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1

The accuracy of cancer mortality statistics based on death certificates in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: One measure of the accuracy of cancer mortality statistics is the concordance between cancer defined as the underlying cause of death from death certificates and cancer diagnoses recorded in central, population-based cancer registries. Previous studies of such concordance are outdated. Objective: To characterize the accuracy of cancer mortality statistics from the concordance between cancer cause of death and primary

Robert R. German; Aliza K. Fink; Melonie Heron; Sherri L. Stewart; Chris J. Johnson; Jack L. Finch; Daixin Yin

2011-01-01

2

Improving the accuracy of death certification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Population-based mortality statistics are derived from the information recorded on death certificates. This information is used for many important pur- poses, such as the development of public health programs and the allocation of health care resources. Although most physicians are confronted with the task of completing death certificates, many do not receive adequate training in this skill. Resulting inaccuracies

Kathryn A. Myers; Donald R. E. Farquhar

3

On the influence of data source in aggregated data studies: a comparative study of suicide information based on death certificates and judicial files  

Microsoft Academic Search

STUDY OBJECTIVE--The aim was to assess the differences in suicide data obtained from different database sources. DESIGN--Death certificate based data on suicidal deaths were compared with the information obtained from the non-natural death investigation files at the Public Prosecutor's Office. SETTING--The study was confined to the time period of 1981-1984 and to the residents of the district of Leuven (Belgium)

H van de Voorde; P Hooft; U Mulkers

1993-01-01

4

Death certification of "suicide by cop".  

PubMed

Death certification of "suicide by cop" is controversial among some medical examiners and coroners. We present five such deaths that were certified as suicides and discuss the medico-legal issues involved with these certifications. To certify such a death as a suicide, certain criteria should be met. Suicide by cop is a circumstance that involves competing intentional acts that may result in dichotomous determinations of the manner of death. Despite the absence of direct self-infliction, there is overwhelming evidence that these five individuals intended to end their own lives. Their use of an unusual method to accomplish this goal may inappropriately result in a reflexive certification of homicide. All of the decedents possessed weapons or a facsimile of a weapon. We present five instances of suicide by cop and contend that these types of deaths are best certified as suicides. PMID:21827474

Neitzel, Amber R; Gill, James R

2011-08-09

5

Misclassification of childhood homicide on death certificates.  

PubMed Central

Suspect classification of homicide deaths of Connecticut residents under 20 years of age was noted for 29 percent of cases examined. Misclassification was attributed to incomplete or erroneous information recorded on the death certificates, rather than errors in the designation of ICD-9 homicide codes. The results have important implications in the interpretation of vital statistics when homicide is listed as the cause of death and underscore the value of record linkage systems.

Lapidus, G D; Gregorio, D I; Hansen, H

1990-01-01

6

Sunlight and mortality from breast, ovarian, colon, prostate, and non-melanoma skin cancer: a composite death certificate based case-control study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To explore whether mortality from female breast, ovarian, colon, and prostate cancer were negatively associated with exposure to sunlight. Methods: A death certificate based case-control study of mortality was conducted into five cancers: female breast, ovarian, colon, prostate, and non-melanoma skin cancer (as a positive control) to exam- ine associations with residential and occupational exposure to sunlight. Cases were

D M Freedman; M Dosemeci; K McGlynn

2002-01-01

7

Teaching cause-of-death certification: lessons from international experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and objectiveThe accuracy of cause-of-death statistics substantially depends on the quality of cause-of-death information in death certificates, primarily completed by medical doctors. Deficiencies in cause-of-death certification have been observed across the world, and over time. Despite educational interventions targeted at improving the quality of death certification, their intended impacts are rarely evaluated. This review aims to provide empirical evidence

Eindra Aung; Chalapati Rao; Sue Walker

2010-01-01

8

Occupation and industry data obtained from death certificates: the effect and influence of case selection.  

PubMed

This study first examined the accuracy of death certificate diagnoses of 4,954 cases of cancer of the lung, liver, nasopharynx, and pleura/peritoneum, then compared usual occupation and industry based on case selection from the Metropolitan Detroit Cancer Surveillance System (MDCSS), a population-based cancer registry, with cases selected from death certificates for the above types of tumors to examine the effect of misclassification. Accuracy of death certificate cancer diagnoses ranged from 93.4% for lung cancer to 28.6% for malignancies of the pleura/peritoneum. The mix of usual occupation/industry titles obtained from death certificate cases and MDCSS cases was similar for lung cancer but not for malignancies of the pleura/peritoneum (35.7% of cases from the registry v 11.1% from death certificates for the automobile industry, P = .05). The effect of misclassification and utility of usual occupation/industry statements on death certificates is discussed. PMID:3819885

Nelson, D E; Swanson, G M; Schwartz, A G; Brix, K; Fine, L J

1987-01-01

9

Long-term complication: Florida's death certification process and long-term care.  

PubMed

This article discusses the medical-legal aspects of death certification in Florida long-term care settings based on an examination of relevant Florida laws and federal guidelines and a comparison of those laws and guidelines to actual medical practice. A review of the health care literature and Florida law, supplemented by interviews with key informants, supports the conclusion that Florida statutes provide a clear protocol for efficient death certification, but do not ensure the accuracy of death certificates. The death certification process in Florida long term care settings could be improved through increased physician training, the development of quality controls, and the expanded use of electronic patient medical records. PMID:22020394

Williams, Leah; Dewey, Hayley; Kapp, Marshall B

2011-01-01

10

Age-based disparities in end-of-life decisions in Belgium: a population-based death certificate survey  

PubMed Central

Background A growing body of scientific research is suggesting that end-of-life care and decision making may differ between age groups and that elderly patients may be the most vulnerable to exclusion of due care at the end of life. This study investigates age-related disparities in the rate of end-of-life decisions with a possible or certain life shortening effect (ELDs) and in the preceding decision making process in Flanders, Belgium in 2007, where euthanasia was legalised in 2002. Comparing with data from an identical survey in 1998 we also study the plausibility of the ‘slippery slope’ hypothesis which predicts a rise in the rate of administration of life ending drugs without patient request, especially among elderly patients, in countries where euthanasia is legal. Method We performed a post-mortem survey among physicians certifying a large representative sample (n?=?6927) of death certificates in 2007, identical to a 1998 survey. Response rate was 58.4%. Results While the rates of non-treatment decisions (NTD) and administration of life ending drugs without explicit request (LAWER) did not differ between age groups, the use of intensified alleviation of pain and symptoms (APS) and euthanasia/assisted suicide (EAS), as well as the proportion of euthanasia requests granted, was bivariately and negatively associated with patient age. Multivariate analysis showed no significant effects of age on ELD rates. Older patients were less often included in decision making for APS and more often deemed lacking in capacity than were younger patients. Comparison with 1998 showed a decrease in the rate of LAWER in all age groups except in the 80+ age group where the rate was stagnant. Conclusion Age is not a determining factor in the rate of end-of-life decisions, but is in decision making as patient inclusion rates decrease with old age. Our results suggest there is a need to focus advance care planning initiatives on elderly patients. The slippery slope hypothesis cannot be confirmed either in general or among older people, as since the euthanasia law fewer LAWER cases were found.

2012-01-01

11

Errors on death certificates requiring amendments: the Broward County experience.  

PubMed

The medical examiner's office in Broward County is responsible for determining the cause and manner of death in cases falling under its jurisdiction and issuing death certificates on these decedents. Amendments are occasionally required to correct misinformation on death certificates or within the autopsy reports. The purpose of this study was to investigate the major causes for the amendments and to develop strategies to avoid future errors. We found 128 cases from 2006 to 2007 that required amendments; 103 contained sufficient data in the file for further analysis. Over this time period, 3790 death certificates were issued over that same period, resulting in a 3.37% amendment rate. In this study, the cohort included both males and females with a ratio of 2:1. Their ages ranged from newborn to 103 years, with a mean age of 49 years. Of the 103 amended cases, amendments were made to the cause (n = 30) and often the manner (n = 21) of death listed on the death certificate; the remaining changes were limited to the autopsy report. The most common reasons for amendments included reception of delayed laboratory findings (35%), acquisition of additional medical history (22.5%), and typographic errors (15.5%). Typographic errors mainly occurred because of inaccuracies in the names originally provided to our office, the use of aliases by decedents, incorrect personal/demographic history, or various misspellings by funeral homes or medical examiner staff. The most significant reclassifications involved changing certified natural deaths to accidental overdoses and vice versa, based on toxicological analysis. Because of delays in specimen turnaround, these amendments often were made months after the original death certificate was issued. STAT urine drug screening has been helpful in reducing the number of amendments made, but certain drugs of significance are missed by rapid screens. Given that our office performed complete toxicological analysis on all cases over this period, it seems likely that we detected several overdoses that would have been missed if natural deaths were not routinely screened for potential toxins. PMID:21372659

Fischtein, Danit; Cina, Stephen J

2011-06-01

12

Improving Death Certificate Completion: A Trial of Two Training Interventions  

PubMed Central

The death certificate is an important medical document that impacts mortality statistics and health care policy. Resident physician accuracy in completing death certificates is poor. We assessed the impact of two educational interventions on the quality of death certificate completion by resident physicians. Two-hundred and nineteen internal medicine residents were asked to complete a cause of death statement using a sample case of in-hospital death. Participants were randomized into one of two educational interventions: either an interactive workshop (group I) or provided with printed instruction material (group II). A total of 200 residents completed the study, with 100 in each group. At baseline, competency in death certificate completion was poor. Only 19% of residents achieved an optimal test score. Sixty percent erroneously identified a cardiac cause of death. The death certificate score improved significantly in both group I (14±6 vs 24±5, p<0.001) and group II (14±5 vs 19±5, p<0.001) postintervention from baseline. Group I had a higher degree of improvement than group II (24±5 vs 19±5, p<0.001). Resident physicians’ skills in death certificate completion can be improved with an educational intervention. An interactive workshop is a more effective intervention than a printed handout.

Lakkireddy, Dhanunjaya R.; Basarakodu, Krishnamohan R.; Kondur, Ashok K.; Ramachandruni, Srikanth K.; Esterbrooks, Dennis J.; Markert, Ronald J.; Gowda, Manohar S.

2007-01-01

13

Causes of Mortality for Indonesian Hajj Pilgrims: Comparison between Routine Death Certificate and Verbal Autopsy Findings  

PubMed Central

Background Indonesia provides the largest single source of pilgrims for the Hajj (10%). In the last two decades, mortality rates for Indonesian pilgrims ranged between 200–380 deaths per 100,000 pilgrims over the 10-week Hajj period. Reasons for high mortality are not well understood. In 2008, verbal autopsy was introduced to complement routine death certificates to explore cause of death diagnoses. This study presents the patterns and causes of death for Indonesian pilgrims, and compares routine death certificates to verbal autopsy findings. Methods Public health surveillance was conducted by Indonesian public health authorities accompanying pilgrims to Saudi Arabia, with daily reporting of hospitalizations and deaths. Surveillance data from 2008 were analyzed for timing, geographic location and site of death. Percentages for each cause of death category from death certificates were compared to that from verbal autopsy. Results In 2008, 206,831 Indonesian undertook the Hajj. There were 446 deaths, equivalent to 1,968 deaths per 100,000 pilgrim years. Most pilgrims died in Mecca (68%) and Medinah (24%). There was no statistically discernible difference in the total mortality risk for the two pilgrimage routes (Mecca or Medinah first), but the number of deaths peaked earlier for those traveling to Mecca first (p=0.002). Most deaths were due to cardiovascular (66%) and respiratory (28%) diseases. A greater proportion of deaths were attributed to cardiovascular disease by death certificate compared to the verbal autopsy method (p<0.001). Significantly more deaths had ill-defined cause based on verbal autopsy method (p<0.001). Conclusions Despite pre-departure health screening and other medical services, Indonesian pilgrim mortality rates were very high. Correct classification of cause of death is critical for the development of risk mitigation strategies. Since verbal autopsy classified causes of death differently to death certificates, further studies are needed to assess the method’s utility in this setting.

Pane, Masdalina; Imari, Sholah; Alwi, Qomariah; Nyoman Kandun, I; Cook, Alex R.; Samaan, Gina

2013-01-01

14

Incomplete and inaccurate death certification - the impact on research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background The objectives of this study were (1) to investigate the extent of erroneous and\\/or omitted informa- tion on death certificates of patients implanted with Bjork- Shiley Convexo-Concave (BSCC) heart valves; (2) to determine whether this information could be associated with a possible under-reporting of acute mechanical failure of this valve. Methods A review was carried out of death certificates

Linda Morton; Rumana Omar; Sheila Carroll; Mairead Beirne; Debbie Halliday; Kenneth M. Taylor

2000-01-01

15

Use of Death Certificates to Study Ethnic-Specific Mortality  

Microsoft Academic Search

c SYNOPSIS Objectives. The Hispanic population in the United States represents more than 40 million individuals, with Mexican Americans (MA) as the largest subgroup. To assess the utility of death certificates and medical records as the source of race\\/ethnicity data for epidemiologic studies, we compared self-reported race\\/ ethnicity to race\\/ethnicity recorded on death certificates and medical records in a bi-ethnic,

Angela F. Caveney; Melinda A. Smith; Lewis B. Morgenstern; Lynda D. Lisabeth

2006-01-01

16

Evaluation of death certificates in the pediatric hospitals in Khartoum State during 2004  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: As the death certificate was not recently revised or updated and doctors had no training on death certification, then accuracy and proper completion of the death certificate should be checked. The main objective of the study was to evaluate the death certificate. Methods: This study was conducted in the 4 pediatric hospitals in Khartoum state during the year 2004.

Mohammed El-Nour; Yousif Abdel; Hammed Ibrahim; Mahgoub Makki Ali

17

Deaths Attributed to X-Ray Contrast Media on U.S. Death Certificates  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE. The objectives of our study were to determine the number, rate, and types of deaths attributed to specific X-ray contrast media on the basis of U.S. death certificates and to attempt to assess the comparative safety of commonly used diagnostic X-ray contrast agents using death certificate information. CONCLUSION. From 1999 through 2001, deaths attributed to the International Classi- fication

Diane K. Wysowski; Parivash Nourjah; Wysowski DK

18

Temporal Trends in Recording of Diabetes on Death Certificates  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE To determine the frequency that diabetes is reported on death certificates of decedents with known diabetes and describe trends in reporting over 8 years. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Data were obtained from 11,927 participants with diabetes who were enrolled in Translating Research into Action for Diabetes, a multicenter prospective observational study of diabetes care in managed care. Data on decedents (N = 2,261) were obtained from the National Death Index from 1 January 2000 through 31 December 2007. The primary dependent variables were the presence of the ICD-10 codes for diabetes listed anywhere on the death certificate or as the underlying cause of death. RESULTS Diabetes was recorded on 41% of death certificates and as the underlying cause of death for 13% of decedents with diabetes. Diabetes was significantly more likely to be reported on the death certificate of decedents dying of cardiovascular disease than all other causes. There was a statistically significant trend of increased reporting of diabetes as the underlying cause of death over time (P < 0.001), which persisted after controlling for duration of diabetes at death. The increase in reporting of diabetes as the underlying cause of death was associated with a decrease in the reporting of cardiovascular disease as the underlying cause of death (P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS Death certificates continue to underestimate the prevalence of diabetes among decedents. The increase in reporting of diabetes as the underlying cause of death over the past 8 years will likely impact estimates of the burden of diabetes in the U.S.

McEwen, Laura N.; Karter, Andrew J.; Curb, J. David; Marrero, David G.; Crosson, Jesse C.; Herman, William H.

2011-01-01

19

34 CFR 682.402 - Death, disability, closed school, false certification, unpaid refunds, and bankruptcy payments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...with the following documentation when filing a death, disability, closed school, false certification...provided to the lender. (iii) In the case of a death claim, an original or certified death certificate, or other documentation...

2013-07-01

20

Estimating Pneumonia Deaths of Post-Neonatal Children in Countries of Low or No Death Certification in 2008  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundPneumonia is the leading cause of child deaths globally. The aims of this study were to: a) estimate the number and global distribution of pneumonia deaths for children 1–59 months for 2008 for countries with low (<85%) or no coverage of death certification using single-cause regression models and b) compare these country estimates with recently published ones based on multi-cause

Evropi Theodoratou; Jian Shayne F. Zhang; Ivana Kolcic; Andrew M. Davis; Sunil Bhopal; Harish Nair; Kit Yee Chan; Li Liu; Hope Johnson; Igor Rudan; Harry Campbell; Rick Edward Paul

2011-01-01

21

Outcomes of prolonged mechanic ventilation: a discrimination model based on longitudinal health insurance and death certificate data  

PubMed Central

Background This study investigated prognosis among patients under prolonged mechanical ventilation (PMV) through exploring the following issues: (1) post-PMV survival rates, (2) factors associated with survival after PMV, and (3) the number of days alive free of hospital stays requiring mechanical ventilation (MV) care after PMV. Methods This is a retrospective cohort study based on secondary analysis of prospectively collected data in the national health insurance system and governmental data on death registry in Taiwan. It used data for a nationally representative sample of 25,482 patients becoming under PMV (> = 21 days) during 1998-2003. We calculated survival rates for the 4 years after PMV, and adopted logistic regression to construct prediction models for 3-month, 6-month, 1-year, and 2-year survival, with data of 1998-2002 for model estimation and the 2003 data for examination of model performance. We estimated the number of days alive free of hospital stays requiring MV care in the immediate 4-year period after PMV, and contrasted patients who had low survival probability with all PMV patients. Results Among these patients, the 3-month survival rate was 51.4%, and the 1-year survival rate was 31.9%. Common health conditions with significant associations with poor survival included neoplasm, acute and unspecific renal failure, chronic renal failure, non-alcoholic liver disease, shock and septicaemia (odd ratio < 0.7, p < 0.05). During a 4-year follow-up period for patients of year 2003, the mean number of days free of hospital stays requiring MV was 66.0 in those with a predicted 6-month survival rate < 10%, and 111.3 in those with a predicted 2-year survival rate < 10%. In contrast, the mean number of days was 256.9 in the whole sample of patients in 2003. Conclusions Neoplasm, acute and unspecific renal failure, shock, chronic renal failure, septicemia, and non-alcoholic liver disease are significantly associated with lower survival among PMV patients. Patients with anticipated death in a near future tend to spend most of the rest of their life staying in hospital using MV services. This calls for further research into assessing PMV care need among patients at different prognosis stages of diseases listed above.

2012-01-01

22

Diabetes mortality and causes of death in Benghazi: a 5-year retrospective analysis of death certificates.  

PubMed

A retrospective study of death certificates from 2000 to 2004 was made to estimate the contribution of diabetes to total mortality in Benghazi, Libyan Arab Jamahiriya, and to study the causes of death among diabetics (coded using the International Classification of Diseases). Of 12 237 death certificates, 1482 (12.1%) mentioned diabetes. Of these, diabetes was recorded as the underlying cause in 5.1% of deaths and a contributory cause in 94.9%. The most frequent single causes of death for diabetics were: coronary artery disease (32.7%), cerebrovascular accident (20.1%), infections (14.0%), malignancies (7.7%), acute complications of diabetes (7.3%) and chronic renal failure (6.6%). Among multiple causes of death, circulatory diseases were mentioned on 46.2% of death certificates. PMID:20214160

Roaeid, R B; Kablan, A A

2010-01-01

23

Determining injury at work on the California death certificate.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: This study examined decisions of California Country Coroner's offices in determining injury at work and identified factors influencing this decision. METHODS: Surveys were sent to California County Coroner's offices (response rate = 93%). The survey included 23 vignettes that required the respondent to determine whether the fatality involved an injury at work. The Rasch method was used to determine internal consistency in endorsing vignettes and to determine overall endorsability of vignettes based on underlying factors. RESULTS: Respondents showed internal consistency but much disagreement in their endorsement of vignettes. Decedents who were performing paid work or were on their work site during working hours were almost unanimously endorsed as having incurred an injury at work. Non-payment, travel/transportation, suicide, and nontraditional work sites and work hours led to disagreement and uncertainty among respondents. CONCLUSIONS: Coroners have different methods of determining injury at work on the death certificate, and available guidelines do not define many of the ambiguous situations encountered by coroners.

Peek-Asa, C; McArthur, D L; Kraus, J F

1997-01-01

24

Pediatric Influenza-Associated Deaths in New York State: Death Certificate Coding and Comparison to Laboratory-Confirmed Deaths  

PubMed Central

Introduction. Surveillance for laboratory-confirmed influenza-associated deaths in children is used to monitor the severity of influenza at the population level and to inform influenza prevention and control policies. The goal of this study was to better estimate pediatric influenza mortality in New York state (NYS). Methods. Death certificate data were requested for all passively reported deaths and any pneumonia and influenza (P&I) coded pediatric deaths occurring between October 2004 and April 2010, excluding New York City (NYC) residents. A matching algorithm and capture-recapture analysis were used to estimate the total number of influenza-associated deaths among NYS children. Results. Thirty-four laboratory-confirmed influenza-associated pediatric deaths were reported and 67 death certificates had a P&I coded death; 16 deaths matched. No laboratory-confirmed influenza-associated death had a pneumonia code and no pneumonia coded deaths had laboratory evidence of influenza infection in their medical record. The capture-recapture analysis estimated between 38 and 126 influenza-associated pediatric deaths occurred in NYS during the study period. Conclusion. Passive surveillance for influenza-associated deaths continues to be the gold standard methodology for characterizing influenza mortality in children. Review of death certificates can complement but not replace passive reporting, by providing better estimates and detecting any missed laboratory-confirmed deaths.

Hoefer, Dina; Cherry, Bryan; Kacica, Marilyn; McClamroch, Kristi; Kilby, Kimberly

2012-01-01

25

Representativeness of deaths identified through the injury-at-work item on the death certificate: implications for surveillance.  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND. This research investigated the accuracy of the injury-at-work item on the death certificate for surveillance of occupational injury deaths in Oklahoma during 1985 and 1986. METHODS. Representativeness of occupational injury deaths identified by death certificates was assessed by comparing these deaths with all occupational injury deaths identified through death certificates, workers' compensation reports, medical examiner reports, and OSHA records for categories of occupation, industry, and external causes of death. RESULTS. Certain external causes of death (e.g., motor vehicle traffic deaths) and certain occupations (e.g., farming) and industries (agriculture and services) are more often underidentified through death certificates. CONCLUSIONS. The findings of this study support Baker's observation that no single data source contains all deaths or all the data elements necessary to describe occupational injury deaths. Data sources may be combined to improve representativeness through more complete case ascertainment.

Russell, J; Conroy, C

1991-01-01

26

[The death certificate: how to draft and why?].  

PubMed

The death certificate must be established within 24 hours following the death and handed to the mayor. The obligation to place in the coffin immediately is planned by a defined list of contagious diseases. Medicolegal obstacle must be ticked if there is a doubt on the cause of death. In order to look into the causes of the death, swabs can be asked by the physician. It is a medical or scientific autopsy to look into the causes of the death apart from a juridical procedure. The presence of a battery prosthesis (pacemaker) must be specified, so that it can be removed by a physician or a thanatopractionner before the placing in the coffin. Death certificate is passed on by the city hall to Insee, which updates the identification national register of physical people. Inserm receives anonymous data of the causes of death allowing to establish the mortality national statistics. In the absence of medicolegal obstacle or obligation to place in the coffin immediately, funeral operations can begin: preservation care, body transport, placing in the coffin and finally burial or cremation. PMID:17336488

Manaouil, C; Decourcelle, M; Gignon, M; Chatelain, D; Jardé, O

2007-03-02

27

Using death certificate data to study place of death in 9 European countries: opportunities and weaknesses  

PubMed Central

Background Systematic and reliable epidemiological information at population level, preferably cross-national, is needed for an adequate planning of (end-of-life) health care policies, e.g. concerning place of death, but is currently lacking. This study illustrates opportunities and weaknesses of death certificate data to provide such information on place of death and associated factors in nine European countries (seven entire countries and five regions). Methods We investigated the possibility and modality of all partners in this international comparative study (BE, DK, IT, NL, NO, SE, UK) to negotiate a dataset containing all deaths of one year with their national/regional administration of mortality statistics, and analysed the availability of information about place of death as well as a number of clinical, socio-demographic, residential and healthcare system factors. Results All countries negotiated a dataset, but rules, procedures, and cost price to get the data varied strongly between countries. In total, about 1.1 million deaths were included. For four of the nine countries not all desired categories for place of death were available. Most desired clinical and socio-demographic information was available, be it sometimes via linkages with other population databases. Healthcare system factors could be made available by linking existing healthcare statistics to the residence of the deceased. Conclusion Death certificate data provide information on place of death and on possibly associated factors and confounders in all studied countries. Hence, death certificate data provide a unique opportunity for cross-national studying and monitoring of place of death. However, modifications of certain aspects of death certificate registration and rules of data-protection are perhaps required to make international monitoring of place of death more feasible and accurate.

Cohen, Joachim; Bilsen, Johan; Miccinesi, Guido; Lofmark, Rurik; Addington-Hall, Julia; Kaasa, Stein; Norup, Michael; van der Wal, Gerrit; Deliens, Luc

2007-01-01

28

Ill-defined and multiple causes on death certificates – A study of misclassification in mortality statistics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biases can distort, limit or inhibit the value of mortality data as an epidemiological resource. From 9500 deaths occurring in Naples?(Italy) during 1994, a random sample of 372 death certificates reporting ill-defined causes and multiple causes of death was extracted. The code for the underlying cause on the death certificate (assigned code) was compared with the cause reattributed with the

M. D'Amico; E. Agozzino; A. Biagino; A. Simonetti; P. Marinelli

1999-01-01

29

25 CFR 15.104 - Does the agency need a death certificate to prepare a probate file?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 false Does the agency need a death certificate to prepare a probate file...Process § 15.104 Does the agency need a death certificate to prepare a probate file...provide us with a certified copy of the death certificate if a death certificate...

2011-04-01

30

25 CFR 15.104 - Does the agency need a death certificate to prepare a probate file?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Does the agency need a death certificate to prepare a probate file...Process § 15.104 Does the agency need a death certificate to prepare a probate file...provide us with a certified copy of the death certificate if a death certificate...

2013-04-01

31

Evaluating an educational intervention to improve the accuracy of death certification among trainees from various specialties  

PubMed Central

Background The inaccuracy of death certification can lead to the misallocation of resources in health care programs and research. We evaluated the rate of errors in the completion of death certificates among medical residents from various specialties, before and after an educational intervention which was designed to improve the accuracy in the certification of the cause of death. Methods A 90-min seminar was delivered to seven mixed groups of medical trainees (n = 166) from several health care institutions in Spain. Physicians were asked to read and anonymously complete a same case-scenario of death certification before and after the seminar. We compared the rates of errors and the impact of the educational intervention before and after the seminar. Results A total of 332 death certificates (166 completed before and 166 completed after the intervention) were audited. Death certificates were completed with errors by 71.1% of the physicians before the educational intervention. Following the seminar, the proportion of death certificates with errors decreased to 9% (p < 0.0001). The most common error in the completion of death certificates was the listing of the mechanism of death instead of the cause of death. Before the seminar, 56.8% listed respiratory or cardiac arrest as the immediate cause of death. None of the participants listed any mechanism of death after the educational intervention (p < 0.0001). Conclusion Major errors in the completion of the correct cause of death on death certificates are common among medical residents. A simple educational intervention can dramatically improve the accuracy in the completion of death certificates by physicians.

Villar, Jesus; Perez-Mendez, Lina

2007-01-01

32

Accuracy of cancer death certificates and its effect on cancer mortality statistics.  

PubMed Central

A study to determine the accuracy of cancer mortality data was done using cancer deaths occurring during 1970 and 1971 in eight of the nine areas included in the Third National Cancer Survey (TNCS). Death certificates with an underlying cause of death of cancer were compared to the hospital diagnosis for 48,826 resident cases of single primary cancers. The underlying cause of death as coded on the death certificate was found to be accurate for about 65 per cent of the cancer deaths in this study. Misclassification problems occurred for colorectal cancer, the second leading cause of death from cancer. Colon cancer was overreported and rectal cancer was under-reported on death certificates. Other misclassification problems were found for cancers of the uterus, brain, and buccal cavity including most of its sub-sites. Physicians tended to report a non-specific site of cancer on the death certificate rather than the specific site identified by the hospital diagnosis.

Percy, C; Stanek, E; Gloeckler, L

1981-01-01

33

Differentiating cause-of-death terminology for deaths coded as sudden infant death syndrome, accidental suffocation, and unknown cause: an investigation using US death certificates, 2003-2004.  

PubMed

We compared written text on infant death certificates for deaths coded as sudden infant death syndrome (R95), unknown cause (R99), and accidental suffocation (W75). Using US mortality files supplemented with the death certifiers' written text for all infant deaths with International Classification of Diseases (ICD)-10 assigned codes R95, R99, and W75, we formed cause-of-death subcategories from common themes identified from the written text. Among all infant deaths in 2003-2004, the underlying cause of death was listed as R99 for 2128 deaths, R95 for 4408 deaths, and W75 for 931 deaths. Among the postneonatal deaths, the differences in subcategories varied between assigned ICD-10 codes: for R99-coded deaths, 45.8% were categorized as "Unknown" and 48.6% as "Pending"; for R95-coded deaths, 67.7% were categorized as "sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS)"; and for W75-coded deaths, 76.4% were categorized as "Suffocation." Examination of the written text on the death certificates demonstrates variability in the assigned ICD-10 codes which could have an important effect on the estimates of SIDS cases in the United States. PMID:21981558

Kim, Shin Y; Shapiro-Mendoza, Carrie K; Chu, Susan Y; Camperlengo, Lena T; Anderson, Robert N

2011-10-07

34

A Survey of Brain Death Certification - An Impetus for Standardisation and Improvement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction: Despite well-established guidelines, multiple recent studies have demonstrated variability in the conduct of brain death certification. This is undesirable given the gravity of the diagnosis. We sought therefore to survey local clinicians involved in brain death certification to identify specific areas of variability, if any, and to elicit information on how the testing process can be improved. Materials and

Ki Jinn Chin; Tong Kiat Kwek

2007-01-01

35

Death certification in treated cases of presenile Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia in Scotland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction: although death certification data are commonly used in dementia epidemiology, their reliability has been questioned. Methods: deadi certificates were available from the Registrar General for Scotland for all patients with Alzheimer's disease\\/presenile dementia (AD PSD) or vascular dementia (VaD) who had died in Scotland up until 31 December 1994. Primary (immediate and underlying) and contributory causes of death were

BRENDA M. THOMAS; JOHN M. STARR; LAWRENCE J. WHALLEY

1997-01-01

36

Lack of recording of systemic lupus erythematosus in the death certificates of lupus patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. To determine to what extent the diagnosis of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) in deceased lupus patients is under- reported in death certificates, and the patient characteristics associated with such an occurrence. Methods. The death certificates of 76 of the 81 deceased SLE patients from two US lupus cohorts (LUMINA for Lupus in Minorities: Nature vs Nurture and CLU for

J. Calvo-Alen; R. Campbell Jr; M. Fernandez; J. D. Reveille; G. S. Cooper

2005-01-01

37

Occupation and bladder cancer: a death-certificate study.  

PubMed Central

Occupational statements on death certificates of 2,457 males aged 25-64 who died from bladder cancer in selected coastal and estaurine regions of England and Wales during 1965-1980 were studied. Excess mortality was found for deck and engine room crew of ships, railway workers, electrical and electronic workers, shoemakers and repairers, and tobacco workers. An excess of cases also occurred among food workers, particularly those employed in the bread and flour confectionary industry or involved in the extraction of animal and vegetable oils and fats. Use of a job-exposure matrix revealed elevated risk for occupations in which most workers were exposed to paints and pigments, benzene and cutting oils.

Dolin, P. J.; Cook-Mozaffari, P.

1992-01-01

38

Assessing quality of medical death certification: Concordance between gold standard diagnosis and underlying cause of death in selected Mexican hospitals  

PubMed Central

Background In Mexico, the vital registration system relies on information collected from death certificates to generate official mortality figures. Although the death certificate has high coverage across the country, there is little information regarding its validity. The objective of this study was to assess the concordance between the underlying cause of death in official statistics obtained from death certificates and a gold standard diagnosis of the same deaths derived from medical records of hospitals. Methods The study sample consisted of 1,589 deaths that occurred in 34 public hospitals in the Federal District and the state of Morelos, Mexico in 2009. Neonatal, child, and adult cases were selected for causes of death that included infectious diseases, noncommunicable diseases, and injuries. We compared the underlying cause of death, obtained from medical death certificates, against a gold standard diagnosis derived from a review of medical records developed by the Population Health Metrics Research Consortium. We used chance-corrected concordance and accuracy as metrics to evaluate the quality of performance of the death certificate. Results Analysis considering only the underlying cause of death resulted in a median chance-corrected concordance between the cause of death in medical death certificates versus the gold standard of 54.3% (95% uncertainty interval [UI]: 52.2, 55.6) for neonates, 38.5% (37.0, 40.0) for children, and 66.5% (65.9, 66.9) for adults. The accuracy resulting from the same analysis was 0.756 (0.747, 0.769) for neonates, 0.683 (0.663, 0.701) for children, and 0.780 (0.774, 0.785) for adults. Median chance-corrected concordance and accuracy increased when considering the mention of any cause of death in the death certificate, not just the underlying cause. Concordance varied substantially depending on cause of death, and accuracy varied depending on the true cause-specific mortality fraction composition. Conclusions Although we cannot generalize our conclusions to Mexico as a whole, the results demonstrate important problems with the quality of the main source of information for causes of death used by decision-makers in settings with highly technological vital registration systems. It is necessary to improve death certification procedures, especially in the case of child and neonatal deaths. This requires an important commitment from the health system and health institutions.

2011-01-01

39

Occupation recorded on certificates of death compared with self-report: the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study  

PubMed Central

Background Death certificates are a potential source of sociodemographic data for decedents in epidemiologic research. However, because this information is provided by the next-of-kin or other proxies, there are concerns about validity. Our objective was to assess the agreement of job titles and occupational categories derived from death certificates with that self-reported in mid and later life. Methods Occupation was abstracted from 431 death certificates from North Carolina Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study participants who died between 1987 and 2001. Occupations were coded according to 1980 Bureau of Census job titles and then grouped into six 1980 census occupational categories. This information was compared with the self-reported occupation at midlife as reported at the baseline examination (1987–89). We calculated percent agreement using standard methods. Chance-adjusted agreement was assessed by kappa coefficients, with 95% confidence intervals. Results Agreement between death certificate and self-reported job titles was poor (32%), while 67% of occupational categories matched the two sources. Kappa coefficients ranged from 0.53 for technical/sales/administrative jobs to 0.68 for homemakers. Agreement was lower, albeit nonsignificant, for women (kappa = 0.54, 95% Confidence Interval, CI = 0.44–0.63) than men (kappa = 0.62, 95% CI = 0.54–0.69) and for African-Americans (kappa = 0.47, 95% CI = 0.34–0.61) than whites (kappa = 0.63, 95% CI = 0.57–0.69) but varied only slightly by educational attainment. Conclusion While agreement between self- and death certificate reported job titles was poor, agreement between occupational categories was good. This suggests that while death certificates may not be a suitable source of occupational data where classification into specific job titles is essential, in the absence of other data, it is a reasonable source for constructing measures such as occupational SES that are based on grouped occupational data.

Bidulescu, Aurelian; Rose, Kathryn M; Wolf, Susanne H; Rosamond, Wayne D

2007-01-01

40

Unspecified injuries on death certificates: a source of bias in injury research.  

PubMed

Protective gear (for example, helmets and bulletproof vests) shields certain body regions from damaging energy. Failure to specify on death certificates the body region and nature of fatal injuries compromises the utility of mortality data for epidemiologic or prevention research. Of fatally injured California motorcyclists, 41% had no specific injuries listed on their death certificates in 1988. To examine the implications of this problem, the authors abstracted 186 coroner's or medical examiner's reports from four California counties with over 60% nonspecific injuries and one county with few such injuries. These data were merged with computerized death certificate files and with the Fatal Accident Reporting System. Among the 99 cases with nonspecific injury codes, 68% had head injuries, 63% had chest injuries, 58% had abdominal injuries, and 58% had extremity injuries. Reporting sensitivity in the four problem counties varied from 36% for head injury to less than 5% for abdominal, spinal, and extremity injury. The association between head injury and failure to wear a helmet was statistically significant using the coroner's diagnoses (p = 0.02), but not using death certificate diagnoses (p = 0.17). The value of mortality data to injury researchers would be enhanced by better reporting of the nature of injury on death certificates. PMID:1442752

Romano, P S; McLoughlin, E

1992-10-01

41

Coroners and death certification law reform: the Coroners and Justice Act 2009 and its aftermath.  

PubMed

After considering various different options for half a decade, the last Government legislated in 2009 to reform the England and Wales coroner and death certification systems. The Coroners and Justice Act 2009 provides for the creation of a new Chief Coroner post to lead the jurisdiction and for local medical examiners to oversee a new death certification scheme applicable equally to burial and cremation cases. In October 2010 the new Government announced that it judges the main coroner reform to be unaffordable, will not proceed with it and plans to repeal the provisions. It intends to implement the new death certification arrangements, which is welcome. The decision to abort the main coroner reform in spite of longstanding and widespread recognition of the need for major change is deplorable though in line with other failures over the last century to properly modernise this neglected service. PMID:21539281

Luce, Tom

2010-10-01

42

Performance-Based Teacher Certification: A Survey of The States.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This report contains information on performance-based or competency-based teacher certification in each of the 50 states and the District of Columbia. The existing and/or planned requirements in each of the states for performance-based certification are listed. It is noted that a certification system is considered performance-based when it…

Roth, Robert A.

43

A Competency Based Teacher Certification System.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The development of a Competency Based Teacher Certification System is a cooperative effort of the Carroll County System and the School of Education, West Georgia College, supported by a grant from the Georgia State Department of Education. As a step toward solving the problem of recertifying teachers who possess basic credentials and have taught…

Coker, Homer

44

A systematic analysis of all ICD10-coded death certificates in France, 2000, with a mention of influenza as cause of death  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present the results that we have obtained in analysing all death certificates notified in 2000, in France, with a mention to at least one of the ICD10 codes concerning influenza.We found 1865 death certificates with a mention of influenza. The wording used by doctors to state influenza was not standardised; for example, the ICD code J111 covers 48 different

Alain-Jacques Valleron; Gérard Pavillon; Fabrice Carrat

2004-01-01

45

Ascertainment of Hispanic Ethnicity on California Death Certificates: Implications for the Explanation of the Hispanic Mortality Advantage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives. We determined the size and correlates of underascertainment of His- panic ethnicity on California death certificates. Methods. We used 1999 to 2000 vital registration data. We compared Hispanic ethnicity reported on the death certificate to Hispanic ethnicity derived from birth- place for the foreign-born and an algorithm that used first and last name and percentage of Hispanics in the

Karl Eschbach; Yong-Fang Kuo; James S. Goodwin

2006-01-01

46

Hyaline membrane disease is underreported in a linked birth-infant death certificate database.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: This study compared the Missouri State Department of Health linked birth-infant death certificate database and medical records with respect to recording hyaline membrane disease in very low-birth-weight infants. METHODS: We reviewed the records for all 976 infants weighing 500 to 1500 g who were born to St. Louis, Mo, residents in 1989, 1991, and 1992. RESULTS: Eighteen percent of the birth certificates and 54% of the medical records documented hyaline membrane disease, resulting in 34% sensitivity and 99% specificity. CONCLUSIONS: The Missouri State Department of Health birth-infant death certificate database underestimates the incidence of hyaline membrane disease, which suggest that national statistics for the disease are also underestimated.

Hamvas, A; Kwong, P; DeBaun, M; Schramm, W; Cole, F S

1998-01-01

47

The Effect of Student Training on Accuracy of Completion of Death Certificates  

PubMed Central

Background: Death certificates are an invaluable source of statistical and medical information, as well as important legal documents. However, few physicians receive formal training on how to accurately complete them. Purpose: To determine if a simple intervention can improve the accuracy of death certificate completion by medical students. Methods: Participants included all third year medical students undergoing their core Internal Medicine rotation at Mercer University School of Medicine at the Medical Center of Central Georgia. Participation was voluntary and participants completed an approved informed consent. Students were presented a tutorial from the National Association of Medical Examiners website. They were asked to complete a death certificate both before and after the tutorial along with subjective questionnaires. The primary outcome measurement was the difference in scores pre- and post-tutorial. Results: The mean score before the tutorial was 11.75 (±3.20) and the mean score post-tutorial was 18.85 (±2.56), indicating an increase in scores. The mean difference in pre- and post-tutorial scores was significant (t = 20.39, p < 0.0001). Conclusions: We found that using a tutorial to teach students how to correctly complete a death certificate was effective.

Degani, Adil T.; Patel, Rajendrakumar M.; Smith, Betsy E.; Grimsley, Edwin

2009-01-01

48

[Death certification and general practitioners: opinion about propositions of improvement. Qualitative survey conducted among 14 general practitioners in the Loire].  

PubMed

Death certificates are one of the sources of national mortality statistics and allow for an evaluation of public health. General practitioners regularly certify deaths but studies revealed that they had difficulties in doing it. Propositions were made to improve death certification. The objective of our study was to know family physicians opinion about death certification and about those propositions. A qualitative survey was conducted through the analysis of 14 general practitioners' interviews. Our study confirmed that family physicians had difficulties completing death certificates. It also revealed that some propositions were rejected: to go rapidly to the deceased (with a few exceptions), whole and systematic body examination, call of regular doctor, notification of violent or suspect deaths according to official texts. The reasons were practical, technical, ethical and personal, or related to an obviously natural death (especially for elderly people). Majority of general practitioners rejected electronic death certification because they found it unpractical. Other propositions were approved: a reminder, written on the death certificate, of all situations that need to be referred to a coroner, intervention of forensic pathologists for some complex cases. In our study, family physicians seem to refuse to investigate patients' death. Therefore, better collaboration between forensic pathologists and general practitioners is of prime importance: it could be organized through easier access to specialists when necessary or through an informative booklet, as suggested by some doctors in our study. The validity of these propositions needs to be confirmed. PMID:22288354

Vial-Reyt, Karine; Vallée, Josette

2011-12-01

49

The law and the certification, verification and registration of death.  

PubMed

Daisy was a registered nurse who worked in a community hospital. One night, Gwen, who was 85 years old, died and Daisy phoned the GP who was responsible for providing a service to the hospital. She was told that the GP did not come out at night for a death but would come in the morning. Daisy wanted the patient moved from the four-bedded ward to the mortuary, but was told that the procedures did not permit that until a doctor had certified the death. Daisy felt that it was unsettling to the other patients who knew that Gwen had died. What is the law? PMID:15150467

Dimond, Bridgit

50

Inaccuracy of Death Certificate Diagnosis of Tuberculosis and Potential Underdiagnosis of TB in a Region of High HIV Prevalence  

PubMed Central

Despite the South African antiretroviral therapy rollout, which should reduce the incidence of HIV-associated tuberculosis (TB), the number of TB-attributable deaths in KwaZuluNatal (KZN) remains high. TB is often diagnosed clinically, without microbiologic confirmation, leading to inaccurate estimates of TB-attributed deaths. This may contribute to avoidable deaths, and impact population-based TB mortality estimates. Objectives. (1) To measure the number of cases with microbiologically confirmed TB in a retrospective cohort of deceased inpatients with TB-attributed hospital deaths. (2) To estimate the rates of multi-drug resistant (MDR) and extensively drug resistant (XDR) TB in this cohort. Results. Of 2752 deaths at EDH between September 2006 and March 2007, 403 (15%) were attributed to TB on the death certificate. 176 of the TB-attributed deaths (44%) had a specimen sent for smear or culture; only 64 (36%) had a TB diagnosis confirmed by either test. Of the 39 culture-confirmed cases, 27/39 (69%) had fully susceptible TB and 27/39 (69%) had smear-negative culture-positive TB (SNTB). Two patients had drug monoresistance, three patients had MDR-TB, and one had XDR-TB. Conclusions. Most TB-attributed deaths in this cohort were not microbiologically confirmed. Of confirmed cases, most were smear-negative, culture positive and were susceptible to all first line drugs.

Liu, Theresa T.; Wilson, Douglas; Dawood, Halima; Cameron, D. William; Alvarez, Gonzalo G.

2012-01-01

51

Occupational silica exposure and risk of various diseases: an analysis using death certificates from 27 states of the United States  

PubMed Central

Background: Although crystalline silica exposure is associated with silicosis, lung cancer, pulmonary tuberculosis, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), there is less support for an association with autoimmune disease, and renal disease. Methods: Using data from the US National Occupational Mortality Surveillance (NOMS) system, a matched case-control design was employed to examine each of several diseases (including silicosis, lung cancer, stomach cancer, oesophageal cancer, COPD, pulmonary tuberculosis, sarcoidosis, systemic lupus erythematosus, systemic sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, and various types of renal disease). Cases were subjects whose death certificate mentioned the disease of interest. A separate control group for each of the diseases of interest was selected from among subjects whose death certificate did not mention the disease of interest or any of several diseases reported to be associated with crystalline silica exposure. Subjects were assigned into a qualitative crystalline silica exposure category based on the industry/occupation pairing found on their death certificate. We also investigated whether silicotics had a higher risk of disease compared to those without silicosis. Results: Those postulated to have had detectable crystalline silica exposure had a significantly increased risk for silicosis, COPD, pulmonary tuberculosis, and rheumatoid arthritis. In addition, a significant trend of increasing risk with increasing silica exposure was observed for these same conditions and for lung cancer. Those postulated to have had the greatest crystalline silica exposure had a significantly increased risk for silicosis, lung cancer, COPD, and pulmonary tuberculosis only. Finally, those with silicosis had a significantly increased risk for COPD, pulmonary tuberculosis, and rheumatoid arthritis. Conclusions: This study corroborates the association between crystalline silica exposure and silicosis, lung cancer, COPD, and pulmonary tuberculosis. In addition, support is provided for an association between crystalline silica exposure and rheumatoid arthritis.

Calvert, G; Rice, F; Boiano, J; Sheehy, J; Sanderson, W

2003-01-01

52

The coding of underlying cause of death from fetal death certificates: issues and policy considerations.  

PubMed Central

Recently, plans to implement nationwide coding of underlying cause of fetal death have been promulgated. To examine the validity and potential utility of nationwide coding, this paper presents data from a five-state (Wisconsin, Arkansas, Maine, North Carolina, California) analysis of underlying causes of fetal death from vital records for 1985 through 1987. Nosological coding rules varied somewhat from state to state. Underlying causes were grouped into categories; distributions were similar for each state. Many deaths (20.3% to 32.9%) were coded as unspecified conditions. Congenital anomalies accounted for only 6.9% to 10.3% of fetal deaths, including implausible and nonspecific causes. In total, 29.5% to 42.8% of the reports were not valid or useful. To obtain better data, researchers must focus on improving fetal death reporting, which will entail the promotion of comprehensive autopsy, placental and laboratory evaluation, systematic vital records query procedures, and implementation of multiple-cause-of-fetal-death coding.

Kirby, R S

1993-01-01

53

Model-Based Product-Oriented Certification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Future space missions such as the Mars Science Laboratory and Project Constel- lation suggest the engineering of some of the most complex man-rated software sys- tems. The present process-oriented certification methodologies employed by NASA are becoming prohibitively expensive when applied to systems of such complexity. The process of software certification establishes the level of confidence in a software system in

Damian Dechev; Bjarne Stroustrup

2009-01-01

54

Why are a quarter of all cancer deaths in south-east England registered by death certificate only? Factors related to death certificate only registrations in the Thames Cancer Registry between 1987 and 1989.  

PubMed Central

This paper describes the results of a study set up to investigate factors associated with the high proportions of 'death certificate only' registrations (DCOs) for all cancers registered in south-east England between 1987 and 1989 and to identify those which might be subject to registry intervention. DCOs as a proportion of all registrations (n = 162,131) were analysed by age, sex, district of residence, place of death and survival. DCO registration ratios (standardised for age and sex) were then derived for each of the 56 districts in the Thames Regions. A multiple logistic regression model was generated to estimate the effect of age at diagnosis, tumour survival and patient sex on final source of registration. To minimise the number of dummy variables needed, each of the 56 districts was ranked into quartiles: quartile 1 contained the 14 districts with the lowest age- and sex-standardised ratios for DCO registrations and quartile 4 comprised the 14 districts with the highest DCO ratios. Final source of registration was treated as a binomial trial (case notes or death certificates). The significance of associations was measured using the deviance difference as an approximate chi-square statistic. The effect of each variable on source of registration was estimated as an odds ratio. Interaction terms were also fitted. To estimate the effect of place of death on DCO registrations, a second model was generated for deceased patients only (n = 98,455, adding 'place of death' to the list of explanatory variables already used. A further interaction term was fitted to account for interaction between place of death and district quartile of residence. Around 24% of all patient deaths were registered as DCOs by the Thames Cancer Registry between 1987 and 1989. Of these, 40.9% died in an acute NHS hospital setting, 37.1% died at home, 10.4% died in hospices and 3.4% died in non-NHS hospitals. Increasing age, decreasing survival, district of residence and place of death were positively associated with death certificate registrations. The district effect was sustained in the regression model with significant positive associations shown for DHA quartile of residence. In the deceased group of patients, both district of residence and place of death were independent predictors of DCOs. Death occurring outside the acute NHS hospital setting increased the odds of being a DCO within and across district quartiles. DCOs could be reduced by better case ascertainment in some districts.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)

Pollock, A. M.; Vickers, N.

1995-01-01

55

75 FR 27182 - Energy Conservation Program: Web-Based Compliance and Certification Management System  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...1904-AC10 Energy Conservation Program: Web-Based Compliance and Certification Management...of Energy (DOE) through an electronic Web-based tool, the Compliance and Certification...Certification Management System (CCMS)--via the Web portal:...

2010-05-14

56

Using the UMLS and Simple Statistical Methods to Semantically Categorize Causes of Death on Death Certificates  

PubMed Central

Cause of death data is an invaluable resource for shaping our understanding of population health. Mortality statistics is one of the principal sources of health information and in many countries the most reliable source of health data. 1 A quick classification process for this data can significantly improve public health efforts. Currently, cause of death data is captured in unstructured form requiring months to process. We think this process can be automated, at least partially, using simple statistical Natural Language Processing, NLP, techniques and the Unified Medical Language System, UMLS, as a vocabulary resource. A system, Medical Match Master, MMM, was built to exercise this theory. We evaluate this simple NLP approach in the classification of causes of death. This technique performed well if we engaged the use of a large biomedical vocabulary and applied certain syntactic maneuvers made possible by textual relationships within the vocabulary.

Riedl, Bill; Than, Nhan; Hogarth, Michael

2010-01-01

57

Effect of prenatal care on infant mortality rates according to birth-death certificate files.  

PubMed Central

Infant mortality has decreased nationwide; however, our national rates still log behind those of other industrialized countries, especially the rates for minority groups. This study evaluates the effect of prenatal care and risk factors on infant mortality rates in Chicago. Using linked infant birth and death certificates of Chicago residents for 1989-1995, a total of 5838 deaths occurring during the first year of life were identified. Birth certificate variables, especially prenatal care, were reviewed. Variables were compared by stratified analysis. Pearson chi 2 analysis and odd ratios (ORs) were computed. Infant mortality rate (IMR) in Chicago decreased from 17 in 1989 to 12.6 in 1995 (P < .0001). Some factors increased IMR several fold: prematurity (OR 17.43), no prenatal care (OR 4.07), inadequate weight gain (OR 2.95), African-American ethnicity (OR 2.55), and inadequate prenatal care (OR 2.03). Compared with no care, prenatal care was associated with lower IMR; however, early care was associated with higher IMR and ORs than later care. These results demonstrate prenatal care is associated with lower IMR; however, compared with late prenatal care, early care does not improve IMR. Further studies should evaluate whether improving the quality of care improves IMRs.

Poma, P. A.

1999-01-01

58

Effect of prenatal care on infant mortality rates according to birth-death certificate files.  

PubMed

Infant mortality has decreased nationwide; however, our national rates still log behind those of other industrialized countries, especially the rates for minority groups. This study evaluates the effect of prenatal care and risk factors on infant mortality rates in Chicago. Using linked infant birth and death certificates of Chicago residents for 1989-1995, a total of 5838 deaths occurring during the first year of life were identified. Birth certificate variables, especially prenatal care, were reviewed. Variables were compared by stratified analysis. Pearson chi 2 analysis and odd ratios (ORs) were computed. Infant mortality rate (IMR) in Chicago decreased from 17 in 1989 to 12.6 in 1995 (P < .0001). Some factors increased IMR several fold: prematurity (OR 17.43), no prenatal care (OR 4.07), inadequate weight gain (OR 2.95), African-American ethnicity (OR 2.55), and inadequate prenatal care (OR 2.03). Compared with no care, prenatal care was associated with lower IMR; however, early care was associated with higher IMR and ORs than later care. These results demonstrate prenatal care is associated with lower IMR; however, compared with late prenatal care, early care does not improve IMR. Further studies should evaluate whether improving the quality of care improves IMRs. PMID:10517072

Poma, P A

1999-09-01

59

Certificate Based Access Control (CBAC) Operation and User Guide.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Certificate Based Access Control (CBAC), formerly known as Palladium, is a complete privilege management software system, to address the need for a central access control system. CBAC technology allows state and local criminal justice agencies to share in...

2003-01-01

60

Improving mortality data in South Africa: review of next of kin statements to determine cause of death in police certification.  

PubMed Central

STUDY OBJECTIVE--The study aimed to improve mortality data by finding ways of reducing the large number of deaths certified as being from "ill-defined" causes (ICD 780-798) in South Africa. This problem is attributable to the absence of cause of death information in many cases where the police issue the death certificate. DESIGN AND SETTING--A total of 600 consecutive death certification records at the Salt River State Mortuary, Cape Town were reviewed. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS--Altogether 347 (58%) deaths were from unnatural causes, 111 (18%) were certified by a doctor, 83 (14%) were certified as being the result of natural causes after a necropsy, and 59 (10%) were certified by the police as being from natural causes. Analysis of sworn statements obtained from the next of kin of all those certified dead by the police rather than a doctor provided a clear cause of death in 72.9%, and a history of recent contact with health services (less than one week previously) in 47.5%. All infants certified dead by the police had a history consistent with diarrhoeal disease. CONCLUSIONS--The method of death certification may be an indicator of access to health care and reviewing sworn statements to determine the cause of death should improve the quality of mortality data in the developing world.

Lerer, L B

1993-01-01

61

An international comparison study indicated physicians' habits in reporting diabetes in part I of death certificate affected reported national diabetes mortality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and ObjectivePhysicians may find it confusing to decide whether to report diagnoses in part I or part II of the death certificate. The aim of this study was to contrast differences in diabetes mortality through a comparison of physicians’ habits in reporting diabetes in part I of death certification among Taiwan, Australia, and Sweden.

Tsung-Hsueh Lu; Sue Walker; Lars Age Johansson; Chien-Ning Huang

2005-01-01

62

Certificates.  

PubMed

The Concise Oxford English Dictionary defines 'dilemma' as "an argument forcing one to choose one of two alternatives both unfavourable to him (or her)". This is situation that frequently confronts the general practitioner. In this article a personal solution to the problem of 'certificates' is presented. Not every one will necessarily agree with the solutions presented and some may find them unacceptable, or have better solutions. The author warmly welcomes correspondence, either personal, or in the form of Letters to the Editor, as this is a subject in which consensus decisions are important. PMID:8053842

Fry, F

1994-06-01

63

Integrating identity-based and certificate-based authenticated key exchange protocols  

Microsoft Academic Search

Key establishment is becoming a widely deployed cryptographic primitive. As such, there has been extensive research on designing\\u000a algorithms that produce shared secret keys. These protocols require parties to either hold certificates or rely on identity\\u000a (ID)-based primitives to achieve authentication. Chain and cross certifications allow users trusting different certification\\u000a authorities to interact. Similarly, there are methods to extend ID-based

Berkant Ustao?lu

64

Avaliação dos erros ou falhas de preenchimento dos atestados de óbito feitos pelos clínicos e pelos patologistas Comparison between death certificates filling errors or lack of filling fields done by pathologists and physicians  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction: The correct filling of Death Certificate (DC) is very important, however is usually neglected. Objectives: To compare DC filled by the pathologists and by the physicians, in relation to the number of mistakes and also the number of fields not filled. Methods: We compared all DC filled by physicians from the Hospital de Base (HB) and DC filled by

Cleber de Oliveira Stuque; José Antônio Cordeiro; Patricia Maluf Cury

65

Cause-Specific Mortality and Death Certificate Reporting in Adults with Moderate to Profound Intellectual Disability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Background: The study of premature deaths in people with intellectual disability (ID) has become the focus of recent policy initiatives in England. This is the first UK population-based study to explore cause-specific mortality in adults with ID compared with the general population. Methods: Cause-specific standardised mortality ratios (SMRs) and…

Tyrer, F.; McGrother, C.

2009-01-01

66

The effectiveness of market-based conservation in the tropics: Forest certification in Ecuador and Bolivia  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the last decade, forest certification has gained momentum as a market-based conservation strategy in tropical forest countries. Certification has been promoted to enhance forest management in countries where governance capacities are insufficient to adequately manage natural resources and enforce pertinent regulations, given that certification relies largely on non-governmental organisations and private businesses. However, at present there are few tropical

Johannes Ebeling; Bath BA

2008-01-01

67

The effectiveness of market-based conservation in the tropics: Forest certification in Ecuador and Bolivia  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the last decade, forest certification has gained momentum as a market-based conservation strategy in tropical forest countries. Certification has been promoted to enhance forest management in countries where governance capacities are insufficient to adequately manage natural resources and enforce pertinent regulations, given that certification relies largely on non-governmental organisations and private businesses. However, at present there are few tropical

Johannes Ebeling; Maï Yasué

2009-01-01

68

Unintentional carbon monoxide-related deaths in the United States, 1979 through 1988  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE. To describe the epidemiology of recent unintentional carbon monoxide poisoning deaths in the United States. DESIGN. Descriptive analysis of carbon monoxide-related deaths in the United States from 1979 through 1988, based on death certificate reports compiled by the National Center for Health Statistics. POPULATION STUDIED. All US deaths, 1979 through 1988. RESULTS. We reviewed data from 56,133 death certificates

N. Cobb; R. A. Etzel

1991-01-01

69

Studying sudden and unexpected infant deaths in a time of changing death certification and investigation practices: evaluating sleep-related risk factors for infant death in New York City.  

PubMed

We describe an approach for quantifying and characterizing the extent to which sudden and unexpected infant deaths (SUIDs) result from unsafe sleep environments (e.g., prone position, bedsharing, soft bedding); and present data on sleep-related infant deaths in NYC. Using a combination of vital statistics and medical examiner data, including autopsy and death scene investigation findings, we analyzed any death due to accidental threat to breathing (ATB) (ICD-10 W75 & W84), and deaths of undetermined intent (UND) (Y10-Y34) between 2000 and 2003 in NYC for the presence of sleep-related factors (SRF). Homicide deaths were excluded as were SIDS, since in NYC SIDS is not a certification option if environmental factors were possibly contributors to the death. All 19 ATB and 69 (75%) UND had SRFs as per the OCME investigation. Black infants and infants born to teen mothers had higher SRF death rates for both ATB and UND deaths. Bedsharing was the most common SRF (53%-ATB; 72%-UND deaths); the majority of non-bedsharing infants were found in the prone position (60%-ATB; 78%-UND deaths). We found a high prevalence of SRFs among ATB and UND deaths. This is the first local study to illustrate the importance of knowing how SUIDs are certified in order to ascertain the prevalence of infant deaths with SRFs. Advancing the research requires clarity on the criteria used by local medical examiners to categorize SUIDs. This will help jurisdictions interpret their infant mortality statistics, which in turn will improve education and prevention efforts. PMID:20177757

Senter, Lindsay; Sackoff, Judith; Landi, Kristen; Boyd, Lorraine

2011-02-01

70

The role of linked birth and infant death certificates in maternal and child health epidemiology in the United States.  

PubMed

Linked birth and infant death certificates allow measurement of birthweight-specific infant mortality. Jack Smith, MS, to whom this issue of the American Journal of Preventive Medicine is dedicated, played a key role in the National Infant Mortality Surveillance (NIMS) project. NIMS provided national data on birthweight-specific infant mortality for the 1980 birth cohort, updated data previously collected by the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) for the 1960 birth cohort, and supported NCHS's implementation of an annual linked file in 1983. NIMS illustrated themes in infant mortality that remain important: the role of low birthweight (LBW) as a contributor to infant mortality, the contribution of disparities in LBW and birthweight-specific mortality to black-white gaps in infant mortality, and the nation's greater success in reducing mortality among LBW infants than in preventing LBW. Linked birth and infant death records are used nationally and by states to study an array of maternal and infant health topics, from the quality of vital records to the impact of therapeutic and public health interventions. By supplementing birth and infant death records with linkages to program and hospital discharge data, epidemiologists and health service researchers are extending the utility of vital statistics data to monitor maternal and infant health. PMID:10863124

Buehler, J W; Prager, K; Hogue, C J

2000-07-01

71

40 CFR 745.238 - Fees for accreditation and certification of lead-based paint activities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...for accreditation and certification of lead-based paint activities. 745.238...CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT LEAD-BASED PAINT POISONING PREVENTION IN CERTAIN RESIDENTIAL STRUCTURES Lead-Based Paint Activities §...

2013-07-01

72

Performance-Based Certification in Georgia: Present and Future.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The Georgia Teacher Certification Tests were developed and validated to be job-related and to reflect the minimum content knowledge that is necessary to teach in each certification area in Georgia classrooms. Three assessment instruments are used in evaluating the performance of preservice students and beginning teachers. The Teacher Performance…

Leach, J. William; Solomon, Lester

73

Using a State Teacher Certification Test to Assess an Inquiry-Based Science Education Program  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In this study, we looked at the impact of our specially designed inquiry-based science courses for pre-service elementary teachers on their science content knowledge as measured by a high-stakes state certification test for elementary education. We conducted a pre/post-analysis of the certification test scores of 1,003 pre-service teachers.…

Otto, Charlotte A.; Everett, Susan A.; Moyer, Richard H.; Zitzewitz, Paul W.

2012-01-01

74

Parental socioeconomic status and unintentional injury deaths in early childhood: Consideration of injury mechanisms, age at death, and gender  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to determine whether the socioeconomic status (SES) of parents influences early childhood unintentional injury deaths for different injury mechanisms and the gender and age at death of the child. Study design is a population-based retrospective study. Death certificate data from 1995 to 2004 were linked to birth certificate data from 1995 to 1996 for

Juhee Hong; Boeun Lee; Eun Hee Ha; Hyesook Park

2010-01-01

75

Lung cancer and occupation in Alameda County: a death certificate case-control study.  

PubMed

A case-control comparison of lung cancer deaths versus deaths from all other cancers occurring in Alameda County, California, between 1958 and 1962 was conducted to investigate possible associations between lung cancer and occupation. Age-adjusted, sex-specific analyses indicated that a history of work in certain industries and occupations was associated with an increased risk of lung cancer. Among males, a significant positive association was found for glass, metal, furniture, professional and photographic equipment, rubber, leather and plastic manufacturing; water and air transportation; auto repair services; and construction. Specific occupations associated with a significant positive risk for males were: electricians, aircraft mechanics, painters, plasterers, machine operators, construction workers, bus and truck drivers, and guards and nightwatchmen. Among females, beauticians had a significantly high risk associated with lung cancer. These results were consistent with other studies of lung cancer related to occupation. PMID:6869381

Milne, K L; Sandler, D P; Everson, R B; Brown, S M

1983-01-01

76

Vital Statistics Mortality Data, Cause of Death Summary, 1973. Tape Contents and Documentation Package.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Vital statistics data relating to mortality provide demographic and cause-of-death data for deaths occurring during the calendar year. The data are based on information abstracted from all death certificates filed in vital statistics offices of each State...

1973-01-01

77

Vital Statistics Mortality Multiple Cause of Death, Detail, 1973. Tape Contents and Documentation Package.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Vital statistics data relating to mortality provide demographic, underlying and multiple cause-of-death data for deaths occurring during the calendar year. The data are based on information abstracted from all death certificates filed in vital statistics ...

1973-01-01

78

Vital Statistics, Mortality Data, Multiple Cause of Death, 1996 (Raw Data File) (on Magnetic Tape).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Vital Statistics relating to mortality provide demographic, underlying and cause-of-death data for deaths occurring during the calendar year. The data are based on information abstracted from all death certificates filed in vital statistics offices of eac...

1998-01-01

79

Long-term effects of the Niigata-Chuetsu earthquake in Japan on acute myocardial infarction mortality: an analysis of death certificate data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective:To determine if the Niigata-Chuetsu earthquake of October 2004 increased long-term mortality from acute myocardial infarction (AMI).Design:A comparative study of mortality rates before and after the earthquake, as well as between the disaster and control areas, by analysing death certificate data from 1 October 1999 to 30 September 2007.Setting:The disaster area and a control area in Niigata Prefecture (n =

I Nakagawa; K Nakamura; M Oyama; O Yamazaki; K Ishigami; Y Tsuchiya; M Yamamoto

2009-01-01

80

Competency Based Certification of School Administrators: The Georgia Experience.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Georgia's competency testing program has gained national recognition and has served as a model for other states planning such programs. The focus of this paper is on the Teacher Certification Test (TCT) in Administration and Supervision developed to conform to stringent legal and job-relatedness requirements. The test is required of educators…

Schnittjer, Carl J.; Flippo, Rona F.

81

Certificate-based Access Control for Widely Distributed Resources  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have implemented and deployed an access control mechanism that uses digitally-signed certificates to define and enforce an access policy for a set of distrib- uted resources that have multiple, independent and geo- graphically dispersed stakeholders. The stakeholders assert their access requirements in use-condition certifi- cates and designate those trusted to attest to the corre- sponding user attributes. Users are

Mary Thompson; William Johnston; Srilekha Mudumbai; Gary Hoo; Keith Jackson; Abdelilah Essiari

1999-01-01

82

Cert'eM: Certification System Based on Electronic Mail Service Structure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Public-Key Infrastructures are considered the basis of the protocols and tools needed to guarantee the security demanded for\\u000a new Internet applications like electronic commerce, government-citizen relationships and digital distribution. This paper\\u000a introduces a new infrastructure design, Cert’eM, a key management and certification system that is based on the structure\\u000a of the electronic mail service and on the principle of near-certification.

Javier Lopez; Antonio Mana; Juan J. Ortega

1999-01-01

83

PKI design based on the use of on-line certification authorities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Public-key infrastructures (PKIs) are considered the basis of the protocols and tools needed to guarantee the security of new Internet applications like electronic commerce, government-citizen relationships and digital distribution. This paper introduces a new infrastructure design, Cert’eM, a key management and certification system that is based on the structure of the electronic mail service and on the principle of near-certification.

Javier Lopez; Antonio Mana; José A. Montenegro; Juan J. Ortega

2004-01-01

84

Study of recent and future trends in place of death in Belgium using death certificate data: a shift from hospitals to care homes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Since most patients prefer out-of-hospital death, place of death can be considered an indicator of end-of-life care quality.\\u000a The study of trends in place of death is necessary to examine causes of shifts, to evaluate efforts to alter place of death\\u000a and develop future policies. This study aims to examine past trends and future projections of place of death.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Analysis

Dirk Houttekier; Joachim Cohen; Johan Surkyn; Luc Deliens

2011-01-01

85

USING A STATE TEACHER CERTIFICATION TEST TO ASSESS AN INQUIRY-BASED SCIENCE EDUCATION PROGRAM  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, we looked at the impact of our specially designed inquiry-based science courses for pre-service elementary\\u000a teachers on their science content knowledge as measured by a high-stakes state certification test for elementary education.\\u000a We conducted a pre\\/post-analysis of the certification test scores of 1,003 pre-service teachers. Cohort 1 consisted of 424\\u000a students who took the test prior to

Charlotte A. Otto; Susan A. Everett; Richard H. Moyer; Paul W. Zitzewitz

86

Certification pass rate of 100% for fundamentals of laparoscopic surgery skills after proficiency-based training  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  The fundamentals of laparoscopic surgery (FLS) program has been extensively validated for use as a high-stakes examination\\u000a for certification purposes, but optimal methods for its use in skills training have not been described. This study aimed to\\u000a investigate the feasibility of implementing a proficiency-based FLS skills training curriculum and to evaluate its effectiveness\\u000a in preparing trainees for certification.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  For this

Daniel J. Scott; E. Matt Ritter; Seifu T. Tesfay; Elisabeth A. Pimentel; Alykhan Nagji; Gerald M. Fried

2008-01-01

87

Factors associated with reporting multiple causes of death  

PubMed Central

Background There is analytical potential for multiple cause of death data collected from death certificates. This study examines relationships of multiple causes of death as a function of factors available on the death certificate (demographics of decedent, place of death, type of certifier, disposal method, whether an autopsy was performed, and year of death). Methods Data from 326,332 Minnesota death certificates from 1990–1998 are examined. Underlying and non-underlying causes of death are examined (based on record axis codes) as well as demographic and death-related covariates. Associations between covariates and prevalence of multiple causes of death and conditional probability of underlying compared to non-underlying causes of death are examined. The occurrence of ischemic heart disease or diabetes as underlying causes are specifically examined. Results Both the probability of multiple causes of death and the proportion of underlying cause compared to non-underlying cause of death are associated with demographic characteristics of the deceased and other non-medical conditions related to filing death certificate such as place of death. Conclusions Multiple cause of death data provide a potentially useful way of looking for inaccuracies in reporting of causes of death. Differences across demographics in the proportion of time a cause is selected as underlying compared to non-underlying exist and can potentially provide useful information about the overall impact of causes of death in different populations.

Wall, Melanie M; Huang, Jinzhou; Oswald, John; McCullen, Diane

2005-01-01

88

Scientifically Based Research in Educational Products: Vendors and Consumers on Filling the Certification Gap  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The 2002 reauthorization of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act, or No Child Left Behind (NCLB) changed school law in the United States. Public schools can utilize federal funds to purchase only those educational products subject to scientifically based research. No dedicated certification intermediary (CI) exists to determine individual…

Caruthers, Bill J.

2009-01-01

89

Mechanisms of security based on digital certificates applied in a telemedicine network  

Microsoft Academic Search

The medical patient's information is private and extremely sensitive. This information has to be stored and transmitted carefully because it can be exposed to a series of threats and it is necessary to be protected. This research contemplates the security mechanisms based on digital certificates applied to a pilot telemedicine network, that guarantees the confidentiality, integrity and availability of the

T. Vivas; A. Zambrano; M. Huerta

2008-01-01

90

Summary of Actions Taken by Selected States Involved in Developing Competency-Based Certification Systems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper reviews actions taken by selected states as they move to implement competency-based teacher education and certification systems (CBTE-CBC). Following a brief discussion of the role of the state in developing CBTE-CBC, three major issues are presented: a) the type of consortium procedures used, b) the manner in which competencies are to…

Pitman, John C.

91

The system of career promotion of networking professionals based on industrial certificates  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is dedicated to the issues related to the system of career promotion of professionals in the field of computer networks based on industrial certificates. The EU member countries face a serious shortage of professionals in development and care of information and communication technologies. It is expected that by 2008 the EU countries could be short of as many

Frantisek Jakab; Marian Bucko; Igor Sivy; Ladislav Madarasz; Pavel Cicak

2009-01-01

92

Vocational training and certification in ICT based on the e-learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

E-learning has brought a new approach into the learning. E-learning is mainly based on the self-learning and consultations with the lector. This article presents the set of new e-learning courses and certification exams oriented at the ICT areas. The description of the courses will be given and the arrangement of the courses will be described. The different kinds of questions

D. Levicky; P. Podhradsky; R. Ridzon; P. Truchly; J. Gamec

2008-01-01

93

Certification Aspects in Critical Embedded Software Development with Model Based Techniques: Detection of Unintended Functions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper, developed under contract with European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA), analyses in detail which may be the certification implications in the aeronautic industry associated to the application of model-level verification and validation techniques. Particularly, this paper focuses on the problematic of detecting unintended functions by applying Model Coverage Criteria at model level. This point is significantly important for the future extensive use of Model Based approaches in safety critical software, since the uncertainty in the system performance introduced by the unintended functions, which may also lead to unacceptable hazardous or catastrophic events, prevents the system to be compliance with certification requirements. The paper provides a definition and a categorization of unintended functions and gives some relevant examples to assess the efficiency of model- coverage techniques in the detection of UF. The paper explains how this analysis is supported by a methodology based on the study of sources for introducing unintended functions. Finally it is analysed the feasibility of using Model-level verification techniques to support the software certification process.

Atencia Yepez, A.; Autrán Cerqueira, J.; Urueña, S.; Jurado, R.

2012-01-01

94

Population-Based Analysis of Sudden Death in Children: The Oregon Sudden Unexpected Death Study  

PubMed Central

Background There is a lack of prospective population-based data regarding sudden death in children. Objective To assess the burden of sudden cardiac arrest (SCA) in the pediatric population in a 3-year community-wide study. Methods During 2002-2005, all residents of Multnomah County, Oregon (Pop. 660,486) who suffered SCA were ascertained from emergency medical services, the medical examiner and emergency rooms of 16 area hospitals. A comprehensive evaluation was performed, including analysis of circumstances of death, medical records and available autopsy data. Annual incidence rates were calculated for all residents age<18 years, using the 2000 US Census data. Results A total of 33 children met criteria for SCA (58% female, median age 0.37 yr, range 0.03-12.3 yr). The majority of SCAs (76%) occurred in children age<1 yr. At least 90% of this subgroup also met criteria for the sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). Pediatric SCAs constituted 2.8% of all SCAs. The pediatric annual incidence rate per 100,000 population was 1.7 (95% C.I. 1.1 – 2.3), compared to 60/100,000 for all ages. The pediatric annual incidence rate per 100,000 children was 7.5 (95% C.I. 5.1 – 10.5). The annual incidence rate of SIDS was 0.8/1000 live births. In contrast to an adult survival rate of 8%, none of the children survived to be discharged from the hospital. Conclusions The burden of pediatric sudden death was low (3% of all sudden deaths) but 90% occurred before age one year and the majority were diagnosed as SIDS (70% of overall sudden deaths in children). Population education to prevent SIDS and enhanced postnatal diagnosis of occult heart disease are likely to have the greatest impact on prevention of pediatric sudden death.

Chugh, Sumeet S.; Reinier, Kyndaron; Balaji, Seshadri; Uy-Evanado, Audrey; Vickers, Cathy; Mariani, Ronald; Gunson, Karen; Jui, Jonathan

2009-01-01

95

Certificate-Based Approach to Marketing Green Power and Constructing New Wind Energy Facilities.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The availability of wind energy certificates in Pennsylvania's retail electricity market has made a critical difference in the economic feasibility of developing 140 MW of new wind energy projects in the region. Certificates offer important benefits to bo...

E. Blank L. Bird B. Swezey

2002-01-01

96

How many deaths occur annually from adverse drug reactions in the united states?  

Microsoft Academic Search

PURPOSE: The numbers of deaths attributed to adverse drug reactions by death certificates and by the Food and Drug Administration’s (FDA) spontaneous postmarketing surveillance system (MedWatch) were compared in order to characterize national mortality statistics.METHODS: Mortality statistics related to adverse drug reactions were obtained from national public-use databases of death certificates based on appropriate International Classification of Disease (ICD-9) codes

Peter A Chyka

2000-01-01

97

Development of the Knowledge-Based Standard for the Written Certification Examination of the American Board of Anesthesiology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Application of a knowledge-based standard in evaluating a written certification examination developed by the American Board of Anesthesiology established a standard of 57 percent correct over two years' examinations. This process is recommended for developing mastery-based (rather than normative-based) success criteria for evaluation of medical…

Slogoff, Stephen; And Others

1992-01-01

98

Cardiovascular death in rheumatoid arthritis: A population-based study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. To determine whether systemic inflam- mation confers any additional risk for cardiovascular death among patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), after adjusting for traditional cardiovascular risk fac- tors and comorbidities. Methods. Using the population-based data re- sources of the Rochester Epidemiology Project, we as- sembled an incidence cohort of all Rochester, Minne- sota residents ages >18 years who first fulfilled

Hilal Maradit-Kremers; Paulo J. Nicola; Cynthia S. Crowson; Karla V. Ballman; Sherine E. Gabriel

2005-01-01

99

Certificate-Based Approach to Marketing Green Power and Constructing New Wind Energy Facilities: Preprint  

SciTech Connect

The availability of wind energy certificates in Pennsylvania's retail electricity market has made a critical difference in the economic feasibility of developing 140 MW of new wind energy projects in the region. Certificates offer important benefits to both green power suppliers and buyers by reducing transaction barriers and thus lowering the cost of renewable energy. Buyers also benefit through the increased flexibility offered by certificate products. The experience described in this paper offers important insights for selling green power certificates and achieving new wind energy development in other areas of the country.

Blank, E.; Bird, L.; Swezey, B.

2002-05-01

100

High-frequency death certifiers in Taiwan: a sociocultural product  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accurate death certification is essential to high-quality mortality statistics. Physicians who certify disproportionately large numbers of deaths can significantly affect the validity of the resultant mortality data. In Taiwan in 1994, 110 death certifiers issued more than 100 death certificates each; and nine of these high-frequency certifiers issued more than 500 death certificates. We explore the cultural, political, economic, historical,

Tsung-Hsueh Lu; Craig R. Janes; Meng-Chih Lee; Ming-Chih Chou; Tai-Ping Shih

2002-01-01

101

PRESENT CONDITION OF FOOD WASTE RECYCLING LOOP BASED ON RECYCLING PROJECT CERTIFICATION OF THE FOOD WASTE RECYCLING LAW  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Purpose of this research is to clear present condition of food waste recycling loops based on recycling project certification of the Food Waste Recycling Law. Method of this research is questionnaire survey to companies constituting the loops. Findings of this research are as follows: 1. Proponents of the loop is most often the recycling companies. 2. Food waste recycling rate is 61% for the food retailing industry and 81% for the food service industry. These values are higher than the national average in 2006. The effect of the revision of recycling project certification is suggested.

Kita, Tomoko; Kanaya, Ken

102

Certificate-Based Approach to Marketing Green Power and Constructing New Wind Energy Facilities: Preprint  

Microsoft Academic Search

The availability of wind energy certificates in Pennsylvania's retail electricity market has made a critical difference in the economic feasibility of developing 140 MW of new wind energy projects in the region. Certificates offer important benefits to both green power suppliers and buyers by reducing transaction barriers and thus lowering the cost of renewable energy. Buyers also benefit through the

Eric Blank; Lori Bird; Blair Swezey

2002-01-01

103

Factors associated with reporting multiple causes of death  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: There is analytical potential for multiple cause of death data collected from death certificates. This study examines relationships of multiple causes of death as a function of factors available on the death certificate (demographics of decedent, place of death, type of certifier, disposal method, whether an autopsy was performed, and year of death). METHODS: Data from 326,332 Minnesota death

Melanie M Wall; Jinzhou Huang; John Oswald; Diane McCullen

2005-01-01

104

38 CFR 51.20 - Application for recognition based on certification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) PER DIEM FOR NURSING HOME CARE OF VETERANS IN STATE HOMES Obtaining Per Diem for Nursing Home Care in State Homes § 51.20...and certification of a State home for nursing home care, a State must:...

2013-07-01

105

Practice in computer-based testing improves scores on the National Certification Examination for Nurse Anesthetists.  

PubMed

This retrospective study examined whether practice in computer-based tests (CBTs) in student registered nurse anesthetists improved scores on the National Certification Examination (NCE). A group of students with extensive practice in CBTs was compared with a group of students whose tests were administered primarily on paper. Groups were matched on age, grade point average (GPA), and gender (n = 73 each). Higher GPA was associated with higher NCE scores overall. Adjusted for GPA (with analysis of covariance), the mean NCE proficiency score (phi) in the CBT group was 2.68 (95% confidence interval, 2.54-2.82), which was higher than the mean score in the paper-based group of 2.36 (95% confidence interval, 2.22-2.50), with an effect size of 0.52. When subgroups were examined, CBT practice improved NCE scores only in those students with graduate GPA less than or equal to 3.50, with an effect size of 1.1. It was concluded that, controlling for GPA, student registered nurse anesthetists at a university with greater exposure to CBTs had higher scores on the NCE than a comparison group with less practice in CBTs. This difference was significant only in students with GPA of 3.50 or less, consistent with a beneficial effect of practice in CBTs. PMID:23248833

Dosch, Michael P

2012-08-01

106

A telepathology based Virtual Reference and Certification Centre for DNA image cytometry.  

PubMed

An increasing need for flexible consultation between pathologists, including the application of fast evolving supplementary technologies, has been identified during the last years. Although pathology is already one of the most advanced application of telemedicine there is more to come from the fast evolution towards computerized microscope image analysis: A reproducible quantification of measurable descriptors of the lesions in cells and tissues (so-called biological markers) is an indispensable adjunct to routine diagnostic application. Among such quantitative methods DNA image cytometry is increasingly applied by pathologists for assistance in diagnostics. As for other pathological issues, too, a reference center for the clinical application of DNA image cytometry might be therefore of utmost value for pathologists using that method. Based on advanced telematic technologies, a Virtual Reference and Certification Center (VRCC) could be installed for certifying the cytometry hardware and software, the analytical procedures, and the basic interpretation of the results. It will be designed to be operated as a non-attended service, based on quantification servers accessible via Internet round the clock. The VRCC will supply appropriate standardization and normalization materials and run a GroupWare platform for consensus making by experts. PMID:11339562

Haroske, G; Giroud, F; Kunze, K D; Meyer, W

2000-01-01

107

Infant injury deaths with unknown intent: what else do we know?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives—Strong evidence based on case record reviews indicates that the incidence of child homicide reported from death certificates is under ascertained. The characteristics of infant injury fatalities with undetermined, but suspicious, intent were compared for the probability that they should be considered homicides.Methods—Using linked birth and death certificates for all birth cohorts in the US from 1983–91, 2345 injury fatalities

Mary D Overpeck; Ruth A Brenner; Ann C Trumble; Gordon S Smith; Marian F MacDorman; Heinz W Berendes

1999-01-01

108

5 CFR 843.311 - Annuity based on death of a separated employee.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Annuity based on death of a separated employee. 843.311... FEDERAL EMPLOYEES RETIREMENT SYSTEM-DEATH BENEFITS AND EMPLOYEE REFUNDS Current...Benefits § 843.311 Annuity based on death of a separated employee....

2013-01-01

109

5 CFR 843.310 - Annuity based on death of an employee.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Annuity based on death of an employee. 843.310 Section... FEDERAL EMPLOYEES RETIREMENT SYSTEM-DEATH BENEFITS AND EMPLOYEE REFUNDS Current...Benefits § 843.310 Annuity based on death of an employee. Except as...

2013-01-01

110

23 CFR Appendix C to Part 1240 - Certification (Calendar Year 1998 Survey Based on Survey Approved Under 23 U.S.C. 153)  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-04-01 false Certification (Calendar Year 1998 Survey Based on Survey Approved Under 23 U.S.C. 153) C Appendix C to Part 1240 Highways NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION AND FEDERAL HIGHWAY...

2010-04-01

111

23 CFR Appendix C to Part 1240 - Certification (Calendar Year 1998 Survey Based on Survey Approved Under 23 U.S.C. 153)  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2009-04-01 false Certification (Calendar Year 1998 Survey Based on Survey Approved Under 23 U.S.C. 153) C Appendix C to Part 1240 Highways NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION AND FEDERAL HIGHWAY...

2009-04-01

112

23 CFR Appendix C to Part 1240 - Certification (Calendar Year 1998 Survey Based on Survey Approved Under 23 U.S.C. 153)  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...GUIDELINES SAFETY INCENTIVE GRANTS FOR USE OF SEAT BELTS-ALLOCATIONS BASED ON SEAT BELT USE RATES Pt. 1240, App. C Appendix C...153) State Certification-Calendar Year 1998 Seat Belt Use Survey State of Seat Belt Use Rate...

2013-04-01

113

Interaction profile-based protein classification of death domain  

PubMed Central

Background The increasing number of protein sequences and 3D structure obtained from genomic initiatives is leading many of us to focus on proteomics, and to dedicate our experimental and computational efforts on the creation and analysis of information derived from 3D structure. In particular, the high-throughput generation of protein-protein interaction data from a few organisms makes such an approach very important towards understanding the molecular recognition that make-up the entire protein-protein interaction network. Since the generation of sequences, and experimental protein-protein interactions increases faster than the 3D structure determination of protein complexes, there is tremendous interest in developing in silico methods that generate such structure for prediction and classification purposes. In this study we focused on classifying protein family members based on their protein-protein interaction distinctiveness. Structure-based classification of protein-protein interfaces has been described initially by Ponstingl et al. [1] and more recently by Valdar et al. [2] and Mintseris et al. [3], from complex structures that have been solved experimentally. However, little has been done on protein classification based on the prediction of protein-protein complexes obtained from homology modeling and docking simulation. Results We have developed an in silico classification system entitled HODOCO (Homology modeling, Docking and Classification Oracle), in which protein Residue Potential Interaction Profiles (RPIPS) are used to summarize protein-protein interaction characteristics. This system applied to a dataset of 64 proteins of the death domain superfamily was used to classify each member into its proper subfamily. Two classification methods were attempted, heuristic and support vector machine learning. Both methods were tested with a 5-fold cross-validation. The heuristic approach yielded a 61% average accuracy, while the machine learning approach yielded an 89% average accuracy. Conclusion We have confirmed the reliability and potential value of classifying proteins via their predicted interactions. Our results are in the same range of accuracy as other studies that classify protein-protein interactions from 3D complex structure obtained experimentally. While our classification scheme does not take directly into account sequence information our results are in agreement with functional and sequence based classification of death domain family members.

Lett, Drew; Hsing, Michael; Pio, Frederic

2004-01-01

114

19 CFR 10.411 - Certification of origin or other information.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...director, a certification of origin or other information demonstrating...parties, and comply with the origin requirements specified for...may sign the certification of origin based on: (1) A certification...originating good. (d) Language. The certification or...

2009-04-01

115

19 CFR 10.411 - Certification of origin or other information.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...director, a certification of origin or other information demonstrating...parties, and comply with the origin requirements specified for...may sign the certification of origin based on: (1) A certification...originating good. (d) Language. The certification or...

2010-04-01

116

An Exploration of Initial Certification Candidates' TPACK and Mathematics-Based Applications Using Touch Device Technology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This qualitative research study employed a multiple-case study approach to describe the experiences of a group of Initial Certification Candidates (ICCs) as they participated in explorations of readings and third-party applications (apps) run on touch screen technology devices. The group of ICCs was comprised of two Undergraduate Teacher…

McCrory, Michael Ray

2010-01-01

117

[Determination of death in mobile intensive care units operating without a physician].  

PubMed

Determination of the death of a person is one of the most complex issues in modern medicine. Therefore, in Israel (like many other countries), the authority to determine death belongs solely to medical doctors. Determination of death is a process built from 3 components: the declaration of death, certification of death and registration of death. Declaration of death is based on well established protocols, and is used as the normative basis for ending or avoiding resuscitation efforts in the pre-hospital setting. Certification and registration of death are essential for completion of the process, in order to enable care for the deceased--according to local custom. The division mentioned above does not exist in Israel. Therefore, declaration and certification of death are carried out solely by medical doctors. This situation necessarily demands the immediate presence of a medical doctor, whenever a process of death determination is being held. When death occurs in a hospital or a medical institute continuously occupied by medical doctors, there is no problem to fulfill this term. However, on the other hand, when death occurs outside the hospital or medical institute, the burden of death determination usually falls on the doctors occupying Magen David Adom ambulances. This leads to irrational use of a limited resource, aimed for emergency pre-hospital care. This review examines the problem and all the aspects involved, and offers possible solutions--based on acceptable guidelines. PMID:22352286

Yafe, Eli; Feingenberg, Zvi; Miller, Rami; Strugo, Rafi

2011-12-01

118

16 CFR 1204.14 - Certification tests.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...OMNIDIRECTIONAL CITIZENS BAND BASE STATION ANTENNAS Certification § 1204.14 Certification...program for a particular model of CB antennas is one which demonstrates with a high degree of assurance that all the antennas of that model will meet...

2013-01-01

119

40 CFR 745.226 - Certification of individuals and firms engaged in lead-based paint activities: target housing and...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...or (3 ) Certification as an industrial hygienist, professional engineer...and/or certification in a related engineering/health/environmental field (e...supervisors. (2 ) Bachelor's degree in engineering, architecture, or a related...

2013-07-01

120

Maternal mortality in Sweden 1988-2007: more deaths than officially reported  

PubMed Central

Objective To obtain more accurate calculations of maternal and pregnancy-related mortality ratios in Sweden from 1988 to 2007 by using information from national registers and death certificates. Design A national register-based study, supplemented by a review of death certificates. Setting Sweden, 1988–2007. Population The deaths of 27 957 women of reproductive age (15–49 years). Methods The Swedish Cause of Death Register, Medical Birth Register, and National Patient Register were linked. All women with a diagnosis related to pregnancy in at least one of these registers within 1 year prior to death were identified. Death certificates were reviewed to ascertain maternal deaths. Maternal mortality ratio (the number of maternal deaths/100 000 live births, excluding and including suicides), and pregnancy-related mortality ratio (number of deaths within 42 days after termination of pregnancy, irrespective of cause of death/100 000 live births) were calculated. Main outcome measures Direct and indirect maternal deaths and pregnancy-related deaths. Results The maternal mortality ratio in Sweden, based on the current method of identifying maternal deaths, was 3.6. After linking registers and reviewing death certificates, we identified 64% more maternal deaths, resulting in a ratio of 6.0 (or 6.5 if suicides are included). The pregnancy-related mortality ratio was 7.3. A total of 478 women died within a year after being recorded with a diagnosis related to pregnancy. Conclusions By including the 123 cases of maternal death identified in this study, the mean maternal mortality ratio from 1988 to 2007 was 64% higher than reported to the World Health Organization.

Esscher, Annika; Hogberg, Ulf; Haglund, Bengt; Essen, Birgitta

2013-01-01

121

Healthcare teams over the Internet: programming a certificate-based approach.  

PubMed

Healthcare environments are a representative case of collaborative environments since individuals (e.g. doctors) in many cases collaborate in order to provide care to patients in a more proficient way. At the same time modern healthcare institutions are increasingly interested in sharing access of their information resources in the networked environment. Healthcare applications over the Internet offer an attractive communication infrastructure at worldwide level but with a noticeably great factor of risk. Security has, therefore, become a major concern. However, although an adequate level of security can be relied upon digital certificates, if an appropriate security model is used, additional security considerations are needed in order to deal efficiently with the above team-work concerns. The already known Hybrid Access Control (HAC) security model supports and handles efficiently healthcare teams with active security capabilities and is capable to exploit the benefits of certificate technology. In this paper we present the way for encoding the appropriate authoritative information in various types of certificates, as well as the overall operational architecture of the implemented access control system for healthcare collaborative environments over the Internet. A pilot implementation of the proposed methodology in a major Greek hospital has shown the applicability of the proposals and the flexibility of the access control provided. PMID:12909167

Georgiadis, Christos K; Mavridis, Ioannis K; Pangalos, George I

2003-07-01

122

Forest Certification in South Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

The South African forestry industry is predominantly based on plantation forestry. More than 80 percent of the plantations were certified in a market-driven certification process during the late 1990s and early 2000s. As a net exporter of forestry products, South Africa's procurement of new markets and securing of existing markets were critical. The forestry industry saw certification as a marketing

Cori Ham

123

Cigarette Smoking as a Risk Factor for Sudden Infant Death Syndrome: A Population-Based Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines risk factors for sudden infant death syndrome based on Swedish births between 1983 and 1985. Results indicate that maternal smoking doubles the risk of infant death, and infants of smokers also died sooner. The more the mother smoked the more likely her infant was to die. (JS)

Haglund, Bengt; Cnattingius, Sven

1990-01-01

124

Place of death, and its relation with underlying cause of death, in Parkinson's disease, motor neurone disease, and multiple sclerosis: A population-based study.  

PubMed

Background: Little is known about place of death in chronic neurological diseases. Mortality statistics are ideal for examining trends in place of death, but analyses are limited by coding rule changes. Aim: To examine the relationship between place of death and underlying cause of death in Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis and motor neurone disease and the impact of coding rule changes on analysis of place of death. Design: Population-based study. Proportion ratios for death in hospice, home, care home and hospital were calculated according to underlying cause of death, using multivariable Poisson regression. Participants: Deaths in England (1993-2010) with any mention of Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis or motor neurone disease as a cause of death, identified from national mortality data. Results: In this study, 125,242 patients with Parkinson's disease, 23,501 with multiple sclerosis, and 27,030 with motor neurone disease were included. Home deaths ranged from 9.7% (Parkinson's disease) to 27.1% (motor neurone disease), hospice deaths ranged from 0.6% (Parkinson's disease) to 11.2% (motor neurone disease) and hospital deaths ranged from 43.4% (Parkinson's disease) to 55.8% (multiple sclerosis). In Parkinson's disease and multiple sclerosis, cancer as underlying cause of death increased likelihood of hospice death (proportion ratio (PR): 18.8, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 16.1-22.0; 8.88, 95% CI = 7.49-10.5) and home death (PR: 1.91, 95% CI = 1.80-2.04; 1.71, 95% CI = 1.56-1.88). Dementia as underlying cause of death increased likelihood of care home death in Parkinson's disease (PR: 1.25, 95% CI = 1.19-1.32), multiple sclerosis (PR: 1.73, 95% CI = 1.22-2.45) and motor neurone disease (PR: 2.36, 95% CI = 1.31-4.27). Conclusions: Underlying cause of death has a marked effect on place of death. The effects of coding rule changes are an essential consideration for all research using underlying cause of death to study place of death. PMID:23737036

Sleeman, Katherine E; Ho, Yuen K; Verne, Julia; Glickman, Myer; Silber, Eli; Gao, Wei; Higginson, Irene J

2013-06-04

125

40 CFR 80.163 - Detergent certification options.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...to approved State programs). (d) CARB-Based Certification. A valid certification...Title 13, California Code of Regulations (CARB certification) may be the basis for a...may be used at the LAC specified in the CARB certification only in gasoline that...

2010-07-01

126

40 CFR 80.163 - Detergent certification options.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...to approved State programs). (d) CARB-Based Certification. A valid certification...Title 13, California Code of Regulations (CARB certification) may be the basis for a...may be used at the LAC specified in the CARB certification only in gasoline that...

2009-07-01

127

Certificate Production and the Race toward Higher Degree Attainment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Complete College America and FutureWorks conducted an analysis of certificate production, the value of the certificate program, and the economic benefit it provides to the region and nation. The conclusion, based on labor market demand and both personal and economic returns, is that certificates count and the policy and trends around certificates

State Higher Education Executive Officers, 2010

2010-01-01

128

Maternal Deaths Due to Homicide and Other Injuries in North Carolina: 1992–1994  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To determine the role of homicide and other injuries in maternal deaths in North Carolina over the three-year period from 1992 through 1994.Methods: Maternal deaths were identified from death certificates that indicated a maternal death and through an enhanced surveillance system that matches death certificates with live-birth and fetal-death certificates. Deaths were classified as direct, indirect, medically unrelated, or

Margaret Harper; Linn Parsons

1997-01-01

129

Exploitation of autopsy in determining natural cause of death: Trends in Finland with special reference to the diagnostics of ischemic heart diseases and cerebrovascular diseases in middle-aged males, 1974–1993  

Microsoft Academic Search

Finnish mortality statistics show a marked decrease in coronary disease mortality especially among middle-aged males during the last 20 to 25 years. At the same time, the overall autopsy rate in deaths due to natural, non-violent causes has diminished in Finland. National mortality statistics are based on medical information given in death certificates. How often are the causes of death

R. A Lahti; S Sarna; A Penttilä

1998-01-01

130

Motor-vehicle applications for certification by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). (Latest citations from the NTIS data base). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning motor vehicle applications for certification by the Environmental Protection Agency. Certification applications are prepared by vehicle manufacturers themselves, who give detailed technical descriptions of the vehicles or engines they intend to market during the upcoming model year. These engineering data include explanations and/or drawings which describe engine/vehicle parameters such as engine design, fuel systems, ignition systems, and exhaust and evaporative emission control systems. Information on emissions test procedures, service accumulation procedures, fuels to be used, and proposed maintenance requirements to be followed during testing is also provided. Citations include the results of emissions testing, a statement of compliance with EPA regulations, production engine parameters, and a Summary Sheet Input Form on which issuance of an EPA Certificate of Conformity is based. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1992-04-01

131

NATIONAL VITAL STATISTICS SYSTEM - LINKED BIRTH AND INFANT DEATH DATA  

EPA Science Inventory

In 1983, NCHS established a research data set comprised of linked birth and death certificates for infants born in the United States who died before reaching one year of age. In this data set, information from the death certificate is linked with information from the birth certif...

132

Child Deaths in New Jersey: Social Characteristics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This report discusses trends in the causes of child deaths in New Jersey in recent years and closely examines child deaths in the state in 1974. Demographic data on child deaths are reported with an emphasis on types of deaths in which neglect or nonaccidental injury are likely to have been a factor. Death certificate data were obtained from the…

Crowley, Charles J.

133

A Feasibility Study for a Comprehensive Competency-Based Training and Certification System for Child Care Personnel in the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania. Annotated Bibliography. Appendix A. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This 196-item annotated bibliography contains components of a competency-based training and certification system for teachers serving children in Pennsylvania day care programs. It is the appendix of a final report sponsored by the Pennsylvania Department of Public Welfare, Bureau of Child Development. The organizational topics and number of…

Educational Projects, Inc., Washington, DC.

134

A General Certification Framework with Applications to Privacy-Enhancing Certificate Infrastructures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interactions in electronic media require mutual trust to be established, preferably through the release of certified informa- tion. Disclosing certificates for provisioning the required information often leads to the disclosure of additional information not required for the purpose of the interaction. For instance ordinary certificates unnecessarily reveal their binary represen- tation. We propose a certificate-based framework comprising protocol definitions and

Jan Camenisch; Dieter Sornmer; Roger Zirnrnermann

2006-01-01

135

The Growth of Supply and Demand of Occupational-Based Training and Certification in the United States, 1990-2003  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The 1990s and early 2000s saw the increased development of advanced training, skills standards, and certification exams by private organizations in the United States. Employers began accepting these skill certifications in lieu of traditional on-the-job training, thereby encouraging employees to acquire more credentials. This article examines the…

Carter, Shani D.

2005-01-01

136

The role of governments in forest certification—a normative analysis based on new institutional economics theories  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forest certification is an issue that changes the forestry sector more profoundly than many governmental initiatives. Governments have taken quite different approaches across the globe and over time in dealing with the phenomenon. In most regions, they have seemingly switched to a ‘wait and see’ mode when confronted with the complex and fast-developing issue of forest certification. This paper explores

Ewald Rametsteiner

2002-01-01

137

The Growth of Supply and Demand of Occupational-Based Training and Certification in the United States, 1990-2003  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The 1990s and early 2000s saw the increased development of advanced training, skills standards, and certification exams by private organizations in the United States. Employers began accepting these skill certifications in lieu of traditional on-the-job training, thereby encouraging employees to acquire more credentials. This article examines the…

Carter, Shani D.

2005-01-01

138

The Effects of "High Stakes" Certification Demands on the Generalizability and Dependability of a Classroom-Based Teacher Assessment System.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper presents the results of ongoing analyses of the reliability of the System for Teaching and Learning Assessment and Review (STAR) as a comprehensive measure of classroom teaching and learning for making teacher certification decisions. Focus was on the effects of high stakes assessment conditions for certification on the…

Ellett, Chad D.; And Others

139

CBER Export Certification  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

... for each certificate issued. In addition to issuing export certificates for approved or licensed products, the FDA will also issue export certificates for ... More results from www.fda.gov/biologicsbloodvaccines/guidancecomplianceregulatoryinformation/complianceactivities

140

Evaluating Cut-Scores on Two Certification Tests: How Well Do Decisions Based on Cut-Scores Match Teacher- and Principal-Reported Ratings of Competence in the Classroom?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The purpose of this study was three-fold. The first purpose was the investigation of the criterion-related validity of the Georgia Teacher Certification Test (TCT) and the Praxis II tests that are used in the teacher certification process in Georgia. The second purpose was to compare decisions based on the two tests. Finally, the effects of using…

Nweke, Winifred C.; Hall, Thomas R.

141

Infant Maltreatment-Related Mortality in Alaska: Correcting the Count and Using Birth Certificates to Predict Mortality  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Objectives: To accurately count the number of infant maltreatment-related fatalities and to use information from the birth certificates to predict infant maltreatment-related deaths. Methods: A population-based retrospective cohort study of infants born in Alaska for the years 1992 through 2005 was conducted. Risk factor variables were…

Parrish, Jared W.; Gessner, Bradford D.

2010-01-01

142

Maternal deaths in Sagamu in the new millennium: a facility-based retrospective analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Health institutions need to contribute their quota towards the achievement of the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) with respect to maternal health. In order to do so, current data on maternal mortality is essential for careproviders and policy makers to appreciate the burden of the problem and understand how best to distribute resources. This study presents the magnitude and distribution of causes of maternal deaths at the beginning of the 21st century in a Nigerian referral hospital and derives recommendations to reduce its frequency. Methods A retrospective descriptive analysis of all cases of maternal deaths at Olabisi Onabanjo University Teaching Hospital, Sagamu, Southwest Nigeria between 1 January 2000 to 30 June 2005. Results There were 75 maternal deaths, 2509 live births and 2728 deliveries during the study period. Sixty-three (84.0%) of the deaths were direct maternal deaths while 12 (16.0%) were indirect maternal deaths. Major causes of deaths were hypertensive disorders in pregnancy (28.0%), haemorrhage (21.3%) and sepsis (20.0%). Overall, eclampsia was the leading cause of deaths singly accounting for 24.0% of all maternal deaths. Abortion and HIV-related mortality accounted for 1.3% and 4.0% of maternal deaths, respectively. The maternal mortality ratio of 2989.2 per 100,000 live births was significantly higher than that reported for 1988–1997 in the same institution. Up to 67/794 (8.4%) patients referred from other facilities died compared to 8/1934 (0.4%) booked patients (OR: 22.1; 95% CI: 10.2–50.1). Maternal death was more likely to follow operative deliveries than non-operative deliveries (27/545 vs 22/2161; OR: 5.07; 95% CI: 2.77–9.31). Conclusion At the middle of the first decade of the new millennium, a large number of pregnant women receiving care in this centre continue to die from preventable causes of maternal death. Adoption of evidence-based protocol for the management of eclampsia and improvement in the quality of obstetric care for unbooked emergencies would go a long way to significantly reduce the frequency of maternal deaths in this institution.

Oladapo, Olufemi T; Lamina, Mustafa A; Fakoya, Tuminu A

2006-01-01

143

Certification of Memory Usage  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a We describe a type-based approach for inferring heap space usage of certain functional programs and a mechanism for generating\\u000a certificates as to the thus inferred memory consumption in the form of proofs in a VDM-style program logic fore Java bytecode\\u000a (Java bytecode being the target of compilation). This gives a current snapshot of our work in the EU-funded project ‘Mobile

Martin Hofmann

2003-01-01

144

National Underascertainment of Sudden Unexpected Infant Deaths Associated With Deaths of Unknown Cause  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. To investigate underascer- tainment of unexpected infant deaths at the national level as a result of probable classification as attributable to unknown cause. Methods. Using linked birth and death certificates for all US birth cohorts from 1983-1991 and 1995-1996, we identified 53 470 sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) fatalities, 9071 unintentional injury deaths, 3473 injury deaths classified with intentional

Mary D. Overpeck; Ruth A. Brenner; Candace Cosgrove; Ann C. Trumble; Kenneth Kochanek; Marian MacDorman

145

Claims-Based Definition of Death in Japanese Claims Database: Validity and Implications  

PubMed Central

Background For the pending National Claims Database in Japan, researchers will not have access to death information in the enrollment files. We developed and evaluated a claims-based definition of death. Methodology/Principal Findings We used healthcare claims and enrollment data between January 2005 and August 2009 for 195,193 beneficiaries aged 20 to 74 in 3 private health insurance unions. We developed claims-based definitions of death using discharge or disease status and Charlson comorbidity index (CCI). We calculated sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive values (PPVs) using the enrollment data as a gold standard in the overall population and subgroups divided by demographic and other factors. We also assessed bias and precision in two example studies where an outcome was death. The definition based on the combination of discharge/disease status and CCI provided moderate sensitivity (around 60%) and high specificity (99.99%) and high PPVs (94.8%). In most subgroups, sensitivity of the preferred definition was also around 60% but varied from 28 to 91%. In an example study comparing death rates between two anticancer drug classes, the claims-based definition provided valid and precise hazard ratios (HRs). In another example study comparing two classes of anti-depressants, the HR with the claims-based definition was biased and had lower precision than that with the gold standard definition. Conclusions/Significance The claims-based definitions of death developed in this study had high specificity and PPVs while sensitivity was around 60%. The definitions will be useful in future studies when used with attention to the possible fluctuation of sensitivity in some subpopulations.

Ooba, Nobuhiro; Setoguchi, Soko; Ando, Takashi; Sato, Tsugumichi; Yamaguchi, Takuhiro; Mochizuki, Mayumi; Kubota, Kiyoshi

2013-01-01

146

Deaths: Final Data for 2005  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Objectives—This report presents final 2005 data on U.S. deaths; death rates; life expectancy; infant and maternal mortality; and trends by selected characteristics such as age, sex, Hispanic origin, race, marital status, educational attainment, injury at work, state of residence, and causeof death. Methods—This report presents descriptive tabulations of information reported on death certificates, which are completed by funeral directors,

Hsiang-ching Kung; Donna L. Hoyert; Jiaquan Xu; Sherry L. Murphy

147

Fast and secure handover of intra-ASN IEEE802.16 network by proposed certificate based pre-authentication  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The current generation of wireless networks has been designed predominantly to support voice and more recently data traffic. WiMAX is currently one of the hottest technologies in wireless. The main motive of the mobile technologies is to provide seamless cost effective mobility. But this is affected by Authentication cost and handover delay since on each handoff the Mobile Station (MS) has to undergo all steps of authentication. Pre-Authentication is used to reduce the handover delay and increase the speed of the Intra-ASN Handover. Proposed Pre-Authentication method is intended to reduce the authentication delay by getting pre authenticated by central authority called Pre Authentication Authority (PAA). MS requests PAA for Pre Authentication Certificate (PAC) before performing handoff. PAA verifies the identity of MS and provides PAC to MS and also to the neighboring target Base Stations (tBSs). MS having time bound PAC can skip the authentication process when recognized by target BS during handoff. It also prevents the DOS (Denial Of Service) attack and Replay attack. It has no wastage of unnecessary key exchange of the resources. The proposed work is simulated by NS2 model and by MATLAB.

Sridevi, B.; Supriya, T. S.; Rajaram, S.

2013-01-01

148

A post-mortem survey on end-of-life decisions using a representative sample of death certificates in Flanders, Belgium: research protocol  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Reliable studies of the incidence and characteristics of medical end-of-life decisions with a certain or possible life shortening effect (ELDs) are indispensable for an evidence-based medical and societal debate on this issue. This article presents the protocol drafted for the 2007 ELD Study in Flanders, Belgium, and outlines how the main aims and challenges of the study (i.e. making

Kenneth Chambaere; Johan Bilsen; Joachim Cohen; Geert Pousset; Bregje Onwuteaka-Philipsen; Freddy Mortier; Luc Deliens

2008-01-01

149

16 CFR 1204.13 - Certificate of compliance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...SAFETY STANDARD FOR OMNIDIRECTIONAL CITIZENS BAND BASE STATION ANTENNAS Certification § 1204.13 Certificate of compliance...and that the records provide a reasonable assurance that all antennas imported comply with the standard. (b) A...

2013-01-01

150

Certificate of Need Litigation: 1966-1979. Case Briefs.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A comprehensive search for certificate of need litigation was undertaken and the National Health Lawyers Association, based in Washington, D.C., was of great assistance in obtaining many of the cases. Sometimes cases peripheral to certificate of need have...

A. F. Cacozza

1979-01-01

151

Alternative certification science teachers' understanding and implementation of inquiry-based instruction in their beginning years of teaching  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this phenomenographic study was to: (a) understand how beginning science teachers recruited from various science disciplines and prepared in an Alternative Teacher Certification Program (ATCP) implemented inquiry during their initial years of teaching; (b) describe constraints and needs that these beginning science teachers perceived in implementing inquiry-based science instruction; and (c) understand the relation between what they learned in their ATCP and their practice of teaching science through inquiry. The participants of this study consisted of four ATCP teachers who are in their beginning years of teaching. Semi-structured interviews, classroom observation, field notes, and artifacts used as source of data collection. The beginning science teachers in this study held incomplete views of inquiry. These views of inquiry did not reflect inquiry as described in NRC (2000)---essential features of inquiry,---nor did they reflect views of faculty members involved in teaching science methods courses. Although the participants described themselves as reform-oriented, there were inconsistencies between their views and practices. Their practice of inquiry did not reflect inquiry either as outlined by essential features of inquiry (NRC, 2000) or inquiry as modeled in activities used in their ATCP. The research participants' perceived constraints and needs in their implementation of inquiry-based activities. Their perceived constraints included logistical and student constraints and school culture. The perceived needs included classroom management, pedagogical skills, practical knowledge, discipline, successful grade-specific models of inquiry, and access to a strong support system. Prior professional work experience, models and activities used in the ATCP, and benefits of inquiry to student learning were the declared factors that facilitated the research participants' practice of inquiry-based teaching.

Demir, Abdulkadir

152

Ceramide, sphingoid bases, and sphingoid base metabolites as lipid mediators in signaling pathways leading to cell death and disease  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Increased ceramide generation de novo is known to be involved in the mechanism of action of many chemotherapeutic agents and conditions which disrupt cell cycle progression and induce cell death. Conversely, the metabolism of ceramide to sphingoid bases and and sphingoid base 1-phosphates has been i...

153

Age-at-death estimation based on the study of frontosphenoidal sutures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Determination of age at the time of death based on the observation of cranial sutures has led to numerous studies with sometimes contradictory results. The initial hypothesis being that suture closure is part of an age-related physiological process, the conflicting results have been interpreted by various authors as secondary to the choice of sutures, under the co-existing influence of pathological

Anne Dorandeu; Béma Coulibaly; Marie-Dominique Piercecchi-Marti; Christophe Bartoli; Jean Gaudart; Eric Baccino; Georges Leonetti

2008-01-01

154

The Issue of Death and Dying: Employing Problem-Based Learning in Nursing Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Hong Kong nursing students used journals to problem-based learning (PBL) related to dying patients. Increased self-awareness, positive attitude toward death, and culturally sensitive care resulted. PBL methods included information searches, interviews with experts and patients, and tutorials for sharing feelings and information. (Contains 21…

Mok, Esther; Lee, Wai Man; Wong, Frances Kam-yuet

2002-01-01

155

A new mixed acceptance sampling plan based on sudden death testing under the Weibull distribution  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, a new mixed sampling plan based on the group sampling plan and sudden death testing scheme is proposed by assuming that the lifetime of the product follows the Weibull distribution. The optimal parameters of the proposed plan will be determined such that the producer's risk and consumer's risk are satisfied for specified values of acceptable and limiting

Muhammad Aslam; Muhammad Azam; Saminathan Balamurali; Chi-Hyuck Jun

2012-01-01

156

Death in sauna.  

PubMed

Bathing in sauna is common in Finland, where there are approximately 2 million saunas among the population of 5.2 million. In this paper, deaths occurring while in a sauna in 1990-2002 in Finland were studied by analyzing police and forensic autopsy reports, death certificates, and toxicological results. The annual rate of death occurring while in a sauna was less than 2 per 100,000 inhabitants. Close to half (51%) of the cases were determined to be natural deaths and exposure to heat was the cause of death in 25%. Overall, 50% of all cases were under the influence of alcohol. The main conclusion is that death in the sauna is a rare event even in Finland where the frequency of sauna bathing is high. The role of alcohol as a risk factor has grown. The prevention of these deaths should focus on less drinking of alcohol and avoid leaving a drunken bather alone in the sauna. PMID:18471223

Kenttämies, Anu; Karkola, Kari

2008-05-01

157

78 FR 35115 - Listing of Color Additives Exempt From Certification; Mica-Based Pearlescent Pigments  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...mica-based pearlescent pigments as color additives at a level of up to...titanium dioxide and mica as a color additive at a level of up to...achieve its intended technical effect and is suitable for use in coloring...Therefore, we conclude that the color additive regulations...

2013-06-12

158

78 FR 54758 - Listing of Color Additives Exempt From Certification; Mica-Based Pearlescent Pigments...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

The Food and Drug Administration (FDA or we) is confirming the effective date of July 15, 2013, for the final rule that appeared in the Federal Register of June 12, 2013 (78 FR 35115). The final rule amended the color additive regulations to provide for the safe use of mica-based pearlescent pigments prepared from titanium dioxide and mica as color additives in distilled spirits containing not......

2013-09-06

159

Maternal Placental Abnormality and the Risk of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

To determine whether placental abnormality (placental abruption or placental previa) during pregnancy predisposes an infant to a high risk of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS), the authors conducted a population-based case-control study using 1989-1991 California linked birth and death certificate data. They identified 2,107 SIDS cases, 96% of whom were diagnosed through autopsy. Ten controls were randomly selected for each

De-Kun Li; Soora Wi

160

Practical Steps for Marketing Tourism Certification  

Microsoft Academic Search

This guide is part of a series of practical, how-to handbooks on sustainable tourism certification. These handbooks are based on research and reports done by the Center on Ecotourism and Sustainable Development (CESD) and The International Ecotourism Society (TIES) as part of a certification project directed by the Rainforest Alliance and funded by the IDB\\/MIF.

Aimee Russillo; Martha Honey; Abigail Rome; Amos Bien

2007-01-01

161

14 CFR 141.95 - Graduation certificate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...or provisional pilot school certificate must issue...1) The name of the school and the certificate number of the school; (2) The name of...the student received in the course of training...course based on internet media must be uniquely...

2013-01-01

162

Privacy and Accountability in Certificate Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper addresses the threats to privacy that arise from certificate-based authentication and access control and ways of alleviating them. We explain in Sec. 2 how public-key certificates are used and what kind of information they may reveal. Sec. 3 de...

T. Aura C. Ellison

2000-01-01

163

Development of a Coroner-Based Surveillance System for Drug-Related Deaths in Los Angeles County  

PubMed Central

Existing data sources do not provide comprehensive and timely information to adequately monitor drug-related mortality in Los Angeles County. To fill this gap, a surveillance system using coroner data was developed to examine patterns in drug-related deaths. The coroner provided data on all injury deaths in Los Angeles County. A list of keywords that indicate a death was caused by drug use was developed. The cause of death variables in the coroner data were searched for mentions of one of the keywords; if a keyword was detected, that death was classified as drug related. The effectiveness of the keyword list in classifying drug-related deaths was evaluated by matching records in the coroner death data to records in the state death files. Then, the drug-related deaths identified using the keywords were compared to drug-related deaths in the state mortality files identified using International Classification of Death codes. Toxicological test results were used to categorize drug-related deaths based on the type and legality of the drug(s) ingested. Mortality rates were calculated for each category of drug and legal status and for different demographic groups. Compared to the gold standard state mortality files, the coroner data had a sensitivity of 95.6% for identifying drug-related deaths. Over three quarters of all drug-related deaths tested positive for opiates and/or stimulants. Males, Whites, and 35–54-year-olds each accounted for more than half of all drug-related deaths. The surveillance of drug-related deaths using coroner data has several advantages: data are available in a timely fashion, the data include information about the specific substances each victim ingested, and the data can be broken down to compare mortality among specific subpopulations.

Perras, Nicolle; Culross, Patti L.

2010-01-01

164

Diagnostic value of radiography in cases of perinatal death: a population based study  

PubMed Central

Objective: To examine the yield of radiographic abnormalities in a population based set of perinatal deaths, the diagnostic value of whole body postmortem radiographs in the same set, and previous factors that may increase the proportion of useful examinations. Design: Retrospective population based study. Setting: A region of Norway. Patients: All infants from a well defined geographical area who were stillborn or had died soon after birth over an 11 year period (n=542), who had routinely undergone whole body radiography and autopsy. Main outcome measures: (a) Proportion of cases with abnormal radiographic findings. (b) Proportion of abnormal radiographs providing new information that was useful for postmortem diagnosis. Results: Radiographs were abnormal in 162/542 cases (30%). These provided new information about, but did not help to confirm, the pathological process leading to death in 14/162 (8.6%), may have helped to confirm, but not establish, the cause(s) of death in 1/162 (0.6%), and were of vital importance for establishing the cause(s) of death in 5/162 (3.1%). Among infants with external malformations, the proportion of useful radiographs was 12/100 (12%), and among the remainder it was 8/436 (1.8%), a difference of 10.2% (95% confidence interval 3.7% to 16.7%; data missing for six cases). Conclusions: The diagnostic value of postmortem radiography in this population based set was low. However, radiographic findings were of vital importance for establishing the cause(s) of death in 5/542 cases (0.9%).

Olsen, O; Espeland, A; Maartmann-Moe, H; Lachman, R; Rosendahl, K

2003-01-01

165

Impact of Changes in Infant Death Classification on the Diagnosis of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study evaluates the hypothesis that a decline in sudden infant death syndrome in Minnesota is associated with increases in other categories of sudden unexpected infant death. Matched birth and death certificates, autopsy reports, and home visit questionnaires were reviewed for 722 sudden unexpected infant deaths that occurred from January 1, 1996 through December 31, 2002. Descriptive data and cause

Brooke M. Moore; Kathleen L. Fernbach; Marsha J. Finkelstein; Patrick L. Carolan

2008-01-01

166

The "Last Mile" in Standards-Based Reform: Conducting a Match Study Linking Teacher-Certification Tests to Student Standards  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

States have invested significant resources in developing student academic standards. Mr. Murphy argues that, for these standards to be effective, teacher preparation and certification must be aligned with them. He proposes "match studies" as a way to ensure this alignment. (Contains 3 endnotes.)

Murphy, Edward J.

2006-01-01

167

Comprehensive Peroxidase-Based Hematologic Profiling for the Prediction of 1-Year Myocardial Infarction and Death  

PubMed Central

Background Recognition of biological patterns holds promise for improved identification of patients at risk for myocardial infarction (MI) and death. We hypothesized that identifying high- and low-risk patterns from a broad spectrum of hematologic phenotypic data related to leukocyte peroxidase-, erythrocyte- and platelet-related parameters may better predict future cardiovascular risk in stable cardiac patients than traditional risk factors alone. Methods and Results Stable patients (n=7369) undergoing elective cardiac evaluation at a tertiary care center were enrolled. A model (PEROX) that predicts incident 1-year death and MI was derived from standard clinical data combined with information captured by a high-throughput peroxidase-based hematology analyzer during performance of a complete blood count with differential. The PEROX model was developed using a random sampling of subjects in a derivation cohort (n=5895) and then independently validated in a nonoverlapping validation cohort (n=1474). Twenty-three high-risk (observed in ?10% of subjects with events) and 24 low-risk (observed in ?10% of subjects without events) patterns were identified in the derivation cohort. Erythrocyte- and leukocyte (peroxidase)-derived parameters dominated the variables predicting risk of death, whereas variables in MI risk patterns included traditional cardiac risk factors and elements from all blood cell lineages. Within the validation cohort, the PEROX model demonstrated superior prognostic accuracy (78%) for 1-year risk of death or MI compared with traditional risk factors alone (67%). Furthermore, the PEROX model reclassified 23.5% (P<0.001) of patients to different risk categories for death/MI when added to traditional risk factors. Conclusion Comprehensive pattern recognition of high- and low-risk clusters of clinical, biochemical, and hematologic parameters provided incremental prognostic value in stable patients having elective diagnostic cardiac catheterization for 1-year risks of death and MI.

Brennan, Marie-Luise; Reddy, Anupama; Tang, W.H. Wilson; Wu, Yuping; Brennan, Danielle M.; Hsu, Amy; Mann, Shirley A.; Hammer, Peter L.; Hazen, Stanley L.

2010-01-01

168

Software certification implementation: Case studies analysis and findings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Continuous improvement in software quality is an essential concern in software industry. One way to guarantee this continuous improvement is through imposing certification environment. Current studies show that certification of software products are feasible and demonstrate the practicality of the implementation in real situation. Two main models were developed based on end product and process development approach of certification. These

Jamaiah H. Yahaya; Aziz Deraman; Abdul Razak Hamdan

2008-01-01

169

Alternative Teacher Certification.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines issues related to alternative teacher certification, discussing teacher certification in Texas and noting that most researchers agree that both traditional and alternative routes to teacher preparation need improvement. For over a decade, alternative certification has become increasingly available in Texas. This paper…

Newman, Carol; Thomas, Kay

170

Forest Certification in Estonia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This case study provides an overview of the process and effects of forest certification in Estonia. The discussion regarding forest certification was initiated in Estonia in the mid-1990s as environmental NGOs started to highlight the potential benefits of certification. The issue was discussed further in the working groups of the National Forest Development Program, bringing it to the attention of

Rein Ahas; Hando Hain; Peep Mardiste

171

Tradable white certificate schemes: what can we learn from tradable green certificate schemes?  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we analyze the experiences gained from tradable green certificate (TGC) schemes and extract some policy lessons\\u000a that can lead to a successful design of a market-based approach for energy efficiency improvement, alias tradable white certificate\\u000a schemes. We use tradable green certificate schemes existing in the Netherlands and Sweden as case studies. Departing from\\u000a an assessment of both

Vlasis Oikonomou; Luis Mundaca

2008-01-01

172

Survey of New York City Resident Physicians on Cause-of-Death Reporting, 2010  

PubMed Central

Introduction Death certificates contain critical information for epidemiology, public health research, disease surveillance, and community health programs. In most teaching hospitals, resident physicians complete death certificates. The objective of this study was to examine the experiences and opinions of physician residents in New York City on the accuracy of the cause-of-death reporting system. Methods In May and June 2010, we conducted an anonymous, Internet-based, 32-question survey of all internal medicine, emergency medicine, and general surgery residency programs (n = 70) in New York City. We analyzed data by type of residency and by resident experience in reporting deaths. We defined high-volume respondents as those who completed 11 or more death certificates in the last 3 years. Results A total of 521 residents from 38 residency programs participated (program response rate, 54%). We identified 178 (34%) high-volume respondents. Only 33.3% of all respondents and 22.7% of high-volume residents believed that cause-of-death reporting is accurate. Of all respondents, 48.6% had knowingly reported an inaccurate cause of death; 58.4% of high-volume residents had done so. Of respondents who indicated they reported an inaccurate cause, 76.8% said the system would not accept the correct cause, 40.5% said admitting office personnel instructed them to “put something else,” and 30.7% said the medical examiner instructed them to do so; 64.6% cited cardiovascular disease as the most frequent diagnosis inaccurately reported. Conclusion Most resident physicians believed the current cause-of-death reporting system is inaccurate, often knowingly documenting incorrect causes. The system should be improved to allow reporting of more causes, and residents should receive better training on completing death certificates.

Wexelman, Barbara A.; Eden, Edward

2013-01-01

173

Predictors of Death among Patients Who Completed Tuberculosis Treatment: A Population-Based Cohort Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundMortality among patients who complete tuberculosis (TB) treatment is still high among vulnerable populations. The objective of the study was to identify the probability of death and its predictive factors in a cohort of successfully treated TB patients.MethodsA population-based retrospective longitudinal study was performed in Barcelona, Spain. All patients who successfully completed TB treatment with culture-confirmation and available drug susceptibility

Juan-Pablo Millet; Angels Orcau; Cristina Rius; Marti Casals; Patricia Garcia de Olalla; Antonio Moreno; Jeanne L. Nelson; Joan A. Caylà; Ulrike Gertrud Munderloh

2011-01-01

174

Causes of death in osteogenesis imperfecta  

Microsoft Academic Search

AIMS: To determine the causes of death in patients with osteogenesis imperfecta, excluding infants with the perinatal lethal form (type II). METHODS: Seventy nine patients with known osteogenesis imperfecta were identified, 37 of whom had been seen clinically in life. Causes of death were identified from death certificates, postmortem reports, medical records, hospital consultants, relatives, and the Brittle Bone Society's

S J McAllion; C R Paterson

1996-01-01

175

PKIX Certificate Status in Hybrid MANETs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Certificate status validation is a hard problem in general but it is particularly complex in Mobile Ad-hoc Networks (MANETs) because we require solutions to manage both the lack of fixed infrastructure inside the MANET and the possible absence of connectivity to trusted authorities when the certification validation has to be performed. In this sense, certificate acquisition is usually assumed as an initialization phase. However, certificate validation is a critical operation since the node needs to check the validity of certificates in real-time, that is, when a particular certificate is going to be used. In such MANET environments, it may happen that the node is placed in a part of the network that is disconnected from the source of status data at the moment the status checking is required. Proposals in the literature suggest the use of caching mechanisms so that the node itself or a neighbour node has some status checking material (typically on-line status responses or lists of revoked certificates). However, to the best of our knowledge the only criterion to evaluate the cached (obsolete) material is the time. In this paper, we analyse how to deploy a certificate status checking PKI service for hybrid MANET and we propose a new criterion based on risk to evaluate cached status data that is much more appropriate and absolute than time because it takes into account the revocation process.

Muñoz, Jose L.; Esparza, Oscar; Gañán, Carlos; Parra-Arnau, Javier

176

Mortalita nei Primi due Anni di Vita in Italia: Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) e Altre Morti Inattese. (Mortality During the First Two Years of Life in Italy: Sudden Infant Syndrome (SIDS) and Other Unexpected Deaths).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective of this report is to describe the mortality rates in the first two years of life during the period 1990- 2001 in Italy. The analysis is based on death certificates which are centrally collected by the ISTAT (Istituto Nazionale di Statistica,...

2005-01-01

177

Delayed death in sudden infant death syndrome: a San Diego SIDS/SUDC Research Project 15-year population-based report.  

PubMed

A fraction of SIDS cases have death delayed by successful CPR, yet they have not been compared to SIDS cases which were found dead or not successfully resuscitated. Our aims were to: (1) determine the percent of SIDS cases in the San Diego SIDS Research Project database for whom death was delayed by CPR and subsequent life support; (2) compare demographics, circumstances of death and autopsy findings of delayed death SIDS cases (delayed SIDS) with those whose deaths were not delayed (non-delayed SIDS); (3) examine the evolution of pathologic changes in delayed SIDS as a function of survival interval. A retrospective 15-year population-based study of 454 infant deaths attributed to SIDS revealed 29 delayed SIDS cases (Group I) and 425 non-delayed SIDS cases (Group II). Group I cases were significantly older than Group II cases (mean age 132 days vs. 102 days and p<0.0001). Eighty-nine percent of the Group I cases were discovered between 08.00 and 19.59 h; none were found between 00.00 and 07.59 h, compared to 38% of the Group II cases. Group I infants were found significantly more often away from home (at daycare, or at the home of a relative, friend, or baby sitter) than Group II infants (45% vs. 25%, p<0.05). There were no differences between groups with regard to gender, gestational age, type of delivery, bed sharing, URI within 48 h of death, ALTEs, a history of referral to child protective services, body position when placed or found, or face position when found. Pathologic changes were semiquantitatively evaluated; findings were characteristic of anoxic-ischemic injury that generally became more severe with increasing survival intervals. Anoxic-ischemic brain injury was the immediate cause of death in all delayed SIDS cases. Aspiration of gastric contents was identified in Group I cases surviving less than 48 h and was the likely etiology of acute bronchopneumonia occurring in 83% of the Group I cases. We did not identify factors that would reliably predict which SIDS cases might be discovered soon enough to allow earlier and more effective CPR and survival without permanent brain injury. PMID:17988810

Krous, Henry F; Haas, Elisabeth A; Chadwick, Amy E; Masoumi, Homeyra; Mhoyan, Anna; Stanley, Christina

2007-11-07

178

Maintenance of Certification for Radiation Oncology  

SciTech Connect

Maintenance of Certification (MOC) recognizes that in addition to medical knowledge, several essential elements involved in delivering quality care must be developed and maintained throughout one's career. The MOC process is designed to facilitate and document professional development of American Board of Radiology (ABR) diplomates in the essential elements of quality care in Radiation Oncology and Radiologic Physics. ABR MOC has been developed in accord with guidelines of the American Board of Medical Specialties. All Radiation Oncology certificates issued since 1995 are 10-year, time-limited certificates; diplomates with time-limited certificates who wish to maintain specialty certification must complete specific requirements of the American Board of Radiology MOC program. Diplomates with lifelong certificates are not required to participate but are strongly encouraged to do so. Maintenance of Certification is based on documentation of participation in the four components of MOC: (1) professional standing, (2) lifelong learning and self-assessment, (3) cognitive expertise, and (4) performance in practice. Through these components, MOC addresses six competencies-medical knowledge, patient care, interpersonal and communication skills, professionalism, practice-based learning and improvement, and systems-based practice. Details of requirements for components 1, 2, and 3 of MOC are outlined along with aspects of the fourth component currently under development.

Kun, Larry E. [Radiation Oncology Trustees of the American Board of Radiology, Tucson, AZ (United States); Ang, Kian [Radiation Oncology Trustees of the American Board of Radiology, Tucson, AZ (United States); Erickson, Beth [Radiation Oncology Trustees of the American Board of Radiology, Tucson, AZ (United States); Harris, Jay [Radiation Oncology Trustees of the American Board of Radiology, Tucson, AZ (United States); Hoppe, Richard [Radiation Oncology Trustees of the American Board of Radiology, Tucson, AZ (United States); Leibel, Steve [Radiation Oncology Trustees of the American Board of Radiology, Tucson, AZ (United States); Davis, Larry [Assistant Executive Director for Radiation Oncology, American Board of Radiology, Tucson, AZ (United States); Hattery, Robert [Executive Director, American Board of Radiology, Tucson, AZ (United States)

2005-06-01

179

Relation between size of delivery unit and neonatal death in low risk deliveries: population based study  

PubMed Central

AIM—To examine risk of neonatal death after low risk pregnancies in relation to size of delivery units.?METHODS—A population based study of live born singleton infants in Norway with birthweights of at least 2500 g was carried out. Antenatal risk factors were adjusted for.?RESULTS—From 1972 to 1995, 1.25 million births fulfilled the criteria. The neonatal death rate was lowest for maternity units with 2001-3000 annual births and steadily increased with decreasing size of the maternity unit to around twice that for units with less than 100 births a year (odds ratio 2.1; 95 % confidence interval 1.6 to 2.8). Institutions with more than 3000 deliveries a year also had a higher rate (odds ratio 1.7; 95% CI 1.4 to 2.0), but analyses suggest that this rate is overestimated.?CONCLUSION—Around 2000 to 3000 annual births are needed to reduce the risk of neonatal deaths after low risk deliveries.??

Moster, D.; Lie, R. T.; Markestad, T.; MACKINTOSH, M.

1999-01-01

180

Induction of cell death in a glioblastoma line by hyperthermic therapy based on gold nanorods  

PubMed Central

Background Metallic nanorods are promising agents for a wide range of biomedical applications. In this study, we developed an optical hyperthermia method capable of inducing in vitro death of glioblastoma cells. Methods The procedure used was based on irradiation of gold nanorods with a continuous wave laser. This kind of nanoparticle converts absorbed light into localized heat within a short period of time due to the surface plasmon resonance effect. The effectiveness of the method was determined by measuring changes in cell viability after laser irradiation of glioblastoma cells in the presence of gold nanorods. Results Laser irradiation in the presence of gold nanorods induced a significant decrease in cell viability, while no decrease in cell viability was observed with laser irradiation or incubation with gold nanorods alone. The mechanism of cell death mediated by gold nanorods during photothermal ablation was analyzed, indicating that treatment compromised the integrity of the cell membrane instead of initiating the process of programmed cell death. Conclusion The use of gold nanorods in hyperthermal therapies is very effective in eliminating glioblastoma cells, and therefore represents an important area of research for therapeutic development.

Fernandez Cabada, Tamara; Sanchez Lopez de Pablo, Cristina; Martinez Serrano, Alberto; del Pozo Guerrero, Francisco; Serrano Olmedo, Jose Javier; Ramos Gomez, Milagros

2012-01-01

181

46 CFR 107.258 - Crane certification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...16855 Northchase Drive, Houston, TX 77060. (2) International Cargo Gear Bureau, Inc., 321 West 44th Street, New York, NY 10036, on the Internet at http://www.icgb.com . (b) Crane certification must be based uponâ (1) A review...

2012-10-01

182

49 CFR 583.13 - Supplier certification and certificates.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AUTOMOBILE PARTS CONTENT LABELING § 583.13 Supplier certification and certificates. Each supplier shall certify the...

2012-10-01

183

Grid Computing Lecture - Globus Certificate Authorities and Certificates  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Grid Computing Lecture~~Globus certificate authorities and certificates, delegation, proxies, myProxy. Grid Computing Security, authorization, gridmap files, Community Authorization Service (CAS).

Ferner, Clayton; Wilkinson, Barry

2011-07-05

184

14 CFR G - Production Certificates  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Production Certificates G Subpart G Aeronautics...PRODUCTS AND PARTS Production Certificates § 21.165 Responsibility... The holder of a production certificate shallâ (a) Maintain...

2010-01-01

185

77 FR 6482 - Conductor Certification  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...FRA-2009-0035, Notice No. 3; 2130-AC36] Conductor Certification AGENCY: Federal Railroad...prescribed regulations for certification of conductors as required by the Rail Safety Improvement...requiring the certification of train conductors. The Secretary delegated this...

2012-02-08

186

Certification report for the CALMAC solar powered pump  

SciTech Connect

The certification of the CALMCA solar powered thermopump is presented. Each element of the specification is delineated, together with the verification, based on analysis, similarity, inspection, or testing.

Not Available

1978-12-01

187

Verbal Autopsy Methods to Ascertain Birth Asphyxia Deaths in a Community-based Setting in Southern Nepal  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES 1) Develop an approach to ascertain birth asphyxia deaths using verbal autopsy data from a community-based setting in Nepal, and 2) explore variations in birth asphyxia mortality fractions using different birth asphyxia case definitions and hierarchal classifications. PATIENTS AND METHODS Data were prospectively collected during a cluster-randomized, community-based trial of health interventions on neonatal mortality in Sarlahi, Nepal from 2002-2006. To assign cause of death, four computer-assigned, symptom-based asphyxia case definitions; Nepali physician classification; and our independent review of verbal autopsy open narratives were used. Varying hierarchal classification approaches to assign cause of death were also explored. RESULTS Birth asphyxia specific mortality ranged from 26%-54% depending on the computer case definition used. There was poor agreement between computer and physician classification of birth asphyxia (kappa 0.15). By comparing computer, physician, and our independent ascertainment of cause of death, we identified 246 cases of birth asphyxia (32% of neonatal deaths). Allowing for more than one cause of death, 30% and 42% of asphyxia cases also met criteria for prematurity and serious infection, respectively. When a hierarchy was used to assign a single cause of death, the birth asphyxia proportionate mortality was reduced to 12% when identification of deaths due to congenital anomalies, prematurity, and serious infections preceded birth asphyxia. CONCLUSIONS Use of varying verbal autopsy definitions and hierarchal approaches to assign cause of death may substantially affect estimates of birth asphyxia-specific mortality and analyses of risk factors. Verbal autopsy methods need to be standardized and validated in order to generate accurate global estimates to direct policy and resource allocation in low-middle income countries.

Lee, Anne CC; Mullany, Luke C.; Tielsch, James M.; Katz, Joanne; Khatry, Subarna K.; LeClerq, Steven C.; Adhikari, Ramesh K.; Shrestha, Shardaram R.; Darmstadt, Gary L.

2008-01-01

188

Teacher Certification in Manitoba.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet provides information for teachers wishing to qualify for certification in the Canadian province of Manitoba. Written in French and English, the booklet's topics include: (1) requirements for types of teaching certificates (provisional teaching; permanent teaching; special, vocational-industrial, and vocational-business education;…

Manitoba Dept. of Education, Winnipeg.

189

Directory of Fitness Certifications.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article discusses the need for certification of fitness instructors in the aerobic dance/dance-exercise industry and presents results of a survey of 18 agencies that certify instructors. Survey data has been compiled and published. An excerpt is included which lists organizations, training, certification and renewal procedures, publications,…

Parks, Janet B.

1990-01-01

190

Drug Insight: cancer therapy strategies based on restoration of endogenous cell death mechanisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cell death is a normal facet of human physiology, ensuring tissue homeostasis by offsetting cell production with cell demise. Neoplasms arise in part because of defects in physiological cell death mechanisms, contributing to pathological cell expansion. Defects in normal cell death pathways also contribute to cancer progression by permitting progressively aberrant cell behaviors, while also desensitizing tumor cells to immune-mediated

John C Reed

2006-01-01

191

Intervention of cardiomyocyte death based on real-time monitoring of cell adhesion through impedance sensing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cardiomyocyte death caused by proinflammatory cytokines, such as Tumor necrosis factor ? (TNF-?), is one of the hot topics in cardiovascular research. TNF-? can induce multiple cell processes that are dependent on the treatment time although the long-term treatment definitely leads to cell death. The ability to intervene in cell death will be invaluable to reveal the effects of short-term

Yiling Qiu; Ronglih Liao; Xin Zhang

2009-01-01

192

Intervention of cardiomyocyte death based on the impedance-sensing technique of monitoring cell adhesion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cardiomyocyte death is a critical risk factor in a variety of cardiovascular diseases. At the level of individual cardiomyocytes, cell adhesion alters at the early phase of ongoing death. It suggested the possibility of detecting the early sign of cell death through cell detachment and so that we could intervene in the cell response before cell fell into step with

Yiling Qiu; Ronglih Liao; Xin Zhang

2009-01-01

193

Impedance-Based Monitoring of Ongoing Cardiomyocyte Death Induced by Tumor Necrosis Factor ?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Deregulated cardiomyocyte death is a critical risk factor in a variety of cardiovascular diseases. Although various assays have been developed to detect cell responses during cell death, the capability of monitoring cell detachment will enhance the understanding of death processes by providing instant information at its early phase. In this work, we developed an impedance-sensing assay for real-time monitoring of

Yiling Qiu; Ronglih Liao; Xin Zhang

2009-01-01

194

Bioenergetic metabolites regulate base excision repair dependent cell death in response to DNA damage  

PubMed Central

Base excision repair (BER) protein expression is important for resistance to DNA damage-induced cytotoxicity. Conversely, BER imbalance (Polß deficiency or repair inhibition) enhances cytotoxicity of radiation and chemotherapeutic DNA-damaging agents. Whereas inhibition of critical steps in the BER pathway result in the accumulation of cytotoxic DNA double-strand breaks, we report that DNA damage-induced cytotoxicity due to deficiency in the BER protein Polß triggers cell death dependent on PARP activation yet independent of poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR)-mediated AIF nuclear translocation or PARG, suggesting that cytotoxicity is not from PAR or PAR-catabolite signaling. Cell death is rescued by the NAD+ metabolite NMN and is synergistic with inhibition of NAD+ biosynthesis, demonstrating that DNA damage-induced cytotoxicity mediated via BER inhibition is primarily dependent on cellular metabolite bioavailability. We offer a mechanistic justification for the elevated alkylation-induced cytotoxicity of Polß deficient cells, suggesting a linkage between DNA repair, cell survival and cellular bioenergetics.

Tang, Jiang-bo; Goellner, Eva M.; Wang, Xiao-hong; Trivedi, Ram N.; Croix, Claudette M. St; Jelezcova, Elena; Svilar, David; Brown, Ashley R.; Sobol, Robert W.

2009-01-01

195

The high burden of infant deaths in rural Burkina Faso: a prospective community-based cohort study  

PubMed Central

Background Infant mortality rates (IMR) remain high in many sub-Saharan African countries, especially in rural settings where access to health services may be limited. Studies in such communities can provide relevant data on the burden of and risk factors for infant death. We measured IMR and explored risk factors for infant death in a cohort of children born in Banfora Health District, a rural area in South-West Burkina Faso. Methods A prospective community-based cohort study was nested within the PROMISE-EBF trial (NCT00397150) in 24 villages of the study area. Maternal and infant baseline characteristics were collected at recruitment and after birth, respectively. Home visits were conducted at weeks 3, 6, 12, 24 and 52 after birth. Descriptive statistics were calculated using robust standard errors to account for cluster sampling. Cox multivariable regression was used to investigate potential risk factors for infant death. Results Among the 866 live born children included in the study there were 98 infant deaths, yielding an IMR of 113 per 1000 live births (95% CI: 89–143). Over 75% of infant deaths had occurred by 6?months of age and the post neonatal infant mortality rate was 67 per 1000 live births (95% CI: 51–88). Infections (35%) and preterm births complications (23%) were the most common probable causes of death by 6?months. Multivariable analyses identified maternal history of child death, polygyny, twin births and poor anthropometric z-scores at week-3 as factors associated with increased risk of infant death. Conclusions We observed a very high IMR in a rural area of Burkina Faso, a country where 75% of the population lives in rural settings. Community-based health interventions targeting mothers and children at high risk are urgently needed to reduce the high burden of infant deaths in these areas.

2012-01-01

196

The underreporting of deaths of American Indian children in California, 1979 through 1993.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: This study linked birth and death certificates to determine misclassification of deaths of American Indian children in California. METHODS: Birth records for 1979 to 1993 were matched with mortality records through a computerized system. RESULTS: The number of deaths to American Indians was estimated to be three to four times greater than that reported on death certificates. Children in urban counties and those who died before 1987 were more likely to be misclassified. CONCLUSIONS: California death certificates identify less than one third of the deaths among American Indian children. Adjusting for racial misclassification provides a more accurate accounting of child mortality among American Indians.

Epstein, M; Moreno, R; Bacchetti, P

1997-01-01

197

From the emergency department to vital statistics: cause of death uncertain.  

PubMed

Vital statistics are widely used to evaluate trends in health and illness, inform policy, and allocate resources among health priorities. Literature comparing autopsies to clinical death certification has shown that the clinical "cause of death" certification is inaccurate or incomplete in many cases. Short of increasing autopsies, however, these studies have proposed few improvements. Using the case of death certification in the emergency department (ED), the authors analyzed the current approach to death certification. The authors propose the following to improve the quality of data: 1) acceptance of the declaration "manner of death, natural; cause of death, uncertain"; 2) training for physicians in the selection of appropriate underlying causes of death and "chains of causation"; and 3) participation of physicians with ongoing relationships to the patient in the certification process. PMID:18783489

Keirns, Carla C; Carr, Brendan G

2008-08-01

198

Medical Examiners and Manner of Death.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Experimental study of medical examiners produced manner of death determinations from simulated cases to examine interexaminer variation in certification judgments. Found that experience, residence, and religious background of examiner were related to judgments as were victim characteristics of gender, medical cause of death, and the presence of…

Jarvis, George K.; And Others

1991-01-01

199

Commentary: Building the evidence base in support of the American Board of Medical Specialties maintenance of certification program.  

PubMed

In this issue, Lipner and colleagues describe research supporting the value of the examinations used in the maintenance of certification (MOC) programs of the American Board of Internal Medicine and the American Board of Surgery. The authors of this commentary review the contribution of this research and previous investigations that underscore the value of this component of the American Board of Medical Specialties (ABMS) MOC program. In addition, they point out that the MOC examination is one element of a comprehensive approach to physician lifelong learning, assessment, and quality improvement. The ABMS MOC program requires diplomates of the ABMS member boards to engage in continuous professional development in the six domains of competence and performance previously defined by the ABMS and the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education. Although evidence and a sound rationale exist to support educational and assessment methods that target all six domains, it will be important to continue to build the body of evidence demonstrating the value of MOC to the public and to the profession. PMID:21191200

Hawkins, Richard E; Weiss, Kevin B

2011-01-01

200

PEM public key certificate cache server  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Privacy Enhanced Mail (PEM) provides privacy enhancement services to users of Internet electronic mail. Confidentiality, authentication, message integrity, and non-repudiation of origin are provided by applying cryptographic measures to messages transferred between end systems by the Message Transfer System. PEM supports both symmetric and asymmetric key distribution. However, the prevalent implementation uses a public key certificate-based strategy, modeled after the X.509 directory authentication framework. This scheme provides an infrastructure compatible with X.509. According to RFC 1422, public key certificates can be stored in directory servers, transmitted via non-secure message exchanges, or distributed via other means. Directory services provide a specialized distributed database for OSI applications. The directory contains information about objects and then provides structured mechanisms for accessing that information. Since directory services are not widely available now, a good approach is to manage certificates in a centralized certificate server. This document describes the detailed design of a centralized certificate cache serve. This server manages a cache of certificates and a cache of Certificate Revocation Lists (CRL's) for PEM applications. PEMapplications contact the server to obtain/store certificates and CRL's. The server software is programmed in C and ELROS. To use this server, ISODE has to be configured and installed properly. The ISODE library 'libisode.a' has to be linked together with this library because ELROS uses the transport layer functions provided by 'libisode.a.' The X.500 DAP library that is included with the ELROS distribution has to be linked in also, since the server uses the DAP library functions to communicate with directory servers.

Cheung, T.

1993-12-01

201

The Italian Green Certificates market between uncertainty and opportunities  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the overall reform of the electricity industry in 1999, Italy has started the implementation of a new support mechanism for renewable energy sources that is based upon a Green Certificates market. Such certificates will be delivered for 8 years for electricity production to renewable power plants commissioned after 31 March 1999. All the electricity production based on non-renewable energy

Arturo Lorenzoni

2003-01-01

202

Interactions between the power and green certificate markets  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current trend of liberalising the power markets is combined with ambitious deployment plans for power production based on renewable energy supplies. A new policy scheme to ensure this extension has been developed in the form of a green certificate system, with a politically determined target of deployment. In such a system, producers of renewably based electricity receive tradable certificates

S. G. Jensen; K. Skytte

2002-01-01

203

Export Certificate Contacts  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

... Plant and Dairy Foods and Beverages, Certificate of Free Sale Requests for exports of all standardized and related foods excluding seafood, HFS ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/guidanceregulation/importsexports

204

An A+ Certification Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the computer technology program at Thomas A. Edison Vocational and Technical High School in Queens, New York, all of whose graduates go on to specialty secondary schools for additional certification or to postsecondary education programs. (JOW)

Rubenstein, Charles

2003-01-01

205

Lean Manufacturing Engineering Certification  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website from Best Practice Research features online business training courses including lean manufacturing and six sigma certification training courses. The courses are available for purchase and may be taken online.

2012-12-10

206

Certification Exams. Let's Proceed.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The authors discuss why certification examinations for park, recreation, and leisure professionals are needed and highlight specific concerns now being addressed by the Test Development Management Committee of the National Recreation and Park Association. (MT)|

McKinney, William R.; Pope, Michael S.

1986-01-01

207

Paragraph IV Patent Certifications  

Center for Drug Evaluation (CDER)

... Paragraph IV Patent Certifications. As of October 21, 2013. The PDF contains a list of drug products for which an Abbreviated ... More results from www.fda.gov/drugs/developmentapprovalprocess/howdrugsaredevelopedandapproved

208

Death Imagery and Death Anxiety.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigated the relationship between death imagery and death anxiety among 179 undergraduate students. Results reveal subjects with low death anxiety scores had more positive death images. Subjects who imagined death to be young had a more positive image of death. Death was seen as male by majority of respondents. (Author/BL)

McDonald, Rita T.; Hilgendorf, William A.

1986-01-01

209

SHIELD certification package  

SciTech Connect

Certification as applied to existing computer codes includes the verification and validation process, placing the code in configuration control, establishing user qualification standards and training requirements. All software intended for use in critical calculations must be certified. This report is intended to fulfill the requirements for the certification of the SHIELD, SHLDED, GEDIT, GENPRT, FIPROD, FPCALC, and PROCES modules of the SHIELD system built February, 1992, by W.S. Parks. These modules are used for burnup, cooling, separate, and edit calculations.

Boman, C.

1992-02-01

210

Certification Programs for Citrus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Certification programs are important for the long term sustainability of citrus and other crops which are vegetatively propagated.\\u000a The certification program provides a basic platform for all integrated pest management practices, it is important for the\\u000a management of insect and fungal pests, and the program ensures that the grower is planting healthy germplasm of the highest\\u000a horticultural quality. Graft transmissible

Richard F. Lee

211

Increased risk of maternal deaths associated with foreign origin in Spain: a population based case-control study.  

PubMed

In Europe, different studies have identified immigrant women coming from developing countries as a risk group for maternal death. In Spain, an ecological study showed higher maternal mortality rates among foreign mothers compared with Spanish mothers during 2003-04. To examine whether the maternal death risk among foreign mothers in Spain is increased, we performed a population-based matched case-control study. Each case of maternal death during 1999-2006 was matched with four mothers who had given birth during the same year the case occurred. The National Statistics Institute provided the data. The variables in the study were maternal age and country of origin. We used a conditional logistic regression analysis. Adjusted by age, the risk of maternal death was 87% higher among foreign mothers. This study confirms that there is an increased risk of maternal death among foreign mothers in Spain. It would be desirable to analyse the socio-economic and healthcare circumstances surrounding the deaths. PMID:20570961

Luque Fernández, Miguel Ángel; Gutiérrez Garitano, Ignacio; Cavanillas, Aurora Bueno

2010-06-21

212

13 CFR 120.1511 - Certification and other reporting and notification requirements for Other Regulated SBLCs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION BUSINESS LOANS Risk-Based Lender Oversight Enforcement Actions § 120.1511 ...examined and directly regulated by such regulator. (b) Contents of Certification: This certification must include:...

2012-01-01

213

Cesarean delivery and postpartum mortality among primiparas in Washington State, 1987–1996 1 1 We acknowledge the data linkage programming support of William O’Brien. We are grateful to George J. Gilson, MD, University of New Mexico, and Susan E. Gerber, MD, MPH, Northwestern University Medical School for assistance with classification of maternal deaths  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To examine the association between delivery method and mortality within 6 months of delivery among primiparas.Methods: We conducted a population-based, retrospective cohort analysis using statewide, maternally linked birth certificate, hospital discharge, and death certificate data. The present cohort was all primiparas who gave birth to live-born infants in civilian hospitals in Washington State from January 1, 1987 through December

Mona Lydon-Rochelle; Victoria L Holt; Thomas R Easterling; Diane P Martin

2001-01-01

214

Antibody-based fusion proteins to target death receptors in cancer.  

PubMed

Ideally, an immunotoxin should be inactive 'en route', acquire activity only after tumor cell surface binding and have no off-target effects towards normal cells. In this respect, antibody-based fusion proteins that exploit the tumor-selective pro-apoptotic death ligands sFasL and sTRAIL appear promising. Soluble FasL largely lacks receptor-activating potential, whereas sTRAIL is inactive towards normal cells. Fusion proteins in which an anti-tumor antibody fragment (scFv) is fused to sFasL or sTRAIL prove to be essentially inactive when soluble, while gaining potent anti-tumor activity after selective binding to a predefined tumor-associated cell surface antigen. Importantly, off-target binding by scFv:sTRAIL to normal cells showed no signs of toxicity. In this review, we highlight the rationale and perspectives of scFv:TRAIL/scFv:sFasL based fusion proteins for cancer therapy. PMID:21215513

de Bruyn, Marco; Bremer, Edwin; Helfrich, Wijnand

2011-01-06

215

Risk factors for sudden unexpected death in epilepsy: a controlled prospective study based on coroners cases  

Microsoft Academic Search

We performed a controlled prospective study of pathologically verified sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) in a coronial setting, to identify risk factors. We prospectively studied coronial deaths of people with epilepsy in Vic., Australia, during a 21-month period. Fifty SUDEP and 50 subjects with epilepsy who died of other causes (controls) were collected sequentially. Clinical data was obtained shortly

KENNETH OPESKIN; SAMUEL F BERKOVIC

2003-01-01

216

8 CFR 212.15 - Certificates for foreign health care workers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...to obtain a certificate. The Secretary...be granted a certificate. HHS will...professional training school located in Australia...Paper-Based 560, Computer-Based 220...not accept the results of the TOEIC...to obtain a certificate: (A) ETS...program was in operation on or...

2009-01-01

217

8 CFR 212.15 - Certificates for foreign health care workers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...to obtain a certificate. The Secretary...be granted a certificate. HHS will...professional training school located in Australia...Paper-Based 560, Computer-Based 220...not accept the results of the TOEIC...to obtain a certificate: (A) ETS...program was in operation on or...

2010-01-01

218

Development of a cell death-based method for the screening of nuclear factor-kappaB inhibitors.  

PubMed

Nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappaB) plays a significant role in immunity and inflammation and represents a first choice as pharmacological target for anti-inflammatory therapy. However, research in this field has been hampered by the fact that no convenient assay suitable for large-scale screening procedures is available. The present study provides a cell death-based assay method for screening of nuclear factor-kappaB inhibitors. In this study, we observed that four distinct pharmacologic inhibitors of NF-kappaB, pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC), N-tosyl-L-lysyl chloromethyl ketone (TPCK), genistein and BAY11-7082, resulted in the cell death of murine macrophages, J774A.1. DNA-binding experiments showed that lethal doses were consistent with those required for NF-kappaB inhibition. DNA fragmentation analysis showed that cell death is apoptotic in nature. Further studies suggested that NF-kappaB inhibitors induced apoptosis is independent of the involvement of other markers of cell death such as caspases and p38 MAP (Mitogen activated protein) kinase. From this study, we conclude that NF-kappaB activation may represent an important survival mechanism in macrophages. This study also provides a new cell-based screening method, as any compound that will inhibit NF-kappaB activity will result in the death of macrophages. PMID:18430434

Chopra, Puneet; Bajpai, Malini; Dastidar, Sunanda G; Ray, Abhijit

2008-03-26

219

Verbal autopsy of 48 000 adult deaths attributable to medical causes in Chennai (formerly Madras), India  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: In the city of Chennai, India, registration of the fact of death is almost complete but the cause of death is often inadequately recorded on the death certificate. A special verbal autopsy (VA) study of 48 000 adult deaths in Chennai during 1995–97 was conducted to arrive at the probable underlying cause of death and to measure cause specific

Vendhan Gajalakshmi; Richard Peto; Santhanakrishnan Kanaka; Sivagurunathan Balasubramanian

2002-01-01

220

Under-recording of ethanol intoxication and poisoning in cause-of-death data: causes and consequences.  

PubMed

In the present study we examined how consistently and completely the role of acute alcohol (ethanol) intake as a cause of death is reported on death certificates, how complete and specific the statistical recording of cause-of-death data on acute alcohol-induced deaths is, and how the information ultimately appears in the national mortality statistics. Data on all alcohol-positive deaths with blood alcohol concentration of ? 0.5‰ (g/kg) in Finland in 2005 (N = 2348) were reviewed. Overall, a concentration-dependent association was found between forensic-toxicologically determined blood alcohol concentrations and acute alcohol-specific cause-of-death diagnoses. Based on a medico-legal re-evaluation of death certificates, acute alcohol-specific causes were found to be underreported nationally at a rate of 8%. For accidental alcohol poisonings alone, the figure was about 1%. This underreporting was not corrected during recording of the cause-of-death data, though individual corrections and changes were observed. Especially, recording of multiple causes suffers from this underreporting of acute alcohol-specific causes. ICD-10 seems to do well in fulfilling the demands for a specific classification of uncomplicated alcohol poisoning. In combined alcohol-drug poisonings, however, ICD-10 shows a bias towards drugs over alcohol, even when alcohol has been specified and reported as the most toxic component by the medico-legal pathologist. Since the national statistics is based on the underlying causes, this state of affairs is likely to result in the underestimation of the role of acute alcohol intake as a cause of death. This observation of underreporting of acute alcohol-specific causes on death certificates should result in a harmonisation of education and principles and practices used in death certification. To increase the coverage and specificity of mortality statistics, based on the underlying causes of death, the coding of all components of alcohol-drug combinations and their classification according to the most important intoxicant or combination of intoxicants is recommended. PMID:21708436

Lahti, Raimo A; Sajantila, Antti; Korpi, Helena; Poikolainen, Kari; Vuori, Erkki

2011-06-25

221

Preventing Fire Death and Injury, Conducting a Fire Drill in a Group Home [and] When You Need a Fire Safety Expert. National Fire Safety Certification System. Continuing Education Program. Volume 1, Numbers 1-3.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Three booklets provide fire safety information for staff of residential facilities serving people with developmental disabilities. Booklets focus on: (1) preventing fire death and injury, (2) conducting a fire drill in a group home, and (3) the role of fire safety experts. The first booklet stresses the elimination of the following dangers:…

Walker, Bonnie

222

Preventing Fire Death and Injury, Conducting a Fire Drill in a Group Home [and] When You Need a Fire Safety Expert. National Fire Safety Certification System. Continuing Education Program. Volume 1, Numbers 1-3.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three booklets provide fire safety information for staff of residential facilities serving people with developmental disabilities. Booklets focus on: (1) preventing fire death and injury, (2) conducting a fire drill in a group home, and (3) the role of fire safety experts. The first booklet stresses the elimination of the following dangers:…

Walker, Bonnie

223

An inner-city school-based program to promote early awareness of risk factors for sudden infant death syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adolescent, nonwhite women with less than high school education have infants at higher risk for Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) but face barriers to risk reduction education. We implemented a novel school-based health education program (grades 4 to 12) and found an association between exposure and awareness of risk factors.

Barbara M. Ostfeld; Linda Esposito; Diane Straw; Jeannette Burgos; Thomas Hegyi

2005-01-01

224

13 CFR 120.1708 - Pool Certificates.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...backing a Pool Certificate, SBA, through the CSA, will make advances to maintain the schedule... (e) Pool Certificate form. The CSA prepares the Pool Certificate. SBA must...Certificate must be registered with the CSA. (g) Face amount of Pool...

2012-01-01

225

42 CFR 493.639 - Fee for revised certificate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT...must pay a fee to cover the cost of issuing a revised registration...certificate is based on the cost to issue the revised certificate...must pay a fee to cover the cost of issuing a revised...

2011-10-01

226

Continuously ensuring quality through software product certification: A case study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper focuses on the measures we take at software certification approach to continually ensure quality as we use and operate software in certain environment. Previous study has showed that certification of software products is feasible and demonstrate the practicality of the implementation in real situation. In 2007, SCM-prod model has been developed based on end product quality approach of

Jamaiah Yahaya; Aziz Deraman; Abdul Razak Hamdan

2010-01-01

227

Developing an Online Certification Program for Nutrition Education Assistants  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Objective: To develop an online certification program for nutrition education paraprofessionals to increase knowledge and confidence and to overcome training barriers of programming time and travel expenses. Design: An online interactive certification course based on Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program-Education and Expanded Food and…

Christofferson, Debra; Christensen, Nedra; LeBlanc, Heidi; Bunch, Megan

2012-01-01

228

Predictors of Place of Death for Seniors in Ontario: A Population-Based Cohort Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Place of death was determined for all 58,689 seniors (age greater than or equal to 66 years) in Ontario who died during fiscal year 2001/2002. The relationship of place of death to medical and socio-demographic characteristics was examined using a multinomial logit model. Half (49.2 %) of these individuals died in hospital, 30.5 per cent died in a…

Motiwala, Sanober S.; Croxford, Ruth; Guerriere, Denise N.; Coyte, Peter C.

2006-01-01

229

Predictors of Place of Death for Seniors in Ontario: A Population-Based Cohort Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Place of death was determined for all 58,689 seniors (age greater than or equal to 66 years) in Ontario who died during fiscal year 2001/2002. The relationship of place of death to medical and socio-demographic characteristics was examined using a multinomial logit model. Half (49.2 %) of these individuals died in hospital, 30.5 per cent died in…

Motiwala, Sanober S.; Croxford, Ruth; Guerriere, Denise N.; Coyte, Peter C.

2006-01-01

230

Intervention of cardiomyocyte death based on real-time monitoring of cell adhesion through impedance sensing.  

PubMed

Cardiomyocyte death caused by proinflammatory cytokines, such as Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), is one of the hot topics in cardiovascular research. TNF-alpha can induce multiple cell processes that are dependent on the treatment time although the long-term treatment definitely leads to cell death. The ability to intervene in cell death will be invaluable to reveal the effects of short-term TNF-alpha treatment to cardiomyocytes. However, a real-time monitoring technique is needed to guide the intervention of cell responses. In this work, we employed the impedance-sensing technique to real-time monitor the equivalent cell-substrate distance of cardiomyocytes via electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and electrical cell-substrate impedance sensing (ECIS). In the stabilized cardiomyocyte culture, the sustained TNF-alpha treatment caused strengthened cell adhesion in the first 2 h which was followed by the transition to cell detachment afterwards. Considering cell detachment was an early morphological evidence of cell death, we removed TNF-alpha from the cardiomyocyte culture before the transition to achieve the intervention of cell responses. The result of this intervention showed that cell adhesion was continuously strengthened before and after the removal of TNF-alpha, indicating the short-term treated cardiomyocytes did not undergo death processes. It was also demonstrated in TUNEL and TBE tests that the percentages of apoptosis and cell death were both lowered. PMID:19615884

Qiu, Yiling; Liao, Ronglih; Zhang, Xin

2009-06-24

231

A toxicology-based review of fentanyl-related deaths in New Mexico (1986-2007).  

PubMed

Since its approval in the United States, fentanyl has become increasingly popular for the medical management of pain and as a substance of abuse. Fentanyl is unique among the opioids in its widespread use with a transdermal delivery system, which contributes to its unique pharmacokinetics and abuse potential. We examined the demographics of deaths with fentanyl identified on toxicologic analysis and reviewed specific challenges in the laboratory detection of postmortem fentanyl levels. The New Mexico Office of the Medical Investigator database was searched for all cases from January 1986 through December 2007 with fentanyl reported as present or quantified. Those deaths with a cause of death identified as drug overdose were then analyzed separately. From 1986 to 2007, 154 cases were identified with fentanyl present in postmortem samples, with 96 of the cases identified as fentanyl-related drug overdoses. The number of fentanyl-related deaths has increased over the past 20 years, corresponding to both statewide increases in the medical use of fentanyl and the abuse of prescription opioids. The demographics of these fentanyl-related overdoses showed that subjects were more likely to be female, white non-Hispanic, and older than those in previously described overdose deaths. Several cases were identified with central and peripheral blood samples and antemortem and postmortem samples available for fentanyl quantification. Given the uncharacteristic demographics of fentanyl-related deaths and the complexity of the laboratory analysis of fentanyl, forensic scientists must use caution in both the detection and interpretation of fentanyl concentrations. PMID:21986276

Krinsky, Clarissa S; Lathrop, Sarah L; Crossey, Michael; Baker, Ginger; Zumwalt, Ross

2011-12-01

232

Certification of computer security professionals.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The first steps toward professional recognition include a certification program that the International Information Systems Security Certification Consortium is prepared to develop and oversee. Our profession has evolved in the last fifteen years, and it i...

J. D. Fluckiger

1991-01-01

233

Appendix 2: Cross Certification Process  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

Text Version... You will receive an email from Wendy.lee@fda.hhs.gov with an attachment and a subject line of “Certificate Query Result ... Click “View Certificate” ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/biologicsbloodvaccines/guidancecomplianceregulatoryinformation

234

Rehabilitation Counselor Certification: Moving Forward  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article provides a brief history of the Commission on Rehabilitation Counselor Certification and presents recent changes and strategic goals for moving forward. Challenges and opportunities for the profession in relation to certification are also discussed. (Contains 3 tables.)|

Saunders, Jodi L.; Barros-Bailey, Mary; Chapman, Cindy; Nunez, Patricia

2009-01-01

235

Mandatory Certification Needed in Librarianship.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report on the need for compulsory, standardized procedures for the certification of librarians (1) provides an historical overview of the subject; (2) identifies three types of certification; compulsory, permissive, and voluntary; (3) outlines curren...

B. R. Williams

1977-01-01

236

Rehabilitation Counselor Certification: Moving Forward  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article provides a brief history of the Commission on Rehabilitation Counselor Certification and presents recent changes and strategic goals for moving forward. Challenges and opportunities for the profession in relation to certification are also discussed. (Contains 3 tables.)

Saunders, Jodi L.; Barros-Bailey, Mary; Chapman, Cindy; Nunez, Patricia

2009-01-01

237

A Fair Trade approach to community forest certification? A framework for discussion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forest certification has gained growing attention as a market-based instrument to make globalizing markets a force for mitigating rather than fostering environmental degradation. Yet in practice, market mechanisms currently appear to encourage concentration of forest certification in Northern temperate and boreal forests, rather than in the tropical forests certification originally aimed to protect. At the same time, the share of

Peter Leigh Taylor

2005-01-01

238

40 CFR 745.229 - Certification of individuals and firms engaged in lead-based paint activities: public and...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...lead-based paint activities: public and commercial buildings, bridges and superstructures. [Reserved] 745.229 Section 745...lead-based paint activities: public and commercial buildings, bridges and superstructures....

2013-07-01

239

Common Genetic Variants, QT Interval and Sudden Cardiac Death in a Finnish Population-Based Study  

PubMed Central

Background Although sudden cardiac death (SCD) is heritable, its genetic underpinnings are poorly characterized. The QT interval appears to have a graded relationship to SCD and 35–45% of its variation is heritable. We examined the relationship among recently reported common genetic variants, QT interval and SCD. Methods and Results We genotyped 15 common (minor allele frequency >1%) candidate SNPs, based on association to the QT interval in prior studies, in individuals in 2 cohort studies (Health 2000, n=6,597; Mini-Finland, n=801). After exclusions, we identified 116 incident SCDs from the remaining sample (n=6,808). We constructed a QT genotype score (QTscore) using the allele copy number and previously reported effect estimates for each SNP. Cox proportional hazards models adjusting for age, sex, and geographical area were used time to SCD analyses. The QTscore was a continuous independent predictor of the heart rate-corrected QT interval (P<10?107). Comparing the top to the bottom quintile of QTscore, there was a 15.6 msec higher group mean QT interval (P<10?84). A 10 msec increase in the observed QT was associated with an increased risk of SCD (HR 1.19, 95% CI 1.07–1.32, P=0.002). There was no linear relationship between QTscore and SCD risk; although, in post-hoc secondary analysis there was increased risk in the top compared with the middle QTscore quintile (HR of 1.92, 95% CI 1.05–3.58, P=0.04). Conclusions Our study strongly replicates the relationship between common genetic variants and the QT interval, confirms the relationship between the QT interval and SCD, but does not show evidence for a linear relationship between QTscore and SCD risk.

Noseworthy, Peter A.; Havulinna, Aki S.; Porthan, Kimmo; Lahtinen, Annukka M.; Jula, Antti; Karhunen, Pekka J.; Perola, Markus; Oikarinen, Lasse; Kontula, Kimmo K.; Salomaa, Veikko; Newton-Cheh, Christopher

2011-01-01

240

Delayed death in sudden infant death syndrome: A San Diego SIDS\\/SUDC Research Project 15-year population-based report  

Microsoft Academic Search

A fraction of SIDS cases have death delayed by successful CPR, yet they have not been compared to SIDS cases which were found dead or not successfully resuscitated. Our aims were to: (1) determine the percent of SIDS cases in the San Diego SIDS Research Project database for whom death was delayed by CPR and subsequent life support; (2) compare

Henry F. Krous; Elisabeth A. Haas; Amy E. Chadwick; Homeyra Masoumi; Anna Mhoyan; Christina Stanley

2008-01-01

241

Trends in certification and professionalism  

Microsoft Academic Search

This presentation will focus on trends which are affecting certification and professionalism among computing personnel. Such trends, both from within the industry and from without, will be discussed with emphasis on the still pending choice between voluntary certification and mandatory licensing. The enhancement of certification programs accelerated in the seventies with the establishment of ICCP and the associated support of

Fred H. Harris

1979-01-01

242

Overview of the DOE packaging certification process  

SciTech Connect

This paper gives an overview of the DOE packaging certification process, which is implemented by the Office of Facility Safety Analysis, under the Assistance Secretary for Environment, Safety and Health, for packagings that are not used for weapons and weapons components, nor for naval nuclear propulsion. The overview will emphasize Type B packagings and the Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP) review that parallels the NRC packaging review. Other important elements in the DOE packaging certification program, such as training, methods development, data bases, and technical assistance, are also emphasized, because they have contributed significantly to the improvement of the certification process since DOE consolidated its packaging certification function in 1985. The paper finishes with a discussion of the roles and functions of the DOE Packaging Safety Review Steering Committee, which is chartered to address issues and concerns of interest to the DOE packaging and transportation safety community. Two articles related to DOE packaging certification were published earlier on the SARP review procedures and the DOE Packaging Review Guide. These articles may be consulted for additional information.

Liu, Y.Y.; Carlson, R.D. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Carlson, R.W. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Kapoor, A. [USDOE, Washington, DC (United States)

1995-12-31

243

Community-based surveillance of paediatric deaths in Cross River State, Nigeria.  

PubMed

A house-to-house survey of paediatric deaths which occurred from January to December 1991 in the village of Nko, Cross River State, Nigeria, was carried out. Among the 471 total deaths recorded, the leading causes were malaria (29%), protein-energy malnutrition, pneumonia and diarrhoeal disease (11% each). Neonatal deaths were largely due to septicaemia, tetanus and birth asphyxia. Poor domestic and human waste disposal, lack of portable water and basic health facilities appear to be the important related factors to child health problems in this community. The provision of public toilets, safe water, primary health care centres and health education can definitely improve the health status of this rural community. Events in other rural communities in Nigeria are most likely to be similar to that in Nko. Such populations need to be identified and their problems urgently addressed. PMID:7855918

Ekanem, E E; Asindi, A A; Okoi, O U

1994-01-01

244

Certification of Computer Literacy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explains the International Computer Driving License (ICDL), an internationally recognized computer literacy training and certification program. Topics include standards, goals, and guidelines that have been developed at national, state, and local levels for elementary, secondary, and higher education; use in business; and the seven modules in the…

Csapo, Nancy

2002-01-01

245

Standards and Certification. Symposium.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This document contains three papers from a symposium on standards and certification in human resource development (HRD). "Implementing Management Standards in the UK" (Jonathan Winterton, Ruth Winterton) reports on a study that explored the implementation of management standards in 16 organizations and identified 36 key themes and strategic…

2002

246

The issue of death and dying: employing problem-based learning in nursing education  

Microsoft Academic Search

Caring for dying patients can be an emotionally painful, distressing and sometimes threatening experience for nurses as the illness is incurable and death is imminent. The avoidance of discussion of dying in the presence of patients in Chinese culture further increases nurses' anxiety. The purpose of this article is to provide an example of how nurses can be helped when

Esther Mok; Wai; Frances Kam-yuet

2002-01-01

247

Linking Aging, Death, Global Health, and University-based Community Service Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the concept of "horrendous death" (those caused by other people) and its application in the Adult Health and Development Program at the University of Maryland, a multi-ethnic, interracial, intergenerational health promotion and rehabilitation program. This service-learning program applies gerontological health theory and research in…

Leviton, Daniel

1999-01-01

248

Preventable Injury Deaths: A Population-Based Proxy of Child Maltreatment Risk in California  

PubMed Central

Objective This study used group variations in child injury fatality rates to assess racial bias in the population of children identified as victims of maltreatment. Methods Injury fatality and maltreatment data from California were compiled for the years 1998–2007. Death and maltreatment risk ratios (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were computed by race and age. Rates of excess child injury mortality by race were derived from three different baseline rates of death. Substantiations per excess injury death were calculated. Results Compared with white children, black children faced a risk of substantiated maltreatment that was more than twice as great (black RR: 2.39, 95% CI 2.37, 2.42) and were fatally injured at nearly twice the rate (black RR: 1.89, 95% CI 1.68, 2.12). Per excess death, however, black children had rates of substantiated maltreatment allegations that were equivalent to or lower than the rates for white children. Conclusions These data support claims that, at least in California, black-white racial disparities observed in maltreatment rates reflect real group differences in risk. These data provide no evidence of systematic racial bias in the child protective services' substantiation process.

Putnam-Hornstein, Emily

2012-01-01

249

Atomic oxygen interaction with spacecraft materials: Relationship between orbital and ground-based testing for materials certification  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of atomic oxygen on boron nitride, silicon nitride, solar cell interconnects used on the Intelsat 6 satellite, organic polymers, and MoSâ and WSâ dry lubricant have been studied in low Earth orbit (LEO) flight experiments and in our ground-based simulation facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory. Both the in-flight and ground-based experiments employed in situ electrical resistance measurements

J. B. Cross; S. L. Koontz; E. H. Lan

1991-01-01

250

Parental death or divorce in childhood: Problems, interventions, and outcomes in a school based mental health project  

Microsoft Academic Search

Children with histories of parental separation\\/divorce or death in a school based helping program with nonprofessional child-aides were compared directly to each other and to referred children without such histories on initial referral problems, treatment goals, and outcome measures. Children with separation\\/divorce histories were rated by child-aides as having more serious acting-out problems at referral. Aides also set more treatment

Robert D. Felner; Melanie A. Ginter; Mary F. Boike; Emory L. Cowen

1981-01-01

251

Personnel Issues in School-Based Physical Therapy: A Look at Supply and Demand, Professional Preparation, Licensure, and Certification  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Physical therapy in school settings focuses on outcomes and is based on meeting the educational needs of the child or student. Despite the expansion in delivery models beyond direct one-to-one intervention, and the use of multiple team members, to achieve outcomes for students in educational environments, there continue to be shortages of…

Rapport, Mary Jane K.; Effgen, Susan K.

2004-01-01

252

Diagnosis of causes of childhood deaths in developing countries by verbal autopsy: suggested criteria. The SEARCH Team.  

PubMed Central

In the absence of medical certification of deaths in developing countries, lay reporting and verbal autopsy have emerged as useful alternative methods for collecting data on causes of death. Of these, verbal autopsy offers advantages and is widely used in field studies and child survival programmes. However, because uniform and valid criteria for the diagnosis of common causes of death are lacking, comparison of the results of different studies becomes meaningless. This article proposes such a set of criteria for the cause of death among neonates and for those aged 1-59 months. The criteria are based on the findings of earlier validation studies, a Delphi survey and the experience gained from performing 1000 verbal autopsies in Gadchiroli, India. The emergence of such standardized criteria of causes of death should be of immense value for health planning, monitoring and evaluation purposes and for interregional comparisons.

Bang, A. T.; Bang, R. A.

1992-01-01

253

Aetiology of sudden cardiac death in sport: a histopathologist's perspective  

PubMed Central

In the UK, when a young person dies suddenly, the coroner is responsible for establishing the cause of death. They will ask a consultant pathologist to carry out an autopsy in order to ascertain when, where and how that person died. Once the cause of death is established and is due to natural causes, the coroner can issue a death certificate. Importantly, the coroner is not particularly interested in the cause of death as long as it is due to natural causes, which avoids the need for an inquest (a public hearing about the death). However, if no identifiable cause is established at the initial autopsy, the coroner can refer the heart to a cardiac pathologist, since the cause of death is usually due to heart disease in most cases. Consultant histopathologists are responsible for the analysis of human tissue from both living individuals and the dead in order to make a diagnosis of disease. With recent advancements in the management protocols for routine autopsy practice and assessment following the sudden death of a young individual, this review describes the role of the consultant histopathologist in the event of a sudden death of a young athletic individual, together with the older middle-aged ‘weekend warrior’ athlete. It provides concise mechanisms for the main causes of sudden cardiac death (including coronary artery disease, cardiomyopathies, valve abnormalities, major vessel ruptures and electrical conduction abnormalities) based on detailed autopsy data from our specialised cardiac pathology laboratory. Finally, the review will discuss the role of the histopathologist in the event of a ‘negative’ autopsy.

Sheppard, Mary N

2012-01-01

254

Insights into sepsis therapeutic design based on the apoptotic death pathway.  

PubMed

Sepsis remains the leading cause of death in critically ill patients. A major problem contributing to sepsis-related high mortality is the lack of effective medical treatment. Thus, the key goal in critical care medicine is to develop novel therapeutic strategies that will impact favorably on septic patient outcome. While it is generally accepted that sepsis is an inflammatory state resulting from the systemic response to infection, apoptosis is implicated to be an important mechanism of the death of lymphocytes, gastrointestinal and lung epithelial cells, and vascular endothelial cells associated with the development of multiple organ failure in sepsis. The pivotal role of cell apoptosis is now highlighted by multiple studies demonstrating that prevention of cell apoptosis can improve survival in clinically relevant animal models of sepsis. In this review article, we address the scientific rationale for remedying apoptotic cell death in sepsis and propose that therapeutic efforts aimed at blocking cell signaling pathways leading to apoptosis may represent an attractive target for sepsis therapy. PMID:21081836

Hattori, Yuichi; Takano, Ken-ichi; Teramae, Hiroki; Yamamoto, Seiji; Yokoo, Hiroki; Matsuda, Naoyuki

2010-11-11

255

Verbal autopsy of 80,000 adult deaths in Tamilnadu, South India  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Registration of the fact of death is almost complete in the city of Chennai and not so in the rural Villupuram district in Tamilnadu, India. The cause of death is often inadequately recorded on the death certificate in developing countries like India. A special verbal autopsy (VA) study of 48 000 adult (aged ? 25 yrs) deaths in the

Vendhan Gajalakshmi; Richard Peto

2004-01-01

256

Epilepsy mortality and risk factors for death in epilepsy: a population-based study  

PubMed Central

Background Epilepsy is an important cause of amenable mortality but risk factors for death in epilepsy are not well understood. Aim To evaluate trends in epilepsy mortality in a large population and identify risk factors for death in epilepsy. Design and setting Nested case–control study in the UK, using data from the General Practice Research Database (GPRD) from 1993 to 2007. Method Participants were included if they had ever been diagnosed with epilepsy and prescribed anticonvulsant drugs. Trends in all-cause mortality in persons with epilepsy in the GPRD were compared with death registrations with epilepsy as the underlying cause. A nested case–control study was implemented to compare participants with epilepsy who died with those who did not die. Results The prevalence of epilepsy increased from 9 per 1000 in 1993 to 12 per 1000 in 2007, and epilepsy deaths also increased in this period. In a nested case–control study, mortality was associated with: recorded alcohol problems (odds ratio [OR] 2.96, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.25 to 3.89, P<0.001); having collected the last anticonvulsant prescription 90–182 days previously (OR 1.83, CI = 1.66 to 2.03, P<0.001); having an injury in the previous year (OR 1.41, 95% CI = 1.30 to 1.53, P<0.001), and having been treated for depression (OR 1.39, 95% CI = 1.28 to 1.50, P<0.001). In data available from 2004 onwards, being recorded seizure free in the previous 12 months was associated with lower mortality (OR 0.78, 95% CI = 0.71 to 0.86, P<0.001). Conclusion Mortality with epilepsy appears to be increasing. Patients who have alcohol problems, do not collect repeat prescriptions for anticonvulsant drugs, have recent injuries, or have been treated for depression may be at increased risk of death; patients who remain seizure free over 12 months are at a lower risk.

Ridsdale, Leone; Charlton, Judith; Ashworth, Mark; Richardson, Mark P; Gulliford, Martin C

2011-01-01

257

Changing Patterns in Place of Cancer Death in England: A Population-Based Study  

PubMed Central

Background Most patients with cancer prefer to die at home or in a hospice, but hospitals remain the most common place of death (PoD).This study aims to explore the changing time trends of PoD and the associated factors, which are essential for end-of-life care improvement. Methods and Findings The study analysed all cancer deaths in England collected by the Office for National Statistics during 1993–2010 (n?=?2,281,223). Time trends of age- and gender-standardised proportion of deaths in individual PoDs were evaluated using weighted piecewise linear regression. Variables associated with PoD (home or hospice versus hospital) were determined using proportion ratio (PR) derived from the log-binomial regression, adjusting for clustering effects. Hospital remained the most common PoD throughout the study period (48.0%; 95% CI 47.9%–48.0%), followed by home (24.5%; 95% CI 24.4%–24.5%), and hospice (16.4%; 95% CI 16.3%–16.4%). Home and hospice deaths increased since 2005 (0.87%; 95% CI 0.74%–0.99%/year, 0.24%; 95% CI 0.17%–0.32%/year, respectively, p<0.001), while hospital deaths declined (?1.20%; 95% CI ?1.41 to ?0.99/year, p<0.001). Patients who died from haematological cancer (PRs 0.46–0.52), who were single, widowed, or divorced (PRs 0.75–0.88), and aged over 75 (PRs 0.81–0.84 for 75–84; 0.66–0.72 for 85+) were less likely to die in home or hospice (p<0.001; reference groups: colorectal cancer, married, age 25–54). There was little improvement in patients with lung cancer of dying in home or hospice (PRs 0.87–0.88). Marital status became the second most important factor associated with PoD, after cancer type. Patients from less deprived areas (higher quintile of the deprivation index) were more likely to die at home or in a hospice than those from more deprived areas (lower quintile of the deprivation index; PRs 1.02–1.12). The analysis is limited by a lack of data on individual patients' preferences for PoD or a clinical indication of the most appropriate PoD. Conclusions More efforts are needed to reduce hospital deaths. Health care facilities should be improved and enhanced to support the increased home and hospice deaths. People who are single, widowed, or divorced should be a focus for end-of-life care improvement, along with known at risk groups such as haematological cancer, lung cancer, older age, and deprivation. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary

Gao, Wei; Ho, Yuen K.; Verne, Julia; Glickman, Myer; Higginson, Irene J.

2013-01-01

258

Mentor Advice Giving in an Alternative Certification Program for Secondary Science Teaching: Opportunities and Roadblocks in Developing a Knowledge Base for Teaching  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Mentoring is often an important component of alternative certification programs, yet little is known about what novices learn about science teaching through mentoring relationships. This study investigated the advice given by two mentor science teachers to their proteges. Findings indicate that mentors gave more advice related to general…

Bradbury, Leslie Upson; Koballa, Thomas R., Jr.

2007-01-01

259

Certification in Distance Learning for Online Instructors: Exploration of the Creation of an Organic Model for a Research-Based State Institution  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The traditional and most highly utilized manner of instruction in the online Certification Course focuses on training instructors to teach a pre-designed course with common features. This model limits instructional options for faculty to those which are available in the course. Faculty who are accustomed to academic freedom and autonomy may not…

Graham, Lee; Thomas, Lisa

2011-01-01

260

Atomic oxygen interaction with spacecraft materials: Relationship between orbital and ground-based testing for materials certification  

SciTech Connect

The effects of atomic oxygen on boron nitride, silicon nitride, solar cell interconnects used on the Intelsat 6 satellite, organic polymers, and MoS{sub 2} and WS{sub 2} dry lubricant have been studied in low Earth orbit (LEO) flight experiments and in our ground-based simulation facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory. Both the in-flight and ground-based experiments employed in situ electrical resistance measurements to detect penetration of atomic oxygen through materials and ESCA analysis to measure chemical composition changes. In the presence of atomic oxygen, silver oxidizes to form silver oxide, which has a much higher electrical resistance than pure silver. Permeation of atomic oxygen through BN overcoated on thin silver was observed. No permeation of atomic oxygen through Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} was observed. Test results on the Intelsat 6 satellite interconnects used on its photovoltaic array indicate that more than 60--80% of the original thickness of silver should remain after completion of the proposed Space Shuttle rescue/reboost mission. Gas phase reaction products produced by the interaction of high kinetic energy atomic oxygen (AO) with Kapton were found to be H{sub 2}, H{sub 2}O, CO, and CO{sub 2} with NO being a possible secondary product. Hydrogen abstraction at high AO kinetic energy is postulated to be the key reaction controlling the erosion rate of Kapton. An Arrhenius-like expression having an activation barrier of 0.4 eV can be fit to the data, which suggests that the rate limiting step in the AO/Kapton reaction mechanism can be overcome by translational energy. Oxidation of MoS{sub 2} and WS{sub 2} dry lubricants in both ground-based and orbital exposures indicated the formation of MoO{sub 3} and WO{sub 3} respectively. A protective oxide layer is formed {approx}30 monolayers thick which has a high initial friction coefficient until the layer is worn off.

Cross, J.B. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)); Koontz, S.L. (National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Houston, TX (United States). Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center); Lan, E.H. (McDonnell Douglas Space Systems Co., Huntington Beach, CA (United States))

1991-01-01

261

7 CFR 1250.356 - Certification of organizations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Egg Research and Promotion Order Certification of Organizations...geographic area in which the organization represents egg producers. Such eligibility shall be based...

2012-01-01

262

38 CFR 76.3 - Application and certification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...payable rate of allowance may be based; and (b) USP must provide certification of the veteran's participation in training or competition sponsored by the USP or the IPC, or residence at a USP training center, for the period for which...

2013-07-01

263

TORT certification package  

SciTech Connect

The TORT code has been certified. TORT is a three-dimensional discrete ordinates transport theory code, than can solve neutron, photon, or coupled neutron/photon problems. The code will be used primarily for shielding and radiation field calculations SRS. As defined in this work, certification dies not imply validation. The code must be validated for a particular type of calculation before it can be used for critical applications.

Frost, R.L.

1993-10-01

264

Redox-Based Regulation of Apoptosis: S-Glutathionylation As a Regulatory Mechanism to Control Cell Death  

PubMed Central

Abstract Significance: Redox-based signaling governs a number of important pathways in tissue homeostasis. Consequently, deregulation of redox-controlled processes has been linked to a number of human diseases. Among the biological processes regulated by redox signaling, apoptosis or programmed cell death is a highly conserved process important for tissue homeostasis. Apoptosis can be triggered by a wide variety of stimuli, including death receptor ligands, environmental agents, and cytotoxic drugs. Apoptosis has also been implicated in the etiology of many human diseases. Recent Advances: Recent discoveries demonstrate that redox-based changes are required for efficient activation of apoptosis. Among these redox changes, alterations in the abundant thiol, glutathione (GSH), and the oxidative post-translational modification, protein S-glutathionylation (PSSG) have come to the forefront as critical regulators of apoptosis. Critical Issues: Although redox-based changes have been documented in apoptosis and disease pathogenesis, the mechanistic details, whereby redox perturbations intersect with pathogenic processes, remain obscure. Future Directions: Further research will be needed to understand the context in which of the members of the death receptor pathways undergo ligand dependent oxidative modifications. Additional investigation into the interplay between oxidative modifications, redox enzymes, and apoptosis pathway members are also critically needed to improve our understanding how redox-based control is achieved. Such analyses will be important in understanding the diverse chronic diseases. In this review we will discuss the emerging paradigms in our current understanding of redox-based regulation of apoptosis with an emphasis on S-glutathionylation of proteins and the enzymes involved in this important post-translational modification. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 16, 496–505.

Anathy, Vikas; Roberson, Elle C.; Guala, Amy S.; Godburn, Karolyn E.; Budd, Ralph C.

2012-01-01

265

Transient temperature field simulation for injection mold based on birth and death element technique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, the heat transfer process of an injection mold heated by electricity was studied. A model used to study the transient heat transfer process was established. By using birth and death finite element simulation technique, the variation of mold temperature during the whole injection molding cycle was obtained. Engineering experiment proved that the simulated results were basically the same with the actual test results. The present method and obtained results could provide an important theoretical basis for optimizing heating rods in the mold cavity plate in order to improve product quality.

Li, Xi-Ping; Wang, Bin; Yang, Can

2013-05-01

266

PKI and digital certification infrastructure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Secure VPN technology is only possible with the use of appropriate security systems such as encryption, digital signatures, digital certificates, public\\/private key pairs, non-repudiation, and time-stamping. A PKI comprises a system of certificates, certificate authorities, subjects, relying partners, registration authorities, and key repositories that provide for safe and reliable communications. This paper discusses these key technologies focusing particularly on standardisation

Ray Hunt

2001-01-01

267

Effect of ternary phosphate-based glass compositions on osteoblast and osteoblast-like proliferation, differentiation and death in vitro.  

PubMed

There is currently a need to expand the range of graft materials available to orthopaedic surgeons. This study investigated the effect of ternary phosphate-based glass (PBG) compositions on the behaviour of osteoblast and osteoblast-like cells. PBGs of the formula (in mol.%) P(2)O(5)(50)-CaO(50-X)-Na(2)O(X), where X is either 2, 4, 6, 8 or 10, were produced and their influence on the proliferation, differentiation and death in vitro of adult human bone marrow stromal cells (hBMSCs) and human fetal osteoblast 1.19 (HFOB 1.19) cells were assessed. Tissue culture plastic (TCP) and hydroxyapatite (HA) were used as controls. Exposure to PBGs in culture inhibited cell adhesion and proliferation and increased cell death in both cell types studied. There was no significant difference in percentage cell death between the PBGs, which was significantly greater than the controls. However, compared with other PBGs, a greater number of cells were found on the 48mol.% CaO which may have been due to either increased adherence or proliferation, or both. This composition was capable of supporting osteogenic proliferation and early differentiation, and supports the notion that chemical modification of the glass could lead to a more biologically compatible substrate with the potential to support osteogenic grafting. Realisation of this potential should lead to the development of novel grafting strategies for the treatment of problematic bone defects. PMID:17270508

Skelton, K L; Glenn, J V; Clarke, S A; Georgiou, G; Valappil, S P; Knowles, J C; Nazhat, S N; Jordan, G R

2007-01-31

268

Autoerotic death: incidence and age of victims--a population-based study.  

PubMed

Review of the Australian National Coronial Information System and the Swedish National Forensic Database was undertaken over a 7-year period from 2001 to 2007 for all cases where death had been attributed to autoerotic death or sexual asphyxia. In Australia, there were 44 cases (M:F = 42:2) with the majority of victims aged >30 years (77%)-a yearly national rate of approximately 0.3/million. In Sweden, there were nine cases (M:F = 9:0) with the majority of cases aged <30 years (55%)-a yearly national rate of approximately 0.14/million. The usual male predominance was present in both populations, although the Australian victims were older than is usually reported. Lethal sexual asphyxia is uncommon in both the Australian and Swedish populations, with a lower rate than has been cited for North America. Whether this is because of different kinds of paraphilic activities in different populations or of differences in methods of central data collection is uncertain. PMID:21827479

Byard, Roger W; Winskog, Calle

2011-08-09

269

Work-related deaths in children.  

PubMed

An analysis of OSHA fatality investigations for 1984-1987 found 104 work-related deaths in children. The largest category (30%) involved industrial vehicles and equipment, followed by electrocution (17%) and falls (11%). Forty-three deaths (41%) occurred while engaged in types of work prohibited for children by the Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA). Three deaths involved work with conveyors, an activity currently permitted for child workers under FLSA. OSHA issued citations for safety violations in 70% of deaths. Since OSHA investigates only some work-related deaths, the actual number of child labor fatalities during the four year period was probably higher. Using information from OSHA and from death certificate data, we estimate that there are at least 100 work-related deaths in the United States in children under 18 each year. Hazardous child labor continues to occur even in industries regulated by OSHA and FLSA. PMID:1882852

Suruda, A; Halperin, W

1991-01-01

270

7 CFR 800.166 - Reproducing certificates.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...AGRICULTURE GENERAL REGULATIONS Official Certificates § 800.166 Reproducing certificates. Official certificates may be photo copied or similarly reproduced. (Approved by the Office of Management and Budget under control number 0580-0011)...

2013-01-01

271

42 CFR 493.638 - Certificate fees.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT...sufficient to cover the general costs of administering the laboratory...certificates of compliance, the costs include issuing the certificates...certificate of waiver, the costs include issuing the...

2011-10-01

272

7 CFR 1401.4 - Commodity certificates.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-01-01 false Commodity certificates. 1401.4 Section 1401...REGULATIONS AND POLICIES COMMODITY CERTIFICATES, IN KIND PAYMENTS, AND OTHER...PAYMENT § 1401.4 Commodity certificates. (a) General. CCC...

2009-01-01

273

7 CFR 1401.4 - Commodity certificates.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Commodity certificates. 1401.4 Section 1401...REGULATIONS AND POLICIES COMMODITY CERTIFICATES, IN KIND PAYMENTS, AND OTHER...PAYMENT § 1401.4 Commodity certificates. (a) General. CCC...

2010-01-01

274

40 CFR 86.096-30 - Certification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...certificate. (iii) The manufacturer shall bear the burden of establishing to the satisfaction...certificate. (iii) The manufacturer shall bear the burden of establishing to the satisfaction...certificate. (iii) The manufacturer shall bear the burden of establishing to the...

2011-07-01

275

40 CFR 745.89 - Firm certification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...recertification before the firm's current certification expires...environmental compliance history of the firm, its principals...date that the firm's current certification expires...date that the firm's current certification expires...environmental compliance history of the firm, its...

2013-07-01

276

20 CFR 655.53 - Denied certification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 false Denied certification. 655.53 Section 655...Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT...THE UNITED STATES Labor Certification Process and Enforcement...H-2B Workers) Labor Certification Determinations §...

2012-04-01

277

20 CFR 655.54 - Partial certification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 false Partial certification. 655.54 Section 655...Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT...THE UNITED STATES Labor Certification Process and Enforcement...H-2B Workers) Labor Certification Determinations §...

2012-04-01

278

20 CFR 655.52 - Approved certification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 false Approved certification. 655.52 Section 655...Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT...THE UNITED STATES Labor Certification Process and Enforcement...H-2B Workers) Labor Certification Determinations §...

2012-04-01

279

20 CFR 655.164 - Denied certification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 false Denied certification. 655.164 Section 655...Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT...THE UNITED STATES Labor Certification Process for Temporary Agricultural...H-2A Workers) Labor Certification Determinations §...

2012-04-01

280

20 CFR 655.162 - Approved certification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 false Approved certification. 655.162 Section 655...Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT...THE UNITED STATES Labor Certification Process for Temporary Agricultural...H-2A Workers) Labor Certification Determinations §...

2012-04-01

281

20 CFR 655.165 - Partial certification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 false Partial certification. 655.165 Section 655...Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT...THE UNITED STATES Labor Certification Process for Temporary Agricultural...H-2A Workers) Labor Certification Determinations §...

2012-04-01

282

20 CFR 655.163 - Certification fee.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-04-01 false Certification fee. 655.163 Section...Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT...THE UNITED STATES Labor Certification Process for Temporary Agricultural...H-2A Workers) Labor Certification Determinations §...

2012-04-01

283

49 CFR 242.213 - Multiple certifications.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...TRANSPORTATION QUALIFICATION AND CERTIFICATION OF CONDUCTORS Administration of the Certification Program...hold certification for multiple types of conductor service. (b) A person may hold both conductor and locomotive engineer...

2012-10-01

284

Rapid Detection of an ABT-737-Sensitive Primed for Death State in Cells Using Microplate-Based Respirometry  

PubMed Central

Cells that exhibit an absolute dependence on the anti-apoptotic BCL-2 protein for survival are termed “primed for death” and are killed by the BCL-2 antagonist ABT-737. Many cancers exhibit a primed phenotype, including some that are resistant to conventional chemotherapy due to high BCL-2 expression. We show here that 1) stable BCL-2 overexpression alone can induce a primed for death state and 2) that an ABT-737-induced loss of functional cytochrome c from the electron transport chain causes a reduction in maximal respiration that is readily detectable by microplate-based respirometry. Stable BCL-2 overexpression sensitized non-tumorigenic MCF10A mammary epithelial cells to ABT-737-induced caspase-dependent apoptosis. Mitochondria within permeabilized BCL-2 overexpressing cells were selectively vulnerable to ABT-737-induced cytochrome c release compared to those from control-transfected cells, consistent with a primed state. ABT-737 treatment caused a dose-dependent impairment of maximal O2 consumption in MCF10A BCL-2 overexpressing cells but not in control-transfected cells or in immortalized mouse embryonic fibroblasts lacking both BAX and BAK. This impairment was rescued by delivering exogenous cytochrome c to mitochondria via saponin-mediated plasma membrane permeabilization. An ABT-737-induced reduction in maximal O2 consumption was also detectable in SP53, JeKo-1, and WEHI-231 B-cell lymphoma cell lines, with sensitivity correlating with BCL-2:MCL-1 ratio and with susceptibility (SP53 and JeKo-1) or resistance (WEHI-231) to ABT-737-induced apoptosis. Multiplexing respirometry assays to ELISA-based determination of cytochrome c redistribution confirmed that respiratory inhibition was associated with cytochrome c release. In summary, cell-based respiration assays were able to rapidly identify a primed for death state in cells with either artificially overexpressed or high endogenous BCL-2. Rapid detection of a primed for death state in individual cancers by “bioenergetics-based profiling” may eventually help identify the subset of patients with chemoresistant but primed tumors who can benefit from treatment that incorporates a BCL-2 antagonist.

Clerc, Pascaline; Carey, Gregory B.; Mehrabian, Zara; Wei, Michael; Hwang, Hyehyun; Girnun, Geoffrey D.; Chen, Hegang; Martin, Stuart S.; Polster, Brian M.

2012-01-01

285

Mentor Advice Giving in an Alternative Certification Program for Secondary Science Teaching: Opportunities and Roadblocks in Developing a Knowledge Base for Teaching  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mentoring is often an important component of alternative certification programs, yet little is known about what novices learn\\u000a about science teaching through mentoring relationships. This study investigated the advice given by two mentor science teachers\\u000a to their protégés. Findings indicate that mentors gave more advice related to general pedagogical knowledge than science-specific\\u000a pedagogical content knowledge. Specifically, there was little to

Leslie Upson Bradbury; Thomas R. Koballa Jr

2007-01-01

286

Voodoo death.  

PubMed

Scholarly writing on voodoo death is reviewed. Criticisms that voodoo deaths in indigenous societies have never been well documented are refuted with cases medically documented in developed nations. The work of Cannon and Richter on sudden death in animals is reviewed and dismissed as irrelevant for understanding voodoo death. The role of starvation and dehydration is discussed, and it is suggested that the given-up/giving-up hypothesis best fits the phenomenon of voodoo death. Hypotheses for future research are suggested. PMID:19634503

Lester, David

2009-01-01

287

Nurse Specialty Certification, Inpatient Mortality, and Failure to Rescue  

PubMed Central

Purpose To determine if hospital proportion of staff nurses with specialty certification is associated with risk-adjusted inpatient 30-day mortality and failure to rescue (deaths in surgical inpatients following a major complication). Design Secondary analysis of risk-adjusted adult general, orthopedic, and vascular surgical inpatients discharged during 2005–2006 (n = 1,283,241) from 652 nonfederal hospitals controlling for state, hospital, patient, and nursing characteristics by linking outcomes, administrative, and nurse survey data (n = 28,598). Method Nurse data, categorized by education and certification status, were aggregated to the hospital level. Logistic regression models were used to estimate effects of specialty certification and other nursing characteristics on mortality and failure to rescue. Findings Hospital proportion of baccalaureate and certified baccalaureate staff nurses were associated with mortality and failure to rescue; no effect of specialization was seen in the absence of baccalaureate education. A 10% increase in hospital proportion of baccalaureate and certified baccalaureate staff nurses, respectively, decreased the odds of adjusted inpatient 30-day mortality by 6% and 2%; results for failure to rescue were identical. Conclusions Nurse specialty certification is associated with better patient outcomes; effect on mortality and failure to rescue in general surgery patients is contingent upon baccalaureate education. Clinical Relevance Investment in a baccalaureate-educated workforce and specialty certification has the potential to improve the quality of care.

Kendall-Gallagher, Deborah; Aiken, Linda H.; Sloane, Douglas M.; Cimiotti, Jeannie P.

2011-01-01

288

50 CFR 260.25 - Forms of certificates.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...FOOD PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Inspection and Certification of Establishments and Fishery Products for Human Consumption Inspection Service § 260.25 Forms of certificates. Inspection certificates, certificates of sampling or...

2011-10-01

289

10 CFR 76.65 - Inalienability of certificates.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...certificates. 76.65 Section 76.65 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) CERTIFICATION OF GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANTS Certification § 76.65 Inalienability of certificates. The certificate granted under the regulations in...

2013-01-01

290

10 CFR 76.51 - Conditions of certification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...certification. 76.51 Section 76.51 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) CERTIFICATION OF GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANTS Certification § 76.51 Conditions of certification. The Corporation shall comply with the certificate of...

2013-01-01

291

Models and Problems of Certification.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses certification of pedagogical and administrative personnel in the educational institutions of Sverdlovsk Oblast (region) that is implemented by the Russian Federation Law "On Education," the head of administration in the oblast, and Department of Education documents. Maintains that the certification model objectively assesses their level…

Grebenshchikova, S.; Mamaeva, L.; Shevchenko, V.; Baldina, L.; Grigorovskaia, N.

1997-01-01

292

Advisory circular: Noise certification handbook  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this technical manual is to promote uniformity of implementation of the noise certification requirement of Part 36 of the Federal Aviation Regulations (FAR) by presenting test, analysis, and documentration procedures for subsonic turbojet airplanes that were determined by the FAA to be technically acceptable for demonstrating compliance with that regulation. Where appropriate, FAA policy governing such certifications is reviewed.

1988-03-01

293

Certification for Challenge Course Practitioners  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In February 2007, the Association for Challenge Course Technology (ACCT) approved new standards for the certification of Challenge Course Practitioners. These standards will be used by accredited professional vendor members of ACCT in the training and certification of practitioners and may also be used as a reference by others. These new standards…

Lisson, Brian; Oosterhuis, Sarah

2007-01-01

294

Alabama's Child Nutrition Certification Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This handbook presents the plan for the Alabama computerized certification program for school food service employees. The first section contains the following information and materials pertaining to the child nutrition certification program: rationale; position titles (Child Nutrition Program Director or Supervisor, Child Nutrition Program…

Alabama State Dept. of Education, Montgomery. Div. of Administration and Finance.

295

National curricula, certification and credentialing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The education, certification, and credentialing of surgeons is undergoing change brought about by public expectations and by reform within the profession. In the United States, there is a clear trend towards standardization of education, as exemplified by the Surgical Council on Resident Education (SCORE) curriculum. There is an emerging effort to tie certification closely to the national curriculum. Finally, there

Richard H. Bell

2011-01-01

296

Patient outcomes for segmental colon resection according to surgeon's training, certification, and experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. We examined patient outcomes for colon resection to determine if they varied according to surgeon-specific factors including: (1) American Board of Surgery (ABS) certification, (2) colorectal surgery subspecialty certification, (3) site of residency training (university-based vs nonuniversity-based), and (4) years of experience since ABS certification. Methods. We performed a retrospective study of 15,427 admissions of northern Illinois residents who

Jay B Prystowsky; Georges Bordage; Joseph M Feinglass

2002-01-01

297

Using anti-muscarinic drugs in the management of death rattle: evidence-based guidelines for palliative care.  

PubMed

The management of 'death rattle' was reviewed by a task group on behalf of the Association for Palliative Medicine's Science Committee. Evidence was searched for the effectiveness of various anti-muscarinic drugs in drying oropharyngeal and bronchial secretions in dying patients. Clinical guidelines were constructed based on evidence from volunteer and clinical studies. Death rattle occurs in half of all dying patients and some response occurs in around 80% of treated patients. Clinical studies demonstrate that subcutaneous hyoscine hydrobromide 400 microg is more effective at improving symptoms at 30 min than glycopyrronium 200 microg by the same route. Volunteer studies demonstrate that intramuscular glycopyrronium 400 microg is as effective in drying secretions at 30 min as a dose of 200 microg given intravenously. Duration of response is shortest for hyoscine butylbromide (1 h) and longest for glycopyrronium (more than 6 h). There is insufficient evidence to support the use of one drug over another in a continuous infusion and prescribers should base decisions on different characteristics of each anti-muscarinic drug. PMID:12380654

Bennett, Mike; Lucas, Viv; Brennan, Mary; Hughes, Andrew; O'Donnell, Valerie; Wee, Bee

2002-09-01

298

An ostracode based paleolimnologic and paleohydrologic history of Death Valley: 200 to 0 ka  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Death Valley, a complex tectonic and hydrologic basin, was cored from its lowest surface elevation to a depth of 186 m. The sediments range from bedded primary halite to black muds. Continental ostracodes found in the black muds indicate that those sediments were deposited in a variety of hydrologic settings ranging from deep, relatively fresh water to shallow saline lakes to spring discharge supported wetlands. The alkaline-enriched, calcium-depleted paleolake waters indicate extrabasinal streamflow and basin-margin spring discharge. The alkaline-depleted, calcium-enriched paleowetland waters indicate intrabasinal spring discharge. During Marine Isotope Stage 6 (MIS 6, ca. 180-140 ka) the hydrologic settings were highly variable, implying that complex relations existed between climate and basin hydrology. Termination II (MIS 6 to MIS 5E) was a complex multicyclic sequence of paleoenvironments, implying that climates oscillated between high and low effective moisture. MIS 4 (ca. 73-61 ka) was a spring discharge supported wetland complex. During MIS 2 (ca. 20-12 ka) the hydrologic settings were variable, although they are not fully understood because some black muds deposited during that time were lost during coring. ?? 2005 Geological Society of America.

Forester, R. M.; Lowenstein, T. K.; Spencer, R. J.

2005-01-01

299

MCNP certification package  

SciTech Connect

In response to a Department of Energy (DOE) request, Westinghouse Savannah River Company committed to certify all computer codes used in critical calculations at the site. Since the Monte Carlo Neutron Photon Transport (MCNP) code will be used to perform critical analyses involving criticality and shielding, the code must be certified. Certification as applied to existing computer codes includes the verification and validation process, placing the code in configuration control, and establishing user qualification standards and training requirements. All software intended for use in critical calculations must be certified. This report is intended to fulfill the requirements for the certification of the MCNP code, version 4.2, built June 11, 1992, by J.H. Hightower on the SRS CRAY. This report does not release MCNP for use under production status for any application for which a MCNP validation document does not exist. These validation documents will describe the specific range of applicability, limitations on use, results and biases for a particular MCNP application.

Trumble, E.F.

1992-08-01

300

Rates of readmission and death associated with leaving hospital against medical advice: a population-based study  

PubMed Central

Background: Leaving hospital against medical advice may have adverse consequences. Previous studies have been limited by evaluating specific types of patients, small sample sizes and incomplete determination of outcomes. We hypothesized that leaving hospital against medical advice would be associated with increases in subsequent readmission and death. Methods: In a population-based analysis involving all adults admitted to hospital and discharged alive in Manitoba from Apr. 1, 1990, to Feb. 28, 2009, we evaluated all-cause 90-day mortality and 30-day hospital readmission. We used multivariable regression, adjusted for age, sex, socioeconomic status, year of hospital admission, patient comorbidities, hospital diagnosis, past frequency of admission to hospital, having previously left hospital against medical advice and data clustering (patients with multiple admissions). For readmission, we assessed both between-person and within-person effects of leaving hospital against medical advice. Results: Leaving against medical advice occurred in 21 417 of 1 916 104 index hospital admissions (1.1%), and was associated with higher adjusted rates of 90-day mortality (odds ratio [OR] 2.51, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.18–2.89), and 30-day hospital readmission (within-person OR 2.10, CI 1.99–2.21; between-person OR 3.04, CI 2.79–3.30). In our additional analyses, elevated rates of readmission and death associated with leaving against medical advice were manifest within 1 week and persisted for at least 180 days after discharge. Interpretation: Adults who left the hospital against medical advice had higher rates of hospital readmission and death. The persistence of these effects suggests that they are not solely a result of incomplete treatment of acute illness. Interventions aimed at reducing these effects may need to include longitudinal interventions extending beyond admission to hospital.

Garland, Allan; Ramsey, Clare D.; Fransoo, Randy; Olafson, Kendiss; Chateau, Daniel; Yogendran, Marina; Kraut, Allen

2013-01-01

301

Association of seat belt use with death: a comparison of estimates based on data from police and estimates based on data from trained crash investigators  

PubMed Central

Objective: Estimates of any protective effect of seat belts could be exaggerated if some crash survivors falsely claimed to police that they were belted in order to avoid a fine. The aim of this study was to determine whether estimates of seat belt effectiveness differed when based on belt use as recorded by the police and belt use determined by trained crash investigators. Design: Matched cohort study. Setting: United States. Subjects: Adult driver-passenger pairs in the same vehicle with at least one death (n=1689) sampled from crashes during 1988–2000; data from the National Accident Sampling System Crashworthiness Data System. Main outcome measure: Risk ratio for death among belted occupants compared with those not belted. Results: Trained investigators determined post-crash seat belt use by vehicle inspections for 92% of the occupants, confidential interviews with survivors for 5%, and medical or autopsy reports for 3%. Using this information, the adjusted risk ratio for belted persons was 0.36 (95% confidence interval 0.29 to 0.46). The risk ratio was also 0.36 using police reported belt use for the same crashes. Conclusions: Estimates of seat belt effects based upon police data were not substantially different from estimates which used data obtained by trained crash investigators who were not police officers. These results were from vehicles in which at least one front seat occupant died; these findings may not apply to estimates which use data from crashes without a death.

Cummings, P

2002-01-01

302

Component Certification - What is the Value?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Component-based software is becoming increasingly popular as a means to create value through improved integration across multiple\\u000a parts of a plant or business. However, sometimes components that are supposed to be integrated cannot be integrated in the\\u000a same way that the user envisions at time of acquiring the component. Certification of components is one way of ensuring that\\u000a components adhere

Lars Bratthall; Johan Hasselberg; Brad Hoffman; Zbigniew Korendo; Bruno Schilli; Lars Gundersen

2002-01-01

303

Population-Based Analysis of the Effect of the Northridge Earthquake on Cardiac Death in Los Angeles County, California  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives. We sought to determine whether a natural disaster affected total cardiovascular mortality and coronary mortality in an entire population.Background. The effect of the January 17, 1994 Northridge Earthquake (NEQ) on all deaths and causes of deaths within the entire population of Los Angeles County is unknown. The purposes of our study were to analyze all deaths in this entire

Robert A Kloner; Jonathan Leor; W. Kenneth Poole; Rebecca Perritt

1997-01-01

304

CDC's National Violent Death Reporting System: background and methodology  

PubMed Central

Objectives: This paper describes a new surveillance system called the National Violent Death Reporting System (NVDRS), initiated by the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. NVDRS's mission is the collection of detailed, timely information on all violent deaths. Design: NVDRS is a population based, active surveillance system designed to obtain a complete census of all resident and occurrent violent deaths. Each state collects information on its own deaths from death certificates, medical examiner/coroner files, law enforcement records, and crime laboratories. Deaths occurring in the same incident are linked. Over 270 data elements can be collected on each incident. Setting: The 13 state health departments of Alaska, Colorado, Georgia, Maryland, Massachusetts, New Jersey, North Carolina, Oklahoma, Oregon, Rhode Island, South Carolina, Virginia, and Wisconsin. Subjects: Cases consist of violent deaths from suicide, homicide, undetermined intent, legal intervention, and unintentional firearm injury. Information is collected on suspects as well as victims. Interventions: None. Outcome measures: The quality of surveillance will be measured in terms of its acceptability, accuracy, sensitivity, timeliness, utility, and cost. Results: The system has just been started. There are no results as yet. Conclusions: NVDRS has achieved enough support to begin data collection efforts in selected states. This system will need to overcome the significant barriers to such a large data collection effort. Its success depends on the use of its data to inform and assess violence prevention efforts. If successful, it will open a new chapter in the use of empirical information to guide public policy around violence in the United States.

Paulozzi, L; Mercy, J; Frazier, L; Annest, J

2004-01-01

305

Decisions on sick leave certifications for acute airways infections based on vignettes: A cross-sectional survey of GPs in Norway and Poland  

PubMed Central

Objective To explore whether frequency and duration of sick-leave certification for acute airway infections differ between general practitioners (GPs) in Poland and Norway. Design Cross-sectional survey. Setting Educational courses for GPs. Intervention We used a questionnaire with four vignettes presenting patients with symptoms consistent with pneumonia, sinusitis, common cold, and exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), respectively. For each vignette GPs were asked whether they would offer a sick-leave note, and if so, for how many days. Subjects Convenience samples of GPs in Poland (n = 216) and Norway (n = 171). Main outcome measures Proportion of GPs offering a sick-leave certificate. Duration of sick-leave certification. Results In Poland 100%, 95%, 87%, and 94% of GPs would offer sick leave for pneumonia, sinusitis, common cold, and exacerbation of COPD, respectively. Corresponding figures in Norway were 97%, 83%, 60%, and 90%. Regression analysis adjusting for the GPs' sex, speciality, experience, and workload indicated that relative risks for offering sick leave (Poland versus Norway) were 1.16 (95% CI 1.07–1.26) for sinusitis and 1.50 (1.28–1.75) for common cold. Among GPs who offered sick leave for pneumonia, sinusitis, common cold, and exacerbation of COPD, mean duration was 8.9, 7.5, 5.1, and 6.9 days (Poland) versus 6.6, 4.3, 3.1, and 6.1 days (Norway), respectively. In regression analyses the differences between the Polish and Norwegian samples in duration of sick leave were statistically significant for all vignettes. A pattern of offering sick leave for three, five, seven, 10, or 14 days was observed in both countries. Conclusion In the Polish sample GPs were more likely to offer sick-leave notes for sinusitis and common cold. GPs in Poland offered sick leaves of longer duration for pneumonia, sinusitis, common colds, and exacerbation of COPD compared with GPs in the Norwegian sample.

Halvorsen, Peder A.; Wennevold, Katrine; Fleten, Nils; Muras, Magdalena; Kowalczyk, Anna; Godycki-Cwirko, Maciek; Melbye, Hasse

2011-01-01

306

28 CFR 40.15 - Full certification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Full certification. 40.15 Section 40...Certification of a Grievance Procedure § 40.15 Full certification. If, in the judgment...effective, the Attorney General shall grant full certification. Such...

2013-07-01

307

Forest Certification: Economic Issues and Welfare Implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forest certification has emerged as a means of promoting the elusive goal of sustainable forest management. This paper reviews the economic issues and potential welfare implications of forest certification in light of this management goal, but finds that the effect of certification on forest product markets is uncertain. We examine why certification schemes may fail to regulate optimally market failures,

M. K. Haener; Martin K. Luckert

1998-01-01

308

Deaths from cerebrovascular diseases correlated to month of birth: elevated risk of death from subarachnoid hemorrhage among summer-born  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It has been suggested that maternal nutrition, and fetal and infant growth have an important effect on the risk of cardiovascular disease in adult life. We investigated the population-based distribution of deaths from cerebrovascular diseases (ICD9 codes 430, 431, or 434) in Japan in 1986-1994 as a function of birth month, by examining death-certificate records. For a total of 853 981 people born in the years 1900-1959, the distribution of the number of deaths according to the month of birth was compared with the distribution expected from the monthly numbers of all births for each sex and for the corresponding birth decade. For those born between 1920 and 1949, there were significant discrepancies between the actual numbers of deaths from subarachnoid hemorrhage (ICD9 430) and the numbers expected, and these differences were related to the month of birth. Those born in summer, June-September, consistently had an elevated risk of death, particularly men, where the excess risk was 8%-23%. This tendency was also observed, less distinctly but significantly, for deaths from intracerebral hemorrhage (ICD9 431), but was not observed for those dying from occlusion of the cerebral arteries (ICD9 434). The observation that the risk of dying from subarachnoid hemorrhage was more than 10% higher among those born in the summer implies that at least one in ten deaths from subarachnoid hemorrhage has its origin at a perinatal stage. Although variations in hypertension in later life, which could possibly be ''programmed'' during the intra-uterine stages, could be an explanation for this observation, the disease-specific nature of the observation suggests the involvement of aneurysm formation, which is a predominant cause of subarachnoid hemorrhage.

Nonaka, K.; Imaizumi, Y.

309

Dopamine induces cell death, lipid peroxidation and DNA base damage in a catecholaminergic cell line derived from the central nervous system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dopamine can be autoxidized to superoxides and quinones. Superoxides can form hydroxyl radicals that are highly reactive with\\u000a lipids, proteins and DNA leading to neuronal damage and cell death. We used a clonal catecholaminergic cell line (CATH.a)\\u000a derived from the central nervous system to evaluate the effects of dopamine on cell death, lipid peroxidation and DNA base\\u000a damage. Dopamine produces

Joseph M. Masserano; Ivory Baker; Diane Venable; Li Gong; Steven J. Zullo; Carl R. Merril; Richard Jed Wyatt

1999-01-01

310

Contribution of smoking during pregnancy to inequalities in stillbirth and infant death in Scotland 1994-2003: retrospective population based study using hospital maternity records  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To quantify the contribution of smoking during pregnancy to social inequalities in stillbirth and infant death.Design Population based retrospective cohort study.Setting Scottish hospitals between 1994 and 2003.Participants Records of 529 317 singleton live births and 2699 stillbirths delivered at 24-44 weeks’ gestation in Scotland from 1994 to 2003.Main outcome measures Rates of stillbirth and infant, neonatal, and post-neonatal death

Ron Gray; Sandra R Bonellie; James Chalmers; Ian Greer; Stephen Jarvis; Jennifer J Kurinczuk; Claire Williams

2009-01-01

311

Verbal Autopsy Methods with Multiple Causes of Death  

Microsoft Academic Search

Verbal autopsy procedures are widely used for estimating cause-specific mortality in areas without medical death certification. Data on symptoms reported by caregivers along with the cause of death are collected from a medical facility, and the cause-of-death distribution is estimated in the population where only symptom data are available. Current approaches analyze only one cause at a time, involve assumptions

Gary King; Ying Lu

2008-01-01

312

Missing information in birth certificates in Brussels after reinforcement of data collection, and variation according to immigration status. A population-based study  

PubMed Central

Background A problem repeatedly reported in birth certificate data is the presence of missing data. In 2008, a Centre for Perinatal Epidemiology was created inter alia to assist the Health Departments of Brussels-Capital City Region to check birth certificates. The purpose of this study is to assess the changes brought by the Centre in terms of completeness of data registration for the entire population and according to immigration status. Methods Birth certificates from the birth registry of 2008 and 2009 of Brussels were considered. We evaluated the initial missing information in January 2008 (baseline situation) and the corresponding rate at the end of 2008 after oral and written information had been given to the city civil servants and health providers. The data were evaluated again at the end of 2009 where no reinforcement rules were adopted. We also measured residual missing data after correction in socio-economic and medical data, for the entire population and according to maternal nationality of origin. Changes in registration of stillbirths were estimated by comparison to 2007 baseline data, and all multiple births were checked for complete identification of pairs. Results Missing information initially accounted for 64.0%, 20.8% and 19.5% of certificates in January 2008, December 2008, and 2009 respectively. After correction with lists sent back to the hospitals or city offices, the mean residual missing data rate was 2.1% in 2008 and 0.8% in 2009. Education level and employment status were missing more often in immigrant mothers compared to Belgian natives both in 2008 and 2009. Mothers from Sub-Saharan Africa had the highest missing rate of socio-economic data. The stillbirth rate increased from 4.6 ‰ in 2007 to 8.2 ‰ in 2009. All twin pairs were identified, but early loss of a co-twin before 22?weeks was rarely reported. Conclusions Reinforcement of data collection was associated with a decrease of missing information. The residual missing data rate was very low. The stillbirth rate was also improved but the early loss of a co-twin before 22?weeks seems to remain underreported.

2012-01-01

313

Time of birth and risk of neonatal death at term: retrospective cohort study  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine the effect of time and day of birth on the risk of neonatal death at term. Design Population based retrospective cohort study. Setting Data from the linked Scottish morbidity records, Stillbirth and Infant Death Survey, and birth certificate database of live births in Scotland, 1985-2004. Subjects Liveborn term singletons with cephalic presentation. Perinatal deaths from congenital anomalies excluded. Final sample comprised 1?039?560 live births. Main outcome measure All neonatal deaths (in the first four weeks of life) unrelated to congenital abnormality, plus a subgroup of deaths ascribed to intrapartum anoxia. Results The risk of neonatal death was 4.2 per 10?000 during the normal working week (Monday to Friday, 0900-1700) and 5.6 per 10?000 at all other times (out of hours) (unadjusted odds ratio 1.3, 95% confidence interval 1.1 to 1.6). Adjustment for maternal characteristics had no material effect. The higher rate of death out of hours was because of an increased risk of death ascribed to intrapartum anoxia (adjusted odds ratio 1.7, 1.2 to 2.3). Though exclusion of elective caesarean deliveries attenuated the association between death ascribed to anoxia and delivery out of hours, a significant association persisted (adjusted odds ratio 1.5, 1.1 to 2.0). The attributable fraction of neonatal deaths ascribed to intrapartum anoxia associated with delivery out of hours was 26% (95% confidence interval 5% to 42%). Conclusions Delivering an infant outside the normal working week was associated with an increased risk of neonatal death at term ascribed to intrapartum anoxia.

2010-01-01

314

Impact of changes in infant death classification on the diagnosis of sudden infant death syndrome.  

PubMed

This study evaluates the hypothesis that a decline in sudden infant death syndrome in Minnesota is associated with increases in other categories of sudden unexpected infant death. Matched birth and death certificates, autopsy reports, and home visit questionnaires were reviewed for 722 sudden unexpected infant deaths that occurred from January 1, 1996 through December 31, 2002. Descriptive data and cause of death were recorded. Cause of death was compared for 2 periods: early (1996-1998) and late (2000-2002). The age of the infant at death, sex, race, and infant death rates were similar between the 2 periods ( P = .637). Sudden infant death syndrome declined by 50.1% (P < .001). Overlay deaths increased 235.5% (P < .01). Asphyxia related deaths increased 259.6% (P < .001). Injury-related deaths increased 840.0% (P < .001). A decline in sudden infant death syndrome in Minnesota was associated with increased deaths in categories that are asphyxial in nature and are potentially preventable. PMID:18448626

Moore, Brooke M; Fernbach, Kathleen L; Finkelstein, Marsha J; Carolan, Patrick L

2008-04-30

315

Renewable Energy Certificate Program  

SciTech Connect

This project was primarily to develop and implement a curriculum which will train undergraduate and graduate students at the University seeking a degree as well as training for enrollees in a special certification program to prepare individuals to be employed in a broad range of occupations in the field of renewable energy and energy conservation. Curriculum development was by teams of Saint Francis University Faculty in the Business Administration and Science Departments and industry experts. Students seeking undergraduate and graduate degrees are able to enroll in courses offered within these departments which will combine theory and hands-on training in the various elements of wind power development. For example, the business department curriculum areas include economic modeling, finance, contracting, etc. The science areas include meteorology, energy conversion and projection, species identification, habitat protection, field data collection and analysis, etc.

Gwendolyn S. Andersen

2012-07-17

316

Sickness certification in primary care  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary\\u000a Objectives  Sickness certification is a common task, which is however insufficiently studied. Our objective was to describe, prospectively,\\u000a prescription practices in sickness certification by primary care physicians.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  We recorded patients receiving a sickness certificate during a six-week study period. The main outcome measures were: duration\\u000a of sick-leave according to age, profession, diagnosis, nationality, somatic, or psychiatric comorbidity as well as

Sébastien Dünner; Hedi Decrey; Bernard Burnard; Alain Pécoud

2001-01-01

317

Brainstem Death  

Microsoft Academic Search

Throughout history, the diagnosis of death has been accepted as having occurred when the vital functions of respiration and circulation have ceased. However, with the advent of intensive care (and hence the ability to maintain these functions artificially) as well as the need to enable beating-heart organ donation, the diagnosis of death has become much more difficult.

Basil F Matta

2003-01-01

318

Hospitality certification: experiences in North America - international implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

An in-depth analysis of hospitality certification programmes was conducted. The study revealed important insights on certification demographics, development processes, certification paths, administration, benefits of certification, credibility and the future of certification programmes. It is found that developing certification programmes commonly involves a long and detailed process. There are serious obstacles in getting association membership to adopt certification programmes. Associations prefer

Kemal Birdir; Thomas E. Pearson

1998-01-01

319

Avoiding a fate worse than death: an argument for legalising voluntary physician-based euthanasia.  

PubMed

The legalisation of voluntary physician-based euthanasia is currently the subject of much political, social and ethical debate and there is evidence in Australia of growing support for its implementation. In addressing many of the issues that surround legalisation, the article looks at some overseas jurisdictions that have legalised euthanasia to determine whether the social, political and ethical concerns prominent in the Australian debate have proved problematic in other jurisdictions. In addition, the article examines the report on the Dying with Dignity Bill 2009 (Tas) which commented extensively on the issues relating to voluntary physician-based euthanasia. PMID:23156656

Werren, Julia; Yuksel, Necef; Smith, Saxon

2012-09-01

320

Controlled investigation of deaths from asthma in hospitals in the North East Thames region  

Microsoft Academic Search

One hundred and thirty deaths definitely or potentially due to asthma occurring in hospitals in the North East Thames region over one year were identified from death certificates and Hospital Activity Analysis records. Thirty five of these deaths were considered after independent assessment to have been directly due to asthma. Control patients who left hospital alive after acute asthma attacks

J Eason; H L Markowe

1987-01-01

321

46 CFR 67.79 - Passage of title without court action following death of owner.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Passage of title without court action following death of owner. 67.79 Section 67.79...of title without court action following death of owner. (a) When title to a...a tenant by the entirety, a copy of the death certificate, certified by an...

2011-10-01

322

46 CFR 67.79 - Passage of title without court action following death of owner.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Passage of title without court action following death of owner. 67.79 Section 67.79...of title without court action following death of owner. (a) When title to a...a tenant by the entirety, a copy of the death certificate, certified by an...

2012-10-01

323

Eighth Amendment & Death Penalty.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a lesson on capital punishment for juveniles based on three hypothetical cases. The goal of the lesson is to have students understand the complexities of decisions regarding the death penalty for juveniles. (JDH)

Shortall, Joseph M.; Merrill, Denise W.

1987-01-01

324

Field-testing ecological and economic benefits of coffee certification programs.  

PubMed

Coffee agroecosystems are critical to the success of conservation efforts in Latin America because of their ecological and economic importance. Coffee certification programs may offer one way to protect biodiversity and maintain farmer livelihoods. Established coffee certification programs fall into three distinct, but not mutually exclusive categories: organic, fair trade, and shade. The results of previous studies demonstrate that shade certification can benefit biodiversity, but it remains unclear whether a farmer's participation in any certification program can provide both ecological and economic benefits. To assess the value of coffee certification for conservation efforts in the region, we examined economic and ecological aspects of coffee production for eight coffee cooperatives in Chiapas, Mexico, that were certified organic, certified organic and fair trade, or uncertified. We compared vegetation and ant and bird diversity in coffee farms and forests, and interviewed farmers to determine coffee yield, gross revenue from coffee production, and area in coffee production. Although there are no shade-certified farms in the study region, we used vegetation data to determine whether cooperatives would qualify for shade certification. We found no differences in vegetation characteristics, ant or bird species richness, or fraction of forest fauna in farms based on certification. Farmers with organic and organic and fair-trade certification had more land under cultivation and in some cases higher revenue than uncertified farmers. Coffee production area did not vary among farm types. No cooperative passed shade-coffee certification standards because the plantations lacked vertical stratification, yet vegetation variables for shade certification significantly correlated with ant and bird diversity. Although farmers in the Chiapas highlands with organic and/or fair-trade certification may reap some economic benefits from their certification status, their farms may not protect as much biodiversity as shade-certified farms. Working toward triple certification (organic, fair trade, and shade) at the farm level may enhance biodiversity protection, increase benefits to farmers, and lead to more successful conservation strategies in coffee-growing regions. PMID:17650248

Philpott, Stacy M; Bichier, Peter; Rice, Robert; Greenberg, Russell

2007-08-01

325

Study of State Certification/Licensure Requirements for Secondary Career and Technical Education Teachers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Teacher certification/licensure requirements across the United States are in constant flux. Career and technical education (CTE), with its many subject disciplines, has historically had two pathways to certification/licensure: a traditional degree-based program of courses, field experiences, and exit exams, and an alternative pathway based

Zirkle, Christopher J.; Martin, Lindsey; McCaslin, N. L.

2007-01-01

326

Hydrochemical data base for the Death Valley Region, California and Nevada  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ground-water chemistry data derived from samples collected within an approximately 100,000-square-kilometer area in the Southern Great Basin have been compiled into a digital data base. The data were compiled from published reports, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Water Information System (NWIS), and previously unpublished USGS files. The data are contained in two compressed files which self-expand into Lotus (.WK1)

D. L. Perfect; C. C. Faunt; W. C. Steinkampf; A. K. Turner

1995-01-01

327

Developing an Interdisciplinary Certificate Program In Transportation Planning. Phase 2: The eCertificate.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This proposal extends the delivery of the recently developed graduate Certificate in Transportation Planning to a wider audience through the establishment of an Executive Certificate Program by distance (eCertificate). While the need for an interdisciplin...

E. Dumbaugh F. Ndubisi

2011-01-01

328

49 CFR 384.234 - Driver medical certification recordkeeping.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...false Driver medical certification recordkeeping. 384.234 Section 384.234...234 Driver medical certification recordkeeping. The State must meet the medical certification recordkeeping requirements of §...

2012-10-01

329

24 CFR 200.97 - Adjustments resulting from cost certification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Adjustments resulting from cost certification. 200...Applicable to Multifamily and Health Care Facility Mortgage Insurance...for Existing Projects Cost Certification § 200...Adjustments resulting from cost certification....

2013-04-01

330

47 CFR 68.162 - Requirements for Telecommunication Certification Bodies.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Requirements for Telecommunication Certification Bodies. 68.162 Section 68.162 Telecommunication...Requirements for Telecommunication Certification Bodies. (a) Telecommunication certification bodies (TCBs) designated by the...

2011-10-01

331

A Death in the Family: Death as a Zen Concept  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study is based on original research that explored family reaction to the death of an elderly husband and father. We interviewed 34 families (a family included a widow and two adult biological children) approximately 6 to 10 months after the death. In one-on-one interviews, we discussed family members' initial reaction to the death, how the…

Black, Helen K.; Rubinstein, Robert L.

2013-01-01

332

A Death in the Family: Death as a Zen Concept  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study is based on original research that explored family reaction to the death of an elderly husband and father. We interviewed 34 families (a family included a widow and two adult biological children) approximately 6 to 10 months after the death. In one-on-one interviews, we discussed family members' initial reaction to the death, how the…

Black, Helen K.; Rubinstein, Robert L.

2013-01-01

333

Development of a Coroner-Based Surveillance System for Drug-Related Deaths in Los Angeles County  

Microsoft Academic Search

Existing data sources do not provide comprehensive and timely information to adequately monitor drug-related mortality in\\u000a Los Angeles County. To fill this gap, a surveillance system using coroner data was developed to examine patterns in drug-related\\u000a deaths. The coroner provided data on all injury deaths in Los Angeles County. A list of keywords that indicate a death was\\u000a caused by

Isabelle Sternfeld; Nicolle Perras; Patti L. Culross

2010-01-01

334

Internet access through WLAN with XML encoded SPKI certificates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wireless Local Area Networks (WLAN) are one of the most promising approaches for IP based mobile network access. In this paper, we present a security and account- ing architecture for WLAN based public Internet access. Our scheme is based on the use of Simple Public Key Infrastructure (SPKI) certificates supporting all kinds of prepayment mechanisms. The architecture provides the possibility

J. P. T. Koponen; P. Nikander; J. Paajarvi; J. Rasanen

2000-01-01

335

Spontaneous fetal death among multigravid fertile women in relation to sport fish consumption and PCB exposure, New York State Angler Study  

SciTech Connect

Spontaneous fetal death, a sentinel event for environmental reproductive toxicity, has been observed among various mammalian species following polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) exposure. This exposure-based cohort study assessed the relationship between PCB exposure due to consumption of contaminated Lake Ontario sport fish and spontaneous fetal death. Using 1,820 women from the 1990-1991 New York State Angler Study, fish consumption data were obtained from food frequency questionnaires and reproductive histories from live birth certificates. A reliability study demonstrated an excellent level of agreement between the exact number of spontaneous fetal deaths recorded on the birth certificate compared with telephone interview data (kappa = 0.83). Women who had never eaten Lake Ontario sport fish were unexposed (n = 979) and 841 women reported various levels of exposure. Analyses were stratified by maternal gravidity and controlled for smoking status and maternal age. No significant increases in risk for spontaneous fetal death were seen for any estimate of PCB exposure including lifetime estimate of PCB exposure based on species-specific PCB levels, years of fish consumption, and kilograms of fish consumed, either in the 1990-1991 season or in a lifetime estimate. The only significant finding was a slight risk reduction for women of gravidity three or more with years of fish consumption (odds ratio = 0.97; p = 0.03; 95% confidence interval = 0.94-0.99). These findings suggest that PCB exposure from contaminated sport fish does not increase the risk of spontaneous fetal death.

Mendola, P.

1994-01-01

336

EDR2 negatively regulates salicylic acid-based defenses and cell death during powdery mildew infections of Arabidopsis thaliana  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The hypersensitive necrosis response (HR) of resistant plants to avirulent pathogens is a form of programmed cell death in which the plant sacrifices a few cells under attack, restricting pathogen growth into adjacent healthy tissues. In spite of the importance of this defense response, relatively little is known about the plant components that execute the cell death program or

Sonja Vorwerk; Celine Schiff; Marjorie Santamaria; Serry Koh; Marc Nishimura; John Vogel; Chris Somerville; Shauna Somerville

2007-01-01

337

Dig1 protects against cell death provoked by glyphosate-based herbicides in human liver cell lines  

PubMed Central

Background Worldwide used pesticides containing different adjuvants like Roundup formulations, which are glyphosate-based herbicides, can provoke some in vivo toxicity and in human cells. These pesticides are commonly found in the environment, surface waters and as food residues of Roundup tolerant genetically modified plants. In order to know their effects on cells from liver, a major detoxification organ, we have studied their mechanism of action and possible protection by precise medicinal plant extracts called Dig1. Methods The cytotoxicity pathways of four formulations of glyphosate-based herbicides were studied using human hepatic cell lines HepG2 and Hep3B, known models to study xenobiotic effects. We monitored mitochondrial succinate dehydrogenase activity and caspases 3/7 for cell mortality and protection by Dig1, as well as cytochromes P450 1A1, 1A2, 3A4 and 2C9 and glutathione-S-transferase to approach the mechanism of actions. Results All the four Roundup formulations provoke liver cell death, with adjuvants having stronger effects than glyphosate alone. Hep3B are 3-5 times more sensitive over 48 h. Caspases 3/7 are greatly activated in HepG2 by Roundup at non-cytotoxic levels, and some apoptosis induction by Roundup is possible together with necrosis. CYP3A4 is specifically enhanced by Roundup at doses 400 times less than used in agriculture (2%). CYP1A2 is increased to a lesser extent together with glutathione-S-transferase (GST) down-regulation. Dig 1, non cytotoxic and not inducing caspases by itself, is able to prevent Roundup-induced cell death in a time-dependant manner with an important efficiency of up to 89%, within 48 h. In addition, we evidenced that it prevents Caspases 3/7 activation and CYP3A4 enhancement, and not GST reduction, but in turn it slightly inhibited CYP2C9 when added before Roundup. Conclusion Roundup is able to provoke intracellular disruption in hepatic cell lines at different levels, but a mixture of medicinal plant extracts Dig1 can protect to some extent human cell lines against this pollutants. All this system constitutes a tool for studying liver intoxication and detoxification.

2010-01-01

338

42 CFR 8.11 - Opioid treatment program certification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Opioid treatment program certification...GENERAL PROVISIONS CERTIFICATION OF OPIOID TREATMENT PROGRAMS Certification and Treatment Standards § 8.11 Opioid treatment program certification....

2012-10-01

339

14 CFR 67.409 - Denial of medical certificate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Denial of medical certificate. 67.409 Section 67...TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRMEN MEDICAL STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION Certification Procedures § 67.409 Denial of medical certificate. (a) Any person who...

2013-01-01

340

14 CFR 67.401 - Special issuance of medical certificates.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Special issuance of medical certificates. 67.401 Section 67...TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRMEN MEDICAL STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION Certification...Procedures § 67.401 Special issuance of medical certificates. (a) At the...

2013-01-01

341

76 FR 10885 - Export Trade Certificate of Review  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Application No. 11-00001] Export Trade Certificate of Review ACTION: Notice of Application ( 11-00001) for an Export Trade Certificate of Review for the Latin American...received an application for an Export Trade Certificate of Review (``Certificate'')...

2011-02-28

342

42 CFR 493.45 - Requirements for a registration certificate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Requirements for a registration certificate. 493.45 Section 493.45 Public Health...CERTIFICATION LABORATORY REQUIREMENTS Registration Certificate, Certificate for Provider-performed Microscopy...

2010-10-01

343

14 CFR 61.23 - Medical certificates: Requirement and duration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...certificate while seekingâ (i) A sport pilot certificate with glider or balloon...2) When exercising the privileges of a sport pilot certificate with privileges in a...instructor certificate withâ (i) A sport pilot rating in a glider or balloon;...

2013-01-01

344

40 CFR 80.164 - Certification test fuels.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...additive package undergoing testing may be added to a certification...additives, such as antioxidants, corrosion inhibitors, and metal deactivators...test fuel for certification testing. (4) Certification test...detergent additive certification testing, in addition to the...

2013-07-01

345

14 CFR 21.193 - Experimental certificates: general.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Experimental certificates: general...TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT CERTIFICATION...Certificates § 21.193 Experimental certificates: general...In the case of an aircraft to be used for experimental purposesâ...

2013-01-01

346

14 CFR 21.193 - Experimental certificates: general.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Experimental certificates: general...TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT CERTIFICATION...Certificates § 21.193 Experimental certificates: general...In the case of an aircraft to be used for experimental purposesâ...

2010-01-01

347

14 CFR 21.193 - Experimental certificates: general.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-01-01 false Experimental certificates: general...TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT CERTIFICATION...Certificates § 21.193 Experimental certificates: general...In the case of an aircraft to be used for experimental purposesâ...

2009-01-01

348

49 CFR 242.209 - Maintenance of the certificate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... QUALIFICATION AND CERTIFICATION OF CONDUCTORS Administration of the Certification...Maintenance of the certificate. (a) Each conductor who has received a certificate required...his or her possession while on duty as a conductor; and (2) Display that...

2012-10-01

349

49 CFR 242.407 - Process for revoking certification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... QUALIFICATION AND CERTIFICATION OF CONDUCTORS Denial and Revocation of Certification...certifies or recertifies a person as a conductor and, during the period that certification...this chapter shall revoke the person's conductor certificate. (b) Pending a...

2012-10-01

350

Graduating STEM Competent and Confident Teachers: The Creation of a STEM Certificate for Elementary Education Majors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A collaborative of STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) and education faculty developed a STEM certificate aimed at elementary education majors. A four-phase process model was used to create and evaluate courses. The certificate is comprised of three interdisciplinary, team-taught, lab-based courses: Environmental Biology,…

Murphy, Tony P.; Mancini-Samuelson, Gina J.

2012-01-01

351

Using Forest Certification to Strengthen Rural Communities: Cases from Northwest Russia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rapid globalization of forest products markets has placed many rural forest-based communities under considerable pressure to rapidly exploit forest resources. To counter, transnational environmental organizations have promoted programs for forest certification, seeking to use global market forces to support environmentally and socially responsible forest management. This paper reports the impacts of the Forest Stewardship Council certification program on four

E. Meidinger; M. S. Tysiachniouk

2006-01-01

352

Certification Requirements and Teacher Quality: A Comparison of Alternative Routes to Teaching. Working Paper 64  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Traditionally, states have required individuals complete a program of study in a university-based teacher preparation program in order to be licensed to teach. In recent years, however, various "alternative certification" programs have been developed and the number of teachers obtaining teaching certificates through routes other than completing a…

Sass, Tim R.

2011-01-01

353

A Fair Trade Approach to Community Forest Certification? A Framework for Discussion  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Forest certification has gained growing attention as a market-based instrument to make globalizing markets a force for mitigating rather than fostering environmental degradation. Yet in practice, market mechanisms currently appear to encourage concentration of forest certification in Northern temperate and boreal forests, rather than in the…

Taylor, Peter Leigh

2005-01-01

354

A Fair Trade Approach to Community Forest Certification? A Framework for Discussion  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Forest certification has gained growing attention as a market-based instrument to make globalizing markets a force for mitigating rather than fostering environmental degradation. Yet in practice, market mechanisms currently appear to encourage concentration of forest certification in Northern temperate and boreal forests, rather than in the…

Taylor, Peter Leigh

2005-01-01

355

Management of PEM public key certificates using X.500 directory service: Some problems and solutions  

SciTech Connect

Internet Privacy Enhanced Mail (PEM) provides security services to users of Internet electronic mail. While the prevalent PEM implementation uses a public key certificate-based strategy, certificates are mostly distributed vie e-mail exchanges, which raises several security and performance issues. This paper discusses some problems with this strategy, explores the relevant issues, and develops an approach to address them.

Cheung, Terry C.

1993-08-01

356

Validation of a DNA-based method for identifying Chrysomyinae (Diptera: Calliphoridae) used in a death investigation.  

PubMed

Many authors have proposed DNA-based methods for identifying an insect specimen associated with human remains. However, almost no attempt has been made to validate these methods using additional observations. We tested a protocol for identifying insects in the blow fly subfamily Chrysomyinae (Diptera: Calliphoridae) often found to be associated with a human corpse in Canada or the USA. This method uses phylogenetic analysis of DNA sequence from a short segment of the mitochondrial gene for cytochrome oxidase one (COI). Test chrysomyine COI sequences were obtained from 245 newly sequenced specimens and 51 specimens from the published literature. Published sequences from representatives of nonchrysomyine genera were also included to check for the possibility of a false positive identification. All of the chrysomyine test haplotypes were correctly identified with strong statistical support, and there were no false positives. This method appears to be an accurate and robust technique for identifying chrysomyine species from a death investigation in this geographic region. The far northern species Protophormia atriceps was not evaluated; therefore, caution is required in applying this method at very high latitudes in North America. PMID:16328423

Wells, Jeffrey D; Williams, Diana W

2005-11-19

357

14 CFR 65.125 - Certificates: Privileges.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...OTHER THAN FLIGHT CREWMEMBERS Parachute Riggers § 65.125 Certificates... (a) A certificated senior parachute rigger mayâ (1) Pack or maintain...except for major repair) any type of parachute for which he is rated; and...

2013-01-01

358

40 CFR 1043.40 - EIAPP certificates.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...an EIAPP certificate in compliance with the requirements of this section (which references 40 CFR part 1042). Note that under APPS engine manufacturers must comply with the applicable requirements of Regulation 13 of Annex VI to obtain a certificate....

2013-07-01

359

14 CFR 183.13 - Certification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Certificate of Designationâ and an appropriate Identification Card is issued to each Aviation Medical Examiner and to each forensic pathologist designated under § 183.11(a). (b) A âCertificate of Authorityâ specifying the kinds of...

2013-01-01

360

5 CFR 630.1208 - Medical certification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Medical certification. 630.1208 Section 630.1208...SERVICE REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Family and Medical Leave § 630.1208 Medical certification. (a) An agency may...

2013-01-01

361

7 CFR 1401.4 - Commodity certificates.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...commodity certificate. (2) Ineligible commodities. No person may use a commodity certificate to receive a quantity of tobacco, peanuts, or extra long staple cotton pledged as collateral for a CCC loan. No person may, before August 1, 1986,...

2012-01-01

362

16 CFR 1207.9 - Product certification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR SWIMMING POOL SLIDES § 1207.9 Product certification. ...2063(a)(1)). (b) A certificate shall accompany the swimming pool slide (in the form of a permanent label on...

2013-01-01

363

40 CFR 82.164 - Reclaimer certification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) PROTECTION OF STRATOSPHERIC OZONE Recycling and Emissions Reduction § 82.164 Reclaimer certification...Avenue, NW., Washington, DC 20460; Attn: Section 608 Recycling Program ManagerâReclaimer Certification. (f)...

2013-07-01

364

Export Certificate Program Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs ...  

Center for Drug Evaluation (CDER)

Text VersionPage 1. CDER Export Certificate Program Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) Q. What is an FDA CDER issued Export Certificate? ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/drugs/guidancecomplianceregulatoryinformation

365

49 CFR 172.204 - Shipper's certification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...certification (declaration) containing the language contained in paragraph (a)(2...for transport according to applicable international and national governmental regulations...Certification containing the following language may be used in place of the...

2012-10-01

366

49 CFR 380.401 - Certification document.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS SPECIAL TRAINING REQUIREMENTS Driver-Training Certification § 380.401 Certification document. (a) A student who successfully completes LCV driver training shall be issued a...

2011-10-01

367

49 CFR 380.401 - Certification document.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS SPECIAL TRAINING REQUIREMENTS Driver-Training Certification § 380.401 Certification document. (a) A student who successfully completes LCV driver training shall be issued a...

2012-10-01

368

9 CFR 93.803 - Health certificate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Health certificate. 93.803 Section 93...and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...Rhinoceroses, and Tapirs § 93.803 Health certificate. (a) An...

2013-01-01

369

9 CFR 93.705 - Health certificate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Health certificate. 93.705 Section 93...and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... Miscellaneous Animals § 93.705 Health certificate. (a) No person...

2013-01-01

370

77 FR 70176 - Previous Participation Certification  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...No. FR-5603-N-86] Previous Participation Certification AGENCY: Office of the...to evaluate participants' previous participation in government programs and ensure that...information: Title of Proposed: Previous Participation Certification. OMB Approval...

2012-11-23

371

5 CFR 430.403 - System certification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT Performance Appraisal Certification for Pay Purposes...certification. (a) The performance appraisal system(s) covering...In some agencies, the performance appraisal system(s) covers...

2013-01-01

372

5 CFR 1330.403 - System certification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT Performance Appraisal Certification for Pay Purposes...certification. (a) The performance appraisal system(s) covering...In some agencies, the performance appraisal system(s) covers...

2013-01-01

373

31 CFR 50.53 - Loss certifications.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Loss certifications. 50.53 Section 50.53 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury TERRORISM RISK INSURANCE PROGRAM Claims Procedures § 50.53 Loss certifications. (a) General. When an...

2013-07-01

374

49 CFR 242.207 - Certificate components.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...TRANSPORTATION QUALIFICATION AND CERTIFICATION OF CONDUCTORS Administration of the Certification Program...been determined to be eligible to perform as a conductor or as a passenger conductor; (3) Identify the person to whom it...

2012-10-01

375

Consumption of PCB-contaminated sport fish and risk of spontaneous fetal death.  

PubMed Central

Spontaneous fetal death has been observed among various mammalian species after exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Our exposure-based cohort study assessed the relationship between consumption of PCB-contaminated Lake Ontario sport fish and spontaneous fetal death using 1820 multigravid fertile women from the 1990-1991 New York State Angler Cohort Study. Fish consumption data were obtained from food frequency questionnaires and history of spontaneous fetal death from live birth certificates. Analyses were stratified by number of prior pregnancies and controlled for smoking and maternal age. No significant increases in risk for fetal death were observed across four measures of exposure: a lifetime estimate of PCB exposure based on species-specific PCB levels; the number of years of fish consumption; kilograms of sport fish consumed in 1990-1991; and a lifetime estimate of kilograms eaten. A slight risk reduction was seen for women with two prior pregnancies at the highest level of PCB exposure (odds ratio = 0.36; 95% CI, 0.14-0.92) and for women with three or more prior pregnancies with increasing years of fish consumption (odds ratio = 0.97; 95% CI, 0.94-0.99). These findings suggest that consumption of PCB-contaminated sport fish does not increase the risk of spontaneous fetal death.

Mendola, P; Buck, G M; Vena, J E; Zielezny, M; Sever, L E

1995-01-01

376

Consumption of PCB-contaminated sport fish and risk of spontaneous fetal death  

SciTech Connect

Spontaneous fetal death has been observed among various mammalian species after exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Our exposure-based cohort study assessed the relationship between consumption of PCB-contaminated Lake Ontario sport fish and spontaneous fetal death using 1820 multigravid fertile women from the 1990-1991 New York State Angler Cohort Study. Fish consumption data were obtained from food frequency questionnaires and history of spontaneous fetal death from live birth certificates. Analyses were stratified by number of prior pregnancies and controlled for smoking and maternal age. No significant increases in risk for fetal death were observed across four measures of exposure: a lifetime estimate of PCB exposure based on species-specific PCB levels; the number of years of fish consumption; kilograms of sport fish consumed in 1990-1991; and a lifetime estimate of kilograms eaten. A slight risk reduction was seen for women with two prior pregnancies at the highest level of PCB exposure (odds ratio = 0.36; 95% CI, 0.14-0.92) and for women with three or more prior pregnancies with increasing years of fish consumption (odds ratio = 0.97; 95% CI, 0.94-0.99). These findings suggest that consumption of PCB-contaminated sport fish does not increase the risk of spontaneous fetal death. 50 refs., 2 tabs.

Mendola, P.; Buck, G.M.; Vena, J.E.; Zielezny, M. [State Univ. of New York, Buffalo, NY (United States); Sever, L.E. [Battelle Seattle Research Center, WA (United States)

1995-05-01

377

CompTIA A+ Certifications and Exams  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A+ certification is one of the most widely recognized computer technician certification programs. Certification is granted by a non-profit trade organization CompTIA and is vendor neutral. This webpage (from CompTIA website) provides links to A+ certification exam preparation material). Links are given to sample test questions and pages providing information on exam objectives; finding training materials & providers; test taking tips; financial aid; and registering for the exam. Information, including a name and email address, are required.

2007-02-26

378

Development of a predictive model for early death in diabetic patients entering hemodialysis: a population-based study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to investigate whether early death following the start of dialysis treatment can be explained by\\u000a predialysis comorbid conditions, and to develop a prognostic model to predict early death in these patients. All patients\\u000a with diabetes mellitus (DM) over 19 years of age entering hemodialysis in Catalonia in the 1997–2002 period (n = 1,365) were assessed from prospectively

J. M. Mauri; E. Vela; M. Clèries

2008-01-01

379

The social patterning of deaths due to assault in Scotland, 1980–2005: population-based study  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectivesThe objectives of this study were to explore the extent of the social gradient for deaths due to assault and its impact on overall inequalities in mortality and to investigate the contribution to assault mortality of knives and other sharp weapons.DesignAn analysis of death records and contemporaneous population estimates was conducted.SettingThe authors investigated the social patterning of homicide in Scotland.ParticipantsThis

A. H. Leyland; R. Dundas

2010-01-01

380

Major epidemiological changes in sudden infant death syndrome: a 20-year population-based study in the UK  

Microsoft Academic Search

Findings Over the past 20 years, the proportion of children who died from SIDS while co-sleeping with their parents, has risen from 12% to 50% (p? 0·0001), but the actual number of SIDS deaths in the parental bed has halved (p=0·01). The proportion seems to have increased partly because the Back to Sleep campaign led to fewer deaths in infants

Peter S Blair; Peter Sidebotham; P Jeremy Berry; Margaret Evans; Peter J Fleming

2006-01-01

381

Death Anxiety.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Anxiety caused by conscious and unconscious fears of death and dying is the focus of 26 essays by 37 authors. The attitudes among the aged, the attitudes among the general population toward aging, and the attitudes among the chronically or terminally ill ...

1973-01-01

382

Predictors of Fear of Death and Self-Mortality: An Atlantic Canadian Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research was undertaken to explore gender, religiosity, perceived time-left-to-live and the interactions between these variables as predictors of fear of death in 144 Atlantic Canadian students using the Multidimensional Fear of Death Scale (MFODS). Predictions about cause, age, marital status, and place of death were also derived from the Do-It-Yourself-Death-Certificate and compared with actuarial data to determine accuracy. Results

Trinda L. Power; Steven M. Smith

2008-01-01

383

Requirements for Certification of Nurse Practitioner.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This handbook contains laws, rules, and regulations of the New York State Education Department that govern certification of nurse practitioners in New York State. General provisions cover education, prescriptive privilege, practice agreements and protocols, reciprocal certification with other states or countries, and certification in specialty…

New York State Education Dept., Albany. Cultural Education Center.

384

2009 Guide to National Board Certification  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The "Guide to National Board Certification" introduces teachers to the assessment process and provides them with useful information as they apply for National Board Certification or order the "Take One![R]" professional development kit. By participating in the National Board Certification process, participants are joining tens of thousands of…

National Board for Professional Teaching Standards, 2009

2009-01-01

385

Certification and the Branding of HRD  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Although calls continue to establish certification, several certifications for human resource development (HRD) practitioners already exist, although none use the name HRD. This Forum explores what those certification programs are and what their availability means to the development of the HRD "brand" (the impressions of the service derived from…

Carliner, Saul

2012-01-01

386

EE Certification: Making Best Practice Standard Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Pursuing environmental education certification is difficult, so why do it? What does it mean to be certified? Who benefits? How? These are just a few of the compelling questions addressed in "EE Certification: Making Best Practice Standard Practice," a new article exploring advancements and challenges in state and national EE certification. A…

Glenn, Joanne M. Lozar

2006-01-01

387

Conducting an Operators' Training and Certification Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study of Arizona's water system operator certification program was undertaken to develop guidelines for operator training and to prepare certification examinations that reflect the actual tasks and duties required of operators in the field. Information about training needs and certification procedures was collected from operators and managers. The results of the study were incorporated into a manual prepared for

Charles E. Ohr; Daniel Cortinovis; Jerrold J. Troyan

1984-01-01

388

NEW MARKETING ISSUES VIA PIK CERTIFICATES  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Food Security Act of 1985 permits payment of farm program benefits in part with PIK certificates. PIK certificates can do things that cash alone cannot do. This special capacity gives PIK certificates special value. A market determined premium has existed for them from the beginning. Briefly during the harvest of 1986, premiums were as high as 30 percent. To

Stanley C. Stevens

1987-01-01

389

An investigation of DUA caching strategies for public key certificates  

SciTech Connect

Internet Privacy Enhanced Mail (PEM) provides security services to users of Internet electronic mail. PEM is designed with the intention that it will eventually obtain public key certificates from the X.500 directory service. However, such a capability is not present in most PEM implementations today. While the prevalent PEM implementation uses a public key certificate-based strategy, certificates are mostly distributed via e-mail exchanges, which raises several security and performance issues. In this thesis research, we changed the reference PEM implementation to make use of the X.500 directory service instead of local databases for public key certificate management. The thesis discusses some problems with using the X.500 directory service, explores the relevant issues, and develops an approach to address them. The approach makes use of a memory cache to store public key certificates. We implemented a centralized cache server and addressed the denial-of-service security problem that is present in the server. In designing the cache, we investigated several cache management strategies. One result of our study is that the use of a cache significantly improves performance. Our research also indicates that security incurs extra performance cost. Different cache replacement algorithms do not seem to yield significant performance differences, while delaying dirty-writes to the backing store does improve performance over immediate writes.

Cheung, T.C.

1993-11-01

390

Framework for Certification of Fish Propagation, Protection and Monitoring Facilities. Final Report.  

SciTech Connect

A conceptual framework for certification of fish production and monitoring facilities including software templates to expedite implementation of the framework are presented. The framework is based on well established and widely utilized project management techniques. The implementation templates are overlays for Microsoft Professional Office software products: Excel, Word, and Project. Use of the software templates requires Microsoft Professional Office. The certification framework integrates two classical project management processes with a third process for facility certification. These processes are: (1) organization and definition of the project, (2) acquisition and organization of project documentation, and (3) facility certification. The certification process consists of systematic review of the production processes and the characteristics of the produced product. The criteria for certification review are the plans and specifications for the products and production processes that guided development of the facility. The facility is certified when the production processes are operating as designed and the product produced meets specifications. Within this framework, certification is a performance based process, not dissimilar from that practiced in many professions and required for many process, or a product meets professional/industry standards of performance. In the case of fish production facilities, the certifying authority may be diffuse, consisting of many entities acting through a process such as NEPA. A cornerstone of certification is accountability, over the long term, for the operation and products of a facility. This is particularly important for fish production facilities where the overall goal of the facility may require decades to accomplish.

Carlson, Thomas J.; Costello, Ronald J.

1997-06-01

391

Under-recording of ethanol intoxication and poisoning in cause-of-death data: Causes and consequences  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present study we examined how consistently and completely the role of acute alcohol (ethanol) intake as a cause of death is reported on death certificates, how complete and specific the statistical recording of cause-of-death data on acute alcohol-induced deaths is, and how the information ultimately appears in the national mortality statistics.Data on all alcohol-positive deaths with blood alcohol

Raimo A. Lahti; Antti Sajantila; Helena Korpi; Kari Poikolainen; Erkki Vuori

2011-01-01

392

Propeller aircraft noise-certification and flight testing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Specifications for controlling aircraft noise emission and emission as developed by the ICAO and presently entitled International Standards and Recommended Practices - Environmental Protection, ANNEX 16 to the Convention on International Civil Aviation/ Volume 1, Aircraft Noise are elaborated. Those portions dealing with the noise certification of heavy (commuter and transport) and light (sports and recreational) propeller driven aircraft are discussed. Some information on the practice of noise certification data acquisition and evaluation, based on several hundred measurements, are provided. Current ideas towards changing, consolidating, and improving the present schemes and procedures are described. Specific acoustic problem areas in flight testing and analysis are also covered.

Heller, H.

393

Training for Certification: Seed Treatment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This Cooperative Extension Service publication from Mississippi State University is a training guide for commercial pesticide applicators. Focusing specifically on the treatment of seeds with pesticides, this publication is meant to prepare one to take the written examination for Environmental Protection Agency Seed Treatment certification.…

Mississippi State Univ., State College. Cooperative Extension Service.

394

Certification of Financial Aid Administrators  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The certification of financial aid administrators has been debated for over 37 years. A job satisfaction survey conducted by the National Association of Student Financial Aid Administrators (NASFAA, 2008a) revealed that college and university administrators' perceptions of the efficiency, effectiveness, and quality of the services provided by the…

Peterson, Stacey A.

2011-01-01

395

On Problems with Short Certificates  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider languages in NP whose certificate size is bounded by a fixed, slowly growing function (sayf (n)) of the input size. The classesf (n)-NP, which are related to classes of Kintala and Fischer, are defined in order to classify such languages. We show that several natural problems, involving Boolean satisfiability, graph colouring and Hamiltonian circuits, are complete forf (n)-NP.

Graham Farr

1994-01-01

396

Preparation and training [Certification corner  

Microsoft Academic Search

Last month's column shared feedback on the certification exam, as statistics and also in comments from candidates who passed the exam and earned the IEEE Wireless Communication Professional credential. A recurring theme was the need to be well prepared before taking the exam. Two-thirds of the candidates spent 20 or more hours preparing, through individual study, training courses, or other

Rolf Frantz

2010-01-01

397

Building Energy Technologies Certificate Program  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Advanced Technology Environmental and Energy Center (ATEEC) and Wilbur Wright College have provided this curriculum overview for a building energy technologies certificate program. Users must download this resource for viewing, which requires a free log-in. There is no cost to download the item.

2011-05-25

398

Automatic Certification of Heap Consumption  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a program logic for verifying the heap consumption of low-level programs. The proof rules employ a uniform assertion format and have been derived from a general purpose program logic (1). In a proof-carrying code scenario, the inference of invariants is delegated to the code provider, who em- ploys a certifying compiler that generates a certificate from program annotations

Lennart Beringer; Martin Hofmann; Alberto Momigliano; Olha Shkaravska

2004-01-01

399

Death notification.  

PubMed

Death notification--informing the deceased's family of an unexpected death--is a singularly stressful task common to medical personnel, clergy, and police. We surveyed by questionnaire a group of 50 Los Angeles Police Department homicide detectives, 21 of whom were subsequently interviewed by telephone. The detectives stated that their initial apprehension stemmed from feeling unprepared. Identification with victims' families was common and compounded the stress. One prevalent worry concerned the possible reactions of the family upon hearing the news, especially the risk of a violent attack on the police officer. Several coping styles were recognized. Our findings suggest that the repetitive performance of this continuously stressful task may be a prominent and underappreciated contribution to occupational burnout. PMID:3676528

Eth, S; Baron, D A; Pynoos, R S

1987-01-01

400

Death Star  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Death Star, a program from the PBS NOVA series, probes the deep mysteries of gamma-ray bursts, the most powerful celestial explosions since the Big Bang. A description of what would happen to Earth if a gamma-ray burst occurred in our own galaxy, a celestial glossary, and a virtual tour of the electromagnetic spectrum are included. Additional websites and published works about space topics are given, and the accompanying video is available to order.

401

Risk Factors for Severe Adverse Effects and Treatment-related Deaths in Japanese Patients Treated with Irinotecan-based Chemotherapy: A Postmarketing Survey†  

PubMed Central

Objectives This analysis was conducted to clarify risk factors for severe adverse effects and treatment-related deaths reported during a postmarketing survey of irinotecan. Methods The survey covered all patients treated with irinotecan in Japan between April 1995 and January 2000. The patient background data and adverse drug reactions were collected through case report forms. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses including 14 explanatory variables were performed to determine the risk factors for grade 3–4 leukopenia, thrombocytopenia and diarrhea for all patients and subgroups with five major cancers. Treatment-related deaths were also analyzed. Results Case report forms of 13 935 patients (94.1% of 14 802 patients registered) treated with irinotecan-based chemotherapy were collected. Major grade 3–4 adverse drug reactions were leukopenia (34.8%), thrombocytopenia (12.4%) and diarrhea (10.1%). Multivariate analysis revealed that the risk factors (odds ratio ?1.5) common for all these three adverse drug reactions were performance status (?3), infection and renal dysfunction before starting irinotecan therapy. Additionally, the risk factors for leukopenia were being female and prior radiotherapy, those for thrombocytopenia were age (?65 years), while those for diarrhea were pleural effusion and watery stool. The risk factors in each cancer were also identified. The incidence of treatment-related death was 1.3% (176). Myelosuppression-related deaths accounted for 70% and interstitial lung disease for 11% of all treatment-related deaths. Being male, age, performance status ?3, massive ascites and infection and renal dysfunction were identified as risk factors for treatment-related death. Conclusions To ensure the safety of irinotecan therapy, it is important to select appropriate patients by considering the risk factors.

Shiozawa, Tomoo; Tadokoro, Jun-ichi; Fujiki, Toshitaka; Fujino, Koji; Kakihata, Koji; Masatani, Shuji; Morita, Satoshi; Gemma, Akihiko; Boku, Narikazu

2013-01-01

402

Planetary Protection Alternate Protocol Certification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The talk presents a standardized approach for new method certification or alterative testing protocol (ATP) certification against the existing U.S. Planetary Protection Standards. In consideration of new method certification there are two phases of activities that are relevant to the certification process. The first is sample acquisition which typically incorporates swab or wipes sampling on relevant hardware, associated facilities and ground support equipment. The sampling methods introduce considerations of field sampling efficiency as it relates to spore distribution on the spacecraft, spacecraft material influences on the ability of the swab or wipe to remove spores from the hardware, the types of swabs and wipes used (polyester, cotton, macrofoam), and human sampling influences. The second portion of a new protocol certification looks specifically at the lab work-up or analysis of the samples provided to the laboratory. Variables in this process include selection of appropriate biomarkers, extraction efficiencies (removal of spores or constituents of interest from the sampling device), and a method's ability to accurately determine the number of spores present in the sample with a statistically valid level of confidence as described by parameters such as precision, accuracy, robustness, specificity and sensitivity. Considerations for alternative testing protocols such as those which utilize bioburden reduction techniques include selection of appropriate biomarkers for testing, test materials and a defined statistical approach that provides sufficient scientific data to support the modification of an existing NASA specification or the generation of a new NASA specification. Synergies between the U.S. and European Space Agency approaches will also be discussed.

Baker, Amy; Barengoltz, Jack; Tisdale, David

403

The role of food quality certification on consumers' food choices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine consumer attitudes and behavior towards organic products and products produced under the system of integrated management (SIM) and to compare the socioeconomic characteristics and attitudes that affect consumers' willingness to pay (WTP) a premium for these two different certification systems. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The study is based on cross-sectional data collected

Anna Botonaki; Konstantinos Polymeros; Efthimia Tsakiridou; Konstantinos Mattas

2006-01-01

404

40 CFR 86.416-80 - Application for certification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...certification is requested. If reduced testing based on low sales volume is requested the...if applicable) and fuel and engine lubricant proposed to be used. (v) A description...regulations, listings of the fuels and lubricants to be recommended to the ultimate...

2013-07-01

405

Mortality and cause of death in hip fracture patients aged 65 or older - a population-based study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  The high mortality of hip fracture patients is well documented, but sex- and cause-specific mortality after hip fracture has\\u000a not been extensively studied. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate mortality and cause of death in patients after\\u000a hip fracture surgery and to compare their mortality and cause of death to those in the general population.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Records of

Jorma Panula; Harri Pihlajamäki; Ville M Mattila; Pekka Jaatinen; Tero Vahlberg; Pertti Aarnio; Sirkka-Liisa Kivelä

2011-01-01

406

Eco-certification of farmed seafood: will it make a difference?  

PubMed

Eco-certification is widely considered a tool for reducing environmental impacts of aquaculture, but what are the likely environmental outcomes for the world's fastest growing animal-food production sector? This article analyzes a number of eco-certification schemes based on species choice, anticipated share of the global seafood market, size of eligible producers, and targeted environmental impacts. The potential of eco-certification to reduce the negative environmental impacts of aquaculture at scale presently appears uncertain as: (a) certification schemes currently focus on species predominantly consumed in the EU and US, with limited coverage of Asian markets; (b) the share of certified products in the market as currently projected is too low; (c) there is an inequitable and non-uniform applicability of certification across the sector; (d) mechanisms or incentives for improvement among the worst performers are lacking; and (e) there is incomplete coverage of environmental impacts, with biophysical sustainability and ecosystem perspectives generally lacking. PMID:23609102

Jonell, Malin; Phillips, Michael; Rönnbäck, Patrik; Troell, Max

2013-04-23

407

Deaths, Injuries, and Property Damage Due to Lightning in Colorado from 1950 to 1991 Based on 'Storm Data'.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Forty-two years of lightning casualty and damage reports in Colorado are summarized. The dataset contains 103 deaths, 299 injuries, and 191 damage reports from 1950 through 1991. Time fluctuations of these lightning events are shown by classifying the dat...

R. E. Lopex R. L. Holle T. A. Heitkamp

1994-01-01

408

Young People's Risk of Suicide Attempts in Relation to Parental Death: A Population-Based Register Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Background: The objective of this study was to examine the association between the death of a biological parent and subsequent suicide attempts by young people (aged 10-22 years), and to explore sociodemographic factors as modifying factors in the process. Methods: The study used a nested case-control design. The full study population was…

Jakobsen, Ida Skytte; Christiansen, Erik

2011-01-01

409

EDR2 NEGATIVELY REGULATES SALICYLIC ACID-BASED DEFENSES AND CELL DEATH DURING POWDERY MILDEW INFECTIONS OF ARABIDOPSIS THALIANA  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The hypersensitive necrosis response (HR) of resistant plants to avirulent pathogens is a form of programmed cell death in which the plant sacrifices a few cells under attack, restricting pathogen growth into adjacent healthy tissues. In spite of the importance of this defense response, relatively l...

410

Gene networks modified by sulphonylureas in beta cells: a pathway-based analysis of insulin secretion and cell death.  

PubMed

Sulphonylureas (SUs) used in the treatment for type 2 diabetes have been shown to result in different clinical outcome. This study hypothesized that three widely used SUs, glibenclamide, glimepiride and gliclazide, may affect function and survival of insulin-producing cells differently. To evaluate differences between SUs, insulin secretion and cell death were measured, and genome-wide gene expression patterns were compared using a bioinformatics approach focusing on functional relationships between molecules. Insulin-producing INS-1E cells exposed to SUs for 6 and 24 hr were assayed using GeneChip. Cluster and pathway analyses were used to identify differentially expressed genes and patterns of potential biological functions associated with SU treatment. Cell death was measured using acridine orange/Hoechst 33342 staining. Short-term treatment (6 hr) yielded up-regulation of insulin secretion and genes associated with insulin secretion for all three SUs applied. While long-term treatment (24-72 hr) with gliclazide did not change gene expression or cell survival, treatment with glibenclamide or glimepiride up-regulated genes associated with oxidative stress and hypoxia, but did not induce cell death. Short-term treatment with SUs initiates gene regulation that can be attributed to insulin secretion with few differences between individual SUs. This regulation was temporal and returned to baseline after 24 hr. Individual differences observed after 24-72 hr indicate that glibenclamide and glimepiride induce potentially harmful cell signalling insufficient for triggering beta cell death. PMID:22642398

Magnusson, Nils E; Dyrskjøt, Lars; Grimm, Daniela; Wehland, Markus; Pietsch, Jessica; Rungby, Jørgen

2012-07-10

411

Child Maltreatment Fatalities in Children under 5: Findings from the National Violence Death Reporting System  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Objective: To describe the distribution of child maltreatment fatalities of children under 5 by age, sex, race/ethnicity, type of maltreatment, and relationship to alleged perpetrator using data from the National Violent Death Reporting System (NVDRS). Study design: Two independent coders reviewed information from death certificates, medical…

Klevens, Joanne; Leeb, Rebecca T.

2010-01-01

412

Calculating expected years of life lost for assessing local ethnic disparities in causes of premature death  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: A core function of local health departments is to conduct health assessments. The analysis of death certificates provides information on diseases, conditions, and injuries that are likely to cause death – an important outcome indicator of population health. The expected years of life lost (Y LL) measure is a valid, stand-alone measure for identifying and ranking the underlying causes

Tomás J Aragón; Daphne Y Lichtensztajn; Brian S Katcher; Randy Reiter; Mitchell H Katz

2008-01-01

413

Accurately Assessing Elderly Fall Deaths Using Hospital Discharge and Vital Statistics Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Historically, fatal injury monitoring and surveillance have relied on mortality data derived from death certificates (DC). How- ever, problems associated with utilizing DC have been well docu- mented. Recently, access to and utilization of hospital discharge data (HDD) have offered a new and important secondary source of data regarding in-hospital deaths. However, studies have shown that discrepancies between the HDD

Steven A. Koehler; Harold B. Weiss; Abdulrezzak Shakir; Stacey Shaeffer; Shaun Ladham; Leon Rozin; Joseph Dominick; Bruce A. Lawrence; Ted R. Miller; Cyril H. Wecht

2006-01-01

414

Secreted calmodulin-like skin protein inhibits neuronal death in cell-based Alzheimer's disease models via the heterotrimeric Humanin receptor.  

PubMed

Humanin is a secreted bioactive peptide that is protective in a variety of death models, including cell-based neuronal death models related to Alzheimer's disease (AD). To mediate the protective effect in AD-related death models, Humanin signals via a cell-surface receptor that is generally composed of three subunits: ciliary neurotrophic factor receptor ?, WSX-1 and gp130 (heterotrimeric Humanin receptor; htHNR). However, the protective effect of Humanin via the htHNR is weak (EC50=1-10 ?M); therefore, it is possible that another physiological agonist for this receptor exists in vivo. In the current study, calmodulin-like skin protein (CLSP), a calmodulin relative with an undefined function, was shown to be secreted and inhibit neuronal death via the htHNR with an EC50 of 10-100 pM. CLSP was highly expressed in the skin, and the concentration in circulating normal human blood was ~5 nM. When administered intraperitoneally in mice, recombinant CLSP was transported across the blood-cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)-barrier and its concentration in the CSF reaches 1/100 of its serum concentration at 1 h after injection. These findings suggest that CLSP is a physiological htHNR agonist. PMID:23519124

Hashimoto, Y; Nawa, M; Kurita, M; Tokizawa, M; Iwamatsu, A; Matsuoka, M

2013-03-21

415

Population-based mammography screening below age 50: balancing radiation-induced vs prevented breast cancer deaths  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Exposure to ionizing radiation at mammography screening may cause breast cancer. Because the radiation risk increases with lower exposure age, advancing the lower age limit may affect the balance between screening benefits and risks. The present study explores the benefit–risk ratio of screening before age 50. Methods: The benefits of biennial mammography screening, starting at various ages between 40 and 50, and continuing up to age 74 were examined using micro-simulation. In contrast with previous studies that commonly used excess relative risk models, we assessed the radiation risks using the latest BEIR-VII excess absolute rate exposure-risk model. Results: The estimated radiation risk is lower than previously assessed. At a mean glandular dose of 1.3?mGy per view that was recently measured in the Netherlands, biennial mammography screening between age 50 and 74 was predicted to induce 1.6 breast cancer deaths per 100?000 women aged 0–100 (range 1.3–6.3 extra deaths at a glandular dose of 1–5?mGy per view), against 1121 avoided deaths in this population. Advancing the lower age limit for screening to include women aged 40–74 was predicted to induce 3.7 breast cancer deaths per 100?000 women aged 0–100 (range 2.9–14.4) at biennial screening, but would also prevent 1302 deaths. Conclusion: The benefits of mammography screening between age 40 and 74 were predicted to outweigh the radiation risks.

de Gelder, R; Draisma, G; Heijnsdijk, E A M; de Koning, H J

2011-01-01

416

Certification of UAW/Ford thermographers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ford Motor Company has been using infrared thermography in the maintenance of its production facilities for more than fifteen years. It has proven to be a key tool, which has helped the company continuously achieved high standards of production quality by using a work force trained with the essential technical skills. Many early successes in thermography provided an environment in which expansion of the program could occur. A group of key Ford and United Auto Workers personnel was formed to promote the use of infrared technology to help meet worldwide quality standards. The committee also addressed the need for standardized training, qualification, and certification. The program that has evolved, which is based on the qualification and certification standards of the American Society for Nondestructive Testing, is a strong partnership created between the UAW-Ford National Programs Center, UAW and Ford Motor Company with assistance from an outside training contractor. The paper will detail the experiences of establishing the program, the lessons that have been learned in the problem solving process, and the costs and benefits of the solutions that were developed.

Barth, Ken; Spring, Robert W.

2000-03-01

417

Sudden unexpected death  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sudden unexpected death is a major public health problem. Many cases could be prevented if they were anticipated through means\\u000a of a better awareness among the medical community, new therapies based on early genetic screening, or corrected by countershock.

W. H. Wehrmacher; José Luis Puglisi; Donald M. Bers; Harry Messmore

2005-01-01

418

A death in the family: death as a Zen concept.  

PubMed

This study is based on original research that explored family reaction to the death of an elderly husband and father. We interviewed 34 families (a family included a widow and two adult biological children) approximately 6 to 10 months after the death. In one-on-one interviews, we discussed family members' initial reaction to the death, how the family is coping with the loss, and the changes that occurred in family relationships. In this article we focus on family solidarity after the loved one's death and discuss one extended case from the larger study. In reviewing our data, we find that a Zen perspective is useful in understanding the effect of the death on family relationships because this perspective incorporates a focus on the paradoxes of life and death. As death forces the family into the "present in its fullness," the contradictions of intimacy and distance, past and future, and life and death, emerge. Members of the family explore existential questions about life, death, and intimacy, in order to find meaning in: 1) the life and death of the loved one; 2) their own lives; and 3) the family. PMID:23540160

Black, Helen K; Rubinstein, Robert L

2013-01-01

419

Short-term mortality in childhood onset insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus: a high frequency of unexpected deaths in bed.  

PubMed

Mortality and the causes of death have been studied in a population-based cohort of 4919 childhood onset IDDM cases. Enrolment began in 1977 and at the time of study there had been a maximum duration of disease of 13.5 years, with a total of 33,721 person years at risk. Survival status was ascertained by linkage to the Swedish Cause-of-Death register. Death certificates, autopsy protocols, and hospital records were scrutinized for classification of causes of deaths. Twenty males and 13 females with IDDM died before the age of 28.5 years. This corresponds to a Standardized Mortality Rate for age of 262% (95% confidence limits, 172-400) for the boys and 384% (95% confidence limits, 232-635) for girls. Seven patients died of ketoacidosis, four at onset of diabetes. Nine cases were found 'dead in bed', having been seen apparently healthy 1-2 days before death. One of these cases had signs of cerebral haemorrhages at autopsy and another one had signs of bite marks in the mouth, but otherwise all autopsies were normal and no evidence of alcohol or other intoxication was found. In a well-educated population with good access to inexpensive diabetes care, there is still a two- to threefold excess mortality among young onset insulin-dependent diabetic individuals including a high frequency of unexplained deaths in bed. PMID:7554783

Sartor, G; Dahlquist, G

1995-07-01

420

The reversibility of death.  

PubMed

The ordinary concept of death is analysed and compared with revisionary medical definitions, especially those based on irreversible loss of brain function. Prior critics of revisionary definitions have focused on the locus, the brain; I am concerned with the irreversibility condition. I argue that 1) the irreversibility condition is ambiguous, 2) it has unacceptable epistemic and other consequences on any plausible construal, and 3) irreversibility is not part of the ordinary concept of death. I conclude that recent medical definitions seek illegitimately to obtain the certainty of a weak construal of 'irreversible' along with the freedom from moral obligation of the strong construal. PMID:1573646

Cole, D J

1992-03-01

421

27 CFR 27.76 - Approval and certification of wine and flavors content.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Requirements Wine and Flavors Content of Distilled Spirits § 27...certification of wine and flavors content. (a) Any person who...determined at an effective tax rate based in whole, or in part, on the alcohol content derived from...

2013-04-01

422

Validation of Birth Certificate Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

PURPOSE: This study assesses the accuracy of 1989–1992 birth certificate data from New Jersey for a group of high-risk women.METHODS: Birth records were linked to data on women who participated in HealthStart, a program of enriched prenatal care for pregnant women on Medicaid. Concordance was assessed for all variables common to the two data sets.RESULTS: The birth records had accurate

Nancy E Reichman; Erinn M Hade

2001-01-01

423

Small Wind Technology Certificate Program  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Advanced Technology Environmental and Energy Center (ATEEC) provides this presentation from Richard Lawrence of Cape Cod Community College highlighting the small wind technology certificate program at that school. The presentation will help administrators and educators looking to start or develop their own small wind programs. Users must download this resource for viewing, which requires a free log-in. There is no cost to download the item.

Lawrence, Richard

2012-09-25

424

Automatic Certification of Heap Consumption  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a We present a program logic for verifying the heap consumption of low-level programs. The proof rules employ a uniform assertion\\u000a format and have been derived from a general purpose program logic [1]. In a proof-carrying code scenario, the inference of\\u000a invariants is delegated to the code provider, who employs a certifying compiler that generates a certificate from program\\u000a annotations and analysis.

Franz Baader; Andrei Voronkov

425

Thermodynamic indicators for environmental certification.  

PubMed

The Earth is an open thermodynamic system, that remains in a steady state far from the equilibrium, through energy and matter exchanges with the surrounding environment. These natural constraints, which prevent the system from maximizing its entropy, are threatened by human action and our ecosystem needs urgent protection. In this viewpoint the environmental certification was born, according to international standards ISO 14001, ISO 14040, and European Regulation EMAS. These are voluntary adhesions to a program of environmental protection by companies, administrations and organizations which, starting from the respect of the existing environmental laws and regulations, decide to further improve their environmental performance. To obtain and maintain certification of a system is necessary to apply some indicators to evaluate its environmental performance and to demonstrate its progressive improvement. Here we propose to use for this purpose the thermodynamic indicators produced from energy analysis by Odum. The case study is Montalcino city (Italy) and energy indicators are used to evaluate environmental performance of this system where exist different activities, from agricultural productions, to tourism. Results show that energy analysis could become a valid standard monitoring method for environmental certification, especially in consideration of its wide application field. PMID:12407910

Panzieri, Margherita; Porcelli, Marcello; Pulselli, Federico Maria

2002-09-01

426

Epidemiology of Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy-Related Death Revisited in a Large Non-Referral-Based Patient Population  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background—Death resulting from hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), particularly when sudden, has been reported to be largely confined to young persons. These data emanated from tertiary HCM centers with highly selected referral patterns skewed toward high-risk patients. Methods and Results—The present analysis was undertaken in an international population of 744 consecutively enrolled and largely unselected patients more representative of the overall HCM

Barry J. Maron; Iacopo Olivotto; Paolo Spirito; Susan A. Casey; Pietro Bellone; Thomas E. Gohman; Kevin J. Graham; David A. Burton; Franco Cecchi

427

46 CFR 98.31-10 - Certificate of inspection and NLS certificate endorsements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS SPECIAL CONSTRUCTION, ARRANGEMENT, AND OTHER PROVISIONS FOR CERTAIN DANGEROUS CARGOES IN BULK Control of Pollution From NLS Cargoes on Oceangoing Offshore Supply Vessels § 98.31-10 Certificate of inspection and NLS certificate...

2012-10-01

428

Cloning and characterization of two rice long-chain base kinase genes and their function in disease resistance and cell death.  

PubMed

Sphingolipid metabolites such as long-chain base 1-phosphates (LCBPs) have been shown to play an important role in plants; however, little is known about their function in plant disease resistance and programmed cell death (PCD). In the present study, we cloned and identified two rice long-chain base kinase (LCBK) genes (OsLCBK1 and OsLCBK2), which are involved in biosynthesis of LCBPs, and performed functional analysis in transgenic tobacco. Expression of OsLCBK1 and OsLCBK2 was induced in rice seedlings after treatments with defense signaling molecules and after infection by Magnaporthe grisea, the causal agent of blast disease. Transgenic tobacco plants overexpressing OsLCBK1 were generated and disease resistance assays indicate that the OsLCBK1-overexpressing plants showed enhanced disease resistance against Pseudmonas syringae pv. tabacci, the causal agent of wildfire disease, and tobacco mosaic virus. Expression levels of some defense-related genes were constitutively up-regulated and further induced after pathogen infection in the OsLCBK1-overexpressing plants. Treatment with fungal toxin fumonisin B1, an effective inducer of PCD in plants, resulted in reduced level of cell death in the OsLCBK1-overexpressing plants, as indicated by cell death staining, leakage of electrolyte and expression of hypersensitive response indicator genes. These data suggest that rice LCBKs, probably through regulation of endogenous LCBP level, play important roles in disease resistance response and PCD in plants. PMID:23054004

Zhang, Huijuan; Li, Li; Yu, Yongmei; Mo, Jibo; Sun, Lijun; Liu, Bo; Li, Dayong; Song, Fengming

2012-10-11

429

An evidence-based approach in school prevention means an everyday fight: a case study of the Czech Republic's experience with national quality standards and a national certification system.  

PubMed

The Czech Republic has reached the end of a 15-year-long period of the development of a nationwide preventive system in schools. Reflection on this development can offer an interesting case study that demonstrates the general difficulties involved in creating a national prevention policy and implementing the principles of an evidence-based approach. Through its historical context the up-to-date outputs of the latest projects are presented as “key documents” (quality standards, textbook, explanatory dictionary, examples of good practice etc.) and a national system of assessment of quality called a certification procedure, which has a practical impact on the grant system of the Ministry of Education of the Czech Republic. This context is also used to show how certain European networks (EUSPR, IREFREA, etc.) can be very helpful in generalizing this idea across Europe. All the examples of activities on the national or international level seem to be promising and supportive of the increasingly noticeable trend of using research evidence in real practice and making the whole field more attractive for students and young researchers. PMID:23880832

Miovsky, Michal

2013-01-01

430

Technological infrastructure for PKI and digital certification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Secure E-Commerce and VPN technology is only possible with the use of appropriate security systems such as encryption, digital signatures, digital certificates, public\\/private key pairs, non-repudiation, and time-stamping. A PKI comprises a system of certificates, certificate authorities, subjects, relying partners, registration authorities, and key repositories that provide for safe and reliable E-business. This paper discusses these key technologies focusing particularly

Ray Hunt

2001-01-01

431

Child deaths of unknown cause: review of 7 years' experience.  

PubMed

Using data from the Pima County (Arizona) Child Fatality Review Team, we sought to describe the nature of unknown cause pediatric deaths. Of 1,150 total deaths (1995-2001), 22 were unknown cause and 3 had only a mode of death on the death certificate. There were 15 infants <6 months, 4 children 1-4 years, 2 children 5-9 years, 1 preteen (10-14 years), and 3 aged 15-17 years. Four patterns were seen: those resembling SIDS but with confounding history, autopsy, or scene investigation; sleeping toddlers with respiratory symptoms; children with underlying conditions not expected to cause death; and deaths without complete investigation. PMID:15583775

Bowen, Kathryn A; Marshall, William N

432

A new hierarchical classification of causes of infant deaths in England and Wales.  

PubMed Central

In 1986 The Office of Population Censuses and Surveys (OPCS) introduced new certificates for stillbirths and neonatal deaths. This allowed certifiers more flexibility in the completion of the certificate, and the number and ordering of the causes given. Tabulations have been published of the fetal and maternal causes of death mentioned on the certificates for every year from 1986 to 1991 in annual reference volumes. It has not been possible either to derive a single cause group for each death, however, or to compare the information available on neonatal deaths with that on postneonatal deaths, which are still derived from the standard death certificate. The aim of the work described here was to adapt previous classifications to derive a single cause grouping for stillbirths and infant deaths which would provide the maximum information about preventability and yet meet the national and international responsibilities of OPCS. The methods used and the tests carried out on the validity and consistency of the chosen classification are described.

Alberman, E; Botting, B; Blatchley, N; Twidell, A

1994-01-01

433

Environmental gas displacement: three accidental deaths in the workplace.  

PubMed

The authors describe three accidental deaths resulting from occupational hazards involving environmental gas alterations. One involved the displacement of oxygen caused by leakage of liquid nitrogen during the installation of a magnetic resonance imaging system. Two involved elevated environmental carbon dioxide concentrations: dry ice sublimation in a walk-in refrigerator in a research laboratory, and activation of a carbon dioxide fire alarm-extinguisher system by a woman locked in a bank vault. The autopsy findings, scene investigations, and certifications of these deaths, as related to the mechanisms of death, are discussed. PMID:11953489

Gill, James R; Ely, Susan F; Hua, Zhongxue

2002-03-01

434

7 CFR 1216.70 - Certification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEANUT PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information Order Certification of Peanut Producer Organizations § 1216.70...

2012-01-01

435

9 CFR 93.803 - Health certificate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Elephants, Hippopotami, Rhinoceroses, and Tapirs...803 Health certificate. (a) An elephant, hippopotamus, rhinoceros...so), certifying: (1) That the elephant, hippopotamus, rhinoceros, or...

2009-01-01

436

9 CFR 93.803 - Health certificate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Elephants, Hippopotami, Rhinoceroses, and Tapirs...803 Health certificate. (a) An elephant, hippopotamus, rhinoceros...so), certifying: (1) That the elephant, hippopotamus, rhinoceros, or...

2010-01-01

437

14 CFR 21.191 - Experimental certificates.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT CERTIFICATION PROCEDURES FOR PRODUCTS AND PARTS... (a) Research and development. Testing new aircraft design concepts, new aircraft equipment, new aircraft installations,...

2010-01-01

438

14 CFR 21.191 - Experimental certificates.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT CERTIFICATION PROCEDURES FOR PRODUCTS AND PARTS... (a) Research and development. Testing new aircraft design concepts, new aircraft equipment, new aircraft installations,...

2009-01-01

439

44 CFR 352.4 - Licensee certification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PREPAREDNESS COMMERCIAL NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS: EMERGENCY PREPAREDNESS PLANNING Certifications and Determinations § 352.4 Licensee...

2011-10-01

440

44 CFR 352.4 - Licensee certification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PREPAREDNESS COMMERCIAL NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS: EMERGENCY PREPAREDNESS PLANNING Certifications and Determinations § 352.4 Licensee...

2012-10-01

441

46 CFR 42.07-55 - Cancellation of load line certificates or exemption certificates.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...FOREIGN VOYAGES BY SEA Control, Enforcement, and Rights of Appeal § 42.07-55 Cancellation of load line certificates...the vessel is unsafe. (5) The load line certificate or International Load Line Exemption Certificate is not endorsed to show...

2012-10-01

442

46 CFR 42.07-55 - Cancellation of load line certificates or exemption certificates.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...FOREIGN VOYAGES BY SEA Control, Enforcement, and Rights of Appeal § 42.07-55 Cancellation of load line certificates...the vessel is unsafe. (5) The load line certificate or International Load Line Exemption Certificate is not endorsed to show...

2011-10-01

443

48 CFR 452.236-76 - Samples and Certificates.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...the following clause: Samples and Certificates (FEB...Contracting Officer, samples, certificates, and test data shall be submitted...or equipment for which samples, certifications or test data are required shall...

2012-10-01

444

48 CFR 1552.236-70 - Samples and certificates.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...construction contracts. Samples and Certificates (APR...Contracting Officer, samples, certificates, and test data shall be submitted...or equipment for which samples, certifications or test data are required shall...

2011-10-01

445

48 CFR 1552.236-70 - Samples and certificates.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...construction contracts. Samples and Certificates (APR...Contracting Officer, samples, certificates, and test data shall be submitted...or equipment for which samples, certifications or test data are required shall...

2012-10-01

446

50 CFR 260.29 - Disposition of inspection certificates.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...FOOD PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Inspection and Certification of Establishments and Fishery Products for Human Consumption Inspection Service § 260.29 Disposition of inspection certificates. The original of any inspection...

2011-10-01

447

50 CFR 260.62 - Issuance of certificate of sampling.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...FOOD PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Inspection and Certification of Establishments and Fishery Products for Human Consumption Sampling § 260.62 Issuance of certificate of sampling. Each inspector and each licensed sampler shall...

2011-10-01

448

40 CFR 194.14 - Content of compliance certification application.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...AGENCY (CONTINUED) RADIATION PROTECTION PROGRAMS CRITERIA FOR THE CERTIFICATION AND RE-CERTIFICATION OF THE WASTE ISOLATION PILOT PLANT'S COMPLIANCE WITH THE 40 CFR PART 191 DISPOSAL REGULATIONS Compliance Certification and...

2013-07-01

449

Storing Certificates in the Domain Name System (DNS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cryptographic public key are frequently published and their authenticity demonstrated by certificates. A CERT resource record (RR) is defined so that such certificates and related certificate revocation lists can be stored in the Domain Name System (DNS).

O. Gudmundsson

1999-01-01

450

29 CFR 825.305 - Certification, general rule.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...certification at some later date if the employer later has reason to question the appropriateness of the leave or its duration...certification, a recertification, a second or third opinion, or a fitness for duty certificate, including any clarifications...

2013-07-01

451

32 CFR 538.4 - Convertibility of military payment certificates.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 true Convertibility of military payment certificates. 538.4 Section...DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY CLAIMS AND ACCOUNTS MILITARY PAYMENT CERTIFICATES § 538.4 Convertibility of military payment certificates. (a) For...

2010-07-01

452

32 CFR 538.4 - Convertibility of military payment certificates.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-07-01 false Convertibility of military payment certificates. 538.4 Section...DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY CLAIMS AND ACCOUNTS MILITARY PAYMENT CERTIFICATES § 538.4 Convertibility of military payment certificates. (a) For...

2009-07-01

453

48 CFR 252.225-7018 - Photovoltaic Devices-Certificate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Photovoltaic Devices-Certificate. 252.225-7018...Provisions And Clauses 252.225-7018 Photovoltaic DevicesâCertificate. As prescribed...use the following provision: Photovoltaic DevicesâCertificate (MAY...

2012-10-01

454

7 CFR 1205.341 - Certification of cotton producer organization.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Certification of cotton producer organization. 1205.341 Section...Promotion Order Certification of Cotton Producer Organization § 1205.341 Certification of cotton producer organization. Any cotton...

2010-01-01

455

7 CFR 1205.341 - Certification of cotton producer organization.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-01-01 false Certification of cotton producer organization. 1205.341 Section...Promotion Order Certification of Cotton Producer Organization § 1205.341 Certification of cotton producer organization. Any cotton...

2009-01-01

456

46 CFR 115.302 - Certificates and permits.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...302 Certificates and permits. The Certificate of Inspection and...visible, in a conspicuous place on the vessel where observation by passengers...posting is impracticable, such as on open boats, the certificates must be kept on...

2012-10-01

457

46 CFR 176.302 - Certificates and permits.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...302 Certificates and permits. The Certificate of Inspection and...visible, in a conspicuous place on the vessel where observation by passengers...is impracticable, such as in an open boat, the certificates must be kept on...

2012-10-01

458

46 CFR 176.302 - Certificates and permits.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...302 Certificates and permits. The Certificate of Inspection and...visible, in a conspicuous place on the vessel where observation by passengers...is impracticable, such as in an open boat, the certificates must be kept on...

2011-10-01

459

29 CFR 1902.35 - Effect of certification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Determinations Under section 18(e) of the Act Completion of Developmental Steps-Certification § 1902.35 Effect of certification...certification acknowledging the completion of all of the developmental steps in a State's plan will automatically...

2013-07-01

460

24 CFR 200.95 - Certification of cost requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Certification of cost requirements. 200...Applicable to Multifamily and Health Care Facility Mortgage Insurance...for Existing Projects Cost Certification § 200.95 Certification of cost requirements....

2013-04-01

461

24 CFR 200.96 - Certificates of actual cost.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Certificates of actual cost. 200.96 Section...Applicable to Multifamily and Health Care Facility Mortgage Insurance...for Existing Projects Cost Certification § 200.96 Certificates of actual cost. (a) The...

2013-04-01

462

42 CFR 403.235 - Review and certification of policies.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... false Review and certification of policies. 403.235 Section 403.235 Public...AND PROJECTS Medicare Supplemental Policies Voluntary Certification Program: General...403.235 Review and certification of policies. (a) CMS will review...

2012-10-01

463

47 CFR 2.962 - Requirements for Telecommunication Certification Bodies.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...for Telecommunication Certification Bodies. 2.962 Section 2.962 Telecommunication...Procedures Telecommunication Certification Bodies (tcbs) § 2.962 Requirements for Telecommunication Certification Bodies. (a) Telecommunication...

2010-10-01

464

47 CFR 2.962 - Requirements for Telecommunication Certification Bodies.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...for Telecommunication Certification Bodies. 2.962 Section 2.962 Telecommunication...Procedures Telecommunication Certification Bodies (tcbs) § 2.962 Requirements for Telecommunication Certification Bodies. (a) Telecommunication...

2009-10-01

465

14 CFR 65.89 - Display of certificate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...CONTINUED) AIRMEN CERTIFICATION: AIRMEN OTHER THAN FLIGHT CREWMEMBERS Mechanics § 65.89 Display of certificate. Each person who holds a mechanic certificate shall keep it within the immediate area where he normally...

2013-01-01

466

46 CFR 107.409 - Safety Construction Certificate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Safety Construction Certificate. 107.409 Section...Certificates Under International Convention for Safety of Life at Sea, 1974 § 107.409 Safety Construction Certificate. (a)...

2012-10-01

467

77 FR 53865 - Export Trade Certificate of Review  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Trade Certificate of Review to Colombia Poultry Export Quota, Inc. (``COLOM-PEQ...Trade Certificate of Review to Colombia Poultry Export Quota, Inc. (``COLOM-PEQ...members under this certificate are the USA Poultry and Egg Export Council (USAPEEC)...

2012-09-04

468

76 FR 47148 - Export Trade Certificate of Review  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Application No. 88-13A16] Export Trade Certificate of Review ACTION: Notice of issuance of an Export Trade Certificate of Review to Wood [[Page 47149...Commerce issued an amended Export Trade Certificate of Review to Wood Machinery...

2011-08-04

469

75 FR 80456 - Export Trade Certificate of Review  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Application No. 10-0005] Export Trade Certificate of Review ACTION: Notice of application... 10-0005) for an Export Trade Certificate of Review from ARC Industries LTD...received an application for an Export Trade Certificate of Review...

2010-12-22

470

77 FR 2036 - Export Trade Certificate of Review  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Application No. 92-10A001] Export Trade Certificate of Review ACTION: Notice of issuance of an Export Trade Certificate of Review to Aerospace Industries...Commerce issued an amended Export Trade Certificate of Review to Aerospace...

2012-01-13

471

78 FR 13861 - Export Trade Certificate of Review  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Application No. 85-17A18] Export Trade Certificate of Review ACTION: Notice of Issuance of an Amended Export Trade Certificate of Review to U.S. Shippers Association...has issued an amended Export Trade Certificate of Review...

2013-03-01

472

78 FR 59004 - Export Trade Certificate of Review  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Application No. 13-00001] Export Trade Certificate of Review ACTION: Notice of Application for an Export Trade Certificate of Review to Emporia Trading LLC...an application for an Export Trade Certificate of Review...

2013-09-25

473

77 FR 61744 - Export Trade Certificate of Review  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...No. 84-23A12] Export Trade Certificate of Review ACTION: Notice of application to amend the Export Trade Certificate of Review issued to Northwest Fruit...application to amend an Export Trade Certificate of Review...

2012-10-11

474

76 FR 55010 - Export Trade Certificate of Review  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Application No. 84-22A12] Export Trade Certificate of Review ACTION: Notice of issuance of an Export Trade Certificate of Review to Northwest Fruit Exporters...Commerce issued an amended Export Trade Certificate of Review to Northwest Fruit...

2011-09-06

475

76 FR 54419 - International Anti-Fouling System Certificate  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...1625-AB79 International Anti-Fouling System Certificate AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice...International Anti-fouling System (IAFS) Certificate to the list of certificates a recognized classification society may...

2011-09-01

476

78 FR 53727 - Export Trade Certificate of Review  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Application No. 84-24A12] Export Trade Certificate of Review ACTION: Notice of Issuance of an Export Trade Certificate of Review to Northwest Fruit Exporters...Commerce issued an amended Export Trade Certificate of Review to Northwest Fruit...

2013-08-30

477

7 CFR 868.70 - Official certificates; issuance and distribution.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-01-01 2009-01-01 false Official certificates; issuance and distribution. 868.70...AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES Regulations Official Certificates § 868.70 Official certificates; issuance and distribution. (a)...

2009-01-01

478

78 FR 30273 - Export Trade Certificate of Review  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...No. 84-24A12] Export Trade Certificate of Review ACTION: Notice of Application to Amend the Export Trade Certificate of Review Issued to Northwest Fruit...application to amend an Export Trade Certificate of Review...

2013-05-22

479

77 FR 41970 - Export Trade Certificate of Review  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Application No. 12-00001] Export Trade Certificate of Review ACTION: Notice of issuance of an Export Trade Certificate of Review to Panama Poultry Export...of Commerce issued an Export Trade Certificate of Review to Panama Poultry...

2012-07-17

480

75 FR 51439 - Export Trade Certificate of Review  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...No. 88-12A-16] Export Trade Certificate of Review ACTION: Notice of Issuance of an amended Export Trade Certificate of Review to Wood Machinery Manufacturers...Commerce issued an amended Export Trade Certificate of Review to Wood Machinery...

2010-08-20

481

78 FR 36747 - Export Trade Certificate of Review  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...No. 89-4A018] Export Trade Certificate of Review ACTION: Notice of Application to amend the Export Trade Certificate of Review Issued to Outdoor Power...application to amend an Export Trade Certificate of Review...

2013-06-19

482

78 FR 1837 - Export Trade Certificate of Review  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Application No. 84-23A12] Export Trade Certificate of Review ACTION: Notice of issuance of an Export Trade Certificate of Review to Northwest Fruit Exporters...Commerce issued an amended Export Trade Certificate of Review to Northwest Fruit...

2013-01-09

483

76 FR 15294 - Export Trade Certificate of Review  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Application No. 10-00005] Export Trade Certificate of Review ACTION: Notice of issuance of an Export Trade Certificate of Review to ARC Industries Ltd...of Commerce issued an Export Trade Certificate of Review to ARC Industries...

2011-03-21

484

7 CFR 29.99 - Superseded certificate or sample.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Superseded certificate or sample. 29.99 Section 29...COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION... Superseded certificate or sample. When superseded under...appeal certificate or an appeal sample, such superseded...

2013-01-01

485

21 CFR 1311.40 - Renewal of CSOS digital certificates.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Renewal of CSOS digital certificates. 1311.40 Section...PRESCRIPTIONS Obtaining and Using Digital Certificates for Electronic Orders § 1311.40 Renewal of CSOS digital certificates. (a) A CSOS...

2013-04-01

486

21 CFR 1311.15 - Limitations on CSOS digital certificates.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Limitations on CSOS digital certificates. 1311.15 Section...PRESCRIPTIONS Obtaining and Using Digital Certificates for Electronic Orders § 1311.15 Limitations on CSOS digital certificates. (a) A...

2013-04-01

487

21 CFR 1311.15 - Limitations on CSOS digital certificates.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-04-01 false Limitations on CSOS digital certificates. 1311.15 Section 1311...ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE DIGITAL CERTIFICATES Obtaining and Using Digital Certificates for Electronic Orders §...

2009-04-01

488

21 CFR 1311.40 - Renewal of CSOS digital certificates.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2009-04-01 false Renewal of CSOS digital certificates. 1311.40 Section 1311...ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE DIGITAL CERTIFICATES Obtaining and Using Digital Certificates for Electronic Orders §...

2009-04-01

489

48 CFR 1237.7001 - Certification of data.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false Certification of data. 1237.7001...Procedures for Acquiring Training Services 1237.7001 Certification of data. Towards...prospective contractors for certification purposes. The type of...

2012-10-01

490

49 CFR 240.101 - Certification program required.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Component Elements of the Certification Process § 240.101 Certification program required...Each railroad shall have a certification program approved in accordance... (5) A procedure for training that complies with the...

2012-10-01

491

20 CFR 655.161 - Criteria for certification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 false Criteria for certification. 655.161 Section 655...Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT...THE UNITED STATES Labor Certification Process for Temporary Agricultural...H-2A Workers) Labor Certification Determinations §...

2012-04-01

492

48 CFR 1237.7001 - Certification of data.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false Certification of data. 1237.7001...Procedures for Acquiring Training Services 1237.7001 Certification of data. Towards...prospective contractors for certification purposes. The type of...

2011-10-01

493

20 CFR 655.51 - Criteria for certification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 false Criteria for certification. 655.51 Section 655...Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT...THE UNITED STATES Labor Certification Process and Enforcement...H-2B Workers) Labor Certification Determinations §...

2012-04-01

494

9 CFR 81.4 - Issuance of certificates.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS CHRONIC WASTING DISEASE IN DEER, ELK, AND MOOSE § 81.4 Issuance of certificates. (a) Information required on certificates. A certificate...

2012-01-01

495

46 CFR 107.227 - Certificate of Inspection Amendment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...107.227 Section 107.227 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Inspection and