

10

Sunlight and mortality from breast, ovarian, colon, prostate, and non-melanoma skin cancer: a composite death certificate based case-control study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To explore whether mortality from female breast, ovarian, colon, and prostate cancer were negatively associated with exposure to sunlight. Methods: A death certificate based case-control study of mortality was conducted into five cancers: female breast, ovarian, colon, prostate, and non-melanoma skin cancer (as a positive control) to exam- ine associations with residential and occupational exposure to sunlight. Cases were

D M Freedman; M Dosemeci; K McGlynn

2002-01-01

11

History of smoking from the Washington State death certificate.  

PubMed

Beginning in 1988, a question added to the Washington State death certificate asked whether the decedent had smoked during the last 15 years of life. We analyzed death certificate data to evaluate the effectiveness of this question in identifying groups with high smoking rates and occupations with high rates of respiratory disease death among nonsmokers. We obtained statistical death certificate data from the Washington State Department of Health for resident deaths occurring between 1988 and 1991. Analyses included information on age, sex, race/ethnicity, marital status, underlying cause of death, high school graduation, smoking during the last 15 years of life, and occupation. Based on logistic regression analysis, we found that male sex, youth, divorced status, or death from lung cancer, chronic obstructive lung disease, or ischemic heart disease predicted a higher risk of smoking during the last 15 years of life. Hispanic ethnicity, single or widowed status, high school graduation, or death from breast cancer, diabetes, motor vehicle accidents, other accidents, or homicide predicted a lower risk of smoking. In farming occupations, there was an excess number of chronic obstructive lung disease deaths among nonsmokers. Findings from this study suggest that patterns of smoking during the last 15 years of life among decedents can provide useful public health surveillance information. The collection of risk factor information, such as smoking, should be recommended for the U.S. standard death certificate. Questions on smoking should be both simple and answerable by informants who may not have known the decedent for a lifetime. Additional studies on the accuracy of smoking history from the death certificate should be conducted. PMID:7880552

Frost, F; Tollestrup, K; Starzyk, P

1994-01-01

12

Factors associated with errors in death certificate completion  

Microsoft Academic Search

To identify characteristics of certifying physicians and the deceased that are associated with errors in death certificate completion in Taiwan, we retrospectively reviewed 4123 systematically sampled death certificates issued in 1994. Multivariate analyses were used to assess the associations of various characteristics of the certifying physicians and the deceased with four types of error. Of the 4123 death certificates reviewed,

Tsung-Hsueh Lu; Wen-Yi Shau; Tai-Pin Shih; Meng-Chih Lee; Ming-Chih Chou; Chen-Kun Lin

2001-01-01

13

Inadequacies of death certification in Beirut: who is responsible?  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To assess the completeness of data on death certificates over the past 25 years in Beirut, Lebanon, and to examine factors associated with the absence of certifiers' signatures and the non-reporting of the underlying cause of death. METHODS: A systematic 20% sample comprising 2607 death certificates covering the 1974, 1984, 1994, 1997 and 1998 registration periods was retrospectively reviewed for certification practices and missing data. FINDINGS: The information on the death certificates was almost complete in respect of all demographic characteristics of the deceased persons except for occupation and month of birth. Data relating to these variables were missing on approximately 95% and 78% of the certificates, respectively. Around half of the certificates did not carry a certifier's signature. Of those bearing such a signature, 21.6% lacked documentation of the underlying cause of death. The certifier's signature was more likely to be absent on: certificates corresponding to the younger and older age groups than on those of persons aged 15-44 years; those of females than on those of males; those of persons who had been living remotely from the registration governorate than on those of other deceased persons; and those for which there had been delays in registration exceeding six months than on certificates for which registration had been quicker. For certificates that carried the certifier's signature there was no evidence that any of the demographic characteristics of the deceased person was associated with decreased likelihood of reporting an underlying cause of death. CONCLUSION: The responsibility for failure to report causes of death in Beirut lies with families who lack an incentive to call for a physician and with certifying physicians who do not carry out this duty. The deficiencies in death certification are rectifiable. However, any changes should be sensitive to the constraints of the organizational and legal infrastructure governing death registration practices and the medical educational systems in the country.

Sibai, Abla M.; Nuwayhid, Iman; Beydoun, May; Chaaya, Monique

2002-01-01

14

Death from airways obstruction: accuracy of certification in Northern Ireland.  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: Studies of mortality from asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) have relied on death certification or registration for case finding. The aim of this study was to determine the accuracy of death certification and registration in asthma and COPD. METHODS: All death certificates in Northern Ireland for 1987 where asthma or COPD (defined as International Classification of Diseases 9th Revision (ICD9) 490, 491, 492, 496) were listed in part I or part II were identified. The following certificates were then selected for further investigation: those mentioning asthma for all ages, those mentioning COPD for ages less than 56 years, and a 50% sample of those mentioning COPD aged 56-75 years. For these selected deaths the general practitioners' case notes, hospital records, and necropsy findings were reviewed. Questionnaires detailing the clinical history and circumstances of death were completed by the general practitioner by post and by a close relative or associate of the deceased (doctor administered) if, after initial investigation, the death was likely to be due to COPD or asthma. A panel of two respiratory physicians reviewed each death and, using clinical diagnostic criteria, assessed the accuracy of the registered cause of death. RESULTS: Of 50 registered asthma deaths 43 were confirmed as being due to asthma. In nine registered deaths from COPD in cases aged less than 56 years one was confirmed as COPD, two as asthma, and six as other respiratory conditions. Of 105 registered deaths from COPD in cases aged 56-75, 42 were confirmed as COPD, 27 as asthma, eight as other respiratory conditions, and 28 as other causes. Although few errors in registration were found, 21% of certificates mentioning asthma and 38% of certificates mentioning COPD but not asthma in part I were subject to variable application of the classification rules by the registering officers. For all deaths under 75 years of age in Northern Ireland in 1987 where either asthma or COPD was mentioned anywhere on the death certificate, the estimated sensitivity and specificity of the registered cause of death in predicting the "true" cause of death were 29% and 98.6% for asthma and 69% and 70% for COPD. CONCLUSIONS: In a population of subjects where asthma or COPD was mentioned anywhere on the death certificate, the registered cause of death is a relatively poor indicator of the "true" cause of death for both asthma and COPD. Variation occurred in the application of death classification rules by registration officers. Many deaths certified and registered as COPD could have been called asthma using current standards of clinical diagnosis. In studies investigating risk factors for deaths from asthma, case finding should consider deaths registered as COPD.

Smyth, E. T.; Wright, S. C.; Evans, A. E.; Sinnamon, D. G.; MacMahon, J.

1996-01-01

15

Validation of death certificate diagnosis of out-of-hospital sudden cardiac death  

Microsoft Academic Search

The validity of death certificate diagnosis of out-of-hospital sudden cardiac death (OOH-SCD) was studied among 108,676 30- to 74-year-old residents in 5 Minnesota communities using 6-year mortality data (1985 to 1990). Among 4,244 total deaths, location of death was listed on the certificate as out of hospital in 2,035 cases. Of those, 911 were judged not to have OOH-SCD because

Carlos Iribarren; RichardS Crow; PeterJ Hannan Mstat; DavidR Jacobs; RussellV Luepker

1998-01-01

16

Factors associated with the goal of treatment in the last week of life in old compared to very old patients: a population-based death certificate survey  

PubMed Central

Background Little is known about the type of care older people of different ages receive at the end of life. The goal of treatment is an important parameter of the quality of end-of-life care. This study aims to provide an evaluation of the main goal of treatment in the last week of life of people aged 86 and older compared with those between 75 and 85 and to examine how treatment goals are associated with age. Methods Population- based cross sectional survey in Flanders, Belgium. A stratified random sample of death certificates was drawn of people who died between 1 June and 30 November 2007. The effective study sample included 3,623 deaths (response rate: 58.4%). Non-sudden deaths of patients aged 75 years and older were selected (N?=?1681). Main outcome was the main goal of treatment in the last week of life (palliative care or life-prolonging/curative treatment). Results In patients older than 75, the main goal of treatment in the last week was in the majority of cases palliative care (77.9%). Patients between 75 and 85 more often received life-prolonging/curative treatment than older patients (26.6% vs. 15.8%). Most patient and health care characteristics are similarly related to the main goal of treatment in both age groups. The patient’s age was independently related to having comfort care as the main goal of treatment. The main goal of treatment was also independently associated with the patient’s sex, cause and place of death and the time already in treatment. Conclusion Age is independently related to the main goal of treatment in the last week of life with people over 85 being more likely to receive palliative care and less likely to receive curative/life-prolonging treatment compared with those aged 75–85. This difference could be due to the patient’s wishes but could also be the result of the attitudes of care givers towards the treatment of older people.

2014-01-01

17

Death certification: a primer. Part II--The cause of death statement.  

PubMed

The cause of death statement is the core of the death certification process for the physician certifier. The World Health Organization defines the cause of death as the disease or injury that initiates a chain of events leading to death. This cause of death needs to be listed at the bottom of the cause of death statement with the events the cause of death initiated (mechanisms of death) listed above in a direct causal relationship (cause of death 'A,' initiated process 'B,' that in turn caused process 'C,' that in turn produced 'D,' that directly led to the death). In addition to the cause of death and its attendant mechanism(s) of death, the death certificate also includes an area for other significant conditions. This area is to be used for significant medical conditions that are not part of the chain of event leading from the cause of death. An example of an, other significant condition, would be metastatic breast carcinoma in an individual dying of a ruptured aortic aneurysm. The manner of death is restricted to either natural or unnatural (accident, homicide and suicide). Physicians, unless they are also acting as a coroner, are only allowed to certify natural deaths. PMID:24979983

Randall, Brad

2014-06-01

18

Pediatric Influenza-Associated Deaths in New York State: Death Certificate Coding and Comparison to Laboratory-Confirmed Deaths  

PubMed Central

Introduction. Surveillance for laboratory-confirmed influenza-associated deaths in children is used to monitor the severity of influenza at the population level and to inform influenza prevention and control policies. The goal of this study was to better estimate pediatric influenza mortality in New York state (NYS). Methods. Death certificate data were requested for all passively reported deaths and any pneumonia and influenza (P&I) coded pediatric deaths occurring between October 2004 and April 2010, excluding New York City (NYC) residents. A matching algorithm and capture-recapture analysis were used to estimate the total number of influenza-associated deaths among NYS children. Results. Thirty-four laboratory-confirmed influenza-associated pediatric deaths were reported and 67 death certificates had a P&I coded death; 16 deaths matched. No laboratory-confirmed influenza-associated death had a pneumonia code and no pneumonia coded deaths had laboratory evidence of influenza infection in their medical record. The capture-recapture analysis estimated between 38 and 126 influenza-associated pediatric deaths occurred in NYS during the study period. Conclusion. Passive surveillance for influenza-associated deaths continues to be the gold standard methodology for characterizing influenza mortality in children. Review of death certificates can complement but not replace passive reporting, by providing better estimates and detecting any missed laboratory-confirmed deaths.

Hoefer, Dina; Cherry, Bryan; Kacica, Marilyn; McClamroch, Kristi; Kilby, Kimberly

2012-01-01

19

Magnitude of discordance between registry data and death certificate when evaluating leading causes of death in dialysis patients  

PubMed Central

Background Discordance between dialysis registry and death certificate reported death has been demonstrated. Since cause of death is measured using registry data in dialysis patients and death certificate data in the general population, comparisons of cause of death proportions between dialysis patients and the general population may be biased. Our aim was to compare the proportion of deaths attributed to cardiovascular disease (CVD), malignancy, and infections between patients receiving dialysis and the general population using death certificates for both, and to quantify the magnitude of discrepancy between registry and death certificate estimates in dialysis patients. Methods A retrospective cohort study of 5858 patients initiating maintenance dialysis between 2001 and 2007 was conducted. Cause of death was obtained from both registry and death certificate data for dialysis patients, and from death certificate data for the general population. Results Compared to the general population, use of death certificate data in dialysis patients resulted in smaller differences in the proportion of deaths attributed to CVD or infection than that from the registry. In the general population, the proportion of deaths due to CVD is 29.3% for men and 28.2% for women, and the proportion of deaths due to infection is 3.3% for men and 3.6% for women. For men, the proportion of deaths in dialysis patients due to CVD using registry data is 41.5%, compared with a proportion of 32.1% using death certificate data. Similarly for women, the proportion of deaths due to CVD using registry data is 35.2% and that using death certificate data 24.3%. The proportion of deaths due to infection in dialysis patients follows the same pattern: for men, the proportion of deaths due to infection using registry data is 9.9% and that from death certificate data at 5.0%; while for women the proportions are 11.6% and 4.8%, respectively. Conclusions While absolute cause-specific mortality rates did differ, evaluation of causes of death using death certificate in dialysis patients in Quebec revealed that they do not have substantially different proportion of death due to CVD or infections than the general population. Infections appeared to be a frequent complication leading to death, suggesting that infections are an important target to consider for reducing mortality in dialysis populations.

2013-01-01

20

A Competency Based Certification System.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Carroll County Competency Based Teacher Certification (CBTC) Project is a cooperative effort of the Carroll County School System and the School of Education, West Georgia College, intended to develop a plan for identifying and measuring teacher competency areas and related teacher behaviors, and the extent to which these teacher behaviors…

Coker, Homer; Coker, Joan G.

21

Exploring the use of death certificates as a component of an occupational health surveillance system.  

PubMed Central

An effort has been made to explore a case-finding surveillance system for occupationally-related disease using death records. A sentinel health event, here lung cancer in young males, was selected to seek unusual associations with occupations as listed on the death records. Fishermen appeared to be over-represented and population studies cited suggest lung cancer in this occupation deserves further exploration. Further efforts of this type could test the usefulness of an occupational health surveillance system based on the death certificate.

Frazier, T M; Wegman, D H

1979-01-01

22

Death certificate completion skills of hospital physicians in a developing country  

PubMed Central

Background Death certificates (DC) can provide valuable health status data regarding disease incidence, prevalence and mortality in a community. It can guide local health policy and help in setting priorities. Incomplete and inaccurate DC data, on the other hand, can significantly impair the precision of a national health information database. In this study we evaluated the accuracy of death certificates at a tertiary care teaching hospital in a Karachi, Pakistan. Methods A retrospective study conducted at Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, Pakistan for a period of six months. Medical records and death certificates of all patients who died under adult medical service were studied. The demographic characteristics, administrative details, co-morbidities and cause of death from death certificates were collected using an approved standardized form. Accuracy of this information was validated using their medical records. Errors in the death certificates were classified into six categories, from 0 to 5 according to increasing severity; a grade 0 was assigned if no errors were identified, and 5, if an incorrect cause of death was attributed or placed in an improper sequence. Results 223 deaths occurred during the study period. 9 certificates were not accessible and 12 patients had incomplete medical records. 202 certificates were finally analyzed. Most frequent errors pertaining to patients’ demographics (92%) and cause/s of death (87%) were identified. 156 (77%) certificates had 3 or more errors and 124 (62%) certificates had a combination of errors that significantly changed the death certificate interpretation. Only 1% certificates were error free. Conclusion A very high rate of errors was identified in death certificates completed at our academic institution. There is a pressing need for appropriate intervention/s to resolve this important issue.

2013-01-01

23

Predictive value of death certification in the case ascertainment of epilepsy  

PubMed Central

Methods: We investigated people with epilepsy who had died, and attempted to identify factors that influence inclusion of epilepsy on the death certificate; eight factors were hypothesised and entered into a univariate logistic regression model. Results: Epilepsy was on the death certificate of 16/243 (7%) people who had had epilepsy. Factors that influenced whether or not epilepsy appeared on the certificate were seizure frequency, antiepileptic drug treatment, cause of death, and certifying physician. Factors that did not seem to influence the inclusion of epilepsy were presence of convulsive seizures, occurrence of seizures during follow up, and age at death. Conclusions: We have estimated the degree of unreliability of death certificates (as currently used in the UK) as a source of information on cause of death in epilepsy. We have found that epilepsy may not appear on death certificates even if people had active epilepsy.

Bell, G; Gaitatzis, A; Johnson, A; Sander, J

2004-01-01

24

Certification-Based Process Analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Space mission architects are often challenged with knowing which investment in technology infusion will have the highest return. Certification-based analysis (CBA) gives architects and technologists a means to communicate the risks and advantages of infusing technologies at various points in a process. Various alternatives can be compared, and requirements based on supporting streamlining or automation can be derived and levied on candidate technologies. CBA is a technique for analyzing a process and identifying potential areas of improvement. The process and analysis products are used to communicate between technologists and architects. Process means any of the standard representations of a production flow; in this case, any individual steps leading to products, which feed into other steps, until the final product is produced at the end. This sort of process is common for space mission operations, where a set of goals is reduced eventually to a fully vetted command sequence to be sent to the spacecraft. Fully vetting a product is synonymous with certification. For some types of products, this is referred to as verification and validation, and for others it is referred to as checking. Fundamentally, certification is the step in the process where one insures that a product works as intended, and contains no flaws.

Knight, Russell L.

2013-01-01

25

Occupation and bladder cancer: a death-certificate study.  

PubMed Central

Occupational statements on death certificates of 2,457 males aged 25-64 who died from bladder cancer in selected coastal and estaurine regions of England and Wales during 1965-1980 were studied. Excess mortality was found for deck and engine room crew of ships, railway workers, electrical and electronic workers, shoemakers and repairers, and tobacco workers. An excess of cases also occurred among food workers, particularly those employed in the bread and flour confectionary industry or involved in the extraction of animal and vegetable oils and fats. Use of a job-exposure matrix revealed elevated risk for occupations in which most workers were exposed to paints and pigments, benzene and cutting oils.

Dolin, P. J.; Cook-Mozaffari, P.

1992-01-01

26

Correctness of racial coding of American Indians and Alaska Natives on the Washington State death certificate.  

PubMed

Underestimation of death rates for specific races can obscure health problems and impair the ability of public programs to prevent premature death and disability. For accurate race-specific death rates, the racial classification of both the population at risk and the decreased population must be accurately ascertained. However, studies suggest that the American Indian (AI) and Alaska Native (AN) races may be not be accurately recorded on the death certificate. We performed a computerized linkage between the Indian Health Service (IHS) patient registry and the 1985-1990 computerized Washington State death certificate data. The deceased was correctly identified as AI or AN on the death certificate for 1,088 (87.2%) of 1,248 matched deaths. The majority (93%) of deceased persons identified on the death certificate as not AI or AN were listed as white. The percentage of American Indian ancestry was strongly associated with correct racial classification on the death certificate (P < .001). Birth in Washington State, membership in a large Washington State tribe, and death from an alcohol condition independently added to the likelihood of correct AI or AN racial classification. Persons who died from cancer were significantly less likely to be correctly coded as AI or AN on the death certificate. PMID:7848672

Frost, F; Tollestrup, K; Ross, A; Sabotta, E; Kimball, E

1994-01-01

27

Cause-specific mortality patterns among hospital deaths in Thailand: validating routine death certification  

PubMed Central

Background In Thailand, 35% of all deaths occur in hospitals, and the cause of death is medically certified by attending physicians. About 15% of hospital deaths are registered with nonspecific diagnoses, despite the potential for greater accuracy using information available from medical records. Further, issues arising from transcription of diagnoses from Thai to English at registration create uncertainty about the accuracy of registration data even for specified causes of death. This paper reports findings from a study to measure validity of registered diagnoses in a sample of deaths that occurred in hospitals in Thailand during 2005. Methods A sample of 4,644 hospital deaths was selected, and for each case, medical records were reviewed. A process of medical record abstraction, expert physician review, and independent adjudication for the selection and coding of underlying causes of death was used to derive reference diagnoses. Validation characteristics were computed for leading causes of hospital deaths from registration data, and misclassification patterns were identified for registration diagnoses. Study findings were used to estimate cause-specific mortality patterns for hospital deaths in Thailand. Results Adequate medical records were available for 3,316 deaths in the study sample. Losses to follow up were nondifferential by age, sex, and cause. Medical records review identified specific underlying causes for the majority of deaths that were originally assigned ill-defined causes as well as for those originally assigned to residual categories for specific cause groups. In comparison with registration data for the sample, we found an increase in the relative proportion of deaths in hospitals due to stroke, ischemic heart disease, transport accidents, HIV/AIDS, diabetes, liver diseases, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Conclusions Registration data on causes for deaths occurring in hospitals require periodic validation prior to their use for epidemiological research or public health policy. Procedures for death certification and coding of underlying causes of death need to be streamlined to improve reliability of registration data. Estimates of cause-specific mortality from this research will inform burden of disease estimation and guide interventions to reduce avoidable mortality in hospitals in Thailand.

2010-01-01

28

Death certification and epidemiological research. Medical Services Study Group of the Royal College of Physicians of London.  

PubMed Central

The cause of death shown on 191 death certificates was compared with the cause indicated by the hospital case notes, the consultants' opinions, and the necropsy findings. All 191 deaths occurred among medical hospital patients aged under 50. In 39 cases there was a major discrepancy between the two sources over the cause of death and in another 54 ther was a minor but epidemiologically important difference. Death certificates are not primarily intended for epidemiological research, but researchers often rely on them. This and other studies have shown, however, that death certificates are often inaccurate records of the cause of death--even coroner's certificates issued after a coroner's necropsy. The accuracy of death certificates might be improved if coroners consulted clinicians more closely and if senior hospital staff completed hospital death certificates.

1978-01-01

29

Increasing certification through unit-based education.  

PubMed

Certification has been identified by multiple organizations as an important component and means of elevating the level of nursing care provided to patients and demonstrating to the public that the nursing staff has subspecialty knowledge. Certification may lead to improved patient satisfaction and outcomes as well as increased nurse satisfaction and retention. Despite the known potential benefits associated with certification, institutions struggle to improve certification rates. One possible method to overcome system barriers to certification is the implementation of a unit-based study course to prepare nurses for the Certified Breast Care Nurse (CBCN) examination. Data collected by an author-developed tool as one institution created and executed a unit-based study course suggest that such an approach increased certification rates and improved disease-specific knowledge and confidence among the staff, despite no official data existing on the tool's reliability and validity. Implementation of similar programs may be successful in improving certification at other institutions seeking to raise certification rates. PMID:24675257

Fischer-Cartlidge, Erica; Mahon, Suzanne

2014-04-01

30

Does the source of death information affect cancer screening efficacy results? A study of the use of mortality review versus death certificates in four randomized trials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background Often in randomized controlled trials of cancer screening, cause of death is determined by a mortality review committee. However, little is known regarding how findings from mortality review compare to those from death certificates alone.Purpose To examine the results of four different U. S. trials of cancer screening when death certificate data only were used, as compared to results

V Paul Doria-Rose; Pamela M Marcus; Anthony B Miller; Eric J Bergstralh; Jack S Mandel; Melvyn S Tockman; Philip C Prorok

2010-01-01

31

25 CFR 15.104 - Does the agency need a death certificate to prepare a probate file?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...need a death certificate to prepare a probate file? 15.104 Section 15.104 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT...FIVE CIVILIZED TRIBES Starting the Probate Process § 15.104 Does the agency need a death certificate to...

2011-04-01

32

Job strain, hypoxia and risk of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: Results from a death certificate study.  

PubMed

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) most likely results from a multifactorial gene-environment interaction. Strenuous physical activity and occupational exposures have been suggested to play a role, and an abnormal response to hypoxia has been proposed in ALS pathogenesis. To test the hypothesis of an excess risk in occupations typically leading to intermittent hypoxia at the tissue level, we accessed a large publicly available database, including death certificates from 24 U.S. states in 1984-1998. We conducted a case-control analysis of 14,628 deaths due to ALS therein reported and 58,512 controls deceased from other selected causes of death, frequency matched by age, gender and broad geographic area. ALS risk associated with physical activity, and occupations leading to intermittent hypoxia, such as fire fighters and professional athletes, were calculated with unconditional logistic regression, adjusting by age, marital status, residence, and socioeconomic status. Physical activity in general did not show an association with ALS risk. Risk associated with occupation as a professional athlete was elevated (OR = 1.81, 99% CI 0.69-4.78), but not significantly so. Fire fighters showed a significant two-fold excess ALS risk (OR = 2.0; 99% CI 1.2-3.2). Based on our findings and the current clinical, epidemiological and experimental evidence, we suggest that occupational conditions typically leading to intermittent hypoxia, such as fire fighting, might be an ALS risk factor in subjects genetically prone to an abnormal response to hypoxia. PMID:20698805

Vanacore, Nicola; Cocco, Pierluigi; Fadda, Domenica; Dosemeci, Mustafa

2010-10-01

33

The suitability of using death certificates as a data source for cancer mortality assessment in Turkey  

PubMed Central

Aim To compare the quality of the 2008 cancer mortality data of the Istanbul Directorate of Cemeteries (IDC) with the 2008 data of International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) and Turkish Statistical Institute (TUIK), and discuss the suitability of using this databank for estimations of cancer mortality in the future. Methods We used 2008 and 2010 death records of the IDC and compared it to TUIK and IARC data. Results According to the WHO statistics, in Turkey in 2008 there were 67?255 estimated cancer deaths. As the population of Turkey was 71?517?100, the cancer mortality rate was 9.4 per 10?000. According to the IDC statistics, the cancer mortality rate in Istanbul in 2008 was 5.97 per 10?000. Conclusion IDC estimates were higher than WHO estimates probably because WHO bases its estimates on a sample group and because of the restrictions of IDC data collection method. Death certificates could be a reliable and accurate data source for mortality statistics if the problems of data collection are solved.

Ulus, Tumer; Yurtseven, Eray; Cavdar, Sabanur; Erginoz, Ethem; Erdogan, M. Sarper

2012-01-01

34

Performance-Based Teacher Certification: A Survey of The States.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report contains information on performance-based or competency-based teacher certification in each of the 50 states and the District of Columbia. The existing and/or planned requirements in each of the states for performance-based certification are listed. It is noted that a certification system is considered performance-based when it…

Roth, Robert A.

35

[Death certification and general practitioners: opinion about propositions of improvement. Qualitative survey conducted among 14 general practitioners in the Loire].  

PubMed

Death certificates are one of the sources of national mortality statistics and allow for an evaluation of public health. General practitioners regularly certify deaths but studies revealed that they had difficulties in doing it. Propositions were made to improve death certification. The objective of our study was to know family physicians opinion about death certification and about those propositions. A qualitative survey was conducted through the analysis of 14 general practitioners' interviews. Our study confirmed that family physicians had difficulties completing death certificates. It also revealed that some propositions were rejected: to go rapidly to the deceased (with a few exceptions), whole and systematic body examination, call of regular doctor, notification of violent or suspect deaths according to official texts. The reasons were practical, technical, ethical and personal, or related to an obviously natural death (especially for elderly people). Majority of general practitioners rejected electronic death certification because they found it unpractical. Other propositions were approved: a reminder, written on the death certificate, of all situations that need to be referred to a coroner, intervention of forensic pathologists for some complex cases. In our study, family physicians seem to refuse to investigate patients' death. Therefore, better collaboration between forensic pathologists and general practitioners is of prime importance: it could be organized through easier access to specialists when necessary or through an informative booklet, as suggested by some doctors in our study. The validity of these propositions needs to be confirmed. PMID:22288354

Vial-Reyt, Karine; Vallée, Josette

2011-12-01

36

Inaccuracy of Death Certificate Diagnosis of Tuberculosis and Potential Underdiagnosis of TB in a Region of High HIV Prevalence  

PubMed Central

Despite the South African antiretroviral therapy rollout, which should reduce the incidence of HIV-associated tuberculosis (TB), the number of TB-attributable deaths in KwaZuluNatal (KZN) remains high. TB is often diagnosed clinically, without microbiologic confirmation, leading to inaccurate estimates of TB-attributed deaths. This may contribute to avoidable deaths, and impact population-based TB mortality estimates. Objectives. (1) To measure the number of cases with microbiologically confirmed TB in a retrospective cohort of deceased inpatients with TB-attributed hospital deaths. (2) To estimate the rates of multi-drug resistant (MDR) and extensively drug resistant (XDR) TB in this cohort. Results. Of 2752 deaths at EDH between September 2006 and March 2007, 403 (15%) were attributed to TB on the death certificate. 176 of the TB-attributed deaths (44%) had a specimen sent for smear or culture; only 64 (36%) had a TB diagnosis confirmed by either test. Of the 39 culture-confirmed cases, 27/39 (69%) had fully susceptible TB and 27/39 (69%) had smear-negative culture-positive TB (SNTB). Two patients had drug monoresistance, three patients had MDR-TB, and one had XDR-TB. Conclusions. Most TB-attributed deaths in this cohort were not microbiologically confirmed. Of confirmed cases, most were smear-negative, culture positive and were susceptible to all first line drugs.

Liu, Theresa T.; Wilson, Douglas; Dawood, Halima; Cameron, D. William; Alvarez, Gonzalo G.

2012-01-01

37

Developing a Usage-Based Software Certification Process  

Microsoft Academic Search

The author proposes an alternative to process-based methods of assuring software quality: a certification process that will provide product-based and trustworthy quality guarantees for commercial software packages. I call the agencies that perform such certification “software certification laboratories” (SCLs). The beauty of establishing independent SCLs is that they provide a fair playing field for each publisher, assuming that each product

Jeffrey M. Voas

2000-01-01

38

Access Control based on Attribute Certificates for Medical Intranet Applications  

PubMed Central

Background Clinical information systems frequently use intranet and Internet technologies. However these technologies have emphasized sharing and not security, despite the sensitive and private nature of much health information. Digital certificates (electronic documents which recognize an entity or its attributes) can be used to control access in clinical intranet applications. Objectives To outline the need for access control in distributed clinical database systems, to describe the use of digital certificates and security policies, and to propose the architecture for a system using digital certificates, cryptography and security policy to control access to clinical intranet applications. Methods We have previously developed a security policy, DIMEDAC (Distributed Medical Database Access Control), which is compatible with emerging public key and privilege management infrastructure. In our implementation approach we propose the use of digital certificates, to be used in conjunction with DIMEDAC. Results Our proposed access control system consists of two phases: the ways users gain their security credentials; and how these credentials are used to access medical data. Three types of digital certificates are used: identity certificates for authentication; attribute certificates for authorization; and access-rule certificates for propagation of access control policy. Once a user is identified and authenticated, subsequent access decisions are based on a combination of identity and attribute certificates, with access-rule certificates providing the policy framework. Conclusions Access control in clinical intranet applications can be successfully and securely managed through the use of digital certificates and the DIMEDAC security policy.

Georgiadis, Christos; Pangalos, George; Khair, Marie

2001-01-01

39

The coding of underlying cause of death from fetal death certificates: issues and policy considerations.  

PubMed Central

Recently, plans to implement nationwide coding of underlying cause of fetal death have been promulgated. To examine the validity and potential utility of nationwide coding, this paper presents data from a five-state (Wisconsin, Arkansas, Maine, North Carolina, California) analysis of underlying causes of fetal death from vital records for 1985 through 1987. Nosological coding rules varied somewhat from state to state. Underlying causes were grouped into categories; distributions were similar for each state. Many deaths (20.3% to 32.9%) were coded as unspecified conditions. Congenital anomalies accounted for only 6.9% to 10.3% of fetal deaths, including implausible and nonspecific causes. In total, 29.5% to 42.8% of the reports were not valid or useful. To obtain better data, researchers must focus on improving fetal death reporting, which will entail the promotion of comprehensive autopsy, placental and laboratory evaluation, systematic vital records query procedures, and implementation of multiple-cause-of-fetal-death coding.

Kirby, R S

1993-01-01

40

Why are a quarter of all cancer deaths in south-east England registered by death certificate only? Factors related to death certificate only registrations in the Thames Cancer Registry between 1987 and 1989.  

PubMed Central

This paper describes the results of a study set up to investigate factors associated with the high proportions of 'death certificate only' registrations (DCOs) for all cancers registered in south-east England between 1987 and 1989 and to identify those which might be subject to registry intervention. DCOs as a proportion of all registrations (n = 162,131) were analysed by age, sex, district of residence, place of death and survival. DCO registration ratios (standardised for age and sex) were then derived for each of the 56 districts in the Thames Regions. A multiple logistic regression model was generated to estimate the effect of age at diagnosis, tumour survival and patient sex on final source of registration. To minimise the number of dummy variables needed, each of the 56 districts was ranked into quartiles: quartile 1 contained the 14 districts with the lowest age- and sex-standardised ratios for DCO registrations and quartile 4 comprised the 14 districts with the highest DCO ratios. Final source of registration was treated as a binomial trial (case notes or death certificates). The significance of associations was measured using the deviance difference as an approximate chi-square statistic. The effect of each variable on source of registration was estimated as an odds ratio. Interaction terms were also fitted. To estimate the effect of place of death on DCO registrations, a second model was generated for deceased patients only (n = 98,455, adding 'place of death' to the list of explanatory variables already used. A further interaction term was fitted to account for interaction between place of death and district quartile of residence. Around 24% of all patient deaths were registered as DCOs by the Thames Cancer Registry between 1987 and 1989. Of these, 40.9% died in an acute NHS hospital setting, 37.1% died at home, 10.4% died in hospices and 3.4% died in non-NHS hospitals. Increasing age, decreasing survival, district of residence and place of death were positively associated with death certificate registrations. The district effect was sustained in the regression model with significant positive associations shown for DHA quartile of residence. In the deceased group of patients, both district of residence and place of death were independent predictors of DCOs. Death occurring outside the acute NHS hospital setting increased the odds of being a DCO within and across district quartiles. DCOs could be reduced by better case ascertainment in some districts.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)

Pollock, A. M.; Vickers, N.

1995-01-01

41

State variation in underreporting of alcohol involvement on death certificates: motor vehicle traffic crash fatalities as an example.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT. Objective: We used motor vehicle traffic (MVT) crash fatalities as an example to examine the extent of underreporting of alcohol involvement on death certificates and state variations. Method: We compared MVT-related death certificates identified from national mortality data (Multiple Cause of Death [MCoD] data) with deaths in national traffic census data from the Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS). Because MCoD data were not individually linked to FARS data, the comparisons were at the aggregate level. Reporting ratio of alcohol involvement on death certificates was thus computed as the prevalence of any mention of alcohol-related conditions among MVT deaths in MCoD, divided by the prevalence of decedents with blood alcohol concentration (BAC) test results (not imputed) of .08% or greater in FARS. Through bivariate analysis and multiple regression, we explored state characteristics correlated with state reporting ratios. Results: Both MCoD and FARS identified about 450,000 MVT deaths in 1999-2009. Reporting ratio was only 0.16 for all traffic deaths and 0.18 for driver deaths nationally, reflecting that death certificates captured only a small percentage of MVT deaths involving BAC of .08% or more. Reporting ratio did not improve over time, even though FARS indicated that the prevalence of BAC of at least .08% in MVT deaths increased from 19.9% in 1999 to 24.2% in 2009. State reporting ratios varied widely, from 0.02 (Nevada and New Jersey) to 0.81 (Delaware). Conclusions: The comparison of MCoD with FARS revealed a large discrepancy in reporting alcohol involvement in MVT deaths and considerable state variation in the magnitude of underreporting. We suspect similar underreporting and state variations in alcohol involvement in other types of injury deaths. (J. Stud. Alcohol Drugs, 75, 299-312, 2014). PMID:24650824

Castle, I-Jen P; Yi, Hsiao-Ye; Hingson, Ralph W; White, Aaron M

2014-03-01

42

Death-certificate case-control study of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and occupation in men in North Carolina  

SciTech Connect

A death certificate-based case-control study was performed to investigate associations between occupation and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) in North Carolina. Cases consisted of 501 men who died of NHL (International Classification of Diseases codes 200 and 202) during the years 1968-1970, 1975-1977, and 1980-1982. Controls were selected from other noncancer deaths, and were frequency matched for age, year of death, and race. Occupation and industry were obtained from the death certificates and coded without knowledge of case-control status. An increased risk for men in professional, technical, and managerial occupations, compared with all others, was detected among whites (OR = 2.69, 1.95-3.72). Black men classified as having low exposures by an occupational exposure linkage system had an odds ratio of 1.74 (0.84-3.60). Because of this finding, the occupations were ranked by social class and a statistically significant linear relationship was noted in whites, with risk increasing from lower social class to upper social class. An increased risk was also detected among whites in the rubber, plastics, and synthetics industries (p = .03), and among blacks employed in machine trades occupations (OR = 3.63, 1.32-9.97) and structural work occupations (OR = 2.38, 0.93-6.05). An increased risk was also detected for black painters (p = .02), but not for whites. There was no association found between NHL and employment in the following areas: textile industry; farming; laborers; or occupations with exposures to asbestos or benzene. The association with farming was further examined in counties with high use of pesticides and herbicides, and no increased risk of NHL was detected. Cases were more likely to live in the western part of the state than the eastern. However, NHL mortality rates provided by the North Carolina State Center for Health Statistics did not confirm the relationship.

Schumacher, M.C.; Delzell, E.

1988-01-01

43

A death-certificate case-control study of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and occupation in men in North Carolina.  

PubMed

A death certificate-based case-control study was performed to investigate associations between occupation and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) in North Carolina. Cases consisted of 501 men who died of NHL (International Classification of Diseases codes 200 and 202) during the years 1968-1970, 1975-1977, and 1980-1982. Controls were selected from other noncancer deaths, and were frequency matched for age, year of death, and race. Occupation and industry were obtained from the death certificates and coded without knowledge of case-control status. An increased risk for men in professional, technical, and managerial occupations, compared with all others, was detected among whites (OR = 2.69, 1.95-3.72). Black men classified as having "low exposures" by an occupational exposure linkage system had an odds ratio of 1.74 (0.84-3.60). Because of this finding, the occupations were ranked by social class and a statistically significant linear relationship was noted in whites, with risk increasing from lower social class to upper social class. An increased risk was also detected among whites in the rubber, plastics, and synthetics industries (p = .03), and among blacks employed in machine trades occupations (OR = 3.63, 1.32-9.97) and structural work occupations (OR = 2.38, 0.93-6.05). An increased risk was also detected for black painters (p = .02), but not for whites. There was no association found between NHL and employment in the following areas: textile industry; farming; laborers; or occupations with exposures to asbestos or benzene. The association with farming was further examined in counties with high use of pesticides and herbicides, and no increased risk of NHL was detected. Cases were more likely to live in the western part of the state than the eastern. However, NHL mortality rates provided by the North Carolina State Center for Health Statistics did not confirm the relationship. PMID:3354583

Schumacher, M C; Delzell, E

1988-01-01

44

Certificate Based Access Control (CBAC) Operation and User Guide.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Certificate Based Access Control (CBAC), formerly known as Palladium, is a complete privilege management software system, to address the need for a central access control system. CBAC technology allows state and local criminal justice agencies to share in...

2003-01-01

45

Certificates.  

PubMed

The Concise Oxford English Dictionary defines 'dilemma' as "an argument forcing one to choose one of two alternatives both unfavourable to him (or her)". This is situation that frequently confronts the general practitioner. In this article a personal solution to the problem of 'certificates' is presented. Not every one will necessarily agree with the solutions presented and some may find them unacceptable, or have better solutions. The author warmly welcomes correspondence, either personal, or in the form of Letters to the Editor, as this is a subject in which consensus decisions are important. PMID:8053842

Fry, F

1994-06-01

46

Risk for prostate cancer by occupation and industry: a 24-state death certificate study.  

PubMed

Current knowledge of the etiology of prostate cancer is limited. Numerous studies have suggested that certain occupations and industries may be associated with the occurrence of prostate cancer. Information on occupation and industry on death certificates from 24 states gathered from 1984 to 1993 was used in case control study on prostate cancer. A total of 60,878 men with prostate cancer as underlying cause of death was selected and matched with controls who died of all other causes except cancer. Similar to the findings of our parallel large case control study of prostate cancer, we observed excess risks in some white-collar occupations, such as administrators, managers, teachers, engineers, and sales occupations. However, some blue-collar occupations, such as power plant operators and stationary engineers, brickmasons, machinery maintenance workers, airplane pilots, longshoreman, railroad industry workers, and other occupations with potential exposure to PAH also showed risk of excess prostate cancer. Risk was significantly decreased for blue-collar occupations, including farm workers, commercial fishermen, mechanics and repairers, structural metal workers, mining, printing, winding, dry cleaning, textile machine operators, cooks, bakers, and bartenders. Although we observed excess risks of prostate cancer among some low socioeconomic status (SES) occupations, the overall results suggest that the effects of higher SES cannot be ruled out in associations between occupational factors and the risk of prostate cancer. PMID:9787844

Krstev, S; Baris, D; Stewart, P A; Hayes, R B; Blair, A; Dosemeci, M

1998-11-01

47

Mortality from heart failure in an English population, 1979-2003: study of death certification  

PubMed Central

Objective: It is widely held that there will be an epidemic of heart failure in Europe and North America as a result of increased survival from myocardial infarction and other coronary heart disease. The study objective was to discover if the decline in mortality from coronary heart disease has been accompanied by a rise in mortality from heart failure in the study population. Design: Analysis of database of mortality records including all certified causes of death, not just the underlying cause, from 1979–2003. Setting: Former Oxford NHS Region, England. Patients: Data from death certificates of all who died in the population covered. Main results: Mortality rates for heart failure fell at very similar rates as those from coronary heart disease. In men, the average annual fall in mortality from coronary heart disease was –2.7% (95% confidence intervals –2.8 to –2.5) and that from heart failure was –2.9% (–3.2 to –2.5). In women, the average annual fall in mortality from coronary heart disease was –2.3% (–2.6 to –2.1) and that from heart failure was –2.6% (–3.0 to –2.3). Conclusions: The decline in mortality from coronary heart disease has not been accompanied by a rise in mortality from heart failure. A future epidemic of heart failure, as a consequence of the decline in mortality from coronary heart disease, seems unlikely.

Goldacre, M.; Mant, D.; Duncan, M.; Griffith, M.

2005-01-01

48

Occupation and five cancers: a case-control study using death certificates.  

PubMed Central

A case-control approach has been used to examine mortality from five cancers--oesophagus, pancreas, cutaneous melanoma, kidney, and brain--among young and middle aged men resident in three English counties. The areas studied were chosen because they include major centres of chemical manufacture. By combining data from 20 years it was possible to look at local industries with greater statistical power than is possible using routine national statistics. Each case was matched with up to four controls of similar age who died in the same year from other causes. The occupations and industries recorded on death certificates were coded to standard classifications and risk estimates derived for each job category. Where positive associations were found the records of the cases concerned were examined in greater detail to see whether the risk was limited to specific combinations of occupation and industry. The most interesting findings to emerge were risks of brain cancer associated with the production of meat and fish products (relative risk (RR) = 9.7, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.6-36.8) and with mineral oil refining (RR = 2.9, CI 1.2-7.0), and a cluster of four deaths from melanoma among refinery workers (RR = 16.0, CI CI 1.8-143.2). A job-exposure matrix was applied to the data but gave no strong indications of further disease associations. Local analyses of occupational mortality such as this can usefully supplement national statistics.

Magnani, C; Coggon, D; Osmond, C; Acheson, E D

1987-01-01

49

Cause-Specific Mortality and Death Certificate Reporting in Adults with Moderate to Profound Intellectual Disability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: The study of premature deaths in people with intellectual disability (ID) has become the focus of recent policy initiatives in England. This is the first UK population-based study to explore cause-specific mortality in adults with ID compared with the general population. Methods: Cause-specific standardised mortality ratios (SMRs) and…

Tyrer, F.; McGrother, C.

2009-01-01

50

A Program Certification Assistant Based on Fully Automated Theorem Provers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We describe a certification assistant to support formal safety proofs for programs. It is based on a graphical user interface that hides the low-level details of first-order automated theorem provers while supporting limited interactivity: it allows users to customize and control the proof process on a high level, manages the auxiliary artifacts produced during this process, and provides traceability between the proof obligations and the relevant parts of the program. The certification assistant is part of a larger program synthesis system and is intended to support the deployment of automatically generated code in safety-critical applications.

Denney, Ewen; Fischer, Bernd

2005-01-01

51

Research of Security Certificate Base on Grid-Computer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Message technology and infrastructure will ensure best efficiency in the future. Then things depend on the collaboration with each other. Grid is begets base on this. Security is a crucial issue by grid setting. GSI is plan of the resolve these matters.This paper assay and introduce the security technology; security strategy; security infrastructure and certificate project of the GSI.

Xuxiu; Ma Jun

2009-01-01

52

Performance-Based School Psychology Certification: Situational Response Testing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Performance-based certification for educational professionals has been stimulated by demand for accountability and educational reform. This article suggests simulated situations and situational response testing as a viable means of contrasting individuals across a number of criteria variables in realistic settings. (Author)

Miller, Jane N.; Engin, Ann W.

1974-01-01

53

Efficient Certificate-Based Signcryption Secure against Public Key Replacement Attacks and Insider Attacks.  

PubMed

Signcryption is a useful cryptographic primitive that achieves confidentiality and authentication in an efficient manner. As an extension of signcryption in certificate-based cryptography, certificate-based signcryption preserves the merits of certificate-based cryptography and signcryption simultaneously. In this paper, we present an improved security model of certificate-based signcryption that covers both public key replacement attack and insider security. We show that an existing certificate-based signcryption scheme is insecure in our model. We also propose a new certificate-based signcryption scheme that achieves security against both public key replacement attacks and insider attacks. We prove in the random oracle model that the proposed scheme is chosen-ciphertext secure and existentially unforgeable. Performance analysis shows that the proposed scheme outperforms all the previous certificate-based signcryption schemes in the literature. PMID:24959606

Lu, Yang; Li, Jiguo

2014-01-01

54

Efficient Certificate-Based Signcryption Secure against Public Key Replacement Attacks and Insider Attacks  

PubMed Central

Signcryption is a useful cryptographic primitive that achieves confidentiality and authentication in an efficient manner. As an extension of signcryption in certificate-based cryptography, certificate-based signcryption preserves the merits of certificate-based cryptography and signcryption simultaneously. In this paper, we present an improved security model of certificate-based signcryption that covers both public key replacement attack and insider security. We show that an existing certificate-based signcryption scheme is insecure in our model. We also propose a new certificate-based signcryption scheme that achieves security against both public key replacement attacks and insider attacks. We prove in the random oracle model that the proposed scheme is chosen-ciphertext secure and existentially unforgeable. Performance analysis shows that the proposed scheme outperforms all the previous certificate-based signcryption schemes in the literature.

Li, Jiguo

2014-01-01

55

Certification of Public Librarians in the United States; A Detailed Summary of Legal and Voluntary Certification Plans for Public Librarians Based on Information Supplied by the Various Certificating State Agencies or other Appropriate Sources. Second Edition.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contained in this report is a detailed summary of legal and voluntary certification plans for public librarians in each of the 50 states. Descriptions of the certification plans for public librarians are based on information supplied by state agencies in ...

J. R. Coyne R. R. Frame

1972-01-01

56

75 FR 27182 - Energy Conservation Program: Web-Based Compliance and Certification Management System  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

This final rule: provides a new means for manufacturers and third party representatives to prepare and submit compliance and certification reports to the Department of Energy (DOE) through an electronic Web-based tool, the Compliance and Certification Management System (CCMS), which will be the preferred mechanism for submitting compliance and certification reports; allows compliance and......

2010-05-14

57

A post-mortem survey on end-of-life decisions using a representative sample of death certificates in Flanders, Belgium: research protocol  

PubMed Central

Background Reliable studies of the incidence and characteristics of medical end-of-life decisions with a certain or possible life shortening effect (ELDs) are indispensable for an evidence-based medical and societal debate on this issue. This article presents the protocol drafted for the 2007 ELD Study in Flanders, Belgium, and outlines how the main aims and challenges of the study (i.e. making reliable incidence estimates of end-of-life decisions, even rare ones, and describing their characteristics; allowing comparability with past ELD studies; guaranteeing strict anonymity given the sensitive nature of the research topic; and attaining a sufficient response rate) are addressed in a post-mortem survey using a representative sample of death certificates. Study design Reliable incidence estimates are achievable by using large at random samples of death certificates of deceased persons in Flanders (aged one year or older). This entails the cooperation of the appropriate administrative authorities. To further ensure the reliability of the estimates and descriptions, especially of less prevalent end-of-life decisions (e.g. euthanasia), a stratified sample is drawn. A questionnaire is sent out to the certifying physician of each death sampled. The questionnaire, tested thoroughly and avoiding emotionally charged terms is based largely on questions that have been validated in previous national and European ELD studies. Anonymity of both patient and physician is guaranteed through a rigorous procedure, involving a lawyer as intermediary between responding physicians and researchers. To increase response we follow the Total Design Method (TDM) with a maximum of three follow-up mailings. Also, a non-response survey is conducted to gain insight into the reasons for lack of response. Discussion The protocol of the 2007 ELD Study in Flanders, Belgium, is appropriate for achieving the objectives of the study; as past studies in Belgium, the Netherlands, and other European countries have shown, strictly anonymous and thorough surveys among physicians using a large, stratified, and representative death certificate sample are most suitable in nationwide studies of incidence and characteristics of end-of-life decisions. There are however also some limitations to the study design.

Chambaere, Kenneth; Bilsen, Johan; Cohen, Joachim; Pousset, Geert; Onwuteaka-Philipsen, Bregje; Mortier, Freddy; Deliens, Luc

2008-01-01

58

Ensuring that education, certification, and practice are evidence based.  

PubMed

The occupational therapy profession has put forth a vision for evidence-based practice. Although many practitioners express a commitment to the provision of services informed by evidence, the reality that tradition still determines much of our education, certification, and practice cannot be ignored. In this article, we highlight the disconnect between the profession's aspirations and actual practices using neurophysiological models as an example. We describe actions to actualize the shift from traditional interventions to evidence-based approaches. We challenge readers to become agents of change and facilitate a culture shift to a profession informed by evidence. It is our hope that this article will provoke critical discourse among educators, practitioners, authors, and editors about why a reluctance to let go of unsubstantiated traditions and a hesitancy to embrace scientific evidence exist. A shift to providing evidence-based occupational therapy will enable us to meet the objectives of the Centennial Vision. PMID:23597695

Fleming-Castaldy, Rita P; Gillen, Glen

2013-01-01

59

Biometric Certificate Based Biometric Digital Key Generation with Protection Mechanism  

Microsoft Academic Search

The binding of the user's identity and biometric feature data to an entity is provided by an authority through a digitally signed data structure called a biometric certificate. Therefore, the main goal (or contribution) of this work is to propose a simple method for generating biometric digital key with biometric certificate on fuzzy fingerprint vault mechanism. Biometric digital key from

Yunsu Chung; Kiyoung Moon; Hyung-woo Lee

2007-01-01

60

Structured Field-Based Experiences for a Social Studies Secondary Teacher Certification Program. Occasional Paper Series No. 74-5.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 1972, new goals in teacher education and certification, based on performance or competency-based teacher certification, required the redesigning of New York state certification programs. Modifications in 1943 and 1963 had already required a fifth year of graduate study and supervised student teaching, usually as a culminating experience, for…

Seifman, Eli

61

Performance criteria for verbal autopsy-based systems to estimate national causes of death: development and application to the Indian Million Death Study  

PubMed Central

Background Verbal autopsy (VA) has been proposed to determine the cause of death (COD) distributions in settings where most deaths occur without medical attention or certification. We develop performance criteria for VA-based COD systems and apply these to the Registrar General of India’s ongoing, nationally-representative Indian Million Death Study (MDS). Methods Performance criteria include a low ill-defined proportion of deaths before old age; reproducibility, including consistency of COD distributions with independent resampling; differences in COD distribution of hospital, home, urban or rural deaths; age-, sex- and time-specific plausibility of specific diseases; stability and repeatability of dual physician coding; and the ability of the mortality classification system to capture a wide range of conditions. Results The introduction of the MDS in India reduced the proportion of ill-defined deaths before age 70 years from 13% to 4%. The cause-specific mortality fractions (CSMFs) at ages 5 to 69 years for independently resampled deaths and the MDS were very similar across 19 disease categories. By contrast, CSMFs at these ages differed between hospital and home deaths and between urban and rural deaths. Thus, reliance mostly on urban or hospital data can distort national estimates of CODs. Age-, sex- and time-specific patterns for various diseases were plausible. Initial physician agreement on COD occurred about two-thirds of the time. The MDS COD classification system was able to capture more eligible records than alternative classification systems. By these metrics, the Indian MDS performs well for deaths prior to age 70 years. The key implication for low- and middle-income countries where medical certification of death remains uncommon is to implement COD surveys that randomly sample all deaths, use simple but high-quality field work with built-in resampling, and use electronic rather than paper systems to expedite field work and coding. Conclusions Simple criteria can evaluate the performance of VA-based COD systems. Despite the misclassification of VA, the MDS demonstrates that national surveys of CODs using VA are an order of magnitude better than the limited COD data previously available.

2014-01-01

62

Certificate-based Access Control for Widely Distributed Resources  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have implemented and deployed an access control mechanism that uses digitally-signed certificates to define and enforce an access policy for a set of distrib- uted resources that have multiple, independent and geo- graphically dispersed stakeholders. The stakeholders assert their access requirements in use-condition certifi- cates and designate those trusted to attest to the corre- sponding user attributes. Users are

Mary Thompson; William Johnston; Srilekha Mudumbai; Gary Hoo; Keith Jackson; Abdelilah Essiari

1999-01-01

63

Study of recent and future trends in place of death in Belgium using death certificate data: a shift from hospitals to care homes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Since most patients prefer out-of-hospital death, place of death can be considered an indicator of end-of-life care quality.\\u000a The study of trends in place of death is necessary to examine causes of shifts, to evaluate efforts to alter place of death\\u000a and develop future policies. This study aims to examine past trends and future projections of place of death.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Analysis

Dirk Houttekier; Joachim Cohen; Johan Surkyn; Luc Deliens

2011-01-01

64

PVDaCS - A prototype knowledge-based expert system for certification of spacecraft data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

On-line data management techniques to certify spacecraft information are mandated by increasing telemetry rates. Knowledge-based expert systems offer the ability to certify data electronically without the need for time-consuming human interaction. Issues of automatic certification are explored by designing a knowledge-based expert system to certify data from a scientific instrument, the Orbiter Ultraviolet Spectrometer, on an operating NASA planetary spacecraft, Pioneer Venus. The resulting rule-based system, called PVDaCS (Pioneer Venus Data Certification System), is a functional prototype demonstrating the concepts of a larger system design. A key element of the system design is the representation of an expert's knowledge through the usage of well ordered sequences. PVDaCS produces a certification value derived from expert knowledge and an analysis of the instrument's operation. Results of system performance are presented.

Wharton, Cathleen; Shiroma, Patricia J.; Simmons, Karen E.

1989-01-01

65

Certification Framework Based on Effective Trapping for Geologic Carbon Sequestration  

SciTech Connect

We have developed a certification framework (CF) for certifying the safety and effectiveness of geologic carbon sequestration (GCS) sites. Safety and effectiveness are achieved if CO{sub 2} and displaced brine have no significant impact on humans, other living things, resources, or the environment. In the CF, we relate effective trapping to CO{sub 2} leakage risk which takes into account both the impact and probability of leakage. We achieve simplicity in the CF by using (1) wells and faults as the potential leakage pathways, (2) compartments to represent environmental resources that may be impacted by leakage, (3) CO{sub 2} fluxes and concentrations in the compartments as proxies for impact to vulnerable entities, (4) broad ranges of storage formation properties to generate a catalog of simulated plume movements, and (5) probabilities of intersection of the CO{sub 2} plume with the conduits and compartments. We demonstrate the approach on a hypothetical GCS site in a Texas Gulf Coast saline formation. Through its generality and flexibility, the CF can contribute to the assessment of risk of CO{sub 2} and brine leakage as part of the certification process for licensing and permitting of GCS sites around the world regardless of the specific regulations in place in any given country.

Oldenburg, Curtis M.; Bryant, Steven L.; Nicot, Jean-Philippe

2009-01-15

66

Competency-Based Certification: What Are the Key Issues? NEPTE Working Paper #6.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper is a brief overview of competency-based teacher education (CBTE) and competency-based certification (CBC). The notion of requiring teachers to demonstrate certain skills is examined in the light of questions on its long-range validity and utility. The author cautions against overreliance on CBTE and CBC due to a number of these…

Pitman, John C.

67

Reversal of English trend towards hospital death in dementia: a population-based study of place of death and associated individual and regional factors, 2001-2010  

PubMed Central

Background England has one of the highest rates of hospital death in dementia in Europe. How this has changed over time is unknown. This study aimed to analyse temporal trends in place of death in dementia over a recent ten year period. Methods Population-based study linking Office for National Statistics mortality data with regional variables, in England 2001–2010. Participants were adults aged over 60 with a death certificate mention of dementia. Multivariable Poisson regression was used to determine the proportion ratio (PR) for death in care home (1) and home/hospice (1) compared to hospital (0). Explanatory variables included individual factors (age, gender, marital status, underlying cause of death), and regional variables derived at area level (deprivation, care home bed provision, urbanisation). Results 388,899 deaths were included. Most people died in care homes (55.3%) or hospitals (39.6%). A pattern of increasing hospital deaths reversed in 2006, with a subsequent decrease in hospital deaths (?0.93% per year, 95% CI ?1.08 to ?0.79 p?deaths (0.60% per year, 95% CI 0.45 to 0.75 p?death was more likely with older age (PR 1.11, 1.10 to 1.13), and in areas with greater care home bed provision (PR 1.82, 1.79 to 1.85) and affluence (PR 1.29, 1.26 to 1.31). Few patients died at home (4.8%) or hospice (0.3%). Home/hospice death was more likely in affluent areas (PR 1.23, 1.18 to 1.29), for women (PR 1.61, 1.56 to 1.65), and for those with cancer as underlying cause of death (PR 1.84, 1.77 to 1.91), and less likely in the unmarried (PRs 0.51 to 0.66). Conclusions Two in five people with dementia die in hospital. However, the trend towards increasing hospital deaths has reversed, and care home bed provision is key to sustain this. Home and hospice deaths are rare. Initiatives which aim to support the end of life preferences for people with dementia should be investigated.

2014-01-01

68

Summary of Actions Taken by Selected States Involved in Developing Competency-Based Certification Systems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reviews actions taken by selected states as they move to implement competency-based teacher education and certification systems (CBTE-CBC). Following a brief discussion of the role of the state in developing CBTE-CBC, three major issues are presented: a) the type of consortium procedures used, b) the manner in which competencies are to…

Pitman, John C.

69

The Danish registers of causes of death.  

PubMed

In 1875 registration of causes of death in Denmark was established by the National Board of Health, and annual statistics of death have since been published. Until 1970 the national statistics were based upon punched cards with data collected from the death certificates. Since then the register has been fully computerized and includes individual based data of all deaths occurring among all residents in Denmark dying in Denmark. Furthermore, a microfilm of all death certificates from 1943 and onward is kept in the National Board of Health. The Danish Institute for Clinical Epidemiology (DICE) has established a computerized register of individual records of deaths in Denmark from 1943 and onwards. No other country covers computerized individual based data of death registration for such a long period, now 54 years. This paper describes the history of the registers, the data sources and access to data, and the research based upon the registers, presenting some examples of research activities. PMID:10514943

Juel, K; Helweg-Larsen, K

1999-09-01

70

A Resource Guide; "National and Regional Developments in Competency Based Teacher Education (CBTE) and Competency Based Certification (CBC)."  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This resource guide on competency based teacher education (CBTE) and competency based certification (CBC) states that the degree of explicitness required in CBTE programs and CBC programs and CBC systems is greater than in traditional programs. A CBTE program must specify (a) what the learner is to do, (b) the degree or level of competency…

Pitman, John C.

71

Certification of staff nurses to insert enteral feeding tubes using a research-based procedure.  

PubMed

Nutrition Support Nurse Clinicians at a Central Texas tertiary care facility have developed a research-based nasoenteric feeding tube insertion procedure that minimizes the potential for inadvertent passage of a feeding tube containing a stylet into the respiratory tract and maximizes placement of the feeding tube in the desired gastric or duodenal location. The first 79 staff nurses to be certified to use the technique had a 90% duodenal placement success rate under supervision. No bedside feeding tube insertion complications have been noted since the initiation of the certification program 6 years ago. This article describes the feeding tube insertion technique used in the certification process and the research on which it is based. PMID:8700058

Welch, S K

1996-02-01

72

Death within 8 years after childhood convulsive status epilepticus: a population-based study.  

PubMed

The risk of long-term mortality and its predictors following convulsive status epilepticus in childhood are uncertain. We report mortality within 8 years after an episode of convulsive status epilepticus, and investigate its predictors from a paediatric, prospective, population-based study from north London, UK. In the current study, we followed-up a cohort previously ascertained during a surveillance study of convulsive status epilepticus in childhood. After determining the survival status of the cohort members, we defined cause of death as that listed on their death certificates. We estimated a standardized mortality ratio to compare mortality in our cohort with that expected in the reference population. Multivariable Cox regression analysis was used to investigate any association between the clinical and demographic factors at the time of status epilepticus and subsequent risk of death. The overall case fatality was 11% (95% confidence interval 7.5-16.2%); seven children died within 30 days of their episode of convulsive status epilepticus and 16 during follow-up. The overall mortality in our cohort was 46 times greater than expected in the reference population, and was predominantly due to higher mortality in children who had pre-existing clinically significant neurological impairments when they had their acute episode of convulsive status epilepticus. Children without prior neurological impairment who survived their acute episode of convulsive status epilepticus were not at a significantly increased risk of death during follow-up. There were no deaths in children following prolonged febrile convulsions and idiopathic convulsive status epilepticus. A quarter of deaths during follow-up were associated with intractable seizures/convulsive status epilepticus, and the rest died as a complication of their underlying medical condition. On regression analysis, presence of clinically significant neurological impairments prior to convulsive status epilepticus was the only independent risk factor for mortality. In conclusion, there is a high risk of death within 8 years following childhood convulsive status epilepticus but most deaths are not seizure related. Presence of pre-existing clinically significant neurological impairments at the time of convulsive status epilepticus is the main risk factor for mortality within 8 years after the acute episode. The attributable role of convulsive status epilepticus on mortality remains uncertain, but appears less than is generally perceived. PMID:21914715

Pujar, Suresh S; Neville, Brian G R; Scott, Rod C; Chin, Richard F M

2011-10-01

73

Death within 8 years after childhood convulsive status epilepticus: a population-based study  

PubMed Central

The risk of long-term mortality and its predictors following convulsive status epilepticus in childhood are uncertain. We report mortality within 8 years after an episode of convulsive status epilepticus, and investigate its predictors from a paediatric, prospective, population-based study from north London, UK. In the current study, we followed-up a cohort previously ascertained during a surveillance study of convulsive status epilepticus in childhood. After determining the survival status of the cohort members, we defined cause of death as that listed on their death certificates. We estimated a standardized mortality ratio to compare mortality in our cohort with that expected in the reference population. Multivariable Cox regression analysis was used to investigate any association between the clinical and demographic factors at the time of status epilepticus and subsequent risk of death. The overall case fatality was 11% (95% confidence interval 7.5–16.2%); seven children died within 30 days of their episode of convulsive status epilepticus and 16 during follow-up. The overall mortality in our cohort was 46 times greater than expected in the reference population, and was predominantly due to higher mortality in children who had pre-existing clinically significant neurological impairments when they had their acute episode of convulsive status epilepticus. Children without prior neurological impairment who survived their acute episode of convulsive status epilepticus were not at a significantly increased risk of death during follow-up. There were no deaths in children following prolonged febrile convulsions and idiopathic convulsive status epilepticus. A quarter of deaths during follow-up were associated with intractable seizures/convulsive status epilepticus, and the rest died as a complication of their underlying medical condition. On regression analysis, presence of clinically significant neurological impairments prior to convulsive status epilepticus was the only independent risk factor for mortality. In conclusion, there is a high risk of death within 8 years following childhood convulsive status epilepticus but most deaths are not seizure related. Presence of pre-existing clinically significant neurological impairments at the time of convulsive status epilepticus is the main risk factor for mortality within 8 years after the acute episode. The attributable role of convulsive status epilepticus on mortality remains uncertain, but appears less than is generally perceived.

Neville, Brian G. R.; Scott, Rod C.; Chin, Richard F. M.

2011-01-01

74

Certification Aspects in Critical Embedded Software Development with Model Based Techniques: Detection of Unintended Functions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper, developed under contract with European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA), analyses in detail which may be the certification implications in the aeronautic industry associated to the application of model-level verification and validation techniques. Particularly, this paper focuses on the problematic of detecting unintended functions by applying Model Coverage Criteria at model level. This point is significantly important for the future extensive use of Model Based approaches in safety critical software, since the uncertainty in the system performance introduced by the unintended functions, which may also lead to unacceptable hazardous or catastrophic events, prevents the system to be compliance with certification requirements. The paper provides a definition and a categorization of unintended functions and gives some relevant examples to assess the efficiency of model- coverage techniques in the detection of UF. The paper explains how this analysis is supported by a methodology based on the study of sources for introducing unintended functions. Finally it is analysed the feasibility of using Model-level verification techniques to support the software certification process.

Atencia Yepez, A.; Autrán Cerqueira, J.; Urueña, S.; Jurado, R.

2012-01-01

75

Early Childhood Injury Deaths in Washington State.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper discusses data on the deaths of children aged 1-4 years in Washington State. A two-fold approach was used in the analysis. First, Washington State death certificate data for 1979-85 were used to characterize the deaths and identify hazardous situations. Second, death certificates were linked to birth certificates of children born in…

Starzyk, Patricia M.

76

On the Reliability of Vocational Workplace-Based Certifications  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The assessment of vocational workplace-based qualifications in England relies on human assessors (raters). These assessors observe naturally occurring, non-standardised evidence, unique to each learner and evaluate the learner as competent/not yet competent against content standards. Whilst these are considered difficult to measure, this study…

Harth, H.; Hemker, B.T.

2013-01-01

77

Certificate-based authorization policy in a PKI environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The major emphasis of public key infrastructure has been to provide a cryptographically secure means of authenticating identities. However, procedures for authorizing the holders of these identities to perform specific actions still need additional research and development. While there are a number of proposed standards for authorization structures and protocols such as KeyNote, SPKI, and SAML based on X.509 or

Mary R. Thompson; Abdelilah Essiari; Srilekha Mudumbai

2003-01-01

78

A Computer-Based Private Pilot (Airplane) Certification Exam: A First Step Toward Nation-Wide Computer-Administration of FAA Certification Exams.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To assess the feasibility of computer-assisted Federal Aviation Administration certification examinations, a system for administering the Private Pilot Certification Examination was implemented using PLATO. Characteristics, reactions, and guidelines for use of the test are included. (Author/JJD)

Anderson, Richard I.; Trollip, Stanley R.

1982-01-01

79

Certificate-Based Approach to Marketing Green Power and Constructing New Wind Energy Facilities: Preprint  

SciTech Connect

The availability of wind energy certificates in Pennsylvania's retail electricity market has made a critical difference in the economic feasibility of developing 140 MW of new wind energy projects in the region. Certificates offer important benefits to both green power suppliers and buyers by reducing transaction barriers and thus lowering the cost of renewable energy. Buyers also benefit through the increased flexibility offered by certificate products. The experience described in this paper offers important insights for selling green power certificates and achieving new wind energy development in other areas of the country.

Blank, E.; Bird, L.; Swezey, B.

2002-05-01

80

Improved artificial death switches based on caspases and FADD.  

PubMed

A number of "suicide genes" have been developed as safety switches for gene therapy vectors or as potential inducible cytotoxic agents for hyperproliferative disorders, such as cancer or restenosis. However, most of these approaches have relied on foreign proteins, such as HSV thymidine kinase, that primarily target rapidly dividing cells. In contrast, novel artificial death switches based on chemical inducers of dimerization (CIDs) and endogenous proapoptotic molecules function efficiently in both dividing and nondividing cells. In this approach, lipid-permeable, nontoxic CIDs are used to conditionally cross-link target proteins that are fused to CID-binding domains (CBDs), thus activating signaling cascades leading to apoptosis. In previous reports, CID-regulated Fas and caspases 1, 3, 8, and 9 were described. Since the maximum efficacy of these artificial death switches requires low basal and high specific activity, we have optimized these death switches for three parameters: (1) extent of oligomerization, (2) spacing between CBDs and target proteins, and (3) intracellular localization. We describe improved conditional Fas and caspase 1, 3, 8, and 9 alleles that function at subnanomolar levels of the CID AP1903 to trigger apoptosis. Further, we demonstrate for the first time that oligomerization of the death effector domain of the Fas-associated protein, FADD, is sufficient to trigger apoptosis, suggesting that the primary function of FADD, like that of Apaf-1, is oligomerization of associated caspases. Finally, we demonstrate that nuclear-targeted caspases 1, 3, and 8 can trigger apoptosis efficiently, implying that the cleavage of nuclear targets is sufficient for apoptosis. PMID:10515447

Fan, L; Freeman, K W; Khan, T; Pham, E; Spencer, D M

1999-09-20

81

Food-related choking deaths among the elderly.  

PubMed

During 2007-2010 in the USA, 2214 deaths among people aged ?65 were attributed to choking on food. The death rate for this cause is higher among the elderly than among any other age group. Using data from the US National Vital Statistics System, we examined the relationship between food suffocation and other causes of death listed on the death certificate. Among decedents aged ?65, the three most common additional conditions listed on the death certificate were heart disease, dementia and diabetes. However, after estimating the expected joint frequency of other causes based on the overall distribution of all causes of death, we find that three causes-dementia (including Alzheimer's disease), Parkinson's disease and pneumonitis-are most strongly associated with deaths from choking on food among older people. PMID:24003082

Kramarow, Ellen; Warner, Margaret; Chen, Li-Hui

2014-06-01

82

Blended roles: preparing the advanced practice nurse educator\\/clinician with a web-based nurse educator certificate program  

Microsoft Academic Search

Changing demographics, a nursing shortage, and various societal changes underscore the need for nurse educators and new nurse educator programs. This article describes a Web-based nurse educator program designed to prepare advanced practice nurses for faculty roles while simultaneously preparing them as clinicians. Guided by adult education theory and self-directed learning theory, the Web-based Nurse Educator Certificate (four Web-based nurse

Wanda B Bonnel; Carol K Starling; Karen A Wambach; Karen Tarnow

2003-01-01

83

38 CFR 51.20 - Application for recognition based on certification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) PER DIEM FOR NURSING HOME CARE OF VETERANS IN STATE HOMES Obtaining Per Diem for Nursing Home Care in State Homes § 51.20...and certification of a State home for nursing home care, a State must:...

2013-07-01

84

Modeling and using a web-based and tutored portfolio to support certification of professional competence in transfusion medicine  

PubMed Central

In order to manage a nationwide assessment program leading to certification of professional competence in blood transfusion throughout France, the National Institute of Blood Transfusion (INTS) and the University of Nice-Sophia Antipolis designed and developed a structured and tutored web-based portfolio. The entire process of certification has been approved by the national healthcare agency (HAS). Eleven assessment programs have been written. The structure of this e-portfolio is based on a matrix of actions defined according to standards of practice. For each action, elements of proof are uploaded by the physician and peer-reviewed by an expert (a tutor) before validation. The electronic portfolio stores all the history of the actions performed by users. This tracking feature generates alerts which are e-mailed to users (physicians and tutors) according to a list of monitored events. After one year of design and development, the application is now being used routinely.

Staccini, Pascal; Rouger, Philippe

2008-01-01

85

Place and Cause of Death in Centenarians: A Population-Based Observational Study in England, 2001 to 2010  

PubMed Central

Background Centenarians are a rapidly growing demographic group worldwide, yet their health and social care needs are seldom considered. This study aims to examine trends in place of death and associations for centenarians in England over 10 years to consider policy implications of extreme longevity. Methods and Findings This is a population-based observational study using death registration data linked with area-level indices of multiple deprivations for people aged ?100 years who died 2001 to 2010 in England, compared with those dying at ages 80-99. We used linear regression to examine the time trends in number of deaths and place of death, and Poisson regression to evaluate factors associated with centenarians’ place of death. The cohort totalled 35,867 people with a median age at death of 101 years (range: 100–115 years). Centenarian deaths increased 56% (95% CI 53.8%–57.4%) in 10 years. Most died in a care home with (26.7%, 95% CI 26.3%–27.2%) or without nursing (34.5%, 95% CI 34.0%–35.0%) or in hospital (27.2%, 95% CI 26.7%–27.6%). The proportion of deaths in nursing homes decreased over 10 years (?0.36% annually, 95% CI ?0.63% to ?0.09%, p?=?0.014), while hospital deaths changed little (0.25% annually, 95% CI ?0.06% to 0.57%, p?=?0.09). Dying with frailty was common with “old age” stated in 75.6% of death certifications. Centenarians were more likely to die of pneumonia (e.g., 17.7% [95% CI 17.3%–18.1%] versus 6.0% [5.9%–6.0%] for those aged 80–84 years) and old age/frailty (28.1% [27.6%–28.5%] versus 0.9% [0.9%–0.9%] for those aged 80–84 years) and less likely to die of cancer (4.4% [4.2%–4.6%] versus 24.5% [24.6%–25.4%] for those aged 80–84 years) and ischemic heart disease (8.6% [8.3%–8.9%] versus 19.0% [18.9%–19.0%] for those aged 80–84 years) than were younger elderly patients. More care home beds available per 1,000 population were associated with fewer deaths in hospital (PR 0.98, 95% CI 0.98–0.99, p<0.001). Conclusions Centenarians are more likely to have causes of death certified as pneumonia and frailty and less likely to have causes of death of cancer or ischemic heart disease, compared with younger elderly patients. To reduce reliance on hospital care at the end of life requires recognition of centenarians’ increased likelihood to “acute” decline, notably from pneumonia, and wider provision of anticipatory care to enable people to remain in their usual residence, and increasing care home bed capacity. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary

Evans, Catherine J.; Ho, Yuen; Daveson, Barbara A.; Hall, Sue; Higginson, Irene J.; Gao, Wei

2014-01-01

86

23 CFR Appendix C to Part 1240 - Certification (Calendar Year 1998 Survey Based on Survey Approved Under 23 U.S.C. 153)  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2014-04-01 false Certification (Calendar Year 1998 Survey Based on Survey Approved Under 23 U.S.C. 153) C Appendix C to Part 1240 Highways NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION AND FEDERAL HIGHWAY...

2014-04-01

87

Maternal mortality in Sweden 1988-2007: more deaths than officially reported  

PubMed Central

Objective To obtain more accurate calculations of maternal and pregnancy-related mortality ratios in Sweden from 1988 to 2007 by using information from national registers and death certificates. Design A national register-based study, supplemented by a review of death certificates. Setting Sweden, 1988–2007. Population The deaths of 27 957 women of reproductive age (15–49 years). Methods The Swedish Cause of Death Register, Medical Birth Register, and National Patient Register were linked. All women with a diagnosis related to pregnancy in at least one of these registers within 1 year prior to death were identified. Death certificates were reviewed to ascertain maternal deaths. Maternal mortality ratio (the number of maternal deaths/100 000 live births, excluding and including suicides), and pregnancy-related mortality ratio (number of deaths within 42 days after termination of pregnancy, irrespective of cause of death/100 000 live births) were calculated. Main outcome measures Direct and indirect maternal deaths and pregnancy-related deaths. Results The maternal mortality ratio in Sweden, based on the current method of identifying maternal deaths, was 3.6. After linking registers and reviewing death certificates, we identified 64% more maternal deaths, resulting in a ratio of 6.0 (or 6.5 if suicides are included). The pregnancy-related mortality ratio was 7.3. A total of 478 women died within a year after being recorded with a diagnosis related to pregnancy. Conclusions By including the 123 cases of maternal death identified in this study, the mean maternal mortality ratio from 1988 to 2007 was 64% higher than reported to the World Health Organization.

Esscher, Annika; Hogberg, Ulf; Haglund, Bengt; Essen, Birgitta

2013-01-01

88

Competency Based Teacher Education Certification Program in Mathematics 7-12, Provisional.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this packet of materials, the outline for State University College at Brockport's certification program for secondary school mathematics teachers is given. First, an overview of the program is presented, then specific skills, knowledges, and attitudes are identified and assessment procedures, conditions, and standards are listed. Information…

Kiehl, Charles F.

89

An Exploration of Initial Certification Candidates' TPACK and Mathematics-Based Applications Using Touch Device Technology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This qualitative research study employed a multiple-case study approach to describe the experiences of a group of Initial Certification Candidates (ICCs) as they participated in explorations of readings and third-party applications (apps) run on touch screen technology devices. The group of ICCs was comprised of two Undergraduate Teacher…

McCrory, Michael Ray

2010-01-01

90

Certification trails for data structures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Certification trails are a recently introduced and promising approach to fault detection and fault tolerance. The applicability of the certification trail technique is significantly generalized. Previously, certification trails had to be customized to each algorithm application; trails appropriate to wide classes of algorithms were developed. These certification trails are based on common data-structure operations such as those carried out using these sets of operations such as those carried out using balanced binary trees and heaps. Any algorithms using these sets of operations can therefore employ the certification trail method to achieve software fault tolerance. To exemplify the scope of the generalization of the certification trail technique provided, constructions of trails for abstract data types such as priority queues and union-find structures are given. These trails are applicable to any data-structure implementation of the abstract data type. It is also shown that these ideals lead naturally to monitors for data-structure operations.

Sullivan, Gregory F.; Masson, Gerald M.

1993-01-01

91

76 FR 30961 - Renewal of Agency Information Collection for Certificate of Degree of Indian or Alaska Native...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...blood. The applicant will provide information, such as birth certificates, death certificates, and probates to document the...documents that list the ancestors' name, gender, date of birth, date of death, blood degree and other...

2011-05-27

92

40 CFR 745.226 - Certification of individuals and firms engaged in lead-based paint activities: target housing and...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...or (3 ) Certification as an industrial hygienist, professional engineer...and/or certification in a related engineering/health/environmental field (e...supervisors. (2 ) Bachelor's degree in engineering, architecture, or a related...

2013-07-01

93

A comparison of standards for software engineering based on DO178B for certification of avionics systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Certification of avionics software is an increasingly important subject, since more and more avionics systems in future aircraft will be software equipped. The DO-17813 standard provides guidelines for software certification. Re-use of software is emerging, partly enabled by the integrated modular avionics concept, and imposed by a reduction of life-cycle costs. Re-use, however, requires re-certification or certification of software that

H. H. Hesselink

1995-01-01

94

A State-Based Approach to Building a Liquid National Market for Renewable Energy Certificates: The REC-EX Model  

SciTech Connect

RECs are the currency driving the growth of renewable energy markets and the sale of RECs from renewable energy generation projects could promise a predictable return. But the existing REC markets in the U.S. sorely lack the liquidity needed to make good on that promise. The author proposes a Renewable Energy Certificate Exchange program rooted in the construction of a national trading platform for RECs in tandem with the execution of a new agreement among the states with REC-based renewable portfolio standards. (author)

Berendt, Christopher B.

2006-06-15

95

Professional Certification in Early Childhood Special Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Certification and personnel preparation programs have not kept pace with the increasing knowledge base related to early intervention with special needs children. The current Early Childhood Special Education Approval for professional certification in Illinois is a set of four courses attached to either of two teaching certificates. The Illinois…

McCollum, Jeannette

96

Maternal Deaths Due to Homicide and Other Injuries in North Carolina: 1992–1994  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To determine the role of homicide and other injuries in maternal deaths in North Carolina over the three-year period from 1992 through 1994.Methods: Maternal deaths were identified from death certificates that indicated a maternal death and through an enhanced surveillance system that matches death certificates with live-birth and fetal-death certificates. Deaths were classified as direct, indirect, medically unrelated, or

Margaret Harper; Linn Parsons

1997-01-01

97

NATIONAL VITAL STATISTICS SYSTEM - LINKED BIRTH AND INFANT DEATH DATA  

EPA Science Inventory

In 1983, NCHS established a research data set comprised of linked birth and death certificates for infants born in the United States who died before reaching one year of age. In this data set, information from the death certificate is linked with information from the birth certif...

98

Number of Alzheimer's Deaths Found to Be Underreported  

MedlinePLUS

... figures may have substantially underreported deaths due to Alzheimer’s disease in 2010 show two recent studies supported in part by NIA. Underreporting of Alzheimer’s as a cause of death on death certificates ...

99

A Feasibility Study for a Comprehensive Competency-Based Training and Certification System for Child Care Personnel in the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania. Annotated Bibliography. Appendix A. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This 196-item annotated bibliography contains components of a competency-based training and certification system for teachers serving children in Pennsylvania day care programs. It is the appendix of a final report sponsored by the Pennsylvania Department of Public Welfare, Bureau of Child Development. The organizational topics and number of…

Educational Projects, Inc., Washington, DC.

100

"We Brought It upon Ourselves": University-Based Teacher Education and the Emergence of Boot-Camp-Style Routes to Teacher Certification  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The proliferation of boot-camp-style routes to teacher certification in the last two decades is seen by many university-based teacher educators as the result of the advancement of conservative interests aimed at de-professionalizing teaching. This essay argues that this view only accounts for one piece of the answer, the other one being that some…

Friedrich, Daniel

2014-01-01

101

Relationship of ISO 9001:2000 quality system certification with operational and business performance : A survey in Australia and New Zealand-based manufacturing and service companies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This research paper aims to explore the relationship between ISO 9000 certification and organisational performance by developing an ISO 9000 relationship model. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A survey instrument was used for quantitative data collection based on a global survey in collaboration with the Anderson School of Business, UCLA. All items were measured on a five point modified Likert scale.

Mei Feng; Milé Terziovski; Danny Samson

2008-01-01

102

In the Market But Not of It: Fair Trade Coffee and Forest Stewardship Council Certification as Market-Based Social Change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary. — This paper discusses two well-known market-based social change initiatives, Fair Trade coffee and Forest Stewardship Council certification, which harness market forces to pursue social and environmental objectives. A serious challenge for both is to operate in the conventional market without undermining their original objectives. A global commodity chain analysis approach is combined with insights from economic sociology embeddedness

Peter Leigh Taylor

2005-01-01

103

Infant Maltreatment-Related Mortality in Alaska: Correcting the Count and Using Birth Certificates to Predict Mortality  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objectives: To accurately count the number of infant maltreatment-related fatalities and to use information from the birth certificates to predict infant maltreatment-related deaths. Methods: A population-based retrospective cohort study of infants born in Alaska for the years 1992 through 2005 was conducted. Risk factor variables were ascertained…

Parrish, Jared W.; Gessner, Bradford D.

2010-01-01

104

The Effects of "High Stakes" Certification Demands on the Generalizability and Dependability of a Classroom-Based Teacher Assessment System.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents the results of ongoing analyses of the reliability of the System for Teaching and Learning Assessment and Review (STAR) as a comprehensive measure of classroom teaching and learning for making teacher certification decisions. Focus was on the effects of high stakes assessment conditions for certification on the generalizability…

Ellett, Chad D.; And Others

105

Evaluating Cut-Scores on Two Certification Tests: How Well Do Decisions Based on Cut-Scores Match Teacher- and Principal-Reported Ratings of Competence in the Classroom?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was three-fold. The first purpose was the investigation of the criterion-related validity of the Georgia Teacher Certification Test (TCT) and the Praxis II tests that are used in the teacher certification process in Georgia. The second purpose was to compare decisions based on the two tests. Finally, the effects of using…

Nweke, Winifred C.; Hall, Thomas R.

106

Metallomics insights into the programmed cell death induced by metal-based anticancer compounds.  

PubMed

Since the discovery of cisplatin more than 40 years ago, enormous research efforts have been dedicated to developing metal-based anticancer agents and to elucidating the mechanisms involved in the action of these compounds. Abnormal metabolism and the evasion of apoptosis are important hallmarks of malignant transformation, and the induction of apoptotic cell death has been considered to be a main pathway by which cytotoxic metal complexes combat cancer. However, many cancers have cellular defects involving the apoptotic machinery, which results in an acquired resistance to apoptotic cell death and therefore reduced chemotherapeutic effectiveness. Over the past decade, it has been revealed that a growing number of cell death pathways induced by metal complexes are not dependent on apoptosis. Metal complexes specifically triggering these alternative cell death pathways have been identified and explored as novel cancer treatment options. In this review, we discuss recent examples of metallomics studies on the different types of cell death induced by metal-based anticancer drugs, especially on the three major forms of programmed cell death (PCD) in mammalian cells: apoptosis, autophagy and regulated necrosis, also called necroptosis. PMID:24668273

Tan, Cai-Ping; Lu, Yi-Ying; Ji, Liang-Nian; Mao, Zong-Wan

2014-04-23

107

40 CFR 745.90 - Renovator certification and dust sampling technician certification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Renovator certification and dust sampling technician certification. 745... Renovator certification and dust sampling technician certification. (a) Renovator certification and dust sampling technician certification ....

2013-07-01

108

Certification/enforcement analysis  

SciTech Connect

Industry compliance with minimum energy efficiency standards will be assured through a two-part program approach of certification and enforcement activities. The technical support document (TSD) presents the analyses upon which the proposed rule for assuring that consumer product comply with applicable energy efficiency standards is based. Much of the TSD is based upon support provided DOE by Vitro Laboratories. The OAO Corporation provided additional support in the development of the sampling plan incorporated in the proposed rule. Vitro's recommended approach to appliance certification and enforcement, developed after consideration of various program options, benefits, and impacts, establishes the C/E program framework, general criteria, and procedures for assuring a specified level of energy efficiency performance of covered consumer products. The results of the OAO analysis are given in Volume II of the TSD.

None

1980-06-01

109

Claims-Based Definition of Death in Japanese Claims Database: Validity and Implications  

PubMed Central

Background For the pending National Claims Database in Japan, researchers will not have access to death information in the enrollment files. We developed and evaluated a claims-based definition of death. Methodology/Principal Findings We used healthcare claims and enrollment data between January 2005 and August 2009 for 195,193 beneficiaries aged 20 to 74 in 3 private health insurance unions. We developed claims-based definitions of death using discharge or disease status and Charlson comorbidity index (CCI). We calculated sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive values (PPVs) using the enrollment data as a gold standard in the overall population and subgroups divided by demographic and other factors. We also assessed bias and precision in two example studies where an outcome was death. The definition based on the combination of discharge/disease status and CCI provided moderate sensitivity (around 60%) and high specificity (99.99%) and high PPVs (94.8%). In most subgroups, sensitivity of the preferred definition was also around 60% but varied from 28 to 91%. In an example study comparing death rates between two anticancer drug classes, the claims-based definition provided valid and precise hazard ratios (HRs). In another example study comparing two classes of anti-depressants, the HR with the claims-based definition was biased and had lower precision than that with the gold standard definition. Conclusions/Significance The claims-based definitions of death developed in this study had high specificity and PPVs while sensitivity was around 60%. The definitions will be useful in future studies when used with attention to the possible fluctuation of sensitivity in some subpopulations.

Ooba, Nobuhiro; Setoguchi, Soko; Ando, Takashi; Sato, Tsugumichi; Yamaguchi, Takuhiro; Mochizuki, Mayumi; Kubota, Kiyoshi

2013-01-01

110

76 FR 59003 - Energy Conservation Program: Compliance Certification for Electric Motors  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...1904-AC23 Energy Conservation Program: Compliance Certification for Electric Motors AGENCY...private labelers to prepare and submit Compliance Certification information to the Department...an electronic Web-based tool, the Compliance and Certification Management...

2011-09-23

111

Impact of Changes in Infant Death Classification on the Diagnosis of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study evaluates the hypothesis that a decline in sudden infant death syndrome in Minnesota is associated with increases in other categories of sudden unexpected infant death. Matched birth and death certificates, autopsy reports, and home visit questionnaires were reviewed for 722 sudden unexpected infant deaths that occurred from January 1, 1996 through December 31, 2002. Descriptive data and cause

Brooke M. Moore; Kathleen L. Fernbach; Marsha J. Finkelstein; Patrick L. Carolan

2008-01-01

112

Early deaths in pediatric acute leukemia: a population-based study.  

PubMed

Abstract The purpose was to describe the incidence and risk factors associated with early deaths (? 42 days from diagnosis) among children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and acute myeloid leukemia (AML) in Ontario, Canada. The data source for this population-based, retrospective cohort study was the Pediatric Oncology Group of Ontario Networked Information System (POGONIS). Patients with acute leukemia aged ? 18 years diagnosed between 1990 and 2010 were included. The study population consisted of 1954 children with ALL and 403 with AML. The early death rate was 40/2357 (1.7%), with 1.1% of patients with ALL and 4.7% of patients with AML dying early. Among all 442 deaths recorded, 9.0% occurred early. Twelve/40 (30.0%) early deaths were attributed to infection. Factors associated with early deaths were AML (p < 0.0001) and age ? 10 years at diagnosis (p = 0.038). Future interventions to improve survival may consider focusing on the early treatment period and may target AML and older patients. PMID:24090501

Cheng, Sylvia; Pole, Jason D; Sung, Lillian

2014-07-01

113

Fast and secure handover of intra-ASN IEEE802.16 network by proposed certificate based pre-authentication  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The current generation of wireless networks has been designed predominantly to support voice and more recently data traffic. WiMAX is currently one of the hottest technologies in wireless. The main motive of the mobile technologies is to provide seamless cost effective mobility. But this is affected by Authentication cost and handover delay since on each handoff the Mobile Station (MS) has to undergo all steps of authentication. Pre-Authentication is used to reduce the handover delay and increase the speed of the Intra-ASN Handover. Proposed Pre-Authentication method is intended to reduce the authentication delay by getting pre authenticated by central authority called Pre Authentication Authority (PAA). MS requests PAA for Pre Authentication Certificate (PAC) before performing handoff. PAA verifies the identity of MS and provides PAC to MS and also to the neighboring target Base Stations (tBSs). MS having time bound PAC can skip the authentication process when recognized by target BS during handoff. It also prevents the DOS (Denial Of Service) attack and Replay attack. It has no wastage of unnecessary key exchange of the resources. The proposed work is simulated by NS2 model and by MATLAB.

Sridevi, B.; Supriya, T. S.; Rajaram, S.

2013-01-01

114

Alternative certification science teachers' understanding and implementation of inquiry-based instruction in their beginning years of teaching  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this phenomenographic study was to: (a) understand how beginning science teachers recruited from various science disciplines and prepared in an Alternative Teacher Certification Program (ATCP) implemented inquiry during their initial years of teaching; (b) describe constraints and needs that these beginning science teachers perceived in implementing inquiry-based science instruction; and (c) understand the relation between what they learned in their ATCP and their practice of teaching science through inquiry. The participants of this study consisted of four ATCP teachers who are in their beginning years of teaching. Semi-structured interviews, classroom observation, field notes, and artifacts used as source of data collection. The beginning science teachers in this study held incomplete views of inquiry. These views of inquiry did not reflect inquiry as described in NRC (2000)---essential features of inquiry,---nor did they reflect views of faculty members involved in teaching science methods courses. Although the participants described themselves as reform-oriented, there were inconsistencies between their views and practices. Their practice of inquiry did not reflect inquiry either as outlined by essential features of inquiry (NRC, 2000) or inquiry as modeled in activities used in their ATCP. The research participants' perceived constraints and needs in their implementation of inquiry-based activities. Their perceived constraints included logistical and student constraints and school culture. The perceived needs included classroom management, pedagogical skills, practical knowledge, discipline, successful grade-specific models of inquiry, and access to a strong support system. Prior professional work experience, models and activities used in the ATCP, and benefits of inquiry to student learning were the declared factors that facilitated the research participants' practice of inquiry-based teaching.

Demir, Abdulkadir

115

78 FR 35115 - Listing of Color Additives Exempt From Certification; Mica-Based Pearlescent Pigments  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...established an ADI level for mica-based pearlescent pigments to be 1.8 g/p/d based on a 2-year rat carcinogenicity bioassay that tested a 1:1 blend of mica and titanium dioxide (71 FR 31927 at 31928). Since the CEDI is less than the ADI,...

2013-06-12

116

Psychiatric disorders following fetal death: a population-based cohort study  

PubMed Central

Objectives Women have increased risks of severe mental disorders after childbirth and death of a child, but it remains unclear whether this association also applies to fetal loss and, if so, to which extent. We studied the risk of any inpatient or outpatient psychiatric treatment during the time period from 12?months before to 12?months after fetal death. Design Cohort study using Danish population-based registers. Setting Denmark. Participants A total of 1?112?831 women born in Denmark from 1960 to 1995 were included. In total, 87?687cases of fetal death (International Classification of Disease-10 codes for spontaneous abortion or stillbirth) were recorded between 1996 and 2010. Primary and secondary outcome measures The main outcome measures were incidence rate ratios (risk of first psychiatric inpatient or outpatient treatment). Results A total of 1379 women had at least one psychiatric episode during follow-up from the year before fetal death to the year after. Within the first few months after the loss, women had an increased risk of psychiatric contact, IRR: 1.51 (95% CI 1.15 to 1.99). In comparison, no increased risk of psychiatric contact was found for the period before fetal death. The risk of experiencing a psychiatric episode was highest for women with a loss occurring after 20?weeks of gestation (12?month probability: 1.95%, 95% CI 1.50 to 2.39). Conclusions Fetal death was associated with a transient increased risk of experiencing a first-time episode of a psychiatric disorder, primarily adjustment disorders. The risk of psychiatric episodes tended to increase with increasing gestational age at the time of the loss.

Munk-Olsen, Trine; Bech, Bodil Hammer; Vestergaard, Mogens; Li, Jiong; Olsen, J?rn; Laursen, Thomas Munk

2014-01-01

117

Survey of New York City Resident Physicians on Cause-of-Death Reporting, 2010  

PubMed Central

Introduction Death certificates contain critical information for epidemiology, public health research, disease surveillance, and community health programs. In most teaching hospitals, resident physicians complete death certificates. The objective of this study was to examine the experiences and opinions of physician residents in New York City on the accuracy of the cause-of-death reporting system. Methods In May and June 2010, we conducted an anonymous, Internet-based, 32-question survey of all internal medicine, emergency medicine, and general surgery residency programs (n = 70) in New York City. We analyzed data by type of residency and by resident experience in reporting deaths. We defined high-volume respondents as those who completed 11 or more death certificates in the last 3 years. Results A total of 521 residents from 38 residency programs participated (program response rate, 54%). We identified 178 (34%) high-volume respondents. Only 33.3% of all respondents and 22.7% of high-volume residents believed that cause-of-death reporting is accurate. Of all respondents, 48.6% had knowingly reported an inaccurate cause of death; 58.4% of high-volume residents had done so. Of respondents who indicated they reported an inaccurate cause, 76.8% said the system would not accept the correct cause, 40.5% said admitting office personnel instructed them to “put something else,” and 30.7% said the medical examiner instructed them to do so; 64.6% cited cardiovascular disease as the most frequent diagnosis inaccurately reported. Conclusion Most resident physicians believed the current cause-of-death reporting system is inaccurate, often knowingly documenting incorrect causes. The system should be improved to allow reporting of more causes, and residents should receive better training on completing death certificates.

Wexelman, Barbara A.; Eden, Edward

2013-01-01

118

Assessment of Deaths Attributable to Air Pollution: Should We Use Risk Estimates based on Time Series or on Cohort Studies?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Epidemiologic studies are crucial to the estimation of numbers of deaths attributable to air pollution. In this paper, the authors present a framework for distinguishing estimates of attributable cases based on time-series studies from those based on cohort studies, the latter being 5-10 times larger. The authors distinguish four categories of death associated with air pollution: A) air pollution increases

N. Künzli; S. Medina; R. Kaiser; P. Quénel; F. Horak; M. Studnicka

119

Privacy and Accountability in Certificate Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper addresses the threats to privacy that arise from certificate-based authentication and access control and ways of alleviating them. We explain in Sec. 2 how public-key certificates are used and what kind of information they may reveal. Sec. 3 de...

T. Aura C. Ellison

2000-01-01

120

Web-Based Certification Courses: The Future of Teacher Preparation in Special Education?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes development and implementation of the Western Carolina University Teacher Support Program, a multi-component Web-based special education teacher development course. The program is intended to reduce stress and burnout, improve retention, develop problem solving strategies, and improve the effectiveness of teachers.…

Sun, Ling; Bender, William N.; Fore, Cecil, III

2003-01-01

121

CMS System of DRM Technology Base that Use Web Contents Certification Code  

Microsoft Academic Search

From diversification of contents, CMS (contents Man- agement System) is operated variously for government of- ficial of contents. Present CMS plain applies a DRM tech- nology and is protecting contents copyright based on only position members. Therefore, global use of contents is lim- ited and use is impossible mutually and original copyright protection of contents is impossible. Therefore, in this

Young-bok Cho; Yong-zhen Li; Ning Sun; Sang-Ho Lee

2007-01-01

122

Supporting nurse manager certification.  

PubMed

Professional certification is desirable for nursing staff and leaders to demonstrate high levels of knowledge and expertise. Nurse managers can be role models for staff by attaining certification. The organization highlighted in this article developed a process that included an in-house nurse manager certification review course resulting in increased certification rates from 33% to 50% for nurse managers in a 14-month period. PMID:24853798

Rees, Susan; Glynn, Michele; Moore, Rebecca; Rankin, Rebecca; Stevens, Linda

2014-06-01

123

A population-based prospective evaluation of risk of sudden cardiac death after operation for common congenital heart defects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives. This study sought to define 1) the risk of sudden death after operation for common congenital heart defects; and 2) factors associated with an increased risk of sudden death.Background. Although the prognosis for patients with congenital heart defects is improved by surgical treatment, they remain at a well recognized but poorly defined risk of late sudden death.Methods. This population-based

Michael J Silka; Bruce G Hardy; Victor D Menashe; Cynthia D Morris

1998-01-01

124

Does Marital Status Predict the Odds of Suicidal Death in Taiwan? A Seven-Year Population-Based Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using nationwide, 7-year population-based data for 1997-2003, we examined marital status to see if it predicted suicide among the ethnic Chinese population of Taiwan. Using cause of death data, with a case-control design, two groups--total adult suicide deaths, n = 17,850, the study group, and adult deaths other than suicide, n = 71,400 (randomly…

Yeh, Jui-Yuan; Xirasagar, Sudha; Liu, Tsai-Ching; Li, Chong-Yi; Lin, Herng-Ching

2008-01-01

125

The "Last Mile" in Standards-Based Reform: Conducting a Match Study Linking Teacher-Certification Tests to Student Standards  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

States have invested significant resources in developing student academic standards. Mr. Murphy argues that, for these standards to be effective, teacher preparation and certification must be aligned with them. He proposes "match studies" as a way to ensure this alignment. (Contains 3 endnotes.)

Murphy, Edward J.

2006-01-01

126

Death in the United States, 2011  

MedlinePLUS

... Publications and Electronic Media Ordering Information Printed Publications Birth, Death, Marriage and Divorce Certificates Government Printing Office Bookstore How to Order from the National Technical Information Service Data and ...

127

Self-Certification Analysis Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Findings of the study were based on an analysis of the seven major factors of program and plant characteristics which were applied both to the FDA Self-Certification Program (whereby food plants monitor their own performance and standards) and to three al...

1971-01-01

128

Relation between size of delivery unit and neonatal death in low risk deliveries: population based study  

PubMed Central

AIM—To examine risk of neonatal death after low risk pregnancies in relation to size of delivery units.?METHODS—A population based study of live born singleton infants in Norway with birthweights of at least 2500 g was carried out. Antenatal risk factors were adjusted for.?RESULTS—From 1972 to 1995, 1.25 million births fulfilled the criteria. The neonatal death rate was lowest for maternity units with 2001-3000 annual births and steadily increased with decreasing size of the maternity unit to around twice that for units with less than 100 births a year (odds ratio 2.1; 95 % confidence interval 1.6 to 2.8). Institutions with more than 3000 deliveries a year also had a higher rate (odds ratio 1.7; 95% CI 1.4 to 2.0), but analyses suggest that this rate is overestimated.?CONCLUSION—Around 2000 to 3000 annual births are needed to reduce the risk of neonatal deaths after low risk deliveries.??

Moster, D.; Lie, R. T.; Markestad, T.; MACKINTOSH, M.

1999-01-01

129

Cell death following BNCT: a theoretical approach based on Monte Carlo simulations.  

PubMed

In parallel to boron measurements and animal studies, investigations on radiation-induced cell death are also in progress in Pavia, with the aim of better characterisation of the effects of a BNCT treatment down to the cellular level. Such studies are being carried out not only experimentally but also theoretically, based on a mechanistic model and a Monte Carlo code. Such model assumes that: (1) only clustered DNA strand breaks can lead to chromosome aberrations; (2) only chromosome fragments within a certain threshold distance can undergo misrejoining; (3) the so-called "lethal aberrations" (dicentrics, rings and large deletions) lead to cell death. After applying the model to normal cells exposed to monochromatic fields of different radiation types, the irradiation section of the code was purposely extended to mimic the cell exposure to a mixed radiation field produced by the (10)B(n,?) (7)Li reaction, which gives rise to alpha particles and Li ions of short range and high biological effectiveness, and by the (14)N(n,p)(14)C reaction, which produces 0.58 MeV protons. Very good agreement between model predictions and literature data was found for human and animal cells exposed to X- or gamma-rays, protons and alpha particles, thus allowing to validate the model for cell death induced by monochromatic radiation fields. The model predictions showed good agreement also with experimental data obtained by our group exposing DHD cells to thermal neutrons in the TRIGA Mark II reactor of the University of Pavia; this allowed to validate the model also for a BNCT exposure scenario, providing a useful predictive tool to bridge the gap between irradiation and cell death. PMID:21481595

Ballarini, F; Bakeine, J; Bortolussi, S; Bruschi, P; Cansolino, L; Clerici, A M; Ferrari, C; Protti, N; Stella, S; Zonta, A; Zonta, C; Altieri, S

2011-12-01

130

Maintenance of Certification for Radiation Oncology  

SciTech Connect

Maintenance of Certification (MOC) recognizes that in addition to medical knowledge, several essential elements involved in delivering quality care must be developed and maintained throughout one's career. The MOC process is designed to facilitate and document professional development of American Board of Radiology (ABR) diplomates in the essential elements of quality care in Radiation Oncology and Radiologic Physics. ABR MOC has been developed in accord with guidelines of the American Board of Medical Specialties. All Radiation Oncology certificates issued since 1995 are 10-year, time-limited certificates; diplomates with time-limited certificates who wish to maintain specialty certification must complete specific requirements of the American Board of Radiology MOC program. Diplomates with lifelong certificates are not required to participate but are strongly encouraged to do so. Maintenance of Certification is based on documentation of participation in the four components of MOC: (1) professional standing, (2) lifelong learning and self-assessment, (3) cognitive expertise, and (4) performance in practice. Through these components, MOC addresses six competencies-medical knowledge, patient care, interpersonal and communication skills, professionalism, practice-based learning and improvement, and systems-based practice. Details of requirements for components 1, 2, and 3 of MOC are outlined along with aspects of the fourth component currently under development.

Kun, Larry E. [Radiation Oncology Trustees of the American Board of Radiology, Tucson, AZ (United States); Ang, Kian [Radiation Oncology Trustees of the American Board of Radiology, Tucson, AZ (United States); Erickson, Beth [Radiation Oncology Trustees of the American Board of Radiology, Tucson, AZ (United States); Harris, Jay [Radiation Oncology Trustees of the American Board of Radiology, Tucson, AZ (United States); Hoppe, Richard [Radiation Oncology Trustees of the American Board of Radiology, Tucson, AZ (United States); Leibel, Steve [Radiation Oncology Trustees of the American Board of Radiology, Tucson, AZ (United States); Davis, Larry [Assistant Executive Director for Radiation Oncology, American Board of Radiology, Tucson, AZ (United States); Hattery, Robert [Executive Director, American Board of Radiology, Tucson, AZ (United States)

2005-06-01

131

Using textual cause-of-death data to study drug poisoning deaths.  

PubMed

Death certificate data are often used to study the epidemiology of poisoning deaths, but the International Classification of Diseases (ICD) codes used to tabulate death data do not convey all of the available information about the drugs and other substances named on death certificates. In the United States and some other countries, the SuperMICAR computer system is used to assign ICD codes to deaths. The SuperMICAR system also stores a verbatim record of the text entered for the cause of death. We used the SuperMICAR text entries to study the 7,817 poisoning deaths that occurred among Washington State residents between 2003 and 2010. We tabulated the drugs named on death certificates and computed age-adjusted and age-specific death rates for the top-named drugs and for prescription and illicit drugs. Methadone was named on 2,149 death certificates and was the most frequently named substance, followed by alcohol, opiate, cocaine, oxycodone, and methamphetamine. For both men and women and at all ages, prescription drugs were involved in more deaths than were illicit drugs. Among the 25 drugs named most frequently, only 4 have unique ICD codes; the other 21 can be identified only by using the SuperMICAR data. PMID:24521559

Ossiander, Eric M

2014-04-01

132

49 CFR 583.13 - Supplier certification and certificates.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AUTOMOBILE PARTS CONTENT LABELING § 583.13 Supplier certification and certificates. Each supplier shall certify the...

2013-10-01

133

Grid Computing Lecture - Globus Certificate Authorities and Certificates  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Grid Computing Lecture~~Globus certificate authorities and certificates, delegation, proxies, myProxy. Grid Computing Security, authorization, gridmap files, Community Authorization Service (CAS).

Ferner, Clayton; Wilkinson, Barry

2011-07-05

134

Shikonin induces immunogenic cell death in tumor cells and enhances dendritic cell-based cancer vaccine.  

PubMed

Immunogenic cell death is characterized by damage-associated molecular patterns, which can enhance the maturation and antigen uptake of dendritic cells. Shikonin, an anti-inflammatory and antitumor phytochemical, was exploited here as an adjuvant for dendritic cell-based cancer vaccines via induction of immunogenic cell death. Shikonin can effectively activate both receptor- and mitochondria-mediated apoptosis and increase the expression of all five tested damage-associated molecular patterns in the resultant tumor cell lysates. The combination treatment with damage-associated molecular patterns and LPS activates dendritic cells to a high maturation status and enhances the priming of Th1/Th17 effector cells. Shikonin-tumor cell lysate-loaded mature dendritic cells exhibit a high level of CD86 and MHC class II and activate Th1 cells. The shikonin-tumor cell lysate-loaded dendritic cell vaccines result in a strong induction of cytotoxic activity of splenocytes against target tumor cells, a retardation in tumor growth, and an increase in the survival of test mice. The much enhanced immunogenicity and efficacy of the current cancer vaccine formulation, that is, the use of shikonin-treated tumor cells as cell lysates for the pulse of dendritic cells in culture, may suggest a new ex vivo approach for developing individualized, dendritic cells-based anticancer vaccines. PMID:22527248

Chen, Hui-Ming; Wang, Pi-Hsueh; Chen, Swey-Shen; Wen, Chih-Chun; Chen, Yun-Hsiang; Yang, Wen-Chin; Yang, Ning-Sun

2012-11-01

135

Classification of stillbirth by relevant condition at death (ReCoDe): population based cohort study  

PubMed Central

Objective To develop and test a new classification system for stillbirths to help improve understanding of the main causes and conditions associated with fetal death. Design Population based cohort study. Setting West Midlands region. Subjects 2625 stillbirths from 1997 to 2003. Main outcome measures Categories of death according to conventional classification methods and a newly developed system (ReCoDe, relevant condition at death). Results By the conventional Wigglesworth classification, 66.2% of the stillbirths (1738 of 2625) were unexplained. The median gestational age of the unexplained group was 237 days, significantly higher than the stillbirths in the other categories (210 days; P < 0.001). The proportion of stillbirths that were unexplained was high regardless of whether a postmortem examination had been carried out or not (67% and 65%; P = 0.3). By the ReCoDe classification, the most common condition was fetal growth restriction (43.0%), and only 15.2% of stillbirths remained unexplained. ReCoDe identified 57.7% of the Wigglesworth unexplained stillbirths as growth restricted. The size of the category for intrapartum asphyxia was reduced from 11.7% (Wigglesworth) to 3.4% (ReCoDe). Conclusion The new ReCoDe classification system reduces the predominance of stillbirths currently categorised as unexplained. Fetal growth restriction is a common antecedent of stillbirth, but its high prevalence is hidden by current classification systems. This finding has profound implications for maternity services, and raises the question whether some hitherto “unexplained” stillbirths may be avoidable.

Gardosi, Jason; Kady, Sue M; McGeown, Pat; Francis, Andre; Tonks, Ann

2005-01-01

136

Certification report for the CALMAC solar powered pump  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The certification of the CALMAC solar powered thermopump is presented. Each element of the specification is delineated, together with the verification, based on analysis, similarity, inspection, or testing.

1978-01-01

137

Lightning Strike as Probable Cause of Death and Determining Identity Based on the Examination of Skeletal Remains.  

PubMed

In this article, a case of examining an incomplete human skeleton found in a forest is presented. Based on the assessment of posttraumatic lesions in the skull bones, the cause of death of a man who had died 14 years prior to the examination was determined with high probability to be due to a lightning strike. Moreover, the rare pathological lesions within the skeleton, such as a healed fracture of the humerus and rheumatoid malformations within the hand, in reference to preserved medical records, have also allowed to identify the deceased. Most noteworthy points in this case are, however, initially difficult to comprehend, posttraumatic lesions within the bones of the skull such as carbonization and fracture of the vertex. Their origin can be explained by a lightning strike as the most probable cause of death. Thus, the presented case demonstrates probable cause of death and identity can be established many years after death, based on skeletal remains. PMID:23488549

Hauser, Roman; Kaliszan, Micha?; Basir, Aaron; Basir, Iwona Dawlidowicz-

2013-03-12

138

The quality of cause of death data for young Australian men.  

PubMed

Accuracy and consistency of death certification and coding practices in Australia were examined in relation to a defined population of 552 young men who died aged 20 to 40 years. For each death a mock death certificate was prepared by a team of physicians using all available clinical, pathological, and coronial data. These certificates, and their International Classification of Diseases (ICD 8) codes derived by an Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) nosologist, were compared with the actual death registration papers and their ICD 8 codes. Data for deaths from malignant neoplasms were also compared with results of histopathological review. The mock death certificates were superior to the true death certificates in both completeness of content and accuracy of the recorded cause of death. The major source of discrepancies was unsatisfactory narrative on the original death certificates, the standard of which varied with Australian state and with cause of death. The cause of death coding by ABS was of high standard, but its coding practices generally identify only death certificates where content is inadequate for specific coding. Where the narrative is sufficiently specific to be coded there is no mechanism for checking the accuracy of the cause of death recorded. Suggestions are made for improving the narrative. PMID:3867338

Nairn, J R; Cobbin, D M; Fett, M J; Adena, M A

1985-10-01

139

Survivor: National Board Certification  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author relates how she passed the National Board Certification for art teachers. The author explains the process of application and submission of requirements to the National Board of Professional Teaching Standards. The author suggests several strategies on how teachers may be successful in passing the board certification.…

Kippley, Deborah Bowers

2006-01-01

140

Directory of Fitness Certifications.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article discusses the need for certification of fitness instructors in the aerobic dance/dance-exercise industry and presents results of a survey of 18 agencies that certify instructors. Survey data has been compiled and published. An excerpt is included which lists organizations, training, certification and renewal procedures, publications,…

Parks, Janet B.

1990-01-01

141

Bioenergetic metabolites regulate base excision repair dependent cell death in response to DNA damage  

PubMed Central

Base excision repair (BER) protein expression is important for resistance to DNA damage-induced cytotoxicity. Conversely, BER imbalance (Polß deficiency or repair inhibition) enhances cytotoxicity of radiation and chemotherapeutic DNA-damaging agents. Whereas inhibition of critical steps in the BER pathway result in the accumulation of cytotoxic DNA double-strand breaks, we report that DNA damage-induced cytotoxicity due to deficiency in the BER protein Polß triggers cell death dependent on PARP activation yet independent of poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR)-mediated AIF nuclear translocation or PARG, suggesting that cytotoxicity is not from PAR or PAR-catabolite signaling. Cell death is rescued by the NAD+ metabolite NMN and is synergistic with inhibition of NAD+ biosynthesis, demonstrating that DNA damage-induced cytotoxicity mediated via BER inhibition is primarily dependent on cellular metabolite bioavailability. We offer a mechanistic justification for the elevated alkylation-induced cytotoxicity of Polß deficient cells, suggesting a linkage between DNA repair, cell survival and cellular bioenergetics.

Tang, Jiang-bo; Goellner, Eva M.; Wang, Xiao-hong; Trivedi, Ram N.; Croix, Claudette M. St; Jelezcova, Elena; Svilar, David; Brown, Ashley R.; Sobol, Robert W.

2009-01-01

142

Institutional Review Boards' Use and Understanding of Certificates of Confidentiality  

PubMed Central

Certificates of Confidentiality, issued by agencies of the U.S. government, are regarded as an important tool for meeting ethical and legal obligations to safeguard research participants’ privacy and confidentiality. By shielding against forced disclosure of identifying data, Certificates are intended to facilitate research on sensitive topics critical to the public’s health. Although Certificates are potentially applicable to an extensive array of research, their full legal effect is unclear, and little is known about stakeholders’ views of the protections they provide. To begin addressing this challenge, we conducted a national survey of institutional review board (IRB) chairs, followed by telephone interviews with selected chairs, to learn more about their familiarity with and opinions about Certificates; their institutions’ use of Certificates; policies and practices concerning when Certificates are required or recommended; and the role Certificates play in assessments of research risk. Overall, our results suggest uncertainty about Certificates among IRB chairs. On most objective knowledge questions, most respondents chose the incorrect answer or ‘unsure’. Among chairs who reported more familiarity with Certificates, composite opinion scores calculated based on five survey questions were evenly distributed among positive, neutral/middle, and negative views. Further, respondents expressed a variety of ideas about the appropriate use of Certificates, what they are intended to protect, and their effect on research risk. Nevertheless, chairs who participated in our study commonly viewed Certificates as a potentially valuable tool, frequently describing them as an ‘extra layer’ of protection. These findings lead to several practical observations concerning the need for more stakeholder education about Certificates, consideration of Certificates for a broader range of studies, the importance of remaining vigilant and using all tools available to protect participants’ confidentiality, and the need for further empirical investigation of Certificates’ effect on researchers and research participants.

Beskow, Laura M.; Check, Devon K.; Namey, Emily E.; Dame, Lauren A.; Lin, Li; Cooper, Alexandra; Weinfurt, Kevin P.; Wolf, Leslie E.

2012-01-01

143

Planetary Protection Alternate Protocol Certification  

Microsoft Academic Search

The talk presents a standardized approach for new method certification or alterative testing protocol (ATP) certification against the existing U.S. Planetary Protection Standards. In consideration of new method certification there are two phases of activities that are relevant to the certification process. The first is sample acquisition which typically incorporates swab or wipes sampling on relevant hardware, associated facilities and

Amy Baker; Jack Barengoltz; David Tisdale

2010-01-01

144

Mentor Advice Giving in an Alternative Certification Program for Secondary Science Teaching: Opportunities and Roadblocks in Developing a Knowledge Base for Teaching  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mentoring is often an important component of alternative certification programs, yet little is known about what novices learn about science teaching through mentoring relationships. This study investigated the advice given by two mentor science teachers to their protégés. Findings indicate that mentors gave more advice related to general pedagogical knowledge than science-specific pedagogical content knowledge. Specifically, there was little to no advice related to the topics of inquiry, the nature of science, or the development of scientific literacy. Implications call for an increase in communication between university teacher education programs and school-based mentors, the development of benchmarks to help guide mentor-protégé interactions, and the importance of a multiyear induction process.

Upson Bradbury, Leslie; Koballa, Thomas R., Jr.

2007-12-01

145

Value, Challenges, and Satisfaction of Certification for Multiple Sclerosis Specialists  

PubMed Central

Background: Specialist certification among interdisciplinary multiple sclerosis (MS) team members provides formal recognition of a specialized body of knowledge felt to be necessary to provide optimal care to individuals and families living with MS. Multiple sclerosis specialist certification (MS Certified Specialist, or MSCS) first became available in 2004 for MS interdisciplinary team members, but prior to the present study had not been evaluated for its perceived value, challenges, and satisfaction. Methods: A sample consisting of 67 currently certified MS specialists and 20 lapsed-certification MS specialists completed the following instruments: Perceived Value of Certification Tool (PVCT), Perceived Challenges and Barriers to Certification Scale (PCBCS), Overall Satisfaction with Certification Scale, and a demographic data form. Results: Satisfactory reliability was shown for the total scale and four factored subscales of the PVCT and for two of the three factored PCBCS subscales. Currently certified MS specialists perceived significantly greater value and satisfaction than lapsed-certification MS specialists in terms of employer and peer recognition, validation of MS knowledge, and empowering MS patients. Lapsed-certification MS specialists reported increased confidence and caring for MS patients using evidence-based practice. Both currently certified and lapsed-certification groups reported dissatisfaction with MSCS recognition and pay/salary rewards. Conclusions: The results of this study can be used in efforts to encourage initial certification and recertification of interdisciplinary MS team members.

Halper, June

2014-01-01

146

Operator Certification Study Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study guide contains typical questions and answers that all levels of water treatment plant operators might expect to find on a certification examination. The manual covers the basic sciences, treatment techniques, testing procedures, and federal legislation. (Author/SB)

American Water Works Association, Denver, CO.

147

An A+ Certification Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the computer technology program at Thomas A. Edison Vocational and Technical High School in Queens, New York, all of whose graduates go on to specialty secondary schools for additional certification or to postsecondary education programs. (JOW)

Rubenstein, Charles

2003-01-01

148

Renewable Energy Technology Certificate  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Advanced Technology Environmental and Energy Center (ATEEC) has provided this framework for a renewable energy certificate. Users must download this resource for viewing, which requires a free log-in. There is no cost to download the item.

2011-05-27

149

Waterfront Certification Changes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Overviews certification changes affecting lifeguard training, progressive swimming instructors, CPR and first aid training, canoeing and kayaking instructors, sailing instructors, water skiing instructors, and instructor trainers. Addresses how changes impact American Camping Association standards. Provides addresses of training organizations. (LP)

O'Brien, Laurie

1995-01-01

150

Laminar Flow Aircraft Certification  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Various topics telative to laminar flow aircraft certification are discussed. Boundary layer stability, flaps for laminar flow airfoils, computational wing design studies, manufacturing requirements, windtunnel tests, and flow visualization are among the topics covered.

Williams, Louis J. (compiler)

1986-01-01

151

PEM public key certificate cache server  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Privacy Enhanced Mail (PEM) provides privacy enhancement services to users of Internet electronic mail. Confidentiality, authentication, message integrity, and non-repudiation of origin are provided by applying cryptographic measures to messages transferred between end systems by the Message Transfer System. PEM supports both symmetric and asymmetric key distribution. However, the prevalent implementation uses a public key certificate-based strategy, modeled after the X.509 directory authentication framework. This scheme provides an infrastructure compatible with X.509. According to RFC 1422, public key certificates can be stored in directory servers, transmitted via non-secure message exchanges, or distributed via other means. Directory services provide a specialized distributed database for OSI applications. The directory contains information about objects and then provides structured mechanisms for accessing that information. Since directory services are not widely available now, a good approach is to manage certificates in a centralized certificate server. This document describes the detailed design of a centralized certificate cache serve. This server manages a cache of certificates and a cache of Certificate Revocation Lists (CRL's) for PEM applications. PEMapplications contact the server to obtain/store certificates and CRL's. The server software is programmed in C and ELROS. To use this server, ISODE has to be configured and installed properly. The ISODE library 'libisode.a' has to be linked together with this library because ELROS uses the transport layer functions provided by 'libisode.a.' The X.500 DAP library that is included with the ELROS distribution has to be linked in also, since the server uses the DAP library functions to communicate with directory servers.

Cheung, T.

1993-12-01

152

A district-based audit of the causes and circumstances of maternal deaths in South Kalimantan, Indonesia.  

PubMed Central

A district-based audit of maternal and perinatal mortality began during 1994 in three provinces of South Kalimantan, Indonesia. Both medical and non-medical factors were documented and an effort was made to progress from merely assessing substandard care to recommending improvements in access to care and the quality of care. Extensive discussions of cases of maternal death were held during regular meetings with providers, policy-makers and community members. The sources of information included verbal autopsies with family members and medical records. Between 1995 and 1999 the audit reviewed 130 maternal deaths. The leading causes of death were haemorrhage (41%) and hypertensive diseases (32%). Delays in decision-making and poor quality of care in health facilities were seen as contributory factors in 77% and 60% of the deaths, respectively. Economic constraints were believed to have contributed to 37% of the deaths. The distance between a patient's home and a health provider or facility did not appear to have a significant influence, nor did transport problems. The audit led to changes in the quality of obstetric care in the district. Its success was particularly attributable to the process of accountability of both health providers and policy-makers and to improved working relationships between health providers at different levels and between providers and the community. With a view to the continuation and further expansion of the audit it may be necessary to reconsider the role of the provincial team, the need of health providers for confidentiality, the added benefit of facility-based audits, the need to incorporate scientific evidence into the review process, and the possible consideration of severe complications as well as deaths. It may also be necessary to recognize that village midwives are not solely responsible for maternal deaths.

Supratikto, Gunawan; Wirth, Meg E.; Achadi, Endang; Cohen, Surekha; Ronsmans, Carine

2002-01-01

153

Certification of training  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Training has been around as an informal process for countless years. Most higher order animals require some level of training in hunting, social skills, or other survival related skills to continue their existence beyond early infancy. Much of the training is accomplished through imitation, trial and error, and good luck. In some ways the essentials of training in aviation have not deviated from this original formula a great deal. One of the major changes in aviation and other technical areas is that more complex response chains based on a broader base of knowledge are now required. 'To certify' means many things according to the American Heritage dictionary of the English Language. These meanings range from 'to guarantee as meeting a standard' to 'to declare legally insane'. For this discussion, we will use the definition 'an action taken by some authoritative body that essentially guarantees that the instruction meets some defined standard'. In order to make this certification, the responsible body subjects the educational process, training, training device, or simulator to some type of examination to determine its adequacy or validity.

Gibson, Richard S.

1994-01-01

154

Building Intercultural Competence through Intercultural Competency Certification of Undergraduate Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Intercultural Competency Certificate (CCI in Spanish) designed for the Universidad Popular Autonoma del Estado de Puebla (UPAEP University) is a theory based comprehensive plan to develop undergraduate students' intercultural competence. This Certificate is based in the Developmental Model of Intercultural Sensitivity (DMIS) developed by…

Janeiro, Maria G. Fabregas; Fabre, Ricardo Lopez; Nuno de la Parra, Jose Pablo

2014-01-01

155

Modifiable cardiovascular disease risk factors as predictors of dementia death: pooling of ten general population-based cohort studies  

PubMed Central

Background With drug treatment for dementia being of limited effectiveness, the role of primary prevention, in particular the predictive value of modifiable cardiovascular disease risk factors, may warrant exploration. The evidence base is, however, characterised by discordant findings and is modest in size. Accordingly, we examined the association of modifiable cardiovascular disease risk factors with dementia death. Design and methods We pooled raw data from 10 UK general population-based prospective cohort studies within the context of an individual participant meta-analysis. Results A total of 103,764 men and women were followed up for a mean of 8 years giving rise to 443 dementia-related deaths and 2612 cardiovascular disease deaths. Cardiovascular disease mortality was, as anticipated, associated with the full range of risk factors under study, including raised blood pressure, smoking, diabetes, physical inactivity. By contrast, dementia death was related to very few of the cardiovascular disease risk factors: of those classified as modifiable, only smoking was associated with a raised risk and higher levels of non-HDL with a lower risk. Conclusions In the present individual participant meta-analysis, there was limited evidence that cardiovascular disease risk factors were related to dementia death.

2014-01-01

156

42 CFR 493.43 - Application for registration certificate, certificate for provider-performed microscopy (PPM...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...certificate for provider-performed microscopy (PPM) procedures, and certificate...Certificate for Provider-performed Microscopy Procedures, and Certificate of Compliance...certificate for provider-performed microscopy (PPM) procedures, and...

2010-10-01

157

42 CFR 493.43 - Application for registration certificate, certificate for provider-performed microscopy (PPM...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...certificate for provider-performed microscopy (PPM) procedures, and certificate...Certificate for Provider-performed Microscopy Procedures, and Certificate of Compliance...certificate for provider-performed microscopy (PPM) procedures, and...

2009-10-01

158

Analysis of the Quasi-Brain-Death EEG Data Based on a Robust ICA Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The brain-death is defined as the cessation and irreversibility of all brain and brain-stem function. A brain-death diagnosis\\u000a is made according to precise criteria and in a well-defined process. Since the process of brain-death determination usually\\u000a takes a longer time and with a risk (e.g. shortly remove the breath machine in a spontanuous respiration test), therefore,\\u000a a practical, safety and

Jianting Cao

2006-01-01

159

Unintentional Drowning Deaths in the United States, 1999-2010  

MedlinePLUS

... Publications and Electronic Media Ordering Information Printed Publications Birth, Death, Marriage and Divorce Certificates Government Printing Office Bookstore How to Order from the National Technical Information Service Data and ...

160

A district-based audit of the causes and circumstances of maternal deaths in South Kalimantan, Indonesia  

Microsoft Academic Search

A district-based audit of maternal and perinatal mortality began during 1994 in three provinces of South Kalimantan, Indonesia. Both medical and non-medical factors were documented and an effort was made to progress from merely assessing substandard care to recommending improvements in access to care and the quality of care. Extensive discussions of cases of maternal death were held during regular

Gunawan Supratikto; Meg E. Wirth; Endang Achadi; Surekha Cohen; Carine Ronsmans

2002-01-01

161

Viking site selection and certification  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The landing site selection and certification effort for the Viking mission to Mars is reviewed from the premission phase through the acquisition of data and decisions during mission operations and the immediate postlanding evaluation. The utility and limitations of the orbital television and infrared data and ground based radar observation of candidate and actual landing sites are evaluated. Additional instruments and types of observations which would have been useful include higher resolution cameras, radar altimeters, and terrain hazard avoidance capability in the landing system. Suggestions based on this experience that might be applied to future missions are included.

Masursky, H.; Crabill, N. L.

1981-01-01

162

77 FR 46677 - Vehicle Certification; Contents of Certification Labels  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...The proposal would require specified language on the certification labels for certain...manufacture shown above'' with the language, ``One of the following statements...FMVSSs. And the logical certification language was for these manufacturers to...

2012-08-06

163

Comparing road traffic mortality rates from police-reported data and death registration data in China  

PubMed Central

Abstract Objective To compare death rates from road traffic injuries in China in 2002–2007 when derived from police-reported data versus death registration data. Methods In China, police-recorded data are obtained from police records by means of a standardized, closed-ended data collection form; these data are published in the China statistical yearbook of communication and transportation. Official death registration data, on the other hand, are obtained from death certificates completed by physicians and are published in the China health statistics yearbook. We searched both sources for data on road traffic deaths in 2002–2007, used the ?2 test to compare the mortality rates obtained, and performed linear regression to look for statistically significant trends in road traffic mortality over the period. Findings For 2002–2007, the rate of death from road traffic injuries based on death registration data was about twice as high as the rate reported by the police. Linear regression showed a significant decrease of 27% (95% confidence interval, CI: 35–19) in the death rate over the period according to police sources but no significant change according to death registration data. Conclusion The widely-cited recent drop in road traffic mortality in China, based on police-reported data, may not reflect a genuine decrease. The quality of the data obtained from police reports, which drives decision-making by the Government of China and international organizations, needs to be investigated, monitored and improved.

Baker, Timothy; Baker, Susan P

2011-01-01

164

Subspecialty Certification by the American Board of Psychiatry and Neurology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: The authors describe the approval processes for subspecialties and the mechanisms for certification and recertification and review the status of training programs and numbers of diplomates with subspecialty certification. Methods: Published information and relevant data bases were reviewed. To date, 5,327 child and adolescent…

Juul, Dorthea; Scheiber, Stephen C.; Kramer, Thomas A. M.

2004-01-01

165

Report on Degrees and Certificates Awarded, 1994-95.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Based on data provided by college districts to the California Community Colleges' Office of the Chancellor, this report provides information on the number of degrees and certificates awarded by the state's community colleges in 1994-95. Following introductory materials, four tables are provided showing the number of degrees and certificates

California Community Colleges, Sacramento. Office of the Chancellor.

166

Certification of damage tolerant composite structure  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A reliability based certification testing methodology for impact damage tolerant composite structure was developed. Cocured, adhesively bonded, and impact damaged composite static strength and fatigue life data were statistically analyzed to determine the influence of test parameters on the data scatter. The impact damage resistance and damage tolerance of various structural configurations were characterized through the analysis of an industry wide database of impact test results. Realistic impact damage certification requirements were proposed based on actual fleet aircraft data. The capabilities of available impact damage analysis methods were determined through correlation with experimental data. Probabilistic methods were developed to estimate the reliability of impact damaged composite structures.

Rapoff, Andrew J.; Dill, Harold D.; Sanger, Kenneth B.; Kautz, Edward F.

1990-01-01

167

Rehabilitation Counselor Certification: Moving Forward  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article provides a brief history of the Commission on Rehabilitation Counselor Certification and presents recent changes and strategic goals for moving forward. Challenges and opportunities for the profession in relation to certification are also discussed. (Contains 3 tables.)

Saunders, Jodi L.; Barros-Bailey, Mary; Chapman, Cindy; Nunez, Patricia

2009-01-01

168

Age-at-death estimation based on radiological and image analysis methods in clavicle in a current Spanish population.  

PubMed

Age-at-death estimation in adult individuals is one of the most challenging issues in forensic anthropology, namely, due to the large age intervals provided by the current methods, which demand the development of more reliable investigations. The clavicle has been studied as an age-at-death indicator in many researches for its accessibility, low biomechanical implication in locomotion and accuracy to predict age at death when other age indicators are not available. The present study was developed on a sample of 332 clavicles from adult individuals of known sex and age from the current Spanish population. They were x-rayed and digitalized, in a standardized way, using a Sedecal X-ray generator, model SHF 415. Three indices were calculated at the mid-diaphysis point (anterior index, posterior index, and total index) which relate the cortical thickness and the total clavicle thickness to age at death. The average grey level was also calculated in a 0.5-cm(2) area of the sternal and acromial ends (sternal grey average, acromial grey average), using Image J software. The data were subjected to a statistical analysis, using SPSS, version 15.0. The results show that average grey level has a weaker correlation with age than the variables which are based on the cortical thickness. On the other hand, the regression equations, which were calculated combining all the variables, provided smaller age-at-death intervals, demonstrating the usefulness of this method for adult age-at-death estimation in forensic anthropology. PMID:24664396

Benito, María; Sánchez, José Antonio; Codinha, Sónia

2014-05-01

169

Organ donation after death in Ontario: a population-based cohort study  

PubMed Central

Background: Shortfalls in deceased organ donation lead to shortages of solid organs available for transplantation. We assessed rates of deceased organ donation and compared hospitals that had clinical services for transplant recipients (transplant hospitals) to those that did not (general hospitals). Methods: We conducted a population-based cohort analysis involving patients who died from traumatic brain injury, subarachnoid hemorrhage, intracerebral hemorrhage or other catastrophic neurologic conditions in Ontario, Canada, between Apr. 1, 1994, and Mar. 31, 2011. We distinguished between acute care hospitals with and without transplant services. The primary outcome was actual organ donation determined through the physician database for organ procurement procedures. Results: Overall, 87 129 patients died from catastrophic neurologic conditions during the study period, of whom 1930 became actual donors. Our primary analysis excluded patients from small hospitals, reducing the total to 79 746 patients, of whom 1898 became actual donors. Patients who died in transplant hospitals had a distribution of demographic characteristics similar to that of patients who died in other large general hospitals. Transplant hospitals had an actual donor rate per 100 deaths that was about 4 times the donor rate at large general hospitals (5.0 v. 1.4, p < 0.001). The relative reduction in donations at general hospitals was accentuated among older patients, persisted among patients who were the most eligible candidates and amounted to about 121 fewer actual donors per year (adjusted odds ratio 0.58, 95% confidence interval 0.36–0.92). Hospital volumes were only weakly correlated with actual organ donation rates. Interpretation: Optimizing organ donation requires greater attention to large general hospitals. These hospitals account for most of the potential donors and missed opportunities for deceased organ donation.

Redelmeier, Donald A.; Markel, Frank; Scales, Damon C.

2013-01-01

170

Advanced practice registered nurse certification.  

PubMed

Advanced practice registered nurses (APRNs) in nephrology began to be certified through the Nephrology Nursing Certification Commission (NNCC) in 2006. Since that time, the APRN Consensus Model has been developed, which addresses licensure, accreditation, certification, and education and which strongly recommends specialty certification for advanced practice nurses. This article discusses NNCC certification for advanced practice in nephrology nursing and describes the major components of the APRN Consensus Model. PMID:23923801

Alleman, Kim; Houle, Katherine

2013-01-01

171

Pharmacy Technician Certification Board  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Pharmacy Technician Certification Board, the national credentialing body for pharmacy technicians "develops, maintains, promotes and administers a high-quality certification and recertification program for pharmacy technicians." As a way to meet these goals, the PTCB has developed a very useful site filled with resources for their users. Offering materials such as a practice exam, detailed information about the exam requirements and needs, career descriptions and occupational outlook estimates, newsletters and presentation materials, the site is a one-stop introduction to the field of pharmacy technician practice.

2007-01-02

172

Community-based surveillance of paediatric deaths in Cross River State, Nigeria.  

PubMed

A house-to-house survey of paediatric deaths which occurred from January to December 1991 in the village of Nko, Cross River State, Nigeria, was carried out. Among the 471 total deaths recorded, the leading causes were malaria (29%), protein-energy malnutrition, pneumonia and diarrhoeal disease (11% each). Neonatal deaths were largely due to septicaemia, tetanus and birth asphyxia. Poor domestic and human waste disposal, lack of portable water and basic health facilities appear to be the important related factors to child health problems in this community. The provision of public toilets, safe water, primary health care centres and health education can definitely improve the health status of this rural community. Events in other rural communities in Nigeria are most likely to be similar to that in Nko. Such populations need to be identified and their problems urgently addressed. PMID:7855918

Ekanem, E E; Asindi, A A; Okoi, O U

1994-01-01

173

Board Certification in Counseling Psychology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although specialty board certification by the American Board of Professional Psychology (ABPP) has been a valued standard for decades, the vast majority of counseling psychologists do not pursue board certification in the specialty. The present article provides a brief history of board certification in general and some historical information about…

Crowley, Susan L.; Lichtenberg, James W.; Pollard, Jeffrey W.

2012-01-01

174

Patterns of cell death induced by eluates from denture base acrylic resins in U-937 human monoblastoid cells.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to investigate in vitro the apoptosis- and necrosis-inducing potential of eluates from three heat-polymerized and four autopolymerized poly(methyl methacrylate)-based denture base resins. Our hypothesis was that the rate of cell death by apoptosis and/or necrosis induced by such denture base resins could be an important indicator of their cytotoxicity degree. U-937 human monoblastoid cells were exposed for 24 h and 48 h to eluates of 0.1 g/ml, 0.2 g/ml, 0.4 g/ml, and 0.8 g/ml extracted for 24 h and 48 h. The characteristics of apoptosis and necrosis were evaluated by flow cytometry and light and electron microscopy. Eluates from all resins enhanced cell death by apoptosis and necrosis in U-937 cells in a dose- and time-dependent fashion. Eluates from autopolymerized resins yielded higher percentages of apoptosis and necrosis than the heat-polymerized ones. The results support our hypothesis that eluates of poly(methyl methacrylate)-based denture base acrylic resins activate death-signaling pathways, and that the extent of this process reflects their biocompatibility degree. PMID:10706479

Cimpan, M R; Cressey, L I; Skaug, N; Halstensen, A; Lie, S A; Gjertsen, B T; Matre, R

2000-02-01

175

The epidemiological transition in Antananarivo, Madagascar: an assessment based on death registers (1900-2012).  

PubMed

Background: Madagascar today has one of the highest life expectancies in sub-Saharan Africa, despite being among the poorest countries in the continent. There are relatively few detailed accounts of the epidemiological transition in this country due to the lack of a comprehensive death registration system at the national level. However, in Madagascar's capital city, death registration was established around the start of the 20th century and is now considered virtually complete. Objective: We provide an overview of trends in all-cause and cause-specific mortality in Antananarivo to document the timing and pace of the mortality decline and the changes in the cause-of-death structure. Design: Death registers covering the period 1976-2012 were digitized and the population at risk of dying was estimated from available censuses and surveys. Trends for the period 1900-1976 were partly reconstructed from published sources. Results: The crude death rate stagnated around 30‰ until the 1940s in Antananarivo. Mortality declined rapidly after the World War II and then resurged again in the 1980s as a result of the re-emergence of malaria and the collapse of Madagascar's economy. Over the past 30 years, impressive gains in life expectancy have been registered thanks to the unabated decline in child mortality, despite political instability, a lasting economic crisis and the persistence of high rates of chronic malnutrition. Progress in adult survival has been more modest because reductions in infectious diseases and diseases of the respiratory system have been partly offset by increases in cardiovascular diseases, neoplasms, and other diseases, particularly at age 50 years and over. Conclusions: The transition in Antananarivo has been protracted and largely dependent on anti-microbial and anti-parasitic medicine. The capital city now faces a double burden of communicable and non-communicable diseases. The ongoing registration of deaths in the capital generates a unique database to evaluate the performance of the health system and measure intervention impacts. PMID:24848650

Masquelier, Bruno; Waltisperger, Dominique; Ralijaona, Osée; Pison, Gilles; Ravélo, Arsène

2014-01-01

176

Guidelines for the verification and validation of expert system software and conventional software: Evaluation of knowledge base certification methods. Volume 4  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the results of the Knowledge Base Certification activity of the expert systems verification and validation (V&V) guideline development project which is jointly funded by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the Electric Power Research Institute. The ultimate objective is the formulation of guidelines for the V&V of expert systems for use in nuclear power applications. This activity is concerned with the development and testing of various methods for assuring the quality of knowledge bases. The testing procedure used was that of behavioral experiment, the first known such evaluation of any type of V&V activity. The value of such experimentation is its capability to provide empirical evidence for -- or against -- the effectiveness of plausible methods in helping people find problems in knowledge bases. The three-day experiment included 20 participants from three nuclear utilities, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission`s Technical training Center, the University of Maryland, EG&G Idaho, and SAIC. The study used two real nuclear expert systems: a boiling water reactor emergency operating procedures tracking system and a pressurized water reactor safety assessment systems. Ten participants were assigned to each of the expert systems. All participants were trained in and then used a sequence of four different V&V methods selected as being the best and most appropriate for study on the basis of prior evaluation activities. These methods either involved the analysis and tracing of requirements to elements in the knowledge base (requirements grouping and requirements tracing) or else involved direct inspection of the knowledge base for various kinds of errors. Half of the subjects within each system group used the best manual variant of the V&V methods (the control group), while the other half were supported by the results of applying real or simulated automated tools to the knowledge bases (the experimental group).

Miller, L.A.; Hayes, J.E.; Mirsky, S.M. [Science Applications International Corp., McLean, VA (United States)

1995-03-01

177

Digital certificate that indicates a parameter of an associated cryptographic token  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

In at least some embodiments, a method comprises obtaining a digital certificate that indicates a parameter of a cryptographic token associated with the digital certificate. The method further comprises associating a level of trust with the digital certificate based on the parameter of the cryptographic token.

2012-01-03

178

The Global Burden of Snakebite: A Literature Analysis and Modelling Based on Regional Estimates of Envenoming and Deaths  

PubMed Central

Background Envenoming resulting from snakebites is an important public health problem in many tropical and subtropical countries. Few attempts have been made to quantify the burden, and recent estimates all suffer from the lack of an objective and reproducible methodology. In an attempt to provide an accurate, up-to-date estimate of the scale of the global problem, we developed a new method to estimate the disease burden due to snakebites. Methods and Findings The global estimates were based on regional estimates that were, in turn, derived from data available for countries within a defined region. Three main strategies were used to obtain primary data: electronic searching for publications on snakebite, extraction of relevant country-specific mortality data from databases maintained by United Nations organizations, and identification of grey literature by discussion with key informants. Countries were grouped into 21 distinct geographic regions that are as epidemiologically homogenous as possible, in line with the Global Burden of Disease 2005 study (Global Burden Project of the World Bank). Incidence rates for envenoming were extracted from publications and used to estimate the number of envenomings for individual countries; if no data were available for a particular country, the lowest incidence rate within a neighbouring country was used. Where death registration data were reliable, reported deaths from snakebite were used; in other countries, deaths were estimated on the basis of observed mortality rates and the at-risk population. We estimate that, globally, at least 421,000 envenomings and 20,000 deaths occur each year due to snakebite. These figures may be as high as 1,841,000 envenomings and 94,000 deaths. Based on the fact that envenoming occurs in about one in every four snakebites, between 1.2 million and 5.5 million snakebites could occur annually. Conclusions Snakebites cause considerable morbidity and mortality worldwide. The highest burden exists in South Asia, Southeast Asia, and sub-Saharan Africa.

Kasturiratne, Anuradhani; Wickremasinghe, A. Rajitha; de Silva, Nilanthi; Gunawardena, N. Kithsiri; Pathmeswaran, Arunasalam; Premaratna, Ranjan; Savioli, Lorenzo; Lalloo, David G; de Silva, H. Janaka

2008-01-01

179

Preventable Injury Deaths: A Population-Based Proxy of Child Maltreatment Risk in California  

PubMed Central

Objective This study used group variations in child injury fatality rates to assess racial bias in the population of children identified as victims of maltreatment. Methods Injury fatality and maltreatment data from California were compiled for the years 1998–2007. Death and maltreatment risk ratios (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were computed by race and age. Rates of excess child injury mortality by race were derived from three different baseline rates of death. Substantiations per excess injury death were calculated. Results Compared with white children, black children faced a risk of substantiated maltreatment that was more than twice as great (black RR: 2.39, 95% CI 2.37, 2.42) and were fatally injured at nearly twice the rate (black RR: 1.89, 95% CI 1.68, 2.12). Per excess death, however, black children had rates of substantiated maltreatment allegations that were equivalent to or lower than the rates for white children. Conclusions These data support claims that, at least in California, black-white racial disparities observed in maltreatment rates reflect real group differences in risk. These data provide no evidence of systematic racial bias in the child protective services' substantiation process.

Putnam-Hornstein, Emily

2012-01-01

180

Verbal autopsy of 80,000 adult deaths in Tamilnadu, South India  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Registration of the fact of death is almost complete in the city of Chennai and not so in the rural Villupuram district in Tamilnadu, India. The cause of death is often inadequately recorded on the death certificate in developing countries like India. A special verbal autopsy (VA) study of 48 000 adult (aged ? 25 yrs) deaths in the

Vendhan Gajalakshmi; Richard Peto

2004-01-01

181

Rethinking Teacher Certification.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The original rationale for state teacher certification regulations was that they afforded the public a measure of protection against frauds and incompetents and against the capriciousness or low standards of local school boards. However, recent evidence (1985) shows that there is not much difference in quality and effectiveness between certified…

Kirkpatrick, David W.

182

Standards and Certification. Symposium.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document contains three papers from a symposium on standards and certification in human resource development (HRD). "Implementing Management Standards in the UK" (Jonathan Winterton, Ruth Winterton) reports on a study that explored the implementation of management standards in 16 organizations and identified 36 key themes and strategic issues…

2002

183

Virginia Career Readiness Certificate  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes how Virginia responded to employer needs and created a blue print for the establishment of a demand driven workforce-credentialing system. This system serves the needs of job seekers and the competency-certification needs of hiring authorities. This is a true quality of life and economic development movement.

DuBois, Glenn; Westerman, Gloria

2007-01-01

184

School Nursing Certification Review  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The 2010 update to the resource you have been waiting for to help you prepare to take the National School Nurse Certification Exam. Dr. Janice Selekman DNSc, RN, NCSN, a recognized expert in pediatric nursing, and NASN Past President Linda C. Wolfe MEd, BSN, RN, NCSN, FNASN are the authors. This text was created in response to many years of…

Selekman, Janice; Wolfe, Linda C.

2010-01-01

185

Apparent disapperance of hypernatraemic dehydration from infant deaths in Sheffield.  

PubMed Central

The death certificates and necropsy reports of the 1115 Sheffield infants who died under 2 years of age in 1969-78 were examined. This study showed the apparent disappearance of deaths with hypernatraemia and in particular deaths presenting as cot deaths. The fall in incidence may be as much the result of an intensive local campaign on child care and infant feeding as of the change in the composition of dried milk for baby feeding.

Sunderland, R; Emery, J L

1979-01-01

186

40 CFR 745.229 - Certification of individuals and firms engaged in lead-based paint activities: public and...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...lead-based paint activities: public and commercial buildings, bridges and superstructures. [Reserved] 745.229 Section 745...lead-based paint activities: public and commercial buildings, bridges and superstructures....

2013-07-01

187

Deliberating death.  

PubMed

Utilizing a particular case study of a woman attempting to come to terms with her death, this article explores the difficult metaphors of death present within the Christian tradition. Tracing a Christian understanding of death back to the work of Augustine, the case study is utilized to highlight the difficulties presented by past and present theology embracing ideas of punishment within death. Following the trajectory of the case study, alternative understandings of death present in recent Christian theology and within Native American spirituality are presented in an attempt to find room for a fuller meaning of death post-reconciliation, but premortem. PMID:21404733

Landes, Scott D

2010-01-01

188

Causes of Death of Patients with Methamphetamine Dependence: A Record-Linkage Study  

PubMed Central

Introduction and Aims Methamphetamine use leads to increased likelihood of premature death. The authors investigated the causes of death and risk of mortality in a large cohort of patients with methamphetamine dependence. Design and Methods A cohort of 1,254 subjects with methamphetamine dependence, admitted to a psychiatric center in Taiwan from January 1990 to December 2007, was retrospectively studied. Diagnostic and sociodemographic data for each subject were extracted from the medical records based on a chart review process. Mortality data were obtained by linking to the National Death Certification System and standardised mortality ratios (SMRs) were estimated. The risk and protective factors for all-cause deaths were explored by means of survival analyses. Results During the study period, 130 patients died. Of them, 63.1% died unnatural deaths, while the remaining 36.9% died natural deaths. The 1-year cumulative rates for unnatural and natural deaths were 0.018 and 0.006, respectively and the 5-year rates were 0.046 and 0.023, respectively. The cohort had excessive mortality (SMR = 6.02), and women had a higher SMR for unnatural deaths than men (26.19 vs. 9.82, P = 0.001). For all-cause deaths, comorbiditywith other substance use disorders was associated with increased risk of death, despite that being married was associated with a reduced risk. Discussion and Conclusions A substantial proportion of the deceased died natural deaths, but most died unnatural deaths. The findings show significant evidence to provide valuable insight into premature deaths among methamphetamine-dependent users. This information is valuable for development of prevention and intervention programs.

Kuo, Chian-Jue; Liao, Ya-Tang; Chen, Wei J.; Tsai, Shang-Ying; Lin, Shih-Ku; Chen, Chiao-Chicy

2010-01-01

189

A Collaborative, Alternative Teacher Certification Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the summer of 1986, three institutions (West Virginia State College, West Virigina College of Graduate Studies, and West Virgina Institute of Technology) consorted to design an alternative teacher certification program to attract and retain a qualified pool of mathematics and science teachers. Known as the Field-Based Training Program (FBTP),…

Securro, Samuel, Jr.; And Others

190

A study of diarrhoea-enteritis deaths in infants in Manila, Philippines  

PubMed Central

In view of the high mortality caused by diarrhoea-enteritis among children under two years of age in the Philippines, a study was conducted to determine, first, the accuracy of death certificates ascribing death to this cause and, secondly, the relative importance of certain preventable factors in such death. From an analysis of 217 certificates showing diarrhoea-enteritis as the cause of death, it was found that over one-fifth of the deaths should in fact have been ascribed to other disease entities. The findings suggest that important factors contributing to death are failure to seek medical attention early enough and inadequate therapy, even when given early.

Davis, R.-A.; del Carmen, F.; Escosa, R. B.; Quebral-Geaga, D.; Librea, A. A.; Portes, J.; Roman, G.; Tayback, M.; Vergara-Valenzuela, A.; Valenzuela, V. C.

1959-01-01

191

Cot Deaths.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Addresses the tragedy of crib deaths, giving particular attention to causes, prevention, and medical research on Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS). Gives anecdotal accounts of coping strategies used by parents and families of SIDS infants. (DT)

Tyrrell, Shelagh

1985-01-01

192

Epilepsy mortality and risk factors for death in epilepsy: a population-based study  

PubMed Central

Background Epilepsy is an important cause of amenable mortality but risk factors for death in epilepsy are not well understood. Aim To evaluate trends in epilepsy mortality in a large population and identify risk factors for death in epilepsy. Design and setting Nested case–control study in the UK, using data from the General Practice Research Database (GPRD) from 1993 to 2007. Method Participants were included if they had ever been diagnosed with epilepsy and prescribed anticonvulsant drugs. Trends in all-cause mortality in persons with epilepsy in the GPRD were compared with death registrations with epilepsy as the underlying cause. A nested case–control study was implemented to compare participants with epilepsy who died with those who did not die. Results The prevalence of epilepsy increased from 9 per 1000 in 1993 to 12 per 1000 in 2007, and epilepsy deaths also increased in this period. In a nested case–control study, mortality was associated with: recorded alcohol problems (odds ratio [OR] 2.96, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.25 to 3.89, P<0.001); having collected the last anticonvulsant prescription 90–182 days previously (OR 1.83, CI = 1.66 to 2.03, P<0.001); having an injury in the previous year (OR 1.41, 95% CI = 1.30 to 1.53, P<0.001), and having been treated for depression (OR 1.39, 95% CI = 1.28 to 1.50, P<0.001). In data available from 2004 onwards, being recorded seizure free in the previous 12 months was associated with lower mortality (OR 0.78, 95% CI = 0.71 to 0.86, P<0.001). Conclusion Mortality with epilepsy appears to be increasing. Patients who have alcohol problems, do not collect repeat prescriptions for anticonvulsant drugs, have recent injuries, or have been treated for depression may be at increased risk of death; patients who remain seizure free over 12 months are at a lower risk.

Ridsdale, Leone; Charlton, Judith; Ashworth, Mark; Richardson, Mark P; Gulliford, Martin C

2011-01-01

193

Atomic oxygen interaction with spacecraft materials: Relationship between orbital and ground-based testing for materials certification  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of atomic oxygen on boron nitride, silicon nitride, solar cell interconnects used on the Intelsat 6 satellite, organic polymers, and MoSâ and WSâ dry lubricant have been studied in low Earth orbit (LEO) flight experiments and in our ground-based simulation facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory. Both the in-flight and ground-based experiments employed in situ electrical resistance measurements

J. B. Cross; S. L. Koontz; E. H. Lan

1991-01-01

194

Intake rigour: ensuring only "reportable deaths" become coroners' cases.  

PubMed

The failure of medical practitioners to discharge their obligation consistently to report sudden or unnatural deaths to coroners has rightly prompted concern. Following recent public scandals, coroners and health authorities have increasingly developed procedures to ensure that concerning deaths are reported to coroners. However, the negative consequences of deaths being unnecessarily reported have received less attention: unnecessary intrusion into bereavement; a waste of public resources; and added delay and hindrance to the investigation of matters needing a coroner's attention. Traditionally, coroners have largely unquestioningly assumed jurisdiction over any deaths for which a medical practitioner has not issued a cause of death certificate. The Office of the State Coroner in Queensland has recently trialled a system to assess more rigorously whether deaths apparently resulting from natural causes, which have been reported to a coroner, should be investigated by the coroner, rather than being finalised by a doctor issuing a cause of death certificate. This article describes that trial and its results. PMID:24804529

Barnes, Michael; Kirkegaard, Ainslie; Carpenter, Belinda

2014-03-01

195

Midcourse Space Experiment Data Certification and Technology Transfer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Midcourse Space Experiment spacecraft, launched April 24, 1996, is expected to have a 5 year useful lifetime with a 12 month lifetime for the cryogenically cooled IR sensor. A pre-launch, ground based calibration of the instruments provided a basis for the pre-launch certification of the Level 2 data base these instruments produce. With the spacecraft in-orbit the certification of the instrument's Level 2 data base is being extended to the in-orbit environment.

Pollock, David B.

1998-01-01

196

14 CFR 119.37 - Contents of an Air Carrier Certificate or Operating Certificate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2014-01-01 false Contents of an Air Carrier Certificate or Operating Certificate...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR CARRIERS AND OPERATORS FOR COMPENSATION...CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS CERTIFICATION: AIR CARRIERS AND COMMERCIAL OPERATORS...

2014-01-01

197

Cleanroom certification model  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Cleanroom software development methodology is designed to take the gamble out of product releases for both suppliers and receivers of the software. The ingredients of this procedure are a life cycle of executable product increments, representative statistical testing, and a standard estimate of the MTTF (Mean Time To Failure) of the product at the time of its release. A statistical approach to software product testing using randomly selected samples of test cases is considered. A statistical model is defined for the certification process which uses the timing data recorded during test. A reasonableness argument for this model is provided that uses previously published data on software product execution. Also included is a derivation of the certification model estimators and a comparison of the proposed least squares technique with the more commonly used maximum likelihood estimators.

Currit, P. A.

1983-01-01

198

Certification of smallpox eradication  

PubMed Central

The world's last known case of smallpox resulting from human-to-human transmission in an endemic focus occurred in Somalia in October 1977, and there remains the task of documenting the global eradication of the disease and establishing the safety of vaccination. Those countries as yet uncertified have been grouped into four categories according to the procedures recommended for their certification. An important criterion for deciding the type of procedure is how recently smallpox was endemic in a particular country. This paper is concerned with those countries in which the disease has been nonendemic for some years but which have not yet received certification of eradication. One such country is Burma, which was certified free of smallpox in 1977, some 8 years after its last reported case but 2 years after the last case in Bangladesh, with which it shares a long frontier. The procedures used in Burma and the lessons that were learnt therefrom are described.

Brilliant, L. B.; Hodakevic, L. N.

1978-01-01

199

Organic Production and Certification  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Minnesota Department of Agriculture\\'s Sustainable Agriculture Program provides farmers and consumers with information on organic production practices and certification. The \\"What\\'s New\\" section on the front page of the site includes recent issues in the agricultural field. Agricultural organizations, news and events, and farming systems are all mapped out in detail on the site. Users are also given access to University of Minnesota research on agriculture.

2008-10-08

200

Personnel Issues in School-Based Physical Therapy: A Look at Supply and Demand, Professional Preparation, Licensure, and Certification  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Physical therapy in school settings focuses on outcomes and is based on meeting the educational needs of the child or student. Despite the expansion in delivery models beyond direct one-to-one intervention, and the use of multiple team members, to achieve outcomes for students in educational environments, there continue to be shortages of physical…

Rapport, Mary Jane K.; Effgen, Susan K.

2004-01-01

201

NIHSS Certification is Reliable Across Multiple Venues  

PubMed Central

NIH Stroke Scale certification is required for participation in modern stroke clinical trials and as part of good clinical care in stroke centers. A new training and demonstration DVD was produced to replace existing training and certification videotapes. Previously, this DVD, with 18 patients representing all possible scores on 15 scale items, was shown to be reliable among expert users. The DVD is now the standard for NIH stroke scale training but the videos have not been validated among general (i.e. non-expert) users. We sought to measure inter-rater reliability of the certification DVD among general users using methodology previously published for the DVD. All raters who used the DVD certification through the American Heart Association website were included in this study. Each rater evaluated one of 3 certification groups. Responses were received from 8214 raters overall, 7419 raters using the internet and 795 raters using other venues. Among raters from other venues, 33% of all responses came from registered nurses, 23% from Emergency Department MD/Other ED/other physicians, and 44% from neurologists. One half (51%) of raters were previously NIHSS certified and 93% were from United States/Canada. Item responses were tabulated, scoring performed as previously published, and agreement measured with unweighted kappa coefficients for individual items and an intraclass correlation coefficient for the overall score. In addition, agreement in this study was compared to the agreement obtained in the original DVD validation study to determine if there were differences between novice and experienced users. Kappa's ranged from 0.15 (Ataxia) to 0.81 (LOC-C questions). Of 15 items, 2 showed poor, 11 moderate, and 2 excellent agreement, based on Kappa scores. Agreement was slightly lower to that obtained from expert users for LOCC, Best Gaze, Visual Fields, Facial Weakness, Motor Left Arm, Motor Right Arm and Sensory Loss. The intraclass correlation coefficient for total score was 0.85 (95% CI 0.72, 0.90). Reliability scores were similar among specialists and there were no major differences between nurses and physicians, though scores tended to be lower for neurologists and trended higher among raters not previously certified. Scores were similar across various certification settings. The data suggest that certification using the NINDS DVDs is robust and surprisingly reliable for NIHSS certification across multiple venues.

Lyden, Patrick; Raman, Rema; Liu, Lin; Emr, Marian; Warren, Margo; Marler, John

2009-01-01

202

Transient temperature field simulation for injection mold based on birth and death element technique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, the heat transfer process of an injection mold heated by electricity was studied. A model used to study the transient heat transfer process was established. By using birth and death finite element simulation technique, the variation of mold temperature during the whole injection molding cycle was obtained. Engineering experiment proved that the simulated results were basically the same with the actual test results. The present method and obtained results could provide an important theoretical basis for optimizing heating rods in the mold cavity plate in order to improve product quality.

Li, Xi-Ping; Wang, Bin; Yang, Can

2013-05-01

203

Proof-Carrying Proxy Certificates  

Microsoft Academic Search

The term proxy certificate is used to describe a certificate that is issued by an end user for the purpose of delegating responsibility\\u000a to another user so that the latter can perform certain actions on behalf of the former. Such certificates have been suggested\\u000a for use in a number of applications, particularly in distributed computing environments where delegation of rights

Walid Bagga; Stefano Crosta; Refik Molva

2006-01-01

204

Atomic oxygen interaction with spacecraft materials: Relationship between orbital and ground-based testing for materials certification  

SciTech Connect

The effects of atomic oxygen on boron nitride, silicon nitride, solar cell interconnects used on the Intelsat 6 satellite, organic polymers, and MoS{sub 2} and WS{sub 2} dry lubricant have been studied in low Earth orbit (LEO) flight experiments and in our ground-based simulation facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory. Both the in-flight and ground-based experiments employed in situ electrical resistance measurements to detect penetration of atomic oxygen through materials and ESCA analysis to measure chemical composition changes. In the presence of atomic oxygen, silver oxidizes to form silver oxide, which has a much higher electrical resistance than pure silver. Permeation of atomic oxygen through BN overcoated on thin silver was observed. No permeation of atomic oxygen through Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} was observed. Test results on the Intelsat 6 satellite interconnects used on its photovoltaic array indicate that more than 60--80% of the original thickness of silver should remain after completion of the proposed Space Shuttle rescue/reboost mission. Gas phase reaction products produced by the interaction of high kinetic energy atomic oxygen (AO) with Kapton were found to be H{sub 2}, H{sub 2}O, CO, and CO{sub 2} with NO being a possible secondary product. Hydrogen abstraction at high AO kinetic energy is postulated to be the key reaction controlling the erosion rate of Kapton. An Arrhenius-like expression having an activation barrier of 0.4 eV can be fit to the data, which suggests that the rate limiting step in the AO/Kapton reaction mechanism can be overcome by translational energy. Oxidation of MoS{sub 2} and WS{sub 2} dry lubricants in both ground-based and orbital exposures indicated the formation of MoO{sub 3} and WO{sub 3} respectively. A protective oxide layer is formed {approx}30 monolayers thick which has a high initial friction coefficient until the layer is worn off.

Cross, J.B. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)); Koontz, S.L. (National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Houston, TX (United States). Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center); Lan, E.H. (McDonnell Douglas Space Systems Co., Huntington Beach, CA (United States))

1991-01-01

205

User-friendly and certificate-free grid security infrastructure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Certificate-based public key infrastructures are currently widely used in computational grids to support security services.\\u000a From a user’s perspective, however, certificate acquisition is time-consuming and public\\/private key management is non-trivial.\\u000a In this paper, we propose a security infrastructure for grid applications, in which users are authenticated using passwords.\\u000a Our infrastructure allows a user to perform single sign-on based only on

Jason Crampton; Hoon Wei Lim; Kenneth G. Paterson; Geraint Price

2011-01-01

206

28 CFR 40.15 - Full certification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-07-01 false Full certification. 40.15 Section 40.15 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE ...Obtaining Certification of a Grievance Procedure § 40.15 Full certification. If, in the...

2013-07-01

207

Cancer registries can provide evidence-based data to improve quality of care and prevent cancer deaths  

PubMed Central

Today, many countries are increasing their efforts to ensure that all cancer patients receive the best possible care. Population-based cancer registries have adapted their registration to collect additional clinical variables to provide clinicians with unbiased population data on cancer treatment and survival. Taking several examples of epidemiological cancer research performed at the Geneva Cancer Registry, we aim to illustrate how cancer registries oversee the treatment and outcomes of cancer patients to help clinicians continually improve quality of care and prevent cancer deaths in the population.

Bouchardy, Christine; Rapiti, Elisabetta; Benhamou, Simone

2014-01-01

208

Spotlight on Certification: ACA Conducts Professional Certification Opinion Survey.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Members of the American Camping Association (ACA) responding to a survey revealed that the ACA Professional Certification Program positively impacts camp professionals' ability to serve clients, their level of personal satisfaction, and their feelings of competence. However, respondents indicated that certification does not necessarily result in a…

Asterilla, G. Hope; Cox, James

1994-01-01

209

CDC's National Violent Death Reporting System: background and methodology  

PubMed Central

Objectives: This paper describes a new surveillance system called the National Violent Death Reporting System (NVDRS), initiated by the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. NVDRS's mission is the collection of detailed, timely information on all violent deaths. Design: NVDRS is a population based, active surveillance system designed to obtain a complete census of all resident and occurrent violent deaths. Each state collects information on its own deaths from death certificates, medical examiner/coroner files, law enforcement records, and crime laboratories. Deaths occurring in the same incident are linked. Over 270 data elements can be collected on each incident. Setting: The 13 state health departments of Alaska, Colorado, Georgia, Maryland, Massachusetts, New Jersey, North Carolina, Oklahoma, Oregon, Rhode Island, South Carolina, Virginia, and Wisconsin. Subjects: Cases consist of violent deaths from suicide, homicide, undetermined intent, legal intervention, and unintentional firearm injury. Information is collected on suspects as well as victims. Interventions: None. Outcome measures: The quality of surveillance will be measured in terms of its acceptability, accuracy, sensitivity, timeliness, utility, and cost. Results: The system has just been started. There are no results as yet. Conclusions: NVDRS has achieved enough support to begin data collection efforts in selected states. This system will need to overcome the significant barriers to such a large data collection effort. Its success depends on the use of its data to inform and assess violence prevention efforts. If successful, it will open a new chapter in the use of empirical information to guide public policy around violence in the United States.

Paulozzi, L; Mercy, J; Frazier, L; Annest, J

2004-01-01

210

Counterfactual quantum certificate authorization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a multipartite protocol in a counterfactual paradigm. In counterfactual quantum cryptography, secure information is transmitted between two spatially separated parties even when there is no physical travel of particles transferring the information between them. We propose here a tripartite counterfactual quantum protocol for the task of certificate authorization. Here a trusted third party, Alice, authenticates an entity Bob (e.g., a bank) that a client Charlie wishes to securely transact with. The protocol is counterfactual with respect to either Bob or Charlie. We prove its security against a general incoherent attack, where Eve attacks single particles.

Shenoy H., Akshata; Srikanth, R.; Srinivas, T.

2014-05-01

211

Deaths from cerebrovascular diseases correlated to month of birth: elevated risk of death from subarachnoid hemorrhage among summer-born  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It has been suggested that maternal nutrition, and fetal and infant growth have an important effect on the risk of cardiovascular disease in adult life. We investigated the population-based distribution of deaths from cerebrovascular diseases (ICD9 codes 430, 431, or 434) in Japan in 1986-1994 as a function of birth month, by examining death-certificate records. For a total of 853 981 people born in the years 1900-1959, the distribution of the number of deaths according to the month of birth was compared with the distribution expected from the monthly numbers of all births for each sex and for the corresponding birth decade. For those born between 1920 and 1949, there were significant discrepancies between the actual numbers of deaths from subarachnoid hemorrhage (ICD9 430) and the numbers expected, and these differences were related to the month of birth. Those born in summer, June-September, consistently had an elevated risk of death, particularly men, where the excess risk was 8%-23%. This tendency was also observed, less distinctly but significantly, for deaths from intracerebral hemorrhage (ICD9 431), but was not observed for those dying from occlusion of the cerebral arteries (ICD9 434). The observation that the risk of dying from subarachnoid hemorrhage was more than 10% higher among those born in the summer implies that at least one in ten deaths from subarachnoid hemorrhage has its origin at a perinatal stage. Although variations in hypertension in later life, which could possibly be ''programmed'' during the intra-uterine stages, could be an explanation for this observation, the disease-specific nature of the observation suggests the involvement of aneurysm formation, which is a predominant cause of subarachnoid hemorrhage.

Nonaka, K.; Imaizumi, Y.

212

An ostracode based paleolimnologic and paleohydrologic history of Death Valley: 200 to 0 ka  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Death Valley, a complex tectonic and hydrologic basin, was cored from its lowest surface elevation to a depth of 186 m. The sediments range from bedded primary halite to black muds. Continental ostracodes found in the black muds indicate that those sediments were deposited in a variety of hydrologic settings ranging from deep, relatively fresh water to shallow saline lakes to spring discharge supported wetlands. The alkaline-enriched, calcium-depleted paleolake waters indicate extrabasinal streamflow and basin-margin spring discharge. The alkaline-depleted, calcium-enriched paleowetland waters indicate intrabasinal spring discharge. During Marine Isotope Stage 6 (MIS 6, ca. 180-140 ka) the hydrologic settings were highly variable, implying that complex relations existed between climate and basin hydrology. Termination II (MIS 6 to MIS 5E) was a complex multicyclic sequence of paleoenvironments, implying that climates oscillated between high and low effective moisture. MIS 4 (ca. 73-61 ka) was a spring discharge supported wetland complex. During MIS 2 (ca. 20-12 ka) the hydrologic settings were variable, although they are not fully understood because some black muds deposited during that time were lost during coring. ?? 2005 Geological Society of America.

Forester, R. M.; Lowenstein, T. K.; Spencer, R. J.

2005-01-01

213

MCNP certification package  

SciTech Connect

In response to a Department of Energy (DOE) request, Westinghouse Savannah River Company committed to certify all computer codes used in critical calculations at the site. Since the Monte Carlo Neutron Photon Transport (MCNP) code will be used to perform critical analyses involving criticality and shielding, the code must be certified. Certification as applied to existing computer codes includes the verification and validation process, placing the code in configuration control, and establishing user qualification standards and training requirements. All software intended for use in critical calculations must be certified. This report is intended to fulfill the requirements for the certification of the MCNP code, version 4.2, built June 11, 1992, by J.H. Hightower on the SRS CRAY. This report does not release MCNP for use under production status for any application for which a MCNP validation document does not exist. These validation documents will describe the specific range of applicability, limitations on use, results and biases for a particular MCNP application.

Trumble, E.F.

1992-08-01

214

Rates of readmission and death associated with leaving hospital against medical advice: a population-based study  

PubMed Central

Background: Leaving hospital against medical advice may have adverse consequences. Previous studies have been limited by evaluating specific types of patients, small sample sizes and incomplete determination of outcomes. We hypothesized that leaving hospital against medical advice would be associated with increases in subsequent readmission and death. Methods: In a population-based analysis involving all adults admitted to hospital and discharged alive in Manitoba from Apr. 1, 1990, to Feb. 28, 2009, we evaluated all-cause 90-day mortality and 30-day hospital readmission. We used multivariable regression, adjusted for age, sex, socioeconomic status, year of hospital admission, patient comorbidities, hospital diagnosis, past frequency of admission to hospital, having previously left hospital against medical advice and data clustering (patients with multiple admissions). For readmission, we assessed both between-person and within-person effects of leaving hospital against medical advice. Results: Leaving against medical advice occurred in 21 417 of 1 916 104 index hospital admissions (1.1%), and was associated with higher adjusted rates of 90-day mortality (odds ratio [OR] 2.51, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.18–2.89), and 30-day hospital readmission (within-person OR 2.10, CI 1.99–2.21; between-person OR 3.04, CI 2.79–3.30). In our additional analyses, elevated rates of readmission and death associated with leaving against medical advice were manifest within 1 week and persisted for at least 180 days after discharge. Interpretation: Adults who left the hospital against medical advice had higher rates of hospital readmission and death. The persistence of these effects suggests that they are not solely a result of incomplete treatment of acute illness. Interventions aimed at reducing these effects may need to include longitudinal interventions extending beyond admission to hospital.

Garland, Allan; Ramsey, Clare D.; Fransoo, Randy; Olafson, Kendiss; Chateau, Daniel; Yogendran, Marina; Kraut, Allen

2013-01-01

215

How Well Do Birth Certificates Describe the Pregnancies They Report? The Washington State Experience with Low-Risk Pregnancies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: Birth certificates are a major source of population-based data on maternal and perinatal health, but their value depends on the accuracy of the data. This study assesses the validity of information recorded on the birth certificates for women in Washington State who were considered to be low risk at entry into care. Methods: Birth certificates were matched to data

Sharon A. Dobie; Laura-Mae Baldwin; Roger A. Rosenblatt; Meredith A. Fordyce; C. Holly A. Andrilla; L. Gary Hart

1998-01-01

216

The antibacterial substance taurolidine exhibits anti-neoplastic action based on a mixed type of programmed cell death.  

PubMed

The antibacterial amino-acid derivative taurolidine (TAU) has been recently shown to exhibit anti-neoplastic activity based on a mechanism, which is still unknown in detail. Cytotoxicity and clonogenic assays were performed and the impact of apoptosis modulators, a radical scavenger, autophagy inhibitors, silencing of apoptosis inducing actor (AIF) and cytochrome-c (Cyt-C) by siRNA, and knockdown of autophagy related genes were evaluated in vitro. The intracellular ATP-content, release of AIF and Cyt-C, and DNA-laddering were investigated. This study could demonstrate cell killing, inhibition of proliferation, and inhibition or prevention of colony formation in human glioma cell lines and ex vivo glioblastoma cells after incubation with TAU. This effect is based on the induction of a mixed type of programmed cell death with the main preference of autophagy, and involvement of senescence, necroptosis and necrosis. This mechanism of action may open a new approach for therapeutic intervention. PMID:19066471

Stendel, Ruediger; Biefer, Hector Rodriguez Cetina; Dékány, Gabriela Marta; Kubota, Hisashi; Münz, Christian; Wang, Sheng; Mohler, Hanns; Yonekawa, Yasuhiro; Frei, Karl

2009-02-01

217

Causes of death and associated risk factors among climacteric women from Southern Brazil: a population based-study  

PubMed Central

Background Aging and menopause are particular cardiovascular risk factors for women, due to estrogen deprivation at the time of menopause. Studies show that diabetes mellitus (DM), smoking, hypertension, high body mass index (BMI), and serum lipids are associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), the main cause of female mortality in Brazil. The aim of this study was to assess the mortality rate, causes of death and associated risk factors in a cohort of women from Brazil. Methods A longitudinal population-based study of menopausal status is currently underway in a city in South Brazil. In 2010, a third follow-up of this population was performed to assess cardiovascular risk and mortality rate between 1995 and 2011. For this analysis, 358 participants were studied. At baseline, participants had completed a standardized questionnaire including demographic, lifestyle, medical and reproductive characteristics. In addition to the contacts with relatives, mortality data were obtained through review of medical records in all city hospitals and the Center for Health Information (NIS/RS-SES). Multivariate-adjusted hazard risk (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI95%) were estimated using Cox proportional hazards regression. Survival curves were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier curve. Results There were 17 (4.7%) deaths from all causes during the study period. Seven (41.2%) deaths were caused by CVD, including four cases of stroke and three cases of myocardial infarction. Six (35.3%) deaths were due to cancer, and four (23.5%) were due to other reasons. In the age and smoking-adjusted multivariate models, diabetes (HR 6.645, 95% CI: 1.938–22.79, p = 0.003), alcohol intake (HR 1.228, 95% CI: 1.014-1.487, p = 0.035) and postmenopausal status (HR = 6.216, 95% CI: 0.963–40.143, p = 0.055) were associated with all-cause mortality. A significant association was found between abdominal obesity (WHR ? 0.85) and mortality even after the adjustment for BMI (HR = 9.229, 95% IC: 2.083–41.504, p = 0.003). Conclusion CVD was an important cause of mortality in this cohort and DM and/or central adiposity were associated with all-cause mortality. Lifestyle and dietary factors seem to be related to risk of mortality in middle-aged women.

2014-01-01

218

Eighth Amendment & Death Penalty.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a lesson on capital punishment for juveniles based on three hypothetical cases. The goal of the lesson is to have students understand the complexities of decisions regarding the death penalty for juveniles. (JDH)

Shortall, Joseph M.; Merrill, Denise W.

1987-01-01

219

Wind Turbine Certification and Type Certification Guideline for the Certification of Wind Turbines, Edition 2003 with Supplement 2004  

Microsoft Academic Search

Certification of wind turbines or components is state-of-the-art and a must in most places around the world. Furthermore certification to harmonised requirements is an active support of export. Therefore it is important for manufacturers, banks and insurances of wind turbines and components to know the different certification processes as well as guidelines. The procedures to obtain Type and Project Certificates

Mike Woebbeking; Christian Nath; Germanischer Lloyd

220

Contribution of deaths related to alcohol use of socioeconomic variation in mortality: register based follow up study.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To estimate the contribution of excessive alcohol use to socioeconomic variation in mortality among men and women in Finland. DESIGN: Register based follow up study. SUBJECTS: The population covered by the 1985 and 1990 censuses, aged > or = 20 in the follow up period 1987-93. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Total mortality and alcohol related mortality from all causes, from diseases, and from accidents and violence according to socioeconomic position. The excess mortality among other classes compared with upper non-manual employees and differences in life expectancy between the classes were used to measure mortality differentials. RESULTS: Alcohol related mortality constituted 11% of all mortality among men aged > or = 20 and 2% among women and was higher among manual workers than among other classes. It accounted for 14% of the excess all cause mortality among manual workers over upper non-manual employees among men and 4% among women and for 24% and 9% of the differences in life expectancy, respectively. Half of the excess mortality from accidents and violence among male manual workers and 38% among female manual workers was accounted for by alcohol related deaths, whereas in diseases the role of alcohol was modest. The contribution of alcohol related deaths to relative mortality differentials weakened with age. CONCLUSIONS: Class differentials in alcohol related mortality are an important factor in the socioeconomic mortality differentials in Finland, especially among men, among younger age groups, and in mortality from accidents and violence.

Makela, P.; Valkonen, T.; Martelin, T.

1997-01-01

221

Dopamine induces cell death, lipid peroxidation and DNA base damage in a catecholaminergic cell line derived from the central nervous system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dopamine can be autoxidized to superoxides and quinones. Superoxides can form hydroxyl radicals that are highly reactive with\\u000a lipids, proteins and DNA leading to neuronal damage and cell death. We used a clonal catecholaminergic cell line (CATH.a)\\u000a derived from the central nervous system to evaluate the effects of dopamine on cell death, lipid peroxidation and DNA base\\u000a damage. Dopamine produces

Joseph M. Masserano; Ivory Baker; Diane Venable; Li Gong; Steven J. Zullo; Carl R. Merril; Richard Jed Wyatt

1999-01-01

222

A Death in the Family: Death as a Zen Concept  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study is based on original research that explored family reaction to the death of an elderly husband and father. We interviewed 34 families (a family included a widow and two adult biological children) approximately 6 to 10 months after the death. In one-on-one interviews, we discussed family members' initial reaction to the death, how the…

Black, Helen K.; Rubinstein, Robert L.

2013-01-01

223

The death of offenders in England and Wales.  

PubMed

The death of offenders in the community has received considerably less attention than the death of prisoners, although limited research suggests that community offenders may be even more vulnerable to death than prisoners. This study compared the nature and extent of death among prisoners (n = 236) and offenders serving community sentences or ex-prisoners receiving postcustodial supervision by the Probation Service (n = 1,267) in England and Wales in 1996 and 1997. Information contained in death certificates was used to code for mode of death. Prisoners and community offenders were found to be reasonably similar in vulnerability to suicide/self-inflicted death; however, the risk of accidental death and homicide was greater for community offenders, and drugs and alcohol played a bigger part in their deaths. The policy implications of the findings are discussed. PMID:12809148

Sattar, Ghazala

2003-01-01

224

Software Certification for Temporal Properties With Affordable Tool Qualification  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It has been recognized that a framework based on proof-carrying code (also called semantic-based software certification in its community) could be used as a candidate software certification process for the avionics industry. To meet this goal, tools in the "trust base" of a proof-carrying code system must be qualified by regulatory authorities. A family of semantic-based software certification approaches is described, each different in expressive power, level of automation and trust base. Of particular interest is the so-called abstraction-carrying code, which can certify temporal properties. When a pure abstraction-carrying code method is used in the context of industrial software certification, the fact that the trust base includes a model checker would incur a high qualification cost. This position paper proposes a hybrid of abstraction-based and proof-based certification methods so that the model checker used by a client can be significantly simplified, thereby leading to lower cost in tool qualification.

Xia, Songtao; DiVito, Benedetto L.

2005-01-01

225

Infant mortality statistics from the 2010 period linked birth/infant death data set.  

PubMed

Objectives-This report presents 2010 period infant mortality statistics from the linked birth/infant death data set (linked file) by maternal and infant characteristics. The linked file differs from the mortality rate declined mortality file, which is based entirely on death certificate data. Methods-Descriptive tabulations of data are presented and interpreted. Results-The U.S. infant mortality rate was 6.14 infant deaths per 1,000 live births in 2010, 4% lower than the rate of 6.39 in 2009. The number of infant deaths was 24,572 in 2010, a decline of 1,836 infant deaths from 2009. From 2009 to 2010, the infant mortality rate declined 8% for non-Hispanic black mothers to 11.46, and 3% for non-Hispanic white mothers to 5.18. Asian or Pacific Islander mothers had the lowest rate in 2010 (4.27). From 2009 to 2010, the neonatal mortality rate declined by 3% to 4.05 neonatal deaths per 1,000 live births, while the postneonatal mortality rate declined 5% to 2.10. In 2010, infants born at 37-38 weeks of gestation (early term) had infant mortality rates that were 62% higher than those born at 39-41 weeks of gestation. For multiple births, the infant mortality rate was 25.41, almost five times the rate of 5.45 for singleton births. The three leading causes of infant death-congenital malformations, low birthweight, and sudden infant death syndrome-accounted for 46% of all infant deaths. In 2010, 35.2% of infant deaths were preterm-related. PMID:24735562

Matthews, T J; Macdorman, Marian F

2013-12-01

226

75 FR 69165 - Conductor Certification  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...requiring the certification of train conductors. In prescribing...Secretary shall require that train conductors be trained, in...Association (ASLRRA); American Train Dispatchers Association (ATDA...Institute of Makers of Explosives; International...

2010-11-10

227

76 FR 69801 - Conductor Certification  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...requiring the certification of train conductors. In prescribing...Secretary shall require that train conductors be trained, in...Association (ASLRRA); American Train Dispatchers Association (ATDA...Institute of Makers of Explosives; International...

2011-11-09

228

42 CFR 71.46 - Issuance of Deratting Certificates and Deratting Exemption Certificates.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...and Deratting Exemption Certificates. Valid Deratting Certificates or Deratting Exemption Certificates are not required for ships to enter a U.S. seaport. In accordance with Article 17 of the International Health Regulations, the Public Health...

2012-10-01

229

Young Children's Probability of Dying Before and After Their Mother's Death: A Rural South African Population-Based Surveillance Study  

PubMed Central

Background There is evidence that a young child's risk of dying increases following the mother's death, but little is known about the risk when the mother becomes very ill prior to her death. We hypothesized that children would be more likely to die during the period several months before their mother's death, as well as for several months after her death. Therefore we investigated the relationship between young children's likelihood of dying and the timing of their mother's death and, in particular, the existence of a critical period of increased risk. Methods and Findings Data from a health and socio-demographic surveillance system in rural South Africa were collected on children 0–5 y of age from 1 January 1994 to 31 December 2008. Discrete time survival analysis was used to estimate children's probability of dying before and after their mother's death, accounting for moderators. 1,244 children (3% of sample) died from 1994 to 2008. The probability of child death began to rise 6–11 mo prior to the mother's death and increased markedly during the 2 mo immediately before the month of her death (odds ratio [OR] 7.1 [95% CI 3.9–12.7]), in the month of her death (OR 12.6 [6.2–25.3]), and during the 2 mo following her death (OR 7.0 [3.2–15.6]). This increase in the probability of dying was more pronounced for children whose mothers died of AIDS or tuberculosis compared to other causes of death, but the pattern remained for causes unrelated to AIDS/tuberculosis. Infants aged 0–6 mo at the time of their mother's death were nine times more likely to die than children aged 2–5 y. The limitations of the study included the lack of knowledge about precisely when a very ill mother will die, a lack of information about child nutrition and care, and the diagnosis of AIDS deaths by verbal autopsy rather than serostatus. Conclusions Young children in lower income settings are more likely to die not only after their mother's death but also in the months before, when she is seriously ill. Interventions are urgently needed to support families both when the mother becomes very ill and after her death. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary

Clark, Samuel J.; Kahn, Kathleen; Houle, Brian; Arteche, Adriane; Collinson, Mark A.; Tollman, Stephen M.; Stein, Alan

2013-01-01

230

Field-testing ecological and economic benefits of coffee certification programs.  

PubMed

Coffee agroecosystems are critical to the success of conservation efforts in Latin America because of their ecological and economic importance. Coffee certification programs may offer one way to protect biodiversity and maintain farmer livelihoods. Established coffee certification programs fall into three distinct, but not mutually exclusive categories: organic, fair trade, and shade. The results of previous studies demonstrate that shade certification can benefit biodiversity, but it remains unclear whether a farmer's participation in any certification program can provide both ecological and economic benefits. To assess the value of coffee certification for conservation efforts in the region, we examined economic and ecological aspects of coffee production for eight coffee cooperatives in Chiapas, Mexico, that were certified organic, certified organic and fair trade, or uncertified. We compared vegetation and ant and bird diversity in coffee farms and forests, and interviewed farmers to determine coffee yield, gross revenue from coffee production, and area in coffee production. Although there are no shade-certified farms in the study region, we used vegetation data to determine whether cooperatives would qualify for shade certification. We found no differences in vegetation characteristics, ant or bird species richness, or fraction of forest fauna in farms based on certification. Farmers with organic and organic and fair-trade certification had more land under cultivation and in some cases higher revenue than uncertified farmers. Coffee production area did not vary among farm types. No cooperative passed shade-coffee certification standards because the plantations lacked vertical stratification, yet vegetation variables for shade certification significantly correlated with ant and bird diversity. Although farmers in the Chiapas highlands with organic and/or fair-trade certification may reap some economic benefits from their certification status, their farms may not protect as much biodiversity as shade-certified farms. Working toward triple certification (organic, fair trade, and shade) at the farm level may enhance biodiversity protection, increase benefits to farmers, and lead to more successful conservation strategies in coffee-growing regions. PMID:17650248

Philpott, Stacy M; Bichier, Peter; Rice, Robert; Greenberg, Russell

2007-08-01

231

Differential risk of death in older residents in nursing homes prescribed specific antipsychotic drugs: population based cohort study  

PubMed Central

Objective To assess risks of mortality associated with use of individual antipsychotic drugs in elderly residents in nursing homes. Design Population based cohort study with linked data from Medicaid, Medicare, the Minimum Data Set, the National Death Index, and a national assessment of nursing home quality. Setting Nursing homes in the United States. Participants 75?445 new users of antipsychotic drugs (haloperidol, aripiprazole, olanzapine, quetiapine, risperidone, ziprasidone). All participants were aged ?65, were eligible for Medicaid, and lived in a nursing home in 2001-5. Main outcome measures Cox proportional hazards models were used to compare 180 day risks of all cause and cause specific mortality by individual drug, with propensity score adjustment to control for potential confounders. Results Compared with risperidone, users of haloperidol had an increased risk of mortality (hazard ratio 2.07, 95% confidence interval 1.89 to 2.26) and users of quetiapine a decreased risk (0.81, 0.75 to 0.88). The effects were strongest shortly after the start of treatment, remained after adjustment for dose, and were seen for all causes of death examined. No clinically meaningful differences were observed for the other drugs. There was no evidence that the effect measure modification in those with dementia or behavioural disturbances. There was a dose-response relation for all drugs except quetiapine. Conclusions Though these findings cannot prove causality, and we cannot rule out the possibility of residual confounding, they provide more evidence of the risk of using these drugs in older patients, reinforcing the concept that they should not be used in the absence of clear need. The data suggest that the risk of mortality with these drugs is generally increased with higher doses and seems to be highest for haloperidol and least for quetiapine.

2012-01-01

232

Study of State Certification/Licensure Requirements for Secondary Career and Technical Education Teachers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Teacher certification/licensure requirements across the United States are in constant flux. Career and technical education (CTE), with its many subject disciplines, has historically had two pathways to certification/licensure: a traditional degree-based program of courses, field experiences, and exit exams, and an alternative pathway based

Zirkle, Christopher J.; Martin, Lindsey; McCaslin, N. L.

2007-01-01

233

Interaction between bedding and sleeping position in the sudden infant death syndrome: a population based case-control study  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE--To determine the relation between sleeping position and quantity of bedding and the risk of sudden unexpected infant death. DESIGN--A study of all infants dying suddenly and unexpectedly and of two controls matched for age and date with each index case. The parents of control infants were interviewed within 72 hours of the index infant's death. Information was collected on

P J Fleming; R Gilbert; Y Azaz; P J Berry; P T Rudd; A Stewart; E Hall

1990-01-01

234

Epicurus’ death  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim is to present how an eminent philosopher perceived, reported and faced his progressing and ultimately fatal uropathy, 23 centuries ago. All available ancient Greek sources about Epicurus’ life and death were used and urinary tract–related medical knowledge in this era was reviewed. Epicurus died at the age of 71 from urinary calculus after having bravely suffered for a

Maria Bitsori; Emmanouil Galanakis

2004-01-01

235

Death Anxiety.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Anxiety caused by conscious and unconscious fears of death and dying is the focus of 26 essays by 37 authors. The attitudes among the aged, the attitudes among the general population toward aging, and the attitudes among the chronically or terminally ill ...

1973-01-01

236

Dig1 protects against cell death provoked by glyphosate-based herbicides in human liver cell lines  

PubMed Central

Background Worldwide used pesticides containing different adjuvants like Roundup formulations, which are glyphosate-based herbicides, can provoke some in vivo toxicity and in human cells. These pesticides are commonly found in the environment, surface waters and as food residues of Roundup tolerant genetically modified plants. In order to know their effects on cells from liver, a major detoxification organ, we have studied their mechanism of action and possible protection by precise medicinal plant extracts called Dig1. Methods The cytotoxicity pathways of four formulations of glyphosate-based herbicides were studied using human hepatic cell lines HepG2 and Hep3B, known models to study xenobiotic effects. We monitored mitochondrial succinate dehydrogenase activity and caspases 3/7 for cell mortality and protection by Dig1, as well as cytochromes P450 1A1, 1A2, 3A4 and 2C9 and glutathione-S-transferase to approach the mechanism of actions. Results All the four Roundup formulations provoke liver cell death, with adjuvants having stronger effects than glyphosate alone. Hep3B are 3-5 times more sensitive over 48 h. Caspases 3/7 are greatly activated in HepG2 by Roundup at non-cytotoxic levels, and some apoptosis induction by Roundup is possible together with necrosis. CYP3A4 is specifically enhanced by Roundup at doses 400 times less than used in agriculture (2%). CYP1A2 is increased to a lesser extent together with glutathione-S-transferase (GST) down-regulation. Dig 1, non cytotoxic and not inducing caspases by itself, is able to prevent Roundup-induced cell death in a time-dependant manner with an important efficiency of up to 89%, within 48 h. In addition, we evidenced that it prevents Caspases 3/7 activation and CYP3A4 enhancement, and not GST reduction, but in turn it slightly inhibited CYP2C9 when added before Roundup. Conclusion Roundup is able to provoke intracellular disruption in hepatic cell lines at different levels, but a mixture of medicinal plant extracts Dig1 can protect to some extent human cell lines against this pollutants. All this system constitutes a tool for studying liver intoxication and detoxification.

2010-01-01

237

Consumption of PCB-contaminated sport fish and risk of spontaneous fetal death.  

PubMed Central

Spontaneous fetal death has been observed among various mammalian species after exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Our exposure-based cohort study assessed the relationship between consumption of PCB-contaminated Lake Ontario sport fish and spontaneous fetal death using 1820 multigravid fertile women from the 1990-1991 New York State Angler Cohort Study. Fish consumption data were obtained from food frequency questionnaires and history of spontaneous fetal death from live birth certificates. Analyses were stratified by number of prior pregnancies and controlled for smoking and maternal age. No significant increases in risk for fetal death were observed across four measures of exposure: a lifetime estimate of PCB exposure based on species-specific PCB levels; the number of years of fish consumption; kilograms of sport fish consumed in 1990-1991; and a lifetime estimate of kilograms eaten. A slight risk reduction was seen for women with two prior pregnancies at the highest level of PCB exposure (odds ratio = 0.36; 95% CI, 0.14-0.92) and for women with three or more prior pregnancies with increasing years of fish consumption (odds ratio = 0.97; 95% CI, 0.94-0.99). These findings suggest that consumption of PCB-contaminated sport fish does not increase the risk of spontaneous fetal death.

Mendola, P; Buck, G M; Vena, J E; Zielezny, M; Sever, L E

1995-01-01

238

Infant death due to congenital abnormalities presenting as a homicide.  

PubMed

A perinatal death presenting as a possible homicide is reported. An infant was born with a cleft palate, but without other apparent abnormality, to a mother who experienced postpartum depression. The infant apparently died during feeding. A death certificate, giving cot death and congenital malformations as the causes of death, was rejected by the registering authority. The possibility of homicide was considered. Exhumation and autopsy showed multiple abnormalities, including congenital heart disease and the karyotype of DiGeorge's anomaly. The case highlights the value of the autopsy in such cases, and emphasizes the role of cytogenetics, even after considerable postmortem delay. PMID:8311051

Vernon-Roberts, E

1993-09-01

239

Infanticide: is its incidence among postneonatal infant deaths increasing?: an 18-year population-based analysis in California.  

PubMed

The decline in the incidence of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) and recent recommendations regarding the differentiation of SIDS and child abuse has generated speculation that some cases of infanticide were misdiagnosed as SIDS. The aims of this study were to determine the change in incidences and proportions of postneonatal deaths from all causes, SIDS, and infanticide in California over an 18-year interval encompassing years before and after the Back to Sleep campaign. Selected postneonatal mortality data from 1981 through 1998 obtained from the California Department of Health Services were analyzed and graphically displayed. The total postneonatal mortality and incidence of SIDS deaths per 100,000 live births decreased 45% and 66%, respectively, during the study interval; the incidence of infanticide remained low. The ratio of infanticide to SIDS increased from 4.3 per 100 in 1981 to 10.2 per 100 in 1998. Infanticide deaths, as a percentage of the total number of postneonatal deaths, increased slightly from the first to the second half of the study interval but never rose above 3.2%. It is concluded that this increased percentage is due to a decrease in SIDS deaths and not to an actual increase in infanticide deaths. PMID:12040254

Krous, Henry F; Nadeau, Julie M; Silva, Patricia D; Byard, Roger W

2002-06-01

240

46 CFR 169.215 - Certificate of inspection amendment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Certificate of inspection amendment. 169.215 Section 169...NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Inspection and Certification Certificate of Inspection § 169.215 Certificate of...

2010-10-01

241

42 CFR 488.12 - Effect of survey agency certification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Effect of survey agency certification. 488.12 Section...CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION SURVEY, CERTIFICATION, AND ENFORCEMENT PROCEDURES...General Provisions § 488.12 Effect of survey agency certification....

2013-10-01

242

Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in a large community-based population: clinical outcome and identification of risk factors for sudden cardiac death and clinical deterioration  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectivesThis study evaluates the clinical course and identifies risk factors for sudden cardiac death (SCD) and clinical deterioration in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) in a large community-based population. Comparison was made with data from six tertiary referral and six nonreferral institutions.

Marcel J. M. Kofflard; Folkert J. Ten Cate; Chris van der Lee; Ron T. van Domburg

2003-01-01

243

IR spectroscopic characteristics of cell cycle and cell death probed by synchrotron radiation based Fourier transform IR spectromicroscopy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Synchrotron radiation based Fourier transform IR (SR-FTIR) spectromicroscopy allows the study of individual living cells with a high signal to noise ratio. Here we report the use of the SR-FTIR technique to investigate changes in IR spectral features from individual human lung fibroblast (IMR-90) cells in vitro at different points in their cell cycle. Clear changes are observed in the spectral regions corresponding to proteins, DNA, and RNA as a cell changes from the G(1)-phase to the S-phase and finally into mitosis. These spectral changes include markers for the changing secondary structure of proteins in the cell, as well as variations in DNA/RNA content and packing as the cell cycle progresses. We also observe spectral features that indicate that occasional cells are undergoing various steps in the process of cell death. The dying or dead cell has a shift in the protein amide I and II bands corresponding to changing protein morphologies, and a significant increase in the intensity of an ester carbonyl C===O peak at 1743 cm(-1) is observed. Copyright John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Biopolymers (Biospectroscopy) 57: 329-335, 2000.

Holman, H. Y.; Martin, M. C.; Blakely, E. A.; Bjornstad, K.; McKinney, W. R.

2000-01-01

244

20 CFR 656.26 - Board of Alien Labor Certification Appeals review of denials of labor certification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-04-01 false Board of Alien Labor Certification Appeals review...CERTIFICATION PROCESS FOR PERMANENT EMPLOYMENT OF ALIENS IN THE UNITED STATES Labor Certification Process § 656.26 Board of Alien Labor Certification Appeals...

2010-04-01

245

Pennsylvania's Approach to the Competency Certification of Educational Professional Staff. Working Paper.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document describes the Pennsylvania Competency-Based Teacher Education (PaCBTE) program and the Pennsylvania Competency-Assessment Certification (PaCAC) program and their relationship to teacher certification. The PaCBTE program is described as the state department of education's effort to assist colleges and universities in the transition to…

Pennsylvania State Dept. of Education, Harrisburg.

246

A Fair Trade Approach to Community Forest Certification? A Framework for Discussion  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Forest certification has gained growing attention as a market-based instrument to make globalizing markets a force for mitigating rather than fostering environmental degradation. Yet in practice, market mechanisms currently appear to encourage concentration of forest certification in Northern temperate and boreal forests, rather than in the…

Taylor, Peter Leigh

2005-01-01

247

Environmental Certification of Forests in Mexico: The Political Ecology of a Nongovernmental Market Intervention  

Microsoft Academic Search

The certification of the environmental and social characteristics of a product's production process is emerging as a significant transnational, nongovernmental, market-based approach to environmental regulation and development. Using conventions analysis and commodity network analysis, this article examines the political ecology of one such market intervention. After only a decade, environmental certification of forests has spread to cover a significant portion

Dan Klooster

2006-01-01

248

The Credential and Certificate Regime in Canada: A Social Map from the Standpoint of Immigrant Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, I explicate the credential and certificate regime (CCR) that helps shape the re-training and re-education experiences of immigrant women in Canada. CCR is a conceptual framework that references the social processes producing credentials and certificates and rendering them objective ground to construct desirable workers. This paper is based on two qualitative research projects, both of which use

Hongxia Shan

249

"A Basic Starter Pack": The TESOL Certificate as a Course in Survival  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Relying on data both from recent TESOL Certificate trainees and from experienced teachers, this paper examines ways in which a focus on survival during TESOL Certificate courses indicates a performance-based philosophy of teacher education and, ultimately, a preference for native speakers, both of which are inconsistent with the changing global…

Hobbs, Valerie

2013-01-01

250

Certification Requirements and Teacher Quality: A Comparison of Alternative Routes to Teaching. Working Paper 64  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Traditionally, states have required individuals complete a program of study in a university-based teacher preparation program in order to be licensed to teach. In recent years, however, various "alternative certification" programs have been developed and the number of teachers obtaining teaching certificates through routes other than completing a…

Sass, Tim R.

2011-01-01

251

29 CFR 570.6 - Contents and disposition of certificates of age.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...570.9 and 570.10, a certificate of age which shall have the... (2) Place and date of birth of minor, together with...this is based. The place of birth need not appear on the certificate if it is obtained and...

2009-07-01

252

29 CFR 570.6 - Contents and disposition of certificates of age.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...570.9 and 570.10, a certificate of age which shall have the... (2) Place and date of birth of minor, together with...this is based. The place of birth need not appear on the certificate if it is obtained and...

2010-07-01

253

American Board of Radiology Maintenance of Certification—Part IV: Practice Quality Improvement for Radiation Oncology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Maintenance of Certification is a physician-based response to public concerns about the quality of medical care and physician competency in a rapidly evolving, technically demanding specialty. American Board of Radiology (ABR) has previously described the first three components of the Maintenance of Certification. The ABR is currently developing a program in practice performance, completing Part IV of the competencies. The

Larry E. Kun; Bruce G. Haffty; Jennifer Bosma; Janet L. Strife; Robert R.. Hattery

2007-01-01

254

Sudden Cardiac Death.  

PubMed

Sudden cardiac death is often due to a ventricular arrhythmia. When a patient presents with a malignant arrhythmia unrelated to a transient reversible cause, there is a high probability of recurrent arrhythmia and sudden death. Clinical trials have shown a uniform survival benefit from implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) therapy in survivors of a malignant arrhythmia when compared with drug therapy. However, only 1% to 5% of patients survive an out-of-hospital cardiac arrest, emphasizing the need for primary prevention of sudden death. Clinical trial data available in this regard are largely limited to patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). Mortality can be reduced by the ICD in patients with CAD and depressed left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) less than 30%. If left ventricular function is only moderately depressed (LVEF between 30% and 40%), the presence of nonsustained ventricular tachycardia with inducible ventricular arrhythmia at electrophysiologic testing identifies patients who benefit from an ICD. The role of the ICD in primary prevention of sudden death in patients with nonischemic dilated cardiomyopathy is less clear at this time. Preliminary data indicate that the presence of heart failure symptoms in this population increases risk of sudden death that can be prevented by an ICD. Antiarrhythmic drugs have little role in prevention of sudden death; however, drugs that block the effects of beta-adrenergic stimulation, angiotensin, and aldosterone reduce mortality partly through their salutary effects on sudden death. Finally, a number of inherited defects of genes coding for ion channels, contractile sarcomeric proteins, and cell-to-cell junction proteins can result in primary electrical abnormalities and sudden death. The ICD is effective for secondary prevention, but its role in primary prevention is controversial and should be based on individual risk factors. PMID:15324610

John, Roy M.

2004-10-01

255

Deaths: preliminary data for 2008.  

PubMed

Objectives-This report presents preliminary U.S. data on deaths, death rates, life expectancy, leading causes of death, and infant mortality for 2008 by selected characteristics such as age, sex, race, and Hispanic origin. Methods-Data in this report are based on death records comprising more than 99 percent of the demographic and medical files for all deaths in the United States in 2008. The records are weighted to independent control counts for 2008. For certain causes of death such as unintentional injuries, homicides, suicides, drug-induced deaths, and sudden infant death syndrome, preliminary and final data may differ because of the truncated nature of the preliminary file. Comparisons are made with 2007 final data. Results-The age-adjusted death rate decreased from 760.2 deaths per 100,000 population in 2007 to 758.7 deaths per 100,000 population in 2008. From 2007 to 2008, age-adjusted death rates decreased significantly for 6 of the 15 leading causes of death: Diseases of heart, Malignant neoplasms, Cerebrovascular diseases, Accidents (unintentional injuries), Diabetes mellitus, andAssault (homicide). From 2007 to 2008, age-adjusted death rates increased significantly for 6 of the 15 leading causes of death: Chronic lower respiratory diseases; Alzheimer's disease; Influenza and pneumonia; Nephritis, nephrotic syndrome and nephrosis; Intentional self-harm (suicide); and Essential hypertension and hypertensive renal disease. Life expectancy decreased by 0.1 year from 77.9 years in 2007 to 77.8 in 2008. PMID:25073655

Miniño, Arialdi M; Xu, Jiaquan; Kochanek, Kenneth D

2010-12-01

256

Type Airman Certification as Related to Accidents.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An analysis of 1964 aircraft accidents, using type of airman certificate as a measure of pilot proficiency, is presented. Data show that student pilots generally have a better accident record than any other of the certification groups. Analysis confirmed ...

E. J. Veregge

1967-01-01

257

TRU Waste Certification: Experimental Data and Results.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

As part of the TRU waste certification program at Mound, experiments were performed, and the results were used to verify certification of various TRU wastes with regard to specific WIPP (Waste Isolation Pilot Plant) criteria. Particle-size determinations ...

E. L. Lewis

1983-01-01

258

14 CFR 137.11 - Certificate required.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS AGRICULTURAL AIRCRAFT OPERATIONS Certification Rules...no person may conduct agricultural aircraft operations without, or in violation...this part, conduct agricultural aircraft operations with a...

2009-01-01

259

14 CFR 137.11 - Certificate required.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS AGRICULTURAL AIRCRAFT OPERATIONS Certification Rules...no person may conduct agricultural aircraft operations without, or in violation...this part, conduct agricultural aircraft operations with a...

2010-01-01

260

14 CFR 137.19 - Certification requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS AGRICULTURAL AIRCRAFT OPERATIONS Certification Rules...chief supervisor of agricultural aircraft operations for him show, that...and skill regarding agricultural aircraft operations, as described in...

2010-01-01

261

40 CFR 86.437-78 - Certification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Regulations for 1978 and Later New Motorcycles, General Provisions § 86.437-78 Certification. (a) New motorcycles produced by a manufacturer...necessary to assure that any new motorcycle covered by the certificate...

2013-07-01

262

9 CFR 93.913 - Health certificate.  

...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Health certificate. 93.913 Section 93...and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...Vhs-Regulated Fish Species § 93.913 Health certificate. (a) General....

2014-01-01

263

9 CFR 93.705 - Health certificate.  

...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Health certificate. 93.705 Section 93...and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... Miscellaneous Animals § 93.705 Health certificate. (a) No person...

2014-01-01

264

9 CFR 98.14 - Health certificate.  

...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Health certificate. 98.14 Section 98...and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...Foot-and-Mouth Disease Exists § 98.14 Health certificate. (a)...

2014-01-01

265

9 CFR 93.803 - Health certificate.  

...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Health certificate. 93.803 Section 93...and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...Rhinoceroses, and Tapirs § 93.803 Health certificate. (a) An...

2014-01-01

266

15 CFR 2012.3 - Export certificates.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-01-01 false Export certificates. 2012.3 Section 2012.3 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating...IMPLEMENTATION OF TARIFF-RATE QUOTAS FOR BEEF § 2012.3 Export certificates. (a) Beef...

2010-01-01

267

40 CFR 82.164 - Reclaimer certification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) PROTECTION OF STRATOSPHERIC OZONE Recycling and Emissions Reduction § 82.164 Reclaimer certification...Avenue, NW., Washington, DC 20460; Attn: Section 608 Recycling Program ManagerâReclaimer Certification. (f)...

2013-07-01

268

Underwriter's Laboratory (UL) Certification Feasibility Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Underwriter's Laboratory (UL) certification feasibility study was undertaken to address the feasibility of the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) to provide certification of the Explosive Detection Systems (EDS) to UL Standards. This study was prop...

D. Wilson

2000-01-01

269

40 CFR 1043.40 - EIAPP certificates.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...an EIAPP certificate in compliance with the requirements of this section (which references 40 CFR part 1042). Note that under APPS engine manufacturers must comply with the applicable requirements of Regulation 13 of Annex VI to obtain a certificate....

2013-07-01

270

Certification testing for small wind turbines  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the testing procedures for obtaining type certification for a small wind turbine. Southwest Windpower (SWWP) is seeking type certification from Underwriters Laboratory (UL) for the AIR 403 wind turbine. UL is the certification body and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is providing technical assistance including conducting the certification testing. This is the first small turbine to be certified in the US, therefore standards must be interpreted and test procedures developed.

Corbus, D.; Link, H.; Butterfield, S.; Stork, C.; Newcomb, C.

1999-10-20

271

Alternative Certification Pathways: Filling a Gap?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this article is to examine the proliferation of alternative certification pathways through an analysis of the role and history of teacher certification and supply followed by a synthesis of national, regional, and state research studies on alternative routes to certification programs and a review of studies conducted on well-known…

Ludlow, Carlyn

2013-01-01

272

2007 Guide to National Board Certification  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The "Guide to National Board Certification" introduces teachers to the assessment process and provides them with useful information as they apply for National Board Certification. By participating in the National Board Certification process, teachers are joining tens of thousands of educators in an unprecedented effort to reshape the public's…

National Board for Professional Teaching Standards, 2007

2007-01-01

273

Certification and the Branding of HRD  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although calls continue to establish certification, several certifications for human resource development (HRD) practitioners already exist, although none use the name HRD. This Forum explores what those certification programs are and what their availability means to the development of the HRD "brand" (the impressions of the service derived from…

Carliner, Saul

2012-01-01

274

EE Certification: Making Best Practice Standard Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Pursuing environmental education certification is difficult, so why do it? What does it mean to be certified? Who benefits? How? These are just a few of the compelling questions addressed in "EE Certification: Making Best Practice Standard Practice," a new article exploring advancements and challenges in state and national EE certification. A…

Glenn, Joanne M. Lozar

2006-01-01

275

Digital certificates: a survey of revocation methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Digital certificates form a basis that allows entities to trust each other. Due to different constraints, a certificate is only valid within a specific period of time. Coming from several threats, there are important reasons why its validity must be terminated sooner than assigned and thus, the certificate needs to be revoked. This paper provides a classification of revocation methods

Petra Wohlmacher

2000-01-01

276

Linkages to improve mortality data for American Indians and Alaska Natives: a new model for death reporting?  

PubMed

Racial misclassification is a well-documented weakness of mortality data taken from death certificates. As a result, mortality statistics for American Indians and Alaska Natives (AI/ANs) present, at best, an inaccurate and misleading assessment of mortality in this population. Studies evaluating the quality of race/ethnicity reporting on death certificates have linked data from death certificates to other data sources collected when the decedent was still alive (e.g., Census, Current Population Survey). Such studies have shown substantial misclassification of AI/AN decedents. Despite limitations, linking mortality data from death certificates with data from other sources collected when decedents were living provides opportunities to evaluate and correct misclassification of populations such as AI/AN persons and facilitates the calculation and presentation of more accurate mortality statistics. PMID:24754614

Anderson, Robert N; Copeland, Glenn; Hayes, John Mosely

2014-06-01

277

Linkages to Improve Mortality Data for American Indians and Alaska Natives: A New Model for Death Reporting?  

PubMed Central

Racial misclassification is a well-documented weakness of mortality data taken from death certificates. As a result, mortality statistics for American Indians and Alaska Natives (AI/ANs) present, at best, an inaccurate and misleading assessment of mortality in this population. Studies evaluating the quality of race/ethnicity reporting on death certificates have linked data from death certificates to other data sources collected when the decedent was still alive (e.g., Census, Current Population Survey). Such studies have shown substantial misclassification of AI/AN decedents. Despite limitations, linking mortality data from death certificates with data from other sources collected when decedents were living provides opportunities to evaluate and correct misclassification of populations such as AI/AN persons and facilitates the calculation and presentation of more accurate mortality statistics.

Anderson, Robert N.; Copeland, Glenn; Hayes, John Mosely

2014-01-01

278

EDR2 negatively regulates salicylic acid-based defenses and cell death during powdery mildew infections of Arabidopsis thaliana  

PubMed Central

Background The hypersensitive necrosis response (HR) of resistant plants to avirulent pathogens is a form of programmed cell death in which the plant sacrifices a few cells under attack, restricting pathogen growth into adjacent healthy tissues. In spite of the importance of this defense response, relatively little is known about the plant components that execute the cell death program or about its regulation in response to pathogen attack. Results We isolated the edr2-6 mutant, an allele of the previously described edr2 mutants. We found that edr2-6 exhibited an exaggerated chlorosis and necrosis response to attack by three pathogens, two powdery mildew and one downy mildew species, but not in response to abiotic stresses or attack by the bacterial leaf speck pathogen. The chlorosis and necrosis did not spread beyond inoculated sites suggesting that EDR2 limits the initiation of cell death rather than its spread. The pathogen-induced chlorosis and necrosis of edr2-6 was correlated with a stimulation of the salicylic acid defense pathway and was suppressed in mutants deficient in salicylic acid signaling. EDR2 encodes a novel protein with a pleckstrin homology and a StAR transfer (START) domain as well as a plant-specific domain of unknown function, DUF1336. The pleckstrin homology domain binds to phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate in vitro and an EDR2:HA:GFP protein localizes to endoplasmic reticulum, plasma membrane and endosomes. Conclusion EDR2 acts as a negative regulator of cell death, specifically the cell death elicited by pathogen attack and mediated by the salicylic acid defense pathway. Phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate may have a role in limiting cell death via its effect on EDR2. This role in cell death may be indirect, by helping to target EDR2 to the appropriate membrane, or it may play a more direct role.

Vorwerk, Sonja; Schiff, Celine; Santamaria, Marjorie; Koh, Serry; Nishimura, Marc; Vogel, John; Somerville, Chris; Somerville, Shauna

2007-01-01

279

Causes of death among undocumented migrants in Sweden, 1997-2010  

PubMed Central

Background Undocumented migrants are one of the most vulnerable groups in Swedish society, where they generally suffer from poor health and limited health care access. Due to their irregular status, such migrants are an under-researched group and are not included in the country’s Cause of Death Register (CDR). Objective To determine the causes of death among undocumented migrants in Sweden and to ascertain whether there are patterns in causes of death that differ between residents and undocumented migrants. Design This is a cross-sectional study of death certificates issued from 1997 to 2010 but never included in the CDR from which we established our study sample of undocumented migrants. As age adjustments could not be performed due to lack of data, comparisons between residents and undocumented migrants were made at specific age intervals, based on the study sample’s mean age at death±a half standard deviation. Results Out of 7,925 individuals surveyed, 860 were classified as likely to have been undocumented migrants. External causes (49.8%) were the most frequent cause of death, followed by circulatory system diseases, and then neoplasms. Undocumented migrants had a statistically significant increased risk of dying from external causes (odds ratio [OR] 3.57, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.83–4.52) and circulatory system diseases (OR 2.20, 95% CI: 1.73–2.82) compared to residents, and a lower risk of dying from neoplasms (OR 0.07, 95% CI: 0.04–0.14). Conclusions We believe our study is the first to determine national figures on causes of death of undocumented migrants. We found inequity in health as substantial differences in causes of death between undocumented migrants and residents were seen. Legal ambiguities regarding health care provision must be addressed if equity in health is to be achieved in a country otherwise known for its universal health coverage.

Wahlberg, Anna; Kallestal, Carina; Lundgren, AnnaCarin; Essen, Birgitta

2014-01-01

280

Defining the Cause of Death in Hospitalised Patients with Acute Kidney Injury  

PubMed Central

Background The high mortality rates that follow the onset of acute kidney injury (AKI) are well recognised. However, the mode of death in patients with AKI remains relatively under-studied, particularly in general hospitalised populations who represent the majority of those affected. We sought to describe the primary cause of death in a large group of prospectively identified patients with AKI. Methods All patients sustaining AKI at our centre between 1st October 2010 and 31st October 2011 were identified by real-time, hospital-wide, electronic AKI reporting based on the Acute Kidney Injury Network (AKIN) diagnostic criteria. Using this system we are able to generate a prospective database of all AKI cases that includes demographic, outcome and hospital coding data. For those patients that died during hospital admission, cause of death was derived from the Medical Certificate of Cause of Death. Results During the study period there were 3,930 patients who sustained AKI; 62.0% had AKI stage 1, 20.6% had stage 2 and 17.4% stage 3. In-hospital mortality rate was 21.9% (859 patients). Cause of death could be identified in 93.4% of cases. There were three main disease categories accounting for three quarters of all mortality; sepsis (41.1%), cardiovascular disease (19.2%) and malignancy (12.9%). The major diagnosis leading to sepsis was pneumonia, whilst cardiovascular death was largely a result of heart failure and ischaemic heart disease. AKI was the primary cause of death in only 3% of cases. Conclusions Mortality associated with AKI remains high, although cause of death is usually concurrent illness. Specific strategies to improve outcomes may therefore need to target not just the management of AKI but also the most relevant co-existing conditions.

Selby, Nicholas M.; Kolhe, Nitin V.; McIntyre, Christopher W.; Monaghan, John; Lawson, Nigel; Elliott, David; Packington, Rebecca; Fluck, Richard J.

2012-01-01

281

Does Teacher Certification Matter? High School Teacher Certification Status and Student Achievement  

Microsoft Academic Search

We empirically test how 12th-grade students of teachers with probationary certification, emergency certification, private school certification, or no certification in their subject area compare relative to students of teachers who have standard certification in their subject area. We also determine whether specific state-by-state differences in teacher licensure requirements systematically affect student achievement. In mathematics, we find teachers who have a

Dan D. Goldhaber; Dominic J. Brewer

2000-01-01

282

An investigation of DUA caching strategies for public key certificates  

SciTech Connect

Internet Privacy Enhanced Mail (PEM) provides security services to users of Internet electronic mail. PEM is designed with the intention that it will eventually obtain public key certificates from the X.500 directory service. However, such a capability is not present in most PEM implementations today. While the prevalent PEM implementation uses a public key certificate-based strategy, certificates are mostly distributed via e-mail exchanges, which raises several security and performance issues. In this thesis research, we changed the reference PEM implementation to make use of the X.500 directory service instead of local databases for public key certificate management. The thesis discusses some problems with using the X.500 directory service, explores the relevant issues, and develops an approach to address them. The approach makes use of a memory cache to store public key certificates. We implemented a centralized cache server and addressed the denial-of-service security problem that is present in the server. In designing the cache, we investigated several cache management strategies. One result of our study is that the use of a cache significantly improves performance. Our research also indicates that security incurs extra performance cost. Different cache replacement algorithms do not seem to yield significant performance differences, while delaying dirty-writes to the backing store does improve performance over immediate writes.

Cheung, T.C.

1993-11-01

283

End-of-life care and achieving preferences for place of death in England: Results of a population-based survey using the VOICES-SF questionnaire.  

PubMed

Background/aim: Health policy places emphasis on enabling patients to die in their place of choice, and increasing the proportion of home deaths. In this article, we seek to explore reported preferences for place of death and experiences of care in a population-based sample of deaths from all causes. Design: Self-completion post-bereavement survey. Setting/Participants: Census of deaths registered in two health districts between October 2009 and April 2010. Views of Informal Carers - Evaluation of Services Short Form was sent to each informant (n = 1422; usually bereaved relative) 6-12 months post-bereavement. Results: Response was 33%. In all, 35.7% of respondents reported that the deceased said where they wanted to die, and 49.3% of these were reported to achieve this. Whilist 73.9% of those who were reported to have a preference cited home as the preferred place, only 13.3% of the sample died at home. Cancer patients were more likely to be reported to achieve preferences than patients with other conditions (p < .01). Being reported to have a record of preferences for place of death increased the likelihood of dying at home (odds ratio = 22.10). When rating care in the last 2 days, respondents were more likely to rate 'excellent' or 'good' for nursing care (p < .01), relief of pain (p < .01) and other symptoms (p < .01), emotional support (p < .01) and privacy of patient's environment (p < .01) if their relative died in their preferred place. Conclusions: More work is needed to encourage people to talk about their preferences at the end of life: this should not be restricted to those known to be dying. Increasing knowledge and achievement of preferences for place of death may also improve end-of-life care. PMID:24292157

Hunt, Katherine J; Shlomo, Natalie; Addington-Hall, Julia

2014-05-01

284

Missile Defense Certification: Examination of the U.S. Navy Aegis Warship and U.S. Army Patriot Crew Certification Process.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The process employed by Naval Surface Forces to capture information during warfare certification is enabled by a computer-based feedback mechanism. The Surface Force Type Commander employs two information management system models in the form of Training a...

R. C. Biggs

2008-01-01

285

Graduate Certificate in Transportation Planning.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this project was to develop and implement a graduate Certificate in Transportation Planning at Texas A&M University. Texas A&M currently offers instruction in transportation through its Masters of Urban Planning and Civil Engineering progra...

E. Dumbaugh F. Ndubisi

2008-01-01

286

In Brief: Science teaching certificate  

Microsoft Academic Search

More than 200 educators will receive fellowships over the next 5 years to participate in NASA's Endeavor Science Teaching Certificate Project, the agency announced on 14 November. Through workshops, online and on-site graduate courses, and NASA educational materials, the project will expose educators to NASA science and engineering and support them in translating the information for use in classrooms. ``Through

Randy Showstack

2008-01-01

287

Accreditation or Certification for Laboratories?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This presentation is focused on explaining the significance of accreditation and certification for laboratories and illustrates the usefulness of both procedures. The implementation of these procedures in laboratories is described, pointing out their similarities and differences. Reference is made to some publications. The discussion reflects the existing practice.

Tsimillis, Kyriacos C.

288

Framework for Certification of Fish Propagation, Protection and Monitoring Facilities. Final Report.  

SciTech Connect

A conceptual framework for certification of fish production and monitoring facilities including software templates to expedite implementation of the framework are presented. The framework is based on well established and widely utilized project management techniques. The implementation templates are overlays for Microsoft Professional Office software products: Excel, Word, and Project. Use of the software templates requires Microsoft Professional Office. The certification framework integrates two classical project management processes with a third process for facility certification. These processes are: (1) organization and definition of the project, (2) acquisition and organization of project documentation, and (3) facility certification. The certification process consists of systematic review of the production processes and the characteristics of the produced product. The criteria for certification review are the plans and specifications for the products and production processes that guided development of the facility. The facility is certified when the production processes are operating as designed and the product produced meets specifications. Within this framework, certification is a performance based process, not dissimilar from that practiced in many professions and required for many process, or a product meets professional/industry standards of performance. In the case of fish production facilities, the certifying authority may be diffuse, consisting of many entities acting through a process such as NEPA. A cornerstone of certification is accountability, over the long term, for the operation and products of a facility. This is particularly important for fish production facilities where the overall goal of the facility may require decades to accomplish.

Carlson, Thomas J.; Costello, Ronald J.

1997-06-01

289

TWEAKing death  

PubMed Central

Smac mimetics (inhibitor of apoptosis [IAP] antagonists) are synthetic reagents that kill susceptible tumor cells by inducing degradation of cellular IAP (cIAP) 1 and cIAP2, nuclear factor ?B activation, tumor necrosis factor (TNF) ? production, TNF receptor 1 occupancy, and caspase-8 activation. In this issue of The Journal of Cell Biology, Vince et al. (see p. 171) report remarkable similarities in the events leading to tumor cell death triggered by the cytokine TWEAK (TNF-like weak inducer of apoptosis) and IAP antagonists. Although the mechanistic details differ, a common and necessary feature that is also shared by TNF receptor 2 signaling is reduction in the level of cIAP1 and, in some cases, cIAP2 and TNF receptor-associated factor 2. These findings not only extend our appreciation of how cell death pathways are kept in check in tumors, they reinforce the possible utility of induced cIDE (cIAP deficiency) in the selective elimination of neoplastic cells.

Ashwell, Jonathan D.

2008-01-01

290

Mortality and cause of death in hip fracture patients aged 65 or older - a population-based study  

PubMed Central

Background The high mortality of hip fracture patients is well documented, but sex- and cause-specific mortality after hip fracture has not been extensively studied. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate mortality and cause of death in patients after hip fracture surgery and to compare their mortality and cause of death to those in the general population. Methods Records of 428 consecutive hip fracture patients were collected on a population-basis and data on the general population comprising all Finns 65 years of age or older were collected on a cohort-basis. Cause of death was classified as follows: malignant neoplasms, dementia, circulatory disease, respiratory disease, digestive system disease, and other. Results Mean follow-up was 3.7 years (range 0-9 years). Overall 1-year postoperative mortality was 27.3% and mortality after hip fracture at the end of the follow-up was 79.0%. During the follow-up, age-adjusted mortality after hip fracture surgery was higher in men than in women with hazard ratio (HR) 1.55 and 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.21-2.00. Among hip surgery patients, the most common causes of death were circulatory diseases, followed by dementia and Alzheimer's disease. After hip fracture, men were more likely than women to die from respiratory disease, malignant neoplasm, and circulatory disease. During the follow-up, all-cause age- and sex-standardized mortality after hip fracture was 3-fold higher than that of the general population and included every cause-of-death category. Conclusion During the study period, the risk of mortality in hip fracture patients was 3-fold higher than that in the general population and included every major cause of death.

2011-01-01

291

Planetary Protection Alternate Protocol Certification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The talk presents a standardized approach for new method certification or alterative testing protocol (ATP) certification against the existing U.S. Planetary Protection Standards. In consideration of new method certification there are two phases of activities that are relevant to the certification process. The first is sample acquisition which typically incorporates swab or wipes sampling on relevant hardware, associated facilities and ground support equipment. The sampling methods introduce considerations of field sampling efficiency as it relates to spore distribution on the spacecraft, spacecraft material influences on the ability of the swab or wipe to remove spores from the hardware, the types of swabs and wipes used (polyester, cotton, macrofoam), and human sampling influences. The second portion of a new protocol certification looks specifically at the lab work-up or analysis of the samples provided to the laboratory. Variables in this process include selection of appropriate biomarkers, extraction efficiencies (removal of spores or constituents of interest from the sampling device), and a method's ability to accurately determine the number of spores present in the sample with a statistically valid level of confidence as described by parameters such as precision, accuracy, robustness, specificity and sensitivity. Considerations for alternative testing protocols such as those which utilize bioburden reduction techniques include selection of appropriate biomarkers for testing, test materials and a defined statistical approach that provides sufficient scientific data to support the modification of an existing NASA specification or the generation of a new NASA specification. Synergies between the U.S. and European Space Agency approaches will also be discussed.

Baker, Amy; Barengoltz, Jack; Tisdale, David

292

Determining 'age at death' for forensic purposes using human bone by a laboratory-based biomechanical analytical method.  

PubMed

Determination of age-at-death (AAD) is an important and frequent requirement in contemporary forensic science and in the reconstruction of past populations and societies from their remains. Its estimation is relatively straightforward and accurate (±3yr) for immature skeletons by using morphological features and reference tables within the context of forensic anthropology. However, after skeletal maturity (>35yr) estimates become inaccurate, particularly in the legal context. In line with the general migration of all the forensic sciences from reliance upon empirical criteria to those which are more evidence-based, AAD determination should rely more-and-more upon more quantitative methods. We explore here whether well-known changes in the biomechanical properties of bone and the properties of bone matrix, which have been seen to change with age even after skeletal maturity in a traceable manner, can be used to provide a reliable estimate of AAD. This method charts a combination of physical characteristics some of which are measured at a macroscopic level (wet & dry apparent density, porosity, organic/mineral/water fractions, collagen thermal degradation properties, ash content) and others at the microscopic level (Ca/P ratios, osteonal and matrix microhardness, image analysis of sections). This method produced successful age estimates on a cohort of 12 donors of age 53-85yr (7 male, 5 female), where the age of the individual could be approximated within less than ±1yr. This represents a vastly improved level of accuracy than currently extant age estimation techniques. It also presents: (1) a greater level of reliability and objectivity as the results are not dependent on the experience and expertise of the observer, as is so often the case in forensic skeletal age estimation methods; (2) it is purely laboratory-based analytical technique which can be carried out by someone with technical skills and not the specialised forensic anthropology experience; (3) it can be applied worldwide following stringent laboratory protocols. As such, this technique contributes significantly to improving age estimation and therefore identification methods for forensic and other purposes. PMID:24286969

Zioupos, P; Williams, A; Christodoulou, G; Giles, R

2014-05-01

293

Secreted calmodulin-like skin protein inhibits neuronal death in cell-based Alzheimer's disease models via the heterotrimeric Humanin receptor  

PubMed Central

Humanin is a secreted bioactive peptide that is protective in a variety of death models, including cell-based neuronal death models related to Alzheimer's disease (AD). To mediate the protective effect in AD-related death models, Humanin signals via a cell-surface receptor that is generally composed of three subunits: ciliary neurotrophic factor receptor ?, WSX-1 and gp130 (heterotrimeric Humanin receptor; htHNR). However, the protective effect of Humanin via the htHNR is weak (EC50=1–10???); therefore, it is possible that another physiological agonist for this receptor exists in vivo. In the current study, calmodulin-like skin protein (CLSP), a calmodulin relative with an undefined function, was shown to be secreted and inhibit neuronal death via the htHNR with an EC50 of 10–100?p?. CLSP was highly expressed in the skin, and the concentration in circulating normal human blood was ?5?n?. When administered intraperitoneally in mice, recombinant CLSP was transported across the blood-cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)-barrier and its concentration in the CSF reaches 1/100 of its serum concentration at 1?h after injection. These findings suggest that CLSP is a physiological htHNR agonist.

Hashimoto, Y; Nawa, M; Kurita, M; Tokizawa, M; Iwamatsu, A; Matsuoka, M

2013-01-01

294

Young People's Risk of Suicide Attempts in Relation to Parental Death: A Population-Based Register Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: The objective of this study was to examine the association between the death of a biological parent and subsequent suicide attempts by young people (aged 10-22 years), and to explore sociodemographic factors as modifying factors in the process. Methods: The study used a nested case-control design. The full study population was obtained…

Jakobsen, Ida Skytte; Christiansen, Erik

2011-01-01

295

Florida Teacher Certification Examination. Technical Report 1981-1982.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Florida Teacher Certification Examination (FTCE) is based upon selected competencies that have been identified as minimal entry-level skills for prospective teachers. A description is given of the four subtests which make up the FTCE: (1) writing--essay on general topics; (2) reading--multiple choice "cloze" procedure on general education…

Florida State Dept. of Education, Tallahassee.

296

Florida Teacher Certification Examination. Technical Report 1980-1981.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Florida Teacher Certification Examination (FTCE) is based upon selected competencies that have been identified as minimal entry-level skills for prospective teachers. A description is given of the four subtests which make up the FTCE: (1) writing--essay on general topics; (2) reading--multiple choice "cloze" procedure on general education…

Florida State Dept. of Education, Tallahassee.

297

Independent assessment by third-party certification bodies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Independent, third-party, involvement can make a significant contribution towards achievement of improved food safety, and food law compliance. Accredited certification organisations, with wide experience and expertise, such as NSF international, are increasingly supporting food industry and regulators by providing alternative, cost-effective services. The key is true independence: Consultants cannot certify, and an effective “due diligence” defence can be based on

Bob Tanner

2000-01-01

298

Gifted Education and the Courts: Teacher Certification and Employment Decisions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Four state court cases are discussed, involving the issue of employing noncertified versus certified teachers in gifted education and teachers with seniority versus gifted education experience. Based on the two West Virginia cases and two Pennsylvania cases, it is concluded that mandatory certification provides greater legal protection for gifted…

Karnes, Frances A.; Marquardt, Ronald G.

1995-01-01

299

Mortality of urban transit workers: indications of an excess of deaths by suicide using gas.  

PubMed

Urban bus drivers are exposed to a variety of discomforts and physical hazards associated with their occupation. We obtained death certificates for 99 per cent of 219 decreased members of the Amalgamated Transit Union Local 596 of Edmonton, Alberta, and conducted a proportionate mortality study against the distribution of all deaths among men in the province of Alberta, standardized by age and year of death. We found a highly significant excess from undetermined accidents due to gas (proportionate mortality ratio (PMR) 3761, based on 3 cases; p less than 0.003), which may bear a relationship to an elevation observed for suicide due to gas, which failed to achieve statistical significance (PMR 242, based on 2 cases). Collateral evidence suggests that this excess may include misclassification of some suicides. Gas inhalation as an instrument of suicide may be suggested by familiarity with vehicle exhaust. No other excess achieved statistical significance. Several causes of death showed elevated PMRs of relatively modest magnitude; elevations in PMR for lung cancer (PMR 154) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (PMR 176) suggest a mutual association with smoking. PMID:1504295

Guidotti, T L

1992-08-01

300

Unreported births and deaths, a severe obstacle for improved neonatal survival in low-income countries; a population based study  

PubMed Central

Background In order to improve child survival there is a need to target neonatal mortality. In this pursuit, valid local and national statistics on child health are essential. We analyze to what extent births and neonatal deaths are unreported in a low-income country and discuss the consequences at local and international levels for efforts to save newborn lives. Methods Information on all births and neonatal deaths in Quang Ninh province in Northern Vietnam in 2005 was ascertained by systematic inventory through group interviews with key informants, questionnaires and examination of health facility records. Health care staff at 187 Community Health Centers (CHC) and 18 hospitals, in addition to 1372 Village Health Workers (VHW), were included in the study. Results were compared with the official reports of the Provincial Health Bureau. Results The neonatal mortality rate (NMR) was 16/1000 (284 neonatal deaths/17 519 births), as compared to the official rate of 4.2/1000. The NMR varied between 44/1000 and 10/1000 in the different districts of the province. The under-reporting was mainly attributable to a dysfunctional reporting system and the fact that families, not the health system, were made responsible to register births and deaths. This under-reporting has severe consequences at local, national and international levels. At a local level, it results in a lack of awareness of the magnitude and differentials in NMR, leading to an indifference towards the problem. At a national and international level the perceived low mortality rate is manifested in a lack of investments in perinatal health programs. Conclusion This example of a faulty health information system is reportedly not unique in low and middle income countries where needs for neonatal health reforms are greatest. Improving reporting systems on births and neonatal deaths is a matter of human rights and a prerequisite for reducing neonatal mortality in order to reach the fourth millennium goal.

Malqvist, Mats; Eriksson, Leif; Nga, Nguyen Thu; Fagerland, Linn Irene; Hoa, Dinh Phuong; Wallin, Lars; Ewald, Uwe; Persson, Lars-Ake

2008-01-01

301

Parental bereavement after the death of an offspring in a motor vehicle collision: a population-based study.  

PubMed

Motor vehicle collisions (MVCs) are the leading cause of death in young people in North America. The effects of such deaths on parents have not been systematically studied. Administrative data sets were used to identify all parents (n = 1,458) who had an offspring die in a MVC between 1996 and 2008 in the province of Manitoba, Canada. They were matched to general population control parents who had not had offspring die from any sudden cause during the study period. Generalized estimating equations were used to compare the rates of physician-diagnosed mental and physical disorders, social factors, and treatment utilization in the 2 parent groups in the 2 years before and after offspring death, with adjustment for confounding factors. The risk of depression among bereaved parents almost tripled (adjusted prevalence ratio = 2.85, 95% confidence interval: 2.44, 3.33; P < 0.001) during the 2 years after death of an offspring. Significant increases in the risk of anxiety disorders (adjusted prevalence ratio = 1.45, 95% confidence interval: 1.26, 1.67; P < 0.001) were also observed. When compared with nonbereaved parents, bereaved parents had significant increases in the risks of depression (P < 0.001), anxiety disorders (P < 0.001), marital break-up (P = 0.015), and physician visits for mental illness (P < 0.001) in the post-death period. In conclusion, parents who lose an offspring in a MVC experience considerable mental illness and marital disruption. PMID:24186971

Bolton, James M; Au, Wendy; Walld, Randy; Chateau, Dan; Martens, Patricia J; Leslie, William D; Enns, Murray W; Sareen, Jitender

2014-01-15

302

Eco-certification of farmed seafood: will it make a difference?  

PubMed

Eco-certification is widely considered a tool for reducing environmental impacts of aquaculture, but what are the likely environmental outcomes for the world's fastest growing animal-food production sector? This article analyzes a number of eco-certification schemes based on species choice, anticipated share of the global seafood market, size of eligible producers, and targeted environmental impacts. The potential of eco-certification to reduce the negative environmental impacts of aquaculture at scale presently appears uncertain as: (a) certification schemes currently focus on species predominantly consumed in the EU and US, with limited coverage of Asian markets; (b) the share of certified products in the market as currently projected is too low; (c) there is an inequitable and non-uniform applicability of certification across the sector; (d) mechanisms or incentives for improvement among the worst performers are lacking; and (e) there is incomplete coverage of environmental impacts, with biophysical sustainability and ecosystem perspectives generally lacking. PMID:23609102

Jonell, Malin; Phillips, Michael; Rönnbäck, Patrik; Troell, Max

2013-10-01

303

Encountering Death: Structured Activities for Death Awareness.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book is intended to be used as a supplement to standard textbooks on death and dying for college students. Chapter 1 "Encountering Death in the Self" builds the foundation for increased self-awareness for the study of death and dying. Chapter 2 "Encountering Death in the Family" provides activities which are appropriate for a wide variety of…

Welch, Ira David; And Others

304

Midcourse Space Experiment Data Certification and Technology Transfer. Supplement 1  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The University of Alabama in Huntsville contributes to the Technical Management of the Midcourse Space Experiment Program, to the Certification of the Level 2 data produced by the Midcourse Space Experiment's suite of in-orbit imaging radiometers, imaging spectro-radiometers and an interferometer and to the Transfer of the Midcourse Space Experiment Technology to other Government Programs. The Technical Management of the Midcourse Space Experiment Program is expected to continue through out the spacecraft's useful life time. The Transfer of Midcourse Space Experiment Technology to other government elements is expected to be on a demand basis by the United States Government and other organizations. The University, of Alabama Huntsville' contribution specifically supports the Principal Investigator's Executive Committee, the Deputy Principal Investigator for Data Certification and Technology Transfer team, the nine Ultraviolet Visible Imagers and Spectrographic Imagers (UVISI) and the Pointing and Alignment of all eleven of the science instruments. The science instruments effectively cover the 0.1 to 28 micron spectral region. The Midcourse Space Experiment spacecraft, launched April 24, 1996, is expected to have a 5 year useful lifetime. The cryogenically cooled IR sensor, SPIRIT III, performed through February, 1997 when its cryogen expired. A pre-launch, ground based calibration of the instruments provided a basis for the pre-launch certification of the Level 2 data base these instruments produce. With the spacecraft in-orbit the certification of the instrument's Level 2 data base was extended to the in-orbit environment.

Pollock, David B.

1998-01-01

305

Deaths certified as asthma and use of medical services: a national case-control study  

PubMed Central

Background: Studies have linked asthma death to either increased or decreased use of medical services. Methods: A population based case-control study of asthma deaths in 1994–8 was performed in 22 English, six Scottish, and five Welsh health authorities/boards. All 681 subjects who died were under the age of 65 years with asthma in Part I on the death certificates. After exclusions, 532 hospital controls were matched to 532 cases for age, district, and date of asthma admission/death. Data were extracted blind from primary care records. Results: The median age of the subjects who died was 53 years; 60% of cases and 64% of controls were female. There was little difference in outpatient attendance (55% and 55%), hospital admission for asthma (51% and 54%), and median inpatient days (20 days and 15 days) in the previous 5 years. After mutual adjustment and adjustment for sex, using conditional logistic regression, three variables were independently associated with asthma death: fewer general practice contacts (odds ratio 0.82 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.74 to 0.91) per 5 contacts) in the previous year, more home visits (1.14 (95% CI 1.08 to 1.21) per visit) in the previous year, and fewer peak expiratory flow recordings (0.83 (95% CI 0.74 to 0.92) per occasion) in the previous 3 months. These associations were similar after adjustment for markers of severity, psychosocial factors, systemic steroids, short acting bronchodilators and antibiotics, although the association with peak flow was weakened and just lost significance. Conclusion: Asthma death is associated with less use of primary care services. Both practice and patient factors may be involved and a better understanding of these may offer possibilities for reducing asthma death.

Sturdy, P; Butland, B; Anderson, H; Ayres, J; Bland, J; Harrison, B; Peckitt, C; Victor, C; on, b

2005-01-01

306

Certification of UAW/Ford thermographers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ford Motor Company has been using infrared thermography in the maintenance of its production facilities for more than fifteen years. It has proven to be a key tool, which has helped the company continuously achieved high standards of production quality by using a work force trained with the essential technical skills. Many early successes in thermography provided an environment in which expansion of the program could occur. A group of key Ford and United Auto Workers personnel was formed to promote the use of infrared technology to help meet worldwide quality standards. The committee also addressed the need for standardized training, qualification, and certification. The program that has evolved, which is based on the qualification and certification standards of the American Society for Nondestructive Testing, is a strong partnership created between the UAW-Ford National Programs Center, UAW and Ford Motor Company with assistance from an outside training contractor. The paper will detail the experiences of establishing the program, the lessons that have been learned in the problem solving process, and the costs and benefits of the solutions that were developed.

Barth, Ken; Spring, Robert W.

2000-03-01

307

NASA Master Teacher Re-Certification Program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Edward Waters College is submitting a final report covering the grant period from January 1999 - April 30, 2000. The Teacher re-certification program at Edward Waters College created a high quality professional development opportunity for middle and high school science teachers which will contribute to the improvement of science education and the use of innovation technologies in the classroom for years to come. The following goals and objectives were met and exceeded during the grant period. 1) A focused and relevant educational technology curriculum based on National Science Education Standard and state-of-the art educational resources that are accepted as one of the qualifications for re-certification in the scientific discipline in Duval County, Florida. 2) The program goal was to recertify 40 middle and high school science teachers over a two- year period. This goal was met and exceeded the projected number by recertifying over 80 middle and high school science and math teachers over a two-year period. 3) Teachers that were recertified were given an opportunity to public information that they developed on EWC's Web page or develop a web page of their own. Area schools were made aware of this information through various forms of communication with the teachers in Duval County School District, i.e., flyers sent from EWC to participants, school newspapers, word of mouth, etc. 4) A multimedia technology resource lab is available at EWC for use as a "Learning Lab" for class field trips by Duval County teachers.

Okari-Brooks, Emma; Thompson, Paul

2000-01-01

308

Small Wind Technology Certificate Program  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Advanced Technology Environmental and Energy Center (ATEEC) provides this presentation from Richard Lawrence of Cape Cod Community College highlighting the small wind technology certificate program at that school. The presentation will help administrators and educators looking to start or develop their own small wind programs. Users must download this resource for viewing, which requires a free log-in. There is no cost to download the item.

Lawrence, Richard

2012-09-25

309

The legitimacy of biofuel certification  

Microsoft Academic Search

The biofuel boom is placing enormous demands on existing cropping systems, with the most crucial consequences in the agri-food\\u000a sector. The biofuel industry is responding by initiating private governance and certification. The Roundtable on Sustainable\\u000a Palm Oil (RSPO) and the Cramer Commission, among others, have formulated criteria on “sustainable” biofuel production and\\u000a processing. This article explores the legitimacy of private

Lena Partzsch

2011-01-01

310

[Internal skills certification, sharing experiences].  

PubMed

An internal skills certification entitled, "The care relationship in situations of impaired communication" has been set up by the Paris hospitals authority (Assistance publique-hôpitaux de Paris). It enables healthcare workers practising in geriatrics to build on the practical experience they have developed. The fruit of an individual introspection helping to formalise the verbal and non-verbal methods they use in their practice, it requires a specific institutional, managerial and personal framework to be put in place. PMID:23301341

Malaquin-Pavan, Evelyne; Varlet-Bécu, Anaïs; Jouvenaux, Christelle; Langlade-Artis, Pascale

2012-11-01

311

Deaths related to lead poisoning in the United States, 1979–1998  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was conducted to describe trends in US lead poisoning-related deaths between 1979 and 1998. The predictive value of relevant ICD-9 codes was also evaluated. Multiple cause-of-death files were searched for records containing relevant ICD-9 codes, and underlying causes and demographic characteristics were assessed. For 1979–1988, death certificates were reviewed; lead source information was abstracted and accuracy of coding

Rachel B Kaufmann; Catherine J Staes; Thomas D Matte

2003-01-01

312

Who Owns Renewable Energy Certificates?  

SciTech Connect

Renewable energy certificates (RECs) are tradable instruments that convey the attributes of a renewable energy generator and the right to make certain claims about energy purchases. RECs first appeared in US markets in the late 1990s and are particularly important in states that accept or require them as evidence of compliance with renewables portfolio standards (RPS). The emergence of RECs as a tradable commodity has made utilities, generators, and regulators increasingly aware of the need to specify who owns the RECs in energy transactions. In voluntary transactions, most agree that the question of REC ownership can and should be negotiated privately between the buyer and the seller, and should be clearly established by contract. Claims about purchasing or using renewable energy should only be made if REC ownership can be documented. In many other cases, however, renewable energy transactions are either mandated or encouraged through state or federal policy. Because of the recent appearance of RECs, legislation and regulation mandating the purchase of renewable energy has sometimes been silent on the disposition of the RECs associated with that generation. Furthermore, some renewable energy contracts pre-date the existence of RECs, and therefore do not address REC ownership. In both of these instances, the issue of REC ownership must often be answered by legislative or regulatory authorities. The resulting uncertainty in REC ownership has hindered the development of robust REC markets and has, in some cases, led to contention between buyers and sellers of renewable generation. This article, which is based on a longer Berkeley Lab report, reviews federal and state efforts to clarify the ownership of RECs from Qualifying Facilities (QFs) that sell their generation under the Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act (PURPA) of 1978. The full report also addresses state efforts to clarify REC ownership in two other situations, customer-owned generation that benefits from state net metering rules, and generation facilities that receive financial incentives from state or utility funds. The issue of REC ownership most often arises in states that have adopted an RPS. In such states, both parties to QF contracts have a lot at stake: either additional cost to a utility if RECs are awarded to the QF, or loss of value to the QF if RECs are awarded to the utility. As a rough estimate, QF RECs that are eligible for state RPS programs could have a value between $35 million and $175 million, so there is significant economic value riding on the ownership question.

Holt, Edward; Wiser, Ryan; Bolinger, Mark

2006-06-01

313

Formal Safety Certification of Aerospace Software  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In principle, formal methods offer many advantages for aerospace software development: they can help to achieve ultra-high reliability, and they can be used to provide evidence of the reliability claims which can then be subjected to external scrutiny. However, despite years of research and many advances in the underlying formalisms of specification, semantics, and logic, formal methods are not much used in practice. In our opinion this is related to three major shortcomings. First, the application of formal methods is still expensive because they are labor- and knowledge-intensive. Second, they are difficult to scale up to complex systems because they are based on deep mathematical insights about the behavior of the systems (t.e., they rely on the "heroic proof"). Third, the proofs can be difficult to interpret, and typically stand in isolation from the original code. In this paper, we describe a tool for formally demonstrating safety-relevant aspects of aerospace software, which largely circumvents these problems. We focus on safely properties because it has been observed that safety violations such as out-of-bounds memory accesses or use of uninitialized variables constitute the majority of the errors found in the aerospace domain. In our approach, safety means that the program will not violate a set of rules that can range for the simple memory access rules to high-level flight rules. These different safety properties are formalized as different safety policies in Hoare logic, which are then used by a verification condition generator along with the code and logical annotations in order to derive formal safety conditions; these are then proven using an automated theorem prover. Our certification system is currently integrated into a model-based code generation toolset that generates the annotations together with the code. However, this automated formal certification technology is not exclusively constrained to our code generator and could, in principle, also be integrated with other code generators such as RealTime Workshop or even applied to legacy code. Our approach circumvents the historical problems with formal methods by increasing the degree of automation on all levels. The restriction to safety policies (as opposed to arbitrary functional behavior) results in simpler proof problems that can generally be solved by fully automatic theorem proves. An automated linking mechanism between the safety conditions and the code provides some of the traceability mandated by process standards such as DO-178B. An automated explanation mechanism uses semantic markup added by the verification condition generator to produce natural-language explanations of the safety conditions and thus supports their interpretation in relation to the code. It shows an automatically generated certification browser that lets users inspect the (generated) code along with the safety conditions (including textual explanations), and uses hyperlinks to automate tracing between the two levels. Here, the explanations reflect the logical structure of the safety obligation but the mechanism can in principle be customized using different sets of domain concepts. The interface also provides some limited control over the certification process itself. Our long-term goal is a seamless integration of certification, code generation, and manual coding that results in a "certified pipeline" in which specifications are automatically transformed into executable code, together with the supporting artifacts necessary for achieving and demonstrating the high level of assurance needed in the aerospace domain.

Denney, Ewen; Fischer, Bernd

2005-01-01

314

Comparison of Predicted Engine Core Noise with Proposed FAA Helicopter Noise Certification Requirements.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Calculated engine core noise levels, based on NASA-Lewis prediction procedures, for five representative helicopter engines are compared with measured total helicopter noise levels and proposed FAA helicopter noise certification requirements. Comparisons a...

U. Vonglahn D. Groesbeck

1981-01-01

315

Near-Death Experience, Consciousness, and the Brain: A New Concept about the Continuity of Our Consciousness Based on Recent Scientific Research on Near-Death Experience in Survivors of Cardiac Arrest  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article first some general aspects of near-death experience will be discussed, followed by questions about consciousness and its relation to brain function. Details will be described from our prospective study on near-death experience in survivors of cardiac arrest in the Netherlands, which was published in the Lancet in 2001. In this study it could not be shown that

PIM VAN LOMMEL

2006-01-01

316

IMCS reflight certification requirements and design specifications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The requirements for reflight certification are established. Software requirements encompass the software programs that are resident in the PCC, DEP, PDSS, EC, or any related GSE. A design approach for the reflight software packages is recommended. These designs will be of sufficient detail to permit the implementation of reflight software. The PDSS/IMC Reflight Certification system provides the tools and mechanisms for the user to perform the reflight certification test procedures, test data capture, test data display, and test data analysis. The system as defined will be structured to permit maximum automation of reflight certification procedures and test data analysis.

1984-01-01

317

IPA/VSEE Certification Regarding Lobbying  

NSF Publications Database

... REGARDING LOBBYING Certification for Contracts, Grants, Loans, and Cooperative Agreements The ... connection with the awarding of any Federal contract, the making of any Federal grant, the making of ...

318

9 CFR 93.803 - Health certificate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Elephants, Hippopotami, Rhinoceroses, and Tapirs...803 Health certificate. (a) An elephant, hippopotamus, rhinoceros...so), certifying: (1) That the elephant, hippopotamus, rhinoceros, or...

2010-01-01

319

9 CFR 93.803 - Health certificate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Elephants, Hippopotami, Rhinoceroses, and Tapirs...803 Health certificate. (a) An elephant, hippopotamus, rhinoceros...so), certifying: (1) That the elephant, hippopotamus, rhinoceros, or...

2009-01-01

320

48 CFR 3452.209-70 - Conflict of interest certification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2012-10-01 true Conflict of interest certification. 3452...Provisions and Clauses 3452.209-70 Conflict of interest certification. As...simplified acquisition threshold: Conflict of Interest Certification (MAR...

2013-10-01

321

78 FR 58285 - Export Trade Certificate of Review  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Amended Certificate CAEA's Export Trade Certificate of Review has been amended...Escalon, CA) CAEA's Export Trade Certificate of Review complete amended...Company, Inc., Livingston, CA Fair Trade Corner, Inc., Chico, CA...

2013-09-23

322

24 CFR 200.95 - Certification of cost requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 false Certification of cost requirements. 200.95 Section 200...Continuing Eligibility Requirements for Existing Projects Cost Certification § 200.95 Certification of cost requirements. (a) Before...

2011-04-01

323

24 CFR 200.96 - Certificates of actual cost.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Requirements for Existing Projects Cost Certification § 200...certificate of actual cost, in a form prescribed...the case of an existing project that does not require...certificate of actual cost will be submitted...

2011-04-01

324

24 CFR 200.95 - Certification of cost requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Certification of cost requirements. 200.95 Section 200...Continuing Eligibility Requirements for Existing Projects Cost Certification § 200.95 Certification of cost requirements. (a) Before...

2013-04-01

325

24 CFR 200.95 - Certification of cost requirements.  

...2014-04-01 false Certification of cost requirements. 200.95 Section 200...Continuing Eligibility Requirements for Existing Projects Cost Certification § 200.95 Certification of cost requirements. (a) Before...

2014-04-01

326

24 CFR 200.96 - Certificates of actual cost.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Requirements for Existing Projects Cost Certification § 200...certificate of actual cost, in a form prescribed...the case of an existing project that does not require...certificate of actual cost will be submitted...

2010-04-01

327

24 CFR 200.96 - Certificates of actual cost.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Requirements for Existing Projects Cost Certification § 200...certificate of actual cost, in a form prescribed...the case of an existing project that does not require...certificate of actual cost will be submitted...

2013-04-01

328

24 CFR 200.97 - Adjustments resulting from cost certification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 false Adjustments resulting from cost certification. 200.97 Section 200...Eligibility Requirements for Existing Projects Cost Certification § 200.97 Adjustments resulting from cost certification. (a) Fee simple...

2012-04-01

329

24 CFR 200.95 - Certification of cost requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 false Certification of cost requirements. 200.95 Section 200...Continuing Eligibility Requirements for Existing Projects Cost Certification § 200.95 Certification of cost requirements. (a) Before...

2012-04-01

330

24 CFR 200.96 - Certificates of actual cost.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Requirements for Existing Projects Cost Certification § 200...certificate of actual cost, in a form prescribed...the case of an existing project that does not require...certificate of actual cost will be submitted...

2012-04-01

331

24 CFR 200.97 - Adjustments resulting from cost certification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Adjustments resulting from cost certification. 200.97 Section 200...Eligibility Requirements for Existing Projects Cost Certification § 200.97 Adjustments resulting from cost certification. (a) Fee simple...

2010-04-01

332

24 CFR 200.95 - Certification of cost requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Certification of cost requirements. 200.95 Section 200...Continuing Eligibility Requirements for Existing Projects Cost Certification § 200.95 Certification of cost requirements. (a) Before...

2010-04-01

333

24 CFR 200.97 - Adjustments resulting from cost certification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 false Adjustments resulting from cost certification. 200.97 Section 200...Eligibility Requirements for Existing Projects Cost Certification § 200.97 Adjustments resulting from cost certification. (a) Fee simple...

2011-04-01

334

24 CFR 200.96 - Certificates of actual cost.  

...Requirements for Existing Projects Cost Certification § 200...certificate of actual cost, in a form prescribed...the case of an existing project that does not require...certificate of actual cost will be submitted...

2014-04-01

335

24 CFR 200.97 - Adjustments resulting from cost certification.  

...2014-04-01 false Adjustments resulting from cost certification. 200.97 Section 200...Eligibility Requirements for Existing Projects Cost Certification § 200.97 Adjustments resulting from cost certification. (a) Fee simple...

2014-04-01

336

24 CFR 200.97 - Adjustments resulting from cost certification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Adjustments resulting from cost certification. 200.97 Section 200...Eligibility Requirements for Existing Projects Cost Certification § 200.97 Adjustments resulting from cost certification. (a) Fee simple...

2013-04-01

337

78 FR 3311 - Safety Enhancements, Certification of Airports  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Safety Enhancements, Certification of Airports AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration...regulations pertaining to certification of airports to clarify that the applicability of...intentionally false statements concerning an airport operating certificate. Finally,...

2013-01-16

338

29 CFR 500.48 - Issuance of certificate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...agricultural worker only upon receipt of (1) A doctor's certificate on the prescribed form, with...when applying for a renewal, a new completed doctor's certificate if the previous doctor's certificate is more than three years...

2013-07-01

339

46 CFR 169.221 - Initial inspection for certification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false Initial inspection for certification. 169.221 Section 169.221 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND...and Certification Inspection for Certification § 169.221 Initial inspection for...

2013-10-01

340

14 CFR 65.67 - Aircraft dispatcher certification courses: Personnel.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Aircraft dispatcher certification courses: Personnel...CERTIFICATION: AIRMEN OTHER THAN FLIGHT CREWMEMBERS Aircraft Dispatchers § 65.67 Aircraft dispatcher certification courses:...

2014-01-01

341

14 CFR 65.70 - Aircraft dispatcher certification courses: Records.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Aircraft dispatcher certification courses: Records...CERTIFICATION: AIRMEN OTHER THAN FLIGHT CREWMEMBERS Aircraft Dispatchers § 65.70 Aircraft dispatcher certification courses:...

2014-01-01

342

25 CFR 152.7 - Application for certificate of competency.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...INTERIOR LAND AND WATER ISSUANCE OF PATENTS IN FEE, CERTIFICATES OF COMPETENCY...SALE OF CERTAIN INDIAN LANDS Issuing Patents in Fee, Certificates of Competency Or...interest therein under a restricted fee patent may apply for a certificate of...

2011-04-01

343

45 CFR 1301.13 - Accounting system certification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Accounting system certification. 1301.13...General Requirements § 1301.13 Accounting system certification. (a) Upon...or its delegate agency shall submit an accounting system certification, prepared...

2013-10-01

344

77 FR 25681 - Export Trade Certificate of Review  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Administration [Application 12-00002] Export Trade Certificate of Review ACTION: Notice of Application for an Export Trade Certificate of Review SunWest Foods...has received an application for an Export Trade Certificate of Review...

2012-05-01

345

75 FR 29514 - Export Trade Certificate of Review  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Administration [Application No. 10-00001] Export Trade Certificate of Review ACTION: Notice of Issuance of an Export Trade Certificate of Review to Alaska...S. Department of Commerce issued an Export Trade Certificate of Review to the...

2010-05-26

346

77 FR 59591 - Export Trade Certificate of Review  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Administration [Application No. 12-00002] Export Trade Certificate of Review ACTION: Notice of issuance of an Export Trade Certificate of Review to SunWest...S. Department of Commerce issued an Export Trade Certificate of Review to...

2012-09-28

347

40 CFR 86.1427 - Certification Short Test procedure; overview.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Certification Short Test procedure; overview. 86.1427 Section...Otto-Cycle Light-Duty Trucks; Certification Short Test Procedures § 86.1427 Certification Short Test procedure; overview. (a) The...

2013-07-01

348

12 CFR 563.74 - Mutual capital certificates.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...be authorized which would increase the number of a class of mutual capital certificates, or the number of a class of mutual capital certificates ranking prior to or on parity with another class of mutual capital certificates; or (F)...

2009-01-01

349

42 CFR 486.303 - Requirements for certification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Certification and Designation and Conditions for Coverage: Organ Procurement Organizations Requirements for Certification...certification. In order to be certified as a qualified organ procurement organization, an organ procurement organization must: (a)...

2013-10-01

350

Differences in Age-Standardized Mortality Rates for Avoidable Deaths Based on Urbanization Levels in Taiwan, 1971-2008  

PubMed Central

The World is undergoing rapid urbanization, with 70% of the World population expected to live in urban areas by 2050. Nevertheless, nationally representative analysis of the health differences in the leading causes of avoidable mortality disaggregated by urbanization level is lacking. We undertake a study of temporal trends in mortality rates for deaths considered avoidable by the Concerted Action of the European Community on Avoidable Mortality for four different levels of urbanization in Taiwan between 1971 and 2008. We find that for virtually all causes of death, age-standardized mortality rates (ASMRs) were lower in more urbanized than less urbanized areas, either throughout the study period, or by the end of the period despite higher rates in urbanized areas initially. Only breast cancer had consistently higher AMSRs in more urbanized areas throughout the 38-year period. Further, only breast cancer, lung cancer, and ischemic heart disease witnessed an increase in ASMRs in one or more urbanization categories. More urbanized areas in Taiwan appear to enjoy better indicators of health outcomes in terms of mortality rates than less urbanized areas. Access to and the availability of rich healthcare resources in urban areas may have contributed to this positive result.

Chen, Brian K.; Yang, Chun-Yuh

2014-01-01

351

Death threat, death concerns, and paranormal belief  

Microsoft Academic Search

Relationships among death threat, death concerns, and paranormal beliefs were investigated in a personal construct theory framework. First, the Threat Index measure of death threat and the Paranormal Belief Scale, which provides a measure of degree of belief in each of seven paranormal dimensions, were administered to 78 college students. As hypothesized, one paranormal belief dimension (traditional religious belief) was

Jerome Tobacyk

1983-01-01

352

Correction of vital statistics based on a proactive search of deaths and live births: evidence from a study of the North and Northeast regions of Brazil  

PubMed Central

Background In the last 20 years, Brazil has undergone dramatic changes in terms of socioeconomic development and health care. In the first decade of the 2000s, the Ministry of Health (MoH) developed a series of programs focused on reducing infant mortality, including the Family Health Program as a national policy for primary care. In this paper, we propose a method to correct underreporting of deaths and live births. After vital statistics are corrected, infant mortality trends are analyzed for the period 2000–2010 by macro-geographical region. Methods A proactive search of live births and deaths was carried out in the Amazon and Northeast regions in 2010 to find vital events that occurred in 2008 and were not reported to the Ministry of Health. The probabilistic sample of 133 municipalities was stratified by adequacy of vital information reporting. For each municipality, the adequacy analysis was based on the reported age-standardized mortality rate per 1,000 population and the ratio between reported and estimated live births. Correction factors were estimated by strata based on additional vital events found in the proactive search. The procedure was generalized to correct municipal vital statistics for the period 2000–2010. Results In the proactive search, 35% of non-reported deaths were found within the health system (hospitals and other health establishments), but 28% were found in non-official sources, like illegal cemeteries. In areas of extreme poverty and unreliable vital information, the estimated completeness of infant death reporting was only 33%. After correction of vital information, the estimated infant mortality rate decreased from 26.1 in 2000 to 16.0 in 2010, with an annual rate of decrease of 4.7%, greater than the required rate to achieve the Millennium Development Goal. Among Brazilian regions, the Northeast showed the largest decrease, from 38.4 to 20.1 per 1,000 live births. Conclusions The proactive search for vital events was shown to be a good strategy both in terms of understanding local irregularities and for correcting vital statistics. The methodology could be applied in other countries to routinely assess the pattern and extent of birth and death under-registration in order to improve the utility of these data to inform health policies.

2014-01-01

353

Design options for sample-based mortality surveillance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background Reliable information on causes of death is a fundamental component of health development strategies, yet globally only about one-third of countries have access to such information. For countries currently without adequate mortality reporting systems there are useful models other than resource-intensive population-wide medical certification. Sample-based mortality surveillance is one such approach. This paper provides methods for addressing appropriate sample

Stephen Begg; Chalapati Rao; Alan D Lopez

2005-01-01

354

Sudden infant death syndrome  

MedlinePLUS

Crib death; SIDS ... However, SIDS is still a major cause of death in infants under one year old. Thousands of ... affects boys more often than girls. Most SIDS deaths occur in the winter. The following may increase ...

355

Evaluating the Quality of Dying and Death  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a model for evaluating the quality of dying and death based on concepts elicited from literature review, qualitative interviews with persons with and without chronic and terminal conditions, and consideration of desirable measurement properties. We define quality of dying and death as the degree to which a person's preferences for dying and the moment of death agree with

Donald L Patrick; Ruth A Engelberg; J. Randall Curtis

2001-01-01

356

Death Education for the Health Professional.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The perspectives of a number of health professionals based on their experiences in providing death education courses are presented in essays. In "Interdisciplinary Death Education in a Nursing School" (Helen L. Swain and Kathleen V. Cowles), the development of an undergraduate elective course in death, dying, and bereavement at the University of…

Benoliel, Jeanne Quint, Ed.

357

Wind Turbine Certification and Type Certification IEC WT 01: IEC System for Conformity Testing and Certification of Wind Turbines, 2001-04  

Microsoft Academic Search

Certification of wind turbines or components is state-of-the-art and a must in most places around the world. Furthermore certification to harmonised requirements is an active support of export. Therefore it is important for manufacturers, banks and insurances of wind turbines and components to know the different certification processes as well as guidelines. The procedures to obtain Type and Project Certificates

Mike Woebbeking; Axel Andreä; Axel Dombrowski; Germanischer Lloyd

358

Maintenance of Certification®, Maintenance of Public Trust  

PubMed Central

The Maintenance of Certification® (MOC) program has been well received by many physicians, but faced significant opposition from others, who complain that it is overly tedious, costly, and irrelevant to their practice. This article offers a consolidated and concise history of the MOC program and a summary of what plastic surgeons need to know to successfully complete the American Board of Plastic Surgery’s (ABPS) own MOC requirements. The authors have justified each step of the ABPS’s MOC process in terms of how it improves the quality of care delivered to Plastic Surgery patients. Finally, a summary of research is presented that demonstrates both that the public supports the MOC process for all physicians and that continuing education and formal assessment and improvement initiatives have been linked in multiple studies to a better and more evidence-based medical practice.

Chung, Kevin C.; Clapham, Philip J.; Lalonde, Donald H.

2010-01-01

359

42 CFR 493.1775 - Standard: Inspection of laboratories issued a certificate of waiver or a certificate for provider...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...certificate for provider-performed microscopy procedures. 493.1775 Section...certificate for provider-performed microscopy procedures. (a) A laboratory...certificate for provider-performed microscopy procedures is not subject to...

2010-10-01

360

Explosive components facility certification tests  

SciTech Connect

Sandia National Laboratories has recently completed construction of a new Explosive Components Facility (ECF) that will be used for the research and development of advanced explosives technology. The ECF includes nine indoor firing pads for detonating explosives and monitoring the detonations. Department of Energy requirements for certification of this facility include detonation of explosive levels up to 125 percent of the rated firing pad capacity with no visual structural degradation resulting from the explosion. The Explosives Projects and Diagnostics Department at Sandia decided to expand this certification process to include vibration and acoustic monitoring at various locations throughout the building during these explosive events. This information could then be used to help determine the best locations for noise and vibration sensitive equipment (e.g. scanning electron microscopes) used for analysis throughout the building. This facility has many unique isolation features built into the explosive chamber and laboratory areas of the building that allow normal operation of other building activities during explosive tests. This paper discusses the design of this facility and the various types of explosive testing performed by the Explosives Projects and Diagnostics Department at Sandia. However, the primary focus of the paper is directed at the vibration and acoustic data acquired during the certification process. This includes the vibration test setup and data acquisition parameters, as well as analysis methods used for generating peak acceleration levels and spectral information. Concerns over instrumentation issues such as the choice of transducers (appropriate ranges, resonant frequencies, etc.) and measurements with long cable lengths (500 feet) are also discussed.

Dorrell, L.; Johnson, D. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1995-08-01

361

46 CFR 107.211 - Original Certificate of Inspection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION...Inspection and Certification of Existing Mobile Offshore Drilling Unitsâ (Appendix...

2013-10-01

362

Hylemetry versus Biometry: a new method to certificate the lithography authenticity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When we buy an artwork object a certificate of authenticity contain specific details about the artwork. Unfortunately, these certificates are often exchanged between similar artworks: the same document is supplied by the seller to certificate the originality. In this way the buyer will have a copy of an original certificate to attest that the "not original artwork" is an original one. A solution for this problem would be to insert a system that links together the certificate and a specific artwork. To do this it is necessary, for a single artwork, to find unique, unrepeatable, and unchangeable characteristics. In this paper we propose a new lithography certification based on the color spots distribution, which compose the lithography itself. Due to the high resolution acquisition media available today, it is possible using analysis method typical of speckle metrology. In particular, in verification phase it is only necessary acquiring the same portion of lithography, extracting the verification information, using the private key to obtain the same information from the certificate and confronting the two information using a comparison threshold. Due to the possible rotation and translation it is applied image correlation solutions, used in speckle metrology, to determine translation and rotation error and correct allow to verifying extracted and acquired images in the best situation, for granting correct originality verification.

Schirripa Spagnolo, Giuseppe; Cozzella, Lorenzo; Simonetti, Carla

2011-06-01

363

The StoRM Certification Process  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

StoRM is an implementation of the SRM interface version 2.2 used by all Large Hadron Collider (LHC) experiments and non-LHC experiments as SRM endpoint at different Tiers of Worldwide LHC Computing Grid. The complexity of its services and the demand of experiments and users are increasing day by day. The growing needs in terms of service level by the StoRM users communities make it necessary to design and implement a more effective testing procedure to quickly and reliably validate new StoRM candidate releases both in code side (for example via test units, and schema valuator) and in final product software (for example via functionality tests, and stress tests). Testing software service is a very critical quality activity performed in a very ad-hoc informal manner by developers, testers and users of StoRM up to now. In this paper, we describe the certification mechanism used by StoRM team to increase the robustness and reliability of the StoRM services. Various typologies of tests, such as quality, installation, configuration, functionality, stress and performance, defined on the base of a set of use cases gathered as consequence of the collaboration among the StoRM team, experiments and users, are illustrated. Each typology of test is either increased or decreased easily from time to time. The proposed mechanism is based on a new configurable testsuite. This is executed by the certification team, who is responsible for validating the release candidate package as well as bug fix (or patch) package, given a certain testbed that considers all possible use cases. In correspondence of each failure, the package is given back to developers waiting for validating a new package.

Ronchieri, Elisabetta; Dibenedetto, Michele; Zappi, Riccardo; Dal Pra, Stefano; Aiftimiei, Cristina; Traldi, Sergio

2011-12-01

364

Family Physician Participation in Maintenance of Certification  

PubMed Central

PURPOSE The American Board of Family Medicine has completed the 7-year transition of all of its diplomates into Maintenance of Certification (MOC). Participation in this voluntary process must be broad-based and balanced for MOC to have any practical national impact on health care. This study explores family physicians’ geographic, demographic, and practice characteristics associated with the variations in MOC participation to examine whether MOC has potential as a viable mechanism for dissemination of information or for altering practice. METHODS To investigate characteristics associated with differential participation in MOC by family physicians, we performed a cross-sectional comparison of all active family physicians using descriptive and multinomial logistic regression analyses. RESULTS Eighty-five percent of active family physicians in this study (n = 70,323) have current board certification. Ninety-one percent of all active board-certified family physicians eligible for MOC are participating in MOC. Physicians who work in poorer neighborhoods (odds ratio [OR] = 1.105; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.038–1.176), who are US-born or foreign-born international medical graduates (OR = 1.221; 95% CI, 1.124–1.326; OR = 1.444; 95% CI, 1.238–1.684, respectively), or who are solo practitioners (OR = 1.460; 95% CI, 1.345–1.585) are more likely to have missed initial MOC requirements than those from a large, undifferentiated reference group of certified family physicians. When age is held constant, female physicians are less likely to miss initial MOC requirements (OR = 0.849; 95% CI, 0.794–0.908). Physicians practicing in rural areas were found to be performing similarly in meeting initial MOC requirements to those in urban areas (OR = 0.966; 95% CI, 0.919–1.015, not significant). CONCLUSION Large numbers of family physicians are participating in MOC. The significant association between practicing in underserved areas and lapsed board certification, however, warrants more research examining causes of differential participation. The penetrance of MOC engagement shows that MOC has the potential to convey substantial practice-relevant medical information to physicians. Thus, it offers a potential channel through which to improve health care knowledge and medical practice.

Xierali, Imam M.; Rinaldo, Jason C. B.; Green, Larry A.; Petterson, Stephen M.; Phillips, Robert L.; Bazemore, Andrew W.; Newton, Warren P.; Puffer, James C.

2011-01-01

365

Radiation worker certification at Pantex Plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Pantex Plant Radiation Worker Certification program is designed to educate users of radiation emitting equipment in the basic areas of radiation safety. Formal classroom instruction is supplemented with on-the-job training. Certification is granted upon the completion of written and oral proficiency examinations. In addition, the program has provisions for training and designating maintenance and repair personnel to work only

Kouba

1979-01-01

366

An Opportunity for Excellence: Alternate Certification.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This presentation describes a program at Southeastern Louisiana University (SLU) which successfully prepares candidates for certification in secondary education. It is an alternative plan to the usual four-year undergraduate program. Candidates must have completed a baccalaureate degree with a major in a certification area and must have attained…

Cooper-Shoup, Susan M.; Miller, Kay A.

367

9 CFR 151.4 - Pedigree certificate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...ANIMAL BREEDS RECOGNITION OF BREEDS AND BOOKS OF RECORD OF PUREBRED ANIMALS Certification...issued by the custodian of the appropriate book of record listed in said section...relating to color and markings shall appear in English in the pedigree certificate for the...

2009-01-01

368

9 CFR 151.4 - Pedigree certificate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...ANIMAL BREEDS RECOGNITION OF BREEDS AND BOOKS OF RECORD OF PUREBRED ANIMALS Certification...issued by the custodian of the appropriate book of record listed in said section...relating to color and markings shall appear in English in the pedigree certificate for the...

2010-01-01

369

An "Exceptional" NBPTS Certificate for Special Educators.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes the new National Board for Professional Teaching Standards (NBPTS) certificate for teachers of students with disabilities. The certification process, the required Exceptional Needs portfolio, the assessment center, and the application fee are discussed, along with answers to frequently asked questions about the NBPTS.…

Helms, Ronald G.

2000-01-01

370

9 CFR 98.5 - Health certificate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Health certificate. 98.5 Section 98.5 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH...Foot-and-Mouth Disease; and Embryos of Horses and Asses § 98.5 Health certificate. (a) Except as...

2010-01-01

371

Certification Model for Professional School Media Personnel.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A three-part, model certification scheme for school media personnel is presented. The first part is a discussion of the planning of state certification designs including point-of-entry into the profession, continuing development of competencies, and basic entry-level competencies. The candidate assessment process is discussed in the second part…

American Association of School Librarians, Chicago, IL.

372

Wisconsin Fire Service Certification Program Procedures.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

These procedures for the Wisconsin Fire Service Certification Program provide professional qualification standards for three levels of fire fighter and four levels of fire service instructor. A section on program authority/operations covers program development, the credential review system, and revocation of certification. Requirements for…

Pribyl, Paul F.

373

Establishing Standards for Teacher Certification Tests.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Means of establishing standards for teacher certification tests are discussed. Focus is on the requirements and implications of the 1985 "Standards for Educational and Psychological Tests" and the 1978 "Uniform Guidelines on Employee Selection Procedures" that apply to the establishment of teacher certification test standards. (TJH)

Jaeger, Richard M.

1990-01-01

374

9 CFR 98.5 - Health certificate.  

...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Health certificate. 98.5 Section 98...and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...Embryos of Horses and Asses § 98.5 Health certificate. (a) Except...

2014-01-01

375

Alternative Teacher Certification: A Program Theory Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Alternative teacher certification program" (ATCP) is widely used as a term for a variety of programs designed to train and credential teachers in expedited fashion. In practice, however, ATCPs consist of a loose confederation of programs and practices ranging from "emergency certification to very sophisticated and well-designed programs that…

Scribner, Jay Paredes; Heinen, Ethan

2009-01-01

376

Secondary Teacher Certification Standards in Fifty States.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Minimum state standards for secondary school teacher certification are compared with standards set by the National Association of State Directors of Teacher Education and Certification (NASDTEC) and by the National Council for Accreditation of Teacher Education (NCATE). General and professional education requirements are reported. Inconsistences…

Weible, Tom; Dumas, Wayne

1982-01-01

377

Firearm deaths by law enforcement.  

PubMed

The use of deadly force during law enforcement is a matter that compels public scrutiny. There were 42 gunshot deaths caused by police over a 4-year period in New York City. The decedents' average age was 31 years and ranged from 17 to 64 years. There were 41 males and one female; and 26 Black, nine Hispanic, and seven White decedents. Ethanol and/or drugs of abuse were detected in 78% (31/40) of the decedents. The vast majority of shootings occurred with the police responding to a crime and 90% of the decedents were armed (26 handguns, six knives, one axe, one metal pipe, and one toy gun). Vehicles were used as weapons in two incidents. A total of 177 bullets struck the 42 decedents. Fourteen decedents sustained single gunshot wounds (GSWs), and the remainder had multiple GSWs ranging from 2 to 21. In the majority of the cases in this study, the number of GSWs of the body was three or fewer. Thirteen decedents had at least one GSW of the back or buttocks, accounting for 25 of the total 177 wounds, and four of the 13 had GSWs of only the back. With the exception of the upper extremities, GSWs of all locations were more likely to penetrate than perforate. Although these deaths may be high profile, the certification is typically straightforward and the cause (i.e., GSW) and manner of death (homicide) are readily apparent. Although police shootings in which the decedent was unarmed and/or sustained numerous GSWs are widely reported by the lay press, these types of shootings were not typical in our study. PMID:19040676

Gill, James R; Pasquale-Styles, Melissa

2009-01-01

378

Waste certification review program at the Savannah River Site  

SciTech Connect

After approving the waste certification programs for 45 generators of low-level radioactive and mixed waste, Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) moved forward to implement a performance-based approach for assuring that approved waste generators maintain their waste certification programs. WSRC implemented the Waste Certification Review Program, which is comprised of two sitewide programs, waste generator self-assessments and Facility Evaluation Board reviews, integrated with the WSRC Solid Waste Management Department Waste Verification Program Evaluations. The waste generator self-assessments ensure compliance with waste certification requirements, and Facility Evaluation Board reviews provide independent oversight of generators` waste certification programs. Waste verification evaluations by the TSD facilities serve as the foundation of the program by confirming that waste contents and generator performance continue to meet waste acceptance criteria (WSRC 1994) prior to shipment to treatment, storage, and disposal facilities. Construction of the Savannah River Site (SRS) was started by the US Government in 1950. The site covers approximately 300 square miles located along the Savannah River near Aiken, South Carolina. It is operated by the US Department of Energy (DOE). Operations are conducted by managing and operating contractors, including the Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC). Historically, the primary purpose of the SRS was to produce special nuclear materials, primarily plutonium and tritium. In general, low-level radioactive and mixed waste is generated through activities in operations. Presently, 47 SRS facilities generate low-level radioactive and mixed waste. The policies, guidelines, and requirements for managing these wastes are determined by DOE and are reflected in DOE Order 5820.2A (US DOE 1988).

Faulk, G.W.; Kinney, J.C. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); Knapp, D.C. [Bechtel Savannah River Inc., Aiken, SC (United States); Burdette, T.E. [Science Applications International Corp., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

1996-02-01

379

Current Status and Problems in Certification of Sustainable Forest Management in China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Forest certification is a mechanism involving the regulation of trade of forest products in order to protect forest resources and improve forest management. Although China had a late start in adopting this process, the country has made good progress in recent years. As of July 31, 2009, 17 forest management enterprises and more than one million hectares of forests in China have been certified by the Forest Stewardship Council (FSC). Several major factors affect forest certification in China. The first set is institutional in nature. Forest management in China is based on centralized national plans and therefore lacks flexibility. A second factor is public awareness. The importance and value of forest certification are not widely understood and thus consumers do not make informed choices regarding certified forest products. The third major factor is the cost of certification. Together these factors have constrained the development of China's forest certification efforts. However, the process does have great potential. According to preliminary calculations, if 50% of China's commercial forests were certified, the economic cost of forest certification would range from US0.66-86.63 million while the economic benefits for the forestry business sector could exceed US150 million. With continuing progress in forest management practices and the development of international trade in forest products, it becomes important to improve the forest certification process in China. This can be achieved by improving the forest management system, constructing and perfecting market access mechanisms for certificated forest products, and increasing public awareness of environmental protection, forest certification, and their interrelationship.

Zhao, Jingzhu; Xie, Dongming; Wang, Danyin; Deng, Hongbing

2011-12-01

380

Certification procedure of building thermographers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thermography has been used in Finland in building survey from the late 70s. The service has been provided by consultants, whose background is varied. When technology and devices have improved and the prices have increased, more and more doers have come into the market. At the same time, building developers and contractors have begun to use thermography for quality control in new building. Thermography has also been used in renovation planning. The problem is, that there are no procedures for building thermography, no guidelines to order the thermography services, no instructions how to scan, how to report and most important -- how to interpret the results. That fact has caused a lot of problems and also damaged the reputation and reliability of the method. In this year 2004 the various organizations in building trade launched a pilot project to certificate building thermographers. The procedure is divided into two parts: Part 1 is Level I (the basis of thermography) and Part II (divided into two periods) thermography applications of buildings, including also information on building physics, heat and mass transfer and structures. Both parts will take a week, two weeks in total with the examinations. The procedure follows moisture measurement procedure -- certification of building moisture measurements started a couple of years ago. In the paper the procedure, problems and the future plans are introduced. The following big issue is to develop and improve the interpretation procedure for reporting the results of thermography.

Kauppinen, Timo T.; Paloniitty, Sauli; Krankka, Juha

2005-03-01

381

Space shuttle redesigned solid rocket motor Certificate of Qualification (COQ) data report  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Space Shuttle Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM) Certification Program provides confidence that the RSRM and its components/subsystems meet or exceed Mission Oriented Requirements when manufactured per design requirements and specified/approved processes. Certification is based on documented results of tests, analyses, inspections, similarity, and demonstrations. Evidencing information is provided to certify that each RSRM component/subsystem satisfies design, mission related requirements and objectives.

Duersch, Fred, Jr.

1990-01-01

382

“Modern” death qualification  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report on the results of a comprehensive statewide survey of death penalty attitudes in which respondents were categorized in terms of their death-qualified or excludable status under several different Supreme Court doctrines governing the death-qualification process. We found that although changes in public opinion with respect to the death penalty in general have altered the relative sizes of the

Craig Haney; Aida Hurtado; Luis Vega

1994-01-01

383

The American Board of Radiology Maintenance of Certification (MOC) Program in Radiologic Physics  

SciTech Connect

Maintenance of Certification (MOC) recognizes that in addition to medical knowledge, several essential elements involved in delivering quality care must be developed and maintained throughout one's career. The MOC process is designed to facilitate and document the professional development of each diplomate of The American Board of Radiology (ABR) through its focus on the essential elements of quality care in Diagnostic Radiology and its subspecialties, and in the specialties of Radiation Oncology and Radiologic Physics. The initial elements of the ABR-MOC have been developed in accord with guidelines of The American Board of Medical Specialties. All diplomates with a ten-year, time-limited primary certificate in Diagnostic Radiologic Physics, Therapeutic Radiologic Physics, or Medical Nuclear Physics who wish to maintain certification must successfully complete the requirements of the appropriate ABR-MOC program for their specialty. Holders of multiple certificates must meet ABR-MOC requirements specific to the certificates held. Diplomates with lifelong certificates are not required to participate in the MOC, but are strongly encouraged to do so. MOC is based on documentation of individual participation in the four components of MOC: (1) professional standing, (2) lifelong learning and self-assessment, (3) cognitive expertise, and (4) performance in practice. Within these components, MOC addresses six competencies: medical knowledge, patient care, interpersonal and communication skills, professionalism, practice-based learning and improvement, and systems-based practice.

Thomas, Stephen R.; Hendee, William R.; Paliwal, Bhudatt R. [Radiologic Physics Trustees of the American Board of Radiology (ABR) (United States)

2005-01-01

384

Assessment of computer based geologic mapping of rock units in the LANDSAT-4 scene of northern Death Valley, California  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Geologists obtain low accuracy levels when maps derived from LANDSAT MSS data are compared with those made by conventional methods. Procedures developed for the IDIMS computer system and used to classify a subset of a TM image of the Death Valley, California - Nevada border are described. Despite the superior resolution, broader spectral coverage, and greater sensitivity inherent to the TM, the actual recorded measured accuracy was in the same narrow range (30 to 60%) recorded for MSS data from earlier LANDSATs. The supervised classification approach appears to be superior to the unsupervised approach when applied to vegetation-sparse surfaces composed of spectrally contrasting rock/soil units distributed in relatively flat to low relief terrain. As spatial resolution improves and optimal spectral bands for identifying rock materials are specified, use of classified multispectral remote sensing data from air and space when coupled with supporting field calibration and checks should become the dominant way in which geologic mapping is carried out in future decades.

Short, N. M.

1985-01-01

385

Familial risks for diseases of myoneural junction and muscle in siblings based on hospitalizations and deaths in sweden.  

PubMed

Diseases of the myoneural junction and muscle are disabling and some are life-threatening. Recent successes in the identification of the underlying genetic mechanisms have had profound implication for their diagnostics, treatment and classification. We define familial risks for siblings who were hospitalized for or deceased from diseases of the myoneural junction and muscle. A nationwide database on diseases of the myoneural junction and muscle was constructed by linking the Multigeneration Register on 0- to 69-year-old siblings to the Hospital Discharge Register and the Causes of Death Register from years 1987 to 2001. Standardized risk ratios (SIRs) were calculated for affected sibling pairs by comparing to those whose siblings had no diseases of myoneural junction and muscle. Among a total of 2307 patients, myasthenia gravis, muscular dystrophy and myotonic disorders were commonest diagnoses. The sibling risks for these disease were 22, 190 and 198, respectively, when a sibling was diagnosed with any disease of the myoneural junction and muscle. The concordant SIRs, both siblings presenting the same disease, were 42 for myasthenia gravis, 737 for muscular dystrophy, 2000 for congenital myopathy, 1211 for myotonic disorder, 909 for periodic paralysis and 209 for unspecified myopathy. Only a few discordant sibling pairs were noted. The very high overall SIRs for the diseases of the myoneural junction and muscle imply that the sporadic forms of these diseases are relatively rare and these diseases are overwhelmingly heritable. PMID:16899165

Hemminki, Kari; Li, Xinjun; Sundquist, Kristina

2006-08-01

386

Examining Security Certification and Access Control Conflicts Using Deontic Logic  

Microsoft Academic Search

Component-based software has become a mainstream practice as organizations attempt to streamline application development tasks. These applications invariably contain third-party Commercial-off-the-Shelf (COTS) systems with black box functionality. When integrated applications require security certification, COTS components, even if individually certified, may introduce vulnerabilities into the system if their security mechanisms are poorly combined. One cause of improper integration can be found

M. Smith; M. Kelkar; R. Gamble

2006-01-01

387

Survey of DOE NDA practices for CH-Tru waste certification--illustrated with a greater than 10,000 drum NDA data base  

SciTech Connect

We have compiled a greater than 10,000 CH-TRU waste drum data base from seven DOE sites which have utilized such multiple NDA measurements within the past few years. Most of these nondestructive assay (NDA) technique assay result comparisons have been performed on well-characterized, segregated waste categories such as cemented sludges, combustibles, metals, graphite residues, glasses, etc., with well-known plutonium isotopic compositions. Waste segregation and categorization practices vary from one DOE site to another. Perhaps the most systematic approach has been in use for several years at the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP), operated by Rockwell International, and located near Golden, Colorado. Most of the drum assays in our data base result from assays of RFP wastes, with comparisons available between the original RFP assays and PAN assays performed independently at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) Solid Waste Examination Pilot Plant (SWEPP) facility. Most of the RFP assays were performed with hyperpure germanium (HPGe)-based SGS assay units. However, at least one very important waste category, processed first-stage sludges, is assayed at RFP using a sludge batch-sampling procedure, prior to filling of the waste drums. 5 refs., 5 figs.

Schultz, F.J.; Caldwell, J.T.; Smith, J.R.

1988-01-01

388

Expert system-based mineral mapping in northern Death Valley, California/Nevada, using the Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Integrated analysis of imaging spectrometer data and field spectral measurements were used in conjunction with conventional geologic field mapping to characterize bedrock and surficial geology at the northern end of Death Valley, California and Nevada. A knowledge-based expert system was used to automatically produce image maps showing the principal surface mineralogy from Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) data. Linear spectral unmixing of the AVIRIS data allowed further determination of relative mineral, abundances and identification of mineral assemblages and mixtures. The imaging spectrometer data show the spatial distribution of spectrally distinct minerals occurring both as primary rockforming minerals and as alteration and weathering products. Field spectral measurements were used to verify the mineral maps and field mapping was used to extend the remote sensing results. Geographically referenced image maps produced from these data form new base maps from which to develop improved understanding of the processes of deposition and erosion affecting the present land surface.

Kruse, F. A.; Lefkoff, A. B.; Dietz, J. B.

1993-01-01

389

Professional Certifications in Construction in the USA  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Professional certification is a voluntary process that recognizes the holder as possessing specialized or professional knowledge, competencies, and skills necessary to render professional services that will ensure public protection and safety. Given the wide range of expertise areas in the construction field coupled with the evolution in practice and acute shortage of trained personnel, opportunity abound for unqualified individuals to practice in the field endangering public protection and safety. There is therefore an urgent need for professional certification in the construction field in the USA. Construction industry in the USA is one of the nations largest industries employing nearly 10 million people that represent about 10% of the gross national product.1 Some workers in the construction industry had different initial career choices and hence were not educated or trained in construction. Other workers started out in the trades and worked their way into management positions. Certification as a construction professional recognizes someone as possessing proven skills and the technical knowledge to professionally perform in the chosen expertise area. Organizations such as American Institute of Constructors (AIC)2, Construction Manager Certification Institute (CMCI)3, Construction Specifications Institute (CSI)4, and many others offer certification programs to the construction professionals. This paper will cover issues assorted with professional certification and identify various organizations, their certification programs, and requirements.

Alungbem, Gabriel; Li, Xiaolong; Stepp, Jason; Zargari, Ahmad

2009-11-03

390

Midcourse Space Experiment Data Certification and Technology Transfer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The University of Alabama in Huntsville contributes to the Technical Management of the Midcourse Space Experiment Program, to the Certification of the Level 2 data produced by the Midcourse Space Experiment's suite of in-orbit imaging radiometers, imaging spectra-radiometers and an interferometer and to the Transfer of the Midcourse Space Experiment Technology to other Government Programs. The Technical Management of the Midcourse Space Experiment Program is expected to continue through out the spacecraft's useful life time, 5 years after its 1996 launch. The Transfer of Midcourse Space Experiment Technology to other government elements is expected to be on a demand basis by the United States Government and other organizations. The University of Alabama Huntsville' contribution specifically supports the nine Ultraviolet Visible Imagers and Spectrographic Imagers (UVISI) and the Pointing and Alignment of all eleven of the science instruments. The science instruments effectively cover the 0.1 to 28 micron spectral region. The Midcourse Space Experiment spacecraft, launched April 24, 1996, is expected to have a 5 year useful lifetime with a 12 month lifetime for the cryogenically cooled IR sensor. A pre-launch, ground based calibration of the instruments provided a basis for the pre-launch certification of the Level 2 data base these instruments produce. With the spacecraft in-orbit the certification of the instruments' Level 2 data base is being extended to the in-orbit environment.

Pollock, David B.

1997-01-01

391

National Board Certification: It's Time for Preschool Teachers!  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

National Board Certification is a voluntary process by which teachers of students ages 3 through 18 demonstrate accomplished teaching. This article describes the process and certification requirements for one certificate--the Early Childhood/Generalist (ECG), for teachers of children ages 3 through 8. The National Board Certification process was…

Gillentine, Jonathan

2010-01-01

392

19 CFR 191.10 - Certificate of delivery.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Retention; submission to Customs. The certificate...certificate was delivered. Customs may request the certificate...certificate is requested by Customs, but is not provided...will be denied. (f) Warehouse transfer and withdrawals...merchandise is withdrawn from a bonded warehouse shall be...

2013-04-01

393

19 CFR 191.34 - Certificate of delivery required.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Retention; submission to Customs. The certificate...certificate was delivered. Customs may request the certificate...certificate is requested by Customs, but is not provided...this section. (c) Warehouse transfer and withdrawals...merchandise is withdrawn from a bonded warehouse shall be...

2013-04-01

394

25 CFR 307.12 - Certificates, dating, and signing thereof.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2 2009-04-01 2009-04-01 false Certificates, dating, and signing thereof. 307.12 Section 307.12 Indians...GOVERNMENT CERTIFICATE OF GENUINENESS § 307.12 Certificates, dating, and signing thereof. When the certificate is...

2009-04-01

395

25 CFR 307.12 - Certificates, dating, and signing thereof.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Certificates, dating, and signing thereof. 307.12 Section 307.12 Indians...GOVERNMENT CERTIFICATE OF GENUINENESS § 307.12 Certificates, dating, and signing thereof. When the certificate is...

2010-04-01

396

Certification of a weld produced by friction stir welding  

SciTech Connect

Methods, devices, and systems for providing certification of friction stir welds are disclosed. A sensor is used to collect information related to a friction stir weld. Data from the sensor is compared to threshold values provided by an extrinsic standard setting organizations using a certification engine. The certification engine subsequently produces a report on the certification status of the weld.

Obaditch, Chris; Grant, Glenn J

2013-10-01

397

Validating physician-certified verbal autopsy and probabilistic modeling (InterVA) approaches to verbal autopsy interpretation using hospital causes of adult deaths  

PubMed Central

Background The most common method for determining cause of death is certification by physicians based either on available medical records, or where such data are not available, through verbal autopsy (VA). The physician-certification approach is costly and inconvenient; however, recent work shows the potential of a computer-based probabilistic model (InterVA) to interpret verbal autopsy data in a more convenient, consistent, and rapid way. In this study we validate separately both physician-certified verbal autopsy (PCVA) and the InterVA probabilistic model against hospital cause of death (HCOD) in adults dying in a district hospital on the coast of Kenya. Methods Between March 2007 and June 2010, VA interviews were conducted for 145 adult deaths that occurred at Kilifi District Hospital. The VA data were reviewed by a physician and the cause of death established. A range of indicators (including age, gender, physical signs and symptoms, pregnancy status, medical history, and the circumstances of death) from the VA forms were included in the InterVA for interpretation. Cause-specific mortality fractions (CSMF), Cohen's kappa (?) statistic, receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves, sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive values were applied to compare agreement between PCVA, InterVA, and HCOD. Results HCOD, InterVA, and PCVA yielded the same top five underlying causes of adult deaths. The InterVA overestimated tuberculosis as a cause of death compared to the HCOD. On the other hand, PCVA overestimated diabetes. Overall, CSMF for the five major cause groups by the InterVA, PCVA, and HCOD were 70%, 65%, and 60%, respectively. PCVA versus HCOD yielded a higher kappa value (? = 0.52, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.48, 0.54) than the InterVA versus HCOD which yielded a kappa (?) value of 0.32 (95% CI: 0.30, 0.38). Overall, (?) agreement across the three methods was 0.41 (95% CI: 0.37, 0.48). The areas under the ROC curves were 0.82 for InterVA and 0.88 for PCVA. The observed sensitivities and specificities across the five major causes of death varied from 43% to 100% and 87% to 99%, respectively, for the InterVA/PCVA against the HCOD. Conclusion Both the InterVA and PCVA compared well with the HCOD at a population level and determined the top five underlying causes of death in the rural community of Kilifi. We hope that our study, albeit small, provides new and useful data that will stimulate further definitive work on methods of interpreting VA data.

2011-01-01

398

A hospital-based estimate of major causes of death among under-five children from a health facility in Lagos, Southwest Nigeria: possible indicators of health inequality  

PubMed Central

Introduction Current evidence on the root-causes of deaths among children younger than 5years is critical to direct international efforts to improve child survival, focus on health promotion and achieve Millennium Development Goal 4. We report a hospital-based estimate for 2005-2007 of the major causes of death in children in this age-group in south-west Nigeria. Methods We used retrospective data from the intensive care unit of a second-tier health facility to extract the presenting complaints, clinical diagnosis, treatment courses, prognosis and outcome among children aged 6—59months. SPSS-19 was used for data analysis. Results Of the 301 children (58% males, 42% females) admitted into the ICU within the period of study, 173 (26%) presented with complaints related to the gastrointestinal system, 138 (21%) with respiratory symptoms and 196 (29%) with complaints of fever. Overall, 708 investigations were requested for among which were full blood count (215, 30%) and blood slides for malaria parasite (166, 23%). Infection ranked highest (181, 31%) in clinicians’ diagnosis, followed by haematological health problems (109, 19%) and respiratory illnesses (101, 17%). There were negative correlations between outcome of the illness and patient’s weight (r=-0.195, p=0.001) and a strong positive correlation between prognosis and outcome of admission (r=0.196, p=0.001). Of the 59 (20%) children that died, presentation of respiratory tract illnesses were significantly higher in females (75%) than in males (39%) (?²=7.06; p=0.008) and diagnoses related to gastrointestinal pathology were significantly higher in males (18%) than in females (0%) (?²=4.07; p=0.05). Majority of the deaths (21%) occurred among children aged 1.0 to 1.9years old and among weight group of 5.1-15.0kg. Conclusion The major causes of deaths among under-five years old originate from respiratory, gastrointestinal and infectious diseases – diseases that were recognized as major causes of childhood mortality about half a century earlier. Realization of MDG4 - to reduce child mortality by two-thirds – is only possible if the government and donor agencies look beyond the health sector to find hidden causative factors such as education and housing and within the health sector such as vibrant maternal, new-born, and child health interventions.

2012-01-01

399

Mortality Inequality in 1-59 Months Children Across Iranian Provinces: Referring System and Determinants of Death Based on Hospital Records  

PubMed Central

Background: To determine inequality in mortality in 1-59 months children across Iranian provinces focusing on referring system and determinants of death. Methods: After designing and examining a national questionnaire for mortality data collection of children 1-59 months, 40 medical universities have been asked to fill in the questionnaires and return to the main researcher in the health ministry in 2009. Results: Mortality in 1-59 months children was unequally distributed across provinces (universities). The recommended refer was 3466 but only 1620 patients were referred. The first five important determinants of death were congenital (671 children or 20.9%), accident (547 children or 17.1%), pulmonary diseases (370 children or 11.5%), cardiovascular (266 children or less than 8.3%), central nervous system (263 children or 8.2%), and infectious and parasitic diseases (245 children or 7.6%), respectively. Conclusions: Our results suggest that inequality in 1-59 months mortality based on the hospital records, and specially referring system, needs more attention in Iran. In addition, it is advisable to conduct provincially representative surveys to provide recent estimates of hospital access inequalities and to allow monitoring over time.

Amiri, Masoud; Lornejad, Hamid Reza; Barakati, Sayyed Hamed; Motlagh, Mohammad Esmaeil; Kelishadi, Roya; Poursafa, Parinaz

2013-01-01

400

Data Consistency in Multiple Source DocumentsFindings From Homicide Incidents in the National Violent Death Reporting System, 2003-2004  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data from the 2003-2004 National Violent Death Reporting System were used to compare consistency of homicide variables across multiple source documents. The NVDRS integrates death certificate, coroner\\/medical examiner and law enforcement data. Included in this analysis are 5,737 homicide incidents. Variables include victim demographics, manner of death, autopsy and pregnancy status, place, date and location of injury\\/death, and suspected use

Debra L. Karch; Joseph E. Logan

2008-01-01

401

Whither brain death?  

PubMed

The publicity surrounding the recent McMath and Muñoz cases has rekindled public interest in brain death: the familiar term for human death determination by showing the irreversible cessation of clinical brain functions. The concept of brain death was developed decades ago to permit withdrawal of therapy in hopeless cases and to permit organ donation. It has become widely established medical practice, and laws permit it in all U.S. jurisdictions. Brain death has a biophilosophical justification as a standard for determining human death but remains poorly understood by the public and by health professionals. The current controversies over brain death are largely restricted to the academy, but some practitioners express ambivalence over whether brain death is equivalent to human death. Brain death remains an accepted and sound concept, but more work is necessary to establish its biophilosophical justification and to educate health professionals and the public. PMID:25046285

Bernat, James L

2014-08-01

402

Application for certification 1981 model year motorcycle - Honda  

SciTech Connect

Every year, each manufacturer of passenger cars, light-duty trucks, motorcycles, or heavy-duty engines submits to EPA an application for certification. In the application, the manufacturer gives a detailed technical description of the vehicles or engines he intends to market during the upcoming model year. These engineering data include explanations and/or drawings which describe engine/vehicle parameters such as basic engine design, fuel systems, ignition systems and exhaust and evaporative emission control systems. It also provides information on emission test procedures, service accumulation procedures, fuels to be used, and proposed maintenance requirements to be followed during testing. Section 16 of the application contains the results of emission testing, a statement of compliance to the regulations, production engine parameters, and a Summary Sheet Input Form on which issuance of a Certificate of Conformity is based.

Not Available

1981-01-01

403

[GSTCVS certificate for cardiac pacemaker, ICD and CRT therapy].  

PubMed

Medical qualifications to perform operations with cardiac electronic implantable devices as well as for preoperative and postoperative therapy, including follow-up in this patient population are not well defined. Based on recommendations which have been worked out and published by an interdisciplinary consensus of cardiac surgeons, cardiologists and electrophysiologists, a certificate with three modules has been developed by the Working Group for Electrophysiologic Surgery of the German Society for Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery (GSTCVS, Deutsche Gesellschaft für Thorax-, Herz- und Gefäßchirurgie, DGTHG). First examinations for this certificate will be held in 2013 and transitional regulations apply until 1st April 2014. Further details are available on the homepage of the GSTCVS. PMID:23754588

Markewitz, A; Burger, H; Osswald, B; Israel, C W; Doll, N; Hemmer, W; Beckmann, A

2013-06-01

404

Cell death proteomics database: consolidating proteomics data on cell death.  

PubMed

Programmed cell death is a ubiquitous process of utmost importance for the development and maintenance of multicellular organisms. More than 10 different types of programmed cell death forms have been discovered. Several proteomics analyses have been performed to gain insight in proteins involved in the different forms of programmed cell death. To consolidate these studies, we have developed the cell death proteomics (CDP) database, which comprehends data from apoptosis, autophagy, cytotoxic granule-mediated cell death, excitotoxicity, mitotic catastrophe, paraptosis, pyroptosis, and Wallerian degeneration. The CDP database is available as a web-based database to compare protein identifications and quantitative information across different experimental setups. The proteomics data of 73 publications were integrated and unified with protein annotations from UniProt-KB and gene ontology (GO). Currently, more than 6,500 records of more than 3,700 proteins are included in the CDP. Comparing apoptosis and autophagy using overrepresentation analysis of GO terms, the majority of enriched processes were found in both, but also some clear differences were perceived. Furthermore, the analysis revealed differences and similarities of the proteome between autophagosomal and overall autophagy. The CDP database represents a useful tool to consolidate data from proteome analyses of programmed cell death and is available at http://celldeathproteomics.uio.no. PMID:23537399

Arntzen, Magnus Ø; Bull, Vibeke H; Thiede, Bernd

2013-05-01

405

The Viking landing sites: Selection and certification  

USGS Publications Warehouse

During the past several years the Viking project developed plans to use Viking orbiter instruments and Earth-based radar to certify the suitability of the landing sites selected as the safest and most scientifically rewarding using Mariner 9 data. During June and July 1976, the Earth-based radar and orbital spacecraft observations of some of the prime and backup sites were completed. The results of these combined observations indicated that the Viking 1 prime landing area in the Chryse region of Mars is geologically varied and possibly more hazardous than expected, and was not certifiable as a site for the Viking 1 landing. Consequently, the site certification effort had to be drastically modified and lengthened to search for a site that might be safe enough to attempt to land. The selected site considered at 47.5??W,22.4??N represented a compromise between desirable characteristics observed with visual images and those inferred from Earth-based radar. It lies in the Chryse region about 900 kilometers northwest of the original site. Viking 1 landed successfully at this site on 20 July 1976.

Masursky, H.; Crabill, N. L.

1976-01-01

406

16 CFR 309.13 - Certification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Requirements for Alternative Fuels Duties of Distributors of Non-Liquid Alternative Vehicle Fuels (other Than Electricity...13 Certification. (a) If you are a distributor of non-liquid alternative vehicle fuel (other than...

2010-01-01

407

16 CFR 309.13 - Certification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Requirements for Alternative Fuels Duties of Distributors of Non-Liquid Alternative Vehicle Fuels (other Than Electricity...13 Certification. (a) If you are a distributor of non-liquid alternative vehicle fuel (other than...

2009-01-01

408

2011 Aerospace Medical Certification Statistical Handbook.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The annual Aerospace Medical Certification Statistical Handbook reports descriptive characteristics of all active U.S. civil aviation airmen and the aviation medical examiners (AMEs) that perform the required medical examinations. The 2011 annual handbook...

A. Norris R. Johnson V. Skaggs

2013-01-01

409

Guidance for Industry: FDA Export Certificates.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This guidance document is intended to provide a general description of Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Export Certificates to industry and foreign governments. Firms exporting products from the United States are often asked by foreign customers or fore...

J. Lewis K. Bell K. Cressotti L. Lawrence R. Woo

2005-01-01

410

30 CFR 75.1201 - Certification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Maps § 75.1201 Certification. [Statutory Provisions] Such map shall be made or certified by a registered engineer or a registered surveyor of the...

2013-07-01

411

23 CFR 657.15 - Certification content.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS CERTIFICATION OF SIZE AND WEIGHT ENFORCEMENT...Penalties reported shall include the number of citations or civil assessments issued for violations of each of the...

2013-04-01

412

40 CFR 86.094-30 - Certification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...low-altitude standards and high altitude standards applicable. The...principal use at a designated high-altitude location only if the vehicle...vehicles described in the application for certification at high altitude. (ii) For...

2009-07-01

413

Overview of the DOE packaging certification process.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper gives an overview of the DOE packaging certification process, which is implemented by the Office of Facility Safety Analysis, under the Assistance Secretary for Environment, Safety and Health, for packagings that are not used for weapons and we...

Y. Y. Liu R. D. Carlson R. W. Carlson A. Kapoor

1995-01-01

414

47 CFR 54.649 - Certifications.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) UNIVERSAL SERVICE Universal Service Support for Health Care Providers Healthcare Connect Fund § 54.649 Certifications. For individual health care provider applicants, required...

2013-10-01

415

30 CFR 18.13 - Certification plate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS ELECTRIC MOTOR-DRIVEN MINE EQUIPMENT AND ACCESSORIES General Provisions § 18.13 Certification plate. Each certified component shall...

2013-07-01

416

State Certificate of Need Legislation. A Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The advantages and disadvantages offered by State certificate of need legislation in Texas were assessed by the State Office of Comprehensive Health Planning. Advantages include: regulation of duplication of equipment and health care services with account...

1974-01-01

417

7 CFR 322.6 - Export certificate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BEES, BEEKEEPING BYPRODUCTS, AND BEEKEEPING...Adult Honeybees, Honeybee Germ Plasm, and Bees Other Than Honeybees From Approved Regions...Export certificate. Each shipment of bees and honeybee germ plasm arriving...

2009-01-01

418

New Jersey's Alternate Route to Certification.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the essential characteristics, development, implementation, and anticipated benefits of an innovative New Jersey program that will allow local districts to hire and train for certification prospective teachers who have college degrees and subject area expertise. (PGD)

Cooperman, Saul; Klagholz, Leo

1985-01-01

419

49 CFR 172.204 - Shipper's certification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... (b) Exceptions. (1) Except for a hazardous waste, no certification is required for a hazardous material...radioactive material intended for use in, or incident to, research, or medical diagnosis or treatment. (d) Signature....

2013-10-01

420

40 CFR 82.161 - Technician certification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) PROTECTION OF STRATOSPHERIC OZONE Recycling and Emissions Reduction § 82.161 Technician certification...ability to perform proper procedures for recovering and/or recycling refrigerant. Failure to demonstrate or failure to...

2013-07-01

421

14 CFR 13.19 - Certificate action.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...the Administrator may reinspect any civil aircraft, aircraft engine, propeller, appliance, air navigation facility, or air agency, and may re-examine...e) of the FA Act, any Certificate of Aircraft Registration may be suspended or...

2014-01-01

422

7 CFR 247.16 - Certification period.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...However, pregnant women may be certified to participate for the duration of their pregnancy and for up to six weeks post-partum. (2) Elderly persons. For elderly persons, the State agency must establish certification periods...

2010-01-01

423

Experimental control in software reliability certification  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

There is growing interest in software 'certification', i.e., confirmation that software has performed satisfactorily under a defined certification protocol. Regulatory agencies, customers, and prospective reusers all want assurance that a defined product standard has been met. In other industries, products are typically certified under protocols in which random samples of the product are drawn, tests characteristic of operational use are applied, analytical or statistical inferences are made, and products meeting a standard are 'certified' as fit for use. A warranty statement is often issued upon satisfactory completion of a certification protocol. This paper outlines specific engineering practices that must be used to preserve the validity of the statistical certification testing protocol. The assumptions associated with a statistical experiment are given, and their implications for statistical testing of software are described.

Trammell, Carmen J.; Poore, Jesse H.

1994-01-01

424

14 CFR 217.7 - Certification.  

...OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS REPORTING TRAFFIC STATISTICS BY FOREIGN AIR CARRIERS IN CIVILIAN SCHEDULED, CHARTER, AND NONSCHEDULED SERVICES § 217.7 Certification....

2014-01-01

425

14 CFR Reporting - Large Certificated Air Carriers  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...CERTIFICATED AIR CARRIERS Operating Statistics Classifications Sec. 19-7 Passenger...Passenger Origin-Destination Survey Statistics (Appendix A to this section), and...Department's Bureau of Transportation Statistics (BTS), Office of Airline...

2011-01-01

426

14 CFR 217.7 - Certification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS REPORTING TRAFFIC STATISTICS BY FOREIGN AIR CARRIERS IN CIVILIAN SCHEDULED, CHARTER, AND NONSCHEDULED SERVICES § 217.7 Certification....

2010-01-01

427

14 CFR 217.7 - Certification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS REPORTING TRAFFIC STATISTICS BY FOREIGN AIR CARRIERS IN CIVILIAN SCHEDULED, CHARTER, AND NONSCHEDULED SERVICES § 217.7 Certification....

2011-01-01

428

14 CFR 217.7 - Certification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS REPORTING TRAFFIC STATISTICS BY FOREIGN AIR CARRIERS IN CIVILIAN SCHEDULED, CHARTER, AND NONSCHEDULED SERVICES § 217.7 Certification....

2012-01-01

429

Asthma deaths in the United Kingdom.  

PubMed

Mortality due to asthma was recognised by Thomas Willis in 1671 though it was not until the early 1960s that an epidemic of death raised major concern in the United Kingdom. Initially over-treatment with beta agonist aerosols was blamed as the cause both here and in Australia and New Zealand. Further studies in London, Cardiff and Birmingham suggested this was not the case, rather than under diagnosis, under appreciation and under treatment were a more common cause of asthma mortality. The British Thoracic Society's confidential survey in 1979 confirmed these findings and further suggested that wrong certification was a potential source of inaccuracy in older age groups. More recently the New Zealand Asthma Task Force have reported the results of a two year national survey of deaths, revealing similar results to the UK studies, also finding little evidence of beta agonist over usage, little effect of nebulized drug administration and no significant theophylline drug over usage. An examination of trends in Asthma Mortality in the United Kingdom by Stewart and Nunn shows that the changes in the World Health Organisation I.C.D. coding of 1967 and 1978 had little overall effect on asthma death certification in the 15-44 year old age group. When this is taken into account they found that asthma mortality has declined from 1958 to 1982 in females but that there has been no change in males despite therapeutic advances over the period. Asthma mortality date derived since; however, does suggest a small but significant annual incremental rise in the 15 to 44 year age group.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3503202

Stableforth, D E

1986-01-01

430

Home Energy Professional Certifications (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect

As the weatherization and home energy upgrade industries expand and gain recognition, the need for a qualified workforce becomes more apparent. The certification component of the Guidelines project was designed to create meaningful and lasting careers for weatherization workers. Intended for experienced home energy professionals, the four new certifications focus on the most common jobs in the industry: energy auditor, retrofit installer technician, crew leader, and quality control inspector.

Not Available

2012-11-01

431

Are Death Anxiety and Death Depression Distinct Entities?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Administered Death Anxiety Scale and Death Depression Scale to 200 individuals. Two scales correlated 0.55. Factor analysis of combined 32 items revealed factors: "death anxiety" having highest factor loadings with Death Anxiety Scale, "death depression" having highest factor loadings with Death Depression Scale, "death of others,""brevity of…

Alvarado, Katherine A.; And Others

1993-01-01

432

Association of Holter-Based Measures Including T-wave Alternans with Risk of Sudden Cardiac Death in the Community-Dwelling Elderly: The Cardiovascular Health Study  

PubMed Central

Background Sudden cardiac death (SCD) can be the first manifestation of cardiovascular disease. Development of screening methods for higher / lower risk is critical. Methods The Cardiovascular Healthy Study (CHS) is a population-based study of risk factors for coronary heart disease and stroke those ?65 years. N=49 (of 1649) with usable Holters and in normal sinus rhythm, suffered SCD during follow up and were matched with 2 controls, alive at the time of death of the case and not suffering SCD on follow up. Univariate and multivariate conditional logistic regression determined the association of Holter-based information and SCD. Results In univariate models, the upper half of VPC counts, abnormal heart rate turbulence, decreased normalized low frequency power, increased T-wave alternans (TWA) and decreased DFA1 (short-term fractal scaling exponent) were associated with SCD, but time domain HRV was not. In multivariate models, the upper half of VPC counts (OR=6.6) and having TWA ?37µV on Ch2 (OR=4.8) were independently associated with SCD. Also, the upper half of VPC counts (OR=6.9) and having DFA1 <1.05 (OR=5.0) were independently associated with SCD. When additive effects were explored: having both higher VPCs and higher TWA was associated with an OR of 8.2 for SCD compared to 2.6 for having either. Also, having both higher VPCs and lower DFA1 was associated with an OR of 9.6 for SCD compared to 3.1 for having either. Conclusions Results support a potential role for 24-hour Holter recordings to identify older adults at increased or lower risk of SCD.

Stein, Phyllis K.; Sanghavi, Devang; Sotoodehnia, Nona; Siscovick, David S; Gottdiener, John

2010-01-01

433

Producer-level benefits of sustainability certification.  

PubMed

Initiatives certifying that producers of goods and services adhere to defined environmental and social-welfare production standards are increasingly popular. According to proponents, these initiatives create financial incentives for producers to improve their environmental, social, and economic performance. We reviewed the evidence on whether these initiatives have such benefits. We identified peer-reviewed, ex post, producer-level studies in economic sectors in which certification is particularly prevalent (bananas, coffee, fish products, forest products, and tourism operations), classified these studies on the basis of whether their design and methods likely generated credible results, summarized findings from the studies with credible results, and considered how these findings might guide future research. We found 46 relevant studies, most of which focused on coffee and forest products and examined fair-trade and Forest Stewardship Council certification. The methods used in 11 studies likely generated credible results. Of these 11 studies, nine examined the economic effects and two the environmental effects of certification. The results of four of the 11 studies, all of which examined economic effects, showed that certification has producer-level benefits. Hence, the evidence to support the hypothesis that certification benefits the environment or producers is limited. More evidence could be generated by incorporating rigorous, independent evaluation into the design and implementation of projects promoting certification. PMID:22070273

Blackman, Allen; Rivera, Jorge

2011-12-01

434

Hersendoodscriteria (Brain Death Criteria).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report discusses the death of a human being as being determined by 'brain death', which is understood to mean that the brain, the brain stem and the medulla oblongata have completely and irreversibly ceased to function.

A. J. C. Haex

1983-01-01

435

Discussing death with children  

MedlinePLUS

Death is a concept that is difficult for a child to understand. Grieving adults are often confused ... require many explanations and have many questions regarding death. "What happens when people die?" and "Where do ...

436

Mitigating Circumstances in Death Penalty Decisions: Using Evidence-Based Research to Inform Social Work Practice in Capital Trials  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Providing an effective defense for individuals charged with capital crimes requires a diligent, thorough investigation by a mitigation specialist. However, research suggests that mitigation often plays a small role in the decision for life. Jurors often make sentencing decisions prematurely, basing those decisions on their personal reactions to…

Schroeder, Julie; Guin, Cecile C.; Pogue, Rene; Bordelon, Danna

2006-01-01

437

Management of Humane Death  

Microsoft Academic Search

Death is a biological fact but it has social, cultural, historical, religious, psychological and ethical aspects and often these are closely intertwined. The traditional definition of biological death is the cessation of heartbeat and respiration. Advances in modern medical technology have complicated this definition since these bodily functions can be maintained long after social and psychological death has occurred. Many

Kaiser Mahmood

438

Death and Dying  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author discusses death and the dying process, the psychological needs of a person who is faced with his or her imminent death, and the five stages of emotional response through which a dying person goes in coping with the fact of death. (MJB)

Hafen, Brent Q.

1977-01-01

439

DEATH BY FINE TUNNING  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since therst evidence that physiological cell death is a normal feature of cell life, there has been considerable effort in trying to dene the mechanisms, regulation and morphology of cell death events. In nearly four decades of investigation, several types of cell death have been described in a wide range of organisms and cells, and this has led to great

Claudio Roberto Simon; Ricardo Guelerman; Pinheiro Ramos

2006-01-01

440

Dreams of Death.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined frequency and characteristics of overt dreams of dying among healthy young adults. Dreams of dying were found to be rare but distinctive content category, representing overwhelmingly pleasant dreams. Over one-half of death dreams involved lengthy afterlife sequence, remainder focused on process of death. Death dreams of these healthy…

Barrett, Deirdre

1989-01-01

441

National Trends in Pharmaceutical Opioid Related Overdose Deaths Compared to other Substance Related Overdose Deaths: 1999-2009  

PubMed Central

Background: Pharmaceutical opioid related deaths have increased. This study aimed to place pharmaceutical opioid overdose deaths within the context of heroin, cocaine, psychostimulants, and pharmaceutical sedative hypnotics, examine demographic trends, and describe common combinations of substances involved in opioid related deaths. Methods: We reviewed deaths among 15-64 year olds in the US from 1999-2009 using death certificate data available through the CDC Wide-Ranging Online Data for Epidemiologic Research (WONDER) Database. We identified International Classification of Disease-10 codes describing accidental overdose deaths, including poisonings related to stimulants, pharmaceutical drugs, and heroin. We used crude and age adjusted death rates (deaths/100,000 person years [p-y] and 95% confidence interval [CI] and multivariable Poisson regression models, yielding incident rate ratios (IRRs), for analysis. Results: The age adjusted death rate related to pharmaceutical opioids increased almost 4-fold from 1999 to 2009 (1.54/100,000 p-y [95% CI 1.49-1.60] to 6.05/100,000 p-y [95% CI 5.95-6.16; p<0.001). From 1999 to 2009, pharmaceutical opioids were responsible for the highest relative increase in overdose death rates (IRR 4.22, 95% CI 3.03-5.87) followed by sedative hypnotics (IRR 3.53, 95% CI 2.11-5.90). Heroin related overdose death rates increased from 2007 to 2009 (1.05/100,000 persons [95% CI 1.00-1.09] to 1.43/100,000 persons [95% CI 1.38-1.48; p<0.001). From 2005-2009 the combination of pharmaceutical opioids and benzodiazepines was the most common cause of polysubstance overdose deaths (1.27/100,000 p-y (95% CI 1.25-1.30). Conclusion: Strategies, such as wider implementation of naloxone, expanded access to treatment, and development of new interventions are needed to curb the pharmaceutical opioid overdose epidemic.

Calcaterra, Susan; Glanz, Jason; Binswanger, Ingrid A.

2014-01-01

442

Causes of death in a cohort of 50,465 young men--validity of recorded suicide as underlying cause of death.  

PubMed

We studied causes of death in a cohort of all young males (n = 50,465) conscripted for military service in 1969-70. Six hundred eighty three deaths occurred in the cohort during the follow-up through 1983. Injury-related deaths accounted for 75% of all deaths. Of these, 38% were definite suicides, 10% undetermined suicides and 30% motor vehicle accidents. The validity of officially recorded causes of death was studied by scrutinizing all death certificates (n = 683) and forensic reports, including police reports, toxicological and histological data, from a sample (n = 322) of deaths with unclear circumstances. Of 161 officially recorded suicides (E950-959), only one case was reevaluated into poisoning, "undetermined" (E980). Of 47 cases officially recorded "undetermined" (E980-989), 9 were reevaluated into definite suicide (E950-959) although we believe that this is still an underestimation of "true" suicide cases. An alcohol concentration of more than 0.1 g% was found in 45% of all violent deaths (E800-999), 34% of all suicides and 60% of all "undetermined" deaths. We conclude that the causes of death in most cases of injury related death in young age are recorded with high accuracy. Reevaluation of recorded deaths from "undetermined" causes revealed a number of definite suicides, although the "true" number of suicides is difficult to assess even after close scrutiny of the information available. PMID:1775959

Allebeck, P; Allgulander, C; Henningsohn, L; Jakobsson, S W

1991-12-01

443

76 FR 11286 - Labor Certification Process for the Temporary Employment of Aliens in Agriculture in the United...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Certification Process for the Temporary Employment of Aliens in Agriculture in the United States: 2011 Adverse Effect Wage Rates, Allowable...as published annually by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) based on its quarterly wage survey. Pursuant...

2011-03-01

444

Use of a dummy (pacifier) during sleep and risk of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS): population based case-control study  

PubMed Central

Objectives To examine the association between use of a dummy (pacifier) during sleep and the risk of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) in relation to other risk factors. Design Population based case-control study. Setting Eleven counties in California. Participants Mothers or carers of 185 infants whose deaths were attributed to SIDS and 312 randomly selected controls matched for race or ethnicity and age. Main outcome measure Use of a dummy during sleep determined through interviews. Results The adjusted odds ratio for SIDS associated with using a dummy during the last sleep was 0.08 (95% confidence interval 0.03 to 0.21). Use was associated with a reduction in risk in every category of sociodemographic characteristics and risk factors examined. The reduced risk associated with use seemed to be greater with adverse sleep conditions (such as sleeping prone or on side and sleeping with a mother who smoked), although the observed interactions were not significant. In addition, use of a dummy may reduce the impact of other risk factors for SIDS, especially those related to adverse sleep environment. For example, infants who did not use a dummy and slept prone or on their sides (v on their back) had an increased risk of SIDS (2.61, 1.56 to 4.38). In infants who used dummies, there was no increased risk associated with sleeping position (0.66, 0.12 to 3.59). While cosleeping with a mother who smoked was also associated with increased risk of SIDS among infants who did not use a dummy (4.5, 1.3 to 15.1), there was no such association among those who did (1.1, 0.1 to 13.4). Conclusions Use of a dummy seems to reduce the risk of SIDS and possibly reduces the influence of known risk factors in the sleep environment.

Li, De-Kun; Willinger, Marian; Petitti, Diana B; Odouli, Roxana; Liu, Liyan; Hoffman, Howard J

2006-01-01

445

The GENIUS Grid Portal and robot certificates: a new tool for e-Science  

PubMed Central

Background Grid technology is the computing model which allows users to share a wide pletora of distributed computational resources regardless of their geographical location. Up to now, the high security policy requested in order to access distributed computing resources has been a rather big limiting factor when trying to broaden the usage of Grids into a wide community of users. Grid security is indeed based on the Public Key Infrastructure (PKI) of X.509 certificates and the procedure to get and manage those certificates is unfortunately not straightforward. A first step to make Grids more appealing for new users has recently been achieved with the adoption of robot certificates. Methods Robot certificates have recently been introduced to perform automated tasks on Grids on behalf of users. They are extremely useful for instance to automate grid service monitoring, data processing production, distributed data collection systems. Basically these certificates can be used to identify a person responsible for an unattended service or process acting as client and/or server. Robot certificates can be installed on a smart card and used behind a portal by everyone interested in running the related applications in a Grid environment using a user-friendly graphic interface. In this work, the GENIUS Grid Portal, powered by EnginFrame, has been extended in order to support the new authentication based on the adoption of these robot certificates. Results The work carried out and reported in this manuscript is particularly relevant for all users who are not familiar with personal digital certificates and the technical aspects of the Grid Security Infrastructure (GSI). The valuable benefits introduced by robot certificates in e-Science can so be extended to users belonging to several scientific domains, providing an asset in raising Grid awareness to a wide number of potential users. Conclusion The adoption of Grid portals extended with robot certificates, can really contribute to creating transparent access to computational resources of Grid Infrastructures, enhancing the spread of this new paradigm in researchers' working life to address new global scientific challenges. The evaluated solution can of course be extended to other portals, applications and scientific communities.

Barbera, Roberto; Donvito, Giacinto; Falzone, Alberto; La Rocca, Giuseppe; Milanesi, Luciano; Maggi, Giorgio Pietro; Vicario, Saverio

2009-01-01

446

Quality assurance and risk management: Perspectives on Human Factors Certification of Advanced Aviation Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper is based on the experience of engineering psychologists advising the U.K. Ministry of Defense (MoD) on the procurement of advanced aviation systems that conform to good human engineering (HE) practice. Traditional approaches to HE in systems procurement focus on the physical nature of the human-machine interface. Advanced aviation systems present increasingly complex design requirements for human functional integration, information processing, and cognitive task performance effectiveness. These developing requirements present new challenges for HE quality assurance (QA) and risk management, requiring focus on design processes as well as on design content or product. A new approach to the application of HE, recently adopted by NATO, provides more systematic ordering and control of HE processes and activities to meet the challenges of advanced aircrew systems design. This systematic approach to HE has been applied by MoD to the procurement of mission systems for the Royal Navy Merlin helicopter. In MoD procurement, certification is a judicial function, essentially independent of the service customer and industry contractor. Certification decisions are based on advice from MoD's appointed Acceptance Agency. Test and evaluation (T&E) conducted by the contractor and by the Acceptance Agency provide evidence for certification. Certification identifies limitations of systems upon release to the service. Evidence of compliance with HE standards traditionally forms the main basis of HE certification and significant non-compliance could restrict release. The systems HE approach shows concern for the quality of processes as well as for the content of the product. Human factors certification should be concerned with the quality of HE processes as well as products. Certification should require proof of process as well as proof of content and performance. QA criteria such as completeness, consistency, timeliness, and compatibility provide generic guidelines for progressive acceptance and certification of HE processes. Threats to the validity of certification arise from problems and assumptions in T&E methods. T&E should seek to reduce the risk of specification non-compliance and certification failure.

Taylor, Robert M.; Macleod, Iain S.

1994-01-01

447

Pitfalls in the Diagnosis of Brain Death  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the establishment of the concept of declaring death by brain criteria, a large extent of variability in the determination\\u000a of brain death has been reported. There are no standardized practical guidelines, and major differences exist in the requirements\\u000a for the declaration of brain death throughout the USA and internationally. The American Academy of Neurology published evidence-based\\u000a practice parameters for

Katharina M. Busl; David M. Greer

2009-01-01

448

Child Protective Services Referrals in Cases of Sudden Infant Death: A 10Year, Population-Based Analysis in San Diego County, California  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potential diagnostic significance of prior family referral to Child Protective Services (CPS) in cases of sudden infant death is unknown. Therefore, the authors retrospectively searched for CPS data for the 5-year referral history on all 533 families whose infants died suddenly from Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS), other natural diseases, accidents, or inflicted injuries and underwent postmortem examination by

Henry F. Krous; Elisabeth A. Haas; Julie M. Manning; Anita Deeds; Patricia D. Silva; Amy E. Chadwick; Christina Stanley

2006-01-01

449

46 CFR 8.320 - Classification society authorization to issue international certificates.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Safety Certificate; (12) MARPOL 73/78 International Air Pollution Prevention Certificate; (13) International Anti-fouling System Certificate; and (14) MARPOL 73/78 International Energy Efficiency Certificate. (c) The Coast Guard...

2013-10-01

450

46 CFR 169.205 - Obtaining or renewing a Certificate of Inspection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Obtaining or renewing a Certificate of Inspection. 169.205 Section 169.205 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND...Inspection and Certification Certificate of Inspection § 169.205 Obtaining or renewing a Certificate of...

2013-10-01

451

42 CFR 493.47 - Requirements for a certificate for provider-performed microscopy (PPM) procedures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...certificate for provider-performed microscopy (PPM) procedures. 493.47 Section...Certificate for Provider-performed Microscopy Procedures, and Certificate of Compliance...certificate for provider-performed microscopy (PPM) procedures. (a) A...

2009-10-01

452

42 CFR 493.47 - Requirements for a certificate for provider-performed microscopy (PPM) procedures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...certificate for provider-performed microscopy (PPM) procedures. 493.47 Section...Certificate for Provider-performed Microscopy Procedures, and Certificate of Compliance...certificate for provider-performed microscopy (PPM) procedures. (a) A...

2010-10-01