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1

Death Investigation Certificate  

E-print Network

Death Investigation Certificate What is Death Investigation? Medico-legal death investigation in death investigation in different ways. The study of death investigation trains students to identify and assemble a set of investigative tasks that are performed at every death scene. Modern medico- legal death

Saldin, Dilano

2

DEATH CERTIFICATE Yuvachev Daniil Ivanovich  

E-print Network

DEATH CERTIFICATE Yuvachev Daniil Ivanovich last name, first name, patronymic Citizenship: Citizen whereof on February 2, 1942 the death record was made under No. 1234 Place of death: Leningrad Prison No

Comech, Andrew

3

Improving the accuracy of death certification  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: Population-based mortality statistics are derived from the information recorded on death certificates. This information is used for many important purposes, such as the development of public health programs and the allocation of health care resources. Although most physicians are confronted with the task of completing death certificates, many do not receive adequate training in this skill. Resulting inaccuracies in information undermine the quality of the data derived from death certificates. METHODS: An educational intervention was designed and implemented to improve internal medicine residents' accuracy in death certificate completion. A total of 229 death certificates (146 completed before and 83 completed after the intervention) were audited for major and minor errors, and the rates of errors before and after the intervention were compared. RESULTS: Major errors were identified on 32.9% of the death certificates completed before the intervention, a rate comparable to previously reported rates for internal medicine services in teaching hospitals. Following the intervention the major error rate decreased to 15.7% (p = 0.01). The reduction in the major error rate was accounted for by significant reductions in the rate of listing of mechanism of death without a legitimate underlying cause of death (15.8% v. 4.8%) (p = 0.01) and the rate of improper sequencing of death certificate information (15.8% v. 6.0%) (p = 0.03). INTERPRETATION: Errors are common in the completion of death certificates in the inpatient teaching hospital setting. The accuracy of death certification can be improved with the implementation of a simple educational intervention. PMID:9614825

Myers, K A; Farquhar, D R

1998-01-01

4

Population-based estimates of mortality associated with diabetes: use of a death certificate check box in North Dakota.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: Overall and cause-specific mortality among persons with diabetes in North Dakota was estimated and compared with estimates from previous population-based studies. METHODS: Data were derived from North Dakota death certificate data, which included unique information on decedents' diabetes status and Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System estimates of the diabetic and nondiabetic adult populations of North Dakota. RESULTS: The risk of death among adults with diabetes was 2.6 (2.2, 2.9) times that of adults without diabetes. Relative risks of death among adults with diabetes were at least twice as high for heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, accidents and adverse events, and kidney disease and 70% to 80% higher for pneumonia and influenza, malignant neoplasms, arterial disease, and other causes. Risks remained substantial in the oldest age group. These findings are comparable to results of other population-based studies. CONCLUSIONS: Diabetes status information enhanced the usefulness of death certificate data in examining mortality associated with diabetes and confirms that the effect of diabetes on death is substantial. PMID:11189830

Tierney, E F; Geiss, L S; Engelgau, M M; Thompson, T J; Schaubert, D; Shireley, L A; Vukelic, P J; McDonough, S L

2001-01-01

5

Sunlight and mortality from breast, ovarian, colon, prostate, and non-melanoma skin cancer: a composite death certificate based case-control study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To explore whether mortality from female breast, ovarian, colon, and prostate cancer were negatively associated with exposure to sunlight. Methods: A death certificate based case-control study of mortality was conducted into five cancers: female breast, ovarian, colon, prostate, and non-melanoma skin cancer (as a positive control) to exam- ine associations with residential and occupational exposure to sunlight. Cases were

D M Freedman; M Dosemeci; K McGlynn

2002-01-01

6

Death certification: a primer. Part I--an introduction to the death certificate.  

PubMed

Unlike the medical record, the death certificate is a public legal document that deserves the certifier's best intellectual effort to complete. The death certificate serves a variety of purposes, to include: A. Legal proof of death, usually necessary for a family to receive social security, health insurance, and other death benefits. B. A closure statement to the family from the physician documenting his or her final diagnosis. C. A family heirloom document that preserves a family history of causes of death (which may be invaluable in documenting hereditary diseases within a family). D. The death certificate is the backbone of national death statistics. Incorrect data from death certificates translates into incorrect state and national death rates for all causes. Cause of death assessment is inherently inaccurate (autopsy studies suggest that at least 10 percent of deaths have major unrecognized underlying disease processes that would have altered therapy had they been known). Even correct diagnostic assessments, however, can be lost to the system if they are improperly entered on to the death certificate. PMID:24851467

Randall, Brad

2014-05-01

7

Cause of death affects racial classification on death certificates.  

PubMed

Recent research suggests racial classification is responsive to social stereotypes, but how this affects racial classification in national vital statistics is unknown. This study examines whether cause of death influences racial classification on death certificates. We analyze the racial classifications from a nationally representative sample of death certificates and subsequent interviews with the decedents' next of kin and find notable discrepancies between the two racial classifications by cause of death. Cirrhosis decedents are more likely to be recorded as American Indian on their death certificates, and homicide victims are more likely to be recorded as Black; these results remain net of controls for followback survey racial classification, indicating that the relationship we reveal is not simply a restatement of the fact that these causes of death are more prevalent among certain groups. Our findings suggest that seemingly non-racial characteristics, such as cause of death, affect how people are racially perceived by others and thus shape U.S. official statistics. PMID:21298093

Noymer, Andrew; Penner, Andrew M; Saperstein, Aliya

2011-01-01

8

Sunlight and mortality from breast, ovarian, colon, prostate, and non-melanoma skin cancer: a composite death certificate based case-control study  

PubMed Central

Objectives: To explore whether mortality from female breast, ovarian, colon, and prostate cancer were negatively associated with exposure to sunlight. Methods: A death certificate based case-control study of mortality was conducted into five cancers: female breast, ovarian, colon, prostate, and non-melanoma skin cancer (as a positive control) to examine associations with residential and occupational exposure to sunlight. Cases were all deaths from these cancers between 1984 and 1995 in 24 states of the United States. Controls, which were age frequency matched to a series of cases, excluded deaths from cancer and certain neurological diseases. Multiple logistic regression was used in a model that included age, sex, race, residential exposure to sunlight (based on region), and socioeconomic status, occupational exposure to sunlight, and physical activity (the last three based on usual occupation). Results: Residential exposure to sunlight was negatively and significantly associated with mortality from female breast, ovarian, prostate, and colon cancer. Only female breast and colon cancer, however, also showed significant negative associations with jobs with the highest occupational exposure to sunlight (odds ratio (OR) 0.82 (95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.70 to 0.97) for female breast cancer; OR 0.90 (95% CI 0.86 to 0.94) for colon cancer). For both cancers, the negative association with occupational sunlight was greatest in the geographical region of highest exposure to sunlight and was independent of physical activity on the job. Non-melanoma skin cancer, as expected, was positively associated with both residential and occupational sunlight. Conclusions: In this exploratory study, unlike mortality from non-melanoma skin cancer, mortality from female breast cancer and colon cancer were negatively associated with both residential and occupational sunlight. PMID:11934953

Freedman, D; Dosemeci, M; McGlynn, K

2002-01-01

9

`By Death Divided. Scottish and English approaches to death certification in the nineteenth century'  

E-print Network

`By Death Divided. Scottish and English approaches to death certification in the nineteenth century main influence was in the presentation of the Scottish death statistics, and the theories underpinning his father-in-law, Adam Black, the publisher, former provost, and prospective MP for Edinburgh.3

Glasgow, University of

10

Threshold Certificate-based Encryption  

Microsoft Academic Search

Certificate-based encryption (CBE) is a new asymmetric encryption paradigm which combines traditional public-key encryption (PKE) and identity based encryption (IBE) while preserving some of their most attractive features. CBE provides an efficient implicit certificate mechanism to eliminate third-party queries for the certificate status and to simply the certificate revocation problem. Therefore, CBE can be used to construct an efficient PKI

Yang Lu; Jiguo Li; Junmo Xiao

2009-01-01

11

Autopsies and death certification in deaths due to blunt trauma: What are we missing?  

PubMed Central

Objectives To determine the frequency, body region and severity of injuries missed by the clinical team in patients who die of blunt trauma, and to examine the accuracy of the cause of death as recorded on death certificates. Design A retrospective review. Setting London Health Sciences Centre, London, Ont. Patients One hundred and eight deaths due to blunt trauma occurring during the period Apr. 1, 1991, to Mar. 31, 1997. Two groups were considered: clinically significant missed injuries were identified by comparing patient charts only (group1) and more detailed injury lists from the autopsies and charts of the patients (group 2). Outcome measures Chart and autopsy findings. Results Of the 108 patients, 78 (72%) were male, and they had a median age of 39 years (range from 2 to 90 years). The most common cause of death was neurologic injury (27%), followed by sepsis (17%) and hemorrhage (15%). There was disagreement between the treating physicians and the causes of death listed on the death certificate in 40% of cases and with the coroner in 7% of cases. Seventy-seven clinically significant injuries were missed in 51 (47%) of the 108 patient deaths. Injuries were missed in 29% of inhospital deaths and 100% of emergency department deaths. Abdominal and head injuries accounted for 43% and 34% of the missed injuries, respectively. Conclusions The information contained on the death certificate can be misleading. Health care planners utilizing this data may draw inaccurate conclusions regarding causes of death, which may have an impact on trauma system development. Missed injuries continue to be a concern in the management of patients with major blunt trauma. PMID:10812348

Hodgson, Nicole Fink; Stewart, Tanya Charyk; Girotti, Murray J.

2000-01-01

12

[False positive death certification. Does the Lazarus phenomenon partly explain false positive death certification by rescue services in Germany, Austria and Switzerland?].  

PubMed

Apart from misdiagnosis, the Lazarus phenomenon, a spontaneous return of circulation after cardiac arrest, is a potential cause for false positive death certification. Because of medicolegal consequences and thus a negative publication bias, the incidence of false positive death certification is unknown. As a false positive death certification results in criminal prosecution and thus media interest, numerous media archives in Germany, Austria and Switzerland were searched for such reports. A total of nine cases of false positive death certification in these three countries were identified since the early 1990s of which eight occurred in an emergency medical service system setting. Apart from a lack of diligence of emergency physicians, a Lazarus phenomenon could be the reason for such incidents. As definite signs of death will not have developed only a few minutes after stopping CPR it might be difficult for an emergency physician to definitely certify a patient's death in an out-of-hospital setting with 100% safety. Thus, prehospital death certification poses a risk of error and subsequent legal prosecution of the emergency physician, as a Lazarus phenomenon may still occur in this phase. Delegation of death certification from emergency physicians to qualified physicians in a follow-up examination might increase both legal safety for emergency physicians in the field and patient safety. PMID:20224947

Herff, H; Loosen, S-J; Paal, P; Mitterlechner, T; Rabl, W; Wenzel, V

2010-04-01

13

Agreement on cause of death between proxies, death certificates, and clinician adjudicators in the Reasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) study.  

PubMed

Death certificates may lack accuracy and misclassify the cause of death. The validity of proxy-reported cause of death is not well established. The authors examined death records on 336 participants in the Reasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) Study, a national cohort study of 30,239 community-dwelling US adults (2003-2010). Trained experts used study data, medical records, death certificates, and proxy reports to adjudicate causes of death. The authors computed agreement on cause of death from the death certificate, proxy, and adjudication, as well as sensitivity and specificity for certain diseases. Adjudicated cause of death had a higher rate of agreement with proxy reports (73%; Cohen's kappa (?) statistic = 0.69) than with death certificates (61%; ? = 0.54). The agreement between proxy reports and adjudicators was better than agreement with death certificates for all disease-specific causes of death. Using the adjudicator assessments as the "gold standard," for disease-specific causes of death, proxy reports had similar or higher specificity and higher sensitivity (sensitivity = 50%-89%) than death certificates (sensitivity = 31%-81%). Proxy reports may be more concordant with adjudicated causes of death than with the causes of death listed on death certificates. In many settings, proxy reports may represent a better strategy for determining cause of death than reliance on death certificates. PMID:21540327

Halanych, Jewell H; Shuaib, Faisal; Parmar, Gaurav; Tanikella, Rajasekhar; Howard, Virginia J; Roth, David L; Prineas, Ronald J; Safford, Monika M

2011-06-01

14

Lack of recording of systemic lupus erythematosus in the death certificates of lupus patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. To determine to what extent the diagnosis of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) in deceased lupus patients is under- reported in death certificates, and the patient characteristics associated with such an occurrence. Methods. The death certificates of 76 of the 81 deceased SLE patients from two US lupus cohorts (LUMINA for Lupus in Minorities: Nature vs Nurture and CLU for

J. Calvo-Alen; R. Campbell Jr; M. Fernandez; J. D. Reveille; G. S. Cooper

2005-01-01

15

Occupation and bladder cancer: a death-certificate study.  

PubMed Central

Occupational statements on death certificates of 2,457 males aged 25-64 who died from bladder cancer in selected coastal and estaurine regions of England and Wales during 1965-1980 were studied. Excess mortality was found for deck and engine room crew of ships, railway workers, electrical and electronic workers, shoemakers and repairers, and tobacco workers. An excess of cases also occurred among food workers, particularly those employed in the bread and flour confectionary industry or involved in the extraction of animal and vegetable oils and fats. Use of a job-exposure matrix revealed elevated risk for occupations in which most workers were exposed to paints and pigments, benzene and cutting oils. PMID:1520596

Dolin, P. J.; Cook-Mozaffari, P.

1992-01-01

16

Organic solvents and presenile dementia: a case referent study using death certificates.  

PubMed Central

Occupational exposure to organic solvents has been implicated in the development of "presenile dementia" in several studies. The death certificates of all men aged under 65 dying in England and Wales bearing presenile dementia as cause of death were collected for the years 1970-9 (n = 557): control death certificates were obtained, matched for age and sex. No significant differences were found between the groups as regards estimated occupational exposure to either organic solvents or lead. PMID:3567100

O'Flynn, R R; Monkman, S M; Waldron, H A

1987-01-01

17

Accuracy in certification of cause of death in a tertiary care hospital--a retrospective analysis.  

PubMed

Every physician is duty bound to issue a "Cause of Death" certificate in the unfortunate event death of his/her patient. Incomplete and inaccurate entry in these certificates poses difficulty in obtaining reliable information pertaining to causes of mortality, leads to faulty public health surveillance, and causes hindrance in research. This study intends to evaluate the completeness and accuracy of Medical Certification of Cause of Death in our Institute and to formulate strategy to improve the quality of reporting of cause of death. During the period from January 2012 to December 2012, a total of 151 certificates of cause of death were issued by the faculty members of various departments. Maximum number of death certificates were issued for patients in the extremes of the age <10 years (n = 42, 27.82%) and in >60 years (n = 46, 30.46%). The various inadequacies observed by us are as follows: 40 (26.49%) cases had inaccurate cause of death, interval between onset and terminal event was missing in 94 (62.25%) cases, in 68 (45.03%)cases the seal with registration number of the physician was not available on the certificate, incomplete antecedent & underlying cause of death was found in 35 (23.18%) & 84 (55.63%) cases, in 66 (43.71%) cases there was use of abbreviations and the handwriting was illegible in 79(52.32%) cases. PMID:24794848

Dash, Shreemanta Kumar; Behera, Basanta Kumar; Patro, Shubhransu

2014-05-01

18

34 CFR 682.402 - Death, disability, closed school, false certification, unpaid refunds, and bankruptcy payments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Death, disability, closed school, false...Programs by a Guaranty Agency § 682.402 Death, disability, closed school, false certification...bankruptcy, and discharge of loans due to death, total and permanent disability,...

2014-07-01

19

34 CFR 682.402 - Death, disability, closed school, false certification, unpaid refunds, and bankruptcy payments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Death, disability, closed school, false...Programs by a Guaranty Agency § 682.402 Death, disability, closed school, false certification...bankruptcy, and discharge of loans due to death, total and permanent disability,...

2013-07-01

20

34 CFR 682.402 - Death, disability, closed school, false certification, unpaid refunds, and bankruptcy payments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Death, disability, closed school, false...Programs by a Guaranty Agency § 682.402 Death, disability, closed school, false certification...bankruptcy, and discharge of loans due to death, total and permanent disability,...

2011-07-01

21

34 CFR 682.402 - Death, disability, closed school, false certification, unpaid refunds, and bankruptcy payments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Death, disability, closed school, false...Programs by a Guaranty Agency § 682.402 Death, disability, closed school, false certification...bankruptcy, and discharge of loans due to death, total and permanent disability,...

2012-07-01

22

Certification-Based Process Analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Space mission architects are often challenged with knowing which investment in technology infusion will have the highest return. Certification-based analysis (CBA) gives architects and technologists a means to communicate the risks and advantages of infusing technologies at various points in a process. Various alternatives can be compared, and requirements based on supporting streamlining or automation can be derived and levied on candidate technologies. CBA is a technique for analyzing a process and identifying potential areas of improvement. The process and analysis products are used to communicate between technologists and architects. Process means any of the standard representations of a production flow; in this case, any individual steps leading to products, which feed into other steps, until the final product is produced at the end. This sort of process is common for space mission operations, where a set of goals is reduced eventually to a fully vetted command sequence to be sent to the spacecraft. Fully vetting a product is synonymous with certification. For some types of products, this is referred to as verification and validation, and for others it is referred to as checking. Fundamentally, certification is the step in the process where one insures that a product works as intended, and contains no flaws.

Knight, Russell L.

2013-01-01

23

Asthma mortality in Danish children and young adults, 1973-1994: epidemiology and validity of death certificates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several reports indicate that asthma mortality has increased during the last few decades. International comparisons reveal some striking differences in the pattern of asthma mortality. The authors investigated the asthma mortality rate in the Danish child and youth population 1973-1994 and studied the validity of death certificates. The authors reviewed all death certificates coded as asthma death in the Inter-

I. M. Jørgensen; S. Bulow; V. B. Jensen; T. L. Dahm; P. Prahl; K. Juel

2000-01-01

24

Ascertainment of Hispanic Ethnicity on California Death Certificates: Implications for the Explanation of the Hispanic Mortality Advantage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives. We determined the size and correlates of underascertainment of His- panic ethnicity on California death certificates. Methods. We used 1999 to 2000 vital registration data. We compared Hispanic ethnicity reported on the death certificate to Hispanic ethnicity derived from birth- place for the foreign-born and an algorithm that used first and last name and percentage of Hispanics in the

Karl Eschbach; Yong-Fang Kuo; James S. Goodwin

2006-01-01

25

Usefulness of Tobacco Check Boxes on Death Certificates: Texas, 1987–1998  

PubMed Central

Objectives. We compared reports of deaths in which tobacco use was a contributing factor (“tobacco-associated deaths”) before and after the addition to death certificates in Texas of a check-box question asking whether tobacco use contributed to an individual’s death. Methods. We examined Texas vital statistics files from 1987 to 1998. We calculated differences in percentages of reported tobacco-associated deaths (and 95% confidence intervals [CIs]) for the periods 1987 to 1992, before the addition of the check-box question, and 1993 to 1998, after the additon of the check-box. Results. Reports of tobacco-associated deaths were significantly less frequent before addition of the check-box question (0.7%; 95% CI = 0.4%, 1.0%) than after addition of the question (13.9%; 95% CI = 13.0%, 14.7%). From 1993 to 1998, percentages of tobacco-associated deaths reported on the check-box question increased steadily. Conclusions. The addition of a tobacco-associated-death check box on Texas death certificates significantly increased reporting of tobacco use contributions to mortality. PMID:15333323

Zevallos, Juan Carlos; Huang, Philip; Smoot, Monica; Condon, Kenneth; Alo, Celan

2004-01-01

26

Interpreting international comparisons of cancer survival: The effects of incomplete registration and the presence of death certificate only cases on survival estimates  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have assessed the impact on survival estimates based on cancer registry data of incomplete ascertainment of cancer cases and the presence of cases registered purely from death certificate information (DCO cases). Using data from the Thames and Finnish Cancer Registries we obtained five-year relative survival estimates for 12 cancer sites, excluding DCOs as usual. We then made adjustments to

David Robinson; Risto Sankila; Timo Hakulinen; Henrik Møller

2007-01-01

27

Ascertainment of Hispanic Ethnicity on California Death Certificates: Implications for the Explanation of the Hispanic Mortality Advantage  

PubMed Central

Objectives. We determined the size and correlates of underascertainment of Hispanic ethnicity on California death certificates. Methods. We used 1999 to 2000 vital registration data. We compared Hispanic ethnicity reported on the death certificate to Hispanic ethnicity derived from birthplace for the foreign-born and an algorithm that used first and last name and percentage of Hispanics in the county of residence for the US-born. We validated death certificate nativity by comparing data with that in linked Social Security Administration records. Results. Ethnicity and birthplace information was concordant for foreign-born Hispanics, who have mortality rates that are 25% to 30% lower than those of non-Hispanic Whites. Death certificates likely underascertain deaths of US-born Hispanics, particularly at older ages, for persons with more education, and in census tracts with lower percentages of Hispanics. Conservative correction for under-ascertainment eliminates the Hispanic mortality advantage for US-born men. Conclusions. Hispanic ethnicity is accurately ascertained on the California death certificate for immigrants. Immigrant Hispanics have lower age-adjusted mortality rates than do non-Hispanic Whites. For US-born Hispanics, the mortality advantage compared with non-Hispanic Whites is smaller and may be explained by underreporting of Hispanic ethnicity on the death certificate. PMID:17077407

Eschbach, Karl; Kuo, Yong-Fang; Goodwin, James S.

2006-01-01

28

Occupational silica exposure and risk of various diseases: an analysis using death certificates from 27 states of the United States  

PubMed Central

Background: Although crystalline silica exposure is associated with silicosis, lung cancer, pulmonary tuberculosis, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), there is less support for an association with autoimmune disease, and renal disease. Methods: Using data from the US National Occupational Mortality Surveillance (NOMS) system, a matched case-control design was employed to examine each of several diseases (including silicosis, lung cancer, stomach cancer, oesophageal cancer, COPD, pulmonary tuberculosis, sarcoidosis, systemic lupus erythematosus, systemic sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, and various types of renal disease). Cases were subjects whose death certificate mentioned the disease of interest. A separate control group for each of the diseases of interest was selected from among subjects whose death certificate did not mention the disease of interest or any of several diseases reported to be associated with crystalline silica exposure. Subjects were assigned into a qualitative crystalline silica exposure category based on the industry/occupation pairing found on their death certificate. We also investigated whether silicotics had a higher risk of disease compared to those without silicosis. Results: Those postulated to have had detectable crystalline silica exposure had a significantly increased risk for silicosis, COPD, pulmonary tuberculosis, and rheumatoid arthritis. In addition, a significant trend of increasing risk with increasing silica exposure was observed for these same conditions and for lung cancer. Those postulated to have had the greatest crystalline silica exposure had a significantly increased risk for silicosis, lung cancer, COPD, and pulmonary tuberculosis only. Finally, those with silicosis had a significantly increased risk for COPD, pulmonary tuberculosis, and rheumatoid arthritis. Conclusions: This study corroborates the association between crystalline silica exposure and silicosis, lung cancer, COPD, and pulmonary tuberculosis. In addition, support is provided for an association between crystalline silica exposure and rheumatoid arthritis. PMID:12554840

Calvert, G; Rice, F; Boiano, J; Sheehy, J; Sanderson, W

2003-01-01

29

State Variation in Underreporting of Alcohol Involvement on Death Certificates: Motor Vehicle Traffic Crash Fatalities as an Example  

PubMed Central

Objective: We used motor vehicle traffic (MVT) crash fatalities as an example to examine the extent of underreporting of alcohol involvement on death certificates and state variations. Method: We compared MVT-related death certificates identified from national mortality data (Multiple Cause of Death [MCoD] data) with deaths in national traffic census data from the Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS). Because MCoD data were not individually linked to FARS data, the comparisons were at the aggregate level. Reporting ratio of alcohol involvement on death certificates was thus computed as the prevalence of any mention of alcohol-related conditions among MVT deaths in MCoD, divided by the prevalence of decedents with blood alcohol concentration (BAC) test results (not imputed) of .08% or greater in FARS. Through bivariate analysis and multiple regression, we explored state characteristics correlated with state reporting ratios. Results: Both MCoD and FARS identified about 450,000 MVT deaths in 1999–2009. Reporting ratio was only 0.16 for all traffic deaths and 0.18 for driver deaths nationally, reflecting that death certificates captured only a small percentage of MVT deaths involving BAC of .08% or more. Reporting ratio did not improve over time, even though FARS indicated that the prevalence of BAC of at least .08% in MVT deaths increased from 19.9% in 1999 to 24.2% in 2009. State reporting ratios varied widely, from 0.02 (Nevada and New Jersey) to 0.81 (Delaware). Conclusions: The comparison of MCoD with FARS revealed a large discrepancy in reporting alcohol involvement in MVT deaths and considerable state variation in the magnitude of underreporting. We suspect similar underreporting and state variations in alcohol involvement in other types of injury deaths. PMID:24650824

Castle, I-Jen P; Yi, Hsiao-Ye; Hingson, Ralph W; White, Aaron M

2014-01-01

30

ACACIA: A Certificate-based Access-Controlled Internet Architecture  

E-print Network

ACACIA: A Certificate-based Access-Controlled Internet Architecture Tian Bu Li (Erran) Li. In this paper, we propose ACACIA--A Certificate-based Access-Controlled Internet Architecture. In ACACIA packets with no certificates are forwarded in a low priority queue. ACACIA is designed to be mobility

Li, Li Erran

31

Threshold Certificate-Based Encryption: Definition and Concrete Construction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Certificate-based encryption (CBE) is a new paradigm which overcomes the shortcomings of traditional public-key encryption and identity based encryption. CBE provides an efficient implicit certificate mechanism to eliminate third-party queries for the certificate status and to simplify the certificate revocation problem. Therefore, CBE can be used to construct an efficient PKI requiring fewer infrastructures. In addition, it also solves the

Yang Lu; Jiguo Li; Junmo Xiao

2009-01-01

32

A death-certificate case-control study of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and occupation in men in North Carolina.  

PubMed

A death certificate-based case-control study was performed to investigate associations between occupation and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) in North Carolina. Cases consisted of 501 men who died of NHL (International Classification of Diseases codes 200 and 202) during the years 1968-1970, 1975-1977, and 1980-1982. Controls were selected from other noncancer deaths, and were frequency matched for age, year of death, and race. Occupation and industry were obtained from the death certificates and coded without knowledge of case-control status. An increased risk for men in professional, technical, and managerial occupations, compared with all others, was detected among whites (OR = 2.69, 1.95-3.72). Black men classified as having "low exposures" by an occupational exposure linkage system had an odds ratio of 1.74 (0.84-3.60). Because of this finding, the occupations were ranked by social class and a statistically significant linear relationship was noted in whites, with risk increasing from lower social class to upper social class. An increased risk was also detected among whites in the rubber, plastics, and synthetics industries (p = .03), and among blacks employed in machine trades occupations (OR = 3.63, 1.32-9.97) and structural work occupations (OR = 2.38, 0.93-6.05). An increased risk was also detected for black painters (p = .02), but not for whites. There was no association found between NHL and employment in the following areas: textile industry; farming; laborers; or occupations with exposures to asbestos or benzene. The association with farming was further examined in counties with high use of pesticides and herbicides, and no increased risk of NHL was detected. Cases were more likely to live in the western part of the state than the eastern. However, NHL mortality rates provided by the North Carolina State Center for Health Statistics did not confirm the relationship. PMID:3354583

Schumacher, M C; Delzell, E

1988-01-01

33

Effect of Racial/Ethnic Misclassification of American Indians and Alaskan Natives on Washington State Death Certificates, 1989–1997  

PubMed Central

Objectives. This study examined effects of racial/ethnic misclassification of American Indians and Alaskan natives on Washington State death certificates. Methods. Probabilistic record linkage were used to match the 1989–1997 state death files to the Northwest Tribal Registry. Results. We identified matches for 2819 decedents, including 414 (14.7%) who had been misclassified as non–American Indians and Alaskan natives on the death certificates. The likelihood of being correctly classified increased 3-fold for each higher level of American Indian and Alaskan native ancestry (odds ratio = 2.88; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.51, 3.30) and decreased by 6.9% per calendar year (95% CI = 2.0, 11.5). Conclusions. Systematic biases on death certificates in Washington State persist. Methods to reduce misclassification can improve data quality and enhance efforts to measure and reduce racial/ethnic health disparities. (Am J Public Health. 2002;92:443–444) PMID:11867327

Stehr-Green, Paul; Bettles, James; Robertson, L. Dee

2002-01-01

34

Complete republication: National Association of Medical Examiners position paper: Recommendations for the investigation, diagnosis, and certification of deaths related to opioid drugs.  

PubMed

The American College of Medical Toxicology and the National Association of Medical Examiners convened an expert panel to generate evidence-based recommendations for the practice of death investigation and autopsy, toxicological analysis, interpretation of toxicology findings, and death certification to improve the precision of death certificate data available for public health surveillance. The panel finds the following: 1. A complete autopsy is necessary for optimal interpretation of toxicology results, which must also be considered in the context of the circumstances surrounding death, medical history, and scene findings. 2. A complete scene investigation extends to reconciliation of prescription information and pill counts. 3. Blood, urine, and vitreous humor, when available, should be retained in all cases. Blood from the femoral vein is preferable to blood from other sites. 4. A toxicological panel should be comprehensive and include opioid and benzodiazepine analytes, as well as other potent depressant, stimulant, and anti-depressant medications. 5. Interpretation of postmortem opioid concentrations requires correlation with medical history, scene investigation, and autopsy findings. 6. If death is attributed to any drug or combination of drugs (whether as cause or contributing factor), the certifier should list all the responsible substances by generic name in the autopsy report and on the death certificate. 7. The best classification for manner of death in deaths due to the misuse or abuse of opioids without any apparent intent of self-harm is "accident." Reserve "undetermined" as the manner for the rare cases in which evidence exists to support more than one possible determination. PMID:24132519

Davis, Gregory G

2014-03-01

35

["Manual on physician behavior at the time of death certification" created through collaboration with different local healthcare workers].  

PubMed

It is thought that physicians' behavior at the scene of death certification has a considerable influence on the grief of the bereaved. We constructed a manual to guide the physician's behavior at death certification and educate residents and medical students. We collaborated locally across several occupations(e.g., visiting nurse, visiting pharmacist)for the purpose of upgrading the manual. We conducted interviews with physicians and nurses who perform home medical care in this area regarding the scene at a real death certification in making our manual. It was evaluated well in this trial, and participants were cooperative with the interview. We can conduct many collaborations locally in various forms. The regional alliances become smoother as a function of such collaborations. In addition, it is thought that the manual that was constructed following this process will be easily received in the area. PMID:25595079

Kusakabe, Akihiko; Hirano, Kazue; Ikenaga, Keiko; Saitou, Naohiro; Mikan, Fukiko; Okita, Masato; Inamori, Masahiko; Shirado, Akemi; Morita, Tatsuya

2014-12-01

36

Mandated Competency-Based Teacher Certification and the Public Interest.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Responding to the current lack of an empirical basis for competency-based teacher certification, Georgia has mandated studies leading to the establishment of empirical criteria. In the Carroll County Competency-Based Teacher Certification Project, the instructional behaviors of some 60 certified teachers and the classroom behaviors of the…

Spaulding, Robert L.

37

Frequency of recording of diabetes on U.S. death certificates: analysis of the 1986 National Mortality Followback Survey.  

PubMed

We used data from the 1986 National Mortality Followback Survey to estimate the frequency of recording of diabetes on death certificates and to determine factors associated with recording of diabetes among decedents aged 25 years and older who died in the U.S. in 1986. Among 2766 decedents for whom a history of diabetes was provided by a personal informant, diabetes was recorded on an estimated 38.2% of death certificates and was listed as the underlying cause of death on an estimated 9.6%. The frequency of recording of diabetes was strongly related to age and duration of diabetes--among those aged 25-44 years who had had diabetes for 15 or more years, the frequency of recording was 71.9%. When other listed causes of death included conditions that may have been related to diabetes, such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes was recorded between 45 and 70% of the time, depending on the other causes. Diabetes is usually not recorded on death certificates, and the likelihood of recording is related to decedent characteristics, particularly age, duration of diabetes, and co-morbidity. PMID:1569424

Bild, D E; Stevenson, J M

1992-03-01

38

Occupation and five cancers: a case-control study using death certificates.  

PubMed Central

A case-control approach has been used to examine mortality from five cancers--oesophagus, pancreas, cutaneous melanoma, kidney, and brain--among young and middle aged men resident in three English counties. The areas studied were chosen because they include major centres of chemical manufacture. By combining data from 20 years it was possible to look at local industries with greater statistical power than is possible using routine national statistics. Each case was matched with up to four controls of similar age who died in the same year from other causes. The occupations and industries recorded on death certificates were coded to standard classifications and risk estimates derived for each job category. Where positive associations were found the records of the cases concerned were examined in greater detail to see whether the risk was limited to specific combinations of occupation and industry. The most interesting findings to emerge were risks of brain cancer associated with the production of meat and fish products (relative risk (RR) = 9.7, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.6-36.8) and with mineral oil refining (RR = 2.9, CI 1.2-7.0), and a cluster of four deaths from melanoma among refinery workers (RR = 16.0, CI CI 1.8-143.2). A job-exposure matrix was applied to the data but gave no strong indications of further disease associations. Local analyses of occupational mortality such as this can usefully supplement national statistics. PMID:3689708

Magnani, C; Coggon, D; Osmond, C; Acheson, E D

1987-01-01

39

Risk for prostate cancer by occupation and industry: a 24-state death certificate study.  

PubMed

Current knowledge of the etiology of prostate cancer is limited. Numerous studies have suggested that certain occupations and industries may be associated with the occurrence of prostate cancer. Information on occupation and industry on death certificates from 24 states gathered from 1984 to 1993 was used in case control study on prostate cancer. A total of 60,878 men with prostate cancer as underlying cause of death was selected and matched with controls who died of all other causes except cancer. Similar to the findings of our parallel large case control study of prostate cancer, we observed excess risks in some white-collar occupations, such as administrators, managers, teachers, engineers, and sales occupations. However, some blue-collar occupations, such as power plant operators and stationary engineers, brickmasons, machinery maintenance workers, airplane pilots, longshoreman, railroad industry workers, and other occupations with potential exposure to PAH also showed risk of excess prostate cancer. Risk was significantly decreased for blue-collar occupations, including farm workers, commercial fishermen, mechanics and repairers, structural metal workers, mining, printing, winding, dry cleaning, textile machine operators, cooks, bakers, and bartenders. Although we observed excess risks of prostate cancer among some low socioeconomic status (SES) occupations, the overall results suggest that the effects of higher SES cannot be ruled out in associations between occupational factors and the risk of prostate cancer. PMID:9787844

Krstev, S; Baris, D; Stewart, P A; Hayes, R B; Blair, A; Dosemeci, M

1998-11-01

40

Using Multiple Cause-of-Death Data to Investigate Associations and Causality between Conditions Listed on the Death Certificate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Death rarely results from only one cause, and it can be caused by a variety of factors. Multiple cause-of-death data files can list as many as 20 contributing causes of death in addition to the reported underlying cause of death. Analysis of multiple cause-of-death data can provide information on associations between causes of death, re- vealing common combinations of events

Matthew D. Redelings; Matthew Wise; Frank Sorvillo

2007-01-01

41

Model-Based Product-Oriented Certification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Future space missions such as the Mars Science Laboratory and Project Constel- lation suggest the engineering of some of the most complex man-rated software sys- tems. The present process-oriented certification methodologies employed by NASA are becoming prohibitively expensive when applied to systems of such complexity. The process of software certification establishes the level of confidence in a software system in

Damian Dechev; Bjarne Stroustrup

2009-01-01

42

Cause-Specific Mortality and Death Certificate Reporting in Adults with Moderate to Profound Intellectual Disability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: The study of premature deaths in people with intellectual disability (ID) has become the focus of recent policy initiatives in England. This is the first UK population-based study to explore cause-specific mortality in adults with ID compared with the general population. Methods: Cause-specific standardised mortality ratios (SMRs) and…

Tyrer, F.; McGrother, C.

2009-01-01

43

Certificate-Based Encryption and the Certificate Revocation Problem  

Microsoft Academic Search

We introduce the notion of certiflcate-based encryption. In thismodel,acertiflcate{or,moregenerally,asignature{actsnotonly as a certiflcate but also as a decryption key. To decrypt a message, a keyholder needs both its secret key and an up-to-date certiflcate from itsCA(orasignaturefromanauthorizer).Certiflcate-basedencryption combines the best aspects of identity-based encryption (implicit certi- flcation) and public key encryption (no escrow). We demonstrate how certiflcate-based encryption can be used to

Craig Gentry

2003-01-01

44

A Program Certification Assistant Based on Fully Automated Theorem Provers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We describe a certification assistant to support formal safety proofs for programs. It is based on a graphical user interface that hides the low-level details of first-order automated theorem provers while supporting limited interactivity: it allows users to customize and control the proof process on a high level, manages the auxiliary artifacts produced during this process, and provides traceability between the proof obligations and the relevant parts of the program. The certification assistant is part of a larger program synthesis system and is intended to support the deployment of automatically generated code in safety-critical applications.

Denney, Ewen; Fischer, Bernd

2005-01-01

45

Certificates.  

PubMed

The Concise Oxford English Dictionary defines 'dilemma' as "an argument forcing one to choose one of two alternatives both unfavourable to him (or her)". This is situation that frequently confronts the general practitioner. In this article a personal solution to the problem of 'certificates' is presented. Not every one will necessarily agree with the solutions presented and some may find them unacceptable, or have better solutions. The author warmly welcomes correspondence, either personal, or in the form of Letters to the Editor, as this is a subject in which consensus decisions are important. PMID:8053842

Fry, F

1994-06-01

46

Performance criteria for verbal autopsy-based systems to estimate national causes of death: development and application to the Indian Million Death Study  

PubMed Central

Background Verbal autopsy (VA) has been proposed to determine the cause of death (COD) distributions in settings where most deaths occur without medical attention or certification. We develop performance criteria for VA-based COD systems and apply these to the Registrar General of India’s ongoing, nationally-representative Indian Million Death Study (MDS). Methods Performance criteria include a low ill-defined proportion of deaths before old age; reproducibility, including consistency of COD distributions with independent resampling; differences in COD distribution of hospital, home, urban or rural deaths; age-, sex- and time-specific plausibility of specific diseases; stability and repeatability of dual physician coding; and the ability of the mortality classification system to capture a wide range of conditions. Results The introduction of the MDS in India reduced the proportion of ill-defined deaths before age 70 years from 13% to 4%. The cause-specific mortality fractions (CSMFs) at ages 5 to 69 years for independently resampled deaths and the MDS were very similar across 19 disease categories. By contrast, CSMFs at these ages differed between hospital and home deaths and between urban and rural deaths. Thus, reliance mostly on urban or hospital data can distort national estimates of CODs. Age-, sex- and time-specific patterns for various diseases were plausible. Initial physician agreement on COD occurred about two-thirds of the time. The MDS COD classification system was able to capture more eligible records than alternative classification systems. By these metrics, the Indian MDS performs well for deaths prior to age 70 years. The key implication for low- and middle-income countries where medical certification of death remains uncommon is to implement COD surveys that randomly sample all deaths, use simple but high-quality field work with built-in resampling, and use electronic rather than paper systems to expedite field work and coding. Conclusions Simple criteria can evaluate the performance of VA-based COD systems. Despite the misclassification of VA, the MDS demonstrates that national surveys of CODs using VA are an order of magnitude better than the limited COD data previously available. PMID:24495287

2014-01-01

47

Efficient certificate-based signcryption secure against public key replacement attacks and insider attacks.  

PubMed

Signcryption is a useful cryptographic primitive that achieves confidentiality and authentication in an efficient manner. As an extension of signcryption in certificate-based cryptography, certificate-based signcryption preserves the merits of certificate-based cryptography and signcryption simultaneously. In this paper, we present an improved security model of certificate-based signcryption that covers both public key replacement attack and insider security. We show that an existing certificate-based signcryption scheme is insecure in our model. We also propose a new certificate-based signcryption scheme that achieves security against both public key replacement attacks and insider attacks. We prove in the random oracle model that the proposed scheme is chosen-ciphertext secure and existentially unforgeable. Performance analysis shows that the proposed scheme outperforms all the previous certificate-based signcryption schemes in the literature. PMID:24959606

Lu, Yang; Li, Jiguo

2014-01-01

48

Efficient Certificate-Based Signcryption Secure against Public Key Replacement Attacks and Insider Attacks  

PubMed Central

Signcryption is a useful cryptographic primitive that achieves confidentiality and authentication in an efficient manner. As an extension of signcryption in certificate-based cryptography, certificate-based signcryption preserves the merits of certificate-based cryptography and signcryption simultaneously. In this paper, we present an improved security model of certificate-based signcryption that covers both public key replacement attack and insider security. We show that an existing certificate-based signcryption scheme is insecure in our model. We also propose a new certificate-based signcryption scheme that achieves security against both public key replacement attacks and insider attacks. We prove in the random oracle model that the proposed scheme is chosen-ciphertext secure and existentially unforgeable. Performance analysis shows that the proposed scheme outperforms all the previous certificate-based signcryption schemes in the literature. PMID:24959606

Li, Jiguo

2014-01-01

49

Windshear certification data base for forward-look detection systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Described is an introduction to a comprehensive database that is to be used for certification testing of airborne forward-look windshear detection systems. The database was developed by NASA Langley Research Center, at the request of the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), to support the industry initiative to certify and produce forward-looking windshear detection equipment. The database contains high-resolution three-dimensional fields for meteorological variables that may be sensed by forward-looking systems. The database is made up of seven case studies that are generated by the Terminal Area Simulation System, a state-of-the-art numerical system for the realistic modeling of windshear phenomena. The selected cases contained in the certification documentation represent a wide spectrum of windshear events. The database will be used with vendor-developed sensor simulation software and vendor-collected ground-clutter data to demonstrate detection performance in a variety of meteorological conditions using NASA/FAA pre-defined path scenarios for each of the certification cases. A brief outline of the contents and sample plots from the database documentation are included. These plots show fields of hazard factor, or F-factor (Bowles 1990), radar reflectivity, and velocity vectors on a horizontal plane overlayed with the applicable certification paths. For the plot of the F-factor field the region of 0.105 and above signify an area of hazardous, performance decreasing windshear, while negative values indicate regions of performance increasing windshear. The values of F-factor are based on 1-Km averaged segments along horizontal flight paths, assuming an air speed of 150 knots (approx. 75 m/s). The database has been released to vendors participating in the certification process. The database and associated document have been transferred to the FAA for archival storage and distribution.

Switzer, George F.; Hinton, David A.; Proctor, Fred H.

1994-01-01

50

75 FR 27182 - Energy Conservation Program: Web-Based Compliance and Certification Management System  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

This final rule: provides a new means for manufacturers and third party representatives to prepare and submit compliance and certification reports to the Department of Energy (DOE) through an electronic Web-based tool, the Compliance and Certification Management System (CCMS), which will be the preferred mechanism for submitting compliance and certification reports; allows compliance and......

2010-05-14

51

The environmental impact statement: an important addition to the certification of early deaths.  

PubMed

An environmental impact statement (EIS) has been made in conjunction with a prospective study of 56 consecutive deaths of persons under 60 years of age in a local population. EIS is the cheapest and the quickest means by which to continually highlight the weaknesses of a national health system. PMID:683064

Pacy, H

1978-05-20

52

Leukemia as a cause of death among patients with myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) in a population- based cancer registry: improving estimates of MDS-related mortality in the population.  

PubMed

Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS), a heterogeneous group of myeloid neoplasms diagnosed mostly in elderly persons, are of increasing interest in an aging population and are associated with variable risk of progression to acute myeloid leukemia (AML). The numbers of deaths related to MDS in the population are underestimated in routine US cancer mortality statistics which are based on only the underlying cause (UC) rather than multiple causes (MCs) of death recorded on death certificates. Additional MDS-related deaths, however, may be missed if some MDS patients die with mention of leukemia but not MDS on their death certificate. This requires studies of MCs of death among all MDS patients in population-based tumor registries. This study examined MCs of death among patients diagnosed with MDS in 2001- 2009 and reported to the population-based Connecticut Tumor Registry. MDS was the UC for 199 deaths (25.7% of all 773) and was coded as other than UC for 160 (20.7%). Another 121 (15.7%) death records, however, had leukemia without mention of MDS; the majority were coded to AML and most of the others as unspecified type of acute leukemia. If these 121 deaths are added to the 359 with mention of MDS, the total of MDS-related deaths would be 480 (or 62.1% of all 773 deaths). A total of 178 deaths (23.0% of all 773) were coded to leukemia as the UC, and would be included with leukemia (not MDS) in routine cancer mortality statistics. Leukemia diagnosed since 2010 in MDS patients is reportable to registries as a new primary cancer. This new rule will help central cancer registries to confirm leukemia diagnoses coded on death records, as part of the process of improving surveillance of cancer mortality rates in the population. PMID:23443455

Polednak, Anthony P; Phillips, Cathryn

2012-01-01

53

Space Based Range Demonstration and Certification (SBRDC)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This viewgraph presentation describes the development, utilization and testing of technologies for range safety and range user systems. The contents include: 1) Space Based Range (SBR) Goals and Objectives; 2) Today s United States Range; 3) Future Range; 4) Another Vision for the Future Range; 5) STARS Project Goals; 6) STARS Content; 7) STARS Configuration Flight Demonstrations 1 & 2; 8) Spaceport And Range Technologies STARS Objectives and Results; 9) Spaceport And Range Technologies STARS FD2 Objectives; 10) Range Safety Hardware; 11) Range User Hardware; and 12) Past/Future Flight Demo Plans

Sakahara, Robert

2005-01-01

54

A New Public Key Certificate Revocation Scheme Based on One-Way Hash Chain  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The Public Key Certificate (PKC) is an important way to support the secure global WEB applications. The revocation of the PKC, however, remains as one\\u000a of the most costly problems in the certificate management. In this paper, a new public key certificate revocation scheme based\\u000a on one-way hash chain is proposed. Specifically, no centralized authority holds responsibility to collect and

Jingfeng Li; Yuefei Zhu; Heng Pan; Dawei Wei

2005-01-01

55

Undergraduate Certificate in Community Based Organizations: Policy and Leadership This certificate program provides knowledge and skills for students interested in working in  

E-print Network

Undergraduate Certificate in Community Based Organizations: Policy and Leadership This certificate. The curriculum is the following: Foundations and Policy (6 credits) Ed Pol 601 Foundations of Community-Based Organizations Ed Pol 603 Policy Analysis for Community-Based Organizations Fundraising and Marketing (6 credits

Saldin, Dilano

56

40 CFR 745.238 - Fees for accreditation and certification of lead-based paint activities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...accreditation and certification of lead-based paint activities. 745.238 Section 745...SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT LEAD-BASED PAINT POISONING PREVENTION IN CERTAIN RESIDENTIAL STRUCTURES Lead-Based Paint Activities § 745.238 Fees...

2014-07-01

57

40 CFR 745.238 - Fees for accreditation and certification of lead-based paint activities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...accreditation and certification of lead-based paint activities. 745.238 Section 745...SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT LEAD-BASED PAINT POISONING PREVENTION IN CERTAIN RESIDENTIAL STRUCTURES Lead-Based Paint Activities § 745.238 Fees...

2012-07-01

58

40 CFR 745.238 - Fees for accreditation and certification of lead-based paint activities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...accreditation and certification of lead-based paint activities. 745.238 Section 745...SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT LEAD-BASED PAINT POISONING PREVENTION IN CERTAIN RESIDENTIAL STRUCTURES Lead-Based Paint Activities § 745.238 Fees...

2013-07-01

59

40 CFR 745.238 - Fees for accreditation and certification of lead-based paint activities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...accreditation and certification of lead-based paint activities. 745.238 Section 745...SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT LEAD-BASED PAINT POISONING PREVENTION IN CERTAIN RESIDENTIAL STRUCTURES Lead-Based Paint Activities § 745.238 Fees...

2010-07-01

60

40 CFR 745.238 - Fees for accreditation and certification of lead-based paint activities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...accreditation and certification of lead-based paint activities. 745.238 Section 745...SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT LEAD-BASED PAINT POISONING PREVENTION IN CERTAIN RESIDENTIAL STRUCTURES Lead-Based Paint Activities § 745.238 Fees...

2011-07-01

61

5 CFR 843.311 - Annuity based on death of a separated employee.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Annuity based on death of a separated employee. 843.311... FEDERAL EMPLOYEES RETIREMENT SYSTEM-DEATH BENEFITS AND EMPLOYEE REFUNDS Current...Benefits § 843.311 Annuity based on death of a separated employee....

2010-01-01

62

5 CFR 843.311 - Annuity based on death of a separated employee.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 false Annuity based on death of a separated employee. 843.311... FEDERAL EMPLOYEES RETIREMENT SYSTEM-DEATH BENEFITS AND EMPLOYEE REFUNDS Current...Benefits § 843.311 Annuity based on death of a separated employee....

2011-01-01

63

5 CFR 843.311 - Annuity based on death of a separated employee.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Annuity based on death of a separated employee. 843.311... FEDERAL EMPLOYEES RETIREMENT SYSTEM-DEATH BENEFITS AND EMPLOYEE REFUNDS Current...Benefits § 843.311 Annuity based on death of a separated employee....

2013-01-01

64

5 CFR 843.311 - Annuity based on death of a separated employee.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 false Annuity based on death of a separated employee. 843.311... FEDERAL EMPLOYEES RETIREMENT SYSTEM-DEATH BENEFITS AND EMPLOYEE REFUNDS Current...Benefits § 843.311 Annuity based on death of a separated employee....

2012-01-01

65

38 CFR - § 3.1705 Burial allowance based on non-service-connected death.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...allowance based on non-service-connected death. Section Pensions, Bonuses, and...allowance based on non-service-connected death. (a) General rule. VA will...date it receives notice of the veteran's death that the expenses incurred were...

2014-07-01

66

5 CFR 843.311 - Annuity based on death of a separated employee.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-01-01 false Annuity based on death of a separated employee. 843.311... FEDERAL EMPLOYEES RETIREMENT SYSTEM-DEATH BENEFITS AND EMPLOYEE REFUNDS Current...Benefits § 843.311 Annuity based on death of a separated employee....

2014-01-01

67

Using a State Teacher Certification Test to Assess an Inquiry-Based Science Education Program  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study, we looked at the impact of our specially designed inquiry-based science courses for pre-service elementary teachers on their science content knowledge as measured by a high-stakes state certification test for elementary education. We conducted a pre/post-analysis of the certification test scores of 1,003 pre-service teachers. Cohort…

Otto, Charlotte A.; Everett, Susan A.; Moyer, Richard H.; Zitzewitz, Paul W.

2012-01-01

68

Decisional involvement among staff nurses based on educational level and certification status.  

PubMed

Mechanisms to enhance the work environment are nurse decisional involvement (DI), obtainment of a baccalaureate or higher degree, and specialty certification. The purpose of this descriptive comparative study was to determine the difference between actual and preferred DI of staff nurses on the overall Decisional Involvement Scale (DIS), the differences based on its subscales, and those based on education level and certification. The sample included 163 staff nurses from a Midwestern health care organization. A statistically significant difference was found between actual and preferred DI, but no difference was found based on educational level and certification. There is a need to focus on nurses with a BSN/master's degree or specialty certification and to conduct comprehensive studies to address the effects of education and certification on DI. An additional strategy that can be useful for organizations is to provide nurses with the empowerment structures, expectations, and mentoring/coaching to become involved in the process of decision making. PMID:24709855

Ugur, Esra; Scherb, Cindy A; Specht, Janet K

2015-05-01

69

24 CFR 983.10 - Project-based certificate (PBC) program.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01...2010-04-01 false Project-based certificate...983.10 Housing and Urban Development Regulations...DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT PROJECT-BASED VOUCHER...

2010-04-01

70

The Fundamentals and Practical Use of Certificate-Based Security in Secure Web-Based Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Secure key exchange, public key cryptography, and symmetric key cryptography help solve the problem of achieving secure communication between two parties. But how do you know with whom you are communicating securely? Certificate-based security is designed to solve this prob- lem of identifying with whom you are communicating and is gaining increasingly widespread use as a way to identify web

Robin M. Snyder

2002-01-01

71

Evaluation of Cause of Deaths' Validity Using Outcome Measures from a Prospective, Population Based Cohort Study in Tehran, Iran  

PubMed Central

Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the validity of cause of death stated in death certificates in Tehran using outcome measures of the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study (TLGS), an ongoing prospective cohort study. Methods The cohort was established in 1999 in a population of 15005 people, 3 years old and over, living in Tehran; 3551 individuals were added to this population three years later. As part of cohort's outcome measures, deaths occurring in the cohort are investigated by a panel of medical specialists (Cohort Outcome Panel-COP) and underlying cause of death is determined for each death. The cause of death assigned in a deceased's original death certificate was evaluated against the cause of death determined by COP and sensitivity and positive predictive values (PPV) were determined. In addition, determinants of assigning accurate underlying cause of death were determined using logistic regression model. Result A total of 231 death certificates were evaluated. The original death certificates over reported deaths due to neoplasms and underreported death due to circulatory system and transport accidents. Neoplasms with sensitivity of 0.91 and PPV of 0.71 were the most valid category. The disease of circulatory system showed moderate degree of validity with sensitivity of 0.67 and PPV of 0.78. The result of logistic regression indicated if the death certificate is issued by a general practitioner, there is 2.3 (95% CI 1.1, 5.1) times chance of being misclassified compared with when it is issued by a specialist. If the deceased is more than 60 years, the chance of misclassification would be 2.5 times (95% CI of 1.1, 5.9) compared with when the deceased is less than 60 years. PMID:22355365

Khalili, Davood; Mosavi-Jarrahi, Alireza; Eskandari, Fatemeh; Mousavi-Jarrahi, Yasaman; Hadaegh, Farzad; Mohagheghi, Mohammadali; Azizi, Fereidoun

2012-01-01

72

Confidence intervals in temperature-based death time determination.  

PubMed

Marshall and Hoare's double exponential model with Henßge's parameters is a well known method for temperature based death time estimation. The authors give 95%-confidence intervals for their method. Since body cooling is a complex thermodynamical process, one has to take into account a potential bias of the estimator. This quantity measures the systematic error of the estimators underlying model. For confidence interval radius calculation a bias of 0 is presupposed, therefore the actual probability of the true death time value to lie in the 95%-confidence interval can be much lower than 95% in case of nonvanishing bias. As in case of nonstandard conditions the confidence intervals have a probability of containing the true death time value which even in case of small corrective factor errors of ? = ± 0.1 can be substantially smaller than the 95% claimed, the paper presents a formula for confidence intervals which keep a 95% probability in case of error ?c ? ± 0.1. PMID:25205513

Hubig, Michael; Muggenthaler, Holger; Mall, Gita

2015-01-01

73

40 CFR 94.912 - Optional certification to land-based standards for auxiliary marine engines.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...certification to land-based standards for auxiliary marine engines. 94.912 Section 94.912 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION...CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM MARINE COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES...

2012-07-01

74

40 CFR 94.912 - Optional certification to land-based standards for auxiliary marine engines.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...certification to land-based standards for auxiliary marine engines. 94.912 Section 94.912 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION...CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM MARINE COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES...

2014-07-01

75

40 CFR 94.912 - Optional certification to land-based standards for auxiliary marine engines.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...certification to land-based standards for auxiliary marine engines. 94.912 Section 94.912 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION...CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM MARINE COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES...

2013-07-01

76

Accuracy of cause of death determination without forensic autopsy examination.  

PubMed

Medical examiners and coroners commonly determine cause and manner of death without an autopsy examination. Some death certificates generated in this way may not state the correct cause and manner of death. From the case files of the Department of Forensic Medicine in Sydney, Australia, the authors retrospectively reviewed investigative information of all cases in a 6-month period that were initially considered natural deaths (429). The authors, blinded to autopsy results, accepted 261 cases as appropriate for certification without autopsy and assigned a cause of death to each. Per standard local practice, all cases had been autopsied. The actual causes of death as determined by autopsy were then revealed and compared with the presumed causes of death. Most presumed and actual causes of death were cardiovascular (94% and 80%, respectively). The majority of presumed causes of death were listed as ASCVD as the cases lacked features of a more specific cardiovascular process. A large majority of cases had a presumed cause of death of ischemic heart disease based on individual case details. The actual causes of death demonstrated a large breadth of cardiovascular and noncardiovascular disease processes, even though ischemic heart disease accounted for 62% of deaths. The presumed cause of death was completely wrong in 28% of cases. A nonnatural manner of death was present in 3% of cases. This study demonstrates that experienced forensic pathologists may generate erroneous death certificates for cases that are not autopsied. PMID:14634467

Nashelsky, Marcus B; Lawrence, Christopher H

2003-12-01

77

Heat-related deaths--United States, 1999-2003.  

PubMed

Heat-related illnesses (e.g., heat cramps, heat exhaustion, heat syncope, or heatstroke) can occur when high ambient temperatures overcome the body's natural ability to dissipate heat. Older adults, young children, and persons with chronic medical conditions are particularly susceptible to these illnesses and are at high risk for heat-related mortality. Previous analyses of the risk factors associated with heat-related deaths have been based on the underlying cause entered on the death certificate and have not included decedents for whom hyperthermia was listed as a contributing factor but not the underlying cause of death. This report describes an analysis in which number of heat-related deaths were counted, including deaths in which hyperthermia was listed as a contributing factor on the death certificate. The analysis revealed that including these deaths increased the number of heat-related deaths by 54% and suggested that the number of heat-related deaths is underestimated. PMID:16874294

2006-07-28

78

The effectiveness of market-based conservation in the tropics: forest certification in Ecuador and Bolivia.  

PubMed

During the last decade, forest certification has gained momentum as a market-based conservation strategy in tropical forest countries. Certification has been promoted to enhance forest management in countries where governance capacities are insufficient to adequately manage natural resources and enforce pertinent regulations, given that certification relies largely on non-governmental organisations and private businesses. However, at present there are few tropical countries with large areas of certified forests. In this study, we conducted semi-structured stakeholder interviews in Ecuador and Bolivia to identify key framework conditions that influence the costs and benefits for companies to switch from conventional to certified forestry operations. Bolivia has a much greater relative area under certified forest management than Ecuador and also significantly more certified producers. The difference in the success of certification between both countries is particularly notable because Bolivia is a poorer country with more widespread corruption, and is landlocked with less access to export routes. Despite these factors, several characteristics of the Bolivian forest industry contribute to lower additional costs of certified forest management compared to Ecuador. Bolivia has stronger government enforcement of forestry regulations a fact that increases the cost of illegal logging, management units are larger, and vertical integration in the process chain from timber extraction to markets is higher. Moreover, forestry laws in Bolivia are highly compatible with certification requirements, and the government provides significant tax benefits to certified producers. Results from this study suggest that certification can be successful in countries where governments have limited governance capacity. However, the economic incentives for certification do not only arise from favourable market conditions. Certification is likely to be more successful where governments enforce forestry laws, provide financial incentives for certified forestry, and provide land tenure security, and where large-scale and vertically integrated forestry operations are commercially feasible. For this reason, at present, there are few developing countries where forest certification is likely to achieve widespread success. PMID:18614273

Ebeling, Johannes; Yasué, Maï

2009-02-01

79

Studying Sudden and Unexpected Infant Deaths in a Time of Changing Death Certification and Investigation Practices: Evaluating Sleep-Related Risk Factors for Infant Death in New York City  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe an approach for quantifying and characterizing the extent to which sudden and unexpected infant deaths (SUIDs)\\u000a result from unsafe sleep environments (e.g., prone position, bedsharing, soft bedding); and present data on sleep-related\\u000a infant deaths in NYC. Using a combination of vital statistics and medical examiner data, including autopsy and death scene\\u000a investigation findings, we analyzed any death due

Lindsay Senter; Judith Sackoff; Kristen Landi; Lorraine Boyd

2011-01-01

80

5 CFR 843.310 - Annuity based on death of an employee.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Annuity based on death of an employee. 843.310 Section... FEDERAL EMPLOYEES RETIREMENT SYSTEM-DEATH BENEFITS AND EMPLOYEE REFUNDS Current...Benefits § 843.310 Annuity based on death of an employee. Except as...

2013-01-01

81

5 CFR 843.310 - Annuity based on death of an employee.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 false Annuity based on death of an employee. 843.310 Section... FEDERAL EMPLOYEES RETIREMENT SYSTEM-DEATH BENEFITS AND EMPLOYEE REFUNDS Current...Benefits § 843.310 Annuity based on death of an employee. Except as...

2011-01-01

82

5 CFR 843.310 - Annuity based on death of an employee.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Annuity based on death of an employee. 843.310 Section... FEDERAL EMPLOYEES RETIREMENT SYSTEM-DEATH BENEFITS AND EMPLOYEE REFUNDS Current...Benefits § 843.310 Annuity based on death of an employee. Except as...

2010-01-01

83

5 CFR 843.310 - Annuity based on death of an employee.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-01-01 false Annuity based on death of an employee. 843.310 Section... FEDERAL EMPLOYEES RETIREMENT SYSTEM-DEATH BENEFITS AND EMPLOYEE REFUNDS Current...Benefits § 843.310 Annuity based on death of an employee. Except as...

2014-01-01

84

5 CFR 843.310 - Annuity based on death of an employee.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 false Annuity based on death of an employee. 843.310 Section... FEDERAL EMPLOYEES RETIREMENT SYSTEM-DEATH BENEFITS AND EMPLOYEE REFUNDS Current...Benefits § 843.310 Annuity based on death of an employee. Except as...

2012-01-01

85

Certification Framework Based on Effective Trapping for Geologic Carbon Sequestration  

SciTech Connect

We have developed a certification framework (CF) for certifying the safety and effectiveness of geologic carbon sequestration (GCS) sites. Safety and effectiveness are achieved if CO{sub 2} and displaced brine have no significant impact on humans, other living things, resources, or the environment. In the CF, we relate effective trapping to CO{sub 2} leakage risk which takes into account both the impact and probability of leakage. We achieve simplicity in the CF by using (1) wells and faults as the potential leakage pathways, (2) compartments to represent environmental resources that may be impacted by leakage, (3) CO{sub 2} fluxes and concentrations in the compartments as proxies for impact to vulnerable entities, (4) broad ranges of storage formation properties to generate a catalog of simulated plume movements, and (5) probabilities of intersection of the CO{sub 2} plume with the conduits and compartments. We demonstrate the approach on a hypothetical GCS site in a Texas Gulf Coast saline formation. Through its generality and flexibility, the CF can contribute to the assessment of risk of CO{sub 2} and brine leakage as part of the certification process for licensing and permitting of GCS sites around the world regardless of the specific regulations in place in any given country.

Oldenburg, Curtis M.; Bryant, Steven L.; Nicot, Jean-Philippe

2009-01-15

86

78 FR 54758 - Listing of Color Additives Exempt From Certification; Mica-Based Pearlescent Pigments...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...No. FDA-2012-C-0224] Listing of Color Additives Exempt From Certification; Mica-Based...FR 35115). The final rule amended the color additive regulations to provide for the...prepared from titanium dioxide and mica as color additives in distilled spirits...

2013-09-06

87

Abstract Interpretation-based Verification/Certification in the CiaoPP System  

E-print Network

;("running") them using abstract values rather than concrete ones, thus obtaining safe approximations is based on compile-time (and run-time) tools for the certification of CLP programs with resource con, possibly infinite, set of actual values in the concrete domain (D). Our approach relies on the abstract

Politécnica de Madrid, Universidad

88

Scientifically Based Research in Educational Products: Vendors and Consumers on Filling the Certification Gap  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The 2002 reauthorization of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act, or No Child Left Behind (NCLB) changed school law in the United States. Public schools can utilize federal funds to purchase only those educational products subject to scientifically based research. No dedicated certification intermediary (CI) exists to determine individual…

Caruthers, Bill J.

2009-01-01

89

A Lightweight Certificate-based Source Authentication Protocol for Group Communication  

E-print Network

communication in hybrid wireless networks with a satellite overlay. The proposed protocol uses a new classA Lightweight Certificate-based Source Authentication Protocol for Group Communication in Hybrid Wireless/Satellite Networks Ayan Roy-Chowdhury Electrical and Computer Engineering Institute for Systems

Baras, John S.

90

A simple birth-death-migration individual-based model for biofilm development  

E-print Network

A simple birth-death-migration individual-based model for biofilm development Nabil Mabrouk only three main processes: birth (binary fission), death (or detachment) and surface migration (death) of a bacterium · migration of a bacterium to a new location Birth is a process by which a parent

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

91

Infant mortality in southern Brazil: a population based study of causes of death  

Microsoft Academic Search

The causes of 215 infant deaths occurring in a population based cohort of 5914 infants from southern Brazil were determined. Perinatal problems were responsible for 43% of these deaths and infectious diseases for 32%. In the group who died of infectious diseases, respiratory infections and diarrhoea were equally important, each accounting for 12% of all deaths. A total of 87%

F C Barros; C G Victora; J P Vaughan; A M Teixeira; A Ashworth

1987-01-01

92

Performance on the Athletic Training Certification Examination Based on Candidates' Routes to Eligibility  

PubMed Central

The National Athletic Trainers' Association Board of Certification initiated a task force whose purpose is to evaluate the criteria that determine eligibility for the athletic training certification examination. Candidates may qualify to take the examination through one of two routes: an academic-based curriculum program or the practical education, work-experience-based internship route. The certification examination is comprised of three sections: a written examination, a written simulation, and a practical examination. We retrospectively examined certification examination scores during a 2-year period to determine whether a significant difference existed between the two groups of candidates. Test results for first-time candidates sitting for one of the nine examinations administered during 1992 and 1993 were extracted from the data base maintained by Columbia Assessment Services, Inc (Raleigh, NC) and grouped according to the candidates' route to eligibility. Curriculum candidates had significantly greater scores than did internship candidates on each of the three parts of the examination. Although the test analysis yields strong statistical power in interpreting these results, examination outcomes may also be influenced by the structure and content of the academic program followed, the quality of the clinical experience, the heterogeneity of each of the routes, and the psychosocial rigors of the examination process. PMID:16558313

Starkey, Chad; Henderson, James

1995-01-01

93

Interaction profile-based protein classification of death domain  

PubMed Central

Background The increasing number of protein sequences and 3D structure obtained from genomic initiatives is leading many of us to focus on proteomics, and to dedicate our experimental and computational efforts on the creation and analysis of information derived from 3D structure. In particular, the high-throughput generation of protein-protein interaction data from a few organisms makes such an approach very important towards understanding the molecular recognition that make-up the entire protein-protein interaction network. Since the generation of sequences, and experimental protein-protein interactions increases faster than the 3D structure determination of protein complexes, there is tremendous interest in developing in silico methods that generate such structure for prediction and classification purposes. In this study we focused on classifying protein family members based on their protein-protein interaction distinctiveness. Structure-based classification of protein-protein interfaces has been described initially by Ponstingl et al. [1] and more recently by Valdar et al. [2] and Mintseris et al. [3], from complex structures that have been solved experimentally. However, little has been done on protein classification based on the prediction of protein-protein complexes obtained from homology modeling and docking simulation. Results We have developed an in silico classification system entitled HODOCO (Homology modeling, Docking and Classification Oracle), in which protein Residue Potential Interaction Profiles (RPIPS) are used to summarize protein-protein interaction characteristics. This system applied to a dataset of 64 proteins of the death domain superfamily was used to classify each member into its proper subfamily. Two classification methods were attempted, heuristic and support vector machine learning. Both methods were tested with a 5-fold cross-validation. The heuristic approach yielded a 61% average accuracy, while the machine learning approach yielded an 89% average accuracy. Conclusion We have confirmed the reliability and potential value of classifying proteins via their predicted interactions. Our results are in the same range of accuracy as other studies that classify protein-protein interactions from 3D complex structure obtained experimentally. While our classification scheme does not take directly into account sequence information our results are in agreement with functional and sequence based classification of death domain family members. PMID:15189571

Lett, Drew; Hsing, Michael; Pio, Frederic

2004-01-01

94

Place and Cause of Death in Centenarians: A Population-Based Observational Study in England, 2001 to 2010  

PubMed Central

Background Centenarians are a rapidly growing demographic group worldwide, yet their health and social care needs are seldom considered. This study aims to examine trends in place of death and associations for centenarians in England over 10 years to consider policy implications of extreme longevity. Methods and Findings This is a population-based observational study using death registration data linked with area-level indices of multiple deprivations for people aged ?100 years who died 2001 to 2010 in England, compared with those dying at ages 80-99. We used linear regression to examine the time trends in number of deaths and place of death, and Poisson regression to evaluate factors associated with centenarians’ place of death. The cohort totalled 35,867 people with a median age at death of 101 years (range: 100–115 years). Centenarian deaths increased 56% (95% CI 53.8%–57.4%) in 10 years. Most died in a care home with (26.7%, 95% CI 26.3%–27.2%) or without nursing (34.5%, 95% CI 34.0%–35.0%) or in hospital (27.2%, 95% CI 26.7%–27.6%). The proportion of deaths in nursing homes decreased over 10 years (?0.36% annually, 95% CI ?0.63% to ?0.09%, p?=?0.014), while hospital deaths changed little (0.25% annually, 95% CI ?0.06% to 0.57%, p?=?0.09). Dying with frailty was common with “old age” stated in 75.6% of death certifications. Centenarians were more likely to die of pneumonia (e.g., 17.7% [95% CI 17.3%–18.1%] versus 6.0% [5.9%–6.0%] for those aged 80–84 years) and old age/frailty (28.1% [27.6%–28.5%] versus 0.9% [0.9%–0.9%] for those aged 80–84 years) and less likely to die of cancer (4.4% [4.2%–4.6%] versus 24.5% [24.6%–25.4%] for those aged 80–84 years) and ischemic heart disease (8.6% [8.3%–8.9%] versus 19.0% [18.9%–19.0%] for those aged 80–84 years) than were younger elderly patients. More care home beds available per 1,000 population were associated with fewer deaths in hospital (PR 0.98, 95% CI 0.98–0.99, p<0.001). Conclusions Centenarians are more likely to have causes of death certified as pneumonia and frailty and less likely to have causes of death of cancer or ischemic heart disease, compared with younger elderly patients. To reduce reliance on hospital care at the end of life requires recognition of centenarians’ increased likelihood to “acute” decline, notably from pneumonia, and wider provision of anticipatory care to enable people to remain in their usual residence, and increasing care home bed capacity. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary PMID:24892645

Evans, Catherine J.; Ho, Yuen; Daveson, Barbara A.; Hall, Sue; Higginson, Irene J.; Gao, Wei

2014-01-01

95

Characteristics of Belgian “life-ending acts without explicit patient request”: a large-scale death certificate survey revisited  

PubMed Central

Background “Life-ending acts without explicit patient request,” as identified in robust international studies, are central in current debates on physician-assisted dying. Despite their contentiousness, little attention has been paid to their actual characteristics and to what extent they truly represent nonvoluntary termination of life. Methods We analyzed the 66 cases of life-ending acts without explicit patient request identified in a large-scale survey of physicians certifying a representative sample of deaths (n = 6927) in Flanders, Belgium, in 2007. The characteristics we studied included physicians’ labelling of the act, treatment course and doses used, and patient involvement in the decision. Results In most cases (87.9%), physicians labelled their acts in terms of symptom treatment rather than in terms of ending life. By comparing drug combinations and doses of opioids used, we found that the life-ending acts were similar to intensified pain and symptom treatment and were distinct from euthanasia. In 45 cases, there was at least 1 characteristic inconsistent with the common understanding of the practice: either patients had previously expressed a wish for ending life (16/66, 24.4%), physicians reported that the administered doses had not been higher than necessary to relieve suffering (22/66, 33.3%), or both (7/66, 10.6%). Interpretation Most of the cases we studied did not fit the label of “nonvoluntary life-ending” for at least 1 of the following reasons: the drugs were administered with a focus on symptom control; a hastened death was highly unlikely; or the act was taken in accordance with the patient’s previously expressed wishes. Thus, we recommend a more nuanced view of life-ending acts without explicit patient request in the debate on physician-assisted dying. PMID:25485252

Chambaere, Kenneth; Bernheim, Jan L.; Downar, James; Deliens, Luc

2014-01-01

96

Mechanisms of security based on digital certificates applied in a telemedicine network.  

PubMed

The medical patient's information is private and extremely sensitive. This information has to be stored and transmitted carefully because it can be exposed to a series of threats and it is necessary to be protected. This research contemplates the security mechanisms based on digital certificates applied to a pilot telemedicine network, that guarantees the confidentiality, integrity and availability of the medical information of the patients for the hospitable centers involved. The prototype telemedicine network will interconnect hospitals in the municipalities of Baruta and Hatillo Miranda State, in Venezuela by Internet, to provide and support a health care system in inaccessible areas, and the transmission of patient's biomedical signals and the health education to people through secure mechanisms such as digital certificates. PMID:19163035

Vivas, T; Zambrano, A; Huerta, M

2008-01-01

97

Conditional probability distribution (CPD) method in temperature based death time estimation: Error propagation analysis.  

PubMed

Bayesian estimation applied to temperature based death time estimation was recently introduced as conditional probability distribution or CPD-method by Biermann and Potente. The CPD-method is useful, if there is external information that sets the boundaries of the true death time interval (victim last seen alive and found dead). CPD allows computation of probabilities for small time intervals of interest (e.g. no-alibi intervals of suspects) within the large true death time interval. In the light of the importance of the CPD for conviction or acquittal of suspects the present study identifies a potential error source. Deviations in death time estimates will cause errors in the CPD-computed probabilities. We derive formulae to quantify the CPD error as a function of input error. Moreover we observed the paradox, that in cases, in which the small no-alibi time interval is located at the boundary of the true death time interval, adjacent to the erroneous death time estimate, CPD-computed probabilities for that small no-alibi interval will increase with increasing input deviation, else the CPD-computed probabilities will decrease. We therefore advise not to use CPD if there is an indication of an error or a contra-empirical deviation in the death time estimates, that is especially, if the death time estimates fall out of the true death time interval, even if the 95%-confidence intervals of the estimate still overlap the true death time interval. PMID:24662512

Hubig, Michael; Muggenthaler, Holger; Mall, Gita

2014-05-01

98

Certification of Public Keys within an Identity Based System  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigate a number of issues related to the use of multi- ple trust authorities in the type of identifier based cryptography enabled by the Weil and Tate pairings. An example of such a system is the Boneh and Franklin encryption scheme. We examine how to create an efficient hierarchy of multiple trust authorities and then go on to examine

L. Chen; Keith Harrison; Andrew Moss; David Soldera; Nigel P. Smart

2002-01-01

99

On the Reliability of Vocational Workplace-Based Certifications  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The assessment of vocational workplace-based qualifications in England relies on human assessors (raters). These assessors observe naturally occurring, non-standardised evidence, unique to each learner and evaluate the learner as competent/not yet competent against content standards. Whilst these are considered difficult to measure, this study…

Harth, H.; Hemker, B.T.

2013-01-01

100

The impact of school-based education on the young child's understanding of death.  

PubMed

The young child's immature understanding of the concepts related to death serves to heighten anxiety about death and interferes with successful adjustment to loss. This study was a randomized trial of the efficacy of a 3-week school-based educational program in the promotion of the concepts of death in 4- to 8-year-old children (prekindergarten through second grade). The Smilansky Death Concept Questionnaire, a validated and published structured interview, was administered pre- and postintervention phase to all study participants (N = 184). The experimental group received three interventions: (1) a series of six 30 to 45-minute presentations about concepts of death, (2) teacher educational presentation, and (3) parent educational presentation. Significant mean gains were noted for the experimental group as compared to the control group in the total death concept score, the total score for human death, the total score for animal death, and two of the four factors studied, that of causality and that of inevitability and old age. The gain in total death concept score as a result of the 3-week educational program was equivalent to the amount of conceptual development that is seen in one year in the absence of intervention. PMID:2258443

Schonfeld, D J; Kappelman, M

1990-10-01

101

When Throughout the Year Is Coronary Death Most Likely to Occur? A 12Year Population-Based Analysis of More Than 220 000 Cases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background—Previous studies have suggested that there is an increase in cardiac events in the morning. Fewer data relate cardiac events to months of the year and season. Methods and Results—We analyzed all monthly death certificate data from Los Angeles County, California, for death caused by coronary artery disease from 1985 through 1996 (n5222 265). The mean number of deaths was

Robert A. Kloner; W. Kenneth Poole; Rebecca L. Perritt

102

40 CFR 745.89 - Firm certification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT LEAD-BASED PAINT POISONING PREVENTION...before the date the firm's current certification expires. If...complete and timely, the firm's current certification will remain...less than 90 days before its current certification expires,...

2013-07-01

103

40 CFR 745.89 - Firm certification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT LEAD-BASED PAINT POISONING PREVENTION...before the date the firm's current certification expires. If...complete and timely, the firm's current certification will remain...less than 90 days before its current certification expires,...

2014-07-01

104

40 CFR 745.89 - Firm certification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT LEAD-BASED PAINT POISONING PREVENTION...before the date the firm's current certification expires. If...complete and timely, the firm's current certification will remain...less than 90 days before its current certification expires,...

2011-07-01

105

40 CFR 745.89 - Firm certification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT LEAD-BASED PAINT POISONING PREVENTION...before the date the firm's current certification expires. If...complete and timely, the firm's current certification will remain...less than 90 days before its current certification expires,...

2012-07-01

106

40 CFR 745.89 - Firm certification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT LEAD-BASED PAINT POISONING PREVENTION...before the date the firm's current certification expires. If...complete and timely, the firm's current certification will remain...less than 90 days before its current certification expires,...

2010-07-01

107

Identification of Modules Related to Programmed Cell Death in CHD Based on EHEN  

PubMed Central

The formation and death of macrophages and foam cells are one of the major factors that cause coronary heart disease (CHD). In our study, based on the Edinburgh Human Metabolic Network (EHMN) metabolic network, we built an enzyme network which was constructed by enzymes (nodes) and reactions (edges) called the Edinburgh Human Enzyme Network (EHEN). By integrating the subcellular location information for the reactions and refining the protein-reaction relationships based on the location information, we proposed a computational approach to select modules related to programmed cell death. The identified module was in the EHEN-mitochondria (EHEN-M) and was confirmed to be related to programmed cell death, CHD pathogenesis, and lipid metabolism in the literature. We expected this method could analyze CHD better and more comprehensively from the point of programmed cell death in subnetworks. PMID:25133163

Jia, Xu; Miao, Zhengqiang; Feng, Chenchen; Liu, Zhe; He, Yuehan; Lv, Junjie; Du, Youwen; Hou, Min; He, Weiming; Li, Danbin

2014-01-01

108

Exploitation of autopsy in determining natural cause of death: Trends in Finland with special reference to the diagnostics of ischemic heart diseases and cerebrovascular diseases in middle-aged males, 1974–1993  

Microsoft Academic Search

Finnish mortality statistics show a marked decrease in coronary disease mortality especially among middle-aged males during the last 20 to 25 years. At the same time, the overall autopsy rate in deaths due to natural, non-violent causes has diminished in Finland. National mortality statistics are based on medical information given in death certificates. How often are the causes of death

R. A Lahti; S Sarna; A Penttilä

1998-01-01

109

Two New Reference Materials Based on Tobacco Leaves: Certification for over a Dozen of Toxic and Essential Elements  

PubMed Central

The preparation, certification, and characterization of two new biological certified reference materials for inorganic trace analysis have been presented. They are based on two different varieties of tobacco leaves, namely, Oriental Basma Tobacco Leaves (INCT-OBTL-5), grown in Greece, and Polish Virginia Tobacco Leaves (INCT-PVTL-6), grown in Poland. Certification of the materials was based on the statistical evaluation of results obtained in a worldwide interlaboratory comparison, in which 87 laboratories from 18 countries participated, providing 2568 laboratory averages on nearly 80 elements. It was possible to establish the certified values of concentration for many elements in the new materials, that is, 37 in INCT-OBTL-5 and 36 in INCT-PVTL-6, including several toxic ones like As, Cd, Hg, Pb, and so forth. The share and the role of instrumental analytical techniques used in the process of certification of the new CRMs are discussed. PMID:22536124

Samczy?ski, Zbigniew; Dybczy?ski, Rajmund S.; Polkowska-Motrenko, Halina; Chajduk, Ewelina; Pyszynska, Marta; Danko, Bo?ena; Czerska, El?bieta; Kulisa, Krzysztof; Doner, Katarzyna; Kalbarczyk, Pawe?

2012-01-01

110

34 CFR 674.61 - Discharge for death or disability.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...death or disability. (a) Death. An institution must...original or certified copy of the death certificate, or an accurate...original or certified copy of the death certificate. Under exceptional...States Department of Health and Human Services pursuant to 42...

2011-07-01

111

34 CFR 674.61 - Discharge for death or disability.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...death or disability. (a) Death. An institution must...original or certified copy of the death certificate, or an accurate...original or certified copy of the death certificate. Under exceptional...States Department of Health and Human Services pursuant to 42...

2010-07-01

112

[Sleeping habits related to sudden infant death syndrome: a population-based study].  

PubMed

This cross-sectional study on sleeping habits with potential risk for sudden infant death syndrome included all live births in Passo Fundo, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, in 2003 with data collection from Certificates of Live Birth and interviews, analyzed with descriptive statistics and the chi-squared test. From the 2,634 live births, 2,285 children were selected (86.75%), with 8.4% exclusion and 5.2% losses. Protective habits included 77% of infants with appropriate clothing, 90% loosely wrapped, 69% with thin blankets, 98% sleeping in the parents' bedroom, and 56% in the crib. Potentially risky habits included lateral decubitus (92%), use of a pillow (88%), and feet far from the lower edge of the crib (96%). Among low-income families, bed-sharing with other children was significant (p = 0.00). Thus, in a county with a low prevalence of sudden infant death syndrome, infants are exposed to both protective and risk factors, suggesting that in underprivileged populations in developing countries, other risk factors for this syndrome should be considered. PMID:16501754

Geib, Lorena Teresinha Consalter; Nunes, Magda Lahorgue

2006-02-01

113

Physician-assisted deaths under the euthanasia law in Belgium: a population-based survey  

PubMed Central

Background Legalization of euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide has been heavily debated in many countries. To help inform this debate, we describe the practices of euthanasia and assisted suicide, and the use of life-ending drugs without an explicit request from the patient, in Flanders, Belgium, where euthanasia is legal. Methods We mailed a questionnaire regarding the use of life-ending drugs with or without explicit patient request to physicians who certified a representative sample (n = 6927) of death certificates of patients who died in Flanders between June and November 2007. Results The response rate was 58.4%. Overall, 208 deaths involving the use of life-ending drugs were reported: 142 (weighted prevalence 2.0%) were with an explicit patient request (euthanasia or assisted suicide) and 66 (weighted prevalence 1.8%) were without an explicit request. Euthanasia and assisted suicide mostly involved patients less than 80 years of age, those with cancer and those dying at home. Use of life-ending drugs without an explicit request mostly involved patients 80 years of older, those with a disease other than cancer and those in hospital. Of the deaths without an explicit request, the decision was not discussed with the patient in 77.9% of cases. Compared with assisted deaths with the patient’s explicit request, those without an explicit request were more likely to have a shorter length of treatment of the terminal illness, to have cure as a goal of treatment in the last week, to have a shorter estimated time by which life was shortened and to involve the administration of opioids. Interpretation Physician-assisted deaths with an explicit patient request (euthanasia and assisted suicide) and without an explicit request occurred in different patient groups and under different circumstances. Cases without an explicit request often involved patients whose diseases had unpredictable end-of-life trajectories. Although opioids were used in most of these cases, misconceptions seem to persist about their actual life-shortening effects. PMID:20479044

Chambaere, Kenneth; Bilsen, Johan; Cohen, Joachim; Onwuteaka-Philipsen, Bregje D.; Mortier, Freddy; Deliens, Luc

2010-01-01

114

Building Operator Certification: Improving Commercial Building Energy Efficiency Through Operator Training and Certification  

E-print Network

Building Operator Certification (BOC) is a competency-based certification for building operators designed to improve the energy efficiency of commercial buildings. Operators earn certification by attending training sessions and completing project...

Putnam, C.; Mulak, A.

2001-01-01

115

Meeting the community halfway to reduce maternal deaths? Evidence from a community-based maternal death review in Uttar Pradesh, India  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Background: Uttar Pradesh (UP) is the most populous state in India with the second highest reported maternal mortality ratio in the country. In an effort to analyze the reasons for maternal deaths and implement appropriate interventions, the Government of India introduced Maternal Death Review guidelines in 2010. Methods: We assessed causes of and factors leading to maternal deaths in Unnao District, UP, through 2 methods. First, we conducted a facility gap assessment in 15 of the 16 block-level and district health facilities to collect information on the performance of the facilities in terms of treating obstetric complications. Second, teams of trained physicians conducted community-based maternal death reviews (verbal autopsies) in a sample of maternal deaths occurring between June 1, 2009, and May 31, 2010. Results: Of the 248 maternal deaths that would be expected in this district in a year, we identified 153 (62%) through community workers and conducted verbal autopsies with families of 57 of them. Verbal autopsies indicated that 23% and 30% of these maternal deaths occurred at home and on the way to a health facility, respectively. Most of the women who died had been taken to at least 2 health facilities. The facility assessment revealed that only the district hospital met the recommended criteria for either basic or comprehensive emergency obstetric and neonatal care. Conclusions: Life-saving treatment of obstetric complications was not offered at the appropriate level of government facilities in a representative district in UP, and an inadequate referral system provided fatal delays. Expensive transportation costs to get pregnant women to a functioning medical facility also contributed to maternal death. The maternal death review, coupled with the facility gap assessment, is a useful tool to address the adequacy of emergency obstetric and neonatal care services to prevent further maternal deaths. PMID:25276519

Raj, Sunil Saksena; Maine, Deborah; Sahoo, Pratap Kumar; Manthri, Suneedh; Chauhan, Kavita

2013-01-01

116

The Development of a Competency Based Train-the-Trainer Course for the Certification of Professional Development Center Instructors.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A competency-based training course was designed to prepare Professional Development Center (PDC) instructors for the certification process. After an exhaustive review of the literature, it was determined that a relevant training course that would specifically reflect the needs of the PDC was not available. The decision was then made to design a…

Rudasill, Susann E.

117

Certificate-Based Approach to Marketing Green Power and Constructing New Wind Energy Facilities: Preprint  

SciTech Connect

The availability of wind energy certificates in Pennsylvania's retail electricity market has made a critical difference in the economic feasibility of developing 140 MW of new wind energy projects in the region. Certificates offer important benefits to both green power suppliers and buyers by reducing transaction barriers and thus lowering the cost of renewable energy. Buyers also benefit through the increased flexibility offered by certificate products. The experience described in this paper offers important insights for selling green power certificates and achieving new wind energy development in other areas of the country.

Blank, E.; Bird, L.; Swezey, B.

2002-05-01

118

Claims-Based Definition of Death in Japanese Claims Database: Validity and Implications  

PubMed Central

Background For the pending National Claims Database in Japan, researchers will not have access to death information in the enrollment files. We developed and evaluated a claims-based definition of death. Methodology/Principal Findings We used healthcare claims and enrollment data between January 2005 and August 2009 for 195,193 beneficiaries aged 20 to 74 in 3 private health insurance unions. We developed claims-based definitions of death using discharge or disease status and Charlson comorbidity index (CCI). We calculated sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive values (PPVs) using the enrollment data as a gold standard in the overall population and subgroups divided by demographic and other factors. We also assessed bias and precision in two example studies where an outcome was death. The definition based on the combination of discharge/disease status and CCI provided moderate sensitivity (around 60%) and high specificity (99.99%) and high PPVs (94.8%). In most subgroups, sensitivity of the preferred definition was also around 60% but varied from 28 to 91%. In an example study comparing death rates between two anticancer drug classes, the claims-based definition provided valid and precise hazard ratios (HRs). In another example study comparing two classes of anti-depressants, the HR with the claims-based definition was biased and had lower precision than that with the gold standard definition. Conclusions/Significance The claims-based definitions of death developed in this study had high specificity and PPVs while sensitivity was around 60%. The definitions will be useful in future studies when used with attention to the possible fluctuation of sensitivity in some subpopulations. PMID:23741526

Ooba, Nobuhiro; Setoguchi, Soko; Ando, Takashi; Sato, Tsugumichi; Yamaguchi, Takuhiro; Mochizuki, Mayumi; Kubota, Kiyoshi

2013-01-01

119

Combined Prediction Model of Death Toll for Road Traffic Accidents Based on Independent and Dependent Variables  

PubMed Central

In order to build a combined model which can meet the variation rule of death toll data for road traffic accidents and can reflect the influence of multiple factors on traffic accidents and improve prediction accuracy for accidents, the Verhulst model was built based on the number of death tolls for road traffic accidents in China from 2002 to 2011; and car ownership, population, GDP, highway freight volume, highway passenger transportation volume, and highway mileage were chosen as the factors to build the death toll multivariate linear regression model. Then the two models were combined to be a combined prediction model which has weight coefficient. Shapley value method was applied to calculate the weight coefficient by assessing contributions. Finally, the combined model was used to recalculate the number of death tolls from 2002 to 2011, and the combined model was compared with the Verhulst and multivariate linear regression models. The results showed that the new model could not only characterize the death toll data characteristics but also quantify the degree of influence to the death toll by each influencing factor and had high accuracy as well as strong practicability. PMID:25610454

Zhong-xiang, Feng; Shi-sheng, Lu; Wei-hua, Zhang; Nan-nan, Zhang

2014-01-01

120

Combined prediction model of death toll for road traffic accidents based on independent and dependent variables.  

PubMed

In order to build a combined model which can meet the variation rule of death toll data for road traffic accidents and can reflect the influence of multiple factors on traffic accidents and improve prediction accuracy for accidents, the Verhulst model was built based on the number of death tolls for road traffic accidents in China from 2002 to 2011; and car ownership, population, GDP, highway freight volume, highway passenger transportation volume, and highway mileage were chosen as the factors to build the death toll multivariate linear regression model. Then the two models were combined to be a combined prediction model which has weight coefficient. Shapley value method was applied to calculate the weight coefficient by assessing contributions. Finally, the combined model was used to recalculate the number of death tolls from 2002 to 2011, and the combined model was compared with the Verhulst and multivariate linear regression models. The results showed that the new model could not only characterize the death toll data characteristics but also quantify the degree of influence to the death toll by each influencing factor and had high accuracy as well as strong practicability. PMID:25610454

Feng, Zhong-xiang; Lu, Shi-sheng; Zhang, Wei-hua; Zhang, Nan-nan

2014-01-01

121

School-Based Initial Vocational Education in the Republic of Ireland: The Parity of Esteem and Fitness for Purpose of the Leaving Certificate Applied  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Irish Leaving Certificate Applied (LCA) is a school-based, pre-vocational alternative to the "high stakes" established Leaving Certificate. Its origins lie in European Union funded "school to work" initiatives and it is currently taken to completion by some 5% of Irish senior cycle students. Since it was designed 20 years…

Gleeson, Jim; O'Flaherty, Joanne

2013-01-01

122

NATIONAL VITAL STATISTICS SYSTEM - LINKED BIRTH AND INFANT DEATH DATA  

EPA Science Inventory

In 1983, NCHS established a research data set comprised of linked birth and death certificates for infants born in the United States who died before reaching one year of age. In this data set, information from the death certificate is linked with information from the birth certif...

123

Blended roles: preparing the advanced practice nurse educator\\/clinician with a web-based nurse educator certificate program  

Microsoft Academic Search

Changing demographics, a nursing shortage, and various societal changes underscore the need for nurse educators and new nurse educator programs. This article describes a Web-based nurse educator program designed to prepare advanced practice nurses for faculty roles while simultaneously preparing them as clinicians. Guided by adult education theory and self-directed learning theory, the Web-based Nurse Educator Certificate (four Web-based nurse

Wanda B Bonnel; Carol K Starling; Karen A Wambach; Karen Tarnow

2003-01-01

124

Modular Certification  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Airplanes are certified as a whole: there is no established basis for separately certifying some components, particularly software-intensive ones, independently of their specific application in a given airplane. The absence of separate certification inhibits the development of modular components that could be largely "precertified" and used in several different contexts within a single airplane, or across many different airplanes. In this report, we examine the issues in modular certification of software components and propose an approach based on assume-guarantee reasoning. We extend the method from verification to certification by considering behavior in the presence of failures. This exposes the need for partitioning, and separation of assumptions and guarantees into normal and abnormal cases. We then identify three classes of property that must be verified within this framework: safe function, true guarantees, and controlled failure. We identify a particular assume-guarantee proof rule (due to McMillan) that is appropriate to the applications considered, and formally verify its soundness in PVS.

Rushby, John; Miner, Paul S. (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

125

Deaths: Final Data for 2005  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Objectives—This report presents final 2005 data on U.S. deaths; death rates; life expectancy; infant and maternal mortality; and trends by selected characteristics such as age, sex, Hispanic origin, race, marital status, educational attainment, injury at work, state of residence, and causeof death. Methods—This report presents descriptive tabulations of information reported on death certificates, which are completed by funeral directors,

Hsiang-ching Kung; Donna L. Hoyert; Jiaquan Xu; Sherry L. Murphy

126

Impedance-Based Monitoring of Ongoing Cardiomyocyte Death Induced by Tumor Necrosis Factor-a  

E-print Network

that electric cell-substrate impedance sensing (ECIS) is a noninvasive and sensitive detecting technique that this advanced ECIS method is capable of detecting vertical motion on the order of 1 nm (3). Combined with oImpedance-Based Monitoring of Ongoing Cardiomyocyte Death Induced by Tumor Necrosis Factor-a Yiling

127

Development of a coroner-based surveillance system for drug-related deaths in Los Angeles county.  

PubMed

Existing data sources do not provide comprehensive and timely information to adequately monitor drug-related mortality in Los Angeles County. To fill this gap, a surveillance system using coroner data was developed to examine patterns in drug-related deaths. The coroner provided data on all injury deaths in Los Angeles County. A list of keywords that indicate a death was caused by drug use was developed. The cause of death variables in the coroner data were searched for mentions of one of the keywords; if a keyword was detected, that death was classified as drug related. The effectiveness of the keyword list in classifying drug-related deaths was evaluated by matching records in the coroner death data to records in the state death files. Then, the drug-related deaths identified using the keywords were compared to drug-related deaths in the state mortality files identified using International Classification of Death codes. Toxicological test results were used to categorize drug-related deaths based on the type and legality of the drug(s) ingested. Mortality rates were calculated for each category of drug and legal status and for different demographic groups. Compared to the gold standard state mortality files, the coroner data had a sensitivity of 95.6% for identifying drug-related deaths. Over three quarters of all drug-related deaths tested positive for opiates and/or stimulants. Males, Whites, and 35-54-year-olds each accounted for more than half of all drug-related deaths. The surveillance of drug-related deaths using coroner data has several advantages: data are available in a timely fashion, the data include information about the specific substances each victim ingested, and the data can be broken down to compare mortality among specific subpopulations. PMID:20440654

Sternfeld, Isabelle; Perras, Nicolle; Culross, Patti L

2010-07-01

128

Inference of Epidemiological Dynamics Based on Simulated Phylogenies Using Birth-Death and Coalescent Models  

PubMed Central

Quantifying epidemiological dynamics is crucial for understanding and forecasting the spread of an epidemic. The coalescent and the birth-death model are used interchangeably to infer epidemiological parameters from the genealogical relationships of the pathogen population under study, which in turn are inferred from the pathogen genetic sequencing data. To compare the performance of these widely applied models, we performed a simulation study. We simulated phylogenetic trees under the constant rate birth-death model and the coalescent model with a deterministic exponentially growing infected population. For each tree, we re-estimated the epidemiological parameters using both a birth-death and a coalescent based method, implemented as an MCMC procedure in BEAST v2.0. In our analyses that estimate the growth rate of an epidemic based on simulated birth-death trees, the point estimates such as the maximum a posteriori/maximum likelihood estimates are not very different. However, the estimates of uncertainty are very different. The birth-death model had a higher coverage than the coalescent model, i.e. contained the true value in the highest posterior density (HPD) interval more often (2–13% vs. 31–75% error). The coverage of the coalescent decreases with decreasing basic reproductive ratio and increasing sampling probability of infecteds. We hypothesize that the biases in the coalescent are due to the assumption of deterministic rather than stochastic population size changes. Both methods performed reasonably well when analyzing trees simulated under the coalescent. The methods can also identify other key epidemiological parameters as long as one of the parameters is fixed to its true value. In summary, when using genetic data to estimate epidemic dynamics, our results suggest that the birth-death method will be less sensitive to population fluctuations of early outbreaks than the coalescent method that assumes a deterministic exponentially growing infected population. PMID:25375100

Boskova, Veronika; Bonhoeffer, Sebastian; Stadler, Tanja

2014-01-01

129

Certificate Issued Program Requirements Met  

E-print Network

in Occupational Health & Safety GIS Certification Introduction to GIS Certificate Certificate in Mental Health-Baccalaureate Certificate in Music Education Canadian Risk Management Certification Certificate in Project Management

Northern British Columbia, University of

130

Diagnostic value of radiography in cases of perinatal death: a population based study  

PubMed Central

Objective: To examine the yield of radiographic abnormalities in a population based set of perinatal deaths, the diagnostic value of whole body postmortem radiographs in the same set, and previous factors that may increase the proportion of useful examinations. Design: Retrospective population based study. Setting: A region of Norway. Patients: All infants from a well defined geographical area who were stillborn or had died soon after birth over an 11 year period (n=542), who had routinely undergone whole body radiography and autopsy. Main outcome measures: (a) Proportion of cases with abnormal radiographic findings. (b) Proportion of abnormal radiographs providing new information that was useful for postmortem diagnosis. Results: Radiographs were abnormal in 162/542 cases (30%). These provided new information about, but did not help to confirm, the pathological process leading to death in 14/162 (8.6%), may have helped to confirm, but not establish, the cause(s) of death in 1/162 (0.6%), and were of vital importance for establishing the cause(s) of death in 5/162 (3.1%). Among infants with external malformations, the proportion of useful radiographs was 12/100 (12%), and among the remainder it was 8/436 (1.8%), a difference of 10.2% (95% confidence interval 3.7% to 16.7%; data missing for six cases). Conclusions: The diagnostic value of postmortem radiography in this population based set was low. However, radiographic findings were of vital importance for establishing the cause(s) of death in 5/542 cases (0.9%). PMID:14602703

Olsen, O; Espeland, A; Maartmann-Moe, H; Lachman, R; Rosendahl, K

2003-01-01

131

38 CFR 51.20 - Application for recognition based on certification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) PER DIEM FOR NURSING HOME CARE OF VETERANS IN STATE HOMES Obtaining Per Diem for Nursing Home Care in State Homes § 51.20...and certification of a State home for nursing home care, a State must:...

2012-07-01

132

38 CFR 51.20 - Application for recognition based on certification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) PER DIEM FOR NURSING HOME CARE OF VETERANS IN STATE HOMES Obtaining Per Diem for Nursing Home Care in State Homes § 51.20...and certification of a State home for nursing home care, a State must:...

2011-07-01

133

38 CFR 51.20 - Application for recognition based on certification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) PER DIEM FOR NURSING HOME CARE OF VETERANS IN STATE HOMES Obtaining Per Diem for Nursing Home Care in State Homes § 51.20...and certification of a State home for nursing home care, a State must:...

2013-07-01

134

38 CFR 51.20 - Application for recognition based on certification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) PER DIEM FOR NURSING HOME CARE OF VETERANS IN STATE HOMES Obtaining Per Diem for Nursing Home Care in State Homes § 51.20...and certification of a State home for nursing home care, a State must:...

2010-07-01

135

38 CFR 51.20 - Application for recognition based on certification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) PER DIEM FOR NURSING HOME CARE OF VETERANS IN STATE HOMES Obtaining Per Diem for Nursing Home Care in State Homes § 51.20...and certification of a State home for nursing home care, a State must:...

2014-07-01

136

23 CFR Appendix C to Part 1240 - Certification (Calendar Year 1998 Survey Based on Survey Approved Under 23 U.S.C. 153)  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... 2014-04-01 false Certification (Calendar Year 1998 Survey Based on Survey Approved Under 23 U.S.C. 153) C Appendix C to Part 1240 Highways NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION AND FEDERAL HIGHWAY...

2014-04-01

137

23 CFR Appendix C to Part 1240 - Certification (Calendar Year 1998 Survey Based on Survey Approved Under 23 U.S.C. 153)  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-04-01 false Certification (Calendar Year 1998 Survey Based on Survey Approved Under 23 U.S.C. 153) C Appendix C to Part 1240 Highways NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION AND FEDERAL HIGHWAY...

2011-04-01

138

23 CFR Appendix C to Part 1240 - Certification (Calendar Year 1998 Survey Based on Survey Approved Under 23 U.S.C. 153)  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-04-01 false Certification (Calendar Year 1998 Survey Based on Survey Approved Under 23 U.S.C. 153) C Appendix C to Part 1240 Highways NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION AND FEDERAL HIGHWAY...

2010-04-01

139

23 CFR Appendix C to Part 1240 - Certification (Calendar Year 1998 Survey Based on Survey Approved Under 23 U.S.C. 153)  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-04-01 false Certification (Calendar Year 1998 Survey Based on Survey Approved Under 23 U.S.C. 153) C Appendix C to Part 1240 Highways NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION AND FEDERAL HIGHWAY...

2012-04-01

140

23 CFR Appendix C to Part 1240 - Certification (Calendar Year 1998 Survey Based on Survey Approved Under 23 U.S.C. 153)  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-04-01 false Certification (Calendar Year 1998 Survey Based on Survey Approved Under 23 U.S.C. 153) C Appendix C to Part 1240 Highways NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION AND FEDERAL HIGHWAY...

2013-04-01

141

Towards FAA Certification of UAVs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As of June 30, 2003, all Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV), no matter how small, must adhere to the same FAA regulations as human-piloted aircraft. These regulations include certification for flying in controlled airspace and certification of flight software based on RTCA DO-178B. This paper provides an overview of the steps necessary to obtain certification, as well as a discussion about the challenges UAV's face when trying to meet these requirements. It is divided into two parts: 1) Certifications for Flying in Controlled Airspace; 2) Certification of Flight Software per RTCA DO-178B.

Nelson, Stacy

2003-01-01

142

Comparison of Rates of Death Having any Death-Certificate Mention of Heart, Kidney, or Liver Disease Among Persons Diagnosed with HIV Infection with those in the General US Population, 2009-2011  

PubMed Central

Objective : Compare age-adjusted rates of death due to liver, kidney, and heart diseases during 2009-2011 among US residents diagnosed with HIV infection with those in the general population. Methods : Numerators were numbers of records of multiple-cause mortality data from the national vital statistics system with an ICD-10 code for the disease of interest (any mention, not necessarily the underlying cause), divided into those 1) with and 2) without an additional code for HIV infection. Denominators were 1) estimates of persons living with diagnosed HIV infection from national HIV surveillance system data and 2) general population estimates from the US Census Bureau. We compared age-adjusted rates overall (unstratified by sex, race/ethnicity, or region of residence) and stratified by demographic group. Results : Overall, compared with the general population, persons diagnosed with HIV infection had higher age-adjusted rates of death reported with hepatitis B (rate ratio [RR]=42.6; 95% CI: 34.7-50.7), hepatitis C (RR=19.4; 95% CI: 18.1-20.8), liver disease excluding hepatitis B or C (RR=2.1; 95% CI: 1.8-2.3), kidney disease (RR=2.4; 95% CI: 2.2-2.6), and cardiomyopathy (RR=1.9; 95% CI: 1.6-2.3), but lower rates of death reported with ischemic heart disease (RR=0.6; 95% CI: 0.6-0.7) and heart failure (RR=0.8; 95% CI: 0.6-0.9). However, the differences in rates of death reported with the heart diseases were insignificant in some demographic groups. Conclusion : Persons with HIV infection have a higher risk of death with liver and kidney diseases reported as causes than the general population. PMID:25767634

Whiteside, Y. Omar; Selik, Richard; An, Qian; Huang, Taoying; Karch, Debra; Hernandez, Angela L; Hall, H. Irene

2015-01-01

143

Sphingolipid long chain base phosphates can regulate apoptotic-like programmed cell death in plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sphingolipids are ubiquitous components of eukaryotic cells and sphingolipid metabolites, such as the long chain base phosphate (LCB-P), sphingosine 1 phosphate (S1P) and ceramide (Cer) are important regulators of apoptosis in animal cells. This study evaluated the role of LCB-Ps in regulating apoptotic-like programmed cell death (AL-PCD) in plant cells using commercially available S1P as a tool. Arabidopsis cell cultures

Keith P. Alden; Sandrine Dhondt-Cordelier; Kerrie L. McDonald; Theresa J. Reape; Carl K.-Y. Ng; Paul F. McCabe; Christopher J. Leaver

2011-01-01

144

Recurrence of perinatal death in Northern Tanzania: a registry based cohort study  

PubMed Central

Background Perinatal mortality is known to be high in Sub-Saharan Africa. Some women may carry a particularly high risk which would be reflected in a high recurrence risk. We aim to estimate the recurrence risk of perinatal death using data from a hospital in Northern Tanzania. Methods We constructed a cohort study using data from the hospital based KCMC Medical Birth Registry. Women who delivered a singleton for the first time at the hospital between 2000 and 2008 were followed in the registry for subsequent deliveries up to 2010 and 3,909 women were identified with at least one more delivery within the follow-up period. Recurrence risk of perinatal death was estimated in multivariate models analysis while adjusting for confounders and accounting for correlation between births from the same mother. Results The recurrence risk of perinatal death for women who had lost a previous baby was 9.1%. This amounted to a relative risk of 3.2 (95% CI: 2.2 - 4.7) compared to the much lower risk of 2.8% for women who had had a surviving baby. Recurrence contributed 21.2% (31/146) of perinatal deaths in subsequent pregnancies. Preeclampsia, placental abruption, placenta previa, induced labor, preterm delivery and low birth weight in a previous delivery with a surviving baby were also associated with increased perinatal mortality in the next pregnancy. Conclusions Some women in Tanzanian who suffer a perinatal loss in one pregnancy are at a particularly high risk of also losing the baby of a subsequent pregnancy. Strategies of perinatal death prevention that target pregnant women who are particularly vulnerable or already have experienced a perinatal loss should be considered in future research. PMID:23988153

2013-01-01

145

Record-linkage comparison of verbal autopsy and routine civil registration death certification in rural north-east South Africa: 2006–09  

PubMed Central

Background: South African civil registration (CR) provides a key data source for local health decision making, and informs the levels and causes of mortality in data-lacking sub-Saharan African countries. We linked mortality data from CR and the Agincourt Health and Socio-demographic Surveillance System (Agincourt HDSS) to examine the quality of rural CR data. Methods: Deterministic and probabilistic techniques were used to link death data from 2006 to 2009. Causes of death were aggregated into the WHO Mortality Tabulation List 1 and a locally relevant short list of 15 causes. The matching rate was compared with informant-reported death registration. Using the VA diagnoses as reference, misclassification patterns, sensitivity, positive predictive values and cause-specific mortality fractions (CSMFs) were calculated for the short list. Results: A matching rate of 61% [95% confidence interval (CI): 59.2 to 62.3] was attained, lower than the informant-reported registration rate of 85% (CI: 83.4 to 85.8). For the 2264 matched cases, cause agreement was 15% (kappa 0.1083, CI: 0.0995 to 0.1171) for the WHO list, and 23% (kappa 0.1631, CI: 0.1511 to 0.1751) for the short list. CSMFs were significantly different for all but four (tuberculosis, cerebrovascular disease, other heart disease, and ill-defined natural) of the 15 causes evaluated. Conclusion: Despite data limitations, it is feasible to link official CR and HDSS verbal autopsy data. Data linkage proved a promising method to provide empirical evidence about the quality and utility of rural CR mortality data. Agreement of individual causes of death was low but, at the population level, careful interpretation of the CR data can assist health prioritization and planning. PMID:25146564

Joubert, Jané; Bradshaw, Debbie; Kabudula, Chodziwadziwa; Rao, Chalapati; Kahn, Kathleen; Mee, Paul; Tollman, Stephen; Lopez, Alan D; Vos, Theo

2014-01-01

146

Analyzing EEG of quasi-brain-death based on dynamic sample entropy measures.  

PubMed

To give a more definite criterion using electroencephalograph (EEG) approach on brain death determination is vital for both reducing the risks and preventing medical misdiagnosis. This paper presents several novel adaptive computable entropy methods based on approximate entropy (ApEn) and sample entropy (SampEn) to monitor the varying symptoms of patients and to determine the brain death. The proposed method is a dynamic extension of the standard ApEn and SampEn by introducing a shifted time window. The main advantages of the developed dynamic approximate entropy (DApEn) and dynamic sample entropy (DSampEn) are for real-time computation and practical use. Results from the analysis of 35 patients (63 recordings) show that the proposed methods can illustrate effectiveness and well performance in evaluating the brain consciousness states. PMID:24454537

Ni, Li; Cao, Jianting; Wang, Rubin

2013-01-01

147

Analyzing EEG of Quasi-Brain-Death Based on Dynamic Sample Entropy Measures  

PubMed Central

To give a more definite criterion using electroencephalograph (EEG) approach on brain death determination is vital for both reducing the risks and preventing medical misdiagnosis. This paper presents several novel adaptive computable entropy methods based on approximate entropy (ApEn) and sample entropy (SampEn) to monitor the varying symptoms of patients and to determine the brain death. The proposed method is a dynamic extension of the standard ApEn and SampEn by introducing a shifted time window. The main advantages of the developed dynamic approximate entropy (DApEn) and dynamic sample entropy (DSampEn) are for real-time computation and practical use. Results from the analysis of 35 patients (63 recordings) show that the proposed methods can illustrate effectiveness and well performance in evaluating the brain consciousness states. PMID:24454537

Cao, Jianting; Wang, Rubin

2013-01-01

148

Patterns in Place of Cancer Death in the State of Qatar: A Population-Based Study  

PubMed Central

Background International studies show that most people prefer to die at home; however, hospitals remain the most common place of death (PoD). This study aims to investigate the patterns in PoD and the associated factors, which are crucial for end-of-life cancer care enhancement. Method This retrospective, population-based study analyzed all registered cancer deaths in Qatar between January 1, 2006 and December 31, 2012 (n?=?1,224). The main outcome measures were patient characteristics: age, gender, nationality, cancer diagnosis, year of death, and PoD. Time trends for age-standardized proportions of death in individual PoDs were evaluated using chi-square analysis. Odds ratio (OR) were determined for variables associated with the most preferred (acute palliative care unit [APCU] and hematology/oncology ward) versus least preferred (ICU and general medicine ward) PoDs in Qatar, stratified by nationality. Results The hematology/oncology ward was the most common PoD (32.4%; 95% CI 26.7–35.3%) followed by ICU (31.4%; 95% CI 28.7–34.3%), APCU (26.9%; 95% CI 24.3–29.6%), and general medicine ward (9.2%; 95% CI 7.6–11.1%). APCU trended upward (+0.057/year; p<0.001), while the hematology/oncology ward trended downward (?0.055/year; p<0.001). No statistically significant changes occurred in the other PoDs; home deaths remained low (0.4%; 95% Cl 0.38–0.42). Qataris who died from liver cancer (OR 0.23) and aged 65 or older (OR 0.64) were less likely to die in the APCU or hematology/oncology ward (p<0.05). Non-Qataris who died from pancreatic cancer (OR 3.12) and female (OR 2.05) were more likely to die in the APCU or hematology/oncology ward (p<0.05). Both Qataris and non-Qataris who died from hematologic malignancy (OR 0.18 and 0.41, respectively) were more likely to die in the ICU or general medicine ward (p<0.05). Conclusion A high percentage of cancer deaths in Qatar occur in hospital. As home was the preferred PoD for most people, effective home care and hospice programs are needed to improve end-of-life cancer care. PMID:25536076

Mohsen, Hassan; Haddad, Pascale; Allam, Ayman; Hassan, Azza

2014-01-01

149

An Application of Third-Party Certification for Supplier Selection Based on Signaling Game  

Microsoft Academic Search

The supplier selection process is a strategic decision making process in supply chain management, and independent third-party certification (TPC) agency plays an important role in supplier selection. The signaling game model is established after analyzing the behaviors of the buyer and supplier under the circumstances of incomplete market information, and separating equilibrium and pooling equilibrium are worked out and analyzed.

Shen Xin

2009-01-01

150

20 CFR 410.679 - Finality of findings with respect to other claims for benefits based on the disability or death...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...benefits based on the disability or death of a miner. 410.679 Section...SAFETY ACT OF 1969, TITLE IV-BLACK LUNG BENEFITS (1969...benefits based on the disability or death of a miner. Findings of...benefits based on the disability or death of the same miner, even...

2011-04-01

151

Community Leadership Certificate Program Program Overview  

E-print Network

Community Leadership Certificate Program Program Overview The undergraduate Community Leadership Certificate Program is an interdisciplinary program where students from any major can explore leadership in community engagement and leadership. The program is based on a social justice model of leadership

Saldin, Dilano

152

16 CFR 1204.14 - Certification tests.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...OMNIDIRECTIONAL CITIZENS BAND BASE STATION ANTENNAS Certification § 1204.14 Certification...program for a particular model of CB antennas is one which demonstrates with a high degree of assurance that all the antennas of that model will meet...

2014-01-01

153

Infant Maltreatment-Related Mortality in Alaska: Correcting the Count and Using Birth Certificates to Predict Mortality  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objectives: To accurately count the number of infant maltreatment-related fatalities and to use information from the birth certificates to predict infant maltreatment-related deaths. Methods: A population-based retrospective cohort study of infants born in Alaska for the years 1992 through 2005 was conducted. Risk factor variables were ascertained…

Parrish, Jared W.; Gessner, Bradford D.

2010-01-01

154

40 CFR 745.226 - Certification of individuals and firms engaged in lead-based paint activities: target housing and...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...or (3 ) Certification as an industrial hygienist, professional engineer...and/or certification in a related engineering/health/environmental field (e...supervisors. (2 ) Bachelor's degree in engineering, architecture, or a related...

2011-07-01

155

Certification trails for data structures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Certification trails are a recently introduced and promising approach to fault detection and fault tolerance. The applicability of the certification trail technique is significantly generalized. Previously, certification trails had to be customized to each algorithm application; trails appropriate to wide classes of algorithms were developed. These certification trails are based on common data-structure operations such as those carried out using these sets of operations such as those carried out using balanced binary trees and heaps. Any algorithms using these sets of operations can therefore employ the certification trail method to achieve software fault tolerance. To exemplify the scope of the generalization of the certification trail technique provided, constructions of trails for abstract data types such as priority queues and union-find structures are given. These trails are applicable to any data-structure implementation of the abstract data type. It is also shown that these ideals lead naturally to monitors for data-structure operations.

Sullivan, Gregory F.; Masson, Gerald M.

1993-01-01

156

Shikonin induces immunogenic cell death in tumor cells and enhances dendritic cell-based cancer vaccine.  

PubMed

Immunogenic cell death is characterized by damage-associated molecular patterns, which can enhance the maturation and antigen uptake of dendritic cells. Shikonin, an anti-inflammatory and antitumor phytochemical, was exploited here as an adjuvant for dendritic cell-based cancer vaccines via induction of immunogenic cell death. Shikonin can effectively activate both receptor- and mitochondria-mediated apoptosis and increase the expression of all five tested damage-associated molecular patterns in the resultant tumor cell lysates. The combination treatment with damage-associated molecular patterns and LPS activates dendritic cells to a high maturation status and enhances the priming of Th1/Th17 effector cells. Shikonin-tumor cell lysate-loaded mature dendritic cells exhibit a high level of CD86 and MHC class II and activate Th1 cells. The shikonin-tumor cell lysate-loaded dendritic cell vaccines result in a strong induction of cytotoxic activity of splenocytes against target tumor cells, a retardation in tumor growth, and an increase in the survival of test mice. The much enhanced immunogenicity and efficacy of the current cancer vaccine formulation, that is, the use of shikonin-treated tumor cells as cell lysates for the pulse of dendritic cells in culture, may suggest a new ex vivo approach for developing individualized, dendritic cells-based anticancer vaccines. PMID:22527248

Chen, Hui-Ming; Wang, Pi-Hsueh; Chen, Swey-Shen; Wen, Chih-Chun; Chen, Yun-Hsiang; Yang, Wen-Chin; Yang, Ning-Sun

2012-11-01

157

Predictors of Death among Patients Who Completed Tuberculosis Treatment: A Population-Based Cohort Study  

PubMed Central

Background Mortality among patients who complete tuberculosis (TB) treatment is still high among vulnerable populations. The objective of the study was to identify the probability of death and its predictive factors in a cohort of successfully treated TB patients. Methods A population-based retrospective longitudinal study was performed in Barcelona, Spain. All patients who successfully completed TB treatment with culture-confirmation and available drug susceptibility testing between 1995–1997 were retrospectively followed-up until December 31, 2005 by the Barcelona TB Control Program. Socio-demographic, clinical, microbiological and treatment variables were examined. Mortality, TB Program and AIDS registries were reviewed. Kaplan-Meier and a Cox regression methods with time-dependent covariates were used for the survival analysis, calculating the hazard ratio (HR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results Among the 762 included patients, the median age was 36 years, 520 (68.2%) were male, 178 (23.4%) HIV-infected, and 208 (27.3%) were alcohol abusers. Of the 134 (17.6%) injecting drug users (IDU), 123 (91.8%) were HIV-infected. A total of 30 (3.9%) recurrences and 173 deaths (22.7%) occurred (mortality rate: 3.4/100 person-years of follow-up). The predictors of death were: age between 41–60 years old (HR: 3.5; CI:2.1–5.7), age greater than 60 years (HR: 14.6; CI:8.9–24), alcohol abuse (HR: 1.7; CI:1.2–2.4) and HIV-infected IDU (HR: 7.9; CI:4.7–13.3). Conclusions The mortality rate among TB patients who completed treatment is associated with vulnerable populations such as the elderly, alcohol abusers, and HIV-infected IDU. We therefore need to fight against poverty, and promote and develop interventions and social policies directed towards these populations to improve their survival. PMID:21980423

Millet, Juan-Pablo; Orcau, Angels; Rius, Cristina; Casals, Marti; de Olalla, Patricia Garcia; Moreno, Antonio; Nelson, Jeanne L.; Caylà, Joan A.

2011-01-01

158

The high burden of infant deaths in rural Burkina Faso: a prospective community-based cohort study  

PubMed Central

Background Infant mortality rates (IMR) remain high in many sub-Saharan African countries, especially in rural settings where access to health services may be limited. Studies in such communities can provide relevant data on the burden of and risk factors for infant death. We measured IMR and explored risk factors for infant death in a cohort of children born in Banfora Health District, a rural area in South-West Burkina Faso. Methods A prospective community-based cohort study was nested within the PROMISE-EBF trial (NCT00397150) in 24 villages of the study area. Maternal and infant baseline characteristics were collected at recruitment and after birth, respectively. Home visits were conducted at weeks 3, 6, 12, 24 and 52 after birth. Descriptive statistics were calculated using robust standard errors to account for cluster sampling. Cox multivariable regression was used to investigate potential risk factors for infant death. Results Among the 866 live born children included in the study there were 98 infant deaths, yielding an IMR of 113 per 1000 live births (95% CI: 89–143). Over 75% of infant deaths had occurred by 6?months of age and the post neonatal infant mortality rate was 67 per 1000 live births (95% CI: 51–88). Infections (35%) and preterm births complications (23%) were the most common probable causes of death by 6?months. Multivariable analyses identified maternal history of child death, polygyny, twin births and poor anthropometric z-scores at week-3 as factors associated with increased risk of infant death. Conclusions We observed a very high IMR in a rural area of Burkina Faso, a country where 75% of the population lives in rural settings. Community-based health interventions targeting mothers and children at high risk are urgently needed to reduce the high burden of infant deaths in these areas. PMID:22947029

2012-01-01

159

The 1989 revision of the U.S. Standard Certificates and Reports.  

PubMed

This report examines the procedures followed in the 1989 revision of the U.S. Standard Certificates of Live Birth and Death; License and Certificate of Marriage; Certificate of Divorce, Dissolution of Marriage, or Annulment; and Reports of Fetal Death and Induced Termination of Pregnancy. It outlines the history and basic principles of the standard certificates and reports and describes the principal additions, modifications, and deletions of items. In addition, it discusses changes in the format of the standard certificates and reports as well as the implementation of the new certificates and reporting forms. PMID:1713727

Tolson, G C; Barnes, J M; Gay, G A; Kowaleski, J L

1991-06-01

160

Environmental Certification  

E-print Network

Environmental Compliance Inspector Certification 2009 Candidate Handbook This booklet contains... ° Subject matter for the Environmental Compliance Inspector tests ° Education and experience requirements Contents Environmental Compliance Inspector 2009 Candidate Handbook This handbook contains information

161

Brain death: the asian perspective.  

PubMed

Asia is the largest and most populous continent in the world with people from many diverse ethnic groups, religions and government systems. The authors surveyed 14 countries accounting for the majority of Asia's population and found that, although the concept of brain death is widely accepted, there is wide variability in the criteria for certification. Although most Asian countries have adopted the "whole-brain" concept of brain death, most countries with past colonial links to the United Kingdom follow the UK "brainstem" concept of brain death. Despite this difference, most countries require only neurologic testing of irreversible coma and absent brainstem reflexes as criteria for certification of brain death. Variability exists in the number of personnel required, qualifications of certifying doctors, need for repeat examination, minimum time interval between examinations, and requirement for and choice of confirmatory tests. PMID:25839724

Chua, Hoe Chin; Kwek, Tong Kiat; Morihara, Hirofumi; Gao, Daiquan

2015-04-01

162

PREPARING FOR A SUCCESSFUL EVMS CERTIFICATION  

SciTech Connect

The client, a government agency, requires its contractor to obtain an Earned Value Management System (EVMS) certification that meets the intent of ANSI/EIA-748-B, Earned Value Management Systems. The contractor has extensive experience with certification preparation, having completed two certifications within two years. Information from a previous EVMS certification and internal system surveillances are used to prepare for client-based EVMS certifications and bi-annual surveillances. The contractor also sent members of its group to assist other companies preparing for surveillances and certifications to perform 'Black Hat Reviews.' This paper is a lessons learned on preparing a team for EVMS certification. The information is also applicable for surveillances, since the contractor prepares its team for the surveillance in the same manner as the initial certification. Some of the areas covered include required documents, tracing the data through the systems, Control Account Manager (CAM) preparation, and system verification.

CROWE SL; BASCHE AD

2011-02-09

163

A post-mortem survey on end-of-life decisions using a representative sample of death certificates in Flanders, Belgium: research protocol  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Reliable studies of the incidence and characteristics of medical end-of-life decisions with a certain or possible life shortening effect (ELDs) are indispensable for an evidence-based medical and societal debate on this issue. This article presents the protocol drafted for the 2007 ELD Study in Flanders, Belgium, and outlines how the main aims and challenges of the study (i.e. making

Kenneth Chambaere; Johan Bilsen; Joachim Cohen; Geert Pousset; Bregje Onwuteaka-Philipsen; Freddy Mortier; Luc Deliens

2008-01-01

164

Determinants of place of death: a population-based retrospective cohort study  

PubMed Central

Background As Canada’s population ages, the location of end of life care (whether at home, extended care facility or hospital) may change depending on the location of death. We carried out a study to identify determinants of the place of death. Methods Data on deaths in British Columbia between 2004 and 2008 were obtained from the Vital Statistics Agency. Place of death was categorized into home, extended care facility, hospital or other. Logistic regression analyses were used to estimate the effects of age, sex, marital status, residence, place of birth and cause of death on place of death using adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). Results Of the 153,111 deaths in the study, 16.5% occurred at home, 29.0% in extended care, 51.0% in hospital and 3.5% occurred elsewhere. Male deaths were less likely to occur in extended care as compared with female deaths (odds ratio 0.73, 95% CI 0.71–0.75). Age (odds ratio 3.31, 95% CI 3.19–3.45 for those for ?90 vs 70–79 years), marital status (odds ratio 1.42, 95% CI 1.38–1.47 widowed vs married), residence (odds ratio 0.80, 95% CI 0.76–0.83 rural vs Vancouver), place of birth (odds ratio 0.80, 95% CI 0.75–0.86 China vs Canada) and cause of death (odds ratio 3.91, 95% CI 3.69–4.13 dementia vs cancer) were also associated with death in extended care. Conclusions Information on determinants of place of death can inform public health policy regarding care at the end of life and make resource allocation more efficient. PMID:23634892

2013-01-01

165

Improper cause-of-death statements by specialty of certifying physician: a cross-sectional study in two medical centres in Taiwan  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine the frequency of various types of improper cause-of-death (COD) statements reported on death certificates and whether the frequency differed by specialty of the certifying physician. Design Cross-sectional descriptive study. Setting 2 medical centres in Tainan, Taiwan. Participants A total of 2520 death certificates issued by 230 physicians. Main outcome measures 4 types of improper COD statements based on the criteria of correctness of the COD causal sequence and the level of specificity of underlying COD selected. Results Of 2520 death certificates analysed, 502 (19.9%) had at least one type of improper COD statement. However, only 235 (9.3%) sustained major errors, that is, 91 (3.6%) reported incorrect causal sequence and 144 (5.7%) reported only mechanism(s) of death (such as respiratory failure, heart failure, sepsis and acidosis). The improper reporting rate was highest among nephrologists (53%, 24/45), followed by infectious diseases physicians (45%, 29/65) and was lowest among oncologists (6%, 57/995). Conclusions About one-fifth issued death certificates sustained improper COD statements and only one-tenth had noteworthy errors that would threaten the quality of COD statistics. The frequency varied by specialty of the certifying physician because physicians in different specialties manage different types of diseases and conditions with contrasting complexities in terms of determining the causal sequence and specificity of COD statements. PMID:22855626

Cheng, Tain-Junn; Lee, Fang-Chuan; Lin, Shio-Jean

2012-01-01

166

Facility-based maternal death reviews: effects on maternal mortality in a district hospital in Senegal.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: The improvement of obstetric services is one of the key components of the Safe Motherhood Programme. Reviewing maternal deaths and complications is one method that may make pregnancy safer, but there is no evidence about the effectiveness of this strategy. The objective of our before and after study is to assess the effect of facility-based maternal deaths reviews (MDR) on maternal mortality rates in a district hospital in Senegal that provides primary and referral maternity services. METHODS: We included all women who were admitted to the maternity unit for childbirth, or within 24 hours of delivery. We recorded maternal mortality during a 1-year baseline period from January to December 1997, and during a 3-year period from January 1998 to December 2000 after MDR had been implemented. Effects of MDR on organization of care were qualitatively evaluated. FINDINGS: The MDR strategy led to changes in organizational structure that improved life-saving interventions with a relatively large financial contribution from the community. Overall mortality significantly decreased from 0.83 (95% CI (confidence interval) = 0.60 -1.06) in baseline period to 0.41 (95% CI = 0.25 -0.56) per 100 women 3 years later. CONCLUSION: MDR had a marked effect on resources, management and maternal outcomes in this facility. However, given the design of our study and the local specific context, further research is needed to confirm the feasibility of MDR in other settings and to confirm the benefits of this approach for maternal health in developing countries. PMID:16583081

Dumont, Alexandre; Gaye, Alioune; de Bernis, Luc; Chaillet, Nils; Landry, Anne; Delage, Joanne; Bouvier-Colle, Marie-Hélène

2006-01-01

167

In the Market But Not of It: Fair Trade Coffee and Forest Stewardship Council Certification as Market-Based Social Change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary. — This paper discusses two well-known market-based social change initiatives, Fair Trade coffee and Forest Stewardship Council certification, which harness market forces to pursue social and environmental objectives. A serious challenge for both is to operate in the conventional market without undermining their original objectives. A global commodity chain analysis approach is combined with insights from economic sociology embeddedness

Peter Leigh Taylor

2005-01-01

168

Guidelines for the verification and validation of expert system software and conventional software: Evaluation of knowledge base certification methods. Volume 4  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report presents the results of the Knowledge Base Certification activity of the expert systems verification and validation (V&V) guideline development project which is jointly funded by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the Electric Power Research Institute. The ultimate objective is the formulation of guidelines for the V&V of expert systems for use in nuclear power applications. This activity

L. A. Miller; J. E. Hayes; S. M. Mirsky

1995-01-01

169

"We Brought It upon Ourselves": University-Based Teacher Education and the Emergence of Boot-Camp-Style Routes to Teacher Certification  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The proliferation of boot-camp-style routes to teacher certification in the last two decades is seen by many university-based teacher educators as the result of the advancement of conservative interests aimed at de-professionalizing teaching. This essay argues that this view only accounts for one piece of the answer, the other one being that some…

Friedrich, Daniel

2014-01-01

170

Forensic Science Certificate  

E-print Network

Forensic Science Certificate What do Forensic Scientists Do? Forensic scientists apply scientific conclusions about a crime based on the evidence. Some forensic scientists work in laboratories, while others complete their work on site, at the scene of the crime. Forensic scientists need to explain and justify

Saldin, Dilano

171

The underreporting of deaths of American Indian children in California, 1979 through 1993.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: This study linked birth and death certificates to determine misclassification of deaths of American Indian children in California. METHODS: Birth records for 1979 to 1993 were matched with mortality records through a computerized system. RESULTS: The number of deaths to American Indians was estimated to be three to four times greater than that reported on death certificates. Children in urban counties and those who died before 1987 were more likely to be misclassified. CONCLUSIONS: California death certificates identify less than one third of the deaths among American Indian children. Adjusting for racial misclassification provides a more accurate accounting of child mortality among American Indians. PMID:9279278

Epstein, M; Moreno, R; Bacchetti, P

1997-01-01

172

The Effects of "High Stakes" Certification Demands on the Generalizability and Dependability of a Classroom-Based Teacher Assessment System.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents the results of ongoing analyses of the reliability of the System for Teaching and Learning Assessment and Review (STAR) as a comprehensive measure of classroom teaching and learning for making teacher certification decisions. Focus was on the effects of high stakes assessment conditions for certification on the generalizability…

Ellett, Chad D.; And Others

173

Rotavirus mortality in India: estimates based on a nationally representative survey of diarrhoeal deaths  

PubMed Central

Abstract Objective To estimate the number of rotavirus-associated deaths among Indian children younger than five years. Methods We surveyed more than 23?000 child deaths from a nationally representative survey of 1.1 million Indian households during 2001–2003. Diarrhoeal deaths were characterized by region, age and sex and were combined with the proportion of deaths attributable to rotavirus, as determined by hospital microbiologic data collected by the Indian Rotavirus Strain Surveillance Network from December 2005 to November 2007. Rotavirus vaccine efficacy data from clinical trials in developing countries were used to estimate the number of deaths preventable by a national vaccination programme. Data were analysed using Stata SE version 10. Findings Rotavirus caused an estimated 113?000 deaths (99% confidence interval, CI: 86?000–155?000); 50% (54?700) and 75% (85?400) occurred before one and two years of age, respectively. One child in 242 died from rotavirus infection before five years of age. Rotavirus-associated mortality rates overall, among girls and among boys were 4.14 (99% CI: 3.14–5.68), 4.89 (99% CI: 3.75–6.79) and 3.45 (99% CI: 2.58–4.66) deaths per 1000 live births, respectively. Rates were highest in Bihar, Uttar Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh, which together accounted for >?50% of deaths (64?400) nationally. Rotavirus vaccine could prevent 41?000–48?000 deaths among children aged 3–59 months. Conclusion The burden of rotavirus-associated mortality is high among Indian children, highlighting the potential benefits of rotavirus vaccination. PMID:23109739

Awasthi, Shally; Khera, Ajay; Bassani, Diego G; Kang, Gagandeep; Parashar, Umesh D; Kumar, Rajesh; Shet, Anita; Glass, Roger I; Jha, Prabhat

2012-01-01

174

A combined anatomic and electrophysiologic substrate based approach for sudden cardiac death risk stratification  

PubMed Central

Background Although left ventricle ejection fraction (LVEF) is the primary determinant for sudden cardiac death (SCD) risk stratification, in isolation, LVEF is a sub-optimal risk stratifier. We assessed whether a multi-marker strategy would provide more robust SCD risk stratification than LVEF alone. Methods We collected patient-level data (n=3355) from 6 studies assessing the prognostic utility of microvolt T-wave alternans (MTWA) testing. Two-thirds of the group was used for derivation (n=2242) and one-third for validation (n=1113). The discriminative capacity of the multivariable model was assessed using the area under the receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve (c-index). The primary endpoint was SCD at 24 months. Results In the derivation cohort, 59 patients experienced SCD by 24 months. Stepwise selection suggested that a model based on 3 parameters (LVEF, coronary artery disease [CAD] and MTWA status) provided optimal SCD risk prediction. In the derivation cohort, the c-index of the model was 0.817, which was significantly better than LVEF used as a single variable (0.637, p < 0.001). In the validation cohort, 36 patients experienced SCD by 24 months. The c-index of the model for predicting the primary endpoint was again significantly better than LVEF alone (0.774 vs. 0.671, p = 0.020). Conclusions A multivariable model based on presence of CAD, LVEF and MTWA status provides significantly more robust SCD risk prediction than LVEF as a single risk marker. These findings suggest that multi-marker strategies based on different aspects of the electro-anatomic substrate may be capable of improving primary prevention ICD treatment algorithms. PMID:24093856

Merchant, Faisal M.; Zheng, Hui; Bigger, Thomas; Steinman, Richard; Ikeda, Takanori; Pedretti, Roberto F.E.; Salerno-Uriarte, Jorge A.; Klersy, Catherine; Chan, Paul S.; Bartone, Cheryl; Hohnloser, Stefan H.; Ruskin, Jeremy N.; Armoundas, Antonis A.

2014-01-01

175

From the emergency department to vital statistics: cause of death uncertain.  

PubMed

Vital statistics are widely used to evaluate trends in health and illness, inform policy, and allocate resources among health priorities. Literature comparing autopsies to clinical death certification has shown that the clinical "cause of death" certification is inaccurate or incomplete in many cases. Short of increasing autopsies, however, these studies have proposed few improvements. Using the case of death certification in the emergency department (ED), the authors analyzed the current approach to death certification. The authors propose the following to improve the quality of data: 1) acceptance of the declaration "manner of death, natural; cause of death, uncertain"; 2) training for physicians in the selection of appropriate underlying causes of death and "chains of causation"; and 3) participation of physicians with ongoing relationships to the patient in the certification process. PMID:18783489

Keirns, Carla C; Carr, Brendan G

2008-08-01

176

[Nontraumatic deaths associated with a natural catastrophe. The experience of the earthquake in Chile 1985].  

PubMed

We analyzed causes of death before and after the March 1985 earthquake in Valparaíso, Chile. Causes of death were obtained from death certificates. Apart from death directly due to trauma during the earthquake, a significant increase was observed in deaths due to accidents (+51), cardiovascular disease (+38), malnutrition (+13) and psychiatric disorders (+13). Retired males over age 65 were most affected. PMID:2152707

Carrasco, R; González, J; Cumsille, F; Concha, M; de la Fuente, M; Spencer, P; Verdejo, G

1990-01-01

177

Emergency referral transport for maternal complication: lessons from the community based maternal death audits in Unnao district, Uttar Pradesh, India  

PubMed Central

Background: An effective emergency referral transport system is the link between the home of the pregnant woman and a health facility providing basic or comprehensive emergency obstetric care. This study attempts to explore the role of emergency transport associated with maternal deaths in Unnao district, Uttar Pradesh (UP). Methods: A descriptive study was carried out to assess the causes of and factors leading to maternal deaths in Unnao district, UP, through community based Maternal Death Review (MDR) using verbal autopsy, in a sample of 57 maternal deaths conducted between June 1, 2009, and May 31, 2010. A facility review was also conducted in 15 of the 16 block level and district health facilities to collect information on preparedness of the facilities for treating obstetric complications including referral transportation. A descriptive analysis was carried out using ratios and percentages to analyze the availability of basic facilities which may lead to maternal deaths. Results: It was found that there were only 10 ambulances available at 15 facilities against 19 required as per Indian Public Health Standards (IPHS). About 47% of the deaths took place in a facility, 30% enroute to a health facility and 23% at home. Twenty five percent of women were taken to one facility, 32% were taken to two facilities, and 25% were taken to three facilities while 19% were not taken to any facility before their death. Sixteen percent of the pregnant women could not arrange transportation to reach any facility. The mean time to make arrangements for travel from home to facility-1 and facility-2 to facility-3 was 3.1 hours; whereas from facility-1 to facility-2 was 9.9 hours. The mean travel time from home to facility-1 was 1 hour, from facility-1 to facility-2 was 1.4 hours and facility-2 to facility-3 was 1.6 hours. Conclusion: The public health facility review and MDR, clearly indicates that the inter-facility transfers appropriateness and timeliness of referral are major contributing factor for maternal deaths in Unnao district, UP. The UP Government, besides strengthening Emergency Obstetric and Newborn Care (EmONC) and Basic Emergency Obstetric and Newborn Care (BEmONC) services in the district and state as a whole, also needs to focus on developing a functional and effective referral system on a priority basis to reduce the maternal deaths in Unnao district. PMID:25674573

Raj, Sunil Saksena; Manthri, Suneedh; Sahoo, Pratap Kumar

2015-01-01

178

TAMU Online ESL Certification Prep Course  

E-print Network

% Masters, 1% Doctorate ? Route to initial teacher certification 66% a university-based educator preparation program (undergraduate) 22% an alternative certification program 10% a post-baccalaureate university-based educator preparation program... ESL Certification Prep Course Department of Educational Psychology College of Education & Human Development Texas A&M University Funding Source This training is made possible by the Limited English Proficient, Student Success Initiative (LEP...

Lara-Alecio, Rafael; Treviño, Polly; Tong, Fuhui

2010-10-22

179

40 CFR 745.90 - Renovator certification and dust sampling technician certification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... false Renovator certification and dust sampling technician certification. ...745.90 Renovator certification and dust sampling technician certification. (a) Renovator certification and dust sampling technician certification....

2014-07-01

180

40 CFR 745.90 - Renovator certification and dust sampling technician certification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false Renovator certification and dust sampling technician certification. ...745.90 Renovator certification and dust sampling technician certification. (a) Renovator certification and dust sampling technician certification...

2013-07-01

181

40 CFR 745.90 - Renovator certification and dust sampling technician certification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... false Renovator certification and dust sampling technician certification. ...745.90 Renovator certification and dust sampling technician certification. (a) Renovator certification and dust sampling technician certification...

2011-07-01

182

40 CFR 745.90 - Renovator certification and dust sampling technician certification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... false Renovator certification and dust sampling technician certification. ...745.90 Renovator certification and dust sampling technician certification. (a) Renovator certification and dust sampling technician certification...

2012-07-01

183

Environmental Certificate Program  

E-print Network

Environmental Management Certificate Program Accelerate Your Career Environmentaland Facilities of excellence. Environmental Management Certificate Program Compliance with regulatory requirements, remediation Irvine Extension's Certificate Program in Environmental Manage- ment prepares professionals at every

Rose, Michael R.

184

The Global Burden of Snakebite: A Literature Analysis and Modelling Based on Regional Estimates of Envenoming and Deaths  

PubMed Central

Background Envenoming resulting from snakebites is an important public health problem in many tropical and subtropical countries. Few attempts have been made to quantify the burden, and recent estimates all suffer from the lack of an objective and reproducible methodology. In an attempt to provide an accurate, up-to-date estimate of the scale of the global problem, we developed a new method to estimate the disease burden due to snakebites. Methods and Findings The global estimates were based on regional estimates that were, in turn, derived from data available for countries within a defined region. Three main strategies were used to obtain primary data: electronic searching for publications on snakebite, extraction of relevant country-specific mortality data from databases maintained by United Nations organizations, and identification of grey literature by discussion with key informants. Countries were grouped into 21 distinct geographic regions that are as epidemiologically homogenous as possible, in line with the Global Burden of Disease 2005 study (Global Burden Project of the World Bank). Incidence rates for envenoming were extracted from publications and used to estimate the number of envenomings for individual countries; if no data were available for a particular country, the lowest incidence rate within a neighbouring country was used. Where death registration data were reliable, reported deaths from snakebite were used; in other countries, deaths were estimated on the basis of observed mortality rates and the at-risk population. We estimate that, globally, at least 421,000 envenomings and 20,000 deaths occur each year due to snakebite. These figures may be as high as 1,841,000 envenomings and 94,000 deaths. Based on the fact that envenoming occurs in about one in every four snakebites, between 1.2 million and 5.5 million snakebites could occur annually. Conclusions Snakebites cause considerable morbidity and mortality worldwide. The highest burden exists in South Asia, Southeast Asia, and sub-Saharan Africa. PMID:18986210

Kasturiratne, Anuradhani; Wickremasinghe, A. Rajitha; de Silva, Nilanthi; Gunawardena, N. Kithsiri; Pathmeswaran, Arunasalam; Premaratna, Ranjan; Savioli, Lorenzo; Lalloo, David G; de Silva, H. Janaka

2008-01-01

185

A distributed certificate revocation scheme based on one-way hash chain for wireless ad hoc networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

In contrast with conventional wired networks, ad-hoc networks are characterized by the lack of a centralized administration and any fixed network infrastructure. Public key infrastructure (PKI) is a natural choice for establishing trust in such networks. However, the traditional certificate revocation schemes (e.g., the CRL) that require on-line trusted authorities or certificate repositories are not well suited for securing ad-hoc

Jingfeng Li; Yuefei Zhu; Heng Pan; Shengli Liu

2005-01-01

186

The issue of death and dying: employing problem-based learning in nursing education  

Microsoft Academic Search

Caring for dying patients can be an emotionally painful, distressing and sometimes threatening experience for nurses as the illness is incurable and death is imminent. The avoidance of discussion of dying in the presence of patients in Chinese culture further increases nurses' anxiety. The purpose of this article is to provide an example of how nurses can be helped when

Esther Mok; Wai; Frances Kam-yuet

2002-01-01

187

Certification/enforcement analysis  

SciTech Connect

Industry compliance with minimum energy efficiency standards will be assured through a two-part program approach of certification and enforcement activities. The technical support document (TSD) presents the analyses upon which the proposed rule for assuring that consumer product comply with applicable energy efficiency standards is based. Much of the TSD is based upon support provided DOE by Vitro Laboratories. The OAO Corporation provided additional support in the development of the sampling plan incorporated in the proposed rule. Vitro's recommended approach to appliance certification and enforcement, developed after consideration of various program options, benefits, and impacts, establishes the C/E program framework, general criteria, and procedures for assuring a specified level of energy efficiency performance of covered consumer products. The results of the OAO analysis are given in Volume II of the TSD.

None

1980-06-01

188

40 CFR 94.912 - Optional certification to land-based standards for auxiliary marine engines.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...land-based standards for auxiliary marine engines. 94.912 Section 94.912 Protection...EMISSIONS FROM MARINE COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES Exclusion and Exemption Provisions...land-based standards for auxiliary marine engines. This section applies to...

2010-07-01

189

47 CFR 64.606 - Internet-based TRS provider and TRS program certification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Internet-based TRS provider and TRS program...Persons With Disabilities § 64.606 Internet-based TRS provider and TRS program...notification in the Federal Register . (2) Internet-based TRS provider. Any entity...

2011-10-01

190

47 CFR 64.606 - Internet-based TRS provider and TRS program certification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Internet-based TRS provider and TRS program...Persons With Disabilities § 64.606 Internet-based TRS provider and TRS program...notification in the Federal Register. (2) Internet-based TRS provider. Any entity...

2014-10-01

191

47 CFR 64.606 - Internet-based TRS provider and TRS program certification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Internet-based TRS provider and TRS program...Persons With Disabilities § 64.606 Internet-based TRS provider and TRS program...notification in the Federal Register . (2) Internet-based TRS provider . Any entity...

2012-10-01

192

47 CFR 64.606 - Internet-based TRS provider and TRS program certification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Internet-based TRS provider and TRS program...Persons With Disabilities § 64.606 Internet-based TRS provider and TRS program...notification in the Federal Register . (2) Internet-based TRS provider . Any entity...

2013-10-01

193

Certificates: Gateway to Gainful Employment and College Degrees  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Certificates are recognition of completion of a course of study based on a specific field, usually associated with a limited set of occupations. Certificates differ from other kinds of labor market credentials such as industry-based certifications and licenses, which typically involve passing an examination to prove a specific competency,…

Carnevale, Anthony P.; Rose, Stephen J.; Hanson, Andrew R.

2012-01-01

194

Ill-defined causes of death in Brazil: a redistribution method based on the investigation of such causes.  

PubMed

OBJECTIVE To propose a method of redistributing ill-defined causes of death (IDCD) based on the investigation of such causes. METHODS In 2010, an evaluation of the results of investigating the causes of death classified as IDCD in accordance with chapter 18 of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10) by the Mortality Information System was performed. The redistribution coefficients were calculated according to the proportional distribution of ill-defined causes reclassified after investigation in any chapter of the ICD-10, except for chapter 18, and used to redistribute the ill-defined causes not investigated and remaining by sex and age. The IDCD redistribution coefficient was compared with two usual methods of redistribution: a) Total redistribution coefficient, based on the proportional distribution of all the defined causes originally notified and b) Non-external redistribution coefficient, similar to the previous, but excluding external causes. RESULTS Of the 97,314 deaths by ill-defined causes reported in 2010, 30.3% were investigated, and 65.5% of those were reclassified as defined causes after the investigation. Endocrine diseases, mental disorders, and maternal causes had a higher representation among the reclassified ill-defined causes, contrary to infectious diseases, neoplasms, and genitourinary diseases, with higher proportions among the defined causes reported. External causes represented 9.3% of the ill-defined causes reclassified. The correction of mortality rates by the total redistribution coefficient and non-external redistribution coefficient increased the magnitude of the rates by a relatively similar factor for most causes, contrary to the IDCD redistribution coefficient that corrected the different causes of death with differentiated weights. CONCLUSIONS The proportional distribution of causes among the ill-defined causes reclassified after investigation was not similar to the original distribution of defined causes. Therefore, the redistribution of the remaining ill-defined causes based on the investigation allows for more appropriate estimates of the mortality risk due to specific causes. PMID:25210826

França, Elisabeth; Teixeira, Renato; Ishitani, Lenice; Duncan, Bruce Bartholow; Cortez-Escalante, Juan José; de Morais Neto, Otaliba Libânio; Szwarcwald, Célia Landman

2014-08-01

195

Ill-defined causes of death in Brazil: a redistribution method based on the investigation of such causes  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE To propose a method of redistributing ill-defined causes of death (IDCD) based on the investigation of such causes. METHODS In 2010, an evaluation of the results of investigating the causes of death classified as IDCD in accordance with chapter 18 of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10) by the Mortality Information System was performed. The redistribution coefficients were calculated according to the proportional distribution of ill-defined causes reclassified after investigation in any chapter of the ICD-10, except for chapter 18, and used to redistribute the ill-defined causes not investigated and remaining by sex and age. The IDCD redistribution coefficient was compared with two usual methods of redistribution: a) Total redistribution coefficient, based on the proportional distribution of all the defined causes originally notified and b) Non-external redistribution coefficient, similar to the previous, but excluding external causes. RESULTS Of the 97,314 deaths by ill-defined causes reported in 2010, 30.3% were investigated, and 65.5% of those were reclassified as defined causes after the investigation. Endocrine diseases, mental disorders, and maternal causes had a higher representation among the reclassified ill-defined causes, contrary to infectious diseases, neoplasms, and genitourinary diseases, with higher proportions among the defined causes reported. External causes represented 9.3% of the ill-defined causes reclassified. The correction of mortality rates by the total redistribution coefficient and non-external redistribution coefficient increased the magnitude of the rates by a relatively similar factor for most causes, contrary to the IDCD redistribution coefficient that corrected the different causes of death with differentiated weights. CONCLUSIONS The proportional distribution of causes among the ill-defined causes reclassified after investigation was not similar to the original distribution of defined causes. Therefore, the redistribution of the remaining ill-defined causes based on the investigation allows for more appropriate estimates of the mortality risk due to specific causes. PMID:25210826

França, Elisabeth; Teixeira, Renato; Ishitani, Lenice; Duncan, Bruce Bartholow; Cortez-Escalante, Juan José; de Morais, Otaliba Libânio; Szwarcwald, Célia Landman

2014-01-01

196

The epidemiological transition in Antananarivo, Madagascar: an assessment based on death registers (1900–2012)  

PubMed Central

Background Madagascar today has one of the highest life expectancies in sub-Saharan Africa, despite being among the poorest countries in the continent. There are relatively few detailed accounts of the epidemiological transition in this country due to the lack of a comprehensive death registration system at the national level. However, in Madagascar’s capital city, death registration was established around the start of the 20th century and is now considered virtually complete. Objective We provide an overview of trends in all-cause and cause-specific mortality in Antananarivo to document the timing and pace of the mortality decline and the changes in the cause-of-death structure. Design Death registers covering the period 1976–2012 were digitized and the population at risk of dying was estimated from available censuses and surveys. Trends for the period 1900–1976 were partly reconstructed from published sources. Results The crude death rate stagnated around 30‰ until the 1940s in Antananarivo. Mortality declined rapidly after the World War II and then resurged again in the 1980s as a result of the re-emergence of malaria and the collapse of Madagascar’s economy. Over the past 30 years, impressive gains in life expectancy have been registered thanks to the unabated decline in child mortality, despite political instability, a lasting economic crisis and the persistence of high rates of chronic malnutrition. Progress in adult survival has been more modest because reductions in infectious diseases and diseases of the respiratory system have been partly offset by increases in cardiovascular diseases, neoplasms, and other diseases, particularly at age 50 years and over. Conclusions The transition in Antananarivo has been protracted and largely dependent on anti-microbial and anti-parasitic medicine. The capital city now faces a double burden of communicable and non-communicable diseases. The ongoing registration of deaths in the capital generates a unique database to evaluate the performance of the health system and measure intervention impacts. PMID:24848650

Masquelier, Bruno; Waltisperger, Dominique; Ralijaona, Osée; Pison, Gilles; Ravélo, Arsène

2014-01-01

197

Cesarean delivery and postpartum mortality among primiparas in Washington State, 1987–1996 1 1 We acknowledge the data linkage programming support of William O’Brien. We are grateful to George J. Gilson, MD, University of New Mexico, and Susan E. Gerber, MD, MPH, Northwestern University Medical School for assistance with classification of maternal deaths  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To examine the association between delivery method and mortality within 6 months of delivery among primiparas.Methods: We conducted a population-based, retrospective cohort analysis using statewide, maternally linked birth certificate, hospital discharge, and death certificate data. The present cohort was all primiparas who gave birth to live-born infants in civilian hospitals in Washington State from January 1, 1987 through December

Mona Lydon-Rochelle; Victoria L Holt; Thomas R Easterling; Diane P Martin

2001-01-01

198

Assessment of Computer-based Geologic Mapping of Rock Units in the LANDSAT-4 Scene of Northern Death Valley, California  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Results from a series of geologic classifications conducted on a thematic mapper subscene of the northern Death Valley, California are reported. Measurements of accuracy are made through comparison with the 1977 edition of the Death Valley geologic sheet. This employs a simplified map version which is registered by computer to the image data base, allowing a pixel by pixel match with the classified scene. The results show accuracy ranges from 36 to 79% depending on the type of classifier used and the statistical adjustments made to the data. Accuracy values in identifying geologic units were 2 to 3 times higher for those in the relatively flat valleys than for units in the rugged mountainous terrain. Improvements in accuracy will be sought by correcting for slope/aspect variations in mountainous terrain using topographic data recorded in Defense Mapping Agency (DMA) tapes. The above classification results will also be compared with ratio and principal component image classifications made from the same scene.

Short, N. M.

1984-01-01

199

Cell-Based Chemical Genetic Screen Identifies Damnacanthal as an Inhibitor of HIV-1 Vpr Induced Cell Death  

PubMed Central

Viral protein R (Vpr), one of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) accessory proteins, contributes to multiple cytopathic effects, G2 cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. The mechanisms of Vpr have been intensely studied because it is believed that they underlie HIV-1 pathogenesis. We here report a cell-based small molecule screen on Vpr induced cell death in the context of HIV-1 infection. From the screen of 504 bioactive compounds, we identified Damnacanthal (Dam), a component of noni fruit, as an inhibitor of Vpr induced cell death. Our studies illustrate a novel efficient platform for drug discovery and development in anti-HIV therapy which should also be applicable to other viruses. PMID:16904642

Kamata, Masakazu; Wu, Raymond P.; An, Dong Sung; Saxe, Jonathan P.; Damoiseaux, Robert; Phelps, Michael E.; Huang, Jing; Chen, Irvin S.Y.

2006-01-01

200

Cell-based chemical genetic screen identifies damnacanthal as an inhibitor of HIV-1 Vpr induced cell death.  

PubMed

Viral protein R (Vpr), one of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) accessory proteins, contributes to multiple cytopathic effects, G2 cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. The mechanisms of Vpr have been intensely studied because it is believed that they underlie HIV-1 pathogenesis. We here report a cell-based small molecule screen on Vpr induced cell death in the context of HIV-1 infection. From the screen of 504 bioactive compounds, we identified damnacanthal (Dam), a component of noni [corrected] as an inhibitor of Vpr induced cell death. Our studies illustrate a novel efficient platform for drug discovery and development in anti-HIV therapy which should also be applicable to other viruses. PMID:16904642

Kamata, Masakazu; Wu, Raymond P; An, Dong Sung; Saxe, Jonathan P; Damoiseaux, Robert; Phelps, Michael E; Huang, Jing; Chen, Irvin S Y

2006-09-29

201

Fetal deaths in Brazil: a systematic review  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE To review the frequency of and factors associated with fetal death in the Brazilian scientific literature. METHODS A systematic review of Brazilian studies on fetal deaths published between 2003 and 2013 was conducted. In total, 27 studies were analyzed; of these, 4 studies addressed the quality of data, 12 were descriptive studies, and 11 studies evaluated the factors associated with fetal death. The databases searched were PubMed and Lilacs, and data extraction and synthesis were independently performed by two or more examiners. RESULTS The level of completeness of fetal death certificates was deficient, both in the completion of variables, particularly sociodemographic variables, and in defining the underlying causes of death. Fetal deaths have decreased in Brazil; however, inequalities persist. Analysis of the causes of death indicated maternal morbidities that could be prevented and treated. The main factors associated with fetal deaths were absent or inadequate prenatal care, low education level, maternal morbidity, and adverse reproductive history. CONCLUSIONS Prenatal care should prioritize women that are most vulnerable (considering their social environment or their reproductive history and morbidities) with the aim of decreasing the fetal mortality rate in Brazil. Adequate completion of death certificates and investment in the committees that investigate fetal and infant deaths are necessary.

Barbeiro, Fernanda Morena dos Santos; Fonseca, Sandra Costa; Tauffer, Mariana Girão; Ferreira, Mariana de Souza Santos; da Silva, Fagner Paulo; Ventura, Patrícia Mendonça; Quadros, Jesirée Iglesias

2015-01-01

202

Changing Patterns in Place of Cancer Death in England: A Population-Based Study  

PubMed Central

Background Most patients with cancer prefer to die at home or in a hospice, but hospitals remain the most common place of death (PoD).This study aims to explore the changing time trends of PoD and the associated factors, which are essential for end-of-life care improvement. Methods and Findings The study analysed all cancer deaths in England collected by the Office for National Statistics during 1993–2010 (n?=?2,281,223). Time trends of age- and gender-standardised proportion of deaths in individual PoDs were evaluated using weighted piecewise linear regression. Variables associated with PoD (home or hospice versus hospital) were determined using proportion ratio (PR) derived from the log-binomial regression, adjusting for clustering effects. Hospital remained the most common PoD throughout the study period (48.0%; 95% CI 47.9%–48.0%), followed by home (24.5%; 95% CI 24.4%–24.5%), and hospice (16.4%; 95% CI 16.3%–16.4%). Home and hospice deaths increased since 2005 (0.87%; 95% CI 0.74%–0.99%/year, 0.24%; 95% CI 0.17%–0.32%/year, respectively, p<0.001), while hospital deaths declined (?1.20%; 95% CI ?1.41 to ?0.99/year, p<0.001). Patients who died from haematological cancer (PRs 0.46–0.52), who were single, widowed, or divorced (PRs 0.75–0.88), and aged over 75 (PRs 0.81–0.84 for 75–84; 0.66–0.72 for 85+) were less likely to die in home or hospice (p<0.001; reference groups: colorectal cancer, married, age 25–54). There was little improvement in patients with lung cancer of dying in home or hospice (PRs 0.87–0.88). Marital status became the second most important factor associated with PoD, after cancer type. Patients from less deprived areas (higher quintile of the deprivation index) were more likely to die at home or in a hospice than those from more deprived areas (lower quintile of the deprivation index; PRs 1.02–1.12). The analysis is limited by a lack of data on individual patients' preferences for PoD or a clinical indication of the most appropriate PoD. Conclusions More efforts are needed to reduce hospital deaths. Health care facilities should be improved and enhanced to support the increased home and hospice deaths. People who are single, widowed, or divorced should be a focus for end-of-life care improvement, along with known at risk groups such as haematological cancer, lung cancer, older age, and deprivation. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary PMID:23555201

Gao, Wei; Ho, Yuen K.; Verne, Julia; Glickman, Myer; Higginson, Irene J.

2013-01-01

203

The value of certification.  

PubMed

Certification is defined in the nursing literature in several ways; no one consistent definition of certification exists. Nursing specialty certification programs are intended for consumer protection. Certification protects the public by enabling consumers to identify competent people more readily. However, benefits for stakeholders other than patients and families are also described in the literature. This article describes the value of specialty certification from the perspective of the patient and family, nurse, and employer. PMID:21297389

Kaplow, Roberta

2011-01-01

204

Web-Based Certification Courses: The Future of Teacher Preparation in Special Education?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes development and implementation of the Western Carolina University Teacher Support Program, a multi-component Web-based special education teacher development course. The program is intended to reduce stress and burnout, improve retention, develop problem solving strategies, and improve the effectiveness of teachers.…

Sun, Ling; Bender, William N.; Fore, Cecil, III

2003-01-01

205

Secure Information Sharing Using Attribute Certificates and Role Based Access Control  

Microsoft Academic Search

ó In this paper, we explore the issues involved with the design and rapid deployment of large scale secure information sharing (SIS) systems for coordination involved with multiple agencies. Procedures and tools were developed for setting up quickly the public key infrastructure (PKI) and privilege man- agement infrastructure (PMI) for the multi-agency SIS systems. A multi-agency SIS testbed based on

Ganesh Godavari; C. Edward Chow

2005-01-01

206

Certification of projection-based reduced order modelling in computational homogenisation by the Constitutive Relation  

E-print Network

models is based on the response surface method. The solution is evaluated pierre.kerfriden(at)gmail.com 1 Relation Error 1 Introduction Reduced order modelling is becoming an increasingly popular tool to solve to a parametrised problem, whose evaluation should be inexpensive an accurate. Such techniques consist of two phases

207

Sudden Cardiac Death in Brazil: A Community-Based Autopsy Series (2006-2010)  

PubMed Central

Background Sudden cardiac death (SCD) is a sudden unexpected event, from a cardiac cause, that occurs in less than one hour after the symptoms onset, in a person without any previous condition that would seem fatal or who was seen without any symptoms 24 hours before found dead. Although it is a relatively frequent event, there are only few reliable data in underdeveloped countries. Objective We aimed to describe the features of SCD in Ribeirão Preto, Brazil (600,000 residents) according to Coroners’ Office autopsy reports. Methods We retrospectively reviewed 4501 autopsy reports between 2006 and 2010, to identify cases of SCD. Specific cause of death as well as demographic information, date, location and time of the event, comorbidities and whether cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) was attempted were collected. Results We identified 899 cases of SCD (20%); the rate was 30/100000 residents per year. The vast majority of cases of SCD involved a coronary artery disease (CAD) (64%) and occurred in men (67%), between the 6th and the 7th decades of life. Most events occurred during the morning in the home setting (53.3%) and CPR was attempted in almost half of victims (49.7%). The most prevalent comorbidity was systemic hypertension (57.3%). Chagas’ disease was present in 49 cases (5.5%). Conclusion The majority of victims of SCD were men, in their sixties and seventies and the main cause of death was CAD. Chagas’ disease, an important public health problem in Latin America, was found in about 5.5% of the cases. PMID:25424162

Braggion-Santos, Maria Fernanda; Volpe, Gustavo Jardim; Pazin-Filho, Antonio; Maciel, Benedito Carlos; Marin-Neto, José Antonio; Schmidt, André

2015-01-01

208

Nutrient Management Specialist Certification Certification Process and Requirements  

E-print Network

v.07.2012 Nutrient Management Specialist Certification Certification Process and Requirements The Nutrient Management Certification Program certifies specialists to prepare and/or review nutrient management plans to determine compliance with the requirements of Act 38. Requirements for certification

Guiltinan, Mark

209

49 CFR 583.13 - Supplier certification and certificates.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Supplier certification and certificates. 583...AUTOMOBILE PARTS CONTENT LABELING § 583.13 Supplier certification and certificates. Each supplier shall certify the information on...

2010-10-01

210

Brain death.  

PubMed

Current law in the United States authorizes physicians to diagnose brain death by applying generally accepted neurologic criteria for determining loss of function of the entire brain. This article offers a medical-legal perspective on problems that may arise with respect to the determination of brain death. These include the possibility of diagnostic error, conceptual disagreements that may constrain the use of neurologic criteria to diagnose death, and the conflation of brain death and loss of consciousness. This article also addresses legal aspects of the debate over whether to expand the definition of brain death to include permanent unconsciousness. Although existing laws draw a clear distinction between brain death and the persistent vegetative state, many courts have authorized removal of life support from individuals whose unconsciousness is believed to be permanent on proof that removal accords with preferences expressed before sentience was lost. PMID:10196410

Beresford, H R

1999-05-01

211

Building secure wireless access point based on certificate authentication and firewall captive portal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wireless local area network or WLAN more vulnerability than wired network even though WLAN has many advantages over wired. Wireless networks use radio transmissions to carry data between end users and access point. Therefore, it is possible for someone to sit in your office building's lobby or parking lot or parking lot to eavesdrop on the wireless network communication. This paper discussed securing wires local area network used WPA2 Enterprise based PEAP MS-CHAP and Captive portal firewall. We also divided the network for employer and visitor to increase the level of security. Our experiment showed that the WLAN could be broken using the attacker tool such as airodump, aireply, and aircrack.

Soewito, B.; Hirzi

2014-03-01

212

Software Certification and Software Certificate Management Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Incremental certification and re-certification of code as it is developed and modified is a prerequisite for applying modem, evolutionary development processes, which are especially relevant for NASA. For example, the Columbia Accident Investigation Board (CAIB) report 121 concluded there is "the need for improved and uniform statistical sampling, audit, and certification processes". Also, re-certification time has been a limiting factor in making changes to Space Shuttle code close to launch time. This is likely to be an even bigger problem with the rapid turnaround required in developing NASA s replacement for the Space Shuttle, the Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV). Hence, intelligent development processes are needed which place certification at the center of development. If certification tools provide useful information, such as estimated time and effort, they are more likely to be adopted. The ultimate impact of such a tool will be reduced effort and increased reliability.

Denney, Ewen; Fischer, Bernd

2005-01-01

213

End-of-life medical decisions in France: a death certificate follow-up survey 5 years after the 2005 act of parliament on patients’ rights and end of life  

PubMed Central

Background The “Patients’ Rights and End of Life Care” Act came into force in France in 2005. It allows withholding/withdrawal of life-support treatment, and intensified use of medications that may hasten death through a double effect, as long as hastening death is not the purpose of the decision. It also specifies the requirements of the decision-making process. This study assesses the situation by examining the frequency of end-of-life decisions by patients’ and physicians’ characteristics, and describes the decision-making processes. Methods We conducted a nationwide retrospective study of a random sample of adult patients who died in December 2009. Questionnaires were mailed to the physicians who certified/attended these deaths. Cases were weighted to adjust for response rate bias. Bivariate analyses and logistic regressions were performed for each decision. Results Of all deaths, 16.9% were sudden deaths with no information about end of life, 12.2% followed a decision to do everything possible to prolong life, and 47.7% followed at least one medical decision that may certainly or probably hasten death: withholding (14.6%) or withdrawal (4.2%) of treatments, intensified use of opioids and/or benzodiazepines (28.1%), use of medications to deliberately hasten death (i.e. not legally authorized) (0.8%), at the patient’s request (0.2%) or not (0.6%). All other variables held constant, cause of death, patient's age, doctor’s age and specialty, and place of death, influenced the frequencies of decisions. When a decision was made, 20% of the persons concerned were considered to be competent. The decision was discussed with the patient if competent in 40% (everything done) to 86% (intensification of alleviation of symptoms) of cases. Legal requirements regarding decision-making for incompetent patients were frequently not complied with. Conclusions This study shows that end-of-life medical decisions are common in France. Most are in compliance with the 2005 law (similar to some other European countries). Nonetheless, the study revealed cases where not all legal obligations were met or where the decision was totally illegal. There is still a lot to be done through medical education and population awareness-raising to ensure that the decision-making process is compatible with current legislation, the physician's duty of care and the patient’s rights. PMID:23206428

2012-01-01

214

Death Runthrough  

E-print Network

Broadcast Transcript: At a certain age, we all begin to feel our mortality. Here in South Korea, they're doing something about it. Test runs for death. Well, they're not really practicing dying. They're practicing with death's accessories. That is...

Hacker, Randi

2011-11-16

215

Eighth Amendment & Death Penalty.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a lesson on capital punishment for juveniles based on three hypothetical cases. The goal of the lesson is to have students understand the complexities of decisions regarding the death penalty for juveniles. (JDH)

Shortall, Joseph M.; Merrill, Denise W.

1987-01-01

216

A Death in the Family: Death as a Zen Concept  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study is based on original research that explored family reaction to the death of an elderly husband and father. We interviewed 34 families (a family included a widow and two adult biological children) approximately 6 to 10 months after the death. In one-on-one interviews, we discussed family members' initial reaction to the death, how the…

Black, Helen K.; Rubinstein, Robert L.

2013-01-01

217

The antibacterial substance taurolidine exhibits anti-neoplastic action based on a mixed type of programmed cell death.  

PubMed

The antibacterial amino-acid derivative taurolidine (TAU) has been recently shown to exhibit anti-neoplastic activity based on a mechanism, which is still unknown in detail. Cytotoxicity and clonogenic assays were performed and the impact of apoptosis modulators, a radical scavenger, autophagy inhibitors, silencing of apoptosis inducing actor (AIF) and cytochrome-c (Cyt-C) by siRNA, and knockdown of autophagy related genes were evaluated in vitro. The intracellular ATP-content, release of AIF and Cyt-C, and DNA-laddering were investigated. This study could demonstrate cell killing, inhibition of proliferation, and inhibition or prevention of colony formation in human glioma cell lines and ex vivo glioblastoma cells after incubation with TAU. This effect is based on the induction of a mixed type of programmed cell death with the main preference of autophagy, and involvement of senescence, necroptosis and necrosis. This mechanism of action may open a new approach for therapeutic intervention. PMID:19066471

Stendel, Ruediger; Biefer, Hector Rodriguez Cetina; Dékány, Gabriela Marta; Kubota, Hisashi; Münz, Christian; Wang, Sheng; Mohler, Hanns; Yonekawa, Yasuhiro; Frei, Karl

2009-02-01

218

Population-Based Analysis of the Effect of the Northridge Earthquake on Cardiac Death in Los Angeles County, California  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives. We sought to determine whether a natural disaster affected total cardiovascular mortality and coronary mortality in an entire population.Background. The effect of the January 17, 1994 Northridge Earthquake (NEQ) on all deaths and causes of deaths within the entire population of Los Angeles County is unknown. The purposes of our study were to analyze all deaths in this entire

Robert A Kloner; Jonathan Leor; W. Kenneth Poole; Rebecca Perritt

1997-01-01

219

CRITICAL ELEMENTS FOR CERTIFICATION  

EPA Science Inventory

The Microbiology Subcommittee of the Drinking Water Laboratory Certification Implementation Work Group has revised Chapter V of the Manual for the Interim Certification of Laboratories Involved in Analyzing Public Drinking Water Supplies. The technical criteria for Chapter V are ...

220

An ostracode based paleolimnologic and paleohydrologic history of Death Valley: 200 to 0 ka  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Death Valley, a complex tectonic and hydrologic basin, was cored from its lowest surface elevation to a depth of 186 m. The sediments range from bedded primary halite to black muds. Continental ostracodes found in the black muds indicate that those sediments were deposited in a variety of hydrologic settings ranging from deep, relatively fresh water to shallow saline lakes to spring discharge supported wetlands. The alkaline-enriched, calcium-depleted paleolake waters indicate extrabasinal streamflow and basin-margin spring discharge. The alkaline-depleted, calcium-enriched paleowetland waters indicate intrabasinal spring discharge. During Marine Isotope Stage 6 (MIS 6, ca. 180-140 ka) the hydrologic settings were highly variable, implying that complex relations existed between climate and basin hydrology. Termination II (MIS 6 to MIS 5E) was a complex multicyclic sequence of paleoenvironments, implying that climates oscillated between high and low effective moisture. MIS 4 (ca. 73-61 ka) was a spring discharge supported wetland complex. During MIS 2 (ca. 20-12 ka) the hydrologic settings were variable, although they are not fully understood because some black muds deposited during that time were lost during coring. ?? 2005 Geological Society of America.

Forester, R.M.; Lowenstein, T.K.; Spencer, R.J.

2005-01-01

221

CDC's National Violent Death Reporting System: background and methodology  

PubMed Central

Objectives: This paper describes a new surveillance system called the National Violent Death Reporting System (NVDRS), initiated by the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. NVDRS's mission is the collection of detailed, timely information on all violent deaths. Design: NVDRS is a population based, active surveillance system designed to obtain a complete census of all resident and occurrent violent deaths. Each state collects information on its own deaths from death certificates, medical examiner/coroner files, law enforcement records, and crime laboratories. Deaths occurring in the same incident are linked. Over 270 data elements can be collected on each incident. Setting: The 13 state health departments of Alaska, Colorado, Georgia, Maryland, Massachusetts, New Jersey, North Carolina, Oklahoma, Oregon, Rhode Island, South Carolina, Virginia, and Wisconsin. Subjects: Cases consist of violent deaths from suicide, homicide, undetermined intent, legal intervention, and unintentional firearm injury. Information is collected on suspects as well as victims. Interventions: None. Outcome measures: The quality of surveillance will be measured in terms of its acceptability, accuracy, sensitivity, timeliness, utility, and cost. Results: The system has just been started. There are no results as yet. Conclusions: NVDRS has achieved enough support to begin data collection efforts in selected states. This system will need to overcome the significant barriers to such a large data collection effort. Its success depends on the use of its data to inform and assess violence prevention efforts. If successful, it will open a new chapter in the use of empirical information to guide public policy around violence in the United States. PMID:14760027

Paulozzi, L; Mercy, J; Frazier, L; Annest, J

2004-01-01

222

Causes of death and associated risk factors among climacteric women from Southern Brazil: a population based-study  

PubMed Central

Background Aging and menopause are particular cardiovascular risk factors for women, due to estrogen deprivation at the time of menopause. Studies show that diabetes mellitus (DM), smoking, hypertension, high body mass index (BMI), and serum lipids are associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), the main cause of female mortality in Brazil. The aim of this study was to assess the mortality rate, causes of death and associated risk factors in a cohort of women from Brazil. Methods A longitudinal population-based study of menopausal status is currently underway in a city in South Brazil. In 2010, a third follow-up of this population was performed to assess cardiovascular risk and mortality rate between 1995 and 2011. For this analysis, 358 participants were studied. At baseline, participants had completed a standardized questionnaire including demographic, lifestyle, medical and reproductive characteristics. In addition to the contacts with relatives, mortality data were obtained through review of medical records in all city hospitals and the Center for Health Information (NIS/RS-SES). Multivariate-adjusted hazard risk (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI95%) were estimated using Cox proportional hazards regression. Survival curves were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier curve. Results There were 17 (4.7%) deaths from all causes during the study period. Seven (41.2%) deaths were caused by CVD, including four cases of stroke and three cases of myocardial infarction. Six (35.3%) deaths were due to cancer, and four (23.5%) were due to other reasons. In the age and smoking-adjusted multivariate models, diabetes (HR 6.645, 95% CI: 1.938–22.79, p = 0.003), alcohol intake (HR 1.228, 95% CI: 1.014-1.487, p = 0.035) and postmenopausal status (HR = 6.216, 95% CI: 0.963–40.143, p = 0.055) were associated with all-cause mortality. A significant association was found between abdominal obesity (WHR ? 0.85) and mortality even after the adjustment for BMI (HR = 9.229, 95% IC: 2.083–41.504, p = 0.003). Conclusion CVD was an important cause of mortality in this cohort and DM and/or central adiposity were associated with all-cause mortality. Lifestyle and dietary factors seem to be related to risk of mortality in middle-aged women. PMID:24559309

2014-01-01

223

Supporting nurse manager certification.  

PubMed

Professional certification is desirable for nursing staff and leaders to demonstrate high levels of knowledge and expertise. Nurse managers can be role models for staff by attaining certification. The organization highlighted in this article developed a process that included an in-house nurse manager certification review course resulting in increased certification rates from 33% to 50% for nurse managers in a 14-month period. PMID:24853798

Rees, Susan; Glynn, Michele; Moore, Rebecca; Rankin, Rebecca; Stevens, Linda

2014-06-01

224

Contribution of deaths related to alcohol use of socioeconomic variation in mortality: register based follow up study.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To estimate the contribution of excessive alcohol use to socioeconomic variation in mortality among men and women in Finland. DESIGN: Register based follow up study. SUBJECTS: The population covered by the 1985 and 1990 censuses, aged > or = 20 in the follow up period 1987-93. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Total mortality and alcohol related mortality from all causes, from diseases, and from accidents and violence according to socioeconomic position. The excess mortality among other classes compared with upper non-manual employees and differences in life expectancy between the classes were used to measure mortality differentials. RESULTS: Alcohol related mortality constituted 11% of all mortality among men aged > or = 20 and 2% among women and was higher among manual workers than among other classes. It accounted for 14% of the excess all cause mortality among manual workers over upper non-manual employees among men and 4% among women and for 24% and 9% of the differences in life expectancy, respectively. Half of the excess mortality from accidents and violence among male manual workers and 38% among female manual workers was accounted for by alcohol related deaths, whereas in diseases the role of alcohol was modest. The contribution of alcohol related deaths to relative mortality differentials weakened with age. CONCLUSIONS: Class differentials in alcohol related mortality are an important factor in the socioeconomic mortality differentials in Finland, especially among men, among younger age groups, and in mortality from accidents and violence. PMID:9253268

Mäkelä, P.; Valkonen, T.; Martelin, T.

1997-01-01

225

Pre-Medical Studies Certificate  

E-print Network

Pre-Medical Studies Certificate What are Pre-Medical Studies? Pre-medical studies follow the course of study you take to prepare for admission to medical school. This includes not just the necessary science but also courses in human behavior, ethics, and written and oral communication. This broad-based approach

Saldin, Dilano

226

Deaths from cerebrovascular diseases correlated to month of birth: elevated risk of death from subarachnoid hemorrhage among summer-born  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It has been suggested that maternal nutrition, and fetal and infant growth have an important effect on the risk of cardiovascular disease in adult life. We investigated the population-based distribution of deaths from cerebrovascular diseases (ICD9 codes 430, 431, or 434) in Japan in 1986-1994 as a function of birth month, by examining death-certificate records. For a total of 853 981 people born in the years 1900-1959, the distribution of the number of deaths according to the month of birth was compared with the distribution expected from the monthly numbers of all births for each sex and for the corresponding birth decade. For those born between 1920 and 1949, there were significant discrepancies between the actual numbers of deaths from subarachnoid hemorrhage (ICD9 430) and the numbers expected, and these differences were related to the month of birth. Those born in summer, June-September, consistently had an elevated risk of death, particularly men, where the excess risk was 8%-23%. This tendency was also observed, less distinctly but significantly, for deaths from intracerebral hemorrhage (ICD9 431), but was not observed for those dying from occlusion of the cerebral arteries (ICD9 434). The observation that the risk of dying from subarachnoid hemorrhage was more than 10% higher among those born in the summer implies that at least one in ten deaths from subarachnoid hemorrhage has its origin at a perinatal stage. Although variations in hypertension in later life, which could possibly be ''programmed'' during the intra-uterine stages, could be an explanation for this observation, the disease-specific nature of the observation suggests the involvement of aneurysm formation, which is a predominant cause of subarachnoid hemorrhage.

Nonaka, K.; Imaizumi, Y.

227

Maintenance of Certification for Radiation Oncology  

SciTech Connect

Maintenance of Certification (MOC) recognizes that in addition to medical knowledge, several essential elements involved in delivering quality care must be developed and maintained throughout one's career. The MOC process is designed to facilitate and document professional development of American Board of Radiology (ABR) diplomates in the essential elements of quality care in Radiation Oncology and Radiologic Physics. ABR MOC has been developed in accord with guidelines of the American Board of Medical Specialties. All Radiation Oncology certificates issued since 1995 are 10-year, time-limited certificates; diplomates with time-limited certificates who wish to maintain specialty certification must complete specific requirements of the American Board of Radiology MOC program. Diplomates with lifelong certificates are not required to participate but are strongly encouraged to do so. Maintenance of Certification is based on documentation of participation in the four components of MOC: (1) professional standing, (2) lifelong learning and self-assessment, (3) cognitive expertise, and (4) performance in practice. Through these components, MOC addresses six competencies-medical knowledge, patient care, interpersonal and communication skills, professionalism, practice-based learning and improvement, and systems-based practice. Details of requirements for components 1, 2, and 3 of MOC are outlined along with aspects of the fourth component currently under development.

Kun, Larry E. [Radiation Oncology Trustees of the American Board of Radiology, Tucson, AZ (United States); Ang, Kian [Radiation Oncology Trustees of the American Board of Radiology, Tucson, AZ (United States); Erickson, Beth [Radiation Oncology Trustees of the American Board of Radiology, Tucson, AZ (United States); Harris, Jay [Radiation Oncology Trustees of the American Board of Radiology, Tucson, AZ (United States); Hoppe, Richard [Radiation Oncology Trustees of the American Board of Radiology, Tucson, AZ (United States); Leibel, Steve [Radiation Oncology Trustees of the American Board of Radiology, Tucson, AZ (United States); Davis, Larry [Assistant Executive Director for Radiation Oncology, American Board of Radiology, Tucson, AZ (United States); Hattery, Robert [Executive Director, American Board of Radiology, Tucson, AZ (United States)

2005-06-01

228

Certification report for the CALMAC solar powered pump  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The certification of the CALMAC solar powered thermopump is presented. Each element of the specification is delineated, together with the verification, based on analysis, similarity, inspection, or testing.

1978-01-01

229

Development of a Coroner-Based Surveillance System for Drug-Related Deaths in Los Angeles County  

Microsoft Academic Search

Existing data sources do not provide comprehensive and timely information to adequately monitor drug-related mortality in\\u000a Los Angeles County. To fill this gap, a surveillance system using coroner data was developed to examine patterns in drug-related\\u000a deaths. The coroner provided data on all injury deaths in Los Angeles County. A list of keywords that indicate a death was\\u000a caused by

Isabelle Sternfeld; Nicolle Perras; Patti L. Culross

2010-01-01

230

Avoiding a fate worse than death: an argument for legalising voluntary physician-based euthanasia.  

PubMed

The legalisation of voluntary physician-based euthanasia is currently the subject of much political, social and ethical debate and there is evidence in Australia of growing support for its implementation. In addressing many of the issues that surround legalisation, the article looks at some overseas jurisdictions that have legalised euthanasia to determine whether the social, political and ethical concerns prominent in the Australian debate have proved problematic in other jurisdictions. In addition, the article examines the report on the Dying with Dignity Bill 2009 (Tas) which commented extensively on the issues relating to voluntary physician-based euthanasia. PMID:23156656

Werren, Julia; Yuksel, Necef; Smith, Saxon

2012-09-01

231

Infrared spectroscopic characteristics of cell cycle and cell death probed by synchrotron-based FTIR spectromicroscopy  

E-print Network

-based FTIR spectromicroscopy Hoi-Ying N. Holmana , Michael C. Martinb , Eleanor A. Blakelyc , Kathy Bjornstad, Berkeley, California 94720, USA INTRODUCTION Conventional Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy of cellular components within intact tissues.1-5 However, the spatial resolution of traditional FTIR

232

Spatial analysis of deaths from pulmonary tuberculosis in the city of São Luís, Brazil*  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To characterize deaths from pulmonary tuberculosis, according to sociodemographic and operational variables, in the city of São Luís, Brazil, and to describe their spatial distribution. METHODS: This was an exploratory ecological study based on secondary data from death certificates, obtained from the Brazilian Mortality Database, related to deaths from pulmonary tuberculosis. We included all deaths attributed to pulmonary tuberculosis that occurred in the urban area of São Luís between 2008 and 2012. We performed univariate and bivariate analyses of the sociodemographic and operational variables of the deaths investigated, as well as evaluating the spatial distribution of the events by kernel density estimation. RESULTS: During the study period, there were 193 deaths from pulmonary tuberculosis in São Luís. The median age of the affected individuals was 52 years. Of the 193 individuals who died, 142 (73.60%) were male, 133 (68.91%) were Mulatto, 102 (53.13%) were single, and 64 (33.16%) had completed middle school. There was a significant positive association between not having received medical care prior to death and an autopsy having been performed (p = 0.001). A thematic map by density of points showed that the spatial distribution of those deaths was heterogeneous and that the density was as high as 8.12 deaths/km2. CONCLUSIONS: The sociodemographic and operational characteristics of the deaths from pulmonary tuberculosis evaluated in this study, as well as the identification of priority areas for control and surveillance of the disease, could promote public health policies aimed at reducing health inequities, allowing the optimization of resources, as well as informing decisions regarding the selection of strategies and specific interventions targeting the most vulnerable populations. PMID:25410843

Santos-Neto, Marcelino; Yamamura, Mellina; Garcia, Maria Concebida da Cunha; Popolin, Marcela Paschoal; Silveira, Tatiane Ramos dos Santos; Arcêncio, Ricardo Alexandre

2014-01-01

233

Underrepresentation of heroin involvement in unintentional drug overdose deaths in Allegheny County, PA.  

PubMed

Drugs contributing to overdose deaths are listed on death certificates, but their validity is rarely studied. To assess the accuracy of "morphine" and "codeine" listings on death certificates for unintentional overdose deaths in Allegheny County, PA, investigative and laboratory reports were reviewed. Deaths were reclassified as heroin-related if documentation showed 6-monoacetylmorphine in blood or urine, "stamp bags" or drug paraphernalia at scene, history of heroin use, or track marks. Deaths were considered morphine-related if notes indicated morphine use, prescription, or morphine at scene, or codeine-related if the codeine blood level exceeded morphine. Of 112 deaths with morphine but not heroin listed on the death certificate, 74 met heroin criteria and 21 morphine criteria. Of 20 deaths with both morphine and heroin listed, only one met morphine criteria. Of 34 deaths with codeine listed, only five were attributed to codeine. Consideration of patient history, death scene evidence, and expanded toxicology testing may improve the accuracy of death certificate drug listings. PMID:25041514

Mertz, Kristen J; Janssen, Jennifer K; Williams, Karl E

2014-11-01

234

Interaction between bedding and sleeping position in the sudden infant death syndrome: a population based case-control study  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE--To determine the relation between sleeping position and quantity of bedding and the risk of sudden unexpected infant death. DESIGN--A study of all infants dying suddenly and unexpectedly and of two controls matched for age and date with each index case. The parents of control infants were interviewed within 72 hours of the index infant's death. Information was collected on

P J Fleming; R Gilbert; Y Azaz; P J Berry; P T Rudd; A Stewart; E Hall

1990-01-01

235

Grid Computing Lecture - Globus Certificate Authorities and Certificates  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Grid Computing Lecture~~Globus certificate authorities and certificates, delegation, proxies, myProxy. Grid Computing Security, authorization, gridmap files, Community Authorization Service (CAS).

Dr. Clayton Ferner

2011-07-05

236

49 CFR 583.13 - Supplier certification and certificates.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AUTOMOBILE PARTS CONTENT LABELING § 583.13 Supplier certification and certificates. Each supplier shall certify the...

2013-10-01

237

49 CFR 583.13 - Supplier certification and certificates.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AUTOMOBILE PARTS CONTENT LABELING § 583.13 Supplier certification and certificates. Each supplier shall certify the...

2014-10-01

238

Building Operator Certification  

E-print Network

Energy Efficiency Conference, San Antonio, Texas Dec. 16-18 Building Operator Certification Energy Efficiency through Operator Training What is Building Operator Certification? • An educational program that uses classroom training and learning guides...: Clean Air Through Energy Efficiency Conference, San Antonio, Texas Dec. 16-18 Building Operator Certification Energy Efficiency through Operator Training Program Eligibility Level I High school diploma or GED and one of the following: - 2 or more years...

Lilley, D.

2013-01-01

239

An Identity and Certificate Manager  

E-print Network

We have designed and implemented a software library, called Identity and Certificate Manager (ICM), for managing, using, and exchanging application-level usernames, users' digital certificates, and cryptographic ...

Wu, Brian C

2007-01-01

240

Pre-existing atrial fibrillation and risk of arterial thromboembolism and death following pneumonia: a population-based cohort study  

PubMed Central

Objectives To examine the effect of pre-existing atrial fibrillation (AF) and associated therapy on the risk of arterial thromboembolism (ATE) and death following pneumonia. Design, setting and participants Population-based cohort study (1997–2012) of 88?315 patients with first-time hospitalisation with pneumonia in Northern Denmark. Results Of the included patients (median age 73.4?years), 8880 (10.1%) had pre-existing AF. The risk of ATE within 30?days of admission was 5.2% in patients with AF and 3.6% in patients without AF. After adjustment for higher age and comorbidity, the adjusted HR (aHR) with AF was 1.06 (95% CI 0.96 to 1.18). Among patients with AF, reduced risk of ATE was observed in vitamin-K antagonist users compared with non-users (aHR 0.74 (95% CI 0.61 to 0.91)). Thirty-day mortality was 20.1% in patients with AF and 13.9% in patients without AF. Corresponding 1-year mortalities were 43.7% and 30.3%. The aHRs for 30-day and 1-year mortality with AF were 1.00 (95% CI 0.94 to 1.05) and 1.01 (95% CI 0.98 to 1.05). In patients with AF, reduced mortality risk was observed in users of vitamin-K antagonists (aHR 0.70 (95% CI 0.63 to 0.77)) and ?-blockers (aHR 0.77 (95% CI 0.70 to 0.85). Increased mortality was found in digoxin users (aHR 1.16 (95% CI 1.06 to 1.28)). Conclusions Pre-existing AF is frequent in patients hospitalised with pneumonia and a marker of increased risk of ATE and death, explained by higher patient age and comorbidity. Prognosis is closely related to preadmission medical treatment for AF. PMID:25398678

Gamst, Jacob; Christiansen, Christian Fynbo; Rasmussen, Bodil Steen; Rasmussen, Lars Hvilsted; Thomsen, Reimar Wernich

2014-01-01

241

The incidence of death among low-risk populations: a multi-level analysis  

E-print Network

This study utilized a multi-level model to examine the impact of religion as an occupation on mortality. Death certificate data were used to examine clergy mortality and compares them to census categorized professionals, counseling professionals...

Lewinski, Christi Nicole

2007-09-17

242

Death notification.  

PubMed

Death notification--informing the deceased's family of an unexpected death--is a singularly stressful task common to medical personnel, clergy, and police. We surveyed by questionnaire a group of 50 Los Angeles Police Department homicide detectives, 21 of whom were subsequently interviewed by telephone. The detectives stated that their initial apprehension stemmed from feeling unprepared. Identification with victims' families was common and compounded the stress. One prevalent worry concerned the possible reactions of the family upon hearing the news, especially the risk of a violent attack on the police officer. Several coping styles were recognized. Our findings suggest that the repetitive performance of this continuously stressful task may be a prominent and underappreciated contribution to occupational burnout. PMID:3676528

Eth, S; Baron, D A; Pynoos, R S

1987-01-01

243

[Relationship between alcohol consumption and external causes of death based on the forensic autopsy cases in Yamaguchi].  

PubMed

We analyzed forensic autopsy cases to assess the relationship between alcohol consumption and external causes of death. We divided 605 autopsy cases which had been performed from 2000 to 2011 at our department into Alcohol group (n = 172, 28.4%) and Non-alcohol group (n = 433, 71.6%) according to whether alcohol could be detected in the deceased's blood. The individuals' sex and age, season when the death occurred, cause of death, type of death and circumstances of death were analyzed. Alcohol group had a significantly higher ratio of males and younger ages (both p < 0.05). There was no significant between-group difference regarding the seasons when the deaths occurred. Alcohol group had significantly greater rates of spinal injuries, abdominal injuries, traffic accidents, and accidental drowning. "Bicycling" was revealed as a related factor of the traffic accidents only in Alcohol group. In contrast, "accident on the expressway," "riding a motorcycle," and "a passenger in a vehicle" were related factors only in Non-alcohol group. We concluded that the factors of male gender and middle-to-senior age are responsible for the increased risk of external causes of death after alcohol consumption, and that alcohol consumption is one of the risk factors for accidental death. In Japan, drunk-driving-related accidents have shown a downward trend whereas bicycling-related accidents have shown an upward trend, and similar results were obtained in the present study. The low awareness of drinking-induced pitfalls may be responsible for drinking-related bicycle accidents. PMID:25223086

Hakucho, Ayako; Kawamura, Haruka; Liu, Jinyao; Liu, Xu; Takase, Izumi; Fujimiya, Tatsuya

2014-06-01

244

Building Intercultural Competence through Intercultural Competency Certification of Undergraduate Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Intercultural Competency Certificate (CCI in Spanish) designed for the Universidad Popular Autonoma del Estado de Puebla (UPAEP University) is a theory based comprehensive plan to develop undergraduate students' intercultural competence. This Certificate is based in the Developmental Model of Intercultural Sensitivity (DMIS) developed by…

Janeiro, Maria G. Fabregas; Fabre, Ricardo Lopez; Nuno de la Parra, Jose Pablo

2014-01-01

245

Impact of unlinked deaths and coding changes on mortality trends in the Swiss National Cohort  

PubMed Central

Background Results of epidemiological studies linking census with mortality records may be affected by unlinked deaths and changes in cause of death classification. We examined these issues in the Swiss National Cohort (SNC). Methods The SNC is a longitudinal study of the entire Swiss population, based on the 1990 (6.8 million persons) and 2000 (7.3 million persons) censuses. Among 1,053,393 deaths recorded 1991–2007 5.4% could not be linked using stringent probabilistic linkage. We included the unlinked deaths using pragmatic linkages and compared mortality rates for selected causes with official mortality rates. We also examined the impact of the 1995 change in cause of death coding from version 8 (with some additional rules) to version 10 of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD), using Poisson regression models with restricted cubic splines. Finally, we compared results from Cox models including and excluding unlinked deaths of the association of education, marital status, and nationality with selected causes of death. Results SNC mortality rates underestimated all cause mortality by 9.6% (range 2.4% - 17.9%) in the 85+ population. Underestimation was less pronounced in years nearer the censuses and in the 75–84 age group. After including 99.7% of unlinked deaths, annual all cause SNC mortality rates were reflecting official rates (relative difference between ?1.4% and +1.8%). In the 85+ population the rates for prostate and breast cancer dropped, by 16% and 21% respectively, between 1994 and 1995 coincident with the change in cause of death coding policy. For suicide in males almost no change was observed. Hazard ratios were only negligibly affected by including the unlinked deaths. A sudden decrease in breast (21% less, 95% confidence interval: 12% - 28%) and prostate (16% less, 95% confidence interval: 7% - 23%) cancer mortality rates in the 85+ population coincided with the 1995 change in cause of death coding policy. Conclusions Unlinked deaths bias analyses of absolute mortality rates downwards but have little effect on relative mortality. To describe time trends of cause-specific mortality in the SNC, accounting for the unlinked deaths and for the possible effect of change in death certificate coding was necessary. PMID:23289362

2013-01-01

246

Graduate Certificate in Transportation  

E-print Network

Graduate Certificate in Transportation Nohad A. Toulan School of Urban Studies and Planning of Engineering and Computer Science integrated transportation systems. The Graduate Certificate in Transportation their capabilities. Students in the program can choose among a wide range of relevant courses in transportation

Bertini, Robert L.

247

Certificates Barbara Fowler, Instructor  

E-print Network

for nonprofits, especially in an economy where competition is keen for every philanthropic dollar and donors discipline who are interested in learning more about nonprofits and fundraising, as well as members, students will receive a certificate and will be granted 3 CEUs. Nonprofit Fundraising Certificate Joy

Young, Paul Thomas

248

IBM Certification White Paper  

E-print Network

opportunities for employees is key to creating greater loyalty and job satisfaction. This in itself saves money a job requirement is often a key reason sited by IT professionals for attaining formal accreditation of IT Certification Predicting large-scale, worldwide trends on the value of IT certification is difficult. Opinions

249

Bundled Courses Creativity Certificate  

E-print Network

Bundled Courses Section IV Creativity Certificate Team Certificate in Innovation Creativity Minor none." Member, Grassroots Creativity Group #12;from a CIWG meeting suggestion by Zerbe Sodervick, CIAS-curricular innovation projects, understanding how to tap your creativity resources, conceptual blockbusting, and more

Zanibbi, Richard

250

Business Analyst Certificate Program  

E-print Network

of the business analyst has increased in importance over time because of the complexities of integrating newBusiness Analyst Certificate Program BusinessandManagement extension.uci.edu/ba #12;Business Analyst Certificate Program Business Analysts Capture Requirements to Build What the Customer Wants

Rose, Michael R.

251

[Maternal death: an avoidable tragedy].  

PubMed

Although statistics show that maternal mortality has declined during this century, high levels persist in the developing world. There are 100 to 1000 maternal deaths per 100,000 live births in developing countries, compared to 7 to 15 deaths per 100,000 live births in developed countries. Most of these deaths in developing countries are avoidable by effective maternal care interventions. A book edited by Unicamp on maternal mortality has made an important contribution to the debate that has been going on in scientific circles and among planners and health professionals. The quality of data for analysis of maternal mortality is implicated also because of erroneous classification of maternal deaths as nonmaternal, imprecision in the death certification, and omission of the status of pregnancy associated with illegal abortion. The identification of these errors means that medical files, hospital registers, family interviews, and autopsies have to be consulted. Research carried out in Sao Paulo demonstrated that at the end of the 1980s the maternal mortality rate was in fact 99.5/100,000 live births, whereas original records showed only 44.5/100,000 live births. Even in the United States during 1980-85, 33% of maternal deaths were underreported. In England the level of underreporting amounted to 41% during 1970-72. The World Health Organization has encouraged the formation of committees to study the prevention of maternal mortality. Two such committees were started in the state of Sao Paulo with the objectives of making professionals aware of the importance of accurate death records; immediate notification of maternal deaths to the regional committee; means from the proper authorities for the correction of deficiencies detected; and continuous evaluation of maternal mortality rates. The committee of Marilia, in the interior of the state of Sao Paulo, demonstrated that 72% of maternal deaths during 1986-88 were avoidable by medical-obstetrical means, prenatal care, or social assistance. 61% of deaths were attributed to cesarean section, which indicates the major risk of surgical complications. PMID:12286240

Ferreira, C E

1992-01-01

252

Causes of perinatal death at a tertiary care hospital in Northern Tanzania 2000–2010: a registry based study  

PubMed Central

Background Perinatal mortality reflects maternal health as well as antenatal, intrapartum and newborn care, and is an important health indicator. This study aimed at classifying causes of perinatal death in order to identify categories of potentially preventable deaths. Methods We studied a total of 1958 stillbirths and early neonatal deaths above 500 g between July 2000 and October 2010 registered in the Medical Birth Registry and neonatal registry at Kilimanjaro Christian Medical Centre (KCMC) in Northern Tanzania. The deaths were classified according to the Neonatal and Intrauterine deaths Classification according to Etiology (NICE). Results Overall perinatal mortality was 57.7/1000 (1958 out of 33 929), of which 1219 (35.9/1000) were stillbirths and 739 (21.8/1000) were early neonatal deaths. Major causes of perinatal mortality were unexplained asphyxia (n=425, 12.5/1000), obstetric complications (n=303, 8.9/1000), maternal disease (n=287, 8.5/1000), unexplained antepartum stillbirths after 37 weeks of gestation (n= 219, 6.5/1000), and unexplained antepartum stillbirths before 37 weeks of gestation (n=184, 5.4/1000). Obstructed/prolonged labour was the leading condition (251/303, 82.8%) among the obstetric complications. Preeclampsia/eclampsia was the leading cause (253/287, 88.2%) among the maternal conditions. When we excluded women who were referred for delivery at KCMC due to medical reasons (19.1% of all births and 36.0% of all deaths), perinatal mortality was reduced to 45.6/1000. This reduction was mainly due to fewer deaths from obstetric complications (from 8.9 to 2.1/1000) and maternal conditions (from 8.5 to 5.5/1000). Conclusion The distribution of causes of death in this population suggests a great potential for prevention. Early identification of mothers at risk of pregnancy complications through antenatal care screening, teaching pregnant women to recognize signs of pregnancy complications, timely access to obstetric care, monitoring of labour for fetal distress, and proper newborn resuscitation may reduce some of the categories of deaths. PMID:23199181

2012-01-01

253

EDR2 negatively regulates salicylic acid-based defenses and cell death during powdery mildew infections of Arabidopsis thaliana  

PubMed Central

Background The hypersensitive necrosis response (HR) of resistant plants to avirulent pathogens is a form of programmed cell death in which the plant sacrifices a few cells under attack, restricting pathogen growth into adjacent healthy tissues. In spite of the importance of this defense response, relatively little is known about the plant components that execute the cell death program or about its regulation in response to pathogen attack. Results We isolated the edr2-6 mutant, an allele of the previously described edr2 mutants. We found that edr2-6 exhibited an exaggerated chlorosis and necrosis response to attack by three pathogens, two powdery mildew and one downy mildew species, but not in response to abiotic stresses or attack by the bacterial leaf speck pathogen. The chlorosis and necrosis did not spread beyond inoculated sites suggesting that EDR2 limits the initiation of cell death rather than its spread. The pathogen-induced chlorosis and necrosis of edr2-6 was correlated with a stimulation of the salicylic acid defense pathway and was suppressed in mutants deficient in salicylic acid signaling. EDR2 encodes a novel protein with a pleckstrin homology and a StAR transfer (START) domain as well as a plant-specific domain of unknown function, DUF1336. The pleckstrin homology domain binds to phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate in vitro and an EDR2:HA:GFP protein localizes to endoplasmic reticulum, plasma membrane and endosomes. Conclusion EDR2 acts as a negative regulator of cell death, specifically the cell death elicited by pathogen attack and mediated by the salicylic acid defense pathway. Phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate may have a role in limiting cell death via its effect on EDR2. This role in cell death may be indirect, by helping to target EDR2 to the appropriate membrane, or it may play a more direct role. PMID:17612410

Vorwerk, Sonja; Schiff, Celine; Santamaria, Marjorie; Koh, Serry; Nishimura, Marc; Vogel, John; Somerville, Chris; Somerville, Shauna

2007-01-01

254

Predictors of Fear of Death and Self-Mortality: An Atlantic Canadian Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research was undertaken to explore gender, religiosity, perceived time-left-to-live and the interactions between these variables as predictors of fear of death in 144 Atlantic Canadian students using the Multidimensional Fear of Death Scale (MFODS). Predictions about cause, age, marital status, and place of death were also derived from the Do-It-Yourself-Death-Certificate and compared with actuarial data to determine accuracy. Results

Trinda L. Power; Steven M. Smith

2008-01-01

255

Uniformity in brain death criteria.  

PubMed

Despite well-described international variabilities in brain death practices, de facto there already exists a minimum international clinical standard for the diagnosis of brain death. This remains rooted in the Harvard criteria and based on the characteristics of a permanently nonfunctioning brain. Medicine is evolving toward a single unified determination of death based on the cessation of brain function subsequent to catastrophic brain injury or circulatory arrest. Clarity in lexicon could be established, including movement toward functional definitions and away from anatomically based terms such as cardiac and brain death that erroneously imply death of the organ. The cessation of clinical functions of the brain that will not resume is determined by the absence of capacity for consciousness, centrally mediated motor responses, brainstem reflexes, and capacity to breathe. A known proximate cause and the absence of confounding or reversible conditions must be confirmed. Regional medical, legal, cultural, religious, or socioeconomic factors may require testing beyond this minimal clinical standard. PMID:25839725

Shemie, Sam D; Baker, Andrew

2015-04-01

256

Mortality and cause of death in hip fracture patients aged 65 or older - a population-based study  

PubMed Central

Background The high mortality of hip fracture patients is well documented, but sex- and cause-specific mortality after hip fracture has not been extensively studied. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate mortality and cause of death in patients after hip fracture surgery and to compare their mortality and cause of death to those in the general population. Methods Records of 428 consecutive hip fracture patients were collected on a population-basis and data on the general population comprising all Finns 65 years of age or older were collected on a cohort-basis. Cause of death was classified as follows: malignant neoplasms, dementia, circulatory disease, respiratory disease, digestive system disease, and other. Results Mean follow-up was 3.7 years (range 0-9 years). Overall 1-year postoperative mortality was 27.3% and mortality after hip fracture at the end of the follow-up was 79.0%. During the follow-up, age-adjusted mortality after hip fracture surgery was higher in men than in women with hazard ratio (HR) 1.55 and 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.21-2.00. Among hip surgery patients, the most common causes of death were circulatory diseases, followed by dementia and Alzheimer's disease. After hip fracture, men were more likely than women to die from respiratory disease, malignant neoplasm, and circulatory disease. During the follow-up, all-cause age- and sex-standardized mortality after hip fracture was 3-fold higher than that of the general population and included every cause-of-death category. Conclusion During the study period, the risk of mortality in hip fracture patients was 3-fold higher than that in the general population and included every major cause of death. PMID:21599967

2011-01-01

257

Causes of death among undocumented migrants in Sweden, 1997–2010  

PubMed Central

Background Undocumented migrants are one of the most vulnerable groups in Swedish society, where they generally suffer from poor health and limited health care access. Due to their irregular status, such migrants are an under-researched group and are not included in the country’s Cause of Death Register (CDR). Objective To determine the causes of death among undocumented migrants in Sweden and to ascertain whether there are patterns in causes of death that differ between residents and undocumented migrants. Design This is a cross-sectional study of death certificates issued from 1997 to 2010 but never included in the CDR from which we established our study sample of undocumented migrants. As age adjustments could not be performed due to lack of data, comparisons between residents and undocumented migrants were made at specific age intervals, based on the study sample’s mean age at death±a half standard deviation. Results Out of 7,925 individuals surveyed, 860 were classified as likely to have been undocumented migrants. External causes (49.8%) were the most frequent cause of death, followed by circulatory system diseases, and then neoplasms. Undocumented migrants had a statistically significant increased risk of dying from external causes (odds ratio [OR] 3.57, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.83–4.52) and circulatory system diseases (OR 2.20, 95% CI: 1.73–2.82) compared to residents, and a lower risk of dying from neoplasms (OR 0.07, 95% CI: 0.04–0.14). Conclusions We believe our study is the first to determine national figures on causes of death of undocumented migrants. We found inequity in health as substantial differences in causes of death between undocumented migrants and residents were seen. Legal ambiguities regarding health care provision must be addressed if equity in health is to be achieved in a country otherwise known for its universal health coverage. PMID:24909409

Wahlberg, Anna; Källestål, Carina; Lundgren, AnnaCarin; Essén, Birgitta

2014-01-01

258

Guidelines for the verification and validation of expert system software and conventional software: Evaluation of knowledge base certification methods. Volume 4  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the results of the Knowledge Base Certification activity of the expert systems verification and validation (V&V) guideline development project which is jointly funded by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the Electric Power Research Institute. The ultimate objective is the formulation of guidelines for the V&V of expert systems for use in nuclear power applications. This activity is concerned with the development and testing of various methods for assuring the quality of knowledge bases. The testing procedure used was that of behavioral experiment, the first known such evaluation of any type of V&V activity. The value of such experimentation is its capability to provide empirical evidence for -- or against -- the effectiveness of plausible methods in helping people find problems in knowledge bases. The three-day experiment included 20 participants from three nuclear utilities, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission`s Technical training Center, the University of Maryland, EG&G Idaho, and SAIC. The study used two real nuclear expert systems: a boiling water reactor emergency operating procedures tracking system and a pressurized water reactor safety assessment systems. Ten participants were assigned to each of the expert systems. All participants were trained in and then used a sequence of four different V&V methods selected as being the best and most appropriate for study on the basis of prior evaluation activities. These methods either involved the analysis and tracing of requirements to elements in the knowledge base (requirements grouping and requirements tracing) or else involved direct inspection of the knowledge base for various kinds of errors. Half of the subjects within each system group used the best manual variant of the V&V methods (the control group), while the other half were supported by the results of applying real or simulated automated tools to the knowledge bases (the experimental group).

Miller, L.A.; Hayes, J.E.; Mirsky, S.M. [Science Applications International Corp., McLean, VA (United States)

1995-03-01

259

40 CFR 745.229 - Certification of individuals and firms engaged in lead-based paint activities: public and...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...individuals and firms engaged in lead-based paint activities: public and commercial buildings...SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT LEAD-BASED PAINT POISONING PREVENTION IN CERTAIN RESIDENTIAL STRUCTURES Lead-Based Paint Activities § 745.229...

2012-07-01

260

40 CFR 745.229 - Certification of individuals and firms engaged in lead-based paint activities: public and...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...individuals and firms engaged in lead-based paint activities: public and commercial buildings...SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT LEAD-BASED PAINT POISONING PREVENTION IN CERTAIN RESIDENTIAL STRUCTURES Lead-Based Paint Activities § 745.229...

2011-07-01

261

40 CFR 745.229 - Certification of individuals and firms engaged in lead-based paint activities: public and...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...individuals and firms engaged in lead-based paint activities: public and commercial buildings...SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT LEAD-BASED PAINT POISONING PREVENTION IN CERTAIN RESIDENTIAL STRUCTURES Lead-Based Paint Activities § 745.229...

2010-07-01

262

40 CFR 745.229 - Certification of individuals and firms engaged in lead-based paint activities: public and...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...individuals and firms engaged in lead-based paint activities: public and commercial buildings...SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT LEAD-BASED PAINT POISONING PREVENTION IN CERTAIN RESIDENTIAL STRUCTURES Lead-Based Paint Activities § 745.229...

2013-07-01

263

40 CFR 745.229 - Certification of individuals and firms engaged in lead-based paint activities: public and...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...individuals and firms engaged in lead-based paint activities: public and commercial buildings...SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT LEAD-BASED PAINT POISONING PREVENTION IN CERTAIN RESIDENTIAL STRUCTURES Lead-Based Paint Activities § 745.229...

2014-07-01

264

Demystifying maintenance of certification.  

PubMed

Board certification for a medical specialty was first proposed in 1908. Subsequently, the American Board of Medical Specialties (ABMS) was formed in 1933. The ABMS approved emergency medicine as the 23rd medical specialty in 1979. Since its inception, the American Board of Emergency Medicine (ABEM) has always had time-limited certification requiring a recertification examination every 10 years. The notion of recertification has since evolved into maintenance of certification (MOC). I define the various components of the ABEM MOC program. The MOC axioms of continuous professional development and adherence to quality development are discussed. Finally, physician participation in the ABEM MOC is reviewed. PMID:23489653

Nelson, Richard N

2014-04-01

265

Developing an Online Certification Program for Nutrition Education Assistants  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To develop an online certification program for nutrition education paraprofessionals to increase knowledge and confidence and to overcome training barriers of programming time and travel expenses. Design: An online interactive certification course based on Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program-Education and Expanded Food and…

Christofferson, Debra; Christensen, Nedra; LeBlanc, Heidi; Bunch, Megan

2012-01-01

266

EDR2 NEGATIVELY REGULATES SALICYLIC ACID-BASED DEFENSES AND CELL DEATH DURING POWDERY MILDEW INFECTIONS OF ARABIDOPSIS THALIANA  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The hypersensitive necrosis response (HR) of resistant plants to avirulent pathogens is a form of programmed cell death in which the plant sacrifices a few cells under attack, restricting pathogen growth into adjacent healthy tissues. In spite of the importance of this defense response, relatively l...

267

Certification of training  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Training has been around as an informal process for countless years. Most higher order animals require some level of training in hunting, social skills, or other survival related skills to continue their existence beyond early infancy. Much of the training is accomplished through imitation, trial and error, and good luck. In some ways the essentials of training in aviation have not deviated from this original formula a great deal. One of the major changes in aviation and other technical areas is that more complex response chains based on a broader base of knowledge are now required. 'To certify' means many things according to the American Heritage dictionary of the English Language. These meanings range from 'to guarantee as meeting a standard' to 'to declare legally insane'. For this discussion, we will use the definition 'an action taken by some authoritative body that essentially guarantees that the instruction meets some defined standard'. In order to make this certification, the responsible body subjects the educational process, training, training device, or simulator to some type of examination to determine its adequacy or validity.

Gibson, Richard S.

1994-01-01

268

Viking site selection and certification  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The landing site selection and certification effort for the Viking mission to Mars is reviewed from the premission phase through the acquisition of data and decisions during mission operations and the immediate postlanding evaluation. The utility and limitations of the orbital television and infrared data and ground based radar observation of candidate and actual landing sites are evaluated. Additional instruments and types of observations which would have been useful include higher resolution cameras, radar altimeters, and terrain hazard avoidance capability in the landing system. Suggestions based on this experience that might be applied to future missions are included.

Masursky, H.; Crabill, N. L.

1981-01-01

269

Waterfront Certification Changes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Overviews certification changes affecting lifeguard training, progressive swimming instructors, CPR and first aid training, canoeing and kayaking instructors, sailing instructors, water skiing instructors, and instructor trainers. Addresses how changes impact American Camping Association standards. Provides addresses of training organizations. (LP)

O'Brien, Laurie

1995-01-01

270

Forensic Toxicology Certificate  

E-print Network

Forensic Toxicology Certificate What is Forensic Toxicology? Forensic toxicology is a discipline of forensic science that is concerned with the study of toxic substances or poisons. Toxicology encompasses. Students of forensic toxicology obtain knowledge about the absorption, distribution, and elimination

Saldin, Dilano

271

An A+ Certification Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the computer technology program at Thomas A. Edison Vocational and Technical High School in Queens, New York, all of whose graduates go on to specialty secondary schools for additional certification or to postsecondary education programs. (JOW)

Rubenstein, Charles

2003-01-01

272

Renewable Energy Technology Certificate  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Advanced Technology Environmental and Energy Center (ATEEC) has provided this framework for a renewable energy certificate. Users must download this resource for viewing, which requires a free log-in. There is no cost to download the item.

273

Lean Manufacturing Engineering Certification  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website from Best Practice Research features online business training courses including lean manufacturing and six sigma certification training courses. The courses are available for purchase and may be taken online.

274

Laminar Flow Aircraft Certification  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Various topics telative to laminar flow aircraft certification are discussed. Boundary layer stability, flaps for laminar flow airfoils, computational wing design studies, manufacturing requirements, windtunnel tests, and flow visualization are among the topics covered.

Williams, Louis J. (compiler)

1986-01-01

275

Operator Certification Study Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study guide contains typical questions and answers that all levels of water treatment plant operators might expect to find on a certification examination. The manual covers the basic sciences, treatment techniques, testing procedures, and federal legislation. (Author/SB)

American Water Works Association, Denver, CO.

276

Certification of computational results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A conceptually novel and powerful technique to achieve fault detection and fault tolerance in hardware and software systems is described. When used for software fault detection, this new technique uses time and software redundancy and can be outlined as follows. In the initial phase, a program is run to solve a problem and store the result. In addition, this program leaves behind a trail of data called a certification trail. In the second phase, another program is run which solves the original problem again. This program, however, has access to the certification trail left by the first program. Because of the availability of the certification trail, the second phase can be performed by a less complex program and can execute more quickly. In the final phase, the two results are compared and if they agree the results are accepted as correct; otherwise an error is indicated. An essential aspect of this approach is that the second program must always generate either an error indication or a correct output even when the certification trail it receives from the first program is incorrect. The certification trail approach to fault tolerance is formalized and realizations of it are illustrated by considering algorithms for the following problems: convex hull, sorting, and shortest path. Cases in which the second phase can be run concurrently with the first and act as a monitor are discussed. The certification trail approach are compared to other approaches to fault tolerance.

Sullivan, Gregory F.; Wilson, Dwight S.; Masson, Gerald M.

1993-01-01

277

13 CFR 120.1708 - Pool Certificates.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...backing a Pool Certificate, SBA, through the CSA, will make advances to maintain the schedule... (e) Pool Certificate form. The CSA prepares the Pool Certificate. SBA must...Certificate must be registered with the CSA. (g) Face amount of Pool...

2010-01-01

278

13 CFR 120.1708 - Pool Certificates.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...backing a Pool Certificate, SBA, through the CSA, will make advances to maintain the schedule... (e) Pool Certificate form. The CSA prepares the Pool Certificate. SBA must...Certificate must be registered with the CSA. (g) Face amount of Pool...

2013-01-01

279

13 CFR 120.1708 - Pool Certificates.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...backing a Pool Certificate, SBA, through the CSA, will make advances to maintain the schedule... (e) Pool Certificate form. The CSA prepares the Pool Certificate. SBA must...Certificate must be registered with the CSA. (g) Face amount of Pool...

2011-01-01

280

13 CFR 120.1708 - Pool Certificates.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...backing a Pool Certificate, SBA, through the CSA, will make advances to maintain the schedule... (e) Pool Certificate form. The CSA prepares the Pool Certificate. SBA must...Certificate must be registered with the CSA. (g) Face amount of Pool...

2012-01-01

281

13 CFR 120.1708 - Pool Certificates.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...backing a Pool Certificate, SBA, through the CSA, will make advances to maintain the schedule... (e) Pool Certificate form. The CSA prepares the Pool Certificate. SBA must...Certificate must be registered with the CSA. (g) Face amount of Pool...

2014-01-01

282

40 CFR 745.226 - Certification of individuals and firms engaged in lead-based paint activities: target housing and...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...appropriate work practice standards for lead-based paint activities...constitutes evidence of a failure...engaged in lead-based paint activities...with the work practice standards established...local lead-based paint statutes...constitutes evidence of a...

2013-07-01

283

40 CFR 745.226 - Certification of individuals and firms engaged in lead-based paint activities: target housing and...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...appropriate work practice standards for lead-based paint activities...constitutes evidence of a failure...engaged in lead-based paint activities...with the work practice standards established...local lead-based paint statutes...constitutes evidence of a...

2014-07-01

284

GROUP LIFE AND ACCIDENTAL DEATH AND DISMEMBERMENT INSURANCE  

E-print Network

GROUP LIFE AND ACCIDENTAL DEATH AND DISMEMBERMENT INSURANCE PROGRAM University of California Regents #12;#12;GROUP LIFE INSURANCE #12;#12;LRS-6441 Ed. 11/84 CERTIFICATE OF INSURANCE We certify that you (provided you belong to a class described on the Schedule of Benefits) are insured

Mullins, Dyche

285

Diagnosis of brain death  

PubMed Central

Brain death (BD) should be understood as the ultimate clinical expression of a brain catastrophe characterized by a complete and irreversible neurological stoppage, recognized by irreversible coma, absent brainstem reflexes, and apnea. The most common pattern is manifested by an elevation of intracranial pressure to a point beyond the mean arterial pressure, and hence cerebral perfusion pressure falls and, as a result, no net cerebral blood flow is present, in due course leading to permanent cytotoxic injury of the intracranial neuronal tissue. A second mechanism is an intrinsic injury affecting the nervous tissue at a cellular level which, if extensive and unremitting, can also lead to BD. We review here the methodology of diagnosing death, based on finding any of the signs of death. The irreversible loss of cardio-circulatory and respiratory functions can cause death only when ischemia and anoxia are prolonged enough to produce an irreversible destruction of the brain. The sign of such loss of brain functions, that is to say BD diagnosis, is fully reviewed. PMID:21577338

Machado, Calixto

2010-01-01

286

Expressing death risk as condensed life experience and death intensity.  

PubMed

Some risk exposures, including many medical and surgical procedures, typically carry hazards of death that are difficult to convey and appreciate in absolute terms. I propose presenting the death risk as a condensed life experience (i.e., the equivalent amount of life T that would carry the same cumulative mortality hazard for a person of the same age and sex based on life tables). For example, if the risk of death during an elective 1-hour procedure is 0.01%, and same-age and same-sex people have a 0.01% death risk over 1 month, one can inform the patient that "this procedure carries the same death risk as living 1 month of normal life." Comparative standards from other risky activities or from a person with the same disease at the same stage and same predictive profile could also be used. A complementary metric that may be useful to consider is the death intensity. The death intensity ? is the hazard function that shows the fold-risk estimate of dying compared with the reference person. The death intensity can vary substantially for different phases of the event, operation, or procedure (e.g., intraoperative, early postoperative, late postoperative), and this variability may also be useful to convey. T will vary depending on the time window for which it is computed. I present examples for calculating T and ? using literature data on accidents, ascent to Mount Everest, and medical and surgical procedures. PMID:23579043

Ioannidis, John P A

2013-08-01

287

Neonatal Death Dwarfism in a Girl with Distinctive Bone Dysplasia Compatible with Grebe Chondrodysplasia: Analysis by CT Scan-based Phenotype  

PubMed Central

We report on a female fetus noted to have severe malformative type of skeletal dysplasia on ultrasonography done at 35 weeks gestation. The girl died shortly after birth. Clinical examination showed a fetus with severe dwarfism, extensive long and short bones, and bone deficiencies associated with multiple dislocations. Computed tomography (CT) scan-based phenotype showed a complex constellation of malformations consistent with the diagnosis of Grebe syndrome. Parents being first cousins (consanguineous marriage) strongly suggests autosomal recessive pattern of inheritance. To our knowledge, this is the first report of neonatal death dwarfism of Grebe syndrome analyzed by CT scan-based phenotype. PMID:25337439

Al Kaissi, Ali; Chehida, Farid Ben; Ganger, Rudolf; Grill, Franz

2014-01-01

288

Certificate program Graduate certificate in anatomical and translational sciences  

E-print Network

, and assisted reproductive technologies. ANAT 2150. Human Microscopic Anatomy. 3 Credits. Normal histological structural-functional relationship. ANAT 2181. Human Gross Anatomy. 3 Credits. Structure and function1 Anatomy ANATOMY GRADUATE Certificate program · Graduate certificate in anatomical

Vertes, Akos

289

RESEARCH ARTICLE Open Access Causes of death in patients with extranodal  

E-print Network

­ as reported in the death certificate - were investigated, analyzing reported metastatic sites and histological subtypes separately. Survival was compared with metastatic cancer with a known primary tumor. Results with adenocarcinoma or undifferentiated histology. In adenocarcinoma, lung cancer was the most frequent cause of death

Hemminki, Akseli

290

Child Maltreatment Fatalities in Children under 5: Findings from the National Violence Death Reporting System  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To describe the distribution of child maltreatment fatalities of children under 5 by age, sex, race/ethnicity, type of maltreatment, and relationship to alleged perpetrator using data from the National Violent Death Reporting System (NVDRS). Study design: Two independent coders reviewed information from death certificates, medical…

Klevens, Joanne; Leeb, Rebecca T.

2010-01-01

291

Dealing with Human Death: The Floating Perspective.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explores approach to dealing with human death. Describes floating perspective, based on insights from Choron and Jaspers, as suggesting it is possible to deal with human death by refraining from taking ultimate position on the problem. Position encourages openness to death. Examines role of anxiety and describes possible meaningful outcomes of…

Kenyon, Gary M.

1991-01-01

292

Infant Mortality Statistics from the 2008 Period Linked Birth/Infant Death Data Set  

E-print Network

A reformatted, typeset version of this report will replace the current version. Objective: This report presents 2008 period infant mortality statistics from the linked birth/infant death data set (linked file) by a variety of maternal and infant characteristics. The linked file differs from the mortality file which is based entirely on death certificate data. Methods- Descriptive tabulations of data are presented and interpreted. Results- The U.S. infant mortality rate was 6.61 infant deaths per 1,000 live births in 2008, 2 percent lower than the rate of 6.75 in 2007. Infant mortality rates ranged from 4.51 per 1,000 live births for Asian or Pacific Islander mothers to 12.67 for non-Hispanic black mothers. The rate for non-Hispanic black women declined 5 percent from 2007 to 2008. Infant mortality was higher for male infants and infants born preterm or at low birthweight. Infant mortality rates were also higher for those infants who were born in multiple deliveries, to mothers who were unmarried, and for those whose mothers were born in the 50 States or the District of Columbia. From 2007 to 2008, the neonatal mortality rate (less than 28 days) declined by 3 percent to 4.29 neonatal deaths per 1,000 live births, while the postneonatal mortality rate (28 days to less than one year) remained essentially unchanged (2.32). Preterm and low birthweight infants had the highest infant mortality rates and contributed greatly to the overall US infant mortality. The three leading causes of infant death- Congenital malformations, low birthweight, and SIDS- accounted for 46 percent of all infant deaths. In 2008, 35.4 percent of infant deaths were “preterm-related”.

T. J. Mathews; Marian F. Macdorman, Ph.D.; Division Of Vital Statistics

293

Deaths certified as asthma and use of medical services: a national case-control study  

PubMed Central

Background: Studies have linked asthma death to either increased or decreased use of medical services. Methods: A population based case-control study of asthma deaths in 1994–8 was performed in 22 English, six Scottish, and five Welsh health authorities/boards. All 681 subjects who died were under the age of 65 years with asthma in Part I on the death certificates. After exclusions, 532 hospital controls were matched to 532 cases for age, district, and date of asthma admission/death. Data were extracted blind from primary care records. Results: The median age of the subjects who died was 53 years; 60% of cases and 64% of controls were female. There was little difference in outpatient attendance (55% and 55%), hospital admission for asthma (51% and 54%), and median inpatient days (20 days and 15 days) in the previous 5 years. After mutual adjustment and adjustment for sex, using conditional logistic regression, three variables were independently associated with asthma death: fewer general practice contacts (odds ratio 0.82 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.74 to 0.91) per 5 contacts) in the previous year, more home visits (1.14 (95% CI 1.08 to 1.21) per visit) in the previous year, and fewer peak expiratory flow recordings (0.83 (95% CI 0.74 to 0.92) per occasion) in the previous 3 months. These associations were similar after adjustment for markers of severity, psychosocial factors, systemic steroids, short acting bronchodilators and antibiotics, although the association with peak flow was weakened and just lost significance. Conclusion: Asthma death is associated with less use of primary care services. Both practice and patient factors may be involved and a better understanding of these may offer possibilities for reducing asthma death. PMID:16055628

Sturdy, P; Butland, B; Anderson, H; Ayres, J; Bland, J; Harrison, B; Peckitt, C; Victor, C; on, b

2005-01-01

294

Mind your manners. Part II: General results from the National Association of Medical Examiners Manner of Death Questionnaire, 1995.  

PubMed

More than 700 physician medical examiner/coroners (ME/Cs) were surveyed to assess differences in manner of death classifications for typical but often controversial death scenarios: 198 physicians participated by choosing the manner of death (homicide, suicide, accident, natural, undetermined) for 23 such scenarios. Sixteen questions related to death certificate training, work location, and manner of death issues were also asked. The classification of manner of death by ME/Cs was highly variable. For some challenging death scenarios, majority agreement was lacking. Agreement was > or = 80% for only 11 of the 23 scenarios and was 100% for only 1. Manner of death classification method was not influenced by forensic pathology board certification status, by whether or not the physician actually completed death certificates, or by previous threats of lawsuits over manner of death classification. However, there were some differences by state. No textbook or individual was widely recognized as authoritative on manner of death issues. Few ME/Cs had formal death certification training in medical school or residency. The data lend credence to the practice of the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) of classifying manner of death for statistical purposes by using coding and classification rules and selection criteria rather than solely on the basis of the classification of manner chosen by ME/Cs. The data also indicate that caution is in order when one compares manner of death statistics of one ME/C with those of another Published guidelines and more uniform training are needed so that ME/Cs may become more consistent in their manner of death classifications. Further information is presented in Part I (history of manner of death classification) and in Part III (individual death scenarios and their analysis) companion articles in this issue of the Journal. PMID:9290868

Goodin, J; Hanzlick, R

1997-09-01

295

Certificate in Arts Management The Certificate in Arts Management  

E-print Network

Certificate in Arts Management The Certificate in Arts Management is designed for those students interested in pursuing future careers in the management of arts organizations. It is also suitable for majors.uwindsor.ca/arts/certificate Training includes courses in marketing, management, fund-raising, publicity, board and volunteer management

296

Master'sCertificates(MCert) About the Master's Certificates Program  

E-print Network

accepted to the Johnson-Shoyama Graduate School of Public Policy. I could relate my past knowledgeMaster'sCertificates(MCert) About the Master's Certificates Program The Johnson-Shoyama Graduate School of Public Policy offers a variety of Master's Certificates designed to meet the needs

Peak, Derek

297

USING RISK-BASED CORRECTIVE ACTION (RBCA) TO ASSESS (THEORETICAL) CANCER DEATHS AVERTED COMPARED TO THE (REAL) COST OF ENVIRONMENTAL REMEDIATION  

SciTech Connect

In 1978, on the basis of existing health studies at the time, the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project legislation was proposed that would authorize remedial action at inactive uranium processing sites and vicinity properties. The cost of the program to the Federal Government was expected to be $180 million. With the completion of this project, approximately 1300 theoretical cancer deaths were prevented in the next 100 years at a cost of $1.45 billion, based on the Fiscal Year 1998 Federal UMTRA budget. The individual site costs ranged from $0.2 million up to $18 billion spent per theoretical cancer death averted over the next 100 years. Resources required to sustain remediation activities such as this are subject to reduction over time, and are originally based on conservative assumptions that tend to overestimate risks to the general public. This evaluation used a process incorporating risk-based corrective action (RBCA); a three-tiered, decision-making process tailoring corrective action activities according to site-specific conditions and risks. If RBCA had been applied at the start of the UMTRA Project, and using a criterion of >1 excess cancer death prevented as justification to remediate the site, only 50% of the existing sites would have been remediated, yielding a cost savings of $303.6 million to the Federal Government and affected States, which share 10% of the cost. This cost savings equates to 21% of the overall project budget. In addition, only 22% of the vicinity properties had structural contamination contributing to elevated interior gamma exposure and radon levels. Focusing only on these particular properties could have saved an additional $269.3 million, yielding a total savings of $573 million; 40% of the overall project budget. As operational experience is acquired, including greater understanding of the radiological and nonradiological risks, decisions should be based on the RBCA process, rather than relying on conservative assumptions that tend to overestimate risks to the general public.

Miller, M. L.; Hylko, J. M.

2002-02-25

298

Consensus recommendations on rater training and certification.  

PubMed

There is currently no accepted standard for the clinical research industry to follow when selecting and training raters to administer rating scales in clinical neuroscience trials. This article offers guidelines, based on expert recommendations of the CNS Summit Rater Training and Certification Committee, for selecting, training, and evaluating raters. The article also defines terminology and offers recommendations for considering raters with prior training and certification. These guidelines are intended for investigators, pharmaceutical companies, contract research organizations, and other entities involved in clinical neuroscience trials. PMID:25621182

West, Mark D; Daniel, David G; Opler, Mark; Wise-Rankovic, Alexandria; Kalali, Amir

2014-01-01

299

Drug Overdose Deaths, Hospitalizations,  

E-print Network

Drug Overdose Deaths, Hospitalizations, and Emergency Department Visits in Kentucky, 2000 - 2012 #12; Kentucky Injury Preven on and Research Center Drug Overdose Deaths, Hospitaliza ons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Drug overdose deaths, 20002012

MacAdam, Keith

300

Death: 'nothing' gives insight.  

PubMed

According to a widely accepted belief, we cannot know our own death--death means 'nothing' to us. At first sight, the meaning of 'nothing' just implies the negation or absence of 'something'. Death then simply refers to the negation or absence of life. As a consequence, however, death has no meaning of itself. This leads to an ontological paradox in which death is both acknowledged and denied: death is … nothing. In this article, I investigate whether insight into the ontological paradox of the nothingness of death can contribute to a good end-of-life. By analysing Aquinas', Heidegger's and Derrida's understanding of death as nothingness, I explore how giving meaning to death on different ontological levels connects to, and at the same time provides resistance against, the harsh reality of death. By doing so, I intend to demonstrate that insight into the nothingness of death can count as a framework for a meaningful dealing with death. PMID:23054426

Ettema, Eric J

2013-08-01

301

Death threat, death concerns, and paranormal belief  

Microsoft Academic Search

Relationships among death threat, death concerns, and paranormal beliefs were investigated in a personal construct theory framework. First, the Threat Index measure of death threat and the Paranormal Belief Scale, which provides a measure of degree of belief in each of seven paranormal dimensions, were administered to 78 college students. As hypothesized, one paranormal belief dimension (traditional religious belief) was

Jerome Tobacyk

1983-01-01

302

Organizational Resource Bundles and Institutional Change in the U.S. Organic Food and Agricultural Certification Sector  

Microsoft Academic Search

This analysis explores the competitive implications of new institutional standards within the organic certification industry based on a theoretical perspective that integrates institutional and resource-based theories. The authors provide a historical account of the development of certification standards and discussions of three certification agencies: Quality Assurance International (QAI), Oregon Tilth, Inc. (OTCO) and the Food Alliance (FA). They find that

R. SCOTT MARSHALL; STEPHEN S. STANDIFIRD

2005-01-01

303

A Simple Protocol for Using a LDH-Based Cytotoxicity Assay to Assess the Effects of Death and Growth Inhibition at the Same Time  

PubMed Central

Analyzing the effects on cell growth inhibition and/or cell death has been an important component of biological research. The MTS assay and LDH-based cytotoxicity assays are two of the most commonly used methods for this purpose. However, data here showed that MTS cell proliferation assay could not distinguish the effects of cell death or cell growth inhibition. In addition, the original LDH-based cytotoxicity protocol grossly underestimated the proportion of dead cells in conditions with growth inhibition. To overcome the limitation, we present here a simple modified LDH-based cytotoxicity protocol by adding additional condition-specific controls. This modified protocol thus can provide more accurate measurement of killing effects in addition to the measurement of overall effects, especially in conditions with growth inhibition. In summary, we present here a simple, modified cytotoxicity assay, which can determine the overall effects, percentage of cell killing and growth inhibition in one 96-well based assay. This is a viable option for primary screening for many laboratories, and could be adapted for high throughput screening. PMID:22125603

Smith, Shilo M.; Wunder, Michael B.

2011-01-01

304

8 CFR 1212.15 - Certificates for foreign health care workers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Test Of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL), Paper-Based 560, Computer-Based...scores to obtain a certificate: ETS: TOEFL: Paper-Based 540, Computer-Based...scores to be issued a certificate: ETS: TOEFL: Paper-Based 530,...

2010-01-01

305

Brainstem death: A comprehensive review in Indian perspective.  

PubMed

With the advent of cardiopulmonary resuscitation techniques, the cardiopulmonary definition of death lost its significance in favor of brain death. Brain death is a permanent cessation of all functions of the brain in which though individual organs may function but lack of integrating function of the brain, lack of respiratory drive, consciousness, and cognition confirms to the definition that death is an irreversible cessation of functioning of the organism as a whole. In spite of medical and legal acceptance globally, the concept of brain death and brain-stem death is still unclear to many. Brain death is not promptly declared due to lack of awareness and doubts about the legal procedure of certification. Many brain dead patients are kept on life supporting systems needlessly. In this comprehensive review, an attempt has been made to highlight the history and concept of brain death and brain-stem death; the anatomical and physiological basis of brain-stem death, and criteria to diagnose brain-stem death in India. PMID:25249744

Dhanwate, Anant Dattatray

2014-09-01

306

Brainstem death: A comprehensive review in Indian perspective  

PubMed Central

With the advent of cardiopulmonary resuscitation techniques, the cardiopulmonary definition of death lost its significance in favor of brain death. Brain death is a permanent cessation of all functions of the brain in which though individual organs may function but lack of integrating function of the brain, lack of respiratory drive, consciousness, and cognition confirms to the definition that death is an irreversible cessation of functioning of the organism as a whole. In spite of medical and legal acceptance globally, the concept of brain death and brain-stem death is still unclear to many. Brain death is not promptly declared due to lack of awareness and doubts about the legal procedure of certification. Many brain dead patients are kept on life supporting systems needlessly. In this comprehensive review, an attempt has been made to highlight the history and concept of brain death and brain-stem death; the anatomical and physiological basis of brain-stem death, and criteria to diagnose brain-stem death in India. PMID:25249744

Dhanwate, Anant Dattatray

2014-01-01

307

JEA Establishes Four Certification Proposals.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the plans to provide national certification of scholastic journalism teachers by the Journalism Education Association's (JEA) Certification Commission. Addresses misunderstandings the commission has had to confront. Discusses criteria for JEA certification and the commission's plan to offer Master Teacher of Journalism status. (MS)

Brown, Mike

1989-01-01

308

Graduate Certificate in Geographic Information Systems (GIS)  

E-print Network

Graduate Certificate in Geographic Information Systems (GIS) Texas A&M University GIS technologies 651/BAEN 651 ­ Geographic Information Systems · GEOG 660 ­ Applications for GIS Intermediate Level (Both are required) 6 hours · ESSM 652/BAEN 652 ­ Advanced Topics in GIS · GEOG 665 ­ GIS ­ based

309

Personnel Issues in School-Based Physical Therapy: A Look at Supply and Demand, Professional Preparation, Licensure, and Certification  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Physical therapy in school settings focuses on outcomes and is based on meeting the educational needs of the child or student. Despite the expansion in delivery models beyond direct one-to-one intervention, and the use of multiple team members, to achieve outcomes for students in educational environments, there continue to be shortages of physical…

Rapport, Mary Jane K.; Effgen, Susan K.

2004-01-01

310

29 CFR 1919.50 - Eligibility for accreditation to certificate shore-based material handling devices covered by...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...to carry out examinations and/or testing, as applicable, of vessels or shore-based...c) Accreditation to conduct such nondestructive examination as may be a part of any...that any requisite wire rope tests, nondestructive examinations, and heat...

2011-07-01

311

29 CFR 1919.50 - Eligibility for accreditation to certificate shore-based material handling devices covered by...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...to carry out examinations and/or testing, as applicable, of vessels or shore-based...c) Accreditation to conduct such nondestructive examination as may be a part of any...that any requisite wire rope tests, nondestructive examinations, and heat...

2012-07-01

312

29 CFR 1919.50 - Eligibility for accreditation to certificate shore-based material handling devices covered by...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...to carry out examinations and/or testing, as applicable, of vessels or shore-based...c) Accreditation to conduct such nondestructive examination as may be a part of any...that any requisite wire rope tests, nondestructive examinations, and heat...

2010-07-01

313

29 CFR 1919.50 - Eligibility for accreditation to certificate shore-based material handling devices covered by...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...to carry out examinations and/or testing, as applicable, of vessels or shore-based...c) Accreditation to conduct such nondestructive examination as may be a part of any...that any requisite wire rope tests, nondestructive examinations, and heat...

2014-07-01

314

29 CFR 1919.50 - Eligibility for accreditation to certificate shore-based material handling devices covered by...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...to carry out examinations and/or testing, as applicable, of vessels or shore-based...c) Accreditation to conduct such nondestructive examination as may be a part of any...that any requisite wire rope tests, nondestructive examinations, and heat...

2013-07-01

315

Differences in Age-Standardized Mortality Rates for Avoidable Deaths Based on Urbanization Levels in Taiwan, 1971–2008  

PubMed Central

The World is undergoing rapid urbanization, with 70% of the World population expected to live in urban areas by 2050. Nevertheless, nationally representative analysis of the health differences in the leading causes of avoidable mortality disaggregated by urbanization level is lacking. We undertake a study of temporal trends in mortality rates for deaths considered avoidable by the Concerted Action of the European Community on Avoidable Mortality for four different levels of urbanization in Taiwan between 1971 and 2008. We find that for virtually all causes of death, age-standardized mortality rates (ASMRs) were lower in more urbanized than less urbanized areas, either throughout the study period, or by the end of the period despite higher rates in urbanized areas initially. Only breast cancer had consistently higher AMSRs in more urbanized areas throughout the 38-year period. Further, only breast cancer, lung cancer, and ischemic heart disease witnessed an increase in ASMRs in one or more urbanization categories. More urbanized areas in Taiwan appear to enjoy better indicators of health outcomes in terms of mortality rates than less urbanized areas. Access to and the availability of rich healthcare resources in urban areas may have contributed to this positive result. PMID:24503974

Chen, Brian K.; Yang, Chun-Yuh

2014-01-01

316

Pharmacy Technician Certification Board  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Pharmacy Technician Certification Board, the national credentialing body for pharmacy technicians "develops, maintains, promotes and administers a high-quality certification and recertification program for pharmacy technicians." As a way to meet these goals, the PTCB has developed a very useful site filled with resources for their users. Offering materials such as a practice exam, detailed information about the exam requirements and needs, career descriptions and occupational outlook estimates, newsletters and presentation materials, the site is a one-stop introduction to the field of pharmacy technician practice.

317

Deaths From Bites and Stings of Venomous Animals  

PubMed Central

Data abstracted from 34 death certificates indicate that the three venomous animal groups most often responsible for human deaths in California from 1960 through 1976 were Hymenoptera (bees, wasps, ants and the like) (56 percent), snakes (35 percent) and spiders (6 percent). An average incidence of 2.0 deaths per year occurred during these 17 years, or an average death rate of 0.01 per 100,000 population per year. Nearly three times more males than females died of venomous animal bites and stings. Half of the deaths from venomous snake bites occurred in children younger than 5 years of age. Susceptible persons 40 years or older appeared to be particularly vulnerable to hymenopterous insect stings and often quickly died of anaphylaxis. Fatal encounters with venomous animals occurred more often around the home than at places of employment or during recreational activities. Deaths resulting from spider bites are rare in California but many bites are reported. Medical practitioners are urged to seek professional assistance in identifying offending animals causing human discomfort and to use these animals' scientific names on death certificates and in journal articles. ImagesIGN. PMID:7467305

Ennik, Franklin

1980-01-01

318

30 CFR 36.10 - Certificate of approval.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...specifications, and related material covering the details of design and construction of equipment upon which the certificate of approval is based...maintaining the equipment and to preserve its permissible...

2010-07-01

319

42 CFR 600.120 - Certification of a BHP Blueprint.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...certification based on findings in the annual review, or reports significant evidence of beneficiary harm, financial malfeasance, fraud, waste or abuse by the BHP agency or the State consistent with § 600.142. (d) Blueprint approval...

2014-10-01

320

Certification Considerations for Adaptive Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Advanced capabilities planned for the next generation of aircraft, including those that will operate within the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen), will necessarily include complex new algorithms and non-traditional software elements. These aircraft will likely incorporate adaptive control algorithms that will provide enhanced safety, autonomy, and robustness during adverse conditions. Unmanned aircraft will operate alongside manned aircraft in the National Airspace (NAS), with intelligent software performing the high-level decision-making functions normally performed by human pilots. Even human-piloted aircraft will necessarily include more autonomy. However, there are serious barriers to the deployment of new capabilities, especially for those based upon software including adaptive control (AC) and artificial intelligence (AI) algorithms. Current civil aviation certification processes are based on the idea that the correct behavior of a system must be completely specified and verified prior to operation. This report by Rockwell Collins and SIFT documents our comprehensive study of the state of the art in intelligent and adaptive algorithms for the civil aviation domain, categorizing the approaches used and identifying gaps and challenges associated with certification of each approach.

Bhattacharyya, Siddhartha; Cofer, Darren; Musliner, David J.; Mueller, Joseph; Engstrom, Eric

2015-01-01

321

GC/MS-based metabolomics approach to identify biomarkers differentiating survivals from death in crucian carps infected by Edwardsiella tarda.  

PubMed

Microbial disease problems constitute the largest single cause of economic losses in aquaculture. An understanding of immune system in aquaculture animals how to function in defense against bacterial infections is especially important to control these diseases and improve food quality and safety. In the present study, we use a crucian carp model to explore which pathways and metabolites are crucial for the defense against infection caused by Edwardsiella tarda EIB202. We establish the metabolic profile of crucian carps and then compare the metabolic difference between survivals and dead fish by self-control. We identify elevating unsaturated fatty acid biosynthesis and decreasing fructose and mannose metabolism as the most key pathways and increasing palmitic acid and decreasing d-mannose as the most crucial metabolites differentiating survivals from death in these fish infected by E. tarda. Our findings highlight the importance of metabolic strategy against bacterial infections. PMID:24837326

Guo, Chang; Huang, Xiao-Yan; Yang, Man-Jun; Wang, Sheng; Ren, Shi-Tong; Li, Hui; Peng, Xuan-Xian

2014-08-01

322

In vitro study of cell death with 5-aminolevulinic acid based photodynamic therapy to improve the efficiency of cancer treatment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a kind of photochemo therapeutic treatment that exerts its effect mainly through the induction of cell death. Distinct types of cell death may be elicited by different PDT regimes. In this study, efforts are underway to optimize PDT protocols for improved efficacy and combination of all three PDT mechanisms involved in the different human carcinomas cell narcosis. Our in vitro cell culture experiments with 5-aminolevulanic acid (ALA) a clinically approved photiosensitizer (PS) and 635 nm laser light have yielded promising results, as follow: (1) (human cervical cancer (HeLa) cell line incubated, for 18 h, with 30 ?g/ml of 5-ALA, treated with laser light dose of 50 J/cm2 can produce 85% of cell killing (2) human larynx carcinoma (Hep2c) cell line incubated, for 7 h, with 55 ?g/ml of 5-ALA, treated with laser light dose of 85 J/cm2 can produce 75% of cell killing (3) human liver cancer (HepG2) cell line incubated, for 22-48 h, with 262 ?g/ml of 5-ALA, treated with laser light dose of 120 J/cm2 can produce 95% of cell killing (4) human muscle cancer (RD) cell line incubated, for 47 h, with 250 ?g/ml of 5-ALA, treated with laser light dose of 80 J/cm2 can produce 76% of cell killing (5) Human embryonic kidney (HEK293T) cell line incu-bated, for 18 h, with 400 ?g/ml of 5-ALA, treated with laser light dose of 40 J/cm2 can produce 82% of cell killing confirming the efficacy of photodynamic therapy.

Firdous, S.; Nawaz, M.; Ikram, M.; Ahmed, M.

2012-03-01

323

Children and Death.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Health professionals and educators should develop their abilities to educate about death and to comfort the bereaved. Due to lower death rates, the lack of philosophical religious views, and distorted perceptions of death contributed by television, death has become a mystery instead of a segment of the common experience. Particularly when a child…

Brennan, Andrew J. J.

324

“Modern” death qualification  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report on the results of a comprehensive statewide survey of death penalty attitudes in which respondents were categorized in terms of their death-qualified or excludable status under several different Supreme Court doctrines governing the death-qualification process. We found that although changes in public opinion with respect to the death penalty in general have altered the relative sizes of the

Craig Haney; Aida Hurtado; Luis Vega

1994-01-01

325

21 CFR 80.35 - Color additive mixtures; certification and exemption from certification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Color additive mixtures; certification and...OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL COLOR ADDITIVE CERTIFICATION Certification Procedures § 80.35 Color additive mixtures; certification...

2012-04-01

326

21 CFR 80.35 - Color additive mixtures; certification and exemption from certification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Color additive mixtures; certification and...OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL COLOR ADDITIVE CERTIFICATION Certification Procedures § 80.35 Color additive mixtures; certification...

2014-04-01

327

21 CFR 80.35 - Color additive mixtures; certification and exemption from certification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Color additive mixtures; certification and...OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL COLOR ADDITIVE CERTIFICATION Certification Procedures § 80.35 Color additive mixtures; certification...

2011-04-01

328

21 CFR 80.35 - Color additive mixtures; certification and exemption from certification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Color additive mixtures; certification and...OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL COLOR ADDITIVE CERTIFICATION Certification Procedures § 80.35 Color additive mixtures; certification...

2013-04-01

329

21 CFR 80.35 - Color additive mixtures; certification and exemption from certification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Color additive mixtures; certification and...OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL COLOR ADDITIVE CERTIFICATION Certification Procedures § 80.35 Color additive mixtures; certification...

2010-04-01

330

78 FR 64153 - Direct Certification and Certification of Homeless, Migrant and Runaway Children for Free School...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Food and Nutrition Service 7 CFR...Certification and Certification of Homeless, Migrant and Runaway Children...Collection Request AGENCY: Food and Nutrition Service, USDA...Certification and Certification of Homeless, Migrant and Runaway...

2013-10-28

331

Geology Department Graduate Certificates: These certificates are designed to provide practicing professionals an opportunity to  

E-print Network

Geology Department Graduate Certificates: These certificates are designed to provide practicing are offered: Certificate in Engineering Geology Purpose The Graduate Certificate in Engineering Geology provides practicing geologists an opportunity to upgrade their engineering geology credentials while

332

Export Compliance Certificate Program  

E-print Network

of employees to the recognized leader in comprehensive export compliance training, companies can be confident-word training is the best way for companies to train their employees to be proactive in reducing the liability Compliance Certificate Program The importance of understanding export controls and how to develop

Barrett, Jeffrey A.

333

PRESCRIBED BURN CERTIFICATION AFFIDAVIT  

E-print Network

PRESCRIBED BURN CERTIFICATION AFFIDAVIT State of County I, (name) (title) Being an employee study of materials provided by mail prior to the program, followed by a two-day training session of study materials. How to Register: Online at www.ugatiftonconference.org or Mail your registration form

Scott, Robert A.

334

Comparative Ethnic Studies Certificate  

E-print Network

processes of migration and identity; role of law as `gatekeeping'; history of nativism, interethnic concepts such as race, ethnicity, class, gender, and sexuality are given meaning. The program examines to complete the certificate. Each student takes: · Ethnic 101 ­ The Making of American Cultures: Africans

Saldin, Dilano

335

CERTIFICATE IN REAL ESTATE  

E-print Network

CERTIFICATE IN REAL ESTATE U N D E R G R A D U AT E Sheldon B. Lubar School of Business University as a prerequisite for BUS ADM 380 Intro to Real Estate Markets It is also recommended that students complete BUS: BUS ADM 481 Real Estate Finance and BUS ADM 391 Business Law I prior to enrolling in BUS ADM 484

Saldin, Dilano

336

What is organic certification?  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Certified organic crop production is a holistic approach to sustainable and healthy food production to enhance the well being of the consumer, while protecting natural resources. Organic certification was implemented by the National Organic Program (NOP) in 2002 in recognition of the necessity for c...

337

Boat Operator Certification  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

On September 16, 2014 staff from the Maine Office headed to the Kennebec River in Gardiner for their boat operator re-certification. The USGS routinely uses manned boats for discharge measurements on rivers throughout the state and after our initial training, are re-certified every 5 years. In this...

338

Nutrition Online GRADUATE CERTIFICATE  

E-print Network

: Applied Positive Deviance Delivery Science in International Nutrition Nutrition Science and Communications are strongly advised to have regular access to a high-speed Internet connection. #12;Applied Positive Deviance Certificate from Tufts and United Nations University Positive Deviance (PD) is a behavioral and social change

Tufts University

339

Database Management Certificate Program  

E-print Network

Database Management Certificate Program DATABASE TECHNOLOGIES 13 Today, organizations in every to obtain general data analysis and management skills or apply both Oracle and Microsoft SQL Server database capabilities of relational databases in conjunction with the new "Big Data" management frameworks for data

Rose, Michael R.

340

The "Certification" Paradigm.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A certification system for college faculty must effectively balance supply and demand, be criterion-referenced, choose criteria that command community confidence, be known throughout the market in which a given faculty member will operate, protect academic freedom, and provide a visible mark of distinction for faculty. While such a system has…

Smith, Hoke; Walvoord, Barbara

1996-01-01

341

Asian Studies Certificate  

E-print Network

to combine the study of Asian languages, culture, politics, and history with their major. It is available, communication, economics, the natural sciences, political science, or any career path that may involve Certificate have gone on to jobs in business, government, sales, media, and teaching positions both

Saldin, Dilano

342

Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy  

PubMed Central

The majority of persons with epilepsy develop lasting remission from seizures, although mortality is significantly greater than that of the age-matched general population. Of the deaths that are thought to be directly related to seizures, sudden unexpected death in epilepsy is probably the commonest category; more so than status epilepticus or seizure-related accidents. Annual incidence rates vary from 1 in 200 patients with chronic epilepsy to about 1 in 1000 in more population-based studies. Young adults with severe, intractable epilepsy appear to be the most frequently affected group and may have even higher incidence rates. Other risk factors may also be important. An area of great research interest, several pathogenetic mechanisms have been postulated, centering mainly around cardiac rhythm and central hypoventilation. Given the frequent devastation caused by sudden unexpected death in epilepsy, the importance of seizure control is emphasised.???Keywords: epilepsy; sudden death PMID:10567593

Lhatoo, S; Langan, Y; Sander, J

1999-01-01

343

Expert system-based mineral mapping in northern Death Valley, California/Nevada, using the Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Integrated analysis of imaging spectrometer data and field spectral measurements were used in conjunction with conventional geologic field mapping to characterize bedrock and surficial geology at the northern end of Death Valley, California and Nevada. A knowledge-based expert system was used to automatically produce image maps showing the principal surface mineralogy from Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) data. Linear spectral unmixing of the AVIRIS data allowed further determination of relative mineral, abundances and identification of mineral assemblages and mixtures. The imaging spectrometer data show the spatial distribution of spectrally distinct minerals occurring both as primary rockforming minerals and as alteration and weathering products. Field spectral measurements were used to verify the mineral maps and field mapping was used to extend the remote sensing results. Geographically referenced image maps produced from these data form new base maps from which to develop improved understanding of the processes of deposition and erosion affecting the present land surface.

Kruse, F. A.; Lefkoff, A. B.; Dietz, J. B.

1993-01-01

344

Pandemic (H1N1) 2009–associated Deaths Detected by Unexplained Death and Medical Examiner Surveillance  

PubMed Central

During the pandemic (H1N1) 2009 outbreak, Minnesota, New Mexico, and Oregon used several surveillance methods to detect associated deaths. Surveillance using unexplained death and medical examiner data allowed for detection of 34 (18%) pandemic (H1N1) 2009–associated deaths that were not detected by hospital-based surveillance. PMID:21801628

Avery, Catherine; Asherin, Ryan; Rainbow, Jean; Danila, Richard; Smelser, Chad; Schmitz, Ann; Ladd-Wilson, Stephen; Nolte, Kurt B.; Nagle, Kayla; Lynfield, Ruth

2011-01-01

345

Attitude Toward Death, Fear of Being Declared Dead Too Soon, and Donation of Organs After Death.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a study of willingness to donate organs for transplantation after death based on Weyant's cost-benefit model for altruistic behavior. Two death anxieties (the attitude toward death and the fear of being declared dead too soon) were introduced to help explain the discrepancy between attitudes and behavior in the matter of organ donation.…

Hessing, Dick J.; Elffers, Henk

1987-01-01

346

Assessment of Computer-based Geologic Mapping of Rock Units in the LANDSAT-4 Scene of Northern Death Valley, California  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Geologists obtain low accuracy levels when maps derived from LANDSAT MSS data are compared with those made by conventional methods. Procedures developed for the IDIMS computer system and used to classify a subset of a TM image of the Death Valley, California - Nevada border are described. Despite the superior resolution, broader spectral coverage, and greater sensitivity inherent to the TM, the actual recorded measured accuracy was in the same narrow range (30 to 60%) recorded for MSS data from earlier LANDSATs. The supervised classification approach appears to be superior to the unsupervised approach when applied to vegetation-sparse surfaces composed of spectrally contrasting rock/soil units distributed in relatively flat to low relief terrain. As spatial resolution improves and optimal spectral bands for identifying rock materials are specified, use of classified multispectral remote sensing data from air and space when coupled with supporting field calibration and checks should become the dominant way in which geologic mapping is carried out in future decades.

Short, N. M.

1985-01-01

347

Bias in the attribution of lung cancer as cause of death and its possible consequences for calculating smoking-related risks.  

PubMed

Most published calculations of mortality risk, especially those for lung cancer associated with smoking, are based almost exclusively on the underlying cause as recorded on death certificates. Such risk calculations implicitly assume that the conditional probability of recording lung cancer as the underlying cause of death, given that it really is the underlying cause, is the same for all exposure groups. If these probabilities are not equal for all exposure groups, we call the resulting bias a cause of death attribution bias. We analyzed the 1986 National Mortality Followback Survey, a sample of 18,733 U.S. death certificates, and the 1954-1962 Dorn study, a follow-up study of approximately 250,000 holders of U.S. Veterans Life Insurance. Both data sets include information on the smoking habits of decedents and on the underlying and contributing causes of their deaths. We found that lung cancer as an underlying cause is recorded with a much smaller relative frequency if the decedent is known to be a never-smoker and with a much larger relative frequency when the decedent is known to be a smoker. On the other hand, lung cancer as a contributing cause is recorded with a much larger frequency if the decedent is known to be a never-smoker and with a much smaller frequency when the decedent is known to be a smoker. The reverse is true for cancers other than of the lung. There is no similar pattern related to smoking for other causes of death (specifically for myocardial infarction, other chronic ischemic heart disease, diabetes, or cerebrovascular disease).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1554804

Sterling, T D; Rosenbaum, W L; Weinkam, J J

1992-01-01

348

Postoperative myocardial infarction and cardiac death. Predictive value of dipyridamole-thallium imaging and five clinical scoring systems based on multifactorial analysis  

SciTech Connect

Sixty-six patients unable to complete a standard preoperative exercise test because of physical limitations were studied to determine the predictive value of individual clinical parameters, of clinical scoring systems based on multifactorial analysis, and of dipyridamole-thallium imaging before major general and vascular surgery. Study endpoints were limited to postoperative myocardial infarction or cardiac death before hospital discharge. There were nine postoperative cardiac events (seven deaths and two nonfatal infarctions). There was no statistical correlation between cardiac events and preoperative clinical descriptors, including individual clinical parameters, the Dripps-American Surgical Association score, the Goldman Cardiac Risk Index score, the Detsky Modified Cardiac Risk Index score, Eagle's clinical markers of low surgical risk, and the probability of postoperative events as determined by Cooperman's equation. There were no cardiac events in 30 patients with normal dipyridamole-thallium scans or in nine patients with fixed myocardial perfusion defects. Of 21 patients with reversible perfusion defects who underwent surgery, nine had a postoperative cardiac event (sensitivity, 100%; specificity, 43%). In the six other patients with reversible defects, preoperative angiography showed severe coronary disease or cardiomyopathy. Thus in patients unable to complete a standard exercise stress test, postoperative outcome cannot be predicted clinically before major general and vascular surgery, whereas dipyridamole-thallium imaging successfully identified all patients who sustained a postoperative cardiac event.

Lette, J.; Waters, D.; Lassonde, J.; Dube, S.; Heyen, F.; Picard, M.; Morin, M. (Maisonneuve-Rosemont Hospital, Montreal (Canada))

1990-01-01

349

Death and Dying Anxiety Among Elderly Arab Muslims in Israel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Death and dying anxiety were examined among elderly Arab Muslims in Israel. A total of 145 people aged 60 and over were interviewed using a standardized questionnaire. Nursing home residents reported higher death anxiety than others; women and uneducated participants reported greater levels of fear of death and dying than others. There were no differences based on religiosity. Death anxiety

Faisal Azaizaa; Pnina Rona; Meyrav Shohamb; Ibrahim Giginia

2010-01-01

350

Performance or marketing benefits? The case of LEED certification.  

PubMed

Green building adoption is driven by both performance-based benefits and marketing based benefits. Performance based benefits are those that improve performance or lower operating costs of the building or of building users. Marketing benefits stem from the consumer response to green certification. This study illustrates the relative importance of the marketing based benefits that accrue to Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) buildings due to green signaling mechanisms, specifically related to the certification itself are identified. Of course, all participants in the LEED certification scheme seek marketing benefits. But even among LEED participants, the interest in green signaling is pronounced. The green signaling mechanism that occurs at the certification thresholds shifts building patterns from just below to just above the threshold level, and motivates builders to cluster buildings just above each threshold. Results are consistent across subsamples, though nonprofit organizations appear to build greener buildings and engage in more green signaling than for-profit entities. Using nonparametric regression discontinuity, signaling across different building types is observed. Marketing benefits due to LEED certification drives organizations to build "greener" buildings by upgrading buildings at the thresholds to reach certification levels. PMID:24392820

Matisoff, Daniel C; Noonan, Douglas S; Mazzolini, Anna M

2014-02-01

351

7 CFR 35.7 - Certificate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS EXPORT GRAPES AND PLUMS Definitions § 35.7 Certificate. Certificate...inspection certificate, bearing the statement “meets Export Grape and Plum Act,” issued by the Federal or...

2012-01-01

352

7 CFR 35.7 - Certificate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS EXPORT GRAPES AND PLUMS Definitions § 35.7 Certificate. Certificate...inspection certificate, bearing the statement “meets Export Grape and Plum Act,” issued by the Federal or...

2010-01-01

353

7 CFR 35.7 - Certificate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS EXPORT GRAPES AND PLUMS Definitions § 35.7 Certificate. Certificate...inspection certificate, bearing the statement “meets Export Grape and Plum Act,” issued by the Federal or...

2014-01-01

354

7 CFR 35.7 - Certificate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS EXPORT GRAPES AND PLUMS Definitions § 35.7 Certificate. Certificate...inspection certificate, bearing the statement “meets Export Grape and Plum Act,” issued by the Federal or...

2011-01-01

355

7 CFR 35.7 - Certificate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS EXPORT GRAPES AND PLUMS Definitions § 35.7 Certificate. Certificate...inspection certificate, bearing the statement “meets Export Grape and Plum Act,” issued by the Federal or...

2013-01-01

356

7 CFR 54.14 - Official certificates.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...a) Agricultural Products Certificate Form...official certificate for products under the regulations...sign, and issue an Agricultural Products Certificate Form LS-5-3...EC25SE91.001 (c) Distribution. The...

2010-01-01

357

46 CFR 107.258 - Crane certification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...107.258 Section 107.258 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Inspection and Certification § 107.258 Crane certification....

2012-10-01

358

46 CFR 107.258 - Crane certification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...107.258 Section 107.258 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Inspection and Certification § 107.258 Crane certification....

2011-10-01

359

38 CFR 21.4204 - Periodic certifications.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Periodic certifications. 21.4204 Section...Assistance Programs Schools § 21.4204 Periodic certifications. Educational assistance...school year or the complete course, the periodic certification will show the...

2010-07-01

360

14 CFR 133.11 - Certificate required.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS ROTORCRAFT EXTERNAL-LOAD OPERATIONS Certification Rules...subject to this part may conduct rotorcraft external-load operations within the United...violation of the terms of, a Rotorcraft External-Load Operator Certificate issued...

2010-01-01

361

7 CFR 75.47 - For certificates.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS FOR INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION OF QUALITY OF AGRICULTURAL AND VEGETABLE SEEDS Fees and Charges § 75.47 For certificates. A charge of $13.00 per certificate will...

2010-01-01

362

CPS: Verification and Certification John Rushby  

E-print Network

, not what they fear · Traditional certification standards are a brake on innovation · We want certification lines So what is an architecture? John Rushby, SR I Verification and Certification: 2 #12;But That

Rajkumar, Ragunathan "Raj"

363

28 CFR 26.23 - Certification process.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Certification process. 26.23 Section...PROCEDURES Certification Process for State Capital Counsel...23 Certification process. (a) An appropriate...and (3) Soliciting public comment on the request...applicability of chapter 154 in relation to federal habeas...

2010-07-01

364

46 CFR 107.258 - Crane certification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Crane certification. 107.258 Section 107...Inspection and Certification § 107.258 Crane certification. (a) The Coast Guard...evidence of condition and suitability of cranes. The following organizations are...

2010-10-01

365

7 CFR 800.166 - Reproducing certificates.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...AGRICULTURE GENERAL REGULATIONS Official Certificates § 800.166 Reproducing certificates. Official certificates may be photo copied or similarly reproduced. (Approved by the Office of Management and Budget under control number 0580-0011)...

2010-01-01

366

Cleanroom certification model  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Cleanroom software development methodology is designed to take the gamble out of product releases for both suppliers and receivers of the software. The ingredients of this procedure are a life cycle of executable product increments, representative statistical testing, and a standard estimate of the MTTF (Mean Time To Failure) of the product at the time of its release. A statistical approach to software product testing using randomly selected samples of test cases is considered. A statistical model is defined for the certification process which uses the timing data recorded during test. A reasonableness argument for this model is provided that uses previously published data on software product execution. Also included is a derivation of the certification model estimators and a comparison of the proposed least squares technique with the more commonly used maximum likelihood estimators.

Currit, P. A.

1983-01-01

367

10 CFR 76.65 - Inalienability of certificates.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...certificates. 76.65 Section 76.65 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) CERTIFICATION OF GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANTS Certification § 76.65 Inalienability of certificates. The certificate granted under the regulations in...

2013-01-01

368

10 CFR 76.51 - Conditions of certification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...certification. 76.51 Section 76.51 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) CERTIFICATION OF GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANTS Certification § 76.51 Conditions of certification. The Corporation shall comply with the certificate of...

2011-01-01

369

10 CFR 76.65 - Inalienability of certificates.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...certificates. 76.65 Section 76.65 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) CERTIFICATION OF GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANTS Certification § 76.65 Inalienability of certificates. The certificate granted under the regulations in...

2012-01-01

370

10 CFR 76.65 - Inalienability of certificates.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...certificates. 76.65 Section 76.65 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) CERTIFICATION OF GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANTS Certification § 76.65 Inalienability of certificates. The certificate granted under the regulations in...

2014-01-01

371

10 CFR 76.51 - Conditions of certification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...certification. 76.51 Section 76.51 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) CERTIFICATION OF GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANTS Certification § 76.51 Conditions of certification. The Corporation shall comply with the certificate of...

2010-01-01

372

10 CFR 76.51 - Conditions of certification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...certification. 76.51 Section 76.51 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) CERTIFICATION OF GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANTS Certification § 76.51 Conditions of certification. The Corporation shall comply with the certificate of...

2014-01-01

373

10 CFR 76.51 - Conditions of certification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...certification. 76.51 Section 76.51 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) CERTIFICATION OF GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANTS Certification § 76.51 Conditions of certification. The Corporation shall comply with the certificate of...

2012-01-01

374

10 CFR 76.65 - Inalienability of certificates.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...certificates. 76.65 Section 76.65 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) CERTIFICATION OF GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANTS Certification § 76.65 Inalienability of certificates. The certificate granted under the regulations in...

2011-01-01

375

10 CFR 76.51 - Conditions of certification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...certification. 76.51 Section 76.51 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) CERTIFICATION OF GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANTS Certification § 76.51 Conditions of certification. The Corporation shall comply with the certificate of...

2013-01-01

376

10 CFR 76.65 - Inalienability of certificates.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...certificates. 76.65 Section 76.65 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) CERTIFICATION OF GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANTS Certification § 76.65 Inalienability of certificates. The certificate granted under the regulations in...

2010-01-01

377

Efficient Certificate Management in VANET  

E-print Network

Vehicular Ad hoc Networks is one of the most challenging research area in the field of Mobile Ad Hoc Networks, in this research We propose a flexible, simple, and scalable design for VANET certificates, and new methods for efficient certificate management, which will Reduce channel overhead by eliminating the use of CRL, and make Better certificate Revocation Management. Also it will increase the security of the network and helps in identifying the adversary vehicle.

Samara, Ghassan

2012-01-01

378

Organic Production and Certification  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Minnesota Department of Agriculture\\'s Sustainable Agriculture Program provides farmers and consumers with information on organic production practices and certification. The \\"What\\'s New\\" section on the front page of the site includes recent issues in the agricultural field. Agricultural organizations, news and events, and farming systems are all mapped out in detail on the site. Users are also given access to University of Minnesota research on agriculture.

379

Death to Critique and Dissent? The Policies and Practices of New Managerialism and of 'Evidence-based Practice'  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, the author develops a critique of new managerialism and of its implications for the professional work of scholars and teachers. She then critiques 'evidence-based practice' as it is being developed for schools. She argues that it is only possible to make sense of the policies and practices of the evidence-based practice movement within the framework of new

BRONWYN DAVIES

2003-01-01

380

Security certificate revocation list distribution for vanet  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a VANET, a certificate authority issues keys and certifi- cates to vehicles. Each vehicle distributes these certificates to other VANET participants and subsequently signs mes- sages against these certificates. If the certificate authority needs to revoke a certificate (e.g. due to a breach of trust), it universally distributes a certificate revocation list. We pro- pose a method for car-to-car

Kenneth P. Laberteaux; Jason J. Haas; Yih-chun Hu

2008-01-01

381

Sudden Infant Death Syndrome  

MedlinePLUS

Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) is the sudden, unexplained death of an infant younger than one year old. Some people call ... boys, African Americans, and American Indian/Alaska Native infants have a higher risk of SIDS. Although health ...

382

Association of Holter-Based Measures Including T-wave Alternans with Risk of Sudden Cardiac Death in the Community-Dwelling Elderly: The Cardiovascular Health Study  

PubMed Central

Background Sudden cardiac death (SCD) can be the first manifestation of cardiovascular disease. Development of screening methods for higher / lower risk is critical. Methods The Cardiovascular Healthy Study (CHS) is a population-based study of risk factors for coronary heart disease and stroke those ?65 years. N=49 (of 1649) with usable Holters and in normal sinus rhythm, suffered SCD during follow up and were matched with 2 controls, alive at the time of death of the case and not suffering SCD on follow up. Univariate and multivariate conditional logistic regression determined the association of Holter-based information and SCD. Results In univariate models, the upper half of VPC counts, abnormal heart rate turbulence, decreased normalized low frequency power, increased T-wave alternans (TWA) and decreased DFA1 (short-term fractal scaling exponent) were associated with SCD, but time domain HRV was not. In multivariate models, the upper half of VPC counts (OR=6.6) and having TWA ?37µV on Ch2 (OR=4.8) were independently associated with SCD. Also, the upper half of VPC counts (OR=6.9) and having DFA1 <1.05 (OR=5.0) were independently associated with SCD. When additive effects were explored: having both higher VPCs and higher TWA was associated with an OR of 8.2 for SCD compared to 2.6 for having either. Also, having both higher VPCs and lower DFA1 was associated with an OR of 9.6 for SCD compared to 3.1 for having either. Conclusions Results support a potential role for 24-hour Holter recordings to identify older adults at increased or lower risk of SCD. PMID:20096853

Stein, Phyllis K.; Sanghavi, Devang; Sotoodehnia, Nona; Siscovick, David S; Gottdiener, John

2010-01-01

383

7 CFR 735.10 - Posting of certificates of licensing, certificates of authorization or other USWA documents.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Posting of certificates of licensing, certificates of authorization or other...735.10 Posting of certificates of licensing, certificates of authorization or other...receipt of their certificate of service licensing or any modification or extension...

2010-01-01

384

7 CFR 735.7 - Return of suspended or revoked certificates of licensing or certificates of authorization.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...of suspended or revoked certificates of licensing or certificates of authorization. ...of suspended or revoked certificates of licensing or certificates of authorization. ...revoked by DACO, such certificates of licensing and applicable licensing agreement...

2010-01-01

385

5 CFR 430.404 - Certification criteria.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 430.404 Section 430.404 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT Performance Appraisal Certification for Pay Purposes § 430.404 Certification...

2010-01-01

386

Software Certification for Temporal Properties With Affordable Tool Qualification  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It has been recognized that a framework based on proof-carrying code (also called semantic-based software certification in its community) could be used as a candidate software certification process for the avionics industry. To meet this goal, tools in the "trust base" of a proof-carrying code system must be qualified by regulatory authorities. A family of semantic-based software certification approaches is described, each different in expressive power, level of automation and trust base. Of particular interest is the so-called abstraction-carrying code, which can certify temporal properties. When a pure abstraction-carrying code method is used in the context of industrial software certification, the fact that the trust base includes a model checker would incur a high qualification cost. This position paper proposes a hybrid of abstraction-based and proof-based certification methods so that the model checker used by a client can be significantly simplified, thereby leading to lower cost in tool qualification.

Xia, Songtao; DiVito, Benedetto L.

2005-01-01

387

Programmed Cell Death  

Microsoft Academic Search

Programmed cell death research has had an arguably unparalleled impact on the field of developmental neurobiology. For over\\u000a one hundred years, investigations of neuronal cell death have challenged our assumptions about nervous system development\\u000a and its cellular and molecular regulation. Current studies on programmed cell death, including investigations of neural stem\\u000a cell death, hold tremendous promise for elucidating the complex

Kevin A. Roth

388

Death Education: An Overview.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A review of the literature of death education reveals a lack of consensus among authors concerning the exact scope and sequence of an ideal death education program. Most authors feel, however, that death education should be a subject of immediate concern to all health educators, and that it is important to determine how children respond to various…

Eddy, James M.; St. Pierre, Richard W.

389

Dreams of Death.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined frequency and characteristics of overt dreams of dying among healthy young adults. Dreams of dying were found to be rare but distinctive content category, representing overwhelmingly pleasant dreams. Over one-half of death dreams involved lengthy afterlife sequence, remainder focused on process of death. Death dreams of these healthy…

Barrett, Deirdre

1989-01-01

390

Pitfalls in the Diagnosis of Brain Death  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the establishment of the concept of declaring death by brain criteria, a large extent of variability in the determination\\u000a of brain death has been reported. There are no standardized practical guidelines, and major differences exist in the requirements\\u000a for the declaration of brain death throughout the USA and internationally. The American Academy of Neurology published evidence-based\\u000a practice parameters for

Katharina M. Busl; David M. Greer

2009-01-01

391

Master'sCertificates(MCert) About the Master's Certificates Program  

E-print Network

. Having been a physician and a public health professional for more than 10 years, I wanted to build on my, Rawalpindi Medical College, Pakistan, 1995; Master of Science in Public Health, Pakistan, 2004 #12;Program Curriculum - Health Systems Management Certificate This certificate program provides students with a good

Saskatchewan, University of

392

Combinatorial DNA damage pairing model based on X-ray-induced foci predicts the dose and LET dependence of cell death in human breast cells.  

PubMed

In contrast to the classic view of static DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) being repaired at the site of damage, we hypothesize that DSBs move and merge with each other over large distances (?m). As X-ray dose increases, the probability of having DSB clusters increases as does the probability of misrepair and cell death. Experimental work characterizing the X-ray dose dependence of radiation-induced foci (RIF) in nonmalignant human mammary epithelial cells (MCF10A) is used here to validate a DSB clustering model. We then use the principles of the local effect model (LEM) to predict the yield of DSBs at the submicron level. Two mechanisms for DSB clustering, namely random coalescence of DSBs versus active movement of DSBs into repair domains are compared and tested. Simulations that best predicted both RIF dose dependence and cell survival after X-ray irradiation favored the repair domain hypothesis, suggesting the nucleus is divided into an array of regularly spaced repair domains of ?1.55 ?m sides. Applying the same approach to high-linear energy transfer (LET) ion tracks, we are able to predict experimental RIF/?m along tracks with an overall relative error of 12%, for LET ranging between 30-350 keV/?m and for three different ions. Finally, cell death was predicted by assuming an exponential dependence on the total number of DSBs and of all possible combinations of paired DSBs within each simulated RIF. Relative biological effectiveness (RBE) predictions for cell survival of MCF10A exposed to high-LET showed an LET dependence that matches previous experimental results for similar cell types. Overall, this work suggests that microdosimetric properties of ion tracks at the submicron level are sufficient to explain both RIF data and survival curves for any LET, similarly to the LEM assumption. Conversely, high-LET death mechanism does not have to infer linear-quadratic dose formalism as done in the LEM. In addition, the size of repair domains derived in our model are based on experimental RIF and are three times larger than the hypothetical LEM voxel used to fit survival curves. Our model is therefore an alternative to previous approaches that provides a testable biological mechanism (i.e., RIF). In addition, we propose that DSB pairing will help develop more accurate alternatives to the linear cancer risk model (LNT) currently used for regulating exposure to very low levels of ionizing radiation. PMID:25076115

Vadhavkar, Nikhil; Pham, Christopher; Georgescu, Walter; Deschamps, Thomas; Heuskin, Anne-Catherine; Tang, Jonathan; Costes, Sylvain V

2014-09-01

393

Trustable Formal Specification for Software Certification  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Formal methods have emerged as a complementary approach to ensuring quality and correctness of high-confidence medical systems,\\u000a overcoming limitations of traditional validation techniques such as simulation and testing. In this paper, we propose a new\\u000a methodology to obtain certification assurance for complex medical systems design, based on the use of formal methods. The\\u000a methodology consists of five main phases: first,

Dominique Méry; Neeraj Kumar Singh

2010-01-01

394

Demonstration of the in vivo interaction of key cell death regulators by structure-based design of  

E-print Network

release of CED-4 from CED-4 CED-9 complexes. Based on a mod- eled EGL-1 CED-9 complex structure, we169E) and EGL-1-induced release of CED-4 from CED-4 CED-9(G169E) complexes. Importantly establish that direct physical inter- action between EGL-1 and CED-9 is essential for the release of CED-4

Xue, Ding

395

The Media and the Messages of Location-Based Services (LBS): Death of Distance or the Revenge of Geography?  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the dramatic increase of mobile phone users, coupled with steady innovations in wireless\\/embedded computing and communications, the past five years have witnessed the emergence of various kinds of location-based services (LBS). The backbone of LBS relies on an integration of multiple spatial and communication technologies, including (but not limited to) GPS, GIS, wireless communication, mobile computing, the Internet, etc.

Daniel Z. Sui

2004-01-01

396

Mitigating Circumstances in Death Penalty Decisions: Using Evidence-Based Research to Inform Social Work Practice in Capital Trials  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Providing an effective defense for individuals charged with capital crimes requires a diligent, thorough investigation by a mitigation specialist. However, research suggests that mitigation often plays a small role in the decision for life. Jurors often make sentencing decisions prematurely, basing those decisions on their personal reactions to…

Schroeder, Julie; Guin, Cecile C.; Pogue, Rene; Bordelon, Danna

2006-01-01

397

Missing information in birth certificates in Brussels after reinforcement of data collection, and variation according to immigration status. A population-based study  

PubMed Central

Background A problem repeatedly reported in birth certificate data is the presence of missing data. In 2008, a Centre for Perinatal Epidemiology was created inter alia to assist the Health Departments of Brussels-Capital City Region to check birth certificates. The purpose of this study is to assess the changes brought by the Centre in terms of completeness of data registration for the entire population and according to immigration status. Methods Birth certificates from the birth registry of 2008 and 2009 of Brussels were considered. We evaluated the initial missing information in January 2008 (baseline situation) and the corresponding rate at the end of 2008 after oral and written information had been given to the city civil servants and health providers. The data were evaluated again at the end of 2009 where no reinforcement rules were adopted. We also measured residual missing data after correction in socio-economic and medical data, for the entire population and according to maternal nationality of origin. Changes in registration of stillbirths were estimated by comparison to 2007 baseline data, and all multiple births were checked for complete identification of pairs. Results Missing information initially accounted for 64.0%, 20.8% and 19.5% of certificates in January 2008, December 2008, and 2009 respectively. After correction with lists sent back to the hospitals or city offices, the mean residual missing data rate was 2.1% in 2008 and 0.8% in 2009. Education level and employment status were missing more often in immigrant mothers compared to Belgian natives both in 2008 and 2009. Mothers from Sub-Saharan Africa had the highest missing rate of socio-economic data. The stillbirth rate increased from 4.6 ‰ in 2007 to 8.2 ‰ in 2009. All twin pairs were identified, but early loss of a co-twin before 22?weeks was rarely reported. Conclusions Reinforcement of data collection was associated with a decrease of missing information. The residual missing data rate was very low. The stillbirth rate was also improved but the early loss of a co-twin before 22?weeks seems to remain underreported. PMID:23137069

2012-01-01

398

Does mandatory training work? Investigating compulsory pre-site training certification in the WA construction industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reducing the high level of deaths and injuries in the construction industry is a continual challenge. It is a specific challenge in WA where the industry is adapting to the additional pressures of the development boom. In 2006, Worksafe WA responded by introducing mandatory certification in basic safety training for all employees, before they could set foot on a work

Susanne Bahn; Llandis Barratt-Pugh

2010-01-01

399

Simulating Stellar Birth and Death  

Microsoft Academic Search

Galaxy formation and stellar explosions involve nonlinear interplay of many physical processes. To study the death of stars, especially massive star core collapse event, we have developed a AMR relativistic hydro code based on ENZO. We will discuss the algorithms used. We have also extended those algorithms to Newtonian hydro and MHD to apply to galaxy formation and star formation.

Peng Wang; Tom Abel; Weiqun Zhang

2008-01-01

400

Certificate in Transit Management and  

E-print Network

Certificate in Transit Management and Operations UMass Transit, in partnership with the UMass Transportation Center and CTTransit, are pleased to offer "A Certificate in Transit Management and Operations" "Within the next 5-10 years more than 50 percent of transit industry workers are expected to retire

Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

401

Certificate in Transit Management and  

E-print Network

Certificate in Transit Management and Operations UMass Transit, in partnership with the UMass Transportation Center and CTTransit, are pleased to offer "A Certificate in Transit Management and Operations" to students at the University of Massachusetts. "Within the next 5-10 years more than 50 percent of transit

Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

402

GRADUATE CERTIFICATE PROGRAM IN NEUROSCIENCE  

E-print Network

GRADUATE CERTIFICATE PROGRAM IN NEUROSCIENCE APPLICATION First Name: Middle Initial: Last Name in Neuroscience will not release your SSN. Z#: Graduate Program currently enrolled: Example: Ph.D. Integrative Acrobat #12;GRADUATE CERTIFICATE PROGRAM IN NEUROSCIENCE at Florida Atlantic University 2 Instructions

Fernandez, Eduardo

403

GRADUATE CERTIFICATE PROGRAM IN NEUROSCIENCE  

E-print Network

GRADUATE CERTIFICATE PROGRAM IN NEUROSCIENCE APPLICATION First Name: Middle Initial: Last Name in Neuroscience will not release your SSN. Z#: Graduate Program currently enrolled: Example: Ph.D. Integrative-mail address: US Citizen? Yes No ­ country of citizenship: #12;GRADUATE CERTIFICATE PROGRAM IN NEUROSCIENCE

Fernandez, Eduardo

404

The ABCs of Certification Use  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Educators continue to show interest in the topic of certification use, which is not surprising. Certifications provide educators access to "de facto" content standards that define expectations of what students need to know and be able to do; teaching materials and resources that make it easier for educators to teach the knowledge and skills…

Lualhati, Joselito C.

2006-01-01

405

Description of deaths on easter island, 2000-2012 period.  

PubMed

Easter Island is a small island of 180 km2, located 3,800 km from the Chilean coast and one of the most isolated inhabited places in the world. Since the mid-twentieth century, it has been undergoing an epidemiological transition in relation to the causes of death, from a predominance of infectious to non-communicable diseases (NCDs) such as cardiovascular ailments and cancer. The aim of this study is to describe the causes of death to Easter Island between 2000 and 2012, so the statistical records of Hanga Roa Hospital and death certificates were reviewed. The period under review of 13 years there was a total of 252 deaths, an average to 19.3 deaths per year. The most frequent causes of death found in the general population of Easter Island were cardiovascular diseases (25.4%), followed by neoplasms (23.4%), accidents (18.6%). Related to Rapa Nui people, cardiovascular and neoplastic diseases (both 26.7%) predominate, while in the population without belonging to the ethnic group the main causes were traumatic (25%) and cardiovascular (22.2%). Comparing the leading causes of death of Easter Island with mainland Chile, it can be seen how they resemble. Taking the island death profile, it is necessary to work on public health strategies aimed to this, considering that some of the causes are completely preventable. PMID:25556431

Bravo, Eduardo Francisco; Saint-Pierre, Gustavo Enrique; Yaikin, Pabla Javiera; Meier, Martina Jose

2014-01-01

406

Death depression versus death anxiety: exploration of different correlates.  

PubMed

Possible differences between death depression and death anxiety were explored for 182 students, 81 church members, and 41 employees of an air terminal. Both female gender and older age were more highly associated with greater death anxiety than with greater death depression. Living without a significant other was associated with greater death depression than with death anxiety. PMID:1480703

Siscoe, K; Reimer, W; Yanovsky, A; Thomas-Dobson, S; Templer, D I

1992-12-01

407

Glutathione in Cancer Cell Death  

PubMed Central

Glutathione (L-?-glutamyl-L-cysteinyl-glycine; GSH) in cancer cells is particularly relevant in the regulation of carcinogenic mechanisms; sensitivity against cytotoxic drugs, ionizing radiations, and some cytokines; DNA synthesis; and cell proliferation and death. The intracellular thiol redox state (controlled by GSH) is one of the endogenous effectors involved in regulating the mitochondrial permeability transition pore complex and, in consequence, thiol oxidation can be a causal factor in the mitochondrion-based mechanism that leads to cell death. Nevertheless GSH depletion is a common feature not only of apoptosis but also of other types of cell death. Indeed rates of GSH synthesis and fluxes regulate its levels in cellular compartments, and potentially influence switches among different mechanisms of death. How changes in gene expression, post-translational modifications of proteins, and signaling cascades are implicated will be discussed. Furthermore, this review will finally analyze whether GSH depletion may facilitate cancer cell death under in vivo conditions, and how this can be applied to cancer therapy. PMID:24212662

Ortega, Angel L.; Mena, Salvador; Estrela, Jose M.

2011-01-01

408

[The specialty certification boards].  

PubMed

A synthesis of the historical background of the councils for specialty certification in Mexico is presented. A comment is made on the role of the National Academy of Medicine and on its relation to the councils. Some statistical data are given on the councils endorsed by the Academy, which up to April 1992 grouped 29,093 physicians throughout the country. Finally, a brief comment is made on the future of these organization in Mexico and the increasing influence they will exert on the regulation of specialized medical practice. PMID:7926428

Vilar Puig, P

1993-01-01

409

Counterfactual quantum certificate authorization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a multipartite protocol in a counterfactual paradigm. In counterfactual quantum cryptography, secure information is transmitted between two spatially separated parties even when there is no physical travel of particles transferring the information between them. We propose here a tripartite counterfactual quantum protocol for the task of certificate authorization. Here a trusted third party, Alice, authenticates an entity Bob (e.g., a bank) that a client Charlie wishes to securely transact with. The protocol is counterfactual with respect to either Bob or Charlie. We prove its security against a general incoherent attack, where Eve attacks single particles.

Shenoy H., Akshata; Srikanth, R.; Srinivas, T.

2014-05-01

410

A population-based autopsy study of sudden, unexpected deaths from natural causes among persons 5 to 39 years old during a 12-year period.  

PubMed

All unexpected deaths in New Mexico from 1977 to 1988 were reviewed. By statute each such death must be reported to the Office of the Medical Examiner (OMI) and according to institutional policy autopsied even when death is presumed to be from natural causes. From this group the 650 index cases that form the basis of this report were obtained. The crude rate of sudden, unexpected death among New Mexico residents 5 to 39 years old during the study period was 6.6/100,000 persons at risk. As documented by autopsy, the underlying cause of death in a majority of these cases (53.4%) was related to cardiovascular disease and alcoholism. Male persons in general are at increased risk for sudden, unexpected death, and American Indian and black male persons are at greater risk than their Anglo and Hispanic counterparts. American Indians account for a disproportionate share of the unexpected deaths resulting from alcoholism, and black male persons are at particular risk for unexpected death resulting from cardiovascular diseases. This report emphasizes the importance of life style and diet in the well-being of persons 5 to 39 years old. PMID:8001928

Anderson, R E; Hill, R B; Broudy, D W; Key, C R; Pathak, D

1994-12-01

411

Modeling of a green certificate market  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper considers one of the economic mechanisms, stimulating the introduction of renewable energy sources (RES)—a green certificate market. A mathematical model was developed to describe a supply and demand balance in the electricity and green certificate markets simultaneously. The sellers of certificates are RES owners, who obtain certificates for each unit of electricity produced, and the buyers are consumers,

O. V. Marchenko

2008-01-01

412

What is the Safest Way to Cross the Valley of Death: Wisdom gained from Making a Satellite based Flood Forecasting System Operational and Owned by Stakeholders  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

More than a decade ago, the National Research Council report popularized the term 'Valley of Death' to describe the region where research on Weather Satellites had struggled to survive before reaching maturity for societal applications. For example, the space vantage of earth observing satellites can solve some of the world's otherwise fundamentally intractable operational problems on water resources. However, recent experiences show that many of the potential beneficiaries, who are not as familiar with water cycle remote sensing missions or anthropogenic climate studies, referred here as the ';non-traditional consumers,' may have a more skeptical view based on their current practices. This talk will focus on one such non-traditional consumer group: the water resources managers/staff in developing nations of South Asia. Using real-world examples on applications and hands-on-training to make a satellite based flood forecasting system operational, the talk will dissect the view that is shared by many water managers of Bangladesh on satellite remote sensing for day to day decision making. The talk will share the experience and wisdom generated in the successful capacity building of emerging satellite technology for water management. It will end with an overview of initiatives for more effective promotion of the value of planned water cycle satellite missions for water resources management community in the developing world.

Hossain, F.

2013-12-01

413

Security Equipment and Systems Certification Program (SESCP)  

SciTech Connect

Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and Underwriters Laboratories, Inc., (UL) have jointly established the Security Equipment and Systems Certification Program (SESCP). The goal of this program is to enhance industrial and national security by providing a nationally recognized method for making informed selection and use decisions when buying security equipment and systems. The SESCP will provide a coordinated structure for private and governmental security standardization review. Members will participate in meetings to identify security problems, develop ad-hoc subcommittees (as needed) to address these identified problems, and to maintain a communications network that encourages a meaningful exchange of ideas. This program will enhance national security by providing improved security equipment and security systems based on consistent, reliable standards and certification programs.

Steele, B.J. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Papier, I.I. [Underwriters Labs., Inc., Northbrook, IL (United States)

1996-06-20

414

Restaurant manager and worker food safety certification and knowledge.  

PubMed

Over half of foodborne illness outbreaks occur in restaurants. To combat these outbreaks, many public health agencies require food safety certification for restaurant managers, and sometimes workers. Certification entails passing a food safety knowledge examination, which is typically preceded by food safety training. Current certification efforts are based on the assumption that certification leads to greater food safety knowledge. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention conducted this study to examine the relationship between food safety knowledge and certification. We also examined the relationships between food safety knowledge and restaurant, manager, and worker characteristics. We interviewed managers (N=387) and workers (N=365) about their characteristics and assessed their food safety knowledge. Analyses showed that certified managers and workers had greater food safety knowledge than noncertified managers and workers. Additionally, managers and workers whose primary language was English had greater food safety knowledge than those whose primary language was not English. Other factors associated with greater food safety knowledge included working in a chain restaurant, working in a larger restaurant, having more experience, and having more duties. These findings indicate that certification improves food safety knowledge, and that complex relationships exist among restaurant, manager, and worker characteristics and food safety knowledge. PMID:25361386

Brown, Laura G; Le, Brenda; Wong, Melissa R; Reimann, David; Nicholas, David; Faw, Brenda; Davis, Ernestine; Selman, Carol A

2014-11-01

415

Research Participants’ Understanding of and Reactions to Certificates of Confidentiality  

PubMed Central

Background Certificates of Confidentiality are intended to facilitate participation in critical public health research by protecting against forced disclosure of identifying data in legal proceedings, but little is known about the effect of Certificate descriptions in consent forms. Methods To gain preliminary insights, we conducted qualitative interviews with 50 HIV-positive individuals in Durham, North Carolina to explore their subjective understanding of Certificate descriptions and whether their reactions differed based on receiving a standard versus simplified description. Results Most interviewees were neither reassured nor alarmed by Certificate information, and most said it would not influence their willingness to participate or provide truthful information. However, compared with those receiving the simplified description, more who read the standard description said it raised new concerns, that their likelihood of participating would be lower, and that they might be less forthcoming. Most interviewees said they found the Certificate description clear, but standard-group participants often found particular words and phrases confusing, while simplified-group participants more often questioned the information’s substance. Conclusions Valid informed consent requires comprehension and voluntariness. Our findings highlight the importance of developing consent descriptions of Certificates and other confidentiality protections that are simple and accurate. These qualitative results provide rich detail to inform a larger, quantitative study that would permit further rigorous comparisons. PMID:24563806

Check, Devon K.; Ammarell, Natalie

2013-01-01

416

The Effects of Death Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although fear of death is recorded in the writings of the oldest major religions, the study of death and the fear of death have only occurred for the last few decades. Death education courses have grown in number since the early 1970's. College students participated in an investigation of the effects of death education on death anxiety by…

Freitag, Carl B.; Hassler, Shawn David

417

Discrepant comorbidity between minority and white suicides: a national multiple cause-of-death analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Clinician training deficits and a low and declining autopsy rate adversely impact the quality of death certificates in the United States. Self-report and records data for the general population indicate that proximate mental and physical health of minority suicides was at least as poor as that of white suicides. METHODS: This cross-sectional mortality study uses data from Multiple Cause-of-Death

Ian RH Rockett; Yinjuan Lian; Steven Stack; Alan M Ducatman; Shuhui Wang

2009-01-01

418

10 CFR 473.25 - Reviewability of certification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...ENERGY CONSERVATION AUTOMOTIVE PROPULSION RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT Review and Certification of Grants, Cooperative Agreements, Contracts, and Projects § 473.25 Reviewability of certification. Any certification issued under these...

2010-01-01

419

7 CFR 91.36 - Appeal laboratory certificate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...certificates, issuance of certificates, and retention and disposition of certificates shall...

2010-01-01

420

7 CFR 91.36 - Appeal laboratory certificate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...certificates, issuance of certificates, and retention and disposition of certificates shall...

2011-01-01

421

78 FR 5210 - Open Government Initiative: Implementation of the iCERT Labor Certification Registry for the H-1B...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration Open Government...H-2B and Permanent Labor Certification Employment-Based Immigration Programs AGENCY: Employment and Training Administration,...

2013-01-24

422

A population-based study of the pattern of terminal care and hospital death in patients with non-small cell lung cancer.  

PubMed

Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is a major cause of cancer-related death and utilization of health care resources worldwide. Significant costs are generated in the months before death, with hospitalization being a major cost driver. Moreover, hospital death causes physical and emotional distress. We analyzed factors predicting the likelihood of hospital death from NSCLC. Patients who died from NSCLC (any stage and treatment) during the recent 5-year interval up to 31.12.2010, within a defined geographical region of northern Norway, were included (n=112). Only 15% of all patients did not require any hospitalization during their last 3 months. A minority of patients (24%) died at home, 53% in hospital and 23% in nursing homes. The likelihood of hospital death was independent of initial management and time between diagnosis and death. Even 45% of patients treated with best supportive care died in hospital. Multivariate analysis showed that initial tumor stage of T4 (RR 1.64), systemic therapy during the last 3 months of life (RR 2.60) and any active therapy during the last 4 weeks (RR 1.63) significantly increased the likelihood of hospital death, while early discussion of resuscitation preferences reduced it (RR 0.21). These four parameters suggest that early focus on symptom palliation and resuscitation preferences are crucial components of strategies improving terminal care. Patients with T4 tumors might experience unsatisfactory symptom control and should be offered a part in prospective studies addressing these issues. PMID:22213306

Nieder, Carsten; Tollåli, Terje; Norum, Jan; Pawinski, Adam; Bremnes, Roy M

2012-01-01

423

Suicide on death row.  

PubMed

The suicide rate on death row for the period 1976 through 1999 was found to be high (113 per 100,000 per year), some five times higher than the suicide rate for the male population of the United States. The death row suicide rate was predicted by features of the death row population (negatively with the population on death row) and by social indicators of the society as a whole (negatively with birth and divorce rates and positively with marriage rates). PMID:12353556

Lester, David; Tartaro, Christine

2002-09-01

424

[Diagnostic of brain death].  

PubMed

Despite of some discussion, there is general acceptance of the brain death criterion. As for Germany, there is a quasi legal regulation (TPG §16): two physicians with a longstanding experience in the management of patients with severe brain lesions are personally responsive for the diagnostic procedure lege artis. No false positive diagnosis has been published, hitherto. Before any organ explantation, diagnosis of brain death is mandatory. Nevertheless, discussions on brain death should not be instrumentalized by circumstances of organ explantation. Brain death should be part of a good educational background, to anticipate reflections free from the emotional binding of an acute incident. PMID:22441689

Moskopp, Dag

2012-03-01

425

Timing and causes of death after injuries  

PubMed Central

Currently, long-term outcomes are significant because health care system changes will likely lead to a single payment for each occurrence of care, including readmissions—the “bundled payment” system. Therefore, it is essential to understand the outcomes of trauma patients discharged alive from trauma centers. This article reviews the current knowledge base on the timing and causes of deaths after trauma. The trimodal mortality model (immediate deaths, early deaths, and late deaths) is utilized as the early research describing trimodal distribution is discussed. Also covered is the successive work as trauma systems matured, showing a shift toward a bimodal distribution with a decline in late deaths. Finally, studies of long-term outcomes are highlighted. Deaths occurring within minutes or a few hours of injury are largely unchanged, which underscores the enormity of injuries to the central nervous and cardiovascular systems. Late deaths caused by multiple organ failure and sepsis have declined considerably, however. Also, the causes of death in this patient population remain constant. Lastly, a considerable number of deaths after discharge may be due to nontraumatic causes. PMID:23543966

Shafi, Shahid

2013-01-01

426

Education Certification Degrees Offered: Secondary Teaching Certificate in  

E-print Network

certification requirements. Students seeking additional information about the teacher education program, French, German, health science technology education, history, Latin, life sciences, mathematics, physical education, physical science, physics/ mathematics, science, social studies, and Spanish. After satisfactory

Richards-Kortum, Rebecca

427

Education Certification Degrees Offered: Secondary Teaching Certificate in  

E-print Network

certification requirements. Students seeking additional information about the teacher education program language arts and reading, French, German, health science technology education, history, Latin, life sciences, mathematics, physical education, physical science, physics/ mathematics, science, social studies

Richards-Kortum, Rebecca

428

Environmental Certification of Forests in Mexico: The Political Ecology of a Nongovernmental Market Intervention  

Microsoft Academic Search

The certification of the environmental and social characteristics of a product's production process is emerging as a significant transnational, nongovernmental, market-based approach to environmental regulation and development. Using conventions analysis and commodity network analysis, this article examines the political ecology of one such market intervention. After only a decade, environmental certification of forests has spread to cover a significant portion

Dan Klooster

2006-01-01

429

Certification Requirements and Teacher Quality: A Comparison of Alternative Routes to Teaching. Working Paper 64  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Traditionally, states have required individuals complete a program of study in a university-based teacher preparation program in order to be licensed to teach. In recent years, however, various "alternative certification" programs have been developed and the number of teachers obtaining teaching certificates through routes other than completing a…

Sass, Tim R.

2011-01-01

430

Examining Changes in Certification/Licensure Requirements and the International Medical Graduate Examinee Pool  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Changes in certification requirements and examinee characteristics are likely to influence the validity of the evidence associated with interpretations made based on test data. We examined whether changes in Educational Commission for Foreign Medical Graduates (ECFMG) certification requirements over time were associated with changes in internal…

McKinley, Danette W.; Hess, Brian J.; Boulet, John R.; Lipner, Rebecca S.

2014-01-01

431

An Introduction to the Use of Skill Standards and Certifications in WIA Programs, 2002.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report focuses on the use of nationally recognized, industry-based skill standards and occupational certifications that promote certificate portability, skill transferability, worker mobility, and education and training consistency within and across states and nationwide. Chapters 1, 2, and 3 define what is meant by skill standards and…

Spill, Rick

432

A Fair Trade Approach to Community Forest Certification? A Framework for Discussion  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Forest certification has gained growing attention as a market-based instrument to make globalizing markets a force for mitigating rather than fostering environmental degradation. Yet in practice, market mechanisms currently appear to encourage concentration of forest certification in Northern temperate and boreal forests, rather than in the…

Taylor, Peter Leigh

2005-01-01

433

"A Basic Starter Pack": The TESOL Certificate as a Course in Survival  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Relying on data both from recent TESOL Certificate trainees and from experienced teachers, this paper examines ways in which a focus on survival during TESOL Certificate courses indicates a performance-based philosophy of teacher education and, ultimately, a preference for native speakers, both of which are inconsistent with the changing global…

Hobbs, Valerie

2013-01-01

434

Roadmap: Radiologic Imaging Sciences -Computed Tomography (with certification and ATS Radiologic Technology) -  

E-print Network

Roadmap: Radiologic Imaging Sciences - Computed Tomography (with certification and ATS Radiologic Technology) - Bachelor of Radiologic and Imaging Sciences Technology [RE-BRIT-RIS-CTHA] Regional College Hours] Note: Students must have graduated from a hospital-based certificate program in radiologic

Sheridan, Scott

435

Roadmap: Radiologic Imaging Sciences Radiation Therapy (with certification and ATS Radiologic Technology) -  

E-print Network

Roadmap: Radiologic Imaging Sciences ­ Radiation Therapy ­ (with certification and ATS Radiologic Technology) - Bachelor of Radiologic Imaging Sciences Technology [RE-BRIT-RIS-RTHB] Regional College Catalog Hours] Note: Students must have graduated from a hospital-based certificate program in radiologic

Sheridan, Scott

436

Which Way for Teacher Certification? QuEST Papers Series, #2.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The American Federation of Teachers (AFT) has no comprehensive policy and philosophy for the certification of teachers. Six issues have most relevance to a more inclusive position: The union should review its resolution regarding certification based on "general education" in light of changes in the professional and academic specialization…

Bhaerman, Robert D.

437

Reliable quantum certification for photonic quantum technologies  

E-print Network

A major roadblock for large-scale photonic quantum technologies is the lack of practical reliable certification tools. We introduce an experimentally friendly - yet mathematically rigorous - certification test for experimental preparations of arbitrary m-mode pure Gaussian states, pure non-Gaussian states generated by linear-optical circuits with n-boson Fock-basis states as inputs, and states of these two classes subsequently post-selected with local measurements on ancillary modes. The protocol is efficient in m and the inverse post-selection success probability for all Gaussian states and all mentioned non-Gaussian states with constant n. We follow the mindset of an untrusted prover, who prepares the state, and a skeptic certifier, with classical computing and single-mode homodyne-detection capabilities only. No assumptions are made on the type of noise or capabilities of the prover. Our technique exploits an extremality-based fidelity bound whose estimation relies on non-Gaussian state nullifiers, which we introduce on the way as a byproduct result. The certification of many-mode photonic networks, as those used for photonic quantum simulations, boson samplers, and quantum metrology, is now within reach.

L. Aolita; C. Gogolin; M. Kliesch; J. Eisert

2015-01-09

438

20 CFR 404.722 - Rebuttal of a presumption of death.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Evidence Evidence of Age, Marriage, and Death § 404.722 Rebuttal of a presumption of death. A presumption of death made based on §...

2010-04-01

439

Experimental evaluation of the certification-trail method  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Certification trails are a recently introduced and promising approach to fault-detection and fault-tolerance. A comprehensive attempt to assess experimentally the performance and overall value of the method is reported. The method is applied to algorithms for the following problems: huffman tree, shortest path, minimum spanning tree, sorting, and convex hull. Our results reveal many cases in which an approach using certification-trails allows for significantly faster overall program execution time than a basic time redundancy-approach. Algorithms for the answer-validation problem for abstract data types were also examined. This kind of problem provides a basis for applying the certification-trail method to wide classes of algorithms. Answer-validation solutions for two types of priority queues were implemented and analyzed. In both cases, the algorithm which performs answer-validation is substantially faster than the original algorithm for computing the answer. Next, a probabilistic model and analysis which enables comparison between the certification-trail method and the time-redundancy approach were presented. The analysis reveals some substantial and sometimes surprising advantages for ther certification-trail method. Finally, the work our group performed on the design and implementation of fault injection testbeds for experimental analysis of the certification trail technique is discussed. This work employs two distinct methodologies, software fault injection (modification of instruction, data, and stack segments of programs on a Sun Sparcstation ELC and on an IBM 386 PC) and hardware fault injection (control, address, and data lines of a Motorola MC68000-based target system pulsed at logical zero/one values). Our results indicate the viability of the certification trail technique. It is also believed that the tools developed provide a solid base for additional exploration.

Sullivan, Gregory F.; Wilson, Dwight S.; Masson, Gerald M.; Itoh, Mamoru; Smith, Warren W.; Kay, Jonathan S.

1993-01-01

440

Verbal autopsy of 48 000 adult deaths attributable to medical causes in Chennai (formerly Madras), India  

PubMed Central

Background In the city of Chennai, India, registration of the fact of death is almost complete but the cause of death is often inadequately recorded on the death certificate. A special verbal autopsy (VA) study of 48 000 adult deaths in Chennai during 1995–97 was conducted to arrive at the probable underlying cause of death and to measure cause specific mortality rates for Chennai. Methods Trained non-medical graduates with at least 15 years of formal education interviewed the surviving family members or an associate of the deceased to write a report on the complaints, symptoms, signs, duration and treatment details of illness prior to death. Each report was reviewed centrally by two physicians independently. The reliability was assessed by comparing deaths attributed to cancer by VA with records in Vital Statistics Department and Chennai Cancer Registry. Results The VA reduced the proportion of deaths attributed to unspecified medical causes and unknown causes from 37% to 7% in early adult life and middle age (25–69 yrs) and has yielded fewer unspecified causes (only 10%) than the death certificate. The sensitivity of VA to identify cancer was 94% in the age group 25–69. Conclusion VA is practicable for deaths in early adult life or middle age and is of more limited value in old age. A systematic program of VA of a representative sample of deaths could assign broad causes not only to deaths in childhood (as has previously been established) but also to deaths in early adult life and middle age. PMID:12014994

Gajalakshmi, Vendhan; Peto, Richard; Kanaka, Santhanakrishnan; Balasubramanian, Sivagurunathan

2002-01-01

441

Renewable Energy Certificate Program  

SciTech Connect

This project was primarily to develop and implement a curriculum which will train undergraduate and graduate students at the University seeking a degree as well as training for enrollees in a special certification program to prepare individuals to be employed in a broad range of occupations in the field of renewable energy and energy conservation. Curriculum development was by teams of Saint Francis University Faculty in the Business Administration and Science Departments and industry experts. Students seeking undergraduate and graduate degrees are able to enroll in courses offered within these departments which will combine theory and hands-on training in the various elements of wind power development. For example, the business department curriculum areas include economic modeling, finance, contracting, etc. The science areas include meteorology, energy conversion and projection, species identification, habitat protection, field data collection and analysis, etc.

Gwendolyn S. Andersen

2012-07-17

442

Education for Death  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Death is an unavoidable fact of human life, which cannot be totally ignored in education. Children reflect on death and raise questions that deserve serious answers. If an educator completely evades the issue, children will seek other conversation partners. It is possible to find arguments both from secular and religious sources, which alleviate…

Puolimatka, Tapio; Solasaari, Ulla

2006-01-01

443

Death Obsession in Palestinians  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors explored death obsession level and correlates among a sample (N=601) of Palestinians living in the city of Beit Jala, the village of Al-Khader, and the Aida refugee camp in the Bethlehem area. They live in war conditions; the houses of half of them have been demolished. The Death Obsession Scale (DOS) was administered. Its alpha…

Abdel-Khalek, Ahmed M.; Al-Arja, Nahida S.; Abdalla, Taysir

2006-01-01

444

Death Acceptance through Ritual  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article summarizes the author's original research, which sought to discover the elements necessary for using death-related ritual as a psychotherapeutic technique for grieving people who experience their grief as "stuck," "unending," "maladaptive," and so on. A "death-related ritual" is defined as a ceremony, directly involving at least 1…

Reeves, Nancy C.

2011-01-01

445

Conflicting Thoughts about Death  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Most research on children's conception of death has probed their understanding of its biological aspects: its inevitability, irreversibility and terminal impact. Yet many adults subscribe to a religious conception implying that death marks the beginning of a new life. Two recent empirical studies confirm that in the course of development, children…

Harris, Paul L.

2011-01-01

446

Programmed cell death  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this conference to provide a multidisciplinary forum for exchange of state-of-the-art information on the role programmed cell death plays in normal development and homeostasis of many organisms. This volume contains abstracts of papers in the following areas: invertebrate development; immunology/neurology; bcl-2 family; biochemistry; programmed cell death in viruses; oncogenesis; vertebrate development; and diseases.

NONE

1995-12-31

447

Mozart's illnesses and death.  

PubMed Central

Throughout his life Mozart suffered frequent attacks of tonsillitis. In 1784 he developed post-streptococcal Schönlein-Henoch syndrome which caused chronic glomerular nephritis and chronic renal failure. His fatal illness was due to Schönlein-Henoch purpura, with death from cerebral haemorrhage and bronchopneumonia. Venesection(s) may have contributed to his death. PMID:6352940

Davies, P J

1983-01-01

448

Unusual hanging deaths.  

PubMed

We describe the circumstances and medical findings of four unusual hanging deaths. In brief, the unusual features are tracheostomy, delayed death, self-mutilation combined with severe neck injury caused by lengthy drop, and homicidal hanging in a young girl. PMID:3239544

Cooke, C T; Cadden, G A; Hilton, J M

1988-12-01

449

The Psychology of Death  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Forty-eight black men and women living and/or attending school in the St. Louis and Washington, D.C. areas responded to questionnaires concerning feelings, attitudes, emotions, etc. towards death and dying. It is concluded that blacks see death as a very significant happening; and that although in some areas blacks have become Americanized in…

Fields, B. Celestine

1976-01-01

450

Death, Children, and Books.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The books listed in this annotated bibliography are intended to help children understand the reality of death and deal with the mystery and emotions that accompany it. Each entry indicates the genre and reading level of the book and provides a brief description of the attitude toward death that it conveys. The selections include fables, fantasy,…

Carr, Robin L.

451

Physician-assisted death.  

PubMed Central

Physician-assisted death includes both euthanasia and assistance in suicide. The CMA urges its members to adhere to the principles of palliative care. It does not support euthanasia and assisted suicide. The following policy summary includes definitions of euthanasia and assisted suicide, background information, basic ethical principles and physician concerns about legalization of physician-assisted death. PMID:7632208

1995-01-01

452

Death Obsession in Palestinians  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors explored death obsession level and correlates among a sample (N = 601) of Palestinians living in the city of Beit Jala, the village of Al-Khader, and the Aida refugee camp in the Bethlehem area. They live in war conditions; the houses of half of them have been demolished. The Death Obsession Scale (DOS) was administered. Its alpha reliability was .92,

Ahmed M. Abdel-Khalek; Nahida S. Al-Arja; Taysir Abdalla

2006-01-01

453

Strategic planning for LEED certification  

E-print Network

Intel Corporation has recently implemented a "green building" policy, which states that Intel will design all new facilities to achieve a minimum LEED-Silver certification. LEED (Leadership in Energy and Environmental ...

Capuzzi, Angelo Michael

2010-01-01

454

Death Understanding and Fear of Death in Young Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to test whether the developmental acquisition of a mature concept of death, that is, understanding death as a biological event, affects young children's fear of death. Ninety children between the ages of 4 and 8 participated in an interview study in which their understanding of death and their fear of death were both assessed.

Virginia Slaughter; Maya Griffiths

2007-01-01

455

Forest certification underway in Mizoram KanglaOnline Headlines  

E-print Network

Protection and community-based NGOs like the YMA etc., for the process was held today at the Industries asked a "collective action request" (CARs) and this has caused a problem as the CARs are based or timber, cannot be exported without a Forest Certification as they would be rejected by the http://www.kanglaonline.com/index.php

456

Using verbal autopsy to measure causes of death: the comparative performance of existing methods  

PubMed Central

Background Monitoring progress with disease and injury reduction in many populations will require widespread use of verbal autopsy (VA). Multiple methods have been developed for assigning cause of death from a VA but their application is restricted by uncertainty about their reliability. Methods We investigated the validity of five automated VA methods for assigning cause of death: InterVA-4, Random Forest (RF), Simplified Symptom Pattern (SSP), Tariff method (Tariff), and King-Lu (KL), in addition to physician review of VA forms (PCVA), based on 12,535 cases from diverse populations for which the true cause of death had been reliably established. For adults, children, neonates and stillbirths, performance was assessed separately for individuals using sensitivity, specificity, Kappa, and chance-corrected concordance (CCC) and for populations using cause specific mortality fraction (CSMF) accuracy, with and without additional diagnostic information from prior contact with health services. A total of 500 train-test splits were used to ensure that results are robust to variation in the underlying cause of death distribution. Results Three automated diagnostic methods, Tariff, SSP, and RF, but not InterVA-4, performed better than physician review in all age groups, study sites, and for the majority of causes of death studied. For adults, CSMF accuracy ranged from 0.764 to 0.770, compared with 0.680 for PCVA and 0.625 for InterVA; CCC varied from 49.2% to 54.1%, compared with 42.2% for PCVA, and 23.8% for InterVA. For children, CSMF accuracy was 0.783 for Tariff, 0.678 for PCVA, and 0.520 for InterVA; CCC was 52.5% for Tariff, 44.5% for PCVA, and 30.3% for InterVA. For neonates, CSMF accuracy was 0.817 for Tariff, 0.719 for PCVA, and 0.629 for InterVA; CCC varied from 47.3% to 50.3% for the three automated methods, 29.3% for PCVA, and 19.4% for InterVA. The method with the highest sensitivity for a specific cause varied by cause. Conclusions Physician review of verbal autopsy questionnaires is less accurate than automated methods in determining both individual and population causes of death. Overall, Tariff performs as well or better than other methods and should be widely applied in routine mortality surveillance systems with poor cause of death certification practices. PMID:24405531

2014-01-01

457

21 CFR 80.21 - Request for certification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL COLOR ADDITIVE CERTIFICATION Certification Procedures...for certification of a batch of color additive shall: (a) Be addressed to the...for certification of a batch of color additive if the fee accompanying such...

2013-04-01

458

21 CFR 80.32 - Limitations of certificates.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL COLOR ADDITIVE CERTIFICATION Certification Procedures...certificate shall not be effective, and a color additive from the batch on which such certificate...If between the time a sample of color additive accompanying a request for...

2010-04-01

459

21 CFR 80.32 - Limitations of certificates.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL COLOR ADDITIVE CERTIFICATION Certification Procedures...certificate shall not be effective, and a color additive from the batch on which such certificate...If between the time a sample of color additive accompanying a request for...

2014-04-01

460

21 CFR 80.32 - Limitations of certificates.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL COLOR ADDITIVE CERTIFICATION Certification Procedures...certificate shall not be effective, and a color additive from the batch on which such certificate...If between the time a sample of color additive accompanying a request for...

2011-04-01

461

21 CFR 80.32 - Limitations of certificates.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL COLOR ADDITIVE CERTIFICATION Certification Procedures...certificate shall not be effective, and a color additive from the batch on which such certificate...If between the time a sample of color additive accompanying a request for...

2013-04-01

462

21 CFR 80.32 - Limitations of certificates.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL COLOR ADDITIVE CERTIFICATION Certification Procedures...certificate shall not be effective, and a color additive from the batch on which such certificate...If between the time a sample of color additive accompanying a request for...

2012-04-01

463

21 CFR 80.21 - Request for certification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL COLOR ADDITIVE CERTIFICATION Certification Procedures...for certification of a batch of color additive shall: (a) Be addressed to the...for certification of a batch of color additive if the fee accompanying such...

2014-04-01

464

14 CFR 133.25 - Amendment of certificate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS ROTORCRAFT EXTERNAL-LOAD OPERATIONS Certification Rules... (a) The holder of a Rotorcraft External-Load Certificate may apply to...form used in applying for a Rotorcraft External-Load Operator Certificate. If...

2010-01-01

465

24 CFR 232.610 - Certification of cost requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 false Certification of cost requirements. 232.610 Section 232...Installation of Fire Safety Equipment Cost Certification Requirements § 232.610 Certification of cost requirements. (a) Certificate and...

2011-04-01

466

Designing and Implementing an Innovative SMS-based alert system (RapidSMS-MCH) to monitor pregnancy and reduce maternal and child deaths in Rwanda  

PubMed Central

Introduction With the continuous growth of mobile network coverage and unprecedented penetration of mobile devices in the developing world, several mHealth initiatives are being implemented in developing countries. This paper aims to describe requirements for designing and implementing a mobile phone-based communication system aiming at monitoring pregnancy and reducing bottlenecks in communication associated with maternal and newborn deaths; and document challenges and lessons learned. Methods An SMS-based system was developed to improve maternal and child health (MCH) using RapidSMS®, a free and open-sourced software development framework. To achieve the expected results, the RapidSMS-MCH system was customized to allow interactive communication between a community health worker (CHW)following mother-infant pairs in their community, a national centralized database, the health facility and in case of an emergency alert, the ambulance driver. The RapidSMS-MCH system was piloted in Musanze district, Nothern province of Rwanda over a 12-month period. Results A total of 432 CHW were trained and equipped with mobile phones. A total of 35,734 SMS were sent by 432 CHW from May 2010 to April 2011. A total of 11,502 pregnancies were monitored. A total of 362 SMS alerts for urgent and life threatening events were registered. We registered a 27% increase in facility based delivery from 72% twelve months before to 92% at the end of the twelve months pilot phase. Major challenges were telephone maintenance and replacement. Disctrict heath team capacity to manage and supervise the system was strengthened by the end of pilot phase. Highly committed CHWs and effective coordination by the District health team were critical enablers. Conclusion We successully designed and implemented a mobile phone SMS-based system to track pregnancy and maternal and child outcomes in limited resources setting. Implementation of mobile-phone systems at community level could contribute to improving emergency obstetric and neonatal care, yet it requires a well-organized community health structure in limited resource settings. PMID:23330022

Ngabo, Fidele; Nguimfack, Judith; Nwaigwe, Friday; Mugeni, Catherine; Muhoza, Denis; Wilson, David R; Kalach, John; Gakuba, Richard; Karema, Corrine; Binagwaho, Agnes

2012-01-01

467

Drug addict deaths in the Nordic countries: a study based on medicolegally examined cases in the five Nordic countries in 1991.  

PubMed

The study includes medicolegally examined deaths among drug addicts in 1991 in the five Nordic countries: Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden. A common definition of 'drug addict' was applied by the participating countries. The greatest number of drug addict deaths per 10(5) inhabitants was observed in Denmark followed, in descending order by Norway, Sweden, Finland and finally Iceland with only four deaths. The main difference between the countries was found in the number of fatal poisonings. The distribution according to geographical regions showed that about half of all drug addict deaths occurred in the metropolitan areas. Of the capitals, the greatest number of fatal poisonings per 10(5) inhabitants was seen in Oslo, followed by Copenhagen with a similar number, Stockholm with only the half, and Helsinki with a quarter. Heroin/morphine dominated as cause of death in fatal poisonings in Norway and Sweden. In Denmark, heroin/morphine caused about half of the fatal poisonings only, and nearly one third of the fatal poisonings was caused by methadone. Except for two cases in Sweden, methadone deaths were not seen in the other Nordic countries. Amphetamine caused one tenth of the fatal poisonings in Sweden. In Finland only one tenth of the deaths were caused by heroin/morphine and more by codeine, ethylmorphine and different drugs and poisons not classified in Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs 1961 or the International Convention on Psychotropic Substances 1971. A widespread use of alcohol, cannabis and benzodiazepines, diazepam especially, was seen in all the countries. PMID:8675131

Steentoft, A; Teige, B; Holmgren, P; Vuori, E; Kristinsson, J; Kaa, E; Wethe, G; Ceder, G; Pikkarainen, J; Simonsen, K W

1996-01-12

468

Children's Death Concepts and Ethnicity.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Relationships between death concepts of Black and White children and their racial status were examined. Lower-middle-class elementary children completed a four-item questionnaire on death. Most children defined death as the end of living and listed physical causes as the explanation of death. In general, children's death concepts were similar.…

Wass, Hannelore; Towry, Betty J.

1980-01-01

469

Reducing the Teen Death Rate. KIDS COUNT Indicator Brief  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Life continues to hold considerable risk for adolescents in the United States. In 2006, the teen death rate stood at 64 deaths per 100,000 teens (13,739 teens) (KIDS COUNT Data Center, 2009). Although it has declined by 4 percent since 2000, the rate of teen death in this country remains substantially higher than in many peer nations, based

Shore, Rima; Shore, Barbara

2009-01-01

470

Human factors certification: A useful concept?  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper considers what is involved in certification processes and their relation to human factors aspects of systems. It derives from recognition of a lack of understanding of the processes and purposes of certification. This was encountered when attempting to address the workshop topic by integrating an understanding of human factors with the observed processes of certification. The paper considers what human factors (HF) certification might be and then develops a simple model of the elements of a certification process. It then tries to relate these elements to the needs of the aviation communities and other parties with an interest in the certification of advance aviation technologies.

Jackson, Alistair

1994-01-01

471

A comparison of sisterhood information on causes of maternal death with the registration causes of maternal death in Matlab, Bangladesh.  

PubMed

This study compared the sisterhood method of determining causes of maternal death, an indirect method for providing a community-based estimate of the level of maternal mortality, with the Matlab Demographic Surveillance System's (DSS) causes of maternal death. Data were derived from the Matlab DSS, which has been in operation since 1966 as a field site of the International Center for Diarrheal Disease Research, Bangladesh. The maternal deaths that occurred during the 15-year period from 1976 to 1990 in the Matlab DSS area were the basis of this study. A sisterhood survey was conducted in Matlab in November and December 1991 to collect information on conditions, events, and symptoms that preceded death. The collected information was evaluated to assign a most likely cause of maternal death. The sisterhood survey cause of maternal death was then compared with the DSS cause of maternal death. Of the 510 deaths identified as maternal deaths by the DSS, 384 siblings, 1 for each deceased woman, was interviewed. 305 of these correctly reported that they had a sister who died during pregnancy or childbirth. 16 reported that they did not know whether their sister died during pregnancy or after termination of a pregnancy. The remaining 63 respondents misreported their sisters' deaths as nonmaternal deaths. Cause of death could not be assigned with reasonable confidence for 34 (11%) of the 305 maternal deaths for which information was collected. For the remaining 271 deaths, the agreement between the 2 classification systems was generally high for most cause-of-death categories considered. The overall rate of agreement between DSS cause and survey cause was 82%. For the direct obstetric deaths as a group, the agreement was 86%, while it was around 76% for indirect obstetric deaths, and 71% for abortion-related deaths. Though the sisterhood method will always be subject to some error, it can provide an indication of an overall distribution of causes of maternal deaths. PMID:8557450

Shahidullah, M

1995-10-01

472

20 CFR 656.26 - Board of Alien Labor Certification Appeals review of denials of labor certification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-04-01 false Board of Alien Labor Certification Appeals review...CERTIFICATION PROCESS FOR PERMANENT EMPLOYMENT OF ALIENS IN THE UNITED STATES Labor Certification Process § 656.26 Board of Alien Labor Certification Appeals...

2010-04-01

473

20 CFR 656.26 - Board of Alien Labor Certification Appeals review of denials of labor certification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-04-01 false Board of Alien Labor Certification Appeals review...CERTIFICATION PROCESS FOR PERMANENT EMPLOYMENT OF ALIENS IN THE UNITED STATES Labor Certification Process § 656.26 Board of Alien Labor Certification Appeals...

2012-04-01

474

20 CFR 656.26 - Board of Alien Labor Certification Appeals review of denials of labor certification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-04-01 false Board of Alien Labor Certification Appeals review...CERTIFICATION PROCESS FOR PERMANENT EMPLOYMENT OF ALIENS IN THE UNITED STATES Labor Certification Process § 656.26 Board of Alien Labor Certification Appeals...

2011-04-01

475

20 CFR 656.26 - Board of Alien Labor Certification Appeals review of denials of labor certification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... 2014-04-01 false Board of Alien Labor Certification Appeals review...CERTIFICATION PROCESS FOR PERMANENT EMPLOYMENT OF ALIENS IN THE UNITED STATES Labor Certification Process § 656.26 Board of Alien Labor Certification Appeals...

2014-04-01

476

20 CFR 656.26 - Board of Alien Labor Certification Appeals review of denials of labor certification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-04-01 false Board of Alien Labor Certification Appeals review...CERTIFICATION PROCESS FOR PERMANENT EMPLOYMENT OF ALIENS IN THE UNITED STATES Labor Certification Process § 656.26 Board of Alien Labor Certification Appeals...

2013-04-01

477

Autophagy and Cell Death  

PubMed Central

Autophagy is intimately associated with eukaryotic cell death and apoptosis. Indeed in some cases the same proteins control both autophagy and apoptosis. Apoptotic signaling can regulate autophagy and conversely autophagy can regulate apoptosis (and most likely other cell death mechanisms). However the molecular connections between autophagy and cell death are complicated and, in different contexts, autophagy may promote or inhibit cell death. Surprisingly, although we know that, at its core, autophagy involves degradation of sequestered cytoplasmic material, and therefore presumably must be mediating its effects on cell death by degrading something, in most cases we have little idea what is being degraded to promote autophagy’s pro- or anti-death activities. Because autophagy is known to play important roles in health and many diseases, it is critical to understand the mechanisms by which autophagy interacts with and affects the cell death machinery since this will perhaps allow new ways to prevent or treat disease. In this chapter we discuss the current state of understanding of these processes. PMID:24070475

Yonekawa, Tohru; Thorburn, Andrew

2014-01-01

478

Hardware cleanliness methodology and certification  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Inadequacy of mass loss cleanliness criteria for selection of materials for contamination sensitive uses, and processing of flight hardware for contamination sensitive instruments is discussed. Materials selection for flight hardware is usually based on mass loss (ASTM E-595). However, flight hardware cleanliness (MIL 1246A) is a surface cleanliness assessment. It is possible for materials (e.g. Sil-Pad 2000) to pass ASTM E-595 and fail MIL 1246A class A by orders of magnitude. Conversely, it is possible for small amounts of nonconforming material (Huma-Seal conformal coating) to not present significant cleanliness problems to an optical flight instrument. Effective cleaning (precleaning, precision cleaning, and ultra cleaning) and cleanliness verification are essential for contamination sensitive flight instruments. Polish cleaning of hardware, e.g. vacuum baking for vacuum applications, and storage of clean hardware, e.g. laser optics, is discussed. Silicone materials present special concerns for use in space because of the rapid conversion of the outgassed residues to glass by solar ultraviolet radiation and/or atomic oxygen. Non ozone depleting solvent cleaning and institutional support for cleaning and certification are also discussed.

Harvey, Gale A.; Lash, Thomas J.; Rawls, J. Richard

1995-01-01

479

Underlying Cause and Place of Death Among Patients With Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis in Taiwan: A Population-Based Study, 2003–2008  

PubMed Central

Background Few studies have assessed cause of death among patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). We investigated underlying cause and place of death among patients with ALS in Taiwan during 2003–2008. Methods The data source was the Taiwan National Health Insurance database for the period 2003–2008. In total, 751 patients older than 15 years with a primary diagnosis of ALS were included and followed until 2008 in the national mortality database. Crude mortality rates (per 100 person-years) and standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) were calculated in relation to cause of death, sex, and age group (15–44, 45–64, 65+ years). Results In total, 297 (39.6%) patients died during the follow-up period, an age- and sex-standardized mortality rate 13 times (95% CI, 10.6–15.6) that of the Taiwanese general population. The leading cause of death among the patients was respiratory diseases, and the second most frequent cause was cardiovascular diseases. During the first year after an ALS diagnosis, suicide was much more frequent (SMR, 6.9; 95% CI, 1.9–17.6) than among the general population. Conclusions During 2003–2008, respiratory diseases and cardiovascular diseases were the most frequent causes of death among Taiwanese patients with ALS. In addition, our findings indicate that suicide prevention is an urgent priority during the period soon after an ALS diagnosis. PMID:23933623

Tsai, Ching-Piao; Chang, Bo-Hsiung; Lee, Charles Tzu-Chi

2013-01-01

480

Analysis of the bereavement effect after the death of a spouse in the Amish: a population-based retrospective cohort study  

PubMed Central

Objective This study investigates the association between bereavement and the mortality of a surviving spouse among Amish couples. We hypothesised that the bereavement effect would be relatively small in the Amish due to the unusually cohesive social structure of the Amish that might attenuate the loss of spousal support. Design Population-based cohort study. Setting The USA. Participants 10?892 Amish couples born during 1725–1900 located in Pennsylvania, Ohio and Indiana. All the participants are deceased. Outcome measures The survival time is ‘age’; event is ‘death’. Hazard ratios (HRs) of widowed individuals with respect to gender, age at widowhood, remarriage, the number of surviving children and time since bereavement. Results We observed HRs for widowhood ranging from 1.06 to 1.26 over the study period (nearly all differences significant at p<0.05). Mortality risks tended to be higher in men than in women and in younger compared with older bereaved spouses. There were significantly increased mortality risks in widows and widowers who did not remarry. We observed a higher number of surviving children to be associated with increased mortality in men and women. Mortality risk following bereavement was higher in the first 6?months among men and women. Conclusions We conclude that bereavement effects remain apparent even in this socially cohesive Amish community. Remarriage is associated with a significant decrease in the mortality risk among Amish individuals. Contrary to results from previous studies, an increase in the number of surviving children was associated with decreased survival rate. PMID:24435888

Seifter, Ari; Singh, Sarabdeep; McArdle, Patrick F; Ryan, Kathleen A; Shuldiner, Alan R; Mitchell, Braxton D; Schäffer, Alejandro A

2014-01-01

481

Preventing deaths from rising opioid overdose in the US – the promise of naloxone antidote in community-based naloxone take-home programs  

PubMed Central

The opioid overdose epidemic is an alarming and serious public health problem in the United States (US) that has been escalating for 11 years. The 2011 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) demonstrated that 1 in 20 persons in the US aged 12 or older reported nonmedical use of prescription painkillers in the past year. Prescription drug overdose is now the leading cause of accidental death in the United States – surpassing motor vehicle accidents. Great efforts have been initiated to curb the overdose crisis. Notable examples of these efforts are (1) the Drug Enforcement Administration’s (DEA) National Take-Back Initiative instituted in 2010; (2) the Prescription Drug Monitoring Programs (PDMPs) implemented in most US states to provide practitioners with point-of-care information regarding a patient’s controlled substance use; (3) the naloxone rescue programs initiated in the community to avert mortality resulting from overdose. The use of naloxone rescue strategies has gained traction as an effective measure to prevent fatal opioid overdose. Many US federal-government agencies are working to make these strategies more accessible to first responders and community participants. This new approach faces many challenges, such as accessibility to naloxone and the equipment and training needed to administer it, but none is more challenging than the fear of legal repercussions. US federal-government agencies, local governments, health care institutions, and community-based organizations have begun to tackle these barriers, and naloxone take-home programs have gained recognition as a feasible and sensible preventive strategy to avoid a fatal result from opioid overdose. Although many challenges still need to be overcome, it is important for federal government research agencies to initiate and support independent and rigorous evaluation of these programs to inform policymakers how effective these programs can be to save lives and curb the opioid overdose public health crisis. PMID:24273417

Straus, Michele M; Ghitza, Udi E; Tai, Betty

2013-01-01

482

Framework for Certification of Fish Propagation, Protection and Monitoring Facilities. Final Report.  

SciTech Connect

A conceptual framework for certification of fish production and monitoring facilities including software templates to expedite implementation of the framework are presented. The framework is based on well established and widely utilized project management techniques. The implementation templates are overlays for Microsoft Professional Office software products: Excel, Word, and Project. Use of the software templates requires Microsoft Professional Office. The certification framework integrates two classical project management processes with a third process for facility certification. These processes are: (1) organization and definition of the project, (2) acquisition and organization of project documentation, and (3) facility certification. The certification process consists of systematic review of the production processes and the characteristics of the produced product. The criteria for certification review are the plans and specifications for the products and production processes that guided development of the facility. The facility is certified when the production processes are operating as designed and the product produced meets specifications. Within this framework, certification is a performance based process, not dissimilar from that practiced in many professions and required for many process, or a product meets professional/industry standards of performance. In the case of fish production facilities, the certifying authority may be diffuse, consisting of many entities acting through a process such as NEPA. A cornerstone of certification is accountability, over the long term, for the operation and products of a facility. This is particularly important for fish production facilities where the overall goal of the facility may require decades to accomplish.

Carlson, Thomas J.; Costello, Ronald J.

1997-06-01

483

Racial and Gender Differences in the Viability of Extremely Low Birth Weight Infants: A Population Based Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE.The purpose of this study is to provide a race- and gender-specific model for predicting 1-year survival rates for extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infants by using population-based data. METHODS.Birth and death certificates were analyzed for all children (N 5076) with birth weights between 300 g and 1000 g who were born in Florida between 1996 and 2000. Semiparametric, multivariate,

Steven B. Morse; Samuel S. Wu; Changxing Ma; Mario Ariet; Michael Resnick; Jeffrey Roth

2006-01-01

484

The relationship among children's conceptualization of death, parental communication about death, and parental death anxiety  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the relationship between parents' communications about death with their children and children's conceptualization of death. The relationship between parental death anxiety and parents', communications about death was also examined. Other variables examined were: parents' belief in an afterlife, parents' religion, children's experiences with loss, children's gender, and children's age with children's conceptualization of death, parents' communications about

Talia Hatzor Matalon

1998-01-01

485

Link Between Cardiac Deaths And the Holidays is Focus of December Broadcast of Life Lines  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Research has found that heart attacks peak during the winter months, and the prevailing hypothesis has been that cold temperatures stress the heart. But in 1999, researchers analyzed 12 years of Los Angeles County death certificates and found that heart attack deaths also rise in the balmy Los Angeles winters. What's more, cardiac deaths peak on Christmas and New Year's Day in L.A. County. Could it be that the weather is not the most important factor behind the seasonal increase in heart attacks? Cardiologist Robert Kloner discusses his research in Episode 28 of the podcast, Life Lines.

APS Communications Office (American Physiological Society Communications Office)

2009-12-14

486

Christmas and New Year as risk factors for death.  

PubMed

This paper poses three questions: (1) Does mortality from natural causes spike around Christmas and New Year? (2) If so, does this spike exist for all major disease groups or only specialized groups? (3) If twin holiday spikes exist, need this imply that Christmas and New Year are risk factors for death? To answer these questions, we used all official U.S. death certificates, 1979-2004 (n = 57,451,944) in various hospital settings to examine daily mortality levels around Christmas and New Year. We measured the Christmas increase by comparing observed deaths with expected deaths in the week starting on Christmas. The New Year increase was measured similarly. The expected number of deaths was determined by locally weighted regression, given the null hypothesis that mortality is affected by seasons and trend but not by holidays. On Christmas and New Year, mortality from natural causes spikes in dead-on-arrival (DOA) and emergency department (ED) settings. There are more DOA/ED deaths on 12/25, 12/26, and 1/1 than on any other day. In contrast, deaths in non-DOA/ED settings display no holiday spikes. For DOA/ED settings, there are holiday spikes for each of the top five disease groups (circulatory diseases; neoplasms; respiratory diseases; endocrine/nutritional/metabolic diseases; digestive diseases). For all settings combined, there are holiday spikes for most major disease groups and for all demographic groups, except children. In the two weeks starting with Christmas, there is an excess of 42,325 deaths from natural causes above and beyond the normal winter increase. Christmas and New Year appear to be risk factors for deaths from many diseases. We tested nine possible explanations for these risk factors, but further research is needed. PMID:20805014

Phillips, David; Barker, Gwendolyn E; Brewer, Kimberly M

2010-10-01

487

Hallmarks, Evading death: Hanahan  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Professor Douglas Hanahan explains that a fundamental property of multi-cellular organisms is the capability to have cells commit suicide or undergo apoptosis, which is a form of programmed cell death.

2009-12-26

488

Hitler's Death Camps.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a high school lesson on Hitler's death camps and the widespread policy of brutality and oppression against European Jews. Includes student objectives, instructional procedures, and a chart listing the value of used clothing taken from the Jews. (CFR)

Wieser, Paul

1995-01-01

489

Cell Death and Fibrogenesis  

PubMed Central

Fibrosis is a common feature of chronic liver injury and is initiated by cell death inside the liver. Hepatocyte death results in apoptotic bodies and other cellular debris, which are phagocytosed by hepatic stellate cells (HSCs), resulting in their activation, proliferation, differentiation, and matrix deposition. This profibrotic effect of cellular death is balanced by an antifibrotic effect of HSC death. Many HSC survival signals are obtained from the extracellular matrix, and active proapoptotic signals are provided by immune cells, particularly natural killer (NK) cells. Quiescent HSCs are relatively resistant to apoptotic signals but become sensitive after activation. The important role of NK cells in inducing HSC apoptosis may explain the increased fibrosis associated with immune suppression (e.g., in the transplant recipient) and HIV infection. HSCs also undergo senescence, which limits their function and sensitizes them to apoptosis. PMID:20665375

Mehal, Wajahat; Imaeda, Avlin

2011-01-01

490

Towards evidence-based emergency medicine: best BETs from the Manchester Royal Infirmary. BET 3: Paediatric deaths associated with over the counter cough and cold medicines.  

PubMed

A short cut review was carried out to establish whether over the counter cough and cold medicines were associated with unexpected deaths in childhood. 115 papers were found using the reported searches, of which three presented the best evidence to answer the clinical question. The author, date and country of publication, patient group studied, study type, relevant outcomes, results and study weaknesses of those best papers are tabulated. It is concluded that while over the counter cough and cold medications may be associated with unexpected paediatric deaths, the degree of risk is not clear. PMID:24429253

Deschler, Deanna; Judge, Bryan

2014-02-01

491

50 CFR 222.202 - Certificate renewal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...of Exemption for Pre-Act Endangered Species Parts § 222.202 Certificate...inventory of all pre-Act endangered species parts for which the...Certificate of Exemption under the Endangered Species Act, as amended, and...

2010-10-01

492

50 CFR 222.202 - Certificate renewal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...of Exemption for Pre-Act Endangered Species Parts § 222.202 Certificate...inventory of all pre-Act endangered species parts for which the...Certificate of Exemption under the Endangered Species Act, as amended, and...

2013-10-01

493

50 CFR 222.202 - Certificate renewal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...of Exemption for Pre-Act Endangered Species Parts § 222.202 Certificate...inventory of all pre-Act endangered species parts for which the...Certificate of Exemption under the Endangered Species Act, as amended, and...

2014-10-01