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Sample records for death certificate based

  1. Certification of death.

    PubMed

    Chao, T C

    1990-04-01

    In Singapore, every deceased person must have a death certificate stating the cause of death. The death certificates are prepared from certificates of cause of death signed by medical practitioners, pathologists, coroners or inspectors of death. The death certificate is a legal document and the person who certifies the cause of death is responsible for the accuracy of the facts. Singapore has a Coroner's system and all deaths due to unnatural, violent, accidental, sudden and unknown causes must be reported to the coroner. These cases are usually subjected to post-mortem examination after which pathologist will sign the certificate of cause of death. Thus only pathologists are allowed to certify unnatural causes of death. All other categories of personnel are allowed to certify natural causes only. Any deviation will result in the certificate be rejected by the Registrar of Death and the matter referred to the Coroner. The offending doctor would be reprimanded by the court. Examples of wrong certification will be given and it is hoped that medical practitioners will not make similar mistakes. PMID:2371582

  2. [Medical death certificate].

    PubMed

    Beauthier, F; Beauthier, J-P

    2013-09-01

    The death certificate is a complex diagnostic procedure for the first medical responders (or general practioners) and requires a complex intellectual process. This article provides a practical and critical approach to the death certificate (modle IIIc) which must be completed in the best way. The authors strongly emphasized the differences between violent death and natural death, keystone of the medicolegal approach and as a possible starting point of criminal investigations. PMID:24195255

  3. Improving the accuracy of death certification

    PubMed Central

    Myers, K A; Farquhar, D R

    1998-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Population-based mortality statistics are derived from the information recorded on death certificates. This information is used for many important purposes, such as the development of public health programs and the allocation of health care resources. Although most physicians are confronted with the task of completing death certificates, many do not receive adequate training in this skill. Resulting inaccuracies in information undermine the quality of the data derived from death certificates. METHODS: An educational intervention was designed and implemented to improve internal medicine residents' accuracy in death certificate completion. A total of 229 death certificates (146 completed before and 83 completed after the intervention) were audited for major and minor errors, and the rates of errors before and after the intervention were compared. RESULTS: Major errors were identified on 32.9% of the death certificates completed before the intervention, a rate comparable to previously reported rates for internal medicine services in teaching hospitals. Following the intervention the major error rate decreased to 15.7% (p = 0.01). The reduction in the major error rate was accounted for by significant reductions in the rate of listing of mechanism of death without a legitimate underlying cause of death (15.8% v. 4.8%) (p = 0.01) and the rate of improper sequencing of death certificate information (15.8% v. 6.0%) (p = 0.03). INTERPRETATION: Errors are common in the completion of death certificates in the inpatient teaching hospital setting. The accuracy of death certification can be improved with the implementation of a simple educational intervention. PMID:9614825

  4. Death certification of "suicide by cop".

    PubMed

    Neitzel, Amber R; Gill, James R

    2011-11-01

    Death certification of "suicide by cop" is controversial among some medical examiners and coroners. We present five such deaths that were certified as suicides and discuss the medico-legal issues involved with these certifications. To certify such a death as a suicide, certain criteria should be met. Suicide by cop is a circumstance that involves competing intentional acts that may result in dichotomous determinations of the manner of death. Despite the absence of direct self-infliction, there is overwhelming evidence that these five individuals intended to end their own lives. Their use of an unusual method to accomplish this goal may inappropriately result in a reflexive certification of homicide. All of the decedents possessed weapons or a facsimile of a weapon. We present five instances of suicide by cop and contend that these types of deaths are best certified as suicides. PMID:21827474

  5. Cause of death affects racial classification on death certificates.

    PubMed

    Noymer, Andrew; Penner, Andrew M; Saperstein, Aliya

    2011-01-01

    Recent research suggests racial classification is responsive to social stereotypes, but how this affects racial classification in national vital statistics is unknown. This study examines whether cause of death influences racial classification on death certificates. We analyze the racial classifications from a nationally representative sample of death certificates and subsequent interviews with the decedents' next of kin and find notable discrepancies between the two racial classifications by cause of death. Cirrhosis decedents are more likely to be recorded as American Indian on their death certificates, and homicide victims are more likely to be recorded as Black; these results remain net of controls for followback survey racial classification, indicating that the relationship we reveal is not simply a restatement of the fact that these causes of death are more prevalent among certain groups. Our findings suggest that seemingly non-racial characteristics, such as cause of death, affect how people are racially perceived by others and thus shape U.S. official statistics. PMID:21298093

  6. Principles and Pitfalls: a Guide to Death Certification

    PubMed Central

    Brooks, Erin G.; Reed, Kurt D.

    2015-01-01

    Death certificates serve the critical functions of providing documentation for legal/administrative purposes and vital statistics for epidemiologic/health policy purposes. In order to satisfy these functions, it is important that death certificates be filled out completely, accurately, and promptly. The high error rate in death certification has been documented in multiple prior studies, as has the effectiveness of educational training interventions at mitigating errors. The following guide to death certification is intended to illustrate some basic principles and common pitfalls in electronic death registration with the goal of improving death certification accuracy. PMID:26185270

  7. Principles and Pitfalls: a Guide to Death Certification.

    PubMed

    Brooks, Erin G; Reed, Kurt D

    2015-06-01

    Death certificates serve the critical functions of providing documentation for legal/administrative purposes and vital statistics for epidemiologic/health policy purposes. In order to satisfy these functions, it is important that death certificates be filled out completely, accurately, and promptly. The high error rate in death certification has been documented in multiple prior studies, as has the effectiveness of educational training interventions at mitigating errors. The following guide to death certification is intended to illustrate some basic principles and common pitfalls in electronic death registration with the goal of improving death certification accuracy. PMID:26185270

  8. Utility of Death Certificate Data in Predicting Cancer Incidence

    PubMed Central

    Bedford, Ronald L.; Lourens, Spencer G.; Lynch, Charles F.; Smith, Brian J.; Field, R. William

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Studies often rely on death certificates to identify cancer occurrence. This research assessed the death certificate's ability to reflect cancer incidence and factors that influence agreement with cancer registry data. METHODS This study compared death certificates to cancer incidence data for an occupational cohort of 1,795 deceased workers who were registered by the Iowa Cancer Registry (ICR) between 1973 and 2005. Logistic regression models examined the effects of factors such as survival time, age at diagnosis, and gender on the odds of agreement between death certificate and incidence data. RESULTS Death certificates under-reported cancer incidence by 10-100%, depending on site. A one-year increase in survival decreased the odds of agreement between death certificate and ICR data by 18%. Younger and female workers had increased odds of agreement. CONCLUSIONS Death certificates can be useful predictors of cancer incidence, particularly for diseases with shorter survival and among subjects diagnosed earlier in life. PMID:24037961

  9. An application of the Sentinel Health Event (Occupational) concept to death certificates.

    PubMed Central

    Lalich, N R; Schuster, L L

    1987-01-01

    This article describes a computer-based application of the Sentinel Health Event (Occupational) [SHE(O)] concept, developed in conjunction with five states, to monitor deaths which are occupationally related. The states have coded their state death certificate files for industry and occupation, using the decedent's usual occupation and industry as reported on the death certificate. From these files, the SHE(O) computer program selects deaths which are likely to be work-related, based on a previously published SHE(O) list of 50 disease rubrics and associated industries and occupations. The computer program matches the SHE(O) list with the recorded industry, occupation, and underlying cause of death. The program has been tested using 1984 death certificate data from Maine, upstate New York (excluding New York City), North Carolina, Pennsylvania, and Rhode Island. Approximately 1 to 2 per cent of all deaths were selected by the program, with lung cancer and coal workers' pneumoconiosis being the most frequent cause of death. The SHE(O) program may be useful for identifying deaths which are potentially occupationally related, but its utility and its application to death certificates needs further evaluation before recommending widespread use. Limitations are discussed, as well as plans for improving the application of the SHE(O) concept to death certificates. PMID:3631365

  10. Temporal Trends in Recording of Diabetes on Death Certificates

    PubMed Central

    McEwen, Laura N.; Karter, Andrew J.; Curb, J. David; Marrero, David G.; Crosson, Jesse C.; Herman, William H.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine the frequency that diabetes is reported on death certificates of decedents with known diabetes and describe trends in reporting over 8 years. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Data were obtained from 11,927 participants with diabetes who were enrolled in Translating Research into Action for Diabetes, a multicenter prospective observational study of diabetes care in managed care. Data on decedents (N = 2,261) were obtained from the National Death Index from 1 January 2000 through 31 December 2007. The primary dependent variables were the presence of the ICD-10 codes for diabetes listed anywhere on the death certificate or as the underlying cause of death. RESULTS Diabetes was recorded on 41% of death certificates and as the underlying cause of death for 13% of decedents with diabetes. Diabetes was significantly more likely to be reported on the death certificate of decedents dying of cardiovascular disease than all other causes. There was a statistically significant trend of increased reporting of diabetes as the underlying cause of death over time (P < 0.001), which persisted after controlling for duration of diabetes at death. The increase in reporting of diabetes as the underlying cause of death was associated with a decrease in the reporting of cardiovascular disease as the underlying cause of death (P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS Death certificates continue to underestimate the prevalence of diabetes among decedents. The increase in reporting of diabetes as the underlying cause of death over the past 8 years will likely impact estimates of the burden of diabetes in the U.S. PMID:21709292

  11. Completeness of HIV reporting on death certificates for Floridians reported with HIV infection, 2000-2011.

    PubMed

    Trepka, Mary Jo; Sheehan, Diana M; Fennie, Kristopher P; Niyonsenga, Theophile; Lieb, Spencer; Maddox, Lorene M

    2016-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) mortality is used as a key measure to monitor the impact of HIV throughout the world. It is important that HIV be correctly recorded on death certificates so that the burden of HIV mortality can be tracked accurately. The objective of this study was to determine the extent of failure to correctly report HIV on death certificates and examine patterns of incompleteness by demographic factors. Causes of death on death certificates of people infected with HIV reported to the Florida HIV surveillance system 2000-2011 were analyzed to determine the proportion without mention of HIV who had an underlying cause of death suggestive of HIV based on World Health Organization recommendations. Of the 11,989 deaths, 8089 (67.5%) had an HIV code (B20-B24, R75) as any of the causes of death, 3091 (25.8%) had no mention of HIV and the underlying cause was not suggestive of HIV, and 809 (6.7%) had no mention of HIV but the underlying cause was suggestive of HIV. Therefore, 9.1% (809/8898) of probable HIV-related deaths had no mention of HIV on the death certificate. Dying within 1 month of HIV diagnosis was the factor most strongly associated with no mention of HIV when the underlying cause was suggestive of HIV on the death certificate. The results suggest that HIV mortality using only vital records may underestimate actual HIV mortality by approximately 9%. Efforts to reduce incompleteness of reporting of HIV on death certificates could improve HIV-related mortality estimates. PMID:26273965

  12. Accuracy of Death Certificates in COPD: Analysis from the TORCH Trial

    PubMed Central

    Drummond, M. Bradley; Wise, Robert A.; John, Matthias; Zvarich, Michael T.; McGarvey, Lorcan P.

    2016-01-01

    The Towards a Revolution in COPD Health (TORCH) trial was an international clinical trial of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients where cause of death was assigned by an independent committee. Comparison of death certificate data and adjudicated cause of death allows a unique opportunity to determine death certificate accuracy and frequency of COPD listing on death certificates of COPD patients. In this analysis, the authors determine the concordance between adjudicated cause of death and primary and secondary cause of death from death certificates. In 317 (80%) of informative deaths, the primary or secondary cause of death from certificates agreed with adjudicated cause of death. Only 229 (58%) of death certificates in these COPD patients listed COPD on the certificate. COPD was not listed on the death certificate in 21% of deaths adjudicated to be caused by COPD exacerbation. Compared with pulmonary causes, the listing of COPD on certificates occurred with less frequency than cardiovascular, cancer and other categories of death. The combined primary and secondary listing on death certificates has good concordance with actual cause of death. COPD is under-reported on death certificates, and this under-reporting is more frequent when the primary cause of death is not pulmonary. PMID:20486816

  13. Accuracy of death certificates in COPD: analysis from the TORCH trial.

    PubMed

    Drummond, M Bradley; Wise, Robert A; John, Matthias; Zvarich, Michael T; McGarvey, Lorcan P

    2010-06-01

    The Towards a Revolution in COPD Health (TORCH) trial was an international clinical trial of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients where cause of death was assigned by an independent committee. Comparison of death certificate data and adjudicated cause of death allows a unique opportunity to determine death certificate accuracy and frequency of COPD listing on death certificates of COPD patients. In this analysis, the authors determine the concordance between adjudicated cause of death and primary and secondary cause of death from death certificates. In 317 (80%) of informative deaths, the primary or secondary cause of death from certificates agreed with adjudicated cause of death. Only 229 (58%) of death certificates in these COPD patients listed COPD on the certificate. COPD was not listed on the death certificate in 21% of deaths adjudicated to be caused by COPD exacerbation. Compared with pulmonary causes, the listing of COPD on certificates occurred with less frequency than cardiovascular, cancer and other categories of death. The combined primary and secondary listing on death certificates has good concordance with actual cause of death. COPD is under-reported on death certificates, and this under-reporting is more frequent when the primary cause of death is not pulmonary. PMID:20486816

  14. Diagnosis on death certificates of sudden death due to ischemic heart disease.

    PubMed

    Najem, G R; Najem, A J; Najem, N H; Najem, F S; Najem, A J; Najem, A D

    1980-12-01

    This study was undertaken to evaluate the quality of diagnoses of sudden death (SD) caused by ischemic heart disease (IHD) on death certificates. A random sample of 10% (100 cases) was drawn from all such deaths which occurred in 1970 among Oklahoma City residents. The medical records of each case were reviewed and the quality of the diagnosis was rated, by the use of predetermined standard criteria, as confirmed and valid or unconfirmed and invalid. Among 100 IHD deaths, SD constitute 45%. Of these SDs, 18% were unobserved, without information as to the manifestations of the attack or the interval from onset of symptoms to death. According to criteria of the American Heart Association and WHO Expert Committee, the diagnosis in this 18% was unconfirmed and invalid. Thus there is insufficient quantitative evidence to justify the use of SD, as found on death certificates, as an indication of frequency of ischemic heart disease. PMID:7444553

  15. [The death certificate: how to draft and why?].

    PubMed

    Manaouil, C; Decourcelle, M; Gignon, M; Chatelain, D; Jardé, O

    2007-05-01

    The death certificate must be established within 24 hours following the death and handed to the mayor. The obligation to place in the coffin immediately is planned by a defined list of contagious diseases. Medicolegal obstacle must be ticked if there is a doubt on the cause of death. In order to look into the causes of the death, swabs can be asked by the physician. It is a medical or scientific autopsy to look into the causes of the death apart from a juridical procedure. The presence of a battery prosthesis (pacemaker) must be specified, so that it can be removed by a physician or a thanatopractionner before the placing in the coffin. Death certificate is passed on by the city hall to Insee, which updates the identification national register of physical people. Inserm receives anonymous data of the causes of death allowing to establish the mortality national statistics. In the absence of medicolegal obstacle or obligation to place in the coffin immediately, funeral operations can begin: preservation care, body transport, placing in the coffin and finally burial or cremation. PMID:17336488

  16. 25 CFR 15.104 - Does the agency need a death certificate to prepare a probate file?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Does the agency need a death certificate to prepare a... the Probate Process 15.104 Does the agency need a death certificate to prepare a probate file? (a) Yes. You must provide us with a certified copy of the death certificate if a death certificate...

  17. 25 CFR 15.104 - Does the agency need a death certificate to prepare a probate file?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Does the agency need a death certificate to prepare a... the Probate Process 15.104 Does the agency need a death certificate to prepare a probate file? (a) Yes. You must provide us with a certified copy of the death certificate if a death certificate...

  18. 25 CFR 15.104 - Does the agency need a death certificate to prepare a probate file?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Does the agency need a death certificate to prepare a... the Probate Process 15.104 Does the agency need a death certificate to prepare a probate file? (a) Yes. You must provide us with a certified copy of the death certificate if a death certificate...

  19. 25 CFR 15.104 - Does the agency need a death certificate to prepare a probate file?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Does the agency need a death certificate to prepare a... the Probate Process 15.104 Does the agency need a death certificate to prepare a probate file? (a) Yes. You must provide us with a certified copy of the death certificate if a death certificate...

  20. 25 CFR 15.104 - Does the agency need a death certificate to prepare a probate file?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Does the agency need a death certificate to prepare a... the Probate Process 15.104 Does the agency need a death certificate to prepare a probate file? (a) Yes. You must provide us with a certified copy of the death certificate if a death certificate...

  1. Completing Death Certificates from an EMR: Analysis of a Novel Public-Private Partnership

    PubMed Central

    Tripp, Jacob S.; Duncan, Jeffrey D.; Finch, Leisa; Huff, Stanley M.

    2015-01-01

    With the objective of increasing electronic death registration, Intermountain Healthcare and the Utah Office of Vital Records and Statistics have developed a system enabling death certification from within Intermountain’s electronic medical record (EMR), consisting of an EMR module and an HL7 interface. Comparison of post-intervention death certification at Intermountain Healthcare against a baseline study found a slight increase in the percentage of deaths certified electronically (73% pre vs. 77% post). Analysis of deaths certified using the EMR-module found that they were completed significantly sooner than those certified on paper or using the state’s web-based electronic death registration system (EDRS) (Mean time: Paper = 114.72 hours, EDRS = 81.84 hours, EMR = 43.92 hours; p < 0.0001). EMR-certified deaths also contained significantly more causes of deaths than either alternative method (Mean number of causes: Paper = 3.9 causes, EDRS = 4.0 causes, EMR = 5.5 causes; p < 0.0001).

  2. Medical certification of death in South Africa--moving forward.

    PubMed

    Burger, E H; Groenewald, P; Rossouw, A; Bradshaw, D

    2015-01-01

    Despite improvements to the Death Notification Form (DNF) used in South Africa (SA), the quality of cause-of-death information remains suboptimal. To address these inadequacies, the government ran a train-the-trainer programme on completion of the DNF, targeting doctors in public sector hospitals. Training materials were developed and workshops were held in all provinces. This article reflects on the lessons learnt from the training and highlights issues that need to be addressed to improve medical certification and cause-of-death data in SA. The DNF should be completed truthfully and accurately, and confidentiality of the information on the form should be maintained. The underlying cause of death should be entered on the lowest completed line in the cause-of-death section, and if appropriate, HIV should be entered here. Exclusion clauses for HIV in life insurance policies with Association of Savings and Investments South Africa companies were scrapped in 2005. Interactive workshops provide a good learning environment, but are logistically challenging. More use should be made of online training resources, particularly with continuing professional development accreditation and helpline support. In addition, training in the completion of the DNF should become part of the curriculum in all medical schools, and part of the orientation of interns and community service doctors in all facilities. PMID:26046158

  3. Assessing quality of medical death certification: Concordance between gold standard diagnosis and underlying cause of death in selected Mexican hospitals

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background In Mexico, the vital registration system relies on information collected from death certificates to generate official mortality figures. Although the death certificate has high coverage across the country, there is little information regarding its validity. The objective of this study was to assess the concordance between the underlying cause of death in official statistics obtained from death certificates and a gold standard diagnosis of the same deaths derived from medical records of hospitals. Methods The study sample consisted of 1,589 deaths that occurred in 34 public hospitals in the Federal District and the state of Morelos, Mexico in 2009. Neonatal, child, and adult cases were selected for causes of death that included infectious diseases, noncommunicable diseases, and injuries. We compared the underlying cause of death, obtained from medical death certificates, against a gold standard diagnosis derived from a review of medical records developed by the Population Health Metrics Research Consortium. We used chance-corrected concordance and accuracy as metrics to evaluate the quality of performance of the death certificate. Results Analysis considering only the underlying cause of death resulted in a median chance-corrected concordance between the cause of death in medical death certificates versus the gold standard of 54.3% (95% uncertainty interval [UI]: 52.2, 55.6) for neonates, 38.5% (37.0, 40.0) for children, and 66.5% (65.9, 66.9) for adults. The accuracy resulting from the same analysis was 0.756 (0.747, 0.769) for neonates, 0.683 (0.663, 0.701) for children, and 0.780 (0.774, 0.785) for adults. Median chance-corrected concordance and accuracy increased when considering the mention of any cause of death in the death certificate, not just the underlying cause. Concordance varied substantially depending on cause of death, and accuracy varied depending on the true cause-specific mortality fraction composition. Conclusions Although we cannot generalize our conclusions to Mexico as a whole, the results demonstrate important problems with the quality of the main source of information for causes of death used by decision-makers in settings with highly technological vital registration systems. It is necessary to improve death certification procedures, especially in the case of child and neonatal deaths. This requires an important commitment from the health system and health institutions. PMID:21816103

  4. Occupation and bladder cancer: a death-certificate study.

    PubMed Central

    Dolin, P. J.; Cook-Mozaffari, P.

    1992-01-01

    Occupational statements on death certificates of 2,457 males aged 25-64 who died from bladder cancer in selected coastal and estaurine regions of England and Wales during 1965-1980 were studied. Excess mortality was found for deck and engine room crew of ships, railway workers, electrical and electronic workers, shoemakers and repairers, and tobacco workers. An excess of cases also occurred among food workers, particularly those employed in the bread and flour confectionary industry or involved in the extraction of animal and vegetable oils and fats. Use of a job-exposure matrix revealed elevated risk for occupations in which most workers were exposed to paints and pigments, benzene and cutting oils. PMID:1520596

  5. Organic solvents and presenile dementia: a case referent study using death certificates.

    PubMed Central

    O'Flynn, R R; Monkman, S M; Waldron, H A

    1987-01-01

    Occupational exposure to organic solvents has been implicated in the development of "presenile dementia" in several studies. The death certificates of all men aged under 65 dying in England and Wales bearing presenile dementia as cause of death were collected for the years 1970-9 (n = 557): control death certificates were obtained, matched for age and sex. No significant differences were found between the groups as regards estimated occupational exposure to either organic solvents or lead. PMID:3567100

  6. Accuracy in certification of cause of death in a tertiary care hospital--a retrospective analysis.

    PubMed

    Dash, Shreemanta Kumar; Behera, Basanta Kumar; Patro, Shubhransu

    2014-05-01

    Every physician is duty bound to issue a "Cause of Death" certificate in the unfortunate event death of his/her patient. Incomplete and inaccurate entry in these certificates poses difficulty in obtaining reliable information pertaining to causes of mortality, leads to faulty public health surveillance, and causes hindrance in research. This study intends to evaluate the completeness and accuracy of Medical Certification of Cause of Death in our Institute and to formulate strategy to improve the quality of reporting of cause of death. During the period from January 2012 to December 2012, a total of 151 certificates of cause of death were issued by the faculty members of various departments. Maximum number of death certificates were issued for patients in the extremes of the age <10 years (n=42, 27.82%) and in >60 years (n=46, 30.46%). The various inadequacies observed by us are as follows: 40 (26.49%) cases had inaccurate cause of death, interval between onset and terminal event was missing in 94 (62.25%) cases, in 68 (45.03%)cases the seal with registration number of the physician was not available on the certificate, incomplete antecedent & underlying cause of death was found in 35 (23.18%) & 84 (55.63%) cases, in 66 (43.71%) cases there was use of abbreviations and the handwriting was illegible in 79(52.32%) cases. PMID:24794848

  7. Certification-Based Process Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knight, Russell L.

    2013-01-01

    Space mission architects are often challenged with knowing which investment in technology infusion will have the highest return. Certification-based analysis (CBA) gives architects and technologists a means to communicate the risks and advantages of infusing technologies at various points in a process. Various alternatives can be compared, and requirements based on supporting streamlining or automation can be derived and levied on candidate technologies. CBA is a technique for analyzing a process and identifying potential areas of improvement. The process and analysis products are used to communicate between technologists and architects. Process means any of the standard representations of a production flow; in this case, any individual steps leading to products, which feed into other steps, until the final product is produced at the end. This sort of process is common for space mission operations, where a set of goals is reduced eventually to a fully vetted command sequence to be sent to the spacecraft. Fully vetting a product is synonymous with certification. For some types of products, this is referred to as verification and validation, and for others it is referred to as checking. Fundamentally, certification is the step in the process where one insures that a product works as intended, and contains no flaws.

  8. Study of recent and future trends in place of death in Belgium using death certificate data: a shift from hospitals to care homes

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Since most patients prefer out-of-hospital death, place of death can be considered an indicator of end-of-life care quality. The study of trends in place of death is necessary to examine causes of shifts, to evaluate efforts to alter place of death and develop future policies. This study aims to examine past trends and future projections of place of death. Methods Analysis of death certificates (decedents aged ≥ 1 year) in Belgium (Flanders and Brussels Capital region) 1998-2007. Trends in place of death were adjusted for cause of death, sociodemographic characteristics, environmental factors, numbers of hospital beds, and residential and skilled nursing beds in care homes. Future trends were based on age- and sex-specific mortality prognoses. Results Hospital deaths decreased from 55.1% to 51.7% and care home deaths rose from 18.3% to 22.6%. The percentage of home deaths remained stable. The odds of dying in a care home versus hospital increased steadily and was 1.65 (95%CI:1.53-1.78) in 2007 compared to 1998. This increase could be attributed to the replacement of residential beds by skilled nursing beds. Continuation of these trends would result in the more than doubling of deaths in care homes and a decrease in deaths at home and in hospital by 2040. Conclusions Additional end-of-life care resources in care homes largely explain the decrease in hospital deaths. Care homes will become the main locus of end-of-life care in the future. Governments should provide sufficient skilled nursing resources in care homes to fulfil the end-of-life care preferences and needs of patients. PMID:21489273

  9. 38 CFR 3.806 - Death gratuity; certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Death gratuity... ADJUDICATION Pension, Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation Special Benefits § 3.806 Death... claim filed with it that: (1) Death resulted from: (i) Disease or injury incurred or aggravated while...

  10. 38 CFR 3.806 - Death gratuity; certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Death gratuity... ADJUDICATION Pension, Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation Special Benefits § 3.806 Death... claim filed with it that: (1) Death resulted from: (i) Disease or injury incurred or aggravated while...

  11. 38 CFR 3.806 - Death gratuity; certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Death gratuity... ADJUDICATION Pension, Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation Special Benefits § 3.806 Death... claim filed with it that: (1) Death resulted from: (i) Disease or injury incurred or aggravated while...

  12. 38 CFR 3.806 - Death gratuity; certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Death gratuity... ADJUDICATION Pension, Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation Special Benefits § 3.806 Death... claim filed with it that: (1) Death resulted from: (i) Disease or injury incurred or aggravated while...

  13. 38 CFR 3.806 - Death gratuity; certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Death gratuity... ADJUDICATION Pension, Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation Special Benefits § 3.806 Death... claim filed with it that: (1) Death resulted from: (i) Disease or injury incurred or aggravated while...

  14. Death certification practices of forensic physicians within the Strathclyde region of Scotland, UK.

    PubMed

    Stevenson, Richard

    2008-05-01

    Data relating to the perceived and actual cause of death, in those dying in the community is sparse. This in part is related to how each country deals with death investigations and certification of death. Under common law in Scotland, sudden unexpected deaths are referred to the Procurator Fiscal. Autopsy is not always the final arbiter of truth. While actual figures are not available at present, anecdotally the police indicate that general practitioners (GPs) are often declining to attend or certify in the vast majority of cases. The purpose of this prospective observational study was to examine the certification practice of the forensic physicians working for Strathclyde Police. In conclusion, the results from this short study indicate that in cases where the cause of death for an individual, who died suddenly in the community and where an autopsy is deemed necessary, forensic physicians are no better or worse than a pathologist in predicting the underlying reason. PMID:18423358

  15. Coroners and death certification law reform: the Coroners and Justice Act 2009 and its aftermath.

    PubMed

    Luce, Tom

    2010-10-01

    After considering various different options for half a decade, the last Government legislated in 2009 to reform the England and Wales coroner and death certification systems. The Coroners and Justice Act 2009 provides for the creation of a new Chief Coroner post to lead the jurisdiction and for local medical examiners to oversee a new death certification scheme applicable equally to burial and cremation cases. In October 2010 the new Government announced that it judges the main coroner reform to be unaffordable, will not proceed with it and plans to repeal the provisions. It intends to implement the new death certification arrangements, which is welcome. The decision to abort the main coroner reform in spite of longstanding and widespread recognition of the need for major change is deplorable though in line with other failures over the last century to properly modernise this neglected service. PMID:21539281

  16. Job strain, hypoxia and risk of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: Results from a death certificate study.

    PubMed

    Vanacore, Nicola; Cocco, Pierluigi; Fadda, Domenica; Dosemeci, Mustafa

    2010-10-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) most likely results from a multifactorial gene-environment interaction. Strenuous physical activity and occupational exposures have been suggested to play a role, and an abnormal response to hypoxia has been proposed in ALS pathogenesis. To test the hypothesis of an excess risk in occupations typically leading to intermittent hypoxia at the tissue level, we accessed a large publicly available database, including death certificates from 24 U.S. states in 1984-1998. We conducted a case-control analysis of 14,628 deaths due to ALS therein reported and 58,512 controls deceased from other selected causes of death, frequency matched by age, gender and broad geographic area. ALS risk associated with physical activity, and occupations leading to intermittent hypoxia, such as fire fighters and professional athletes, were calculated with unconditional logistic regression, adjusting by age, marital status, residence, and socioeconomic status. Physical activity in general did not show an association with ALS risk. Risk associated with occupation as a professional athlete was elevated (OR = 1.81, 99% CI 0.69-4.78), but not significantly so. Fire fighters showed a significant two-fold excess ALS risk (OR = 2.0; 99% CI 1.2-3.2). Based on our findings and the current clinical, epidemiological and experimental evidence, we suggest that occupational conditions typically leading to intermittent hypoxia, such as fire fighting, might be an ALS risk factor in subjects genetically prone to an abnormal response to hypoxia. PMID:20698805

  17. 38 CFR 10.24 - Payment of death claim on lost, destroyed or mutilated adjusted service certificate with bond.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... lost, destroyed or mutilated adjusted service certificate with bond. 10.24 Section 10.24 Pensions...; General § 10.24 Payment of death claim on lost, destroyed or mutilated adjusted service certificate with..., the adjusted service certificate was lost, destroyed, or so defaced as to impair its value and...

  18. 38 CFR 10.24 - Payment of death claim on lost, destroyed or mutilated adjusted service certificate with bond.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...; General 10.24 Payment of death claim on lost, destroyed or mutilated adjusted service certificate with... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Payment of death claim on lost, destroyed or mutilated adjusted service certificate with bond. 10.24 Section 10.24...

  19. 38 CFR 10.24 - Payment of death claim on lost, destroyed or mutilated adjusted service certificate with bond.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...; General 10.24 Payment of death claim on lost, destroyed or mutilated adjusted service certificate with... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Payment of death claim on lost, destroyed or mutilated adjusted service certificate with bond. 10.24 Section 10.24...

  20. 38 CFR 10.24 - Payment of death claim on lost, destroyed or mutilated adjusted service certificate with bond.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...; General 10.24 Payment of death claim on lost, destroyed or mutilated adjusted service certificate with... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Payment of death claim on lost, destroyed or mutilated adjusted service certificate with bond. 10.24 Section 10.24...

  1. 38 CFR 10.24 - Payment of death claim on lost, destroyed or mutilated adjusted service certificate with bond.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...; General 10.24 Payment of death claim on lost, destroyed or mutilated adjusted service certificate with... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Payment of death claim on lost, destroyed or mutilated adjusted service certificate with bond. 10.24 Section 10.24...

  2. Hyaline membrane disease is underreported in a linked birth-infant death certificate database.

    PubMed Central

    Hamvas, A; Kwong, P; DeBaun, M; Schramm, W; Cole, F S

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study compared the Missouri State Department of Health linked birth-infant death certificate database and medical records with respect to recording hyaline membrane disease in very low-birth-weight infants. METHODS: We reviewed the records for all 976 infants weighing 500 to 1500 g who were born to St. Louis, Mo, residents in 1989, 1991, and 1992. RESULTS: Eighteen percent of the birth certificates and 54% of the medical records documented hyaline membrane disease, resulting in 34% sensitivity and 99% specificity. CONCLUSIONS: The Missouri State Department of Health birth-infant death certificate database underestimates the incidence of hyaline membrane disease, which suggest that national statistics for the disease are also underestimated. PMID:9736884

  3. Comments on "Teen Suicide and Changing Cause-of-Death Certification, 1953-1987."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Kim

    1991-01-01

    Responds to previous article by Males on teenage suicides and changing cause-of-death certification from 1953 through 1987. After closely examining Males' arguments, author comes to different conclusions concerning increase in teenage suicides during that time period. Concludes that increase in youth suicide is real and that increase is twice that

  4. 38 CFR 10.25 - Payment of death claim on adjusted service certificate without bond.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Payment of death claim on adjusted service certificate without bond. 10.25 Section 10.25 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS ADJUSTED COMPENSATION Adjusted Compensation; General 10.25 Payment of...

  5. 38 CFR 10.25 - Payment of death claim on adjusted service certificate without bond.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Payment of death claim on adjusted service certificate without bond. 10.25 Section 10.25 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS ADJUSTED COMPENSATION Adjusted Compensation; General 10.25 Payment of...

  6. 38 CFR 10.25 - Payment of death claim on adjusted service certificate without bond.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Payment of death claim on adjusted service certificate without bond. 10.25 Section 10.25 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS ADJUSTED COMPENSATION Adjusted Compensation; General 10.25 Payment of...

  7. 38 CFR 10.25 - Payment of death claim on adjusted service certificate without bond.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Payment of death claim on adjusted service certificate without bond. 10.25 Section 10.25 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS ADJUSTED COMPENSATION Adjusted Compensation; General 10.25 Payment of...

  8. 38 CFR 10.25 - Payment of death claim on adjusted service certificate without bond.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Payment of death claim on adjusted service certificate without bond. 10.25 Section 10.25 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS ADJUSTED COMPENSATION Adjusted Compensation; General 10.25 Payment of...

  9. 34 CFR 682.402 - Death, disability, closed school, false certification, unpaid refunds, and bankruptcy payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Death, disability, closed school, false certification, unpaid refunds, and bankruptcy payments. 682.402 Section 682.402 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION (CONTINUED) FEDERAL FAMILY EDUCATION LOAN...

  10. 34 CFR 682.402 - Death, disability, closed school, false certification, unpaid refunds, and bankruptcy payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Death, disability, closed school, false certification, unpaid refunds, and bankruptcy payments. 682.402 Section 682.402 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION (CONTINUED) FEDERAL FAMILY EDUCATION LOAN...

  11. Mortality incidence estimation using federal death certificate and natality data with an application to Tay-Sachs disease.

    PubMed

    Jalal, Kabir; Carter, Randy L

    2015-09-01

    For confidentiality reasons, US federal death certificate data are incomplete with regards to the dates of birth and death for the decedents, making calculation of total lifetime of a decedent impossible and thus estimation of mortality incidence difficult. This paper proposes the use of natality data and an imputation-based method to estimate age-specific mortality incidence rates in the face of this missing information. By utilizing previously determined probabilities of birth, a birth date and death date are imputed for every decedent in the dataset. Thus, the birth cohort of each individual is imputed, and the total on-study time can be calculated. This idea is implemented in two approaches for estimation of mortality incidence rates. The first is an extension of a person-time approach, while the second is an extension of a life table approach. Monte Carlo simulations showed that both approaches perform well in comparison to the ideal complete data methods, but that the person-time method is preferred. An application to Tay-Sachs disease is demonstrated. It is concluded that the imputation methods proposed provide valid estimates of the incidence of death from death certificate data without the need for additional assumptions under which usual mortality rates provide valid estimates. PMID:26080753

  12. Inaccuracy of Death Certificate Diagnosis of Tuberculosis and Potential Underdiagnosis of TB in a Region of High HIV Prevalence

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Theresa T.; Wilson, Douglas; Dawood, Halima; Cameron, D. William; Alvarez, Gonzalo G.

    2012-01-01

    Despite the South African antiretroviral therapy rollout, which should reduce the incidence of HIV-associated tuberculosis (TB), the number of TB-attributable deaths in KwaZuluNatal (KZN) remains high. TB is often diagnosed clinically, without microbiologic confirmation, leading to inaccurate estimates of TB-attributed deaths. This may contribute to avoidable deaths, and impact population-based TB mortality estimates. Objectives. (1) To measure the number of cases with microbiologically confirmed TB in a retrospective cohort of deceased inpatients with TB-attributed hospital deaths. (2) To estimate the rates of multi-drug resistant (MDR) and extensively drug resistant (XDR) TB in this cohort. Results. Of 2752 deaths at EDH between September 2006 and March 2007, 403 (15%) were attributed to TB on the death certificate. 176 of the TB-attributed deaths (44%) had a specimen sent for smear or culture; only 64 (36%) had a TB diagnosis confirmed by either test. Of the 39 culture-confirmed cases, 27/39 (69%) had fully susceptible TB and 27/39 (69%) had smear-negative culture-positive TB (SNTB). Two patients had drug monoresistance, three patients had MDR-TB, and one had XDR-TB. Conclusions. Most TB-attributed deaths in this cohort were not microbiologically confirmed. Of confirmed cases, most were smear-negative, culture positive and were susceptible to all first line drugs. PMID:22474486

  13. The Do-It-Yourself Death Certificate in Evoking and Estimating Student Attitudes Toward Death

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpson, Michael A.

    1975-01-01

    Presents a valuable technique for focusing attention on personal mortality when teaching about death and dying, as a basis for more emotionally honest discussion in small groups, and for estimating attitudes towards death among medical students. (Author/PG)

  14. Comparison of diagnoses of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis by use of death certificates and hospital discharge data in the Danish population.

    PubMed

    Kioumourtzoglou, Marianthi-Anna; Seals, Ryan M; Himmerslev, Liselotte; Gredal, Ole; Hansen, Johnni; Weisskopf, Marc G

    2015-06-01

    Because ALS is rare, large-scale studies are difficult. Hospital and death certificate data are valuable tools, but understanding of how well they capture cases is needed. We identified 3650 incident cases in the Danish National Patient Register (NPR) between 1982 and 2009, using ICD-8 (before 1994) or ICD-10 codes. Death certificates were obtained from the Danish Register of Causes of Death. We obtained medical records for 173 of the cases identified in the NPR and classified these according to the El Escorial criteria. We compared ALS identification from death certificates to hospital discharges, and both to medical records. Results showed that the sensitivity for use of death certificates was 84.2% (95% CI 82.9-85.5%) and was significantly higher for females, subjects younger than 77 years, and when coded with ICD-8. Using only the underlying cause of death resulted in significantly lower sensitivity. The estimated overall positive predictive value (PPV) was 82.0% (95% CI 80.0-83.8%). Sensitivity and PPV were similar compared with medical records. In conclusion, we found that use of hospital discharges and death certificates is highly reliable and, therefore, a valuable tool for ALS epidemiologic studies. The possible effects on findings of slight differences by age, gender, and ICD coding should be considered. PMID:25946516

  15. State Variation in Underreporting of Alcohol Involvement on Death Certificates: Motor Vehicle Traffic Crash Fatalities as an Example

    PubMed Central

    Castle, I-Jen P; Yi, Hsiao-Ye; Hingson, Ralph W; White, Aaron M

    2014-01-01

    Objective: We used motor vehicle traffic (MVT) crash fatalities as an example to examine the extent of underreporting of alcohol involvement on death certificates and state variations. Method: We compared MVT-related death certificates identified from national mortality data (Multiple Cause of Death [MCoD] data) with deaths in national traffic census data from the Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS). Because MCoD data were not individually linked to FARS data, the comparisons were at the aggregate level. Reporting ratio of alcohol involvement on death certificates was thus computed as the prevalence of any mention of alcohol-related conditions among MVT deaths in MCoD, divided by the prevalence of decedents with blood alcohol concentration (BAC) test results (not imputed) of .08% or greater in FARS. Through bivariate analysis and multiple regression, we explored state characteristics correlated with state reporting ratios. Results: Both MCoD and FARS identified about 450,000 MVT deaths in 1999–2009. Reporting ratio was only 0.16 for all traffic deaths and 0.18 for driver deaths nationally, reflecting that death certificates captured only a small percentage of MVT deaths involving BAC of .08% or more. Reporting ratio did not improve over time, even though FARS indicated that the prevalence of BAC of at least .08% in MVT deaths increased from 19.9% in 1999 to 24.2% in 2009. State reporting ratios varied widely, from 0.02 (Nevada and New Jersey) to 0.81 (Delaware). Conclusions: The comparison of MCoD with FARS revealed a large discrepancy in reporting alcohol involvement in MVT deaths and considerable state variation in the magnitude of underreporting. We suspect similar underreporting and state variations in alcohol involvement in other types of injury deaths. PMID:24650824

  16. Death-certificate case-control study of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and occupation in men in North Carolina

    SciTech Connect

    Schumacher, M.C.; Delzell, E.

    1988-01-01

    A death certificate-based case-control study was performed to investigate associations between occupation and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) in North Carolina. Cases consisted of 501 men who died of NHL (International Classification of Diseases codes 200 and 202) during the years 1968-1970, 1975-1977, and 1980-1982. Controls were selected from other noncancer deaths, and were frequency matched for age, year of death, and race. Occupation and industry were obtained from the death certificates and coded without knowledge of case-control status. An increased risk for men in professional, technical, and managerial occupations, compared with all others, was detected among whites (OR = 2.69, 1.95-3.72). Black men classified as having low exposures by an occupational exposure linkage system had an odds ratio of 1.74 (0.84-3.60). Because of this finding, the occupations were ranked by social class and a statistically significant linear relationship was noted in whites, with risk increasing from lower social class to upper social class. An increased risk was also detected among whites in the rubber, plastics, and synthetics industries (p = .03), and among blacks employed in machine trades occupations (OR = 3.63, 1.32-9.97) and structural work occupations (OR = 2.38, 0.93-6.05). An increased risk was also detected for black painters (p = .02), but not for whites. There was no association found between NHL and employment in the following areas: textile industry; farming; laborers; or occupations with exposures to asbestos or benzene. The association with farming was further examined in counties with high use of pesticides and herbicides, and no increased risk of NHL was detected. Cases were more likely to live in the western part of the state than the eastern. However, NHL mortality rates provided by the North Carolina State Center for Health Statistics did not confirm the relationship.

  17. Using death certificates and medical examiner records for adolescent occupational fatality surveillance and research: a case study.

    PubMed

    Rauscher, Kimberly J; Runyan, Carol W; Radisch, Deborah

    2012-01-01

    Death certificates and medical examiner records have been useful yet imperfect data sources for work-related fatality research and surveillance among adult workers. It is unclear whether this holds for work-related fatalities among adolescent workers who suffer unique detection challenges in part because they are not often thought of as workers. This study investigated the utility of using these data sources for surveillance and research pertaining to adolescent work-related fatalities. Using the state of North Carolina as a case study, we analyzed data from the death certificates and medical examiner records of all work-related fatalities data among 11- to 17-year-olds between 1990-2008 (N = 31). We compared data sources on case identification, of completeness, and consistency information. Variables examined included those on the injury (e.g., means), occurrence (e.g., place), demographics, and employment (e.g., occupation). Medical examiner records (90%) were more likely than death certificates (71%) to identify adolescent work-related fatalities. Data completeness was generally high yet varied between sources. The most marked difference being that in medical examiner records, type of business/industry and occupation were complete in 72 and 67% of cases, respectively, while on the death certificates these fields were complete in 90 and 97% of cases, respectively. Taking the two sources together, each field was complete in upward of 94% of cases. Although completeness was high, data were not always of good quality and sometimes conflicted across sources. In many cases, the decedent's occupation was misclassified as "student" and their employer as "school" on the death certificate. Even though each source has its weaknesses, medical examiner records and death certificates, especially when used together, can be useful for conducting surveillance and research on adolescent work-related fatalities. However, extra care is needed by data recorders to ensure that occupation and employer are properly coded when dealing with adolescent worker deaths. PMID:22937912

  18. Complete republication: National Association of Medical Examiners position paper: Recommendations for the investigation, diagnosis, and certification of deaths related to opioid drugs.

    PubMed

    Davis, Gregory G

    2014-03-01

    The American College of Medical Toxicology and the National Association of Medical Examiners convened an expert panel to generate evidence-based recommendations for the practice of death investigation and autopsy, toxicological analysis, interpretation of toxicology findings, and death certification to improve the precision of death certificate data available for public health surveillance. The panel finds the following: 1. A complete autopsy is necessary for optimal interpretation of toxicology results, which must also be considered in the context of the circumstances surrounding death, medical history, and scene findings. 2. A complete scene investigation extends to reconciliation of prescription information and pill counts. 3. Blood, urine, and vitreous humor, when available, should be retained in all cases. Blood from the femoral vein is preferable to blood from other sites. 4. A toxicological panel should be comprehensive and include opioid and benzodiazepine analytes, as well as other potent depressant, stimulant, and anti-depressant medications. 5. Interpretation of postmortem opioid concentrations requires correlation with medical history, scene investigation, and autopsy findings. 6. If death is attributed to any drug or combination of drugs (whether as cause or contributing factor), the certifier should list all the responsible substances by generic name in the autopsy report and on the death certificate. 7. The best classification for manner of death in deaths due to the misuse or abuse of opioids without any apparent intent of self-harm is "accident." Reserve "undetermined" as the manner for the rare cases in which evidence exists to support more than one possible determination. PMID:24132519

  19. Access Control based on Attribute Certificates for Medical Intranet Applications

    PubMed Central

    Georgiadis, Christos; Pangalos, George; Khair, Marie

    2001-01-01

    Background Clinical information systems frequently use intranet and Internet technologies. However these technologies have emphasized sharing and not security, despite the sensitive and private nature of much health information. Digital certificates (electronic documents which recognize an entity or its attributes) can be used to control access in clinical intranet applications. Objectives To outline the need for access control in distributed clinical database systems, to describe the use of digital certificates and security policies, and to propose the architecture for a system using digital certificates, cryptography and security policy to control access to clinical intranet applications. Methods We have previously developed a security policy, DIMEDAC (Distributed Medical Database Access Control), which is compatible with emerging public key and privilege management infrastructure. In our implementation approach we propose the use of digital certificates, to be used in conjunction with DIMEDAC. Results Our proposed access control system consists of two phases: the ways users gain their security credentials; and how these credentials are used to access medical data. Three types of digital certificates are used: identity certificates for authentication; attribute certificates for authorization; and access-rule certificates for propagation of access control policy. Once a user is identified and authenticated, subsequent access decisions are based on a combination of identity and attribute certificates, with access-rule certificates providing the policy framework. Conclusions Access control in clinical intranet applications can be successfully and securely managed through the use of digital certificates and the DIMEDAC security policy. PMID:11720951

  20. Occupation and five cancers: a case-control study using death certificates.

    PubMed Central

    Magnani, C; Coggon, D; Osmond, C; Acheson, E D

    1987-01-01

    A case-control approach has been used to examine mortality from five cancers--oesophagus, pancreas, cutaneous melanoma, kidney, and brain--among young and middle aged men resident in three English counties. The areas studied were chosen because they include major centres of chemical manufacture. By combining data from 20 years it was possible to look at local industries with greater statistical power than is possible using routine national statistics. Each case was matched with up to four controls of similar age who died in the same year from other causes. The occupations and industries recorded on death certificates were coded to standard classifications and risk estimates derived for each job category. Where positive associations were found the records of the cases concerned were examined in greater detail to see whether the risk was limited to specific combinations of occupation and industry. The most interesting findings to emerge were risks of brain cancer associated with the production of meat and fish products (relative risk (RR) = 9.7, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.6-36.8) and with mineral oil refining (RR = 2.9, CI 1.2-7.0), and a cluster of four deaths from melanoma among refinery workers (RR = 16.0, CI CI 1.8-143.2). A job-exposure matrix was applied to the data but gave no strong indications of further disease associations. Local analyses of occupational mortality such as this can usefully supplement national statistics. PMID:3689708

  1. Mandated Competency-Based Teacher Certification and the Public Interest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spaulding, Robert L.

    Responding to the current lack of an empirical basis for competency-based teacher certification, Georgia has mandated studies leading to the establishment of empirical criteria. In the Carroll County Competency-Based Teacher Certification Project, the instructional behaviors of some 60 certified teachers and the classroom behaviors of the

  2. Cause-Specific Mortality and Death Certificate Reporting in Adults with Moderate to Profound Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tyrer, F.; McGrother, C.

    2009-01-01

    Background: The study of premature deaths in people with intellectual disability (ID) has become the focus of recent policy initiatives in England. This is the first UK population-based study to explore cause-specific mortality in adults with ID compared with the general population. Methods: Cause-specific standardised mortality ratios (SMRs) and…

  3. Cause-Specific Mortality and Death Certificate Reporting in Adults with Moderate to Profound Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tyrer, F.; McGrother, C.

    2009-01-01

    Background: The study of premature deaths in people with intellectual disability (ID) has become the focus of recent policy initiatives in England. This is the first UK population-based study to explore cause-specific mortality in adults with ID compared with the general population. Methods: Cause-specific standardised mortality ratios (SMRs) and

  4. Accreditation and certification for evidence-based design.

    PubMed

    Stichler, Jaynelle F

    2010-04-01

    The Evidence-Based Design Accreditation and Certification (EDAC) is a professional certification that validates that individuals have a core body of knowledge and experience necessary to lead and engage in an evidence-based design process for healthcare facilities. This bimonthly department expands nurse leaders' knowledge and competencies in health facility design and enables them to lead in design efforts. In this article, the vision and mission of EDAC and specific content are shared to increase nurse leaders' awareness of the certification when interviewing prospective architectural firms or for nurse leaders who aspire to have a career in the healthcare design field. PMID:20305460

  5. Trends in cervical cancer mortality in Korea 1993-2002: corrected mortality using national death certification data and national cancer incidence data.

    PubMed

    Shin, Hai-Rim; Park, Sohee; Hwang, Soon-Young; Kim, Jung-Eun; Jung, Kyu-Won; Won, Young-Joo; Hwang, Seung-Sik; Yim, Seon-Hee; Choi, Kui Son; Park, Eun-Cheol; Park, Sang-Yoon; Kim, Jae Weon; Lee, Hyo-Pyo

    2008-01-15

    Cervical cancer is a major health problem for Korean women, accounting for 9.8% of new female cancer cases, even though incidence rates have been decreasing. The Korean cervical cancer mortality rate for 1993-2002 based on National Statistical Office data shows an increasing trend, but the actual rates are thought to have decreased by epidemiologists, clinicians and other cancer experts. To explain this gap and solve this problem, we corrected the number of cervical cancer deaths by comparing death certificate cases of unspecified uterine cancer data with the national cancer incidence databases of entire cancer registries in Korea. We used 2 different methods to make a correction. First, we considered "uterus, unspecified" deaths previously registered as "cervix, uterine" cases misclassified and added them to the cervical cancer deaths. Alternatively, we multiplied the total number of registered unspecified uterine cancer deaths by age-specific proportions of registered incident cervical cancer cases among all cancers and added the product to cervical cancer deaths. The overall corrected age-standardized cervical cancer mortality rates per 100,000 women decreased from 5.2 in 1993 to 3.9 in 2002 (estimated annual percentage change (EAPC): -4.05%, 95% CI: -4.88, -3.22). While cervical cancer mortality showed a decreasing tendency in women aged 30-69 years, it increased substantially in women aged > or =70 years (EAPC: 3.62%, 95% CI: 1.92-5.35). Results of this study will provide evidence-based foundation for the evaluation of the existing cervical cancer-screening programs. PMID:17722111

  6. A post-mortem survey on end-of-life decisions using a representative sample of death certificates in Flanders, Belgium: research protocol

    PubMed Central

    Chambaere, Kenneth; Bilsen, Johan; Cohen, Joachim; Pousset, Geert; Onwuteaka-Philipsen, Bregje; Mortier, Freddy; Deliens, Luc

    2008-01-01

    Background Reliable studies of the incidence and characteristics of medical end-of-life decisions with a certain or possible life shortening effect (ELDs) are indispensable for an evidence-based medical and societal debate on this issue. This article presents the protocol drafted for the 2007 ELD Study in Flanders, Belgium, and outlines how the main aims and challenges of the study (i.e. making reliable incidence estimates of end-of-life decisions, even rare ones, and describing their characteristics; allowing comparability with past ELD studies; guaranteeing strict anonymity given the sensitive nature of the research topic; and attaining a sufficient response rate) are addressed in a post-mortem survey using a representative sample of death certificates. Study design Reliable incidence estimates are achievable by using large at random samples of death certificates of deceased persons in Flanders (aged one year or older). This entails the cooperation of the appropriate administrative authorities. To further ensure the reliability of the estimates and descriptions, especially of less prevalent end-of-life decisions (e.g. euthanasia), a stratified sample is drawn. A questionnaire is sent out to the certifying physician of each death sampled. The questionnaire, tested thoroughly and avoiding emotionally charged terms is based largely on questions that have been validated in previous national and European ELD studies. Anonymity of both patient and physician is guaranteed through a rigorous procedure, involving a lawyer as intermediary between responding physicians and researchers. To increase response we follow the Total Design Method (TDM) with a maximum of three follow-up mailings. Also, a non-response survey is conducted to gain insight into the reasons for lack of response. Discussion The protocol of the 2007 ELD Study in Flanders, Belgium, is appropriate for achieving the objectives of the study; as past studies in Belgium, the Netherlands, and other European countries have shown, strictly anonymous and thorough surveys among physicians using a large, stratified, and representative death certificate sample are most suitable in nationwide studies of incidence and characteristics of end-of-life decisions. There are however also some limitations to the study design. PMID:18752659

  7. Certificates.

    PubMed

    Fry, F

    1994-06-01

    The Concise Oxford English Dictionary defines 'dilemma' as "an argument forcing one to choose one of two alternatives both unfavourable to him (or her)". This is situation that frequently confronts the general practitioner. In this article a personal solution to the problem of 'certificates' is presented. Not every one will necessarily agree with the solutions presented and some may find them unacceptable, or have better solutions. The author warmly welcomes correspondence, either personal, or in the form of Letters to the Editor, as this is a subject in which consensus decisions are important. PMID:8053842

  8. A Program Certification Assistant Based on Fully Automated Theorem Provers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Denney, Ewen; Fischer, Bernd

    2005-01-01

    We describe a certification assistant to support formal safety proofs for programs. It is based on a graphical user interface that hides the low-level details of first-order automated theorem provers while supporting limited interactivity: it allows users to customize and control the proof process on a high level, manages the auxiliary artifacts produced during this process, and provides traceability between the proof obligations and the relevant parts of the program. The certification assistant is part of a larger program synthesis system and is intended to support the deployment of automatically generated code in safety-critical applications.

  9. [An attempt at estimating the time of death based on limited data from death scene].

    PubMed

    Kaliszan, Micha?

    2012-01-01

    The paper presents a case of murder, in which an important fact for the investigation was determination of the time of death. The problem was lack of relevant data from the death scene resulting from delayed and mismanaged external body examination, and particularly lack of body temperature measurement. Due to the gravity of the case, despite the lack of body temperature record, an attempt at estimating the time interval in which death occurred was undertaken. The time interval of 10 hours during which death most probably occurred was determined based on the stage of development of postmortem lividity, rigor mortis and also depositions of witnesses. If, however, body temperature at the death scene had been recorded, which should have been a routine action, the accuracy of the time of death estimation would most probably have been much higher. PMID:23650846

  10. [Evaluation of the incompleteness in the filling out of death certificates of children under one year of age in the State of Pernambuco, Brazil, 1999-2011].

    PubMed

    Ramalho, Mariana Oliveira de Alencar; de Frias, Paulo Germano; Vanderlei, Lygia Carmen de Moraes; de Macdo, Vilma Costa; de Lira, Pedro Israel Cabral

    2015-09-01

    In order to assess the incompleteness in filling out death certificates (DC) in the regional health offices of the State of Pernambuco a descriptive study was conducted on data for infant mortality information on deaths of children under one year of age in the municipalities of Pernambuco in the 1999-2001 and 2009-2011 threeyear periods. The percentage of incompleteness was based on the blank/unknown responses in the DCs per regional health office and the proportional variation rate of incompleteness between the two periods. It was observed that the filling out of information did not show a well-defined pattern per office, with a reduction in incompleteness occurring for most variables, though the sex, age and place of occurrence of death variables alone revealed ? 5% incompleteness in the second term of study, which was considered excellent in terms of the Romero and Cunha scores. Despite the decrease in incompleteness related to pregnancy, childbirth and mother-related variables, in the second triennium incompleteness between 10 and 20% was observed, with a regular score in the 2009-2011 triennium. Despite the improvement in the filling out of details in the State, it is necessary to strengthen surveillance and training for completing the DCs by the Committees for Prevention of Infant Mortality. PMID:26331520

  11. United States non-Hodgkin's lymphoma surveillance by occupation 1984-1989: a twenty-four state death certificate study.

    PubMed

    Figgs, L W; Dosemeci, M; Blair, A

    1995-06-01

    Death certificates from 23,890 male and female non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) cases and 119,450 noncancer controls from 24 states for the period 1984-1989 were used to generate hypotheses regarding occupational associations. Cases were frequency matched by age, race, and gender with five controls per case. Odds ratios were calculated for 231 industries and 509 occupations. Significant associations were observed for a variety of white-collar professionals (i.e., real estate agents, secretaries, bookkeepers, teachers, postal employees, business agents, engineers, chemists, and medical professionals) and blue-collar occupations (i.e., firefighters, farm managers, aircraft mechanics, electronic repairers, mining machine operators, and crane and tower operators). PMID:7645576

  12. [The attending physician and the certificate of natural death in children].

    PubMed

    Pltz, F B; Smit, L M E

    2004-08-01

    Three children died in the paediatric intensive-care unit or emergency department. The case of a 3.5-year-old girl who died after a pneumococcal infection was considered a natural death. An 8-year-old boy suddenly collapsed and died despite resuscitation. The attending physician considered this an unnatural death. The district medical examiner, after consulting the district attorney, required an autopsy, but the cause of death could not be ascertained and the next of kin were to be examined for cardiac rhythm disorders. A 2-year-old boy died after a fall out of a window. The district medical examiner and the district attorney concluded that there was sufficient explanation for this unnatural death and that autopsy was not necessary. The attending physician has several important tasks around the time of and after death in which he or she is subject to a number of legal regulations. Knowledge of these regulations is mandatory for good medical practice. PMID:15382554

  13. Windshear certification data base for forward-look detection systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Switzer, George F.; Hinton, David A.; Proctor, Fred H.

    1994-01-01

    Described is an introduction to a comprehensive database that is to be used for certification testing of airborne forward-look windshear detection systems. The database was developed by NASA Langley Research Center, at the request of the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), to support the industry initiative to certify and produce forward-looking windshear detection equipment. The database contains high-resolution three-dimensional fields for meteorological variables that may be sensed by forward-looking systems. The database is made up of seven case studies that are generated by the Terminal Area Simulation System, a state-of-the-art numerical system for the realistic modeling of windshear phenomena. The selected cases contained in the certification documentation represent a wide spectrum of windshear events. The database will be used with vendor-developed sensor simulation software and vendor-collected ground-clutter data to demonstrate detection performance in a variety of meteorological conditions using NASA/FAA pre-defined path scenarios for each of the certification cases. A brief outline of the contents and sample plots from the database documentation are included. These plots show fields of hazard factor, or F-factor (Bowles 1990), radar reflectivity, and velocity vectors on a horizontal plane overlayed with the applicable certification paths. For the plot of the F-factor field the region of 0.105 and above signify an area of hazardous, performance decreasing windshear, while negative values indicate regions of performance increasing windshear. The values of F-factor are based on 1-Km averaged segments along horizontal flight paths, assuming an air speed of 150 knots (approx. 75 m/s). The database has been released to vendors participating in the certification process. The database and associated document have been transferred to the FAA for archival storage and distribution.

  14. Teen Suicide and Changing Cause-of-Death Certification, 1953-1987.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Males, Mike

    1991-01-01

    Examined whether tripling in teenage suicides since 1950s represents increase in suicides or in skill of medical examiners. Examined firearms and poisoning death from 1953-87. Concludes that increase in youth suicide is less dramatic than reported, and suicide increase indicated among youths and adults occurred from 1964-71 and has since

  15. The environmental impact statement: an important addition to the certification of early deaths.

    PubMed

    Pacy, H

    1978-05-20

    An environmental impact statement (EIS) has been made in conjunction with a prospective study of 56 consecutive deaths of persons under 60 years of age in a local population. EIS is the cheapest and the quickest means by which to continually highlight the weaknesses of a national health system. PMID:683064

  16. Efficient certificate-based signcryption secure against public key replacement attacks and insider attacks.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yang; Li, Jiguo

    2014-01-01

    Signcryption is a useful cryptographic primitive that achieves confidentiality and authentication in an efficient manner. As an extension of signcryption in certificate-based cryptography, certificate-based signcryption preserves the merits of certificate-based cryptography and signcryption simultaneously. In this paper, we present an improved security model of certificate-based signcryption that covers both public key replacement attack and insider security. We show that an existing certificate-based signcryption scheme is insecure in our model. We also propose a new certificate-based signcryption scheme that achieves security against both public key replacement attacks and insider attacks. We prove in the random oracle model that the proposed scheme is chosen-ciphertext secure and existentially unforgeable. Performance analysis shows that the proposed scheme outperforms all the previous certificate-based signcryption schemes in the literature. PMID:24959606

  17. Efficient Certificate-Based Signcryption Secure against Public Key Replacement Attacks and Insider Attacks

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jiguo

    2014-01-01

    Signcryption is a useful cryptographic primitive that achieves confidentiality and authentication in an efficient manner. As an extension of signcryption in certificate-based cryptography, certificate-based signcryption preserves the merits of certificate-based cryptography and signcryption simultaneously. In this paper, we present an improved security model of certificate-based signcryption that covers both public key replacement attack and insider security. We show that an existing certificate-based signcryption scheme is insecure in our model. We also propose a new certificate-based signcryption scheme that achieves security against both public key replacement attacks and insider attacks. We prove in the random oracle model that the proposed scheme is chosen-ciphertext secure and existentially unforgeable. Performance analysis shows that the proposed scheme outperforms all the previous certificate-based signcryption schemes in the literature. PMID:24959606

  18. Space Based Range Demonstration and Certification (SBRDC)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sakahara, Robert

    2005-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation describes the development, utilization and testing of technologies for range safety and range user systems. The contents include: 1) Space Based Range (SBR) Goals and Objectives; 2) Today s United States Range; 3) Future Range; 4) Another Vision for the Future Range; 5) STARS Project Goals; 6) STARS Content; 7) STARS Configuration Flight Demonstrations 1 & 2; 8) Spaceport And Range Technologies STARS Objectives and Results; 9) Spaceport And Range Technologies STARS FD2 Objectives; 10) Range Safety Hardware; 11) Range User Hardware; and 12) Past/Future Flight Demo Plans

  19. GPS-based certification for the microwave landing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thornton, C. L.; Young, L. E.; Wu, S. C.; Thomas, J. B.

    1984-01-01

    An MLS (microwave landing system) certification system based on the Global Positioning System (GPS) is described. To determine the position history of the flight inspection aircraft during runway approach, signals from the GPS satellites, together with on-board radar altimetry, are used. It is shown that the aircraft position relative to a fixed point on the runway at threshold can be determined to about 30 cm vertically and 1 m horizontally. A requirement of the system is that the GPS receivers be placed on each flight inspection aircraft and at selected ground sites. The effects of different error sources on the determination of aircraft instantaneous position and its dynamics are analyzed.

  20. Community-based surveillance of maternal deaths in rural Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Adomako, Joseph; Asare, Gloria Q; Ofosu, Anthony; Iott, Bradley E; Anthony, Tiffany; Momoh, Andrea S; Warner, Elisa V; Idrovo, Judy P; Ward, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective To examine the feasibility and effectiveness of community-based maternal mortality surveillance in rural Ghana, where most information on maternal deaths usually comes from retrospective surveys and hospital records. Methods In 2013, community-based surveillance volunteers used a modified reproductive age mortality survey (RAMOS 4+2) to interview family members of women of reproductive age (13–49 years) who died in Bosomtwe district in the previous five years. The survey comprised four yes–no questions and two supplementary questions. Verbal autopsies were done if there was a positive answer to at least one yes–no question. A mortality review committee established the cause of death. Findings Survey results were available for 357 women of reproductive age who died in the district. A positive response to at least one yes–no question was recorded for respondents reporting on the deaths of 132 women. These women had either a maternal death or died within one year of termination of pregnancy. Review of 108 available verbal autopsies found that 64 women had a maternal or late maternal death and 36 died of causes unrelated to childbearing. The most common causes of death were haemorrhage (15) and abortion (14). The resulting maternal mortality ratio was 357 per 100 000 live births, compared with 128 per 100 000 live births derived from hospital records. Conclusion The community-based mortality survey was effective for ascertaining maternal deaths and identified many deaths not included in hospital records. National surveys could provide the information needed to end preventable maternal mortality by 2030. PMID:26908958

  1. Statewide Systematic Evaluation of Sudden, Unexpected Infant Death Classification: Results from a National Pilot Project

    PubMed Central

    Kryscio, Richard; Holsinger, James W.; Krous, Henry F.

    2009-01-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention funded seven states, including Kentucky, to clarify statewide death certification practices in sudden, unexpected infant death and compare state performances with national expectations. Accurate assignment of the cause and manner of death in cases of sudden, unexpected infant death is critical for accurate vital statistics data to direct limited resources to appropriate targets, and to implement optimal and safe risk reduction strategies. The primary objectives are to (1) Compare SUID death certifications recommended by the KY medical examiners with the stated cause of death text field on the hard copy death electronic death certificates and (2) Compare KY and national SUID rates. Causes of death for SUID cases recommended by the medical examiners and those appearing on the hard copy and electronic death certificates in KY were collected retrospectively for 2004 and 2005. Medical examiner recommendations were based upon a classification scheme devised by them in 2003. Coroners hard copy death certificates and the cause of death rates in KY were compared to those occurring nationally. Eleven percent of infants dying suddenly and unexpectedly did not undergo autopsy during the study interval. The KY 2003 classification scheme for SIDS is at variance with the NICHD and San Diego SIDS definitions. Significant differences in causes of death recommended by medical examiners and those appearing on the hard copy and electronic death certificates were identified. SIDS rates increased in KY in contrast to decreasing rates nationally. Nationwide adoption of a widely used SIDS definition, such as that proposed in San Diego in 2004 as well as legislation by states to ensure autopsy in all cases of sudden unexpected infant death are recommended. Medical examiners recommendations for cause of death should appear on death certificates. Multidisciplinary pediatric death review teams prospectively evaluating cases before death certification is recommended. Research into other jurisdictions death certification process is encouraged. PMID:19771503

  2. Using a State Teacher Certification Test to Assess an Inquiry-Based Science Education Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Otto, Charlotte A.; Everett, Susan A.; Moyer, Richard H.; Zitzewitz, Paul W.

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we looked at the impact of our specially designed inquiry-based science courses for pre-service elementary teachers on their science content knowledge as measured by a high-stakes state certification test for elementary education. We conducted a pre/post-analysis of the certification test scores of 1,003 pre-service teachers. Cohort

  3. 38 CFR 52.20 - Application for recognition based on certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) PER DIEM FOR ADULT DAY HEALTH CARE OF VETERANS IN STATE HOMES Obtaining Per Diem for Adult Day Health Care in State Homes § 52.20 Application for recognition based on certification. To apply for recognition and certification of a State home for adult day health care, a...

  4. 38 CFR 51.20 - Application for recognition based on certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) PER DIEM FOR NURSING HOME CARE OF VETERANS IN STATE HOMES Obtaining Per Diem for Nursing Home Care in State Homes § 51.20 Application for recognition based on certification. To apply for recognition and certification of a State home for nursing home care, a State must: (a) Send...

  5. 38 CFR 51.20 - Application for recognition based on certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) PER DIEM FOR NURSING HOME CARE OF VETERANS IN STATE HOMES Obtaining Per Diem for Nursing Home Care in State Homes § 51.20 Application for recognition based on certification. To apply for recognition and certification of a State home for nursing home care, a State must: (a) Send...

  6. 38 CFR 51.20 - Application for recognition based on certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) PER DIEM FOR NURSING HOME CARE OF VETERANS IN STATE HOMES Obtaining Per Diem for Nursing Home Care in State Homes § 51.20 Application for recognition based on certification. To apply for recognition and certification of a State home for nursing home care, a State must: (a) Send...

  7. 38 CFR 51.20 - Application for recognition based on certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) PER DIEM FOR NURSING HOME CARE OF VETERANS IN STATE HOMES Obtaining Per Diem for Nursing Home Care in State Homes § 51.20 Application for recognition based on certification. To apply for recognition and certification of a State home for nursing home care, a State must: (a) Send...

  8. 38 CFR 51.20 - Application for recognition based on certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) PER DIEM FOR NURSING HOME CARE OF VETERANS IN STATE HOMES Obtaining Per Diem for Nursing Home Care in State Homes § 51.20 Application for recognition based on certification. To apply for recognition and certification of a State home for nursing home care, a State must: (a) Send...

  9. Using a State Teacher Certification Test to Assess an Inquiry-Based Science Education Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Otto, Charlotte A.; Everett, Susan A.; Moyer, Richard H.; Zitzewitz, Paul W.

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we looked at the impact of our specially designed inquiry-based science courses for pre-service elementary teachers on their science content knowledge as measured by a high-stakes state certification test for elementary education. We conducted a pre/post-analysis of the certification test scores of 1,003 pre-service teachers. Cohort…

  10. Decisional involvement among staff nurses based on educational level and certification status.

    PubMed

    Ugur, Esra; Scherb, Cindy A; Specht, Janet K

    2015-05-01

    Mechanisms to enhance the work environment are nurse decisional involvement (DI), obtainment of a baccalaureate or higher degree, and specialty certification. The purpose of this descriptive comparative study was to determine the difference between actual and preferred DI of staff nurses on the overall Decisional Involvement Scale (DIS), the differences based on its subscales, and those based on education level and certification. The sample included 163 staff nurses from a Midwestern health care organization. A statistically significant difference was found between actual and preferred DI, but no difference was found based on educational level and certification. There is a need to focus on nurses with a BSN/master's degree or specialty certification and to conduct comprehensive studies to address the effects of education and certification on DI. An additional strategy that can be useful for organizations is to provide nurses with the empowerment structures, expectations, and mentoring/coaching to become involved in the process of decision making. PMID:24709855

  11. Risk factors for childhood homicides in Ohio: a birth certificate-based case-control study.

    PubMed Central

    Winpisinger, K A; Hopkins, R S; Indian, R W; Hostetler, J R

    1991-01-01

    Death certificate of children less than 8 years of age who were killed between 1979 and 1986 were linked to their Ohio birth certificates and compared with those of Ohio children born in 1983 (controls). Having an unmarried mother increased risk of homicide almost fivefold (odds ratio 4.87). Having a teenage mother, a mother who had not graduated from high-school, and being of Black race or low birthweight each increased the risk by approximately threefold. Increases in the proportion of children born to unmarried mothers may contribute to increases in childhood homicide rates. PMID:1854000

  12. The credentialing of a population-based health profession: lessons learned from health education certification.

    PubMed

    Livingood, W C; Auld, M E

    2001-07-01

    This article summarizes research and issues related to health education certification. Health education's experience with certification provides valuable insight for other public health professions because of the credential's population-based emphasis, its recent development, and its broadly defined cross-cutting skill set. Although data are still emerging on the outcomes of health education certification, most studies indicate that it has had a positive impact across multiple dimensions. Critical to this success has been providing profession-wide opportunities for input, communicating with key stakeholders, establishing an independent credentialing agency, and basing the credential on scientifically and legally defensible competencies that are linked to job responsibilities. PMID:11434038

  13. Coherent state quantum key distribution based on entanglement sudden death

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaeger, Gregg; Simon, David; Sergienko, Alexander V.

    2015-07-01

    A method for quantum key distribution (QKD) using entangled coherent states is discussed which is designed to provide key distribution rates and transmission distances surpassing those of traditional entangled photon pair QKD by exploiting entanglement sudden death. The method uses entangled electromagnetic signal states of `macroscopic' average photon numbers rather than single photon or entangled photon pairs, which have inherently limited rate and distance performance as bearers of quantum key data. Accordingly, rather than relying specifically on Bell inequalities as do entangled photon pair-based methods, the security of this method is based on entanglement witnesses and related functions.

  14. The effectiveness of market-based conservation in the tropics: forest certification in Ecuador and Bolivia.

    PubMed

    Ebeling, Johannes; Yasu, Ma

    2009-02-01

    During the last decade, forest certification has gained momentum as a market-based conservation strategy in tropical forest countries. Certification has been promoted to enhance forest management in countries where governance capacities are insufficient to adequately manage natural resources and enforce pertinent regulations, given that certification relies largely on non-governmental organisations and private businesses. However, at present there are few tropical countries with large areas of certified forests. In this study, we conducted semi-structured stakeholder interviews in Ecuador and Bolivia to identify key framework conditions that influence the costs and benefits for companies to switch from conventional to certified forestry operations. Bolivia has a much greater relative area under certified forest management than Ecuador and also significantly more certified producers. The difference in the success of certification between both countries is particularly notable because Bolivia is a poorer country with more widespread corruption, and is landlocked with less access to export routes. Despite these factors, several characteristics of the Bolivian forest industry contribute to lower additional costs of certified forest management compared to Ecuador. Bolivia has stronger government enforcement of forestry regulations a fact that increases the cost of illegal logging, management units are larger, and vertical integration in the process chain from timber extraction to markets is higher. Moreover, forestry laws in Bolivia are highly compatible with certification requirements, and the government provides significant tax benefits to certified producers. Results from this study suggest that certification can be successful in countries where governments have limited governance capacity. However, the economic incentives for certification do not only arise from favourable market conditions. Certification is likely to be more successful where governments enforce forestry laws, provide financial incentives for certified forestry, and provide land tenure security, and where large-scale and vertically integrated forestry operations are commercially feasible. For this reason, at present, there are few developing countries where forest certification is likely to achieve widespread success. PMID:18614273

  15. Early Childhood Injury Deaths in Washington State.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starzyk, Patricia M.

    This paper discusses data on the deaths of children aged 1-4 years in Washington State. A two-fold approach was used in the analysis. First, Washington State death certificate data for 1979-85 were used to characterize the deaths and identify hazardous situations. Second, death certificates were linked to birth certificates of children born in

  16. 40 CFR 745.238 - Fees for accreditation and certification of lead-based paint activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Fees for accreditation and certification of lead-based paint activities. 745.238 Section 745.238 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT LEAD-BASED PAINT POISONING PREVENTION IN CERTAIN RESIDENTIAL STRUCTURES Lead-Based...

  17. 5 CFR 843.310 - Annuity based on death of an employee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Annuity based on death of an employee... SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES RETIREMENT SYSTEM-DEATH BENEFITS AND EMPLOYEE REFUNDS Current and Former Spouse Benefits 843.310 Annuity based on death of an employee. Except as provided...

  18. 5 CFR 843.310 - Annuity based on death of an employee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Annuity based on death of an employee... SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES RETIREMENT SYSTEM-DEATH BENEFITS AND EMPLOYEE REFUNDS Current and Former Spouse Benefits § 843.310 Annuity based on death of an employee. Except as provided...

  19. 5 CFR 843.310 - Annuity based on death of an employee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Annuity based on death of an employee... SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES RETIREMENT SYSTEM-DEATH BENEFITS AND EMPLOYEE REFUNDS Current and Former Spouse Benefits § 843.310 Annuity based on death of an employee. Except as provided...

  20. Certification Framework Based on Effective Trapping for Geologic Carbon Sequestration

    SciTech Connect

    Oldenburg, Curtis M.; Bryant, Steven L.; Nicot, Jean-Philippe

    2009-01-15

    We have developed a certification framework (CF) for certifying the safety and effectiveness of geologic carbon sequestration (GCS) sites. Safety and effectiveness are achieved if CO{sub 2} and displaced brine have no significant impact on humans, other living things, resources, or the environment. In the CF, we relate effective trapping to CO{sub 2} leakage risk which takes into account both the impact and probability of leakage. We achieve simplicity in the CF by using (1) wells and faults as the potential leakage pathways, (2) compartments to represent environmental resources that may be impacted by leakage, (3) CO{sub 2} fluxes and concentrations in the compartments as proxies for impact to vulnerable entities, (4) broad ranges of storage formation properties to generate a catalog of simulated plume movements, and (5) probabilities of intersection of the CO{sub 2} plume with the conduits and compartments. We demonstrate the approach on a hypothetical GCS site in a Texas Gulf Coast saline formation. Through its generality and flexibility, the CF can contribute to the assessment of risk of CO{sub 2} and brine leakage as part of the certification process for licensing and permitting of GCS sites around the world regardless of the specific regulations in place in any given country.

  1. The Impact of Competency-Based Teacher Education and Certification Programs in Utah.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mouritsen, Roger C.

    Utah is a member of a nine-state consortium to study competency-based teacher education and certification programs. This paper presents an overview of the nationwide movement for competency-based teacher education, followed by a description of the situation in Utah. The State Board of Education is making an effort through the Teacher Education and

  2. 20 CFR 655.204 - Determinations based on temporary labor certification applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... the bases of the OFLC Administrator's determination in accordance with the DHS regulation at 8 CFR 214... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Determinations based on temporary labor..., DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TEMPORARY EMPLOYMENT OF FOREIGN WORKERS IN THE UNITED STATES Labor Certification...

  3. Interaction profile-based protein classification of death domain

    PubMed Central

    Lett, Drew; Hsing, Michael; Pio, Frederic

    2004-01-01

    Background The increasing number of protein sequences and 3D structure obtained from genomic initiatives is leading many of us to focus on proteomics, and to dedicate our experimental and computational efforts on the creation and analysis of information derived from 3D structure. In particular, the high-throughput generation of protein-protein interaction data from a few organisms makes such an approach very important towards understanding the molecular recognition that make-up the entire protein-protein interaction network. Since the generation of sequences, and experimental protein-protein interactions increases faster than the 3D structure determination of protein complexes, there is tremendous interest in developing in silico methods that generate such structure for prediction and classification purposes. In this study we focused on classifying protein family members based on their protein-protein interaction distinctiveness. Structure-based classification of protein-protein interfaces has been described initially by Ponstingl et al. [1] and more recently by Valdar et al. [2] and Mintseris et al. [3], from complex structures that have been solved experimentally. However, little has been done on protein classification based on the prediction of protein-protein complexes obtained from homology modeling and docking simulation. Results We have developed an in silico classification system entitled HODOCO (Homology modeling, Docking and Classification Oracle), in which protein Residue Potential Interaction Profiles (RPIPS) are used to summarize protein-protein interaction characteristics. This system applied to a dataset of 64 proteins of the death domain superfamily was used to classify each member into its proper subfamily. Two classification methods were attempted, heuristic and support vector machine learning. Both methods were tested with a 5-fold cross-validation. The heuristic approach yielded a 61% average accuracy, while the machine learning approach yielded an 89% average accuracy. Conclusion We have confirmed the reliability and potential value of classifying proteins via their predicted interactions. Our results are in the same range of accuracy as other studies that classify protein-protein interactions from 3D complex structure obtained experimentally. While our classification scheme does not take directly into account sequence information our results are in agreement with functional and sequence based classification of death domain family members. PMID:15189571

  4. Classifying undetermined poisoning deaths

    PubMed Central

    Donaldson, A E; Larsen, G Y; Fullerton‐Gleason, L; Olson, L M

    2006-01-01

    Objective To classify poisoning deaths of undetermined intent as either suicide or unintentional and to estimate the extent of underreported poisoning suicides. Methods Based on 2002 statewide death certificate and medical examiner data in Utah, the authors randomly selected one half of undetermined and unintentional poisoning deaths for data abstraction and included all suicides. Bivariate analyses assessed differences in demographics, death characteristics, forensic toxicology results, mental health history, and other potentially contributing factors. Classification and regression tree (CART) analysis used information from unintentional and suicide poisoning deaths to create a classification tree that was applied to undetermined poisoning deaths. Results The authors analyzed 41 unintentional, 87 suicide, and 84 undetermined poisonings. Undetermined and unintentional decedents were similar in the presence of opiates, physical health problems, and drug abuse. Although none of the undetermined decedents left a suicide note, previous attempt or intent to commit suicide was reported for 11 (13%) of these cases. CART analysis identified suicidal behavior, drug abuse, physical health problems, depressed mood, and age as discriminating between suicide and unintentional poisoning. It is estimated that suicide rates related to poisoning are underreported by approximately 30% and overall suicide rates by 10%. Unintentional poisoning death rates were underreported by 61%. Conclusions This study suggests that manner of death determination relies on circumstance dependent variables that may not be consistently captured by medical examiners. Underreporting of suicide rates has important implications in policy development, research funding, and evaluation of prevention programs. PMID:17018678

  5. Multiple cause of death mortality patterns among Californians

    SciTech Connect

    White, M.C.

    1989-11-28

    The purpose of this study was to describe mortality patterns among the elderly using single versus multiple cause of death data and examine ways that multiple cause of death data can best be processed, analyzed and presented. Deaths among white California aged 65 and older for the years 1970, 1975 and 1980 were analyzed. Overall, mortality rates decreased over time, at all ages and for both sexes but more so for females, although the number of causes of death increased with age. Underlying cause mortality rates were compared to rates based on any mention of a cause on the death certificate; diabetes and atherosclerosis were more frequent causes of both than would be indicated by single cause statistics, and heart diseases other than ischemic heart disease increased in mentions on the death certificated while ischemic heart disease underlying mortality rates decreased. Pairs of causes of death showed increased likelihood of occurrence of a number of combinations of chronic diseases. In all pair combinations studied, the addition of another serious chronic disease lowered the mean age of death resulted in an older mean age of death. This result combined with higher number of causes per death but lower mortality rates among females raised interesting questions about interpreting more causes on death certificates as an indication of a sicker person at time of death. This study confirmed morbidity and mortality work on other that mortality of older adults in decreasing but that the number of causes of death per person is increasing. 82 refs., 30 figs., 59 tabs.

  6. 38 CFR 52.20 - Application for recognition based on certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Application for recognition based on certification. 52.20 Section 52.20 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) PER DIEM FOR ADULT DAY HEALTH CARE OF VETERANS IN STATE HOMES Obtaining Per Diem for Adult Day Health Care in...

  7. 40 CFR 94.912 - Optional certification to land-based standards for auxiliary marine engines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Optional certification to land-based standards for auxiliary marine engines. 94.912 Section 94.912 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM MARINE COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES Exclusion and...

  8. 38 CFR 52.10 - Per diem based on recognition and certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) PER DIEM FOR ADULT DAY HEALTH CARE OF VETERANS IN STATE HOMES Obtaining Per Diem for Adult Day Health Care in State Homes § 52.10 Per diem based on recognition and certification. VA will pay per diem to a State for providing adult day health care to eligible veterans in...

  9. 38 CFR 51.10 - Per diem based on recognition and certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) PER DIEM FOR NURSING HOME CARE OF VETERANS IN STATE HOMES Obtaining Per Diem for Nursing Home Care in State Homes § 51.10 Per diem based on recognition and certification. VA will pay per diem to a State for providing nursing home care to eligible veterans in a facility if...

  10. 38 CFR 51.10 - Per diem based on recognition and certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) PER DIEM FOR NURSING HOME CARE OF VETERANS IN STATE HOMES Obtaining Per Diem for Nursing Home Care in State Homes § 51.10 Per diem based on recognition and certification. VA will pay per diem to a State for providing nursing home care to eligible veterans in a facility if...

  11. 38 CFR 51.10 - Per diem based on recognition and certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) PER DIEM FOR NURSING HOME CARE OF VETERANS IN STATE HOMES Obtaining Per Diem for Nursing Home Care in State Homes § 51.10 Per diem based on recognition and certification. VA will pay per diem to a State for providing nursing home care to eligible veterans in a facility if...

  12. 38 CFR 51.10 - Per diem based on recognition and certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) PER DIEM FOR NURSING HOME CARE OF VETERANS IN STATE HOMES Obtaining Per Diem for Nursing Home Care in State Homes § 51.10 Per diem based on recognition and certification. VA will pay per diem to a State for providing nursing home care to eligible veterans in a facility if...

  13. 38 CFR 51.10 - Per diem based on recognition and certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) PER DIEM FOR NURSING HOME CARE OF VETERANS IN STATE HOMES Obtaining Per Diem for Nursing Home Care in State Homes § 51.10 Per diem based on recognition and certification. VA will pay per diem to a State for providing nursing home care to eligible veterans in a facility if...

  14. 24 CFR 983.10 - Project-based certificate (PBC) program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... for the PBC program at 24 CFR part 983, codified as of May 1, 2001 and contained in 24 CFR part 983... are subject to the provisions of 24 CFR part 983 codified as of May 1, 2001, except that 24 CFR 983... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Project-based certificate...

  15. 24 CFR 983.10 - Project-based certificate (PBC) program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... for the PBC program at 24 CFR part 983, codified as of May 1, 2001 and contained in 24 CFR part 983... are subject to the provisions of 24 CFR part 983 codified as of May 1, 2001, except that 24 CFR 983... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Project-based certificate...

  16. 24 CFR 983.10 - Project-based certificate (PBC) program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... for the PBC program at 24 CFR part 983, codified as of May 1, 2001 and contained in 24 CFR part 983... are subject to the provisions of 24 CFR part 983 codified as of May 1, 2001, except that 24 CFR 983... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Project-based certificate...

  17. 24 CFR 983.10 - Project-based certificate (PBC) program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... for the PBC program at 24 CFR part 983, codified as of May 1, 2001 and contained in 24 CFR part 983... are subject to the provisions of 24 CFR part 983 codified as of May 1, 2001, except that 24 CFR 983... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Project-based certificate...

  18. 24 CFR 983.10 - Project-based certificate (PBC) program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... for the PBC program at 24 CFR part 983, codified as of May 1, 2001 and contained in 24 CFR part 983... are subject to the provisions of 24 CFR part 983 codified as of May 1, 2001, except that 24 CFR 983... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Project-based certificate...

  19. 40 CFR 94.912 - Optional certification to land-based standards for auxiliary marine engines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Optional certification to land-based standards for auxiliary marine engines. 94.912 Section 94.912 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM MARINE COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES Exclusion and...

  20. Characteristics of Belgian life-ending acts without explicit patient request: a large-scale death certificate survey revisited

    PubMed Central

    Chambaere, Kenneth; Bernheim, Jan L.; Downar, James; Deliens, Luc

    2014-01-01

    Background Life-ending acts without explicit patient request, as identified in robust international studies, are central in current debates on physician-assisted dying. Despite their contentiousness, little attention has been paid to their actual characteristics and to what extent they truly represent nonvoluntary termination of life. Methods We analyzed the 66 cases of life-ending acts without explicit patient request identified in a large-scale survey of physicians certifying a representative sample of deaths (n = 6927) in Flanders, Belgium, in 2007. The characteristics we studied included physicians labelling of the act, treatment course and doses used, and patient involvement in the decision. Results In most cases (87.9%), physicians labelled their acts in terms of symptom treatment rather than in terms of ending life. By comparing drug combinations and doses of opioids used, we found that the life-ending acts were similar to intensified pain and symptom treatment and were distinct from euthanasia. In 45 cases, there was at least 1 characteristic inconsistent with the common understanding of the practice: either patients had previously expressed a wish for ending life (16/66, 24.4%), physicians reported that the administered doses had not been higher than necessary to relieve suffering (22/66, 33.3%), or both (7/66, 10.6%). Interpretation Most of the cases we studied did not fit the label of nonvoluntary life-ending for at least 1 of the following reasons: the drugs were administered with a focus on symptom control; a hastened death was highly unlikely; or the act was taken in accordance with the patients previously expressed wishes. Thus, we recommend a more nuanced view of life-ending acts without explicit patient request in the debate on physician-assisted dying. PMID:25485252

  1. Mortality from heart failure, acute myocardial infarction and other ischaemic heart disease in England and Oxford: a trend study of multiple-cause-coded death certification

    PubMed Central

    Rahimi, Kazem; Duncan, Marie; Pitcher, Alex; Emdin, Connor A; Goldacre, Michael J

    2015-01-01

    Background Age-standardised death rates from acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and ischaemic heart disease (IHD) have been declining in most developed countries. However, the magnitude of such reductions and how they impact on death from heart failure are less certain. We sought to assess and compare temporal trends in mortality from heart failure, AMI and non-AMI IHD over a 30-year period in England. Methods We analysed death registration data for multiple-cause-coded mortality for all deaths in people aged 35?years and over in England from 1995 to 2010, population 52 million, and in a regional population (Oxford region) from 1981 to 2010, population 2.5 million, for which data on all causes of death were available. Results Considering all ages and both sexes combined, during the 30-year observation period, age-standardised and sex-standardised mortality rates based on all certified causes of death declined by 60% for heart failure, 80% for AMI and 46% for non-AMI IHD. These longer term trends observed in the Oxford region were consistent with those for the whole of England from 1995 to 2010, with no evidence of a plateau in recent years. Although proportional reductions in rates differed by age and sex, even in those aged 85?years or more, there were substantial reductions in mortality rates in the all-England data set (50%, 66% and 20% for heart failure, AMI and non-AMI IHD, respectively). Conclusions This study shows large and sustained reductions in age-specific and sex-specific and standardised death rates from heart failure, as well as from AMI and non-AMI IHD, over a 30-year period in England. PMID:26136081

  2. The Perceived Sex of Death and Concerns About Death

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lonetto, Richard; And Others

    1976-01-01

    Male (N=67) and female (N=83) students filled out the Do-It-Yourself Death Certificate (DIYDC), Handal and Templer death concern scales, and a Death Personification Exercise (DPE). Males and females who saw death as being sexless showed less anxiety about death. (Author)

  3. Place and Cause of Death in Centenarians: A Population-Based Observational Study in England, 2001 to 2010

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Catherine J.; Ho, Yuen; Daveson, Barbara A.; Hall, Sue; Higginson, Irene J.; Gao, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Background Centenarians are a rapidly growing demographic group worldwide, yet their health and social care needs are seldom considered. This study aims to examine trends in place of death and associations for centenarians in England over 10 years to consider policy implications of extreme longevity. Methods and Findings This is a population-based observational study using death registration data linked with area-level indices of multiple deprivations for people aged ?100 years who died 2001 to 2010 in England, compared with those dying at ages 80-99. We used linear regression to examine the time trends in number of deaths and place of death, and Poisson regression to evaluate factors associated with centenarians place of death. The cohort totalled 35,867 people with a median age at death of 101 years (range: 100115 years). Centenarian deaths increased 56% (95% CI 53.8%57.4%) in 10 years. Most died in a care home with (26.7%, 95% CI 26.3%27.2%) or without nursing (34.5%, 95% CI 34.0%35.0%) or in hospital (27.2%, 95% CI 26.7%27.6%). The proportion of deaths in nursing homes decreased over 10 years (?0.36% annually, 95% CI ?0.63% to ?0.09%, p?=?0.014), while hospital deaths changed little (0.25% annually, 95% CI ?0.06% to 0.57%, p?=?0.09). Dying with frailty was common with old age stated in 75.6% of death certifications. Centenarians were more likely to die of pneumonia (e.g., 17.7% [95% CI 17.3%18.1%] versus 6.0% [5.9%6.0%] for those aged 8084 years) and old age/frailty (28.1% [27.6%28.5%] versus 0.9% [0.9%0.9%] for those aged 8084 years) and less likely to die of cancer (4.4% [4.2%4.6%] versus 24.5% [24.6%25.4%] for those aged 8084 years) and ischemic heart disease (8.6% [8.3%8.9%] versus 19.0% [18.9%19.0%] for those aged 8084 years) than were younger elderly patients. More care home beds available per 1,000 population were associated with fewer deaths in hospital (PR 0.98, 95% CI 0.980.99, p<0.001). Conclusions Centenarians are more likely to have causes of death certified as pneumonia and frailty and less likely to have causes of death of cancer or ischemic heart disease, compared with younger elderly patients. To reduce reliance on hospital care at the end of life requires recognition of centenarians increased likelihood to acute decline, notably from pneumonia, and wider provision of anticipatory care to enable people to remain in their usual residence, and increasing care home bed capacity. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary PMID:24892645

  4. 2015 Edition Health Information Technology (Health IT) Certification Criteria, 2015 Edition Base Electronic Health Record (EHR) Definition, and ONC Health IT Certification Program Modifications. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2015-10-16

    This final rule finalizes a new edition of certification criteria (the 2015 Edition health IT certification criteria or "2015 Edition'') and a new 2015 Edition Base Electronic Health Record (EHR) definition, while also modifying the ONC Health IT Certification Program to make it open and accessible to more types of health IT and health IT that supports various care and practice settings. The 2015 Edition establishes the capabilities and specifies the related standards and implementation specifications that Certified Electronic Health Record Technology (CEHRT) would need to include to, at a minimum, support the achievement of meaningful use by eligible professionals (EPs), eligible hospitals, and critical access hospitals (CAHs) under the Medicare and Medicaid EHR Incentive Programs (EHR Incentive Programs) when such edition is required for use under these programs. PMID:26477063

  5. 5 CFR 880.205 - Determinations of death.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Determinations of death. 880.205 Section... Determinations of death. OPM does not make findings of presumed death. A claimant for CSRS, FERS, or FEGLI death... § 880.207 must submit a death certificate or other legal certification of death issued by an...

  6. 5 CFR 880.205 - Determinations of death.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Determinations of death. 880.205 Section... Determinations of death. OPM does not make findings of presumed death. A claimant for CSRS, FERS, or FEGLI death... § 880.207 must submit a death certificate or other legal certification of death issued by an...

  7. 5 CFR 880.205 - Determinations of death.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Determinations of death. 880.205 Section... Determinations of death. OPM does not make findings of presumed death. A claimant for CSRS, FERS, or FEGLI death... § 880.207 must submit a death certificate or other legal certification of death issued by an...

  8. 5 CFR 880.205 - Determinations of death.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Determinations of death. 880.205 Section... Determinations of death. OPM does not make findings of presumed death. A claimant for CSRS, FERS, or FEGLI death... § 880.207 must submit a death certificate or other legal certification of death issued by an...

  9. 5 CFR 880.205 - Determinations of death.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Determinations of death. 880.205 Section... Determinations of death. OPM does not make findings of presumed death. A claimant for CSRS, FERS, or FEGLI death... § 880.207 must submit a death certificate or other legal certification of death issued by an...

  10. Maternal death audit in Rwanda 2009–2013: a nationwide facility-based retrospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Sayinzoga, Felix; Bijlmakers, Leon; van Dillen, Jeroen; Mivumbi, Victor; Ngabo, Fidèle; van der Velden, Koos

    2016-01-01

    Objective Presenting the results of 5 years of implementing health facility-based maternal death audits in Rwanda, showing maternal death classification, identification of substandard (care) factors that have contributed to death, and conclusive recommendations for quality improvements in maternal and obstetric care. Design Nationwide facility-based retrospective cohort study. Settings All cases of maternal death audited by district hospital-based audit teams between January 2009 and December 2013 were reviewed. Maternal deaths that were not subjected to a local audit are not part of the cohort. Population 987 audited cases of maternal death. Main outcome measures Characteristics of deceased women, timing of onset of complications, place of death, parity, gravida, antenatal clinic attendance, reported cause of death, service factors and individual factors identified by committees as having contributed to death, and recommendations made by audit teams. Results 987 cases were audited, representing 93.1% of all maternal deaths reported through the national health management information system over the 5-year period. Almost 3 quarters of the deaths (71.6%) occurred at district hospitals. In 44.9% of these cases, death occurred in the post-partum period. Seventy per cent were due to direct causes, with post-partum haemorrhage as the leading cause (22.7%), followed by obstructed labour (12.3%). Indirect causes accounted for 25.7% of maternal deaths, with malaria as the leading cause (7.5%). Health system failures were identified as the main responsible factor for the majority of cases (61.0%); in 30.3% of the cases, the main factor was patient or community related. Conclusions The facility-based maternal death audit approach has helped hospital teams to identify direct and indirect causes of death, and their contributing factors, and to make recommendations for actions that would reduce the risk of reoccurrence. Rwanda can complement maternal death audits with other strategies, in particular confidential enquiries and near-miss audits, so as to inform corrective measures. PMID:26801466

  11. On the Reliability of Vocational Workplace-Based Certifications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harth, H.; Hemker, B.T.

    2013-01-01

    The assessment of vocational workplace-based qualifications in England relies on human assessors (raters). These assessors observe naturally occurring, non-standardised evidence, unique to each learner and evaluate the learner as competent/not yet competent against content standards. Whilst these are considered difficult to measure, this study

  12. Development and Effectiveness Analysis of a Personalized Ubiquitous Multi-Device Certification Tutoring System Based on Bloom's Taxonomy of Educational Objectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hwang, Gwo-Haur; Chen, Beyin; Huang, Cin-Wei

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, with the gradual increase in the importance of professional certificates, improvement in certification tutoring systems has become more important. In this study, we have developed a personalized ubiquitous multi-device certification tutoring system (PUMDCTS) based on "Bloom's Taxonomy of Educational Objectives," and

  13. Development and Effectiveness Analysis of a Personalized Ubiquitous Multi-Device Certification Tutoring System Based on Bloom's Taxonomy of Educational Objectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hwang, Gwo-Haur; Chen, Beyin; Huang, Cin-Wei

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, with the gradual increase in the importance of professional certificates, improvement in certification tutoring systems has become more important. In this study, we have developed a personalized ubiquitous multi-device certification tutoring system (PUMDCTS) based on "Bloom's Taxonomy of Educational Objectives," and…

  14. Certification Aspects in Critical Embedded Software Development with Model Based Techniques: Detection of Unintended Functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atencia Yepez, A.; Autrn Cerqueira, J.; Uruea, S.; Jurado, R.

    2012-01-01

    This paper, developed under contract with European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA), analyses in detail which may be the certification implications in the aeronautic industry associated to the application of model-level verification and validation techniques. Particularly, this paper focuses on the problematic of detecting unintended functions by applying Model Coverage Criteria at model level. This point is significantly important for the future extensive use of Model Based approaches in safety critical software, since the uncertainty in the system performance introduced by the unintended functions, which may also lead to unacceptable hazardous or catastrophic events, prevents the system to be compliance with certification requirements. The paper provides a definition and a categorization of unintended functions and gives some relevant examples to assess the efficiency of model- coverage techniques in the detection of UF. The paper explains how this analysis is supported by a methodology based on the study of sources for introducing unintended functions. Finally it is analysed the feasibility of using Model-level verification techniques to support the software certification process.

  15. [Determination of death in mobile intensive care units operating without a physician].

    PubMed

    Yafe, Eli; Feingenberg, Zvi; Miller, Rami; Strugo, Rafi

    2011-12-01

    Determination of the death of a person is one of the most complex issues in modern medicine. Therefore, in Israel (like many other countries), the authority to determine death belongs solely to medical doctors. Determination of death is a process built from 3 components: the declaration of death, certification of death and registration of death. Declaration of death is based on well established protocols, and is used as the normative basis for ending or avoiding resuscitation efforts in the pre-hospital setting. Certification and registration of death are essential for completion of the process, in order to enable care for the deceased--according to local custom. The division mentioned above does not exist in Israel. Therefore, declaration and certification of death are carried out solely by medical doctors. This situation necessarily demands the immediate presence of a medical doctor, whenever a process of death determination is being held. When death occurs in a hospital or a medical institute continuously occupied by medical doctors, there is no problem to fulfill this term. However, on the other hand, when death occurs outside the hospital or medical institute, the burden of death determination usually falls on the doctors occupying Magen David Adom ambulances. This leads to irrational use of a limited resource, aimed for emergency pre-hospital care. This review examines the problem and all the aspects involved, and offers possible solutions--based on acceptable guidelines. PMID:22352286

  16. Increased rate of death related to presence of viremia among hepatitis C virus antibody-positive subjects in a community-based cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Stuver, Sherri O.; Hayashi, Katsuhiro; Kumagai, Kotaro; Sasaki, Fumisato; Kanmura, Shuji; Numata, Masatsugu; Moriuchi, Akihiro; Hasegawa, Susumu; Oketani, Makoto; Ido, Akio; Kusumoto, Kazunori; Hasuike, Satoru; Nagata, Kenji; Kohara, Michinori; Tsubouchi, Hirohito

    2013-01-01

    The overall mortality of hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infected patients has not been fully elucidated. The aim of this study was to analyze mortality in subjects positive for antibody to HCV (anti-HCV) in a community-based, prospective cohort study conducted in an HCV hyperendemic area of Japan. During a 10-year period beginning in 1995, 1,125 anti-HCV seropositive residents of Town C were enrolled into the study and followed for mortality through 2005. Cause of death was assessed by death certificates. Subjects with detectable HCV core antigen (HCVcAg) or HCV RNA were considered as having hepatitis C viremia and were classified as HCV carriers; subjects who were negative for both HCVcAg and HCV RNA (i.e., viremia-negative) were considered as having had a prior HCV infection and were classified as HCV noncarriers. Among the anti-HCV-positive subjects included in the analysis, 758 (67.4%) were HCV carriers, and 367 were noncarriers. A total of 231 deaths occurred in these subjects over a mean follow-up of 8.2 years: 176 deaths in the HCV carrier group and 55 in the noncarrier group. The overall mortality rate was higher in HCV carriers than in noncarriers, adjusted for age and gender (hazard ratio [HR], 1.53; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.132.07). Although liver-related deaths occurred more frequently among the HCV carriers (HR, 5.94; 95% CI, 2.5813.7), the rates of other causes of death did not differ between HCV carriers and noncarriers. Among HCV carriers, a higher level of HCVcAg (?100 pg/ml) and persistently elevated alanine aminotransferase levels were important predictors of liver-related mortality. Conclusions The presence of viremia increases the rate of mortality, primarily due to liver-related death, among anti-HCV seropositive persons in Japan. PMID:19585614

  17. Possible Prevention of Neonatal Death: A Regional Population-Based Study in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Yanagi, Takahide; Ono, Tetsuo; Tsuji, Shunichiro; Takahashi, Kentaro

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The neonatal mortality rate in Japan has currently been at the lowest level in the world. However, it is unclear whether there are still some potentially preventable neonatal deaths. We, therefore, aimed to examine the backgrounds of neonatal death and the possibilities of prevention in a region of Japan. Materials and Methods This is a population-based study of neonatal death in Shiga Prefecture of Japan. Results The 103 neonatal deaths in our prefecture between 2007 and 2011 were included. After reviewing by a peer-review team, we classified the backgrounds of these neonatal deaths and analyzed end-of-life care approaches associated with prenatal diagnosis. Furthermore, we evaluated the possibilities of preventable neonatal death, suggesting specific recommendations for its prevention. We analyzed 102 (99%) of the neonatal deaths. Congenital malformations and extreme prematurity were the first and the second most common causes of death, respectively. More than half of the congenital abnormalities (59%) including malformations and chromosome abnormality had been diagnosed before births. We had 22 neonates with non-intensive care including eighteen cases with congenital abnormality and four with extreme prematurity. Twenty three cases were judged to have had some possibility of prevention with one having had a strong possibility of prevention. Among specific recommendations of preventable neonatal death, more than half of them were for obstetricians. Conclusion There is room to reduce neonatal deaths in Japan. Prevention of neonatal death requires grater prenatal care by obstetricians before birth rather than improved neonatal care by neonatologists after birth. PMID:26847296

  18. 40 CFR 745.229 - Certification of individuals and firms engaged in lead-based paint activities: public and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... engaged in lead-based paint activities: public and commercial buildings, bridges and superstructures. 745... SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT LEAD-BASED PAINT POISONING PREVENTION IN CERTAIN RESIDENTIAL STRUCTURES Lead-Based Paint Activities § 745.229 Certification of individuals and firms engaged in lead-based paint...

  19. 40 CFR 745.226 - Certification of individuals and firms engaged in lead-based paint activities: target housing and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... engaged in lead-based paint activities: target housing and child-occupied facilities. 745.226 Section 745... LEAD-BASED PAINT POISONING PREVENTION IN CERTAIN RESIDENTIAL STRUCTURES Lead-Based Paint Activities § 745.226 Certification of individuals and firms engaged in lead-based paint activities: target...

  20. 40 CFR 745.226 - Certification of individuals and firms engaged in lead-based paint activities: target housing and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... engaged in lead-based paint activities: target housing and child-occupied facilities. 745.226 Section 745... LEAD-BASED PAINT POISONING PREVENTION IN CERTAIN RESIDENTIAL STRUCTURES Lead-Based Paint Activities § 745.226 Certification of individuals and firms engaged in lead-based paint activities: target...

  1. 40 CFR 745.226 - Certification of individuals and firms engaged in lead-based paint activities: target housing and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... engaged in lead-based paint activities: target housing and child-occupied facilities. 745.226 Section 745... LEAD-BASED PAINT POISONING PREVENTION IN CERTAIN RESIDENTIAL STRUCTURES Lead-Based Paint Activities § 745.226 Certification of individuals and firms engaged in lead-based paint activities: target...

  2. 40 CFR 745.229 - Certification of individuals and firms engaged in lead-based paint activities: public and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... engaged in lead-based paint activities: public and commercial buildings, bridges and superstructures. 745... SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT LEAD-BASED PAINT POISONING PREVENTION IN CERTAIN RESIDENTIAL STRUCTURES Lead-Based Paint Activities § 745.229 Certification of individuals and firms engaged in lead-based paint...

  3. 40 CFR 745.229 - Certification of individuals and firms engaged in lead-based paint activities: public and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... engaged in lead-based paint activities: public and commercial buildings, bridges and superstructures. 745... SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT LEAD-BASED PAINT POISONING PREVENTION IN CERTAIN RESIDENTIAL STRUCTURES Lead-Based Paint Activities § 745.229 Certification of individuals and firms engaged in lead-based paint...

  4. 40 CFR 745.238 - Fees for accreditation and certification of lead-based paint activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., see 40 CFR 745.225(f)(1) for details) Initial CourseInspector Risk assessor Supervisor Worker Project... Activities—Individual Certification Re-certification (every 3 years, see 40 CFR 745.226(e)(1) for details...-certification (every 3 years, see 40 CFR 745.226(f)(7) for details) Firm $550 $550 Combined Renovation and...

  5. 40 CFR 745.238 - Fees for accreditation and certification of lead-based paint activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., see 40 CFR 745.225(f)(1) for details) Initial CourseInspector Risk assessor Supervisor Worker Project... Activities—Individual Certification Re-certification (every 3 years, see 40 CFR 745.226(e)(1) for details...-certification (every 3 years, see 40 CFR 745.226(f)(7) for details) Firm $550 $550 Combined Renovation and...

  6. 40 CFR 745.238 - Fees for accreditation and certification of lead-based paint activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., see 40 CFR 745.225(f)(1) for details) Initial CourseInspector Risk assessor Supervisor Worker Project... Activities—Individual Certification Re-certification (every 3 years, see 40 CFR 745.226(e)(1) for details...-certification (every 3 years, see 40 CFR 745.226(f)(7) for details) Firm $550 $550 Combined Renovation and...

  7. [A study on death: an analysis based on Vigotski's dialectical method].

    PubMed

    Combinato, Denise Stefanoni; Queiroz, Marcos de Souza

    2011-09-01

    This article focuses on the concept of death and, in particular, the social construction of its meaning for a professional healthcare team working in an intensive hospital care unit. Thirteen professionals (six physicians and seven nurses) participated in the research, through semi-structured interviews. Despite the fact that death is part of the human cycle and is present in the daily working life of these health professionals, the denial of its existence imposed by the culture of the modern western world prevents the development of specific strategies to address this problem. Based on the Vigotski's dialectical method, three main conceptions of death were extracted from the interviews: death as a natural consequence of life; death as a biological process and death as a divine blessing. In the absence of a proper space for a more systematical approach, the social representations from the professionals on this theme are restricted to subjective opinions. In the conclusion, the need for change in the institutional context and in health education is emphasized, with a specific focus directed on death and on the process of dying. PMID:21987332

  8. Temperature based forensic death time estimation: The standard model in experimental test.

    PubMed

    Hubig, M; Muggenthaler, H; Sinicina, I; Mall, G

    2015-09-01

    The determination of the time since death is essential to forensic homicide investigations since the time of death represents the presumed time of the offence. Erroneous death time estimates may lead to false acquittal or conviction of suspects. Since its introduction 30years back, the nomogram method by Henge has been established as the standard procedure of temperature-based death time determination in the early post-mortem period. The present study provides an independent investigation of the validity of its death time estimates and their corresponding 95%-confidence intervals. Comparison to post-mortem cooling curves recorded under controlled conditions of 84 suddenly deceased with known death times yielded the following results: Since in the light of our experiments the validity of the nomogram method seems to be problematic, death time estimates - and particularly their 95%-confidence interval limits - have to be interpreted carefully and should only be restrictively used as court evidence to support or refute alibis. Systematic overestimation of the post-mortem interval in bodies of high mass and large surface area must be taken into account. PMID:26028161

  9. A Computer-Based Private Pilot (Airplane) Certification Exam: A First Step Toward Nation-Wide Computer-Administration of FAA Certification Exams.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Richard I.; Trollip, Stanley R.

    1982-01-01

    To assess the feasibility of computer-assisted Federal Aviation Administration certification examinations, a system for administering the Private Pilot Certification Examination was implemented using PLATO. Characteristics, reactions, and guidelines for use of the test are included. (Author/JJD)

  10. Physician-assisted deaths under the euthanasia law in Belgium: a population-based survey

    PubMed Central

    Chambaere, Kenneth; Bilsen, Johan; Cohen, Joachim; Onwuteaka-Philipsen, Bregje D.; Mortier, Freddy; Deliens, Luc

    2010-01-01

    Background Legalization of euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide has been heavily debated in many countries. To help inform this debate, we describe the practices of euthanasia and assisted suicide, and the use of life-ending drugs without an explicit request from the patient, in Flanders, Belgium, where euthanasia is legal. Methods We mailed a questionnaire regarding the use of life-ending drugs with or without explicit patient request to physicians who certified a representative sample (n = 6927) of death certificates of patients who died in Flanders between June and November 2007. Results The response rate was 58.4%. Overall, 208 deaths involving the use of life-ending drugs were reported: 142 (weighted prevalence 2.0%) were with an explicit patient request (euthanasia or assisted suicide) and 66 (weighted prevalence 1.8%) were without an explicit request. Euthanasia and assisted suicide mostly involved patients less than 80 years of age, those with cancer and those dying at home. Use of life-ending drugs without an explicit request mostly involved patients 80 years of older, those with a disease other than cancer and those in hospital. Of the deaths without an explicit request, the decision was not discussed with the patient in 77.9% of cases. Compared with assisted deaths with the patient’s explicit request, those without an explicit request were more likely to have a shorter length of treatment of the terminal illness, to have cure as a goal of treatment in the last week, to have a shorter estimated time by which life was shortened and to involve the administration of opioids. Interpretation Physician-assisted deaths with an explicit patient request (euthanasia and assisted suicide) and without an explicit request occurred in different patient groups and under different circumstances. Cases without an explicit request often involved patients whose diseases had unpredictable end-of-life trajectories. Although opioids were used in most of these cases, misconceptions seem to persist about their actual life-shortening effects. PMID:20479044

  11. Meeting the community halfway to reduce maternal deaths? Evidence from a community-based maternal death review in Uttar Pradesh, India

    PubMed Central

    Raj, Sunil Saksena; Maine, Deborah; Sahoo, Pratap Kumar; Manthri, Suneedh; Chauhan, Kavita

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Uttar Pradesh (UP) is the most populous state in India with the second highest reported maternal mortality ratio in the country. In an effort to analyze the reasons for maternal deaths and implement appropriate interventions, the Government of India introduced Maternal Death Review guidelines in 2010. Methods: We assessed causes of and factors leading to maternal deaths in Unnao District, UP, through 2 methods. First, we conducted a facility gap assessment in 15 of the 16 block-level and district health facilities to collect information on the performance of the facilities in terms of treating obstetric complications. Second, teams of trained physicians conducted community-based maternal death reviews (verbal autopsies) in a sample of maternal deaths occurring between June 1, 2009, and May 31, 2010. Results: Of the 248 maternal deaths that would be expected in this district in a year, we identified 153 (62%) through community workers and conducted verbal autopsies with families of 57 of them. Verbal autopsies indicated that 23% and 30% of these maternal deaths occurred at home and on the way to a health facility, respectively. Most of the women who died had been taken to at least 2 health facilities. The facility assessment revealed that only the district hospital met the recommended criteria for either basic or comprehensive emergency obstetric and neonatal care. Conclusions: Life-saving treatment of obstetric complications was not offered at the appropriate level of government facilities in a representative district in UP, and an inadequate referral system provided fatal delays. Expensive transportation costs to get pregnant women to a functioning medical facility also contributed to maternal death. The maternal death review, coupled with the facility gap assessment, is a useful tool to address the adequacy of emergency obstetric and neonatal care services to prevent further maternal deaths. PMID:25276519

  12. 29 CFR 1919.50 - Eligibility for accreditation to certificate shore-based material handling devices covered by...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... material handling devices covered by § 1917.50 of this chapter, safety and health regulations for marine... Shore-Based Equipment 1919.50 Eligibility for accreditation to certificate shore-based material handling devices covered by 1917.50 of this chapter, safety and health regulations for marine...

  13. 29 CFR 1919.50 - Eligibility for accreditation to certificate shore-based material handling devices covered by...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... material handling devices covered by § 1917.50 of this chapter, safety and health regulations for marine... Shore-Based Equipment 1919.50 Eligibility for accreditation to certificate shore-based material handling devices covered by 1917.50 of this chapter, safety and health regulations for marine...

  14. 29 CFR 1919.50 - Eligibility for accreditation to certificate shore-based material handling devices covered by...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... material handling devices covered by § 1917.50 of this chapter, safety and health regulations for marine... Shore-Based Equipment 1919.50 Eligibility for accreditation to certificate shore-based material handling devices covered by 1917.50 of this chapter, safety and health regulations for marine...

  15. 29 CFR 1919.50 - Eligibility for accreditation to certificate shore-based material handling devices covered by...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... material handling devices covered by § 1917.50 of this chapter, safety and health regulations for marine... Shore-Based Equipment 1919.50 Eligibility for accreditation to certificate shore-based material handling devices covered by 1917.50 of this chapter, safety and health regulations for marine...

  16. 29 CFR 1919.50 - Eligibility for accreditation to certificate shore-based material handling devices covered by...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... material handling devices covered by § 1917.50 of this chapter, safety and health regulations for marine... Shore-Based Equipment 1919.50 Eligibility for accreditation to certificate shore-based material handling devices covered by 1917.50 of this chapter, safety and health regulations for marine...

  17. Child Deaths in New Jersey: Social Characteristics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crowley, Charles J.

    This report discusses trends in the causes of child deaths in New Jersey in recent years and closely examines child deaths in the state in 1974. Demographic data on child deaths are reported with an emphasis on types of deaths in which neglect or nonaccidental injury are likely to have been a factor. Death certificate data were obtained from the

  18. Infant mortality in southern Brazil: a population based study of causes of death.

    PubMed Central

    Barros, F C; Victora, C G; Vaughan, J P; Teixeira, A M; Ashworth, A

    1987-01-01

    The causes of 215 infant deaths occurring in a population based cohort of 5914 infants from southern Brazil were determined. Perinatal problems were responsible for 43% of these deaths and infectious diseases for 32%. In the group who died of infectious diseases, respiratory infections and diarrhoea were equally important, each accounting for 12% of all deaths. A total of 87% of the deaths occurred in the first six months of life, and this proportion remained high (77%) even after perinatal causes had been excluded. On the other hand, 53% of the infants who died were of low birth weight, as opposed to 7.9% of the survivors. This suggests that low birthweight infants need to be carefully followed by health workers at primary level, especially during the first six months. It was estimated that if the incidence of low birth weight was reduced from the present 8.8% to 5% the likely reduction in infant mortality would be 20%. This reduction would be 33% for deaths due to perinatal causes, 14% for respiratory infections, and only 5% for diarrhoea. Efforts for the prevention of infant deaths in southern Brazil are more likely to be effective if they concentrate on improving perinatal health care and environmental conditions. PMID:3606182

  19. Combined Prediction Model of Death Toll for Road Traffic Accidents Based on Independent and Dependent Variables

    PubMed Central

    Zhong-xiang, Feng; Shi-sheng, Lu; Wei-hua, Zhang; Nan-nan, Zhang

    2014-01-01

    In order to build a combined model which can meet the variation rule of death toll data for road traffic accidents and can reflect the influence of multiple factors on traffic accidents and improve prediction accuracy for accidents, the Verhulst model was built based on the number of death tolls for road traffic accidents in China from 2002 to 2011; and car ownership, population, GDP, highway freight volume, highway passenger transportation volume, and highway mileage were chosen as the factors to build the death toll multivariate linear regression model. Then the two models were combined to be a combined prediction model which has weight coefficient. Shapley value method was applied to calculate the weight coefficient by assessing contributions. Finally, the combined model was used to recalculate the number of death tolls from 2002 to 2011, and the combined model was compared with the Verhulst and multivariate linear regression models. The results showed that the new model could not only characterize the death toll data characteristics but also quantify the degree of influence to the death toll by each influencing factor and had high accuracy as well as strong practicability. PMID:25610454

  20. Two New Reference Materials Based on Tobacco Leaves: Certification for over a Dozen of Toxic and Essential Elements

    PubMed Central

    Samczy?ski, Zbigniew; Dybczy?ski, Rajmund S.; Polkowska-Motrenko, Halina; Chajduk, Ewelina; Pyszynska, Marta; Danko, Bo?ena; Czerska, El?bieta; Kulisa, Krzysztof; Doner, Katarzyna; Kalbarczyk, Pawe?

    2012-01-01

    The preparation, certification, and characterization of two new biological certified reference materials for inorganic trace analysis have been presented. They are based on two different varieties of tobacco leaves, namely, Oriental Basma Tobacco Leaves (INCT-OBTL-5), grown in Greece, and Polish Virginia Tobacco Leaves (INCT-PVTL-6), grown in Poland. Certification of the materials was based on the statistical evaluation of results obtained in a worldwide interlaboratory comparison, in which 87 laboratories from 18 countries participated, providing 2568 laboratory averages on nearly 80 elements. It was possible to establish the certified values of concentration for many elements in the new materials, that is, 37 in INCT-OBTL-5 and 36 in INCT-PVTL-6, including several toxic ones like As, Cd, Hg, Pb, and so forth. The share and the role of instrumental analytical techniques used in the process of certification of the new CRMs are discussed. PMID:22536124

  1. 28 CFR 32.15 - Prerequisite certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Prerequisite certification. 32.15 Section... EDUCATIONAL ASSISTANCE BENEFIT CLAIMS Death Benefit Claims 32.15 Prerequisite certification. (a) Except as... (d) of this section, a certification from the public agency in which the public safety officer...

  2. 28 CFR 32.15 - Prerequisite certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Prerequisite certification. 32.15 Section... EDUCATIONAL ASSISTANCE BENEFIT CLAIMS Death Benefit Claims 32.15 Prerequisite certification. (a) Except as... (d) of this section, a certification from the public agency in which the public safety officer...

  3. 28 CFR 32.15 - Prerequisite certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Prerequisite certification. 32.15 Section... EDUCATIONAL ASSISTANCE BENEFIT CLAIMS Death Benefit Claims 32.15 Prerequisite certification. (a) Except as... (d) of this section, a certification from the public agency in which the public safety officer...

  4. Performance on Specific Cognitive Domains and Cause of Death: A Prospective Population-Based Study in Non-Demented Older Adults (NEDICES).

    PubMed

    Benito-León, Julián; Contador, Israel; Mitchell, Alex J; Domingo-Santos, Ángela; Bermejo-Pareja, Félix

    2016-02-01

    Evidence regarding the relationship between performance on specific cognitive domains and cause of death is scarce. We assessed whether specific cognitive domains predicted mortality and the presence of any association with specific causes of death in a population-dwelling sample of non-demented older adults. In this population-based, prospective study (NEDICES), 2,390 non-demented subjects ≥65 years completed a brief neuropsychological battery. Cox's proportional hazards models, adjusted by sociodemographic and comorbidity factors, global cognitive performance, educational level, and premorbid intelligence were used to assess the risk of death. Participants were followed for a median of 9.2 years (range 0.01-10.7), after which the death certificates of those who died were examined. 880 (36.8%) of 2,390 participants died over a median follow-up of 5.5 years (range 0.01-10.5). Using adjusted Cox regression models, we found that hazard ratios for mortality in participants within the lowest tertiles (worse performance) were 1.31 (speed of cognitive processing, p = 0.03); 1.22 (semantic fluency, p = 0.04), 1.32 (delayed free recall, p = 0.003), and 1.23 (delayed logical memory, p = 0.03). Poor performance on delayed recall and speed of cognitive processing tests were associated with dementia and cerebrovascular disease mortality, respectively. Further, poor performance on semantic fluency was associated with decreased cancer mortality. In this study of community dwelling non-demented older adults, worse neuropsychological performance was associated with increased risk of mortality. Performance on specific cognitive domains were related to different causes of death. Of particular note there appears to be an inverse association between poor semantic fluency and cancer mortality. PMID:26890757

  5. Pregnancy-related deaths due to pulmonary embolism: findings from two state-based mortality reviews.

    PubMed

    Heyl, Peter S; Sappenfield, William M; Burch, Deborah; Hernandez, Leticia E; Kavanaugh, Victoria M; Hill, Washington C

    2013-09-01

    This report presents findings from two state-based pregnancy-related reviews of deaths due to pulmonary embolism to describe prevalence, risk factors, and timing of symptoms and fatal events (N=46). We examined the utility of state-based maternal mortality review teams as a means to gain more complete data on maternal deaths from which guidelines for prevention and intervention can be developed. The Florida Pregnancy-Associated Mortality Review Team and Virginia Maternal Mortality Review Team collaborated on findings from 9years of pregnancy-related mortality review conducted in each state. Pregnancy-related deaths due to pulmonary embolism occurring within 42days of pregnancy between 1999 and 2007 in Florida and Virginia were identified. Retrospective review of records was conducted to obtain data on timing of the fatal event in relation to the pregnancy, risk factors, and the presence and timing of symptoms suggestive of pulmonary embolism. Forty-six cases of pregnancy-related death due to pulmonary embolism were identified. The combined pregnancy-related mortality ratio (PRMR) was 1.6/100,000 live births. The PRMR for patients undergoing cesarean section delivery was 2.8 compared to 0.2 among those with vaginal deliveries (95% CI=1.8-4.2 and 0.1-0.5 respectively). Women aged 35 and older had the highest PRMR at 2.6/100,000 live births. BMI over 30kg/m(2) and presence of chronic conditions were frequently identified risk factors. One in five decedents (21.7%) reported at least two symptoms suggestive of pulmonary embolism in the days before death. This combined state-based maternal death review confirms age over 35years, obesity, and the presence of chronic conditions are risk factors for pregnancy-related mortality due to venous thromboembolism in the US. Expanding and standardizing the process of state-based reviews offers the potential for reducing pregnancy-related mortality in the US. PMID:22907272

  6. Certificate-Based Approach to Marketing Green Power and Constructing New Wind Energy Facilities: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Blank, E.; Bird, L.; Swezey, B.

    2002-05-01

    The availability of wind energy certificates in Pennsylvania's retail electricity market has made a critical difference in the economic feasibility of developing 140 MW of new wind energy projects in the region. Certificates offer important benefits to both green power suppliers and buyers by reducing transaction barriers and thus lowering the cost of renewable energy. Buyers also benefit through the increased flexibility offered by certificate products. The experience described in this paper offers important insights for selling green power certificates and achieving new wind energy development in other areas of the country.

  7. 28 CFR 32.15 - Prerequisite certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Prerequisite certification. 32.15 Section 32.15 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE PUBLIC SAFETY OFFICERS' DEATH, DISABILITY, AND EDUCATIONAL ASSISTANCE BENEFIT CLAIMS Death Benefit Claims 32.15 Prerequisite certification. (a) Except as provided in the Act, at 42 U.S.C....

  8. PRESENT CONDITION OF FOOD WASTE RECYCLING LOOP BASED ON RECYCLING PROJECT CERTIFICATION OF THE FOOD WASTE RECYCLING LAW

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kita, Tomoko; Kanaya, Ken

    Purpose of this research is to clear present condition of food waste recycling loops based on recycling project certification of the Food Waste Recycling Law. Method of this research is questionnaire survey to companies constituting the loops. Findings of this research are as follows: 1. Proponents of the loop is most often the recycling companies. 2. Food waste recycling rate is 61% for the food retailing industry and 81% for the food service industry. These values are higher than the national average in 2006. The effect of the revision of recycling project certification is suggested.

  9. The Issue of Death and Dying: Employing Problem-Based Learning in Nursing Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mok, Esther; Lee, Wai Man; Wong, Frances Kam-yuet

    2002-01-01

    Hong Kong nursing students used journals to problem-based learning (PBL) related to dying patients. Increased self-awareness, positive attitude toward death, and culturally sensitive care resulted. PBL methods included information searches, interviews with experts and patients, and tutorials for sharing feelings and information. (Contains 21…

  10. The Issue of Death and Dying: Employing Problem-Based Learning in Nursing Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mok, Esther; Lee, Wai Man; Wong, Frances Kam-yuet

    2002-01-01

    Hong Kong nursing students used journals to problem-based learning (PBL) related to dying patients. Increased self-awareness, positive attitude toward death, and culturally sensitive care resulted. PBL methods included information searches, interviews with experts and patients, and tutorials for sharing feelings and information. (Contains 21

  11. 40 CFR 745.229 - Certification of individuals and firms engaged in lead-based paint activities: public and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Certification of individuals and firms engaged in lead-based paint activities: public and commercial buildings, bridges and superstructures. 745...: public and commercial buildings, bridges and superstructures....

  12. 40 CFR 745.229 - Certification of individuals and firms engaged in lead-based paint activities: public and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Certification of individuals and firms engaged in lead-based paint activities: public and commercial buildings, bridges and superstructures. 745...: public and commercial buildings, bridges and superstructures....

  13. Predictive Power of School Based Assessment Scores on Students' Achievement in Junior Secondary Certificate Examination (JSCE) in English and Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Opara, Ijeoma M.; Onyekuru, Bruno U.; Njoku, Joyce U.

    2015-01-01

    The study investigated the predictive power of school based assessment scores on students' achievement in Junior Secondary Certificate Examination (JSCE) in English and Mathematics. Two hypotheses tested at 0.05 level of significance guided the study. The study adopted an ex-post facto research design. A sample of 250 students were randomly drawn…

  14. 14 CFR 47.41 - Duration and return of Certificate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... of the certificate loses his U.S. citizenship. (4) 30 days have elapsed since the death of the holder... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Duration and return of Certificate. 47.41... AIRCRAFT REGISTRATION Certificates of Aircraft Registration 47.41 Duration and return of Certificate....

  15. 14 CFR 47.41 - Duration and return of Certificate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... of the certificate loses his U.S. citizenship. (4) 30 days have elapsed since the death of the holder... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Duration and return of Certificate. 47.41... AIRCRAFT REGISTRATION Certificates of Aircraft Registration 47.41 Duration and return of Certificate....

  16. 14 CFR 47.41 - Duration and return of Certificate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... of the certificate loses his U.S. citizenship. (4) 30 days have elapsed since the death of the holder... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Duration and return of Certificate. 47.41... AIRCRAFT REGISTRATION Certificates of Aircraft Registration 47.41 Duration and return of Certificate....

  17. 14 CFR 47.41 - Duration and return of Certificate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... of the certificate loses his U.S. citizenship. (4) 30 days have elapsed since the death of the holder... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Duration and return of Certificate. 47.41... AIRCRAFT REGISTRATION Certificates of Aircraft Registration 47.41 Duration and return of Certificate....

  18. 14 CFR 47.41 - Duration and return of Certificate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... the certificate loses his U.S. citizenship; (6) 30 days have elapsed since the death of the holder of... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Duration and return of Certificate. 47.41... AIRCRAFT REGISTRATION Certificates of Aircraft Registration 47.41 Duration and return of Certificate....

  19. Information Technology Student-Based Certification in Formal Education Settings: Who Benefits and What Is Needed

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randall, Michael H.; Zirkle, Christopher J.

    2005-01-01

    There is a growing trend within secondary and post-secondary institutions to offer information technology (IT) certification programs as instructional vehicles to provide students with viable skills needed by the workforce, to satisfy state skill standards, and to prepare students for post-secondary IT studies. The use of IT certification programs

  20. 40 CFR 94.912 - Optional certification to land-based standards for auxiliary marine engines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... model year showing that it meets emission standards for engines of that power rating under 40 CFR part... certified to the requirements that apply to compression-ignition engines under 40 CFR part 89 or 1039 for... certificate issued under 40 CFR part 86 or 1039 for each engine to also be a valid certificate of...

  1. Information Technology Student-Based Certification in Formal Education Settings: Who Benefits and What Is Needed

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randall, Michael H.; Zirkle, Christopher J.

    2005-01-01

    There is a growing trend within secondary and post-secondary institutions to offer information technology (IT) certification programs as instructional vehicles to provide students with viable skills needed by the workforce, to satisfy state skill standards, and to prepare students for post-secondary IT studies. The use of IT certification programs…

  2. Inference of Epidemiological Dynamics Based on Simulated Phylogenies Using Birth-Death and Coalescent Models

    PubMed Central

    Boskova, Veronika; Bonhoeffer, Sebastian; Stadler, Tanja

    2014-01-01

    Quantifying epidemiological dynamics is crucial for understanding and forecasting the spread of an epidemic. The coalescent and the birth-death model are used interchangeably to infer epidemiological parameters from the genealogical relationships of the pathogen population under study, which in turn are inferred from the pathogen genetic sequencing data. To compare the performance of these widely applied models, we performed a simulation study. We simulated phylogenetic trees under the constant rate birth-death model and the coalescent model with a deterministic exponentially growing infected population. For each tree, we re-estimated the epidemiological parameters using both a birth-death and a coalescent based method, implemented as an MCMC procedure in BEAST v2.0. In our analyses that estimate the growth rate of an epidemic based on simulated birth-death trees, the point estimates such as the maximum a posteriori/maximum likelihood estimates are not very different. However, the estimates of uncertainty are very different. The birth-death model had a higher coverage than the coalescent model, i.e. contained the true value in the highest posterior density (HPD) interval more often (213% vs. 3175% error). The coverage of the coalescent decreases with decreasing basic reproductive ratio and increasing sampling probability of infecteds. We hypothesize that the biases in the coalescent are due to the assumption of deterministic rather than stochastic population size changes. Both methods performed reasonably well when analyzing trees simulated under the coalescent. The methods can also identify other key epidemiological parameters as long as one of the parameters is fixed to its true value. In summary, when using genetic data to estimate epidemic dynamics, our results suggest that the birth-death method will be less sensitive to population fluctuations of early outbreaks than the coalescent method that assumes a deterministic exponentially growing infected population. PMID:25375100

  3. The Determinants of Place of Death: An Evidence-Based Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Costa, V

    2014-01-01

    Background According to a conceptual model described in this analysis, place of death is determined by an interplay of factors associated with the illness, the individual, and the environment. Objectives Our objective was to evaluate the determinants of place of death for adult patients who have been diagnosed with an advanced, life-limiting condition and are not expected to stabilize or improve. Data Sources A literature search was performed using Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid MEDLINE In-Process and Other Non-Indexed Citations, Ovid Embase, EBSCO Cumulative Index to Nursing & Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), and EBM Reviews, for studies published from January 1, 2004, to September 24, 2013. Review Methods Different places of death are considered in this analysis—home, nursing home, inpatient hospice, and inpatient palliative care unit, compared with hospital. We selected factors to evaluate from a list of possible predictors—i.e., determinants—of death. We extracted the adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals of each determinant, performed a meta-analysis if appropriate, and conducted a stratified analysis if substantial heterogeneity was observed. Results From a literature search yielding 5,899 citations, we included 2 systematic reviews and 29 observational studies. Factors that increased the likelihood of home death included multidisciplinary home palliative care, patient preference, having an informal caregiver, and the caregiver's ability to cope. Factors increasing the likelihood of a nursing home death included the availability of palliative care in the nursing home and the existence of advance directives. A cancer diagnosis and the involvement of home care services increased the likelihood of dying in an inpatient palliative care unit. A cancer diagnosis and a longer time between referral to palliative care and death increased the likelihood of inpatient hospice death. The quality of the evidence was considered low. Limitations Our results are based on those of retrospective observational studies. Conclusions The results obtained were consistent with previously published systematic reviews. The analysis identified several factors that are associated with place of death. PMID:26351550

  4. Modular Certification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rushby, John; Miner, Paul S. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Airplanes are certified as a whole: there is no established basis for separately certifying some components, particularly software-intensive ones, independently of their specific application in a given airplane. The absence of separate certification inhibits the development of modular components that could be largely "precertified" and used in several different contexts within a single airplane, or across many different airplanes. In this report, we examine the issues in modular certification of software components and propose an approach based on assume-guarantee reasoning. We extend the method from verification to certification by considering behavior in the presence of failures. This exposes the need for partitioning, and separation of assumptions and guarantees into normal and abnormal cases. We then identify three classes of property that must be verified within this framework: safe function, true guarantees, and controlled failure. We identify a particular assume-guarantee proof rule (due to McMillan) that is appropriate to the applications considered, and formally verify its soundness in PVS.

  5. School-Based Initial Vocational Education in the Republic of Ireland: The Parity of Esteem and Fitness for Purpose of the Leaving Certificate Applied

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gleeson, Jim; O'Flaherty, Joanne

    2013-01-01

    The Irish Leaving Certificate Applied (LCA) is a school-based, pre-vocational alternative to the "high stakes" established Leaving Certificate. Its origins lie in European Union funded "school to work" initiatives and it is currently taken to completion by some 5% of Irish senior cycle students. Since it was designed 20 years

  6. NATIONAL VITAL STATISTICS SYSTEM - LINKED BIRTH AND INFANT DEATH DATA

    EPA Science Inventory

    In 1983, NCHS established a research data set comprised of linked birth and death certificates for infants born in the United States who died before reaching one year of age. In this data set, information from the death certificate is linked with information from the birth certif...

  7. Burden of Severe Pneumonia, Pneumococcal Pneumonia and Pneumonia Deaths in Indian States: Modelling Based Estimates

    PubMed Central

    Farooqui, Habib; Jit, Mark; Heymann, David L.; Zodpey, Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    The burden of severe pneumonia in terms of morbidity and mortality is unknown in India especially at sub-national level. In this context, we aimed to estimate the number of severe pneumonia episodes, pneumococcal pneumonia episodes and pneumonia deaths in children younger than 5 years in 2010. We adapted and parameterized a mathematical model based on the epidemiological concept of potential impact fraction developed CHERG for this analysis. The key parameters that determine the distribution of severe pneumonia episode across Indian states were state-specific under-5 population, state-specific prevalence of selected definite pneumonia risk factors and meta-estimates of relative risks for each of these risk factors. We applied the incidence estimates and attributable fraction of risk factors to population estimates for 2010 of each Indian state. We then estimated the number of pneumococcal pneumonia cases by applying the vaccine probe methodology to an existing trial. We estimated mortality due to severe pneumonia and pneumococcal pneumonia by combining incidence estimates with case fatality ratios from multi-centric hospital-based studies. Our results suggest that in 2010, 3.6 million (3.33.9 million) episodes of severe pneumonia and 0.35 million (0.310.40 million) all cause pneumonia deaths occurred in children younger than 5 years in India. The states that merit special mention include Uttar Pradesh where 18.1% children reside but contribute 24% of pneumonia cases and 26% pneumonia deaths, Bihar (11.3% children, 16% cases, 22% deaths) Madhya Pradesh (6.6% children, 9% cases, 12% deaths), and Rajasthan (6.6% children, 8% cases, 11% deaths). Further, we estimated that 0.56 million (0.490.64 million) severe episodes of pneumococcal pneumonia and 105 thousand (92119 thousand) pneumococcal deaths occurred in India. The top contributors to Indias pneumococcal pneumonia burden were Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Madhya Pradesh and Rajasthan in that order. Our results highlight the need to improve access to care and increase coverage and equity of pneumonia preventing vaccines in states with high pneumonia burden. PMID:26086700

  8. Prison tobacco control policies and deaths from smoking in United States prisons: population based retrospective analysis

    PubMed Central

    Carson, E Ann; Krueger, Patrick M; Mueller, Shane R; Steiner, John F; Sabol, William J

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine the mortality attributable to smoking and years of potential life lost from smoking among people in prison and whether bans on smoking in prison are associated with reductions in smoking related deaths. Design Analysis of cross sectional survey data with the smoking attributable mortality, morbidity, and economic costs system; population based time series analysis. Setting All state prisons in the United States. Main outcome measures Prevalence of smoking from cross sectional survey of inmates in state correctional facilities. Data on state prison tobacco policies from web based searches of state policies and legislation. Deaths and causes of death in US state prisons from the deaths in custody reporting program of the Bureau of Justice Statistics for 2001-11. Smoking attributable mortality and years of potential life lost was assessed from the smoking attributable mortality, morbidity, and economic costs system of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Multivariate Poisson models quantified the association between bans and smoking related cancer, cardiovascular and pulmonary deaths. Results The most common causes of deaths related to smoking among people in prison were lung cancer, ischemic heart disease, other heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, and chronic airways obstruction. The age adjusted smoking attributable mortality and years of potential life lost rates were 360 and 5149 per 100 000, respectively; these figures are higher than rates in the general US population (248 and 3501, respectively). The number of states with any smoking ban increased from 25 in 2001 to 48 by 2011. In prisons the mortality rate from smoking related causes was lower during years with a ban than during years without a ban (110.4/100 000 v 128.9/100 000). Prisons that implemented smoking bans had a 9% reduction (adjusted incidence rate ratio 0.91, 95% confidence interval 0.88 to 0.95) in smoking related deaths. Bans in place for longer than nine years were associated with reductions in cancer mortality (adjusted incidence rate ratio 0.81, 95% confidence interval 0.74 to 0.90). Conclusions Smoking contributes to substantial mortality in prison, and prison tobacco control policies are associated with reduced mortality. These findings suggest that smoking bans have health benefits for people in prison, despite the limits they impose on individual autonomy and the risks of relapse after release. PMID:25097186

  9. A Telepathology Based Virtual Reference and Certification Centre for DNA Image Cytometry

    PubMed Central

    Haroske, G.; Giroud, Francoise; Kunze, K. D.; Meyer, W.

    2000-01-01

    An increasing need for flexible consultation between pathologists, including the application of fast evolving supplementary technologies, has been identified during the last years. Although pathology is already one of the most advanced application of telemedicine there is more to come from the fast evolution towards computerized microscope image analysis: A reproducible quantification of measurable descriptors of the lesions in cells and tissues (so?called biological markers) is an indispensable adjunct to routine diagnostic application. Among such quantitative methods DNA image cytometry is increasingly applied by pathologists for assistance in diagnostics. As for other pathological issues, too, a reference center for the clinical application of DNA image cytometry might be therefore of utmost value for pathologists using that method. Based on advanced telematic technologies, a Virtual Reference and Certification Center (VRCC) could be installed for certifying the cytometry hardware and software, the analytical procedures, and the basic interpretation of the results. It will be designed to be operated as a non?attended service, based on quantification servers accessible via Internet round the clock. The VRCC will supply appropriate standardization and normalization materials and run a GroupWare platform for consensus making by experts. PMID:11339562

  10. Prediction of proapoptotic anticancer therapeutic response in vivo based on cell death visualization and TRAIL death ligand-receptor interaction.

    PubMed

    Zhou, LanLan; Wang, Wenge; Dicker, David T; Humphreys, Robin C; El-Deiry, Wafik S

    2011-08-15

    Tumor growth is often associated with insufficient apoptosis. The Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF)-Related Apoptosis-Inducing Ligand (TRAIL) and its proapoptotic receptors death receptor 4 (DR4) and DR5 agonistic monoclonal antibodies are being developed as targeted therapeutics because they kill cancer cells while sparing normal cells. A challenge to targeted therapeutics is the selection of patients who are most likely to benefit from targeted drugs because of the heterogeneity of cancer. Molecular imaging may be useful in targeted drug development by assessing the target expression and drug-target interaction, and for predicting therapeutic response. We hypothesized that the cell surface expression level of DR4/5 may predict the proapoptotic targeted therapeutic response if the signaling pathway downstream is intact. The goal of this proof-of-concept study was to develop a molecular imaging strategy to predict proapoptotic anti-cancer therapy response at an early stage of treatment. TRAIL and the DR5 agonistic monoclonal antibody HGS-ETR2 (Lexatumumab, TRM-2) were labeled with a near-infrared dye and these were used to image the TRAIL receptors on cultured TRAIL sensitive and TRAIL resistant human tumor cells as well as tumor xenografts. Imaging of cells and tumor-bearing animals was conducted with near infrared fluorescence imagers and apoptosis in cells was assessed by western blots of PARP-cleavage and flow cytometry of sub-G1 content. Apoptosis in tumors was evaluated by imaging near-infrared dye-labeled Annexin V and tumor tissue activated caspase-3 staining. Both in vitro and in vivo studies showed that imaging of death inducing ligand-receptor interaction was consistent with the apoptosis readout. Thus TRAIL sensitive tumors that express TRAIL receptors underwent cell death following treatment whereas tumors lacking TRAIL receptor expression were shown to be TRAIL resistant. In vivo molecular imaging of TRAIL receptor expression correlated with response to TRAIL therapy and an apoptotic response in vivo. PMID:21785270

  11. Does Marital Status Predict the Odds of Suicidal Death in Taiwan? A Seven-Year Population-Based Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeh, Jui-Yuan; Xirasagar, Sudha; Liu, Tsai-Ching; Li, Chong-Yi; Lin, Herng-Ching

    2008-01-01

    Using nationwide, 7-year population-based data for 1997-2003, we examined marital status to see if it predicted suicide among the ethnic Chinese population of Taiwan. Using cause of death data, with a case-control design, two groups--total adult suicide deaths, n = 17,850, the study group, and adult deaths other than suicide, n = 71,400 (randomly

  12. Record-linkage comparison of verbal autopsy and routine civil registration death certification in rural north-east South Africa: 2006–09

    PubMed Central

    Joubert, Jané; Bradshaw, Debbie; Kabudula, Chodziwadziwa; Rao, Chalapati; Kahn, Kathleen; Mee, Paul; Tollman, Stephen; Lopez, Alan D; Vos, Theo

    2014-01-01

    Background: South African civil registration (CR) provides a key data source for local health decision making, and informs the levels and causes of mortality in data-lacking sub-Saharan African countries. We linked mortality data from CR and the Agincourt Health and Socio-demographic Surveillance System (Agincourt HDSS) to examine the quality of rural CR data. Methods: Deterministic and probabilistic techniques were used to link death data from 2006 to 2009. Causes of death were aggregated into the WHO Mortality Tabulation List 1 and a locally relevant short list of 15 causes. The matching rate was compared with informant-reported death registration. Using the VA diagnoses as reference, misclassification patterns, sensitivity, positive predictive values and cause-specific mortality fractions (CSMFs) were calculated for the short list. Results: A matching rate of 61% [95% confidence interval (CI): 59.2 to 62.3] was attained, lower than the informant-reported registration rate of 85% (CI: 83.4 to 85.8). For the 2264 matched cases, cause agreement was 15% (kappa 0.1083, CI: 0.0995 to 0.1171) for the WHO list, and 23% (kappa 0.1631, CI: 0.1511 to 0.1751) for the short list. CSMFs were significantly different for all but four (tuberculosis, cerebrovascular disease, other heart disease, and ill-defined natural) of the 15 causes evaluated. Conclusion: Despite data limitations, it is feasible to link official CR and HDSS verbal autopsy data. Data linkage proved a promising method to provide empirical evidence about the quality and utility of rural CR mortality data. Agreement of individual causes of death was low but, at the population level, careful interpretation of the CR data can assist health prioritization and planning. PMID:25146564

  13. 31 CFR 341.9 - Payment or redemption after death of owner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... copy of the registered owner's death certificate will ordinarily be required. Proof of death of the... certified copy of the registered owner's death certificate will ordinarily be required. Proof of death of... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Payment or redemption after death...

  14. 31 CFR 346.9 - Payment or redemption after death of owner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... certified copy of the registered owner's death certificate will ordinarily be required. Proof of death of... death certificate will ordinarily be required. Proof of death of the beneficiary will also be required... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Payment or redemption after death...

  15. 31 CFR 341.9 - Payment or redemption after death of owner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... copy of the registered owner's death certificate will ordinarily be required. Proof of death of the... owner's death certificate will ordinarily be required. Proof of death of the beneficiary will also be... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Payment or redemption after death...

  16. Patterns in Place of Cancer Death in the State of Qatar: A Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Mohsen, Hassan; Haddad, Pascale; Allam, Ayman; Hassan, Azza

    2014-01-01

    Background International studies show that most people prefer to die at home; however, hospitals remain the most common place of death (PoD). This study aims to investigate the patterns in PoD and the associated factors, which are crucial for end-of-life cancer care enhancement. Method This retrospective, population-based study analyzed all registered cancer deaths in Qatar between January 1, 2006 and December 31, 2012 (n?=?1,224). The main outcome measures were patient characteristics: age, gender, nationality, cancer diagnosis, year of death, and PoD. Time trends for age-standardized proportions of death in individual PoDs were evaluated using chi-square analysis. Odds ratio (OR) were determined for variables associated with the most preferred (acute palliative care unit [APCU] and hematology/oncology ward) versus least preferred (ICU and general medicine ward) PoDs in Qatar, stratified by nationality. Results The hematology/oncology ward was the most common PoD (32.4%; 95% CI 26.735.3%) followed by ICU (31.4%; 95% CI 28.734.3%), APCU (26.9%; 95% CI 24.329.6%), and general medicine ward (9.2%; 95% CI 7.611.1%). APCU trended upward (+0.057/year; p<0.001), while the hematology/oncology ward trended downward (?0.055/year; p<0.001). No statistically significant changes occurred in the other PoDs; home deaths remained low (0.4%; 95% Cl 0.380.42). Qataris who died from liver cancer (OR 0.23) and aged 65 or older (OR 0.64) were less likely to die in the APCU or hematology/oncology ward (p<0.05). Non-Qataris who died from pancreatic cancer (OR 3.12) and female (OR 2.05) were more likely to die in the APCU or hematology/oncology ward (p<0.05). Both Qataris and non-Qataris who died from hematologic malignancy (OR 0.18 and 0.41, respectively) were more likely to die in the ICU or general medicine ward (p<0.05). Conclusion A high percentage of cancer deaths in Qatar occur in hospital. As home was the preferred PoD for most people, effective home care and hospice programs are needed to improve end-of-life cancer care. PMID:25536076

  17. Maintenance of Certification Part 4 Credit and Recruitment for Practice-Based Research

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Jonathan D.; Harris, Donna L.; Kaseeska, Kristen R.; Whitmore Shaefer, Regina M.; Bocian, Alison B.; Davis, James B.; Gotlieb, Edward M.; Wasserman, Richard C.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Competing priorities in pediatric practice have created challenges for practice-based research. To increase recruitment success, researchers must design studies that provide added value to participants. This study evaluates recruitment of pediatricians into a study, before and after the development and addition of a quality improvement (QI) curriculum approved for American Board of Pediatrics Maintenance of Certification (MOC) Part 4 Credit as an enrollment incentive. METHODS: Researchers implemented multiple outreach methods to enroll pediatric practices over 28 months. Field note review revealed that many physicians declined enrollment, stating that they prioritized MOC Part 4 projects over research studies. A QI curriculum meeting standards for MOC Part 4 Credit was developed and added to the study protocol as an enrollment incentive. Enrollment rates and characteristics of practitioners enrolled pre- and post-MOC were compared. RESULTS: Pre-MOC enrollment contributed 48% of practices in 22 months; post-MOC enrollment contributed 49% of practices in 6 months. An average of 3.5 practices enrolled per month pre-MOC, compared with 13.1 per month post-MOC (P < .001). Clinicians in pre- and post-MOC groups were similar in age, gender, race, and time spent on patient care; practices enrolled post-MOC were more likely to be located in federally designated Medically Underserved Areas than those enrolled pre-MOC (28.6% vs 12%, P = .03). CONCLUSIONS: Addition of MOC Part 4 Credit increased recruitment success and increased enrollment of pediatricians working in underserved areas. Including QI initiatives meeting MOC Part 4 criteria in practice-based research protocols may enhance participation and aid in recruiting diverse practice and patient populations. PMID:25180282

  18. Towards FAA Certification of UAVs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, Stacy

    2003-01-01

    As of June 30, 2003, all Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV), no matter how small, must adhere to the same FAA regulations as human-piloted aircraft. These regulations include certification for flying in controlled airspace and certification of flight software based on RTCA DO-178B. This paper provides an overview of the steps necessary to obtain certification, as well as a discussion about the challenges UAV's face when trying to meet these requirements. It is divided into two parts: 1) Certifications for Flying in Controlled Airspace; 2) Certification of Flight Software per RTCA DO-178B.

  19. Unintentional carbon monoxide-related deaths in the United States, 1979 through 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Cobb, N.; Etzel, R.A. )

    1991-08-07

    OBJECTIVE. To describe the epidemiology of recent unintentional carbon monoxide poisoning deaths in the United States. DESIGN. Descriptive analysis of carbon monoxide-related deaths in the United States from 1979 through 1988, based on death certificate reports compiled by the National Center for Health Statistics. POPULATION STUDIED. All US deaths, 1979 through 1988. RESULTS. We reviewed data from 56,133 death certificates that contained codes implicating carbon monoxide as a contributing cause of death. Of these, 25,889 were suicides, 210 were homicides, 15,523 were associated with severe burns or house fires, and 11,547 were classified as unintentional. The number of unintentional deaths decreased steadily by about 63 deaths per year, from 1513 in 1979 to 878 in 1988. The highest death rates occurred in winter and among males, blacks, the elderly, and residents of northern states. Motor vehicle exhaust gas caused 6552 (57%) of the unintentional deaths; 5432 (83%) of these were associated with stationary automobiles. CONCLUSIONS. The rate of unintentional death from carbon monoxide poisoning is decreasing. This may be attributable to improvements in automobile pollution control systems and improved safety of cooking and heating appliances. Prevention programs should target young drivers, males, and the elderly.

  20. An Open Letter to Deans of Teacher Education and Directors of Teacher Certification on Performance-Based Teacher Education/Certification (Is It a "No Exit" Syndrome?) AFT QuEST Paper No. 14.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhaerman, Robert D.

    This open letter focuses on performance-based teacher education and certification (PBTE/C). The first section of the letter deals with anxieties about PBTE/C and about some of the people who have brought about this innovation. It comprises a survey. The second part of the paper makes various recommendations: a) the establishment of an independent

  1. Early Childhood Teacher Certification: State Tests and Preservice Knowledge Base Determinants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Harry

    This study examined major characteristics of instruments commonly used in statewide teacher certification procedures and the possible relations of these characteristics to the uneven success rate among minority teaching candidates. The study analyzed raw scores and selected variables associated with 63 white female candidates who took the Georgia

  2. Getting Started on Assessment: Developing a Voluntary System of Assessment and Certification Based on Skill Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Skill Standards Board (DOL/ETA), Washington, DC.

    This manual provides practical advice for voluntary partnerships that, since 1994, are part of the effort to build a voluntary national system of skill standards, assessment, and certification. Intended to be used with guidance from the National Skill Standards Board, it is designed for the voluntary partnerships that have completed the standards

  3. An Exploration of Initial Certification Candidates' TPACK and Mathematics-Based Applications Using Touch Device Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCrory, Michael Ray

    2010-01-01

    This qualitative research study employed a multiple-case study approach to describe the experiences of a group of Initial Certification Candidates (ICCs) as they participated in explorations of readings and third-party applications (apps) run on touch screen technology devices. The group of ICCs was comprised of two Undergraduate Teacher

  4. Deaths due to unknown foodborne agents.

    PubMed

    Frenzen, Paul D

    2004-09-01

    This study reviews the available evidence on unknown pathogenic agents transmitted in food and examines the methods that have been used to estimate that such agents cause 3,400 deaths per year in the United States. The estimate of deaths was derived from hospital discharge and death certificate data on deaths attributed to gastroenteritis of unknown cause. Fatal illnesses due to unknown foodborne agents do not always involve gastroenteritis, and gastroenteritis may not be accurately diagnosed or reported on hospital charts or death certificates. The death estimate consequently omitted deaths from unknown foodborne agents that do not cause gastroenteritis and likely overstated the number of deaths from agents that cause gastroenteritis. Although the number of deaths from unknown foodborne agents is uncertain, the possible economic cost of these deaths is so large that increased efforts to identify the causal agents are warranted. PMID:15498153

  5. High-frequency death certifiers in Taiwan: a sociocultural product.

    PubMed

    Lu, Tsung-Hsueh; Janes, Craig R; Lee, Meng-Chih; Chou, Ming-Chih; Shih, Tai-Ping

    2002-11-01

    Accurate death certification is essential to high-quality mortality statistics. Physicians who certify disproportionately large numbers of deaths can significantly affect the validity of the resultant mortality data. In Taiwan in 1994, 110 death certifiers issued more than 100 death certificates each; and nine of these high-frequency certifiers issued more than 500 death certificates. We explore the cultural, political, economic, historical, and social contexts of high-frequency death certification in Taiwan. Because of the traditional belief in Taiwan that one must die at home for the soul to be incorporated into the collective ancestral tablet of the household, many families bring their loved ones home from the hospital just before death. Hospital physicians cannot legally issue a death certificate in these cases because they did not witness the dying process. Although the government introduced an administrative certification system to handle these outside-hospital deaths, the great demands of this system have attracted many 'special exam' doctors (doctors with no formal medical degree) to adopt death certification as a full-time business. In this context, it is not surprising that 'routinization' of death certification (J. Health Soc. Behav. 32 (1991) 273) has led to low-quality reporting among these certifiers. We argue that attempts to improve the quality of mortality statistics should take into account the unique sociocultural contexts of different countries. PMID:12297250

  6. Developing Competency-Based Preparation and Performance-Based Certification in Georgia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solomon, Lester M.

    The state of Georgia has been moving toward competency/performance-based education since the late 1960's. All of the groups concerned with education and the preparation of teachers (higher education institutions, the Georgia Teacher Education Council, professional organizations, and the Georgia Department of Education) have been involved. In

  7. 28 CFR 26.23 - Certification process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ....23 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE DEATH SENTENCES PROCEDURES Certification Process for... state that it has provided notice of its request for certification to the chief or presiding justice or judge of the state's highest court with jurisdiction over criminal matters. (c) Upon receipt of a...

  8. Predictors of Death among Patients Who Completed Tuberculosis Treatment: A Population-Based Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Millet, Juan-Pablo; Orcau, Angels; Rius, Cristina; Casals, Marti; de Olalla, Patricia Garcia; Moreno, Antonio; Nelson, Jeanne L.; Cayl, Joan A.

    2011-01-01

    Background Mortality among patients who complete tuberculosis (TB) treatment is still high among vulnerable populations. The objective of the study was to identify the probability of death and its predictive factors in a cohort of successfully treated TB patients. Methods A population-based retrospective longitudinal study was performed in Barcelona, Spain. All patients who successfully completed TB treatment with culture-confirmation and available drug susceptibility testing between 19951997 were retrospectively followed-up until December 31, 2005 by the Barcelona TB Control Program. Socio-demographic, clinical, microbiological and treatment variables were examined. Mortality, TB Program and AIDS registries were reviewed. Kaplan-Meier and a Cox regression methods with time-dependent covariates were used for the survival analysis, calculating the hazard ratio (HR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results Among the 762 included patients, the median age was 36 years, 520 (68.2%) were male, 178 (23.4%) HIV-infected, and 208 (27.3%) were alcohol abusers. Of the 134 (17.6%) injecting drug users (IDU), 123 (91.8%) were HIV-infected. A total of 30 (3.9%) recurrences and 173 deaths (22.7%) occurred (mortality rate: 3.4/100 person-years of follow-up). The predictors of death were: age between 4160 years old (HR: 3.5; CI:2.15.7), age greater than 60 years (HR: 14.6; CI:8.924), alcohol abuse (HR: 1.7; CI:1.22.4) and HIV-infected IDU (HR: 7.9; CI:4.713.3). Conclusions The mortality rate among TB patients who completed treatment is associated with vulnerable populations such as the elderly, alcohol abusers, and HIV-infected IDU. We therefore need to fight against poverty, and promote and develop interventions and social policies directed towards these populations to improve their survival. PMID:21980423

  9. 40 CFR 80.163 - Detergent certification options.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... to approved State programs). (d) CARB-Based Certification. A valid certification under section 2257 of Title 13, California Code of Regulations (CARB certification) may be the basis for a certification... at the LAC specified in the CARB certification only in gasoline that meets the requirements...

  10. 40 CFR 80.163 - Detergent certification options.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... to approved State programs). (d) CARB-Based Certification. A valid certification under section 2257 of Title 13, California Code of Regulations (CARB certification) may be the basis for a certification... at the LAC specified in the CARB certification only in gasoline that meets the requirements...

  11. 40 CFR 80.163 - Detergent certification options.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... to approved State programs). (d) CARB-Based Certification. A valid certification under section 2257 of Title 13, California Code of Regulations (CARB certification) may be the basis for a certification... at the LAC specified in the CARB certification only in gasoline that meets the requirements...

  12. 40 CFR 80.163 - Detergent certification options.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... to approved State programs). (d) CARB-Based Certification. A valid certification under section 2257 of Title 13, California Code of Regulations (CARB certification) may be the basis for a certification... at the LAC specified in the CARB certification only in gasoline that meets the requirements...

  13. 40 CFR 80.163 - Detergent certification options.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... to approved State programs). (d) CARB-Based Certification. A valid certification under section 2257 of Title 13, California Code of Regulations (CARB certification) may be the basis for a certification... at the LAC specified in the CARB certification only in gasoline that meets the requirements...

  14. Lightning strike as probable cause of death and determining identity based on the examination of skeletal remains.

    PubMed

    Hauser, Roman; Kaliszan, Micha?; Basir, Aaron; Basir, Iwona Dawlidowicz-

    2013-03-01

    In this article, a case of examining an incomplete human skeleton found in a forest is presented. Based on the assessment of posttraumatic lesions in the skull bones, the cause of death of a man who had died 14years prior to the examination was determined with high probability to be due to a lightning strike. Moreover, the rare pathological lesions within the skeleton, such as a healed fracture of the humerus and rheumatoid malformations within the hand, in reference to preserved medical records, have also allowed to identify the deceased. Most noteworthy points in this case are, however, initially difficult to comprehend, posttraumatic lesions within the bones of the skull such as carbonization and fracture of the vertex. Their origin can be explained by a lightning strike as the most probable cause of death. Thus, the presented case demonstrates probable cause of death and identity can be established many years after death, based on skeletal remains. PMID:23488549

  15. Performance-based regulation: enterprise responsibility for reducing death, injury, and disease caused by consumer products.

    PubMed

    Sugarman, Stephen D

    2009-12-01

    This article offers a bold new idea for confronting the staggering level of death, injury, and disease caused by five consumer products: cigarettes, alcohol, guns, junk food, and motor vehicles. Business leaders try to frame these negative outcomes as "collateral damage" that is someone else's problem. That framing not only is morally objectionable but also overlooks the possibility that, with proper prodding, industry could substantially lessen these public health disasters. I seek to reframe the public perception of who is responsible and propose to deploy a promising approach called "performance-based regulation" to combat the problem. Performance-based regulation would impose on manufacturers a legal obligation to reduce the negative social costs of their products. Rather than involving them in litigation or forcing them to operate differently (as "command-and-control" regimes do), performance-based regulation allows the firms to determine how best to decrease bad public health consequences. Like other public health strategies, performance-based regulation focuses on those who are far more likely than individual consumers to achieve real gains. Analogous to a tax on causing harm that exceeds a threshold level, performance-based regulation seeks to harness private initiative in pursuit of the public good. PMID:20018990

  16. 31 CFR 346.9 - Payment or redemption after death of owner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... paragraph, a duly certified copy of the registered owner's death certificate will ordinarily be required... registered owner's death certificate will ordinarily be required. Proof of death of the beneficiary will also... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Payment or redemption after death...

  17. 20 CFR 10.912 - What is required to establish a claim for the death gratuity payment?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... that injury or disease. The death certificate of the employee must be provided. Often, the employing agency will provide the death certificate and any needed medical documentation. OWCP may request from the... certificate of the employee must be provided. Often, the employing agency will provide the death...

  18. Facility-based maternal death reviews: effects on maternal mortality in a district hospital in Senegal.

    PubMed Central

    Dumont, Alexandre; Gaye, Alioune; de Bernis, Luc; Chaillet, Nils; Landry, Anne; Delage, Joanne; Bouvier-Colle, Marie-Hlne

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The improvement of obstetric services is one of the key components of the Safe Motherhood Programme. Reviewing maternal deaths and complications is one method that may make pregnancy safer, but there is no evidence about the effectiveness of this strategy. The objective of our before and after study is to assess the effect of facility-based maternal deaths reviews (MDR) on maternal mortality rates in a district hospital in Senegal that provides primary and referral maternity services. METHODS: We included all women who were admitted to the maternity unit for childbirth, or within 24 hours of delivery. We recorded maternal mortality during a 1-year baseline period from January to December 1997, and during a 3-year period from January 1998 to December 2000 after MDR had been implemented. Effects of MDR on organization of care were qualitatively evaluated. FINDINGS: The MDR strategy led to changes in organizational structure that improved life-saving interventions with a relatively large financial contribution from the community. Overall mortality significantly decreased from 0.83 (95% CI (confidence interval) = 0.60 -1.06) in baseline period to 0.41 (95% CI = 0.25 -0.56) per 100 women 3 years later. CONCLUSION: MDR had a marked effect on resources, management and maternal outcomes in this facility. However, given the design of our study and the local specific context, further research is needed to confirm the feasibility of MDR in other settings and to confirm the benefits of this approach for maternal health in developing countries. PMID:16583081

  19. Certification trails for data structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sullivan, Gregory F.; Masson, Gerald M.

    1993-01-01

    Certification trails are a recently introduced and promising approach to fault detection and fault tolerance. The applicability of the certification trail technique is significantly generalized. Previously, certification trails had to be customized to each algorithm application; trails appropriate to wide classes of algorithms were developed. These certification trails are based on common data-structure operations such as those carried out using these sets of operations such as those carried out using balanced binary trees and heaps. Any algorithms using these sets of operations can therefore employ the certification trail method to achieve software fault tolerance. To exemplify the scope of the generalization of the certification trail technique provided, constructions of trails for abstract data types such as priority queues and union-find structures are given. These trails are applicable to any data-structure implementation of the abstract data type. It is also shown that these ideals lead naturally to monitors for data-structure operations.

  20. 20 CFR 718.306 - Presumption of entitlement applicable to certain death claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... pneumoconiosis; (4) A death certificate which makes no mention of pneumoconiosis. ... certain death claims. 718.306 Section 718.306 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF WORKERS' COMPENSATION PROGRAMS... COAL MINERS' TOTAL DISABILITY OR DEATH DUE TO PNEUMOCONIOSIS Presumptions Applicable to...

  1. 20 CFR 718.306 - Presumption of entitlement applicable to certain death claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... pneumoconiosis; (4) A death certificate which makes no mention of pneumoconiosis. ... certain death claims. 718.306 Section 718.306 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF WORKERS' COMPENSATION PROGRAMS... COAL MINERS' TOTAL DISABILITY OR DEATH DUE TO PNEUMOCONIOSIS Presumptions Applicable to...

  2. Co-trimoxazole and sudden death in patients receiving inhibitors of renin-angiotensin system: population based study

    PubMed Central

    Fralick, Michael; Macdonald, Erin M; Gomes, Tara; Antoniou, Tony; Hollands, Simon; Mamdani, Muhammad M

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine whether the prescription of co-trimoxazole with an angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor or angiotensin receptor blocker is associated with sudden death. Design Population based nested case-control study. Setting Ontario, Canada, from 1 April 1994 to 1 January 2012. Participants Ontario residents aged 66 years or older treated with an angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor or angiotensin receptor blocker. Cases were those who died suddenly shortly after receiving an outpatient prescription for one of co-trimoxazole, amoxicillin, ciprofloxacin, norfloxacin, or nitrofurantoin. Each case was matched with up to four controls on age, sex, chronic kidney disease, and diabetes. Main outcome measure Odds ratio for the association between sudden death and exposure to each antibiotic relative to amoxicillin, after adjustment for predictors of sudden death according to a disease risk index. Results Of 39?879 sudden deaths, 1027 occurred within seven days of exposure to an antibiotic and were matched to 3733 controls. Relative to amoxicillin, co-trimoxazole was associated with an increased risk of sudden death (adjusted odds ratio 1.38, 95% confidence interval 1.09 to 1.76). The risk was marginally higher at 14 days (adjusted odds ratio 1.54, 1.29 to 1.84). This corresponds to approximately three sudden deaths within 14 days per 1000 co-trimoxazole prescriptions. Ciprofloxacin (a known cause of QT interval prolongation) was also associated with an increased risk of sudden death (adjusted odds ratio 1.29, 1.03 to 1.62), but no such risk was observed with nitrofurantoin or norfloxacin. Conclusions In older patients receiving angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers, co-trimoxazole is associated with an increased risk of sudden death. Unrecognized severe hyperkalemia may underlie this finding. When appropriate, alternative antibiotics should be considered in such patients. PMID:25359996

  3. A district-based audit of the causes and circumstances of maternal deaths in South Kalimantan, Indonesia.

    PubMed Central

    Supratikto, Gunawan; Wirth, Meg E.; Achadi, Endang; Cohen, Surekha; Ronsmans, Carine

    2002-01-01

    A district-based audit of maternal and perinatal mortality began during 1994 in three provinces of South Kalimantan, Indonesia. Both medical and non-medical factors were documented and an effort was made to progress from merely assessing substandard care to recommending improvements in access to care and the quality of care. Extensive discussions of cases of maternal death were held during regular meetings with providers, policy-makers and community members. The sources of information included verbal autopsies with family members and medical records. Between 1995 and 1999 the audit reviewed 130 maternal deaths. The leading causes of death were haemorrhage (41%) and hypertensive diseases (32%). Delays in decision-making and poor quality of care in health facilities were seen as contributory factors in 77% and 60% of the deaths, respectively. Economic constraints were believed to have contributed to 37% of the deaths. The distance between a patient's home and a health provider or facility did not appear to have a significant influence, nor did transport problems. The audit led to changes in the quality of obstetric care in the district. Its success was particularly attributable to the process of accountability of both health providers and policy-makers and to improved working relationships between health providers at different levels and between providers and the community. With a view to the continuation and further expansion of the audit it may be necessary to reconsider the role of the provincial team, the need of health providers for confidentiality, the added benefit of facility-based audits, the need to incorporate scientific evidence into the review process, and the possible consideration of severe complications as well as deaths. It may also be necessary to recognize that village midwives are not solely responsible for maternal deaths. PMID:11984609

  4. Predicting risk of hospitalisation or death: a retrospective population-based analysis

    PubMed Central

    Louis, Daniel Z; Robeson, Mary; McAna, John; Maio, Vittorio; Keith, Scott W; Liu, Mengdan; Gonnella, Joseph S; Grilli, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Develop predictive models using an administrative healthcare database that provide information for Patient-Centred Medical Homes to proactively identify patients at risk of hospitalisation for conditions that may be impacted through improved patient care. Design Retrospective healthcare utilisation analysis with multivariate logistic regression models. Data A population-based longitudinal database of residents served by the Emilia-Romagna, Italy, health service in the years 20042012 including demographic information and utilisation of health services by 3?726?380 people aged ?18?years. Outcome measures Models designed to predict risk of hospitalisation or death in 2012 for problems that are potentially avoidable were developed and evaluated using the area under the receiver operating curve C-statistic, in terms of their sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive value, and for calibration to assess performance across levels of predicted risk. Results Among the 3?726?380 adult residents of Emilia-Romagna at the end of 2011, 449?163 (12.1%) were hospitalised in 2012; 4.2% were hospitalised for the selected conditions or died in 2012 (3.6% hospitalised, 1.3% died). The C-statistic for predicting 2012 outcomes was 0.856. The model was well calibrated across categories of predicted risk. For those patients in the highest predicted risk decile group, the average predicted risk was 23.9% and the actual prevalence of hospitalisation or death was 24.2%. Conclusions We have developed a population-based model using a longitudinal administrative database that identifies the risk of hospitalisation for residents of the Emilia-Romagna region with a level of performance as high as, or higher than, similar models. The results of this model, along with profiles of patients identified as high risk are being provided to the physicians and other healthcare professionals associated with the Patient Centred Medical Homes to aid in planning for care management and interventions that may reduce their patients likelihood of a preventable, high-cost hospitalisation. PMID:25231488

  5. Infant Maltreatment-Related Mortality in Alaska: Correcting the Count and Using Birth Certificates to Predict Mortality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parrish, Jared W.; Gessner, Bradford D.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: To accurately count the number of infant maltreatment-related fatalities and to use information from the birth certificates to predict infant maltreatment-related deaths. Methods: A population-based retrospective cohort study of infants born in Alaska for the years 1992 through 2005 was conducted. Risk factor variables were ascertained

  6. Infant Maltreatment-Related Mortality in Alaska: Correcting the Count and Using Birth Certificates to Predict Mortality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parrish, Jared W.; Gessner, Bradford D.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: To accurately count the number of infant maltreatment-related fatalities and to use information from the birth certificates to predict infant maltreatment-related deaths. Methods: A population-based retrospective cohort study of infants born in Alaska for the years 1992 through 2005 was conducted. Risk factor variables were ascertained…

  7. Death out of State: Arizonans Who Die Elsewhere.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Comeaux, Malcolm

    1989-01-01

    Examined death certificates for 807 Arizona residents who died out-of-state in 1984. Found such death usually occurred in nearby states, offering no support to thesis that Arizonans return to some other "home" in anticipation of death. Most deaths occurred in summer, when many Arizonans are out of state. (Author/NB)

  8. Befriending death: A mindfulness-based approach to cultivating self-awareness in counselling students.

    PubMed

    Stella, Maria

    2016-01-01

    The importance of self-awareness in counselling education is widely recognized; however, strengthening this vital aspect is often left to educators' discretion. The author addresses this deficiency by first exploring four theoretical constructs: mindfulness, emotional regulation, death anxiety, and relationship dynamics. Then, she outlines a practical learning activity on the topic of death. The main exercise involves a guided meditation in which students imagine both a worst-case and best-case scenario of their own death, while practicing mindfulness, followed by a debriefing period and a written self-reflection. This activity can be used by educators to promote greater self-awareness in master's level counselling students. PMID:26073406

  9. Hospital-based study of severe malaria and associated deaths in Myanmar.

    PubMed Central

    Ejov, M. N.; Tun, T.; Aung, S.; Lwin, S.; Sein, K.

    1999-01-01

    The present study identifies factors that contribute to malaria deaths in township hospitals reporting large numbers of such deaths in Myanmar. Between July and December 1995, we identified a total of 101 patients with severe and complicated malaria by screening the cases admitted to hospital with a primary diagnosis of falciparum malaria. Unrousable coma and less marked impairment of consciousness with or without other severe malaria complications, in contrast to severe malaria anaemia, were associated with all malaria deaths. Adult patients with severe malaria were 2.8 times more likely to die than child patients, with the higher risk of death among adults probably being associated with previous exposure to malaria, delay in seeking treatment and severity of the illness before admission. In view of this, we consider that malaria mortality could be reduced by improving peripheral facilities for the management of severe malaria and providing appropriate education to communities, without stepping up vector control activities. PMID:10327709

  10. Using textual cause-of-death data to study drug poisoning deaths.

    PubMed

    Ossiander, Eric M

    2014-04-01

    Death certificate data are often used to study the epidemiology of poisoning deaths, but the International Classification of Diseases (ICD) codes used to tabulate death data do not convey all of the available information about the drugs and other substances named on death certificates. In the United States and some other countries, the SuperMICAR computer system is used to assign ICD codes to deaths. The SuperMICAR system also stores a verbatim record of the text entered for the cause of death. We used the SuperMICAR text entries to study the 7,817 poisoning deaths that occurred among Washington State residents between 2003 and 2010. We tabulated the drugs named on death certificates and computed age-adjusted and age-specific death rates for the top-named drugs and for prescription and illicit drugs. Methadone was named on 2,149 death certificates and was the most frequently named substance, followed by alcohol, opiate, cocaine, oxycodone, and methamphetamine. For both men and women and at all ages, prescription drugs were involved in more deaths than were illicit drugs. Among the 25 drugs named most frequently, only 4 have unique ICD codes; the other 21 can be identified only by using the SuperMICAR data. PMID:24521559

  11. Bereavement after sibling death: a population-based longitudinal case-control study.

    PubMed

    Bolton, James M; Au, Wendy; Chateau, Dan; Walld, Randy; Leslie, William D; Enns, Jessica; Martens, Patricia J; Katz, Laurence Y; Logsetty, Sarvesh; Sareen, Jitender

    2016-02-01

    The objective of this study was to examine mental disorders and treatment use among bereaved siblings in the general population. Siblings (N=7243) of all deceased children in the population of Manitoba, Canada who died between 1984 and 2009 were matched 1:3 to control siblings (N=21,729) who did not have a sibling die in the study period. Generalized estimating equations were used to compare the two sibling groups in the two years before and after the index child's death on physician-diagnosed mental disorders and treatment utilization, with adjustment for confounding factors including pre-existing mental illness. Analyses were stratified by age of the bereaved (<13 vs. 13+). Results revealed that, in the two years after the death of the child, bereaved siblings had significantly higher rates of mental disorders than control siblings, even after adjusting for pre-existing mental illness. When comparing the effect of a child's death on younger versus older siblings, the rise in depression rates from pre-death to post-death was significantly higher for siblings aged under 13 (p<0.0001), increasing more than 7-fold (adjusted relative rate, ARR=7.25, 95% CI: 3.65-14.43). Bereaved siblings aged 13+ had substantial morbidity in the two years after the death: 25% were diagnosed with a mental disorder (vs. 17% of controls), and they had higher rates of almost all mental disorder outcomes compared to controls, including twice the rate of suicide attempts (ARR=2.01, 95% CI: 1.29-3.12). Siblings in the bereaved cohort had higher rates of alcohol and drug use disorders already before the death of their sibling. In conclusion, the death of a child is associated with considerable mental disorder burden among surviving siblings. Pre-existing health problems and social disadvantage do not fully account for the increase in mental disorder rates. PMID:26833610

  12. Predictors of Place of Death for Seniors in Ontario: A Population-Based Cohort Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Motiwala, Sanober S.; Croxford, Ruth; Guerriere, Denise N.; Coyte, Peter C.

    2006-01-01

    Place of death was determined for all 58,689 seniors (age greater than or equal to 66 years) in Ontario who died during fiscal year 2001/2002. The relationship of place of death to medical and socio-demographic characteristics was examined using a multinomial logit model. Half (49.2 %) of these individuals died in hospital, 30.5 per cent died in a

  13. 17 CFR 30.13 - Commission certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Commission certification. 30... FUTURES AND FOREIGN OPTIONS TRANSACTIONS 30.13 Commission certification. With respect to foreign futures and options contracts on a non-narrow-based security index: (a) Request for certification. A...

  14. 17 CFR 30.13 - Commission certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Commission certification. 30... FUTURES AND FOREIGN OPTIONS TRANSACTIONS 30.13 Commission certification. With respect to foreign futures and options contracts on a non-narrow-based security index: (a) Request for certification. A...

  15. 17 CFR 30.13 - Commission certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Commission certification. 30... FUTURES AND FOREIGN OPTIONS TRANSACTIONS 30.13 Commission certification. With respect to foreign futures and options contracts on a non-narrow-based security index: (a) Request for certification. A...

  16. Professional Certification in Early Childhood Special Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCollum, Jeannette

    Certification and personnel preparation programs have not kept pace with the increasing knowledge base related to early intervention with special needs children. The current Early Childhood Special Education Approval for professional certification in Illinois is a set of four courses attached to either of two teaching certificates. The Illinois

  17. Does marital status predict the odds of suicidal death in taiwan? A seven-year population-based study.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Jui-Yuan; Xirasagar, Sudha; Liu, Tsai-Ching; Li, Chong-Yi; Lin, Herng-Ching

    2008-06-01

    Using nationwide, 7-year population-based data for 1997-2003, we examined marital status to see if it predicted suicide among the ethnic Chinese population of Taiwan. Using cause of death data, with a case-control design, two groups-total adult suicide deaths, n = 17,850, the study group, and adult deaths other than suicide, n = 71,400 (randomly selected from age, sex, and geographic region matched controls, four per suicide)-were studied. Using multiple logistic regression analysis including age-marital status interaction, adjusted estimates show divorced status to be the most detrimental for suicide propensity, with males showing stronger effect size. Females never married, aged below 35 and 65-plus, and widowed 65-plus had lower suicide odds. PMID:18611128

  18. "We Brought It upon Ourselves": University-Based Teacher Education and the Emergence of Boot-Camp-Style Routes to Teacher Certification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedrich, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    The proliferation of boot-camp-style routes to teacher certification in the last two decades is seen by many university-based teacher educators as the result of the advancement of conservative interests aimed at de-professionalizing teaching. This essay argues that this view only accounts for one piece of the answer, the other one being that some

  19. 23 CFR Appendix C to Part 1240 - Certification (Calendar Year 1998 Survey Based on Survey Approved Under 23 U.S.C. 153)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Certification-Calendar Year 1998 Seat Belt Use Survey State of Seat Belt Use Rate Reported for Calendar Year ____ : ____ %. In accordance with the provisions of 23 CFR 1240.12(c)(2), I hereby certify as follows: 1. The seat... GRANTS FOR USE OF SEAT BELTS-ALLOCATIONS BASED ON SEAT BELT USE RATES Pt. 1240, App. C Appendix C to...

  20. 23 CFR Appendix C to Part 1240 - Certification (Calendar Year 1998 Survey Based on Survey Approved Under 23 U.S.C. 153)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Certification-Calendar Year 1998 Seat Belt Use Survey State of Seat Belt Use Rate Reported for Calendar Year ____ : ____ %. In accordance with the provisions of 23 CFR 1240.12(c)(2), I hereby certify as follows: 1. The seat... GRANTS FOR USE OF SEAT BELTS-ALLOCATIONS BASED ON SEAT BELT USE RATES Pt. 1240, App. C Appendix C to...

  1. 23 CFR Appendix C to Part 1240 - Certification (Calendar Year 1998 Survey Based on Survey Approved Under 23 U.S.C. 153)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Certification-Calendar Year 1998 Seat Belt Use Survey State of Seat Belt Use Rate Reported for Calendar Year ____ : ____ %. In accordance with the provisions of 23 CFR 1240.12(c)(2), I hereby certify as follows: 1. The seat... GRANTS FOR USE OF SEAT BELTS-ALLOCATIONS BASED ON SEAT BELT USE RATES Pt. 1240, App. C Appendix C to...

  2. 23 CFR Appendix C to Part 1240 - Certification (Calendar Year 1998 Survey Based on Survey Approved Under 23 U.S.C. 153)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Certification-Calendar Year 1998 Seat Belt Use Survey State of Seat Belt Use Rate Reported for Calendar Year ____ : ____ %. In accordance with the provisions of 23 CFR 1240.12(c)(2), I hereby certify as follows: 1. The seat... GRANTS FOR USE OF SEAT BELTS-ALLOCATIONS BASED ON SEAT BELT USE RATES Pt. 1240, App. C Appendix C to...

  3. Parity, Age at First Birth, and Risk of Death from Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphoma: A Population-Based Cohort Study in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Brian K.; Yang, Chun-Yuh

    2015-01-01

    We undertook this study to examine whether there exists an association between parity and age at first birth and risk of death from non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (NHL). Our sample included a total of 1,292,462 women who had a first and singleton childbirth between 1 January 1978 and 31 December 1987. We followed each subject from their first childbirth to 31 December 2009, and determined their vital status by merging natality data with Taiwan’s national death certificate database. Hazard ratios (HR) of death from NHL associated with parity and age at first birth were estimated using Cox proportional hazard regression models. In all, 412 NHL deaths were recorded during 34,980,246 person-years of follow-up. NHL mortality rate was 1.18 cases per 100,000 person-years. Older age at first birth (>23 vs. ≤23 years) was linked to an increased risk of death from NHL (adjusted HR = 1.41; 95% CI = 1.13–1.75). Controlling for age at first birth, the adjusted HR were 0.74 (95% CI = 0.55–0.98) for women with 2 births, and 0.71 (95% CI = 0.53–0.95) for women with 3 births or more, respectively, when compared with women with only 1 birth. A statistically significant downward trend in the adjusted HR for NHL death was detected with increasing parity (p for trend = 0.05). The HR of death from NHL was decreased by 7% (HR = 0.93; 95% CI = 0.87–0.99) for each additional parity. Our findings are consistent with reproductive factors (parity and early age at first birth) conferring a protective effect against the risk of NHL death. PMID:26251917

  4. Parity, Age at First Birth, and Risk of Death from Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma: A Population-Based Cohort Study in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chen, Brian K; Yang, Chun-Yuh

    2015-08-01

    We undertook this study to examine whether there exists an association between parity and age at first birth and risk of death from non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL). Our sample included a total of 1,292,462 women who had a first and singleton childbirth between 1 January 1978 and 31 December 1987. We followed each subject from their first childbirth to 31 December 2009, and determined their vital status by merging natality data with Taiwan's national death certificate database. Hazard ratios (HR) of death from NHL associated with parity and age at first birth were estimated using Cox proportional hazard regression models. In all, 412 NHL deaths were recorded during 34,980,246 person-years of follow-up. NHL mortality rate was 1.18 cases per 100,000 person-years. Older age at first birth (>23 vs. ?23 years) was linked to an increased risk of death from NHL (adjusted HR = 1.41; 95% CI = 1.13-1.75). Controlling for age at first birth, the adjusted HR were 0.74 (95% CI = 0.55-0.98) for women with 2 births, and 0.71 (95% CI = 0.53-0.95) for women with 3 births or more, respectively, when compared with women with only 1 birth. A statistically significant downward trend in the adjusted HR for NHL death was detected with increasing parity (p for trend = 0.05). The HR of death from NHL was decreased by 7% (HR = 0.93; 95% CI = 0.87-0.99) for each additional parity. Our findings are consistent with reproductive factors (parity and early age at first birth) conferring a protective effect against the risk of NHL death. PMID:26251917

  5. PREPARING FOR A SUCCESSFUL EVMS CERTIFICATION

    SciTech Connect

    CROWE SL; BASCHE AD

    2011-02-09

    The client, a government agency, requires its contractor to obtain an Earned Value Management System (EVMS) certification that meets the intent of ANSI/EIA-748-B, Earned Value Management Systems. The contractor has extensive experience with certification preparation, having completed two certifications within two years. Information from a previous EVMS certification and internal system surveillances are used to prepare for client-based EVMS certifications and bi-annual surveillances. The contractor also sent members of its group to assist other companies preparing for surveillances and certifications to perform 'Black Hat Reviews.' This paper is a lessons learned on preparing a team for EVMS certification. The information is also applicable for surveillances, since the contractor prepares its team for the surveillance in the same manner as the initial certification. Some of the areas covered include required documents, tracing the data through the systems, Control Account Manager (CAM) preparation, and system verification.

  6. The Effects of "High Stakes" Certification Demands on the Generalizability and Dependability of a Classroom-Based Teacher Assessment System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellett, Chad D.; And Others

    This paper presents the results of ongoing analyses of the reliability of the System for Teaching and Learning Assessment and Review (STAR) as a comprehensive measure of classroom teaching and learning for making teacher certification decisions. Focus was on the effects of high stakes assessment conditions for certification on the generalizability

  7. 40 CFR 745.226 - Certification of individuals and firms engaged in lead-based paint activities: target housing and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... work, or construction); or (3) Certification as an industrial hygienist, professional engineer, registered architect and/or certification in a related engineering/health/environmental field (e.g., safety...) Bachelor's degree in engineering, architecture, or a related profession, and 1 year of experience...

  8. A CRISPR-based screen identifies genes essential for West Nile virus-induced cell death

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Hongming; Dang, Ying; Wu, Yonggan; Jia, Gengxiang; Anaya, Edgar; Zhang, Junli; Abraham, Sojan; Choi, Jang-Gi; Shi, Guojun; Qi, Ling; Manjunath, N.; Wu, Haoquan

    2015-01-01

    Summary West Nile virus (WNV) causes an acute neurological infection attended by massive neuronal cell death. However, the mechanism(s) behind the virus-induced cell death is poorly understood. Using a library containing 77,406 sgRNAs targeting 20,121 genes, we performed a genome-wide screen followed by a second screen with a sub-library. Among the genes identified, seven genes, EMC2, EMC3, SEL1L, DERL2, UBE2G2, UBE2J1, and HRD1, stood out as having the strongest phenotype, whose knockout conferred strong protection against WNV-induced cell death with two different WNV strains and in three cell lines. Interestingly, knockout of these genes did not block WNV replication. Thus, these appear to be essential genes that link WNV replication to downstream cell death pathway(s). In addition, the fact that all of these genes belong to the endoplasmic reticulum-associated protein degradation (ERAD) pathway suggests that this might be the primary driver of WNV-induced cell death. PMID:26190106

  9. Age-at-death estimation based on radiological and image analysis methods in clavicle in a current Spanish population.

    PubMed

    Benito, Mara; Snchez, Jos Antonio; Codinha, Snia

    2014-05-01

    Age-at-death estimation in adult individuals is one of the most challenging issues in forensic anthropology, namely, due to the large age intervals provided by the current methods, which demand the development of more reliable investigations. The clavicle has been studied as an age-at-death indicator in many researches for its accessibility, low biomechanical implication in locomotion and accuracy to predict age at death when other age indicators are not available. The present study was developed on a sample of 332 clavicles from adult individuals of known sex and age from the current Spanish population. They were x-rayed and digitalized, in a standardized way, using a Sedecal X-ray generator, model SHF 415. Three indices were calculated at the mid-diaphysis point (anterior index, posterior index, and total index) which relate the cortical thickness and the total clavicle thickness to age at death. The average grey level was also calculated in a 0.5-cm(2) area of the sternal and acromial ends (sternal grey average, acromial grey average), using Image J software. The data were subjected to a statistical analysis, using SPSS, version 15.0. The results show that average grey level has a weaker correlation with age than the variables which are based on the cortical thickness. On the other hand, the regression equations, which were calculated combining all the variables, provided smaller age-at-death intervals, demonstrating the usefulness of this method for adult age-at-death estimation in forensic anthropology. PMID:24664396

  10. Certification Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klagholz, Leo; Cooperman, Saul

    Two major problems of state certification of teachers are decline in the quality of teacher candidates and the inability of qualified applicants to be certified without majoring in education. With improved knowledge about how good teachers teach and what is essential for beginning teachers to know, teacher education programs are likely to remain

  11. Mortality, Causes of Death and Associated Factors Relate to a Large HIV Population-Based Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Miró, Josep M.; Ocaña, Inma; Knobel, Hernando; Barberá, Maria Jesús; Humet, Victoria; Domingo, Pere; Gatell, Josep M.; Ribera, Esteve; Gurguí, Mercè; Marco, Andrés

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Antiretroviral therapy has led to a decrease in HIV-related mortality and to the emergence of non-AIDS defining diseases as competing causes of death. This study estimates the HIV mortality rate and their risk factors with regard to different causes in a large city from January 2001 to June 2013. Materials and Methods We followed-up 3137 newly diagnosed HIV non-AIDS cases. Causes of death were classified as HIV-related, non-HIV-related and external. We examined the effect of risk factors on survival using mortality rates, Kaplan-Meier plots and Cox models. Finally, we estimated survival for each main cause of death groups through Fine and Gray models. Mortality Results 182 deaths were found [14.0/1000 person-years of follow-up (py); 95% confidence interval (CI):12.0–16.1/1000 py], 81.3% of them had a known cause of death. Mortality rate by HIV-related causes and non-HIV-related causes was the same (4.9/1000 py; CI:3.7–6.1/1000 py), external was lower [1.7/1000 py; (1.0–2.4/1000 py)]. Survival Results Kaplan-Meier estimate showed worse survival in intravenous drug user (IDU) and heterosexuals than in men having sex with men (MSM). Factors associated with HIV-related causes of death include: IDU male (subHazard Ratio (sHR):3.2; CI:1.5–7.0) and <200 CD4 at diagnosis (sHR:2.7; CI:1.3–5.7) versus ≥500 CD4. Factors associated with non-HIV-related causes of death include: ageing (sHR:1.5; CI:1.4–1.7) and heterosexual female (sHR:2.8; CI:1.1–7.3) versus MSM. Factors associated with external causes of death were IDU male (sHR:28.7; CI:6.7–123.2) and heterosexual male (sHR:11.8; CI:2.5–56.4) versus MSM. Conclusion and Recommendation There are important differences in survival among transmission groups. Improved treatment is especially necessary in IDUs and heterosexual males. PMID:26716982

  12. Certificate Production and the Race toward Higher Degree Attainment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    State Higher Education Executive Officers, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Complete College America and FutureWorks conducted an analysis of certificate production, the value of the certificate program, and the economic benefit it provides to the region and nation. The conclusion, based on labor market demand and both personal and economic returns, is that certificates count and the policy and trends around certificates

  13. [Collecting and rearing necrophagous insects, important in determining date of death, base on the entomological method].

    PubMed

    Kaczorowska, Elzbieta

    2002-01-01

    The entomological method of determining date of death is used in police investigation more frequently. In order for correct determination of this date, the entomologist must correctly collect and rear the necrophagous insects, feeding and breeding on the corpse. Therefore, in this paper, methods of collecting, rearing and preservation of flies, water insects and beetles are described. PMID:14669680

  14. 20 CFR 410.679 - Finality of findings with respect to other claims for benefits based on the disability or death...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... claims for benefits based on the disability or death of a miner. 410.679 Section 410.679 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL COAL MINE HEALTH AND SAFETY ACT OF 1969, TITLE IV-BLACK... claims for benefits based on the disability or death of a miner. Findings of fact made in a...

  15. 20 CFR 410.679 - Finality of findings with respect to other claims for benefits based on the disability or death...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... claims for benefits based on the disability or death of a miner. 410.679 Section 410.679 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL COAL MINE HEALTH AND SAFETY ACT OF 1969, TITLE IV-BLACK... claims for benefits based on the disability or death of a miner. Findings of fact made in a...

  16. The Global Burden of Snakebite: A Literature Analysis and Modelling Based on Regional Estimates of Envenoming and Deaths

    PubMed Central

    Kasturiratne, Anuradhani; Wickremasinghe, A. Rajitha; de Silva, Nilanthi; Gunawardena, N. Kithsiri; Pathmeswaran, Arunasalam; Premaratna, Ranjan; Savioli, Lorenzo; Lalloo, David G; de Silva, H. Janaka

    2008-01-01

    Background Envenoming resulting from snakebites is an important public health problem in many tropical and subtropical countries. Few attempts have been made to quantify the burden, and recent estimates all suffer from the lack of an objective and reproducible methodology. In an attempt to provide an accurate, up-to-date estimate of the scale of the global problem, we developed a new method to estimate the disease burden due to snakebites. Methods and Findings The global estimates were based on regional estimates that were, in turn, derived from data available for countries within a defined region. Three main strategies were used to obtain primary data: electronic searching for publications on snakebite, extraction of relevant country-specific mortality data from databases maintained by United Nations organizations, and identification of grey literature by discussion with key informants. Countries were grouped into 21 distinct geographic regions that are as epidemiologically homogenous as possible, in line with the Global Burden of Disease 2005 study (Global Burden Project of the World Bank). Incidence rates for envenoming were extracted from publications and used to estimate the number of envenomings for individual countries; if no data were available for a particular country, the lowest incidence rate within a neighbouring country was used. Where death registration data were reliable, reported deaths from snakebite were used; in other countries, deaths were estimated on the basis of observed mortality rates and the at-risk population. We estimate that, globally, at least 421,000 envenomings and 20,000 deaths occur each year due to snakebite. These figures may be as high as 1,841,000 envenomings and 94,000 deaths. Based on the fact that envenoming occurs in about one in every four snakebites, between 1.2 million and 5.5 million snakebites could occur annually. Conclusions Snakebites cause considerable morbidity and mortality worldwide. The highest burden exists in South Asia, Southeast Asia, and sub-Saharan Africa. PMID:18986210

  17. The epidemiological transition in Antananarivo, Madagascar: an assessment based on death registers (1900–2012)

    PubMed Central

    Masquelier, Bruno; Waltisperger, Dominique; Ralijaona, Osée; Pison, Gilles; Ravélo, Arsène

    2014-01-01

    Background Madagascar today has one of the highest life expectancies in sub-Saharan Africa, despite being among the poorest countries in the continent. There are relatively few detailed accounts of the epidemiological transition in this country due to the lack of a comprehensive death registration system at the national level. However, in Madagascar’s capital city, death registration was established around the start of the 20th century and is now considered virtually complete. Objective We provide an overview of trends in all-cause and cause-specific mortality in Antananarivo to document the timing and pace of the mortality decline and the changes in the cause-of-death structure. Design Death registers covering the period 1976–2012 were digitized and the population at risk of dying was estimated from available censuses and surveys. Trends for the period 1900–1976 were partly reconstructed from published sources. Results The crude death rate stagnated around 30‰ until the 1940s in Antananarivo. Mortality declined rapidly after the World War II and then resurged again in the 1980s as a result of the re-emergence of malaria and the collapse of Madagascar’s economy. Over the past 30 years, impressive gains in life expectancy have been registered thanks to the unabated decline in child mortality, despite political instability, a lasting economic crisis and the persistence of high rates of chronic malnutrition. Progress in adult survival has been more modest because reductions in infectious diseases and diseases of the respiratory system have been partly offset by increases in cardiovascular diseases, neoplasms, and other diseases, particularly at age 50 years and over. Conclusions The transition in Antananarivo has been protracted and largely dependent on anti-microbial and anti-parasitic medicine. The capital city now faces a double burden of communicable and non-communicable diseases. The ongoing registration of deaths in the capital generates a unique database to evaluate the performance of the health system and measure intervention impacts. PMID:24848650

  18. Maternal infection and risk of intrapartum death: a population based observational study in South Asia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Approximately 1.2 million stillbirths occur in the intrapartum period, and a further 717,000 annual neonatal deaths are caused by intrapartum events, most of which occur in resource poor settings. We aim to test the double-hit hypothesis that maternal infection in the perinatal period predisposes to neurodevelopmental sequelae from an intrapartum asphyxia insult, increasing the likelihood of an early neonatal death compared with asphyxia alone. This is an observational study of singleton newborn infants with signs of intrapartum asphyxia that uses data from three previously conducted cluster randomized controlled trials taking place in rural Bangladesh and India. Methods From a population of 81,778 births in 54 community clusters in rural Bangladesh and India, we applied mixed effects logistic regression to data on 3890 singleton infants who had signs of intrapartum asphyxia, of whom 769 (20%) died in the early neonatal period. Poor infant condition at five minutes post-delivery was our proxy measure of intrapartum asphyxia. We had data for two markers of maternal infection: fever up to three days prior to labour, and prolonged rupture of membranes (PROM). Cause-specific verbal autopsy data were used to validate our findings using previously mentioned mixed effect logistic regression methods and the outcome of a neonatal death due to intrapartum asphyxia. Results Signs of maternal infection as indicated by PROM, combined with intrapartum asphyxia, increased the risk of an early neonatal death relative to intrapartum asphyxia alone (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 1.28, 95% CI 1.03 1.59). Results from cause-specific verbal autopsy data verified our findings where there was a significantly increased odds of a early neonatal death due to intrapartum asphyxia in newborns exposed to both PROM and intrapartum asphyxia (AOR: 1.52, 95% CI 1.15 2.02). Conclusions Our data support the double-hit hypothesis for signs of maternal infection as indicated by PROM. Interventions for pregnant women with signs of infection, to prevent early neonatal deaths and disability due to asphyxia, should be investigated further in resource-poor populations where the chances of maternal infection are high. PMID:24373126

  19. Immunogenic Cell Death Induced by Ginsenoside Rg3: Significance in Dendritic Cell-based Anti-tumor Immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Son, Keum-Joo; Choi, Ki Ryung; Lee, Seog Jae; Lee, Hyunah

    2016-02-01

    Cancer is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide; therefore there is a need to discover new therapeutic modules with improved efficacy and safety. Immune-(cell) therapy is a promising therapeutic strategy for the treatment of intractable cancers. The effectiveness of certain chemotherapeutics in inducing immunogenic tumor cell death thus promoting cancer eradication has been reported. Ginsenoside Rg3 is a ginseng saponin that has antitumor and immunomodulatory activity. In this study, we treated tumor cells with Rg3 to verify the significance of inducing immunogenic tumor cell death in antitumor therapy, especially in DC-based immunotherapy. Rg3 killed the both immunogenic (B16F10 melanoma cells) and non-immunogenic (LLC: Lewis Lung Carcinoma cells) tumor cells by inducing apoptosis. Surface expression of immunogenic death markers including calreticulin and heat shock proteins and the transcription of relevant genes were increased in the Rg3-dying tumor. Increased calreticulin expression was directly related to the uptake of dying tumor cells by dendritic cells (DCs): the proportion of CRT(+) CD11c(+) cells was increased in the Rg3-treated group. Interestingly, tumor cells dying by immunogenic cell death secreted IFN-γ, an effector molecule for antitumor activity in T cells. Along with the Rg3-induced suppression of pro-angiogenic (TNF-α) and immunosuppressive cytokine (TGF-β) secretion, IFN-γ production from the Rg3-treated tumor cells may also indicate Rg3 as an effective anticancer immunotherapeutic strategy. The data clearly suggests that Rg3-induced immunogenic tumor cell death due its cytotoxic effect and its ability to induce DC function. This indicates that Rg3 may be an effective immunotherapeutic strategy. PMID:26937234

  20. Immunogenic Cell Death Induced by Ginsenoside Rg3: Significance in Dendritic Cell-based Anti-tumor Immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Son, Keum-joo; Choi, Ki ryung; Lee, Seog Jae

    2016-01-01

    Cancer is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide; therefore there is a need to discover new therapeutic modules with improved efficacy and safety. Immune-(cell) therapy is a promising therapeutic strategy for the treatment of intractable cancers. The effectiveness of certain chemotherapeutics in inducing immunogenic tumor cell death thus promoting cancer eradication has been reported. Ginsenoside Rg3 is a ginseng saponin that has antitumor and immunomodulatory activity. In this study, we treated tumor cells with Rg3 to verify the significance of inducing immunogenic tumor cell death in antitumor therapy, especially in DC-based immunotherapy. Rg3 killed the both immunogenic (B16F10 melanoma cells) and non-immunogenic (LLC: Lewis Lung Carcinoma cells) tumor cells by inducing apoptosis. Surface expression of immunogenic death markers including calreticulin and heat shock proteins and the transcription of relevant genes were increased in the Rg3-dying tumor. Increased calreticulin expression was directly related to the uptake of dying tumor cells by dendritic cells (DCs): the proportion of CRT+ CD11c+ cells was increased in the Rg3-treated group. Interestingly, tumor cells dying by immunogenic cell death secreted IFN-γ, an effector molecule for antitumor activity in T cells. Along with the Rg3-induced suppression of pro-angiogenic (TNF-α) and immunosuppressive cytokine (TGF-β) secretion, IFN-γ production from the Rg3-treated tumor cells may also indicate Rg3 as an effective anticancer immunotherapeutic strategy. The data clearly suggests that Rg3-induced immunogenic tumor cell death due its cytotoxic effect and its ability to induce DC function. This indicates that Rg3 may be an effective immunotherapeutic strategy. PMID:26937234

  1. 20 CFR 655.204 - Determinations based on temporary labor certification applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... the bases of the OFLC Administrator's determination in accordance with the DHS regulation at 8 CFR 214... for Logging Employment and Non-H-2A Agricultural Employment 655.204 Determinations based...

  2. A population-based post mortem study of sudden unexpected death in epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Clark, Damian; Riney, Kate

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to review population autopsy data on epilepsy-related deaths (ERD) in Queensland, Australia, to establish the incidence of autopsy-confirmed sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP), explore factors associated with SUDEP, and determine if complete autopsy examinations of SUDEP were performed. All autopsy reports for a 5year period in Queensland were electronically searched for the terms 'epilepsy' or 'seizure'. The identified reports were reviewed, and data were extracted for all ERD. In the study period, 175 ERD were identified from autopsy records (123 SUDEP, 34 accident-related, 3 due to status epilepticus). From data available on the prevalence of epilepsy in Queensland (National Health Survey), the incidence of autopsy-confirmed SUDEP was 0.7 per 1000 person years (95% confidence interval 0.5-1.2 per 1000 person years). The factors associated with SUDEP were male sex (for those >18 years) and subtherapeutic anticonvulsant medication levels (found in 55%). Where recorded, the majority of deaths happened in the person's usual residence (90%), were overnight (70%) and unwitnessed (87%), with the person found prone (74%), in or adjacent to their bed (49%) and with signs of proximate seizure (60%). A complete autopsy was undertaken for only 59% of cases, the majority in urban locations. This study provides support for an unwitnessed overnight seizure being a key factor in autopsy-confirmed SUDEP in Queensland. PMID:26387918

  3. 47 CFR 64.606 - Internet-based TRS provider and TRS program certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Internet-based TRS provider and TRS program... Services and Related Customer Premises Equipment for Persons With Disabilities § 64.606 Internet-based TRS... including notification in the Federal Register. (2) Internet-based TRS provider. Any entity desiring...

  4. 47 CFR 64.606 - Internet-based TRS provider and TRS program certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Internet-based TRS provider and TRS program... Services and Related Customer Premises Equipment for Persons With Disabilities § 64.606 Internet-based TRS... including notification in the Federal Register. (2) Internet-based TRS provider. Any entity desiring...

  5. 47 CFR 64.606 - Internet-based TRS provider and TRS program certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Internet-based TRS provider and TRS program... Services and Related Customer Premises Equipment for Persons With Disabilities § 64.606 Internet-based TRS... including notification in the Federal Register. (2) Internet-based TRS provider. Any entity desiring...

  6. 47 CFR 64.606 - Internet-based TRS provider and TRS program certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Internet-based TRS provider and TRS program... Services and Related Customer Premises Equipment for Persons With Disabilities § 64.606 Internet-based TRS... including notification in the Federal Register. (2) Internet-based TRS provider. Any entity desiring...

  7. Ill-defined causes of death in Brazil: a redistribution method based on the investigation of such causes

    PubMed Central

    França, Elisabeth; Teixeira, Renato; Ishitani, Lenice; Duncan, Bruce Bartholow; Cortez-Escalante, Juan José; de Morais, Otaliba Libânio; Szwarcwald, Célia Landman

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To propose a method of redistributing ill-defined causes of death (IDCD) based on the investigation of such causes. METHODS In 2010, an evaluation of the results of investigating the causes of death classified as IDCD in accordance with chapter 18 of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10) by the Mortality Information System was performed. The redistribution coefficients were calculated according to the proportional distribution of ill-defined causes reclassified after investigation in any chapter of the ICD-10, except for chapter 18, and used to redistribute the ill-defined causes not investigated and remaining by sex and age. The IDCD redistribution coefficient was compared with two usual methods of redistribution: a) Total redistribution coefficient, based on the proportional distribution of all the defined causes originally notified and b) Non-external redistribution coefficient, similar to the previous, but excluding external causes. RESULTS Of the 97,314 deaths by ill-defined causes reported in 2010, 30.3% were investigated, and 65.5% of those were reclassified as defined causes after the investigation. Endocrine diseases, mental disorders, and maternal causes had a higher representation among the reclassified ill-defined causes, contrary to infectious diseases, neoplasms, and genitourinary diseases, with higher proportions among the defined causes reported. External causes represented 9.3% of the ill-defined causes reclassified. The correction of mortality rates by the total redistribution coefficient and non-external redistribution coefficient increased the magnitude of the rates by a relatively similar factor for most causes, contrary to the IDCD redistribution coefficient that corrected the different causes of death with differentiated weights. CONCLUSIONS The proportional distribution of causes among the ill-defined causes reclassified after investigation was not similar to the original distribution of defined causes. Therefore, the redistribution of the remaining ill-defined causes based on the investigation allows for more appropriate estimates of the mortality risk due to specific causes. PMID:25210826

  8. Ill-defined causes of death in Brazil: a redistribution method based on the investigation of such causes.

    PubMed

    França, Elisabeth; Teixeira, Renato; Ishitani, Lenice; Duncan, Bruce Bartholow; Cortez-Escalante, Juan José; Morais Neto, Otaliba Libânio de; Szwarcwald, Célia Landman

    2014-08-01

    OBJECTIVE To propose a method of redistributing ill-defined causes of death (IDCD) based on the investigation of such causes. METHODS In 2010, an evaluation of the results of investigating the causes of death classified as IDCD in accordance with chapter 18 of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10) by the Mortality Information System was performed. The redistribution coefficients were calculated according to the proportional distribution of ill-defined causes reclassified after investigation in any chapter of the ICD-10, except for chapter 18, and used to redistribute the ill-defined causes not investigated and remaining by sex and age. The IDCD redistribution coefficient was compared with two usual methods of redistribution: a) Total redistribution coefficient, based on the proportional distribution of all the defined causes originally notified and b) Non-external redistribution coefficient, similar to the previous, but excluding external causes. RESULTS Of the 97,314 deaths by ill-defined causes reported in 2010, 30.3% were investigated, and 65.5% of those were reclassified as defined causes after the investigation. Endocrine diseases, mental disorders, and maternal causes had a higher representation among the reclassified ill-defined causes, contrary to infectious diseases, neoplasms, and genitourinary diseases, with higher proportions among the defined causes reported. External causes represented 9.3% of the ill-defined causes reclassified. The correction of mortality rates by the total redistribution coefficient and non-external redistribution coefficient increased the magnitude of the rates by a relatively similar factor for most causes, contrary to the IDCD redistribution coefficient that corrected the different causes of death with differentiated weights. CONCLUSIONS The proportional distribution of causes among the ill-defined causes reclassified after investigation was not similar to the original distribution of defined causes. Therefore, the redistribution of the remaining ill-defined causes based on the investigation allows for more appropriate estimates of the mortality risk due to specific causes. PMID:25210826

  9. Epilepsy mortality and risk factors for death in epilepsy: a population-based study

    PubMed Central

    Ridsdale, Leone; Charlton, Judith; Ashworth, Mark; Richardson, Mark P; Gulliford, Martin C

    2011-01-01

    Background Epilepsy is an important cause of amenable mortality but risk factors for death in epilepsy are not well understood. Aim To evaluate trends in epilepsy mortality in a large population and identify risk factors for death in epilepsy. Design and setting Nested casecontrol study in the UK, using data from the General Practice Research Database (GPRD) from 1993 to 2007. Method Participants were included if they had ever been diagnosed with epilepsy and prescribed anticonvulsant drugs. Trends in all-cause mortality in persons with epilepsy in the GPRD were compared with death registrations with epilepsy as the underlying cause. A nested casecontrol study was implemented to compare participants with epilepsy who died with those who did not die. Results The prevalence of epilepsy increased from 9 per 1000 in 1993 to 12 per 1000 in 2007, and epilepsy deaths also increased in this period. In a nested casecontrol study, mortality was associated with: recorded alcohol problems (odds ratio [OR] 2.96, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.25 to 3.89, P<0.001); having collected the last anticonvulsant prescription 90182 days previously (OR 1.83, CI = 1.66 to 2.03, P<0.001); having an injury in the previous year (OR 1.41, 95% CI = 1.30 to 1.53, P<0.001), and having been treated for depression (OR 1.39, 95% CI = 1.28 to 1.50, P<0.001). In data available from 2004 onwards, being recorded seizure free in the previous 12 months was associated with lower mortality (OR 0.78, 95% CI = 0.71 to 0.86, P<0.001). Conclusion Mortality with epilepsy appears to be increasing. Patients who have alcohol problems, do not collect repeat prescriptions for anticonvulsant drugs, have recent injuries, or have been treated for depression may be at increased risk of death; patients who remain seizure free over 12 months are at a lower risk. PMID:21619751

  10. Single base substitution in OsCDC48 is responsible for premature senescence and death phenotype in rice.

    PubMed

    Huang, Qi-Na; Shi, Yong-Feng; Zhang, Xiao-Bo; Song, Li-Xin; Feng, Bao-Hua; Wang, Hui-Mei; Xu, Xia; Li, Xiao-Hong; Guo, Dan; Wu, Jian-Li

    2016-01-01

    A premature senescence and death 128 (psd128) mutant was isolated from an ethyl methane sulfonate-induced rice IR64 mutant bank. The premature senescence phenotype appeared at the six-leaf stage and the plant died at the early heading stage. psd128 exhibited impaired chloroplast development with significantly reduced photosynthetic ability, chlorophyll and carotenoid contents, root vigor, soluble protein content and increased malonaldehyde content. Furthermore, the expression of senescence-related genes was significantly altered in psd128. The mutant trait was controlled by a single recessive nuclear gene. Using map-based strategy, the mutation Oryza sativa cell division cycle 48 (OsCDC48) was isolated and predicted to encode a putative AAA-type ATPase with 809 amino-acid residuals. A single base substitution at position C2347T in psd128 resulted in a premature stop codon. Functional complementation could rescue the mutant phenotype. In addition, RNA interference resulted in the premature senescence and death phenotype. OsCDC48 was expressed constitutively in the root, stem, leaf and panicle. Subcellular analysis indicated that OsCDC48:YFP fusion proteins were located both in the cytoplasm and nucleus. OsCDC48 was highly conserved with more than 90% identity in the protein levels among plant species. Our results indicated that the impaired function of OsCDC48 was responsible for the premature senescence and death phenotype. PMID:26040493

  11. Effect of Cause-of-Death Training on Agreement Between Hospital Discharge Diagnoses and Cause of Death Reported, Inpatient Hospital Deaths, New York City, 2008–2010

    PubMed Central

    Ong, Paulina; Gambatese, Melissa; Begier, Elizabeth; Zimmerman, Regina; Soto, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Accurate cause-of-death reporting is required for mortality data to validly inform public health programming and evaluation. Research demonstrates overreporting of heart disease on New York City death certificates. We describe changes in reported causes of death following a New York City health department training conducted in 2009 to improve accuracy of cause-of-death reporting at 8 hospitals. The objective of our study was to assess the degree to which death certificates citing heart disease as cause of death agreed with hospital discharge data and the degree to which training improved accuracy of reporting. Methods We analyzed 74,373 death certificates for 2008 through 2010 that were linked with hospital discharge records for New York City inpatient deaths and calculated the proportion of discordant deaths, that is, death certificates reporting an underlying cause of heart disease with no corresponding discharge record diagnosis. We also summarized top principal diagnoses among discordant reports and calculated the proportion of inpatient deaths reporting sepsis, a condition underreported in New York City, to assess whether documentation practices changed in response to clarifications made during the intervention. Results Citywide discordance between death certificates and discharge data decreased from 14.9% in 2008 to 9.6% in 2010 (P < .001), driven by a decrease in discordance at intervention hospitals (20.2% in 2008 to 8.9% in 2010; P < .001). At intervention hospitals, reporting of sepsis increased from 3.7% of inpatient deaths in 2008 to 20.6% in 2010 (P < .001). Conclusion Overreporting of heart disease as cause of death declined at intervention hospitals, driving a citywide decline, and sepsis reporting practices changed in accordance with health department training. Researchers should consider the effect of overreporting and data-quality changes when analyzing New York City heart disease mortality trends. Other vital records jurisdictions should employ similar interventions to improve cause-of-death reporting and use linked discharge data to monitor data quality. PMID:25590598

  12. Assessment of Computer-based Geologic Mapping of Rock Units in the LANDSAT-4 Scene of Northern Death Valley, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Short, N. M.

    1984-01-01

    Results from a series of geologic classifications conducted on a thematic mapper subscene of the northern Death Valley, California are reported. Measurements of accuracy are made through comparison with the 1977 edition of the Death Valley geologic sheet. This employs a simplified map version which is registered by computer to the image data base, allowing a pixel by pixel match with the classified scene. The results show accuracy ranges from 36 to 79% depending on the type of classifier used and the statistical adjustments made to the data. Accuracy values in identifying geologic units were 2 to 3 times higher for those in the relatively flat valleys than for units in the rugged mountainous terrain. Improvements in accuracy will be sought by correcting for slope/aspect variations in mountainous terrain using topographic data recorded in Defense Mapping Agency (DMA) tapes. The above classification results will also be compared with ratio and principal component image classifications made from the same scene.

  13. Fast and secure handover of intra-ASN IEEE802.16 network by proposed certificate based pre-authentication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sridevi, B.; Supriya, T. S.; Rajaram, S.

    2013-01-01

    The current generation of wireless networks has been designed predominantly to support voice and more recently data traffic. WiMAX is currently one of the hottest technologies in wireless. The main motive of the mobile technologies is to provide seamless cost effective mobility. But this is affected by Authentication cost and handover delay since on each handoff the Mobile Station (MS) has to undergo all steps of authentication. Pre-Authentication is used to reduce the handover delay and increase the speed of the Intra-ASN Handover. Proposed Pre-Authentication method is intended to reduce the authentication delay by getting pre authenticated by central authority called Pre Authentication Authority (PAA). MS requests PAA for Pre Authentication Certificate (PAC) before performing handoff. PAA verifies the identity of MS and provides PAC to MS and also to the neighboring target Base Stations (tBSs). MS having time bound PAC can skip the authentication process when recognized by target BS during handoff. It also prevents the DOS (Denial Of Service) attack and Replay attack. It has no wastage of unnecessary key exchange of the resources. The proposed work is simulated by NS2 model and by MATLAB.

  14. Voodoo death.

    PubMed

    Lester, David

    2009-01-01

    Scholarly writing on voodoo death is reviewed. Criticisms that voodoo deaths in indigenous societies have never been well documented are refuted with cases medically documented in developed nations. The work of Cannon and Richter on sudden death in animals is reviewed and dismissed as irrelevant for understanding voodoo death. The role of starvation and dehydration is discussed, and it is suggested that the given-up/giving-up hypothesis best fits the phenomenon of voodoo death. Hypotheses for future research are suggested. PMID:19634503

  15. Cardiovascular Deaths among Alaskan Natives, 1980-86.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Middaugh, John P.

    1990-01-01

    Analyzes death certificate data to discover the number of deaths of Alaskan natives caused by cardiovascular disease. Rates from cardiovascular diseases and atherosclerosis from 1980-86 among Alaskan natives were lower than rates among other Alaskans, while death rates from other causes were higher. Discusses the possible impact of diet. (JS)

  16. Early deaths in bloodstream infections: a population-based case series.

    PubMed

    Kontula, Keiju S K; Skogberg, Kirsi; Ollgren, Jukka; Järvinen, Asko; Lyytikäinen, Outi

    2016-05-01

    A notable portion of deaths in bloodstream infections (BSI) have previously been shown to occur within 2 days after taking the first positive blood culture specimen. The aim of this study was to analyse patients' characteristics and causative pathogens of BSIs, leading to early deaths in order to explore possibilities for prevention. Patients with BSI in Helsinki and Uusimaa region (population = 1.5 million) in 2007 were identified from the National Infectious Disease Register (n = 2181) and their deaths within 2 days after the first positive blood culture from the Population Information System (n = 76). Of the early fatal BSIs, 42 (55%) were community-acquired (CA-BSI) and 34 (45%) healthcare-associated (HA-BSI). Charlson comorbidity index was moderate-to-high (index ≥ 3) in 71% of HA-BSIs and 60% of CA-BSIs. The most common pathogens in CA-BSIs were Streptococcus pneumoniae (29%) and Escherichia coli (24%) and in HA-BSIs Pseudomonas aeruginosa (24%) and Staphylococcus aureus (18%). The respiratory tract (50%) was the most common focus of infection. Empiric antimicrobial treatment was more often appropriate in CA-BSIs vs HA-BSIs (81% vs 41%, p < 0.001), but treatment delays were longer in CA-BSIs. The majority of the BSI patients who died early had severe comorbidities. S. pneumoniae accounted for one third of CA-BSIs, highlighting the potential role of pneumococcal vaccines in prevention. Early recognition of BSI and its origin (CA-BSI vs HA-BSI) is crucial. Continuous surveillance data on causative microbes and resistance trends in hospitals is needed to propose guidelines for empiric antimicrobial therapy of BSIs. PMID:26763410

  17. Sudden Cardiac Death in Brazil: A Community-Based Autopsy Series (2006-2010)

    PubMed Central

    Braggion-Santos, Maria Fernanda; Volpe, Gustavo Jardim; Pazin-Filho, Antonio; Maciel, Benedito Carlos; Marin-Neto, José Antonio; Schmidt, André

    2015-01-01

    Background Sudden cardiac death (SCD) is a sudden unexpected event, from a cardiac cause, that occurs in less than one hour after the symptoms onset, in a person without any previous condition that would seem fatal or who was seen without any symptoms 24 hours before found dead. Although it is a relatively frequent event, there are only few reliable data in underdeveloped countries. Objective We aimed to describe the features of SCD in Ribeirão Preto, Brazil (600,000 residents) according to Coroners’ Office autopsy reports. Methods We retrospectively reviewed 4501 autopsy reports between 2006 and 2010, to identify cases of SCD. Specific cause of death as well as demographic information, date, location and time of the event, comorbidities and whether cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) was attempted were collected. Results We identified 899 cases of SCD (20%); the rate was 30/100000 residents per year. The vast majority of cases of SCD involved a coronary artery disease (CAD) (64%) and occurred in men (67%), between the 6th and the 7th decades of life. Most events occurred during the morning in the home setting (53.3%) and CPR was attempted in almost half of victims (49.7%). The most prevalent comorbidity was systemic hypertension (57.3%). Chagas’ disease was present in 49 cases (5.5%). Conclusion The majority of victims of SCD were men, in their sixties and seventies and the main cause of death was CAD. Chagas’ disease, an important public health problem in Latin America, was found in about 5.5% of the cases. PMID:25424162

  18. Alternative certification science teachers' understanding and implementation of inquiry-based instruction in their beginning years of teaching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demir, Abdulkadir

    The purpose of this phenomenographic study was to: (a) understand how beginning science teachers recruited from various science disciplines and prepared in an Alternative Teacher Certification Program (ATCP) implemented inquiry during their initial years of teaching; (b) describe constraints and needs that these beginning science teachers perceived in implementing inquiry-based science instruction; and (c) understand the relation between what they learned in their ATCP and their practice of teaching science through inquiry. The participants of this study consisted of four ATCP teachers who are in their beginning years of teaching. Semi-structured interviews, classroom observation, field notes, and artifacts used as source of data collection. The beginning science teachers in this study held incomplete views of inquiry. These views of inquiry did not reflect inquiry as described in NRC (2000)---essential features of inquiry,---nor did they reflect views of faculty members involved in teaching science methods courses. Although the participants described themselves as reform-oriented, there were inconsistencies between their views and practices. Their practice of inquiry did not reflect inquiry either as outlined by essential features of inquiry (NRC, 2000) or inquiry as modeled in activities used in their ATCP. The research participants' perceived constraints and needs in their implementation of inquiry-based activities. Their perceived constraints included logistical and student constraints and school culture. The perceived needs included classroom management, pedagogical skills, practical knowledge, discipline, successful grade-specific models of inquiry, and access to a strong support system. Prior professional work experience, models and activities used in the ATCP, and benefits of inquiry to student learning were the declared factors that facilitated the research participants' practice of inquiry-based teaching.

  19. Autoerotic death: incidence and age of victims--a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Byard, Roger W; Winskog, Calle

    2012-01-01

    Review of the Australian National Coronial Information System and the Swedish National Forensic Database was undertaken over a 7-year period from 2001 to 2007 for all cases where death had been attributed to autoerotic death or sexual asphyxia. In Australia, there were 44 cases (M:F = 42:2) with the majority of victims aged >30 years (77%)-a yearly national rate of approximately 0.3/million. In Sweden, there were nine cases (M:F = 9:0) with the majority of cases aged <30 years (55%)-a yearly national rate of approximately 0.14/million. The usual male predominance was present in both populations, although the Australian victims were older than is usually reported. Lethal sexual asphyxia is uncommon in both the Australian and Swedish populations, with a lower rate than has been cited for North America. Whether this is because of different kinds of paraphilic activities in different populations or of differences in methods of central data collection is uncertain. PMID:21827479

  20. A study in causal discovery from population-based infant birth and death records.

    PubMed Central

    Mani, S.; Cooper, G. F.

    1999-01-01

    In the domain of medicine, identification of the causal factors of diseases and outcomes, helps us formulate better management, prevention and control strategies for the improvement of health care. With the goal of exploring, evaluating and refining techniques to learn causal relationships from observational data, such as data routinely collected in healthcare settings, we focused on investigating factors that may contribute causally to infant mortality in the United States. We used the U.S. Linked Birth/Infant Death dataset for 1991 with more than four million records and about 200 variables for each record. Our sample consisted of 41,155 records randomly selected from the whole dataset. Each record had maternal, paternal and child factors and the outcome at the end of the first year--whether the infant survived or not. For causal discovery we used a modified Local Causal Discovery (LCD2) algorithm, which uses the framework of causal Bayesian Networks to represent causal relationships among model variables. LCD2 takes as input a dataset and outputs causes of the form variable X causes variable Y. Using the infant birth and death dataset as input, LCD2 output nine purported causal relationships. Eight out of the nine relationships seem plausible. Even though we have not yet discovered a clinically novel causal link, we plan to look for novel causal pathways using the full sample after refining the algorithm and developing a more efficient implementation. PMID:10566372

  1. 26 CFR 1.401-9 - Face-amount certificates-nontransferable annuity contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... designate a beneficiary to receive the proceeds of the certificate or contract in the event of his death, or... annuity contracts. Section 401(g) provides that a face-amount certificate (as defined in section 2(a)(15... for any face-amount certificate, or any other contract issued after December 31, 1962, to be...

  2. 26 CFR 1.401-9 - Face-amount certificates-nontransferable annuity contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... the proceeds of the certificate or contract in the event of his death, or contains a provision... treated as annuity contracts. Section 401(g) provides that a face-amount certificate (as defined in...) Section 401(g) provides that, in order for any face-amount certificate, or any other contract issued...

  3. 26 CFR 1.401-9 - Face-amount certificates-nontransferable annuity contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... the proceeds of the certificate or contract in the event of his death, or contains a provision... treated as annuity contracts. Section 401(g) provides that a face-amount certificate (as defined in...) Section 401(g) provides that, in order for any face-amount certificate, or any other contract issued...

  4. 26 CFR 1.401-9 - Face-amount certificates-nontransferable annuity contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... the proceeds of the certificate or contract in the event of his death, or contains a provision... treated as annuity contracts. Section 401(g) provides that a face-amount certificate (as defined in...) Section 401(g) provides that, in order for any face-amount certificate, or any other contract issued...

  5. 26 CFR 1.401-9 - Face-amount certificates-nontransferable annuity contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... the proceeds of the certificate or contract in the event of his death, or contains a provision... treated as annuity contracts. Section 401(g) provides that a face-amount certificate (as defined in...) Section 401(g) provides that, in order for any face-amount certificate, or any other contract issued...

  6. Deaths in Custody: A 25-Year Review of Jail Deaths in Bexar County, Texas.

    PubMed

    Lozano, Jason G; Molina, D Kimberley

    2015-12-01

    Although deaths in custody are an expected occurrence, they are often subjected to increased scrutiny and raise many questions as to circumstances surrounding the death as well as the cause and manner of death. It is usually the responsibility of the medical examiner to answer these questions. Relatively few studies have reviewed the causes and manners of death that occur while in custody and even fewer specific to jail populations. This study reviews the cause and manner of death of persons in custody in an urban county from 1985 to 2010. A retrospective review of death investigations, including death certificates and autopsy reports, was conducted on all deaths that occurred in custody during the period. The age and sex of the decedent as well as the place of death were also recorded. Most deaths were attributed to natural disease followed by suicide, and most deaths occurred either in the emergency department or in the hospital. Regarding the cause of death, cardiovascular disease followed by suicide by hanging accounted for the most number of deaths (25% and 20% of all deaths, respectively). It is recommended that all deaths in custody be reported to the medical examiner and that a thorough death investigation be conducted to properly define and document the cause and manner of death. This is particularly important given the increased scrutiny to which deaths in custody are often subjected. PMID:26196271

  7. Certification/enforcement analysis

    SciTech Connect

    1980-06-01

    Industry compliance with minimum energy efficiency standards will be assured through a two-part program approach of certification and enforcement activities. The technical support document (TSD) presents the analyses upon which the proposed rule for assuring that consumer product comply with applicable energy efficiency standards is based. Much of the TSD is based upon support provided DOE by Vitro Laboratories. The OAO Corporation provided additional support in the development of the sampling plan incorporated in the proposed rule. Vitro's recommended approach to appliance certification and enforcement, developed after consideration of various program options, benefits, and impacts, establishes the C/E program framework, general criteria, and procedures for assuring a specified level of energy efficiency performance of covered consumer products. The results of the OAO analysis are given in Volume II of the TSD.

  8. 78 FR 35115 - Listing of Color Additives Exempt From Certification; Mica-Based Pearlescent Pigments

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-12

    ... titanium dioxide (71 FR 31927 at 31928). Since the CEDI is less than the ADI, we conclude that the proposed... FR 16784), FDA announced that a color additive petition (CAP 2C0294) had been filed by E. & J. Gallo... of mica-based pearlescent pigments in food (Sec. 73.350) and ingested drugs (Sec. 73.1350) (71...

  9. 78 FR 54758 - Listing of Color Additives Exempt From Certification; Mica-Based Pearlescent Pigments...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-06

    ... the Federal Register of June 12, 2013 (78 FR 35115). The final rule amended the color additive regulations to provide for the safe use of mica-based pearlescent pigments prepared from titanium dioxide and... the Federal Register of June 12, 2013 (78 FR 35115), we amended the color additive regulations in...

  10. Brain death.

    PubMed

    Beresford, H R

    1999-05-01

    Current law in the United States authorizes physicians to diagnose brain death by applying generally accepted neurologic criteria for determining loss of function of the entire brain. This article offers a medical-legal perspective on problems that may arise with respect to the determination of brain death. These include the possibility of diagnostic error, conceptual disagreements that may constrain the use of neurologic criteria to diagnose death, and the conflation of brain death and loss of consciousness. This article also addresses legal aspects of the debate over whether to expand the definition of brain death to include permanent unconsciousness. Although existing laws draw a clear distinction between brain death and the persistent vegetative state, many courts have authorized removal of life support from individuals whose unconsciousness is believed to be permanent on proof that removal accords with preferences expressed before sentience was lost. PMID:10196410

  11. 26 CFR 1.1402(e)(2)-1 - Time limitation for filing waiver certificate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... thereof. A waiver certificate filed after such date will be invalid. (b) Effect of death. Except as... waiver certificate shall cease from his death. Thus, except as provided in such sections, the surviving... 26 Internal Revenue 12 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Time limitation for filing waiver...

  12. 26 CFR 1.1402(e)(2)-1 - Time limitation for filing waiver certificate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... thereof. A waiver certificate filed after such date will be invalid. (b) Effect of death. Except as... waiver certificate shall cease from his death. Thus, except as provided in such sections, the surviving... 26 Internal Revenue 12 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Time limitation for filing waiver...

  13. 26 CFR 1.1402(e)(2)-1 - Time limitation for filing waiver certificate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... thereof. A waiver certificate filed after such date will be invalid. (b) Effect of death. Except as... waiver certificate shall cease from his death. Thus, except as provided in such sections, the surviving... 26 Internal Revenue 12 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Time limitation for filing waiver...

  14. 26 CFR 1.1402(e)(2)-1 - Time limitation for filing waiver certificate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... thereof. A waiver certificate filed after such date will be invalid. (b) Effect of death. Except as... waiver certificate shall cease from his death. Thus, except as provided in such sections, the surviving... 26 Internal Revenue 12 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Time limitation for filing waiver...

  15. Network-based survival-associated module biomarker and its crosstalk with cell death genes in ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Nana; Wu, Hao; Miao, Zhengqiang; Huang, Yan; Hu, Yongfei; Bi, Xiaoman; Wu, Deng; Qian, Kun; Wang, Liqiang; Wang, Changliang; Wang, Hongwei; Li, Kongning; Li, Xia; Wang, Dong

    2015-01-01

    Ovarian cancer remains a dismal disease with diagnosing in the late, metastatic stages, therefore, there is a growing realization of the critical need to develop effective biomarkers for understanding underlying mechanisms. Although existing evidences demonstrate the important role of the single genetic abnormality in pathogenesis, the perturbations of interactors in the complex network are often ignored. Moreover, ovarian cancer diagnosis and treatment still exist a large gap that need to be bridged. In this work, we adopted a network-based survival-associated approach to capture a 12-gene network module based on differential co-expression PPI network in the advanced-stage, high-grade ovarian serous cystadenocarcinoma. Then, regulatory genes (protein-coding genes and non-coding genes) direct interacting with the module were found to be significantly overlapped with cell death genes. More importantly, these overlapping genes tightly clustered together pointing to the module, deciphering the crosstalk between network-based survival-associated module and cell death in ovarian cancer. PMID:26099452

  16. Building secure wireless access point based on certificate authentication and firewall captive portal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soewito, B.; Hirzi

    2014-03-01

    Wireless local area network or WLAN more vulnerability than wired network even though WLAN has many advantages over wired. Wireless networks use radio transmissions to carry data between end users and access point. Therefore, it is possible for someone to sit in your office building's lobby or parking lot or parking lot to eavesdrop on the wireless network communication. This paper discussed securing wires local area network used WPA2 Enterprise based PEAP MS-CHAP and Captive portal firewall. We also divided the network for employer and visitor to increase the level of security. Our experiment showed that the WLAN could be broken using the attacker tool such as airodump, aireply, and aircrack.

  17. 20 CFR 10.912 - What is required to establish a claim for the death gratuity payment?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    .... The death certificate of the employee must be provided. Often, the employing agency will provide the death certificate and any needed medical documentation. OWCP may request from the claimant any... death gratuity payment? 10.912 Section 10.912 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF WORKERS'...

  18. 20 CFR 10.912 - What is required to establish a claim for the death gratuity payment?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    .... The death certificate of the employee must be provided. Often, the employing agency will provide the death certificate and any needed medical documentation. OWCP may request from the claimant any... death gratuity payment? 10.912 Section 10.912 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF WORKERS'...

  19. 20 CFR 10.912 - What is required to establish a claim for the death gratuity payment?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    .... The death certificate of the employee must be provided. Often, the employing agency will provide the death certificate and any needed medical documentation. OWCP may request from the claimant any... death gratuity payment? 10.912 Section 10.912 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF WORKERS'...

  20. Fetal deaths in Brazil: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Barbeiro, Fernanda Morena dos Santos; Fonseca, Sandra Costa; Tauffer, Mariana Girão; Ferreira, Mariana de Souza Santos; da Silva, Fagner Paulo; Ventura, Patrícia Mendonça; Quadros, Jesirée Iglesias

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To review the frequency of and factors associated with fetal death in the Brazilian scientific literature. METHODS A systematic review of Brazilian studies on fetal deaths published between 2003 and 2013 was conducted. In total, 27 studies were analyzed; of these, 4 studies addressed the quality of data, 12 were descriptive studies, and 11 studies evaluated the factors associated with fetal death. The databases searched were PubMed and Lilacs, and data extraction and synthesis were independently performed by two or more examiners. RESULTS The level of completeness of fetal death certificates was deficient, both in the completion of variables, particularly sociodemographic variables, and in defining the underlying causes of death. Fetal deaths have decreased in Brazil; however, inequalities persist. Analysis of the causes of death indicated maternal morbidities that could be prevented and treated. The main factors associated with fetal deaths were absent or inadequate prenatal care, low education level, maternal morbidity, and adverse reproductive history. CONCLUSIONS Prenatal care should prioritize women that are most vulnerable (considering their social environment or their reproductive history and morbidities) with the aim of decreasing the fetal mortality rate in Brazil. Adequate completion of death certificates and investment in the committees that investigate fetal and infant deaths are necessary. PMID:25902565

  1. Certificates in General Education for Adults. Certificate I (Foundation). Certificate II & Certificate II (Further Study).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Languages and Literacy Inst. of Australia, Melbourne. Adult Education Resource and Information Service.

    This document is intended for adult education providers in Victoria, Australia, who intend to deliver courses leading to one or more of the following certificates in general education for adults: Certificate I in General Education for Adults (Foundation); Certificate II in General Education for Adults; and Certificate II in General Education for

  2. 40 CFR 745.226 - Certification of individuals and firms engaged in lead-based paint activities: target housing and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... this section have been meet, EPA shall certify an applicant as an inspector, risk assessor, supervisor, project designer, or abatement worker, as appropriate. (4) Upon receiving EPA certification, individuals...) Inspector, risk assessor or supervisor. (1) To become certified by EPA as an inspector, risk assessor,...

  3. An ostracode based paleolimnologic and paleohydrologic history of Death Valley: 200 to 0 ka

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Forester, R.M.; Lowenstein, T.K.; Spencer, R.J.

    2005-01-01

    Death Valley, a complex tectonic and hydrologic basin, was cored from its lowest surface elevation to a depth of 186 m. The sediments range from bedded primary halite to black muds. Continental ostracodes found in the black muds indicate that those sediments were deposited in a variety of hydrologic settings ranging from deep, relatively fresh water to shallow saline lakes to spring discharge supported wetlands. The alkaline-enriched, calcium-depleted paleolake waters indicate extrabasinal streamflow and basin-margin spring discharge. The alkaline-depleted, calcium-enriched paleowetland waters indicate intrabasinal spring discharge. During Marine Isotope Stage 6 (MIS 6, ca. 180-140 ka) the hydrologic settings were highly variable, implying that complex relations existed between climate and basin hydrology. Termination II (MIS 6 to MIS 5E) was a complex multicyclic sequence of paleoenvironments, implying that climates oscillated between high and low effective moisture. MIS 4 (ca. 73-61 ka) was a spring discharge supported wetland complex. During MIS 2 (ca. 20-12 ka) the hydrologic settings were variable, although they are not fully understood because some black muds deposited during that time were lost during coring. ?? 2005 Geological Society of America.

  4. The changing demographics of inpatient hospice death: Population-based cross-sectional study in England, 19932012

    PubMed Central

    Sleeman, Katherine E; Davies, Joanna M; Verne, Julia; Gao, Wei; Higginson, Irene J

    2016-01-01

    Background: Studies in the United Kingdom and elsewhere have suggested inequality of hospice provision with respect to factors such as age, diagnosis and socio-economic position. How this has changed over time is unknown. Aim: To describe the factors associated with inpatient hospice death in England and examine how these have changed over time. Design: Population-based study. Multivariable Poisson regression compared 19982002, 20032007 and 20082012, with 19931997. Explanatory variables included individual factors (age, gender, marital status, underlying cause of death) and area-based measures of deprivation. Setting: Adults aged 25 years and over who died in inpatient hospice units in England between 1993 and 2002 (n?=?446,615). Results: The annual number of hospice deaths increased from 17,440 in 1993 to 26,032 in 2012, accounting for 3.4% of all deaths in 1993 and 6.0% in 2012. A total of 50.6% of hospice decedents were men; the mean age was 69.9 (standard deviation: 12.4)?years. The likelihood of hospice decedents being in the oldest age group (>85?years) increased over time (proportion ratio: 1.43, 95% confidence interval: 1.39 to 1.48 for 20082012 compared to 19931997). Just 5.2% of all hospice decedents had non-cancer diagnoses, though the likelihood of non-cancer conditions increased over time (proportion ratio: 1.41, 95% confidence interval: 1.37 to 1.46 for 20082012 compared to 19931997). The likelihood of hospice decedents being resident in the least deprived quintile increased over time (proportion ratio: 1.25, 95% confidence interval: 1.22 to 1.29 for 20082012 compared to 19931997). Conclusion: The increase in non-cancer conditions among hospice decedents is encouraging although absolute numbers remain very small. Deprivation trends are concerning and require further exploration. PMID:25991729

  5. Perinatal death recording: time for a change?

    PubMed Central

    Scott, M J; Ritchie, J W; McClure, B G; Reid, M M; Halliday, H L

    1981-01-01

    The new perinatal death certificate proposed by the World Health Organisation was examined in relation to existing measures for recording perinatal death statistics and also with regard to new information gathered. Present procedures appear to underestimate the number of perinatal deaths by roughly 10%, though late registrations may lower this figure slightly. The use of a minimum birth weight as the criterion for inclusion in perinatal statistics removed much of the uncertainty associated with definitions of live birth and stillbirth. The new certificate led to duplication of some information already recorded through birth notification yet failed to provide information on some other factors generally considered relevant to perinatal mortality. The format proposed for recording cause of death provided a more logical presentation of events. Standardizing birth information recorded on all infants, modifying death certificates, and developing efficient record-linkage schemes would be more valuable than introducing the WHO certificate. Useful interpretation of the meaning of the characteristics of infants dying in the perinatal period awaits these timely changes. PMID:6781625

  6. 40 CFR 745.90 - Renovator certification and dust sampling technician certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... renovator. (3) Individuals who have successfully completed an accredited lead-based paint inspector or risk... refresher course before July 1, 2015, to maintain renovator certification. (b) Renovator...

  7. 7 CFR 1280.206 - Certification of organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ....206 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LAMB... determination by the Secretary shall be final. (b) Basis for Certification. Certification shall be based...

  8. End-of-life medical decisions in France: a death certificate follow-up survey 5 years after the 2005 act of parliament on patients’ rights and end of life

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The “Patients’ Rights and End of Life Care” Act came into force in France in 2005. It allows withholding/withdrawal of life-support treatment, and intensified use of medications that may hasten death through a double effect, as long as hastening death is not the purpose of the decision. It also specifies the requirements of the decision-making process. This study assesses the situation by examining the frequency of end-of-life decisions by patients’ and physicians’ characteristics, and describes the decision-making processes. Methods We conducted a nationwide retrospective study of a random sample of adult patients who died in December 2009. Questionnaires were mailed to the physicians who certified/attended these deaths. Cases were weighted to adjust for response rate bias. Bivariate analyses and logistic regressions were performed for each decision. Results Of all deaths, 16.9% were sudden deaths with no information about end of life, 12.2% followed a decision to do everything possible to prolong life, and 47.7% followed at least one medical decision that may certainly or probably hasten death: withholding (14.6%) or withdrawal (4.2%) of treatments, intensified use of opioids and/or benzodiazepines (28.1%), use of medications to deliberately hasten death (i.e. not legally authorized) (0.8%), at the patient’s request (0.2%) or not (0.6%). All other variables held constant, cause of death, patient's age, doctor’s age and specialty, and place of death, influenced the frequencies of decisions. When a decision was made, 20% of the persons concerned were considered to be competent. The decision was discussed with the patient if competent in 40% (everything done) to 86% (intensification of alleviation of symptoms) of cases. Legal requirements regarding decision-making for incompetent patients were frequently not complied with. Conclusions This study shows that end-of-life medical decisions are common in France. Most are in compliance with the 2005 law (similar to some other European countries). Nonetheless, the study revealed cases where not all legal obligations were met or where the decision was totally illegal. There is still a lot to be done through medical education and population awareness-raising to ensure that the decision-making process is compatible with current legislation, the physician's duty of care and the patient’s rights. PMID:23206428

  9. Certificates: Gateway to Gainful Employment and College Degrees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carnevale, Anthony P.; Rose, Stephen J.; Hanson, Andrew R.

    2012-01-01

    Certificates are recognition of completion of a course of study based on a specific field, usually associated with a limited set of occupations. Certificates differ from other kinds of labor market credentials such as industry-based certifications and licenses, which typically involve passing an examination to prove a specific competency,

  10. Detachment-Based Equilibrium of Anoikic Cell Death and Autophagic Cell Survival Through Adaptor Protein p66(Shc).

    PubMed

    Cai, Zeyuan; Zhao, Dan; Sun, Yanan; Gao, Dan; Li, Xia; Yang, Jie; Ma, Zhenyi

    2016-03-01

    Anoikis (detachment-induced cell death) confers a tumor-suppressive function in metastatic cancer cells. Autophagy, a conserved self-degradative process, enhances the anoikis resistance of detached cancer cells by maintaining cellular homeostasis. However, the mechanism of regulating cell fate-decision by balancing anoikis and autophagy has been poorly understood. Our previous studies have shown that the adaptor protein p66(Shc) mediates anoikis through RhoA activation and inhibits tumor metastasis in vivo. We also found that p66(Shc) depletion mitigates nutrient-deprivation-induced autophagy. These findings suggest p66(Shc) may coordinately regulate these two processes. To verify this hypothesis, we investigated the effect of p66(Shc) on the cell death of detached lung cancer cells, and measured autophagy markers and autophagic flux. Results showed that p66(Shc) depletion significantly inhibited anoikis, and reduced the formation of LC3B-II and the degradation of Sequestosome 1 (SQSTM1, p62) in detachment-induced cells. Using monodansylcadaverine (MDC)-LysoTracker double staining and monomeric Cherry (mCherry)-GFP-LC3 assay, we found that the autophagic flux was also mitigated by p66(Shc) depletion. In addition, p66(Shc) knockdown increased the formation of full-length X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis (XIAP)-associated factor 1 (XAF1), which enhances anoikis sensitivity. In conclusion, p66(Shc) plays an essential role in detachment-based equilibrium of anoikic cell death and autophagic cell survival. Anat Rec, 299:325-333, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26643258

  11. Parental socioeconomic status and unintentional injury deaths in early childhood: consideration of injury mechanisms, age at death, and gender.

    PubMed

    Hong, Juhee; Lee, Boeun; Ha, Eun Hee; Park, Hyesook

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether the socioeconomic status (SES) of parents influences early childhood unintentional injury deaths for different injury mechanisms and the gender and age at death of the child. Study design is a population-based retrospective study. Death certificate data from 1995 to 2004 were linked to birth certificate data from 1995 to 1996 for each child who died when aged < or = 8 years. Parental age, birth order, marital status, residence area, educational level, and occupation were used as indices for SES. Cox proportional-hazards analysis was employed. Our results indicate that nonmetropolitan residence, low parental education level, and a father working in a nonadministrative job or as a farmer were associated with a higher risk of death from injury for both boys and girls. A mother aged younger than 20 years and parents working in manual jobs were associated with a higher risk in boys only. The risks of some socioeconomic factors (low parental education and a father working in a manual job or as a farmer) were evident for children aged 1-4 years. The risks of rural residency tended to increase in older children, and the risk of injury from having a mother aged younger than 20 years increased for younger children. The risks of childhood injury deaths from traffic accidents, falls, and fire/burns were associated with the SES of the parents. Younger parents were associated with higher risks of injury deaths from traffic accidents (hazard ratio [HR]: father, 7.9; mother, 1.9) and falls (HR: father, 2.0; mother, 2.5). A father working as a farmer was associated with a higher risk of childhood injury death from fire/burns (HR = 4.0). In conclusion, the parental SES risk profiles of childhood injury deaths varied with the age and gender of the child, and with the injury mechanism. Therefore, reducing excess injury deaths during early childhood requires preventive efforts targeted at high-risk parents, and based on injury mechanism and on the gender and age of the child. PMID:19887173

  12. The national review of asthma deaths: what did we learn and what needs to change?

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Key points The 2014 UK National Review of Asthma Deaths identified potentially preventable factors in two-thirds of the medical records of cases scrutinised 45% of people who died from asthma did not call for or receive medical assistance in their final fatal attack Overall asthma management, acute and chronic, in primary and secondary care was judged to be good in less than one-fifth of those who died There was a failure by doctors and nurses to identify and act on risk factors for asthma attacks and asthma death The rationale for diagnosing asthma was not evident in a considerable number of cases, and there were inaccuracies related to the completion of medical certificates of the cause of death in over half of the cases considered for the UK National Review of Asthma Deaths Educational aims To increase awareness of some of the findings of the recent UK National Review of Asthma Deaths and previous similar studies To emphasise the need for accurate diagnosis of asthma, and of the requirements for completion of medical certificates of the cause of death To consider areas for improving asthma care and prevention of attacks and avoidable deaths Summary Despite the development and publication of evidence-based asthma guidelines nearly three decades ago, potentially preventable factors are repeatedly identified in studies of the care provided for patients who die from asthma. The UK National Review of Asthma Deaths (NRAD), a confidential enquiry, was no exception: major preventable factors were identified in two-thirds of asthma deaths. Most of these factors, such as inappropriate prescription and failure to provide patients with personal asthma action plans (PAAPs), could possibly have been prevented had asthma guidelines been implemented. NRAD involved in-depth scrutiny by clinicians of the asthma care for 276 people who were classified with asthma as the underlying cause of death in real-life. A striking finding was that a third of these patients did not actually die from asthma, and many had no recorded rationale for an asthma diagnosis. The apparent complacency with respect to asthma care, highlighted in NRAD, serves as a wake-up call for health professionals, patients and their carers to take asthma more seriously. Based on the NRAD evidence, the report made 19 recommendations for change. The author has selected six areas related to the NRAD findings for discussion and provides suggestions for change in the provision of asthma care. The six areas are: systems for provision and optimisation of asthma care, diagnosis, identifying risk, implementation of guidelines, improved patient education and self-management, and improved quality of completion of medical certificates of the cause of death. PMID:26306100

  13. Aerosol delivery of programmed cell death protein 4 using polysorbitol-based gene delivery system for lung cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Kim, You-Kyoung; Xing, Lei; Chen, Bao-An; Xu, Fengguo; Jiang, Hu-Lin; Zhang, Can

    2014-11-01

    The development of a safe and effective gene delivery system is the most challenging obstacle to the broad application of gene therapy in the clinic. In this study, we report the development of a polysorbitol-based gene delivery system as an alternative gene carrier for lung cancer therapy. The copolymer was prepared by a Michael addition reaction between sorbitol diacrylate (SD) and spermine (SPE); the SD-SPE copolymer effectively condenses with DNA on the nanoscale and protects it from nucleases. SD-SPE/DNA complexes showed excellent transfection with low toxicity both in vitro and in vivo, and aerosol delivery of SD-SPE complexes with programmed cell death protein 4 DNA significantly suppressed lung tumorigenesis in K-ras(LA1) lung cancer model mice. These results demonstrate that SD-SPE has great potential as a gene delivery system based on its excellent biocompatibility and high gene delivery efficiency for lung cancer gene therapy. PMID:24983766

  14. Causes of death and associated risk factors among climacteric women from Southern Brazil: a population based-study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Aging and menopause are particular cardiovascular risk factors for women, due to estrogen deprivation at the time of menopause. Studies show that diabetes mellitus (DM), smoking, hypertension, high body mass index (BMI), and serum lipids are associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), the main cause of female mortality in Brazil. The aim of this study was to assess the mortality rate, causes of death and associated risk factors in a cohort of women from Brazil. Methods A longitudinal population-based study of menopausal status is currently underway in a city in South Brazil. In 2010, a third follow-up of this population was performed to assess cardiovascular risk and mortality rate between 1995 and 2011. For this analysis, 358 participants were studied. At baseline, participants had completed a standardized questionnaire including demographic, lifestyle, medical and reproductive characteristics. In addition to the contacts with relatives, mortality data were obtained through review of medical records in all city hospitals and the Center for Health Information (NIS/RS-SES). Multivariate-adjusted hazard risk (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI95%) were estimated using Cox proportional hazards regression. Survival curves were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier curve. Results There were 17 (4.7%) deaths from all causes during the study period. Seven (41.2%) deaths were caused by CVD, including four cases of stroke and three cases of myocardial infarction. Six (35.3%) deaths were due to cancer, and four (23.5%) were due to other reasons. In the age and smoking-adjusted multivariate models, diabetes (HR 6.645, 95% CI: 1.93822.79, p = 0.003), alcohol intake (HR 1.228, 95% CI: 1.014-1.487, p = 0.035) and postmenopausal status (HR = 6.216, 95% CI: 0.96340.143, p = 0.055) were associated with all-cause mortality. A significant association was found between abdominal obesity (WHR ? 0.85) and mortality even after the adjustment for BMI (HR = 9.229, 95% IC: 2.08341.504, p = 0.003). Conclusion CVD was an important cause of mortality in this cohort and DM and/or central adiposity were associated with all-cause mortality. Lifestyle and dietary factors seem to be related to risk of mortality in middle-aged women. PMID:24559309

  15. Association between guideline recommended drugs and death in older adults with multiple chronic conditions: population based cohort study

    PubMed Central

    McAvay, Gail; Trentalange, Mark; Cohen, Andrew B; Allore, Heather G

    2015-01-01

    Objective To estimate the association between guideline recommended drugs and death in older adults with multiple chronic conditions. Design Population based cohort study. Setting Medicare Current Beneficiary Survey cohort, a nationally representative sample of Americans aged 65 years or more. Participants 8578 older adults with two or more study chronic conditions (atrial fibrillation, coronary artery disease, chronic kidney disease, depression, diabetes, heart failure, hyperlipidemia, hypertension, and thromboembolic disease), followed through 2011. Exposures Drugs included ? blockers, calcium channel blockers, clopidogrel, metformin, renin-angiotensin system (RAS) blockers; selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs); statins; thiazides; and warfarin. Main outcome measure Adjusted hazard ratios for death among participants with a condition and taking a guideline recommended drug relative to participants with the condition not taking the drug and among participants with the most common combinations of four conditions. Results Over 50% of participants with each condition received the recommended drugs regardless of coexisting conditions; 1287/8578 (15%) participants died during the three years of follow-up. Among cardiovascular drugs, ? blockers, calcium channel blockers, RAS blockers, and statins were associated with reduced mortality for indicated conditions. For example, the adjusted hazard ratio for ? blockers was 0.59 (95% confidence interval 0.48 to 0.72) for people with atrial fibrillation and 0.68 (0.57 to 0.81) for those with heart failure. The adjusted hazard ratios for cardiovascular drugs were similar to those with common combinations of four coexisting conditions, with trends toward variable effects for ? blockers. None of clopidogrel, metformin, or SSRIs/SNRIs was associated with reduced mortality. Warfarin was associated with a reduced risk of death among those with atrial fibrillation (adjusted hazard ratio 0.69, 95% confidence interval 0.56 to 0.85) and thromboembolic disease (0.44, 0.30 to 0.62). Attenuation in the association with reduced risk of death was found with warfarin in participants with some combinations of coexisting conditions. Conclusions Average effects on survival, particularly for cardiovascular study drugs, were comparable to those reported in randomized controlled trials but varied for some drugs according to coexisting conditions. Determining treatment effects in combinations of conditions may guide prescribing in people with multiple chronic conditions. PMID:26432468

  16. 38 CFR 11.116 - Death of veteran before final settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... application is filed after death occurs but before the maturity of the certificate and before payment is made... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Death of veteran before... Service Certificate Under the Adjusted Compensation Payment Act, 1936 (pub. L. 425, 74th Cong.) ...

  17. 38 CFR 11.116 - Death of veteran before final settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... application is filed after death occurs but before the maturity of the certificate and before payment is made... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Death of veteran before... Service Certificate Under the Adjusted Compensation Payment Act, 1936 (pub. L. 425, 74th Cong.) ...

  18. Diagnosis of causes of childhood deaths in developing countries by verbal autopsy: suggested criteria. The SEARCH Team.

    PubMed Central

    Bang, A. T.; Bang, R. A.

    1992-01-01

    In the absence of medical certification of deaths in developing countries, lay reporting and verbal autopsy have emerged as useful alternative methods for collecting data on causes of death. Of these, verbal autopsy offers advantages and is widely used in field studies and child survival programmes. However, because uniform and valid criteria for the diagnosis of common causes of death are lacking, comparison of the results of different studies becomes meaningless. This article proposes such a set of criteria for the cause of death among neonates and for those aged 1-59 months. The criteria are based on the findings of earlier validation studies, a Delphi survey and the experience gained from performing 1000 verbal autopsies in Gadchiroli, India. The emergence of such standardized criteria of causes of death should be of immense value for health planning, monitoring and evaluation purposes and for interregional comparisons. PMID:1394784

  19. Comparison of Prevalence- and Smoking Impact Ratio-Based Methods of Estimating Smoking-Attributable Fractions of Deaths

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Kyoung Ae; Jung-Choi, Kyung-Hee; Lim, Dohee; Lee, Hye Ah; Lee, Won Kyung; Baik, Sun Jung; Park, Su Hyun; Park, Hyesook

    2016-01-01

    Background Smoking is a major modifiable risk factor for premature mortality. Estimating the smoking-attributable burden is important for public health policy. Typically, prevalence- or smoking impact ratio (SIR)-based methods are used to derive estimates, but there is controversy over which method is more appropriate for country-specific estimates. We compared smoking-attributable fractions (SAFs) of deaths estimated by these two methods. Methods To estimate SAFs in 2012, we used several different prevalence-based approaches using no lag and 10- and 20-year lags. For the SIR-based method, we obtained lung cancer mortality rates from the Korean Cancer Prevention Study (KCPS) and from the United States-based Cancer Prevention Study-II (CPS-II). The relative risks for the diseases associated with smoking were also obtained from these cohort studies. Results For males, SAFs obtained using KCPS-derived SIRs were similar to those obtained using prevalence-based methods. For females, SAFs obtained using KCPS-derived SIRs were markedly greater than all prevalence-based SAFs. Differences in prevalence-based SAFs by time-lag period were minimal among males, but SAFs obtained using longer-lagged prevalence periods were significantly larger among females. SAFs obtained using CPS-II-based SIRs were lower than KCPS-based SAFs by >15 percentage points for most diseases, with the exceptions of lung cancer and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Conclusions SAFs obtained using prevalence- and SIR-based methods were similar for males. However, neither prevalence-based nor SIR-based methods resulted in precise SAFs among females. The characteristics of the study population should be carefully considered when choosing a method to estimate SAF. PMID:26477995

  20. Eighth Amendment & Death Penalty.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shortall, Joseph M.; Merrill, Denise W.

    1987-01-01

    Presents a lesson on capital punishment for juveniles based on three hypothetical cases. The goal of the lesson is to have students understand the complexities of decisions regarding the death penalty for juveniles. (JDH)

  1. Preventing Fire Death and Injury, Conducting a Fire Drill in a Group Home [and] When You Need a Fire Safety Expert. National Fire Safety Certification System. Continuing Education Program. Volume 1, Numbers 1-3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Bonnie

    Three booklets provide fire safety information for staff of residential facilities serving people with developmental disabilities. Booklets focus on: (1) preventing fire death and injury, (2) conducting a fire drill in a group home, and (3) the role of fire safety experts. The first booklet stresses the elimination of the following dangers:

  2. [Drug deaths].

    PubMed

    Gerber, A

    1976-01-01

    In the Federal Republic of Germany there exist no statistical datas concerning death related to drug dependence until now. We propose to define death in connexion with drug dependence as the death of a drug dependent person caused by direct or indirect effect of the drug used. We first report on several international investigations; then the results of our own investigation in 40 cases of death in connexion with drug dependence in the district of Nordbaden are presented in detail. As a result it seems necessary to register drug dependent persons and to isolate those who are resistent to any therapy and thus represent a focus for further expansion of drug consuming. PMID:962461

  3. Neonatal Death

    MedlinePLUS

    ... story First Candle Centering Corporation The Compassionate Friends Star Legacy Foundation Last reviewed: November, 2015 Neonatal death ... story First Candle Centering Corporation The Compassionate Friends Star Legacy Foundation Last reviewed: November, 2015 Complications & Loss ...

  4. Death Rates

    Cancer.gov

    Close Window State Cancer Profiles Quick Reference Guides ? Quick Reference Guides Index Death Rates Send to Printer Text description of this image. Site Home Policies Accessibility Viewing Files FOIA Contact Us U.S. Department of Health and Human Services

  5. Software Certification and Software Certificate Management Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Denney, Ewen; Fischer, Bernd

    2005-01-01

    Incremental certification and re-certification of code as it is developed and modified is a prerequisite for applying modem, evolutionary development processes, which are especially relevant for NASA. For example, the Columbia Accident Investigation Board (CAIB) report 121 concluded there is "the need for improved and uniform statistical sampling, audit, and certification processes". Also, re-certification time has been a limiting factor in making changes to Space Shuttle code close to launch time. This is likely to be an even bigger problem with the rapid turnaround required in developing NASA s replacement for the Space Shuttle, the Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV). Hence, intelligent development processes are needed which place certification at the center of development. If certification tools provide useful information, such as estimated time and effort, they are more likely to be adopted. The ultimate impact of such a tool will be reduced effort and increased reliability.

  6. A Death in the Family: Death as a Zen Concept

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Helen K.; Rubinstein, Robert L.

    2013-01-01

    This study is based on original research that explored family reaction to the death of an elderly husband and father. We interviewed 34 families (a family included a widow and two adult biological children) approximately 6 to 10 months after the death. In one-on-one interviews, we discussed family members' initial reaction to the death, how the

  7. A Death in the Family: Death as a Zen Concept

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Helen K.; Rubinstein, Robert L.

    2013-01-01

    This study is based on original research that explored family reaction to the death of an elderly husband and father. We interviewed 34 families (a family included a widow and two adult biological children) approximately 6 to 10 months after the death. In one-on-one interviews, we discussed family members' initial reaction to the death, how the…

  8. Brain Death and Islam

    PubMed Central

    Ziad-Miller, Amna; Elamin, Elamin M.

    2014-01-01

    How one defines death may vary. It is important for clinicians to recognize those aspects of a patient’s religious beliefs that may directly influence medical care and how such practices may interface with local laws governing the determination of death. Debate continues about the validity and certainty of brain death criteria within Islamic traditions. A search of PubMed, Scopus, EMBASE, Web of Science, PsycNet, Sociological Abstracts, DIALOGUE ProQuest, Lexus Nexus, Google, and applicable religious texts was conducted to address the question of whether brain death is accepted as true death among Islamic scholars and clinicians and to discuss how divergent opinions may affect clinical care. The results of the literature review inform this discussion. Brain death has been acknowledged as representing true death by many Muslim scholars and medical organizations, including the Islamic Fiqh Academies of the Organization of the Islamic Conference and the Muslim World League, the Islamic Medical Association of North America, and other faith-based medical organizations as well as legal rulings by multiple Islamic nations. However, consensus in the Muslim world is not unanimous, and a sizable minority accepts death by cardiopulmonary criteria only. PMID:25287999

  9. 13 CFR 120.1708 - Pool Certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Pool Certificates. 120.1708 Section 120.1708 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION BUSINESS LOANS Establishment... one Pool Certificate for each Pool). SBA may change these requirements based upon an analysis...

  10. 13 CFR 120.1708 - Pool Certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pool Certificates. 120.1708 Section 120.1708 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION BUSINESS LOANS Establishment... one Pool Certificate for each Pool). SBA may change these requirements based upon an analysis...

  11. 40 CFR 745.89 - Firm certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Firm certification. 745.89 Section 745.89 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT LEAD-BASED PAINT POISONING PREVENTION IN CERTAIN RESIDENTIAL STRUCTURES Residential Property Renovation 745.89 Firm certification. (a)...

  12. Looking at: Competency-Based Teacher Education, Public Doublespeak, Oral History, Death and Dying.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ERIC Clearinghouse for Social Studies/Social Science Education, Boulder, CO.

    Four issues of a current awareness bulletin published occasionally by the ERIC Clearinghouse for Social Studies for use by elementary and secondary social studies teachers are combined in this document. The first issue deals with the application of competency-based curriculum to teacher education, focusing on teacher growth and evidence of pupil…

  13. Winning the Race with Death.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodman, Lisl M.

    The hypothesis of a negative relationship between level of self-actualization and fear of death was based on the assumption that people are not afraid of death per se but of the incompleteness of their lives. Fear of death was furthermore assumed to inhibit orientation toward the future, thereby restricting movement toward achievement and

  14. The Great Certification Caper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tracy, Margaret H.

    1972-01-01

    A brief account is given of the author's two-year struggle to obtain school librarian certification in Pennsylvania. Current trends in several states for certification are also included. (6 references) (NH)

  15. Hydrochemical data base for the Death Valley Region, California and Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Perfect, D.L.; Faunt, C.C.; Steinkampf, W.C.; Turner, A.K.

    1995-02-01

    Ground-water chemistry data derived from samples collected within an approximately 100,000-square-kilometer area in the Southern Great Basin have been compiled into a digital data base. The data were compiled from published reports, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Water Information System (NWIS), and previously unpublished USGS files. The data are contained in two compressed files which self-expand into Lotus (.WK1) files. The first file contains 4,738 records (4.84 megabytes) and represents the basic compilation of all identified analyses. The second file is an edited version of the first and contains 3,733 records (3.84 megabytes). Editing included the removal of duplicate records and the combining of records, when appropriate. The analyses presented are of variable quality and comprehensiveness and include no isotopic data. Of the 3,733 analyses in the edited data base, 58 percent of the major ion concentrations balance to within {+-}10 percent. Most of the remaining records are not sufficiently complete for a balance to be calculated.

  16. Differential risk of death in older residents in nursing homes prescribed specific antipsychotic drugs: population based cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Objective To assess risks of mortality associated with use of individual antipsychotic drugs in elderly residents in nursing homes. Design Population based cohort study with linked data from Medicaid, Medicare, the Minimum Data Set, the National Death Index, and a national assessment of nursing home quality. Setting Nursing homes in the United States. Participants 75?445 new users of antipsychotic drugs (haloperidol, aripiprazole, olanzapine, quetiapine, risperidone, ziprasidone). All participants were aged ?65, were eligible for Medicaid, and lived in a nursing home in 2001-5. Main outcome measures Cox proportional hazards models were used to compare 180 day risks of all cause and cause specific mortality by individual drug, with propensity score adjustment to control for potential confounders. Results Compared with risperidone, users of haloperidol had an increased risk of mortality (hazard ratio 2.07, 95% confidence interval 1.89 to 2.26) and users of quetiapine a decreased risk (0.81, 0.75 to 0.88). The effects were strongest shortly after the start of treatment, remained after adjustment for dose, and were seen for all causes of death examined. No clinically meaningful differences were observed for the other drugs. There was no evidence that the effect measure modification in those with dementia or behavioural disturbances. There was a dose-response relation for all drugs except quetiapine. Conclusions Though these findings cannot prove causality, and we cannot rule out the possibility of residual confounding, they provide more evidence of the risk of using these drugs in older patients, reinforcing the concept that they should not be used in the absence of clear need. The data suggest that the risk of mortality with these drugs is generally increased with higher doses and seems to be highest for haloperidol and least for quetiapine. PMID:22362541

  17. Supporting nurse manager certification.

    PubMed

    Rees, Susan; Glynn, Michele; Moore, Rebecca; Rankin, Rebecca; Stevens, Linda

    2014-06-01

    Professional certification is desirable for nursing staff and leaders to demonstrate high levels of knowledge and expertise. Nurse managers can be role models for staff by attaining certification. The organization highlighted in this article developed a process that included an in-house nurse manager certification review course resulting in increased certification rates from 33% to 50% for nurse managers in a 14-month period. PMID:24853798

  18. The Certification Advantage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, John C.; Pritz, Sandra G.

    2006-01-01

    Certificates have become an important career credential and can give students an advantage when they enter the workplace. However, many types of certificates exist, and the number of people seeking them and organizations offering them are both growing rapidly. In a time of such growth, the authors review some of the basics about certification--the

  19. Hypericin-based photodynamic therapy: antitumor activity, accumulation potential, and induced cell death pathway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luksiene, Zivile; Vaitkuviene, Aurelija

    2004-09-01

    In this study the main interest was focused on the to investigation the photodynamic efficacy of hypericin, three other photosensitizers and 5 aminolevulinic acid-induced protopofirin IX in their ability to block the growth of rather aggressive tumor - Ehrlich ascite carcinoma in mice as well as Reh cells in humans (B-leukemia). Hypericin was found to exhibit the highest phototoxicity and antitumor activity in treating Ehrlich ascite carcinoma. The different photosensitizers were ranked as follows: Hypericin > hematoporphyrin dimethyl ether > Photofrin II > meso-tetra (para-sulfophenyl)porphin > 5-aminolevulinic acid. The most important is that just after Hyp-based photodynamic therapy 75% of mice survived a 4 month-period, and no recurrence of tumor within this period was detected in 25% of the treated mice. The clear cut correlation observed between intracellular dye concentration in the tumor cells and efficiency of photodynamic therapy, supports the idea that the intracellular accumulation of the photosensitizer is one of the most important factors in determining the benefit of photodynamic therapy. Hence, the accumulation of the photosensitizer in the tumor cells should be considered as one of the prognostic factors for the determination of the therapeutic outcome. Eventually, one of the most significant result is that hypericin is effective photosensitizer for human B-leukemia cells and induces apoptosis after photosensitization.

  20. 38 CFR 11.84 - Redemption because of veteran's death.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... veteran's death. 11.84 Section 11.84 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS...'s death. If the veteran dies before the maturity of the loan, the amount of the unpaid principal and... day the loan matures or within six months thereafter, the bank holding the note and certificate...

  1. 38 CFR 11.84 - Redemption because of veteran's death.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... veteran's death. 11.84 Section 11.84 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS...'s death. If the veteran dies before the maturity of the loan, the amount of the unpaid principal and... day the loan matures or within six months thereafter, the bank holding the note and certificate...

  2. Diagnosed diabetes and premature death among middle-aged Japanese: results from a large-scale population-based cohort study in Japan (JPHC study)

    PubMed Central

    Kato, Masayuki; Noda, Mitsuhiko; Mizoue, Tetsuya; Goto, Atsushi; Takahashi, Yoshihiko; Matsushita, Yumi; Nanri, Akiko; Iso, Hiroyasu; Inoue, Manami; Sawada, Norie; Tsugane, Shoichiro

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine the association between diabetes and premature death for Japanese general people. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting The Japan Public Health Center-based prospective study (JPHC study), data collected between 1990 and 2010. Population A total of 46?017 men and 53?567 women, aged 4069?years at the beginning of baseline survey. Main outcome measures Overall and cause specific mortality. Cox proportional hazards models were used to calculate the HRs of all cause and cause specific mortality associated with diabetes. Results The median follow-up period was 17.8?years. During the follow-up period, 8223 men and 4640 women have died. Diabetes was associated with increased risk of death (856 men and 345 women; HR 1.60, (95% CI 1.49 to 1.71) for men and 1.98 (95% CI 1.77 to 2.21) for women). As for the cause of death, diabetes was associated with increased risk of death by circulatory diseases (HR 1.76 (95% CI 1.53 to 2.02) for men and 2.49 (95% CI 2.06 to 3.01) for women) while its association with the risk of cancer death was moderate (HR 1.25 (95% CI 1.11 to 1.42) for men and 1.04 (95% CI 0.82 to 1.32) for women). Diabetes was also associated with increased risk of death for non-cancer, non-circulatory system disease (HR 1.91 (95% CI 1.71 to 2.14) for men and 2.67 (95% CI 2.25 to 3.17) for women). Conclusions Diabetes was associated with increased risk of death, especially the risk of death by circulatory diseases. PMID:25941187

  3. Deaths from cerebrovascular diseases correlated to month of birth: elevated risk of death from subarachnoid hemorrhage among summer-born

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nonaka, K.; Imaizumi, Y.

    It has been suggested that maternal nutrition, and fetal and infant growth have an important effect on the risk of cardiovascular disease in adult life. We investigated the population-based distribution of deaths from cerebrovascular diseases (ICD9 codes 430, 431, or 434) in Japan in 1986-1994 as a function of birth month, by examining death-certificate records. For a total of 853 981 people born in the years 1900-1959, the distribution of the number of deaths according to the month of birth was compared with the distribution expected from the monthly numbers of all births for each sex and for the corresponding birth decade. For those born between 1920 and 1949, there were significant discrepancies between the actual numbers of deaths from subarachnoid hemorrhage (ICD9 430) and the numbers expected, and these differences were related to the month of birth. Those born in summer, June-September, consistently had an elevated risk of death, particularly men, where the excess risk was 8%-23%. This tendency was also observed, less distinctly but significantly, for deaths from intracerebral hemorrhage (ICD9 431), but was not observed for those dying from occlusion of the cerebral arteries (ICD9 434). The observation that the risk of dying from subarachnoid hemorrhage was more than 10% higher among those born in the summer implies that at least one in ten deaths from subarachnoid hemorrhage has its origin at a perinatal stage. Although variations in hypertension in later life, which could possibly be ''programmed'' during the intra-uterine stages, could be an explanation for this observation, the disease-specific nature of the observation suggests the involvement of aneurysm formation, which is a predominant cause of subarachnoid hemorrhage.

  4. Dig1 protects against cell death provoked by glyphosate-based herbicides in human liver cell lines

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Worldwide used pesticides containing different adjuvants like Roundup formulations, which are glyphosate-based herbicides, can provoke some in vivo toxicity and in human cells. These pesticides are commonly found in the environment, surface waters and as food residues of Roundup tolerant genetically modified plants. In order to know their effects on cells from liver, a major detoxification organ, we have studied their mechanism of action and possible protection by precise medicinal plant extracts called Dig1. Methods The cytotoxicity pathways of four formulations of glyphosate-based herbicides were studied using human hepatic cell lines HepG2 and Hep3B, known models to study xenobiotic effects. We monitored mitochondrial succinate dehydrogenase activity and caspases 3/7 for cell mortality and protection by Dig1, as well as cytochromes P450 1A1, 1A2, 3A4 and 2C9 and glutathione-S-transferase to approach the mechanism of actions. Results All the four Roundup formulations provoke liver cell death, with adjuvants having stronger effects than glyphosate alone. Hep3B are 3-5 times more sensitive over 48 h. Caspases 3/7 are greatly activated in HepG2 by Roundup at non-cytotoxic levels, and some apoptosis induction by Roundup is possible together with necrosis. CYP3A4 is specifically enhanced by Roundup at doses 400 times less than used in agriculture (2%). CYP1A2 is increased to a lesser extent together with glutathione-S-transferase (GST) down-regulation. Dig 1, non cytotoxic and not inducing caspases by itself, is able to prevent Roundup-induced cell death in a time-dependant manner with an important efficiency of up to 89%, within 48 h. In addition, we evidenced that it prevents Caspases 3/7 activation and CYP3A4 enhancement, and not GST reduction, but in turn it slightly inhibited CYP2C9 when added before Roundup. Conclusion Roundup is able to provoke intracellular disruption in hepatic cell lines at different levels, but a mixture of medicinal plant extracts Dig1 can protect to some extent human cell lines against this pollutants. All this system constitutes a tool for studying liver intoxication and detoxification. PMID:20979644

  5. Certification and recertification.

    PubMed

    Scheiber, S C

    1991-01-01

    The American Board of Psychiatry and Neurology issues certificates for psychiatrists in general psychiatry, child and adolescent psychiatry, and added qualification in geriatric psychiatry. It will issue a certificate in added qualification in clinical neurophysiology in 1992. An application for a certificate in added qualification in addiction psychiatry is currently under review by the American Board of Medical Specialties. The American Psychiatric Association has requested that the ABPN consider forensic psychiatry for an added qualification. All new subspecialty certificates will have a ten year time limit. Beginning on October 1, 1994, all certificates will be time-limited. Time-limited certificates will lead to the requirement for recertification. Current requirements for certification are reviewed and strategies for planing for recertification are discussed. PMID:1780385

  6. 42 CFR 438.606 - Source, content, and timing of certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Source, content, and timing of certification. 438... § 438.606 Source, content, and timing of certification. (a) Source of certification. For the data... certification must attest, based on best knowledge, information, and belief, as follows: (1) To the...

  7. [Analysis of foetal death rates in Japan based on legitimacy status of foetus and period of gestation].

    PubMed

    Nishida, S

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze spontaneous and artificial foetal death rates from the context of legitimacy status of the foetus and period of gestation. Data over five years, 1985 to 1989, were averaged and mainly used for analysis and compared to reference data for five other years, 1970 to 1974, with the following results. In the latter half of the 1980's, spontaneous foetal death rates for the illegitimate were very high compared to the legitimate. In all periods of gestation, spontaneous foetal death rates of the illegitimate were higher than those of the legitimate. For the 16th to the 31st week of gestation especially, rates of the illegitimate were ten times or more that of the legitimate. Spontaneous foetal deaths before the 24th week of gestation constituted nearly 90% of all spontaneous foetal deaths in the illegitimate. By comparison, the percentage was 66% in the legitimate. This data suggests that some artificial foetal deaths were being notified as spontaneous and this phenomenon caused the differences mentioned above. Artificial foetal death rates of the illegitimate were very high compared to the legitimate. Before the 24th week of gestation, artificial foetal death rates were 50 to 100 times that of the legitimate. These characteristics observed in the latter half of the 1980's, were also seen in the first half of the 1970's. From the comparison of the two observation periods, the registration of foetal deaths appears to be improving, especially in the period of 12 to 15 weeks of gestation. PMID:8111092

  8. IR spectroscopic characteristics of cell cycle and cell death probed by synchrotron radiation based Fourier transform IR spectromicroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holman, H. Y.; Martin, M. C.; Blakely, E. A.; Bjornstad, K.; McKinney, W. R.

    2000-01-01

    Synchrotron radiation based Fourier transform IR (SR-FTIR) spectromicroscopy allows the study of individual living cells with a high signal to noise ratio. Here we report the use of the SR-FTIR technique to investigate changes in IR spectral features from individual human lung fibroblast (IMR-90) cells in vitro at different points in their cell cycle. Clear changes are observed in the spectral regions corresponding to proteins, DNA, and RNA as a cell changes from the G(1)-phase to the S-phase and finally into mitosis. These spectral changes include markers for the changing secondary structure of proteins in the cell, as well as variations in DNA/RNA content and packing as the cell cycle progresses. We also observe spectral features that indicate that occasional cells are undergoing various steps in the process of cell death. The dying or dead cell has a shift in the protein amide I and II bands corresponding to changing protein morphologies, and a significant increase in the intensity of an ester carbonyl C===O peak at 1743 cm(-1) is observed. Copyright John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Biopolymers (Biospectroscopy) 57: 329-335, 2000.

  9. Cesarean birth in the border region: a descriptive analysis based on US Hispanic and Mexican birth certificates.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Jill A; Mojarro Davila, Octavio; Sutton, Paul D; Ventura, Stephanie J

    2015-01-01

    Cesarean birth (CB) is more prevalent in the US-Mexico border region than among all US Hispanics. Comparable data from US and Mexican birth certificates can be used to compare prevalence and identify risk factors on either side of the border. Using 2009 US and Mexican birth certificates, we compared the characteristics of US Hispanic and Mexican CBs in six geographic subgroups: US and Mexican border counties/municipios, US and Mexican non-border counties/municipios and the US and Mexico overall. We also explored cesarean prevalence over time. During 2000-2009, CB rates increased from 22.1 to 31.6 % among US Hispanics and from 25.9 to 37.9 % among Hispanics in the US border region. 2009 rates were 44.5 % in Mexico and 43.1 % in the Mexican border region. In both countries, CB rates were similar for primiparas and multiparas. Higher education, being married and parity >4 were associated with CB in Mexico; being married was associated in the US. Hispanic rates were higher in the US border than non-border region for all age groups. Along the border, cesarean rates for Hispanics were highest in Texas (43.5 %) and neighboring Tamaulipas (49.8 %). Higher cesarean prevalence in Mexico than in US Hispanics, while unexplained, is consistent with high prevalence in some Latin American countries. Higher cesarean prevalence among Hispanics in the US border region than among Hispanics nationwide cannot be explained by maternal age or parity. Medical indications are also unlikely to explain such high rates, which are undesirable for mothers and infants. PMID:24791973

  10. 40 CFR 745.90 - Renovator certification and dust sampling technician certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Renovator certification and dust sampling technician certification. 745.90 Section 745.90 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT LEAD-BASED PAINT POISONING PREVENTION IN CERTAIN RESIDENTIAL STRUCTURES Residential...

  11. Population?Based Incidence of Sudden Cardiac and Unexpected Death Before and After the 2011 Earthquake and Tsunami in Iwate, Northeast Japan

    PubMed Central

    Niiyama, Masanobu; Tanaka, Fumitaka; Nakajima, Satoshi; Itoh, Tomonori; Matsumoto, Tatsuya; Kawakami, Mikio; Naganuma, Yujiro; Omama, Shinichi; Komatsu, Takashi; Onoda, Toshiyuki; Sakata, Kiyomi; Ichikawa, Takashi; Nakamura, Motoyuki

    2014-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to evaluate the temporal impact of the 2011 Japan earthquake and tsunami on the incidence of sudden cardiac and unexpected death (SCUD). Methods and Results We surveyed the impact of the disaster on the incidence and clinical characteristics of SCUD in Iwate. To perform complete identification of SCUD for 8 weeks before and 40 weeks after the disaster, medical records and death certificates relevant to SCUD were surveyed in the study area. Compared with the previous year's rate, the incidence (per 10 000 person?year) of SCUD for the initial 4 weeks after the disaster (acute phase) was double (33.5 vs 18.9), and thereafter the rate returned to the previous level. Significant relationships were found between weekly numbers of SCUD and seismic activity (intensity, r=0.43; P<0.005: frequency, r=0.46; P<0.002). The standardized incidence ratio (SIR) of SCUD in the acute phase was significantly increased compared with that of previous years (1.71, 95% CI 1.33 to 2.16). Increased SIRs were predominantly found in female subjects (1.73, 95% CI 1.22 to 2.37), the elderly (1.73, 95% CI 1.29 to 2.27), and residents living in the tsunami?stricken area (1.83, 95% CI 1.33 to 2.46). In addition, SIRs for weekdays (1.71, 95% CI 1.28 to 2.24) and nights?mornings (2.09, 95% CI 1.48 to 2.86) were amplified. Conclusions The present results suggest that the magnitude of a disaster, related stress, and population aging may cause a temporary increase in the incidence of SCUD with amplification of ordinary weekly and circadian variations. PMID:24811614

  12. Reliability of cause of death coding: an international comparison.

    PubMed

    Antini, Carmen; Rajs, Danuta; Muoz-Quezada, Mara Teresa; Mondaca, Boris Andrs Lucero; Heiss, Gerardo

    2015-07-01

    This study evaluates the agreement of nosologic coding of cardiovascular causes of death between a Chilean coder and one in the United States, in a stratified random sample of death certificates of persons aged ? 60, issued in 2008 in the Valparaso and Metropolitan regions, Chile. All causes of death were converted to ICD-10 codes in parallel by both coders. Concordance was analyzed with inter-coder agreement and Cohen's kappa coefficient by level of specification ICD-10 code for the underlying cause and the total causes of death coding. Inter-coder agreement was 76.4% for all causes of death and 80.6% for the underlying cause (agreement at the four-digit level), with differences by the level of specification of the ICD-10 code, by line of the death certificate, and by number of causes of death per certificate. Cohen's kappa coefficient was 0.76 (95%CI: 0.68-0.84) for the underlying cause and 0.75 (95%CI: 0.74-0.77) for the total causes of death. In conclusion, causes of death coding and inter-coder agreement for cardiovascular diseases in two regions of Chile are comparable to an external benchmark and with reports from other countries. PMID:26248102

  13. Certification report for the CALMAC solar powered pump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The certification of the CALMAC solar powered thermopump is presented. Each element of the specification is delineated, together with the verification, based on analysis, similarity, inspection, or testing.

  14. 47 CFR 97.31 - Cancellation on account of the licensee's death.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... licensee's death. (a) A person may request cancellation of an operator/primary station license grant on account of the licensee's death by submitting a signed request that includes a death certificate, obituary... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Cancellation on account of the licensee's...

  15. 46 CFR 67.79 - Passage of title without court action following death of owner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... entirety, a copy of the death certificate, certified by an appropriate State official; or (2) Where the... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Passage of title without court action following death of... Passage of title without court action following death of owner. (a) When title to a vessel formerly...

  16. 47 CFR 97.31 - Cancellation on account of the licensee's death.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... licensee's death. (a) A person may request cancellation of an operator/primary station license grant on account of the licensee's death by submitting a signed request that includes a death certificate, obituary... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cancellation on account of the licensee's...

  17. Quality of Survey Informants' Reports about Death: Verification of Dates through a Record Check.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fultz, Nancy H.; Herzog, A. Regula

    1995-01-01

    Informants' reports were compared with death certificates for 328 deceased respondents to determine whether relatives and others can provide valid information about survey respondents' deaths. About two-thirds of the informants accurately reported the complete date of death. Percentage of correct reports varied by relationship between informant

  18. 47 CFR 97.31 - Cancellation on account of the licensee's death.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... licensee's death. (a) A person may request cancellation of an operator/primary station license grant on account of the licensee's death by submitting a signed request that includes a death certificate, obituary... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Cancellation on account of the licensee's...

  19. 47 CFR 97.31 - Cancellation on account of the licensee's death.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... licensee's death. (a) A person may request cancellation of an operator/primary station license grant on account of the licensee's death by submitting a signed request that includes a death certificate, obituary... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Cancellation on account of the licensee's...

  20. 5 CFR 1651.13 - How to apply for a death benefit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... must attach to the form a certified copy of the participant' death certificate. The TSP record keeper's... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false How to apply for a death benefit. 1651.13 Section 1651.13 Administrative Personnel FEDERAL RETIREMENT THRIFT INVESTMENT BOARD DEATH BENEFITS ...

  1. 5 CFR 1651.13 - How to apply for a death benefit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... must attach to the form a certified copy of the participant' death certificate. The TSP record keeper's... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false How to apply for a death benefit. 1651.13 Section 1651.13 Administrative Personnel FEDERAL RETIREMENT THRIFT INVESTMENT BOARD DEATH BENEFITS ...

  2. 46 CFR 67.79 - Passage of title without court action following death of owner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... entirety, a copy of the death certificate, certified by an appropriate State official; or (2) Where the... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Passage of title without court action following death of... Passage of title without court action following death of owner. (a) When title to a vessel formerly...

  3. 46 CFR 67.79 - Passage of title without court action following death of owner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... entirety, a copy of the death certificate, certified by an appropriate State official; or (2) Where the... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Passage of title without court action following death of... Passage of title without court action following death of owner. (a) When title to a vessel formerly...

  4. 46 CFR 67.79 - Passage of title without court action following death of owner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... entirety, a copy of the death certificate, certified by an appropriate State official; or (2) Where the... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Passage of title without court action following death of... Passage of title without court action following death of owner. (a) When title to a vessel formerly...

  5. [Accompany death].

    PubMed

    Salvador Borrell, Montserrat

    2010-11-01

    One of the roles of nursing is to take care of the patients in terminal situation. The time, the experience, the formation, and the personal and professional attitudes that the nurse has will propitiate that taking care of moribund patients might turn into one of the more rewarding human experiences in life. There for, it is indispensable that nurses assume death as a natural and inevitable reality to achieve. The principal aim of the study is to evaluate the competence of confrontation and the autoefficiency of the welfare among nurses who work with adult patients at the end of the life. Descriptive study realized in the units of Oncology, Hametology and Palliative Care of the following centers: La Fe, Clínico, Dr. Peset, H. General, Arnau de Vilanova and Dr. Moliner de Portacoelli in Valencia (Spain). The following instruments were used: the Bugen Scale of confrontation of the Death (1980-1981) and the Robbins Scale of Autoefficiency (1992). Data suggests that major coping gives major autoeffciency and vice versa. The realized study opens numerous questions, specially related with training and the burden of preparation along the whole professional career, in order to achieve competence for coping and autoefficiency. PMID:21188869

  6. 78 FR 6853 - Agency Information Collection (President Memorial Certificate (PMC)) Activity Under OMB Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-31

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS Agency Information Collection (President Memorial Certificate (PMC)) Activity Under OMB Review... processing a death benefits claim. The PMC allows eligible recipients (next of kin, other relatives...

  7. Alternative Routes to Teacher Certification.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith-Davis, Judy

    This literature review examines alternative routes to teacher certification and presents alternative certification regulations and policies for 19 states. Three categories of nontraditional personnel preparation programs are noted: nontraditional recruitment programs, retraining programs, and alternative certification programs. A definition of

  8. A death in the family: death as a Zen concept.

    PubMed

    Black, Helen K; Rubinstein, Robert L

    2013-01-01

    This study is based on original research that explored family reaction to the death of an elderly husband and father. We interviewed 34 families (a family included a widow and two adult biological children) approximately 6 to 10 months after the death. In one-on-one interviews, we discussed family members' initial reaction to the death, how the family is coping with the loss, and the changes that occurred in family relationships. In this article we focus on family solidarity after the loved one's death and discuss one extended case from the larger study. In reviewing our data, we find that a Zen perspective is useful in understanding the effect of the death on family relationships because this perspective incorporates a focus on the paradoxes of life and death. As death forces the family into the "present in its fullness," the contradictions of intimacy and distance, past and future, and life and death, emerge. Members of the family explore existential questions about life, death, and intimacy, in order to find meaning in: 1) the life and death of the loved one; 2) their own lives; and 3) the family. PMID:23540160

  9. [Deaths in hotels].

    PubMed

    Risse, Manfred; Weilbcher, Nadine; Birngruber, Christoph; Verhoff, Marcel A

    2010-01-01

    There are no verified statistics about deaths occurring in hotels, and only a few cases have been described in the literature. A recent case induced us to conduct a systematic search for deaths in hotels in the autopsy reports of the Institute of Legal Medicine in Giessen for the period from 1968 to 2009. This search yielded 22 evaluable cases in which persons had been found dead or had died in hotels. Data evaluated in the study were sex and age of the deceased, reason for the stay in the hotel and cause of death. Among the deaths, 18 were males and 4 females and the average age was 41 and 40 years respectively. 6 of the male guests had died from a natural and 10 from a non-natural cause. In the remaining two cases, the cause of death could not be determined, but as there was no evidence that another party had been involved, the cases were not further investigated. Of the 4 female guests, 3 had died of a natural cause; in one case, the cause of death remained unclear even after morphological and toxicological investigations. Surprisingly, a third of the men were found to be temporarily living in hotels due to social circumstances. This was not true for any of the women. Our retrospective analysis is based on a comparatively small number of deaths in what were mostly hotels in small to medium-sized towns. Interestingly, the gender ratio of 18:4 for deceased men and women was significantly higher than the usual gender ratio of 2:1 found for forensic autopsies. To be able to draw further conclusions, a greater number of cases would have to be analysed, for example by recruiting additional case files from other institutes of legal medicine. This would also open up the option of investigating possible regional variations. PMID:20642257

  10. Determining 'age at death' for forensic purposes using human bone by a laboratory-based biomechanical analytical method.

    PubMed

    Zioupos, P; Williams, A; Christodoulou, G; Giles, R

    2014-05-01

    Determination of age-at-death (AAD) is an important and frequent requirement in contemporary forensic science and in the reconstruction of past populations and societies from their remains. Its estimation is relatively straightforward and accurate (±3yr) for immature skeletons by using morphological features and reference tables within the context of forensic anthropology. However, after skeletal maturity (>35yr) estimates become inaccurate, particularly in the legal context. In line with the general migration of all the forensic sciences from reliance upon empirical criteria to those which are more evidence-based, AAD determination should rely more-and-more upon more quantitative methods. We explore here whether well-known changes in the biomechanical properties of bone and the properties of bone matrix, which have been seen to change with age even after skeletal maturity in a traceable manner, can be used to provide a reliable estimate of AAD. This method charts a combination of physical characteristics some of which are measured at a macroscopic level (wet & dry apparent density, porosity, organic/mineral/water fractions, collagen thermal degradation properties, ash content) and others at the microscopic level (Ca/P ratios, osteonal and matrix microhardness, image analysis of sections). This method produced successful age estimates on a cohort of 12 donors of age 53-85yr (7 male, 5 female), where the age of the individual could be approximated within less than ±1yr. This represents a vastly improved level of accuracy than currently extant age estimation techniques. It also presents: (1) a greater level of reliability and objectivity as the results are not dependent on the experience and expertise of the observer, as is so often the case in forensic skeletal age estimation methods; (2) it is purely laboratory-based analytical technique which can be carried out by someone with technical skills and not the specialised forensic anthropology experience; (3) it can be applied worldwide following stringent laboratory protocols. As such, this technique contributes significantly to improving age estimation and therefore identification methods for forensic and other purposes. PMID:24286969

  11. [Maternal death: an avoidable tragedy].

    PubMed

    Ferreira, C E

    1992-01-01

    Although statistics show that maternal mortality has declined during this century, high levels persist in the developing world. There are 100 to 1000 maternal deaths per 100,000 live births in developing countries, compared to 7 to 15 deaths per 100,000 live births in developed countries. Most of these deaths in developing countries are avoidable by effective maternal care interventions. A book edited by Unicamp on maternal mortality has made an important contribution to the debate that has been going on in scientific circles and among planners and health professionals. The quality of data for analysis of maternal mortality is implicated also because of erroneous classification of maternal deaths as nonmaternal, imprecision in the death certification, and omission of the status of pregnancy associated with illegal abortion. The identification of these errors means that medical files, hospital registers, family interviews, and autopsies have to be consulted. Research carried out in Sao Paulo demonstrated that at the end of the 1980s the maternal mortality rate was in fact 99.5/100,000 live births, whereas original records showed only 44.5/100,000 live births. Even in the United States during 1980-85, 33% of maternal deaths were underreported. In England the level of underreporting amounted to 41% during 1970-72. The World Health Organization has encouraged the formation of committees to study the prevention of maternal mortality. Two such committees were started in the state of Sao Paulo with the objectives of making professionals aware of the importance of accurate death records; immediate notification of maternal deaths to the regional committee; means from the proper authorities for the correction of deficiencies detected; and continuous evaluation of maternal mortality rates. The committee of Marilia, in the interior of the state of Sao Paulo, demonstrated that 72% of maternal deaths during 1986-88 were avoidable by medical-obstetrical means, prenatal care, or social assistance. 61% of deaths were attributed to cesarean section, which indicates the major risk of surgical complications. PMID:12286240

  12. [Near death experiences].

    PubMed

    Rubia Vila, Francisco José

    2012-01-01

    Near Death Experiences are those accounted by people who after being clinically dead return to life spontaneously or after reanimation. These experiences have been used traditionally to support the belief in the existence of the soul and of life after death. However, today neuroscience tries to explain these experiences from the scientific point of view, i.e. explaining them based on their brain substrates. Their resemblance to mystic experiences and to altered states of consciousness seems to indicate that they may be produced by hyperactivity of limbic structures caused by anoxia or hypercapnia. PMID:24294729

  13. Young People's Risk of Suicide Attempts in Relation to Parental Death: A Population-Based Register Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jakobsen, Ida Skytte; Christiansen, Erik

    2011-01-01

    Background: The objective of this study was to examine the association between the death of a biological parent and subsequent suicide attempts by young people (aged 10-22 years), and to explore sociodemographic factors as modifying factors in the process. Methods: The study used a nested case-control design. The full study population was obtained

  14. Sex-Based Differences in Rates, Causes, and Predictors of Death Among Injection Drug Users in Vancouver, Canada.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Kanna; Dong, Huiru; Marshall, Brandon D L; Milloy, Michael-John; Montaner, Julio S G; Wood, Evan; Kerr, Thomas

    2016-03-15

    In the present study, we sought to identify rates, causes, and predictors of death among male and female injection drug users (IDUs) in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, during a period of expanded public health interventions. Data from prospective cohorts of IDUs in Vancouver were linked to the provincial database of vital statistics to ascertain rates and causes of death between 1996 and 2011. Mortality rates were analyzed using Poisson regression and indirect standardization. Predictors of mortality were identified using multivariable Cox regression models stratified by sex. Among the 2,317 participants, 794 (34.3%) of whom were women, there were 483 deaths during follow-up, with a rate of 32.1 (95% confidence interval (CI): 29.3, 35.0) deaths per 1,000 person-years. Standardized mortality ratios were 7.28 (95% CI: 6.50, 8.14) for men and 15.56 (95% CI: 13.31, 18.07) for women. During the study period, mortality rates related to infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) declined among men but remained stable among women. In multivariable analyses, HIV seropositivity was independently associated with mortality in both sexes (all P < 0.05). The excess mortality burden among IDUs in our cohorts was primarily attributable to HIV infection; compared with men, women remained at higher risk of HIV-related mortality, indicating a need for sex-specific interventions to reduce mortality among female IDUs in this setting. PMID:26865265

  15. Young People's Risk of Suicide Attempts in Relation to Parental Death: A Population-Based Register Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jakobsen, Ida Skytte; Christiansen, Erik

    2011-01-01

    Background: The objective of this study was to examine the association between the death of a biological parent and subsequent suicide attempts by young people (aged 10-22 years), and to explore sociodemographic factors as modifying factors in the process. Methods: The study used a nested case-control design. The full study population was obtained…

  16. EDR2 NEGATIVELY REGULATES SALICYLIC ACID-BASED DEFENSES AND CELL DEATH DURING POWDERY MILDEW INFECTIONS OF ARABIDOPSIS THALIANA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The hypersensitive necrosis response (HR) of resistant plants to avirulent pathogens is a form of programmed cell death in which the plant sacrifices a few cells under attack, restricting pathogen growth into adjacent healthy tissues. In spite of the importance of this defense response, relatively l...

  17. Long-term mortality risk by cause of death in newly diagnosed patients with epilepsy in Finland: a nationwide register-based study.

    PubMed

    Nevalainen, Olli; Raitanen, Jani; Ansakorpi, Hanna; Artama, Miia; Isojrvi, Jouko; Auvinen, Anssi

    2013-12-01

    To estimate long-term mortality by cause of death in a nationwide, register-based cohort of newly diagnosed patients with epilepsy (PWE). All noninstitutionalized Finnish PWE aged 10-74 years (n = 10,818) eligible for reimbursement for antiepileptic medication for the first time between 1990 and 1994 were identified in the database of Social Insurance Institution of Finland. Mortality was compared against a population-based reference cohort (n = 43,894). Hazard ratios (HR) and their 95 % confidence intervals (95 % CI) during a follow-up of 18 years were estimated using proportional hazards modeling. Potential years of life lost (PYLL) and excess fraction of causes of death attributable to epilepsy were estimated. PWE contributed 137,610 person-years of observation and there were 3,558 deaths. Mortality remained elevated up to 18 years post-diagnosis (HR 3.21, 95 % CI 3.07-3.35). Ischemic heart disease mortality in PWE was two-fold (HR 2.31, 95 % CI 2.09-2.54), and remained constantly elevated during entire follow-up in both men and women. Most premature mortality in terms of PYLL was attributable to brain cancer (17 %), other cancers (15 %), ischemic heart disease (11 %), as well as cerebrovascular diseases (10 %). The percentage of deaths in PWE statistically attributable to epilepsy was 3.9 % for accidents, 3.4 % for alcohol-related diseases, and 1.6 % for suicides. PWE had substantial excess mortality from non-communicable diseases, which did not disappear by 18 years. Diseases of the circulatory system and cancers, especially brain cancer, were the most important causes of death almost regardless of the mortality indicator. PMID:24072507

  18. Unreported births and deaths, a severe obstacle for improved neonatal survival in low-income countries; a population based study

    PubMed Central

    Mlqvist, Mats; Eriksson, Leif; Nga, Nguyen Thu; Fagerland, Linn Irene; Hoa, Dinh Phuong; Wallin, Lars; Ewald, Uwe; Persson, Lars-ke

    2008-01-01

    Background In order to improve child survival there is a need to target neonatal mortality. In this pursuit, valid local and national statistics on child health are essential. We analyze to what extent births and neonatal deaths are unreported in a low-income country and discuss the consequences at local and international levels for efforts to save newborn lives. Methods Information on all births and neonatal deaths in Quang Ninh province in Northern Vietnam in 2005 was ascertained by systematic inventory through group interviews with key informants, questionnaires and examination of health facility records. Health care staff at 187 Community Health Centers (CHC) and 18 hospitals, in addition to 1372 Village Health Workers (VHW), were included in the study. Results were compared with the official reports of the Provincial Health Bureau. Results The neonatal mortality rate (NMR) was 16/1000 (284 neonatal deaths/17 519 births), as compared to the official rate of 4.2/1000. The NMR varied between 44/1000 and 10/1000 in the different districts of the province. The under-reporting was mainly attributable to a dysfunctional reporting system and the fact that families, not the health system, were made responsible to register births and deaths. This under-reporting has severe consequences at local, national and international levels. At a local level, it results in a lack of awareness of the magnitude and differentials in NMR, leading to an indifference towards the problem. At a national and international level the perceived low mortality rate is manifested in a lack of investments in perinatal health programs. Conclusion This example of a faulty health information system is reportedly not unique in low and middle income countries where needs for neonatal health reforms are greatest. Improving reporting systems on births and neonatal deaths is a matter of human rights and a prerequisite for reducing neonatal mortality in order to reach the fourth millennium goal. PMID:18373839

  19. Parental bereavement after the death of an offspring in a motor vehicle collision: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Bolton, James M; Au, Wendy; Walld, Randy; Chateau, Dan; Martens, Patricia J; Leslie, William D; Enns, Murray W; Sareen, Jitender

    2014-01-15

    Motor vehicle collisions (MVCs) are the leading cause of death in young people in North America. The effects of such deaths on parents have not been systematically studied. Administrative data sets were used to identify all parents (n = 1,458) who had an offspring die in a MVC between 1996 and 2008 in the province of Manitoba, Canada. They were matched to general population control parents who had not had offspring die from any sudden cause during the study period. Generalized estimating equations were used to compare the rates of physician-diagnosed mental and physical disorders, social factors, and treatment utilization in the 2 parent groups in the 2 years before and after offspring death, with adjustment for confounding factors. The risk of depression among bereaved parents almost tripled (adjusted prevalence ratio = 2.85, 95% confidence interval: 2.44, 3.33; P < 0.001) during the 2 years after death of an offspring. Significant increases in the risk of anxiety disorders (adjusted prevalence ratio = 1.45, 95% confidence interval: 1.26, 1.67; P < 0.001) were also observed. When compared with nonbereaved parents, bereaved parents had significant increases in the risks of depression (P < 0.001), anxiety disorders (P < 0.001), marital break-up (P = 0.015), and physician visits for mental illness (P < 0.001) in the post-death period. In conclusion, parents who lose an offspring in a MVC experience considerable mental illness and marital disruption. PMID:24186971

  20. Teacher Certification in Manitoba.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manitoba Dept. of Education, Winnipeg.

    This booklet provides information for teachers wishing to qualify for certification in the Canadian province of Manitoba. Written in French and English, the booklet's topics include: (1) requirements for types of teaching certificates (provisional teaching; permanent teaching; special, vocational-industrial, and vocational-business education;

  1. Suicide death and hospital-treated suicidal behaviour in asylum seekers in the Netherlands: a national registry-based study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Several suicide and suicidal behaviour risk factors are highly prevalent in asylum seekers, but there is little insight into the suicide death rate and the suicidal behaviour incidence in this population. The main objective of this study is to assess the burden of suicide and hospital-treated non-fatal suicidal behaviour in asylum seekers in the Netherlands and to identify factors that could guide prevention. Methods We obtained data on cases of suicide and suicidal behaviour from all asylum seeker reception centres in the Netherlands (period 2002-2007, age 15+). The suicide death rates in this population and in subgroups by sex, age and region of origin were compared with the rate in the Dutch population; the rates of hospital-treated suicidal behaviour were compared with that in the population of The Hague using indirect age group standardization. Results The study included 35 suicide deaths and 290 cases of hospital-treated suicidal behaviour. The suicide death rate and the incidence of hospital-treated suicidal behaviour differed between subgroups by sex and region of origin. For male asylum seekers, the suicide death rate was higher than that of the Dutch population (N = 32; RR = 2.0, 95%CI 1.37-2.83). No difference was found between suicide mortality in female asylum seekers and in the female general population of the Netherlands (N = 3; RR = 0.73; 95%CI 0.15-2.07). The incidence of hospital-treated suicidal behaviour was high in comparison with the population of The Hague for males and females from Europe and the Middle East/South West Asia, and low for males and females from Africa. Health professionals knew about mental health problems prior to the suicidal behaviour for 80% of the hospital-treated suicidal behaviour cases in asylum seekers. Conclusions In this study the suicide death rate was higher in male asylum seekers than in males in the reference population. The incidence of hospital-treated suicidal behaviour was higher in several subgroups of asylum seekers than that in the reference population. We conclude that measures to prevent suicide and suicidal behaviour among asylum seekers in the Netherlands are indicated. PMID:21693002

  2. 40 CFR 745.90 - Renovator certification and dust sampling technician certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... renovator. (3) Individuals who have successfully completed an accredited lead-based paint inspector or risk...-accredited renovator refresher course before July 1, 2015, to maintain renovator certification. (b) * * *...

  3. Guidelines for the verification and validation of expert system software and conventional software: Evaluation of knowledge base certification methods. Volume 4

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, L.A.; Hayes, J.E.; Mirsky, S.M.

    1995-03-01

    This report presents the results of the Knowledge Base Certification activity of the expert systems verification and validation (V&V) guideline development project which is jointly funded by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the Electric Power Research Institute. The ultimate objective is the formulation of guidelines for the V&V of expert systems for use in nuclear power applications. This activity is concerned with the development and testing of various methods for assuring the quality of knowledge bases. The testing procedure used was that of behavioral experiment, the first known such evaluation of any type of V&V activity. The value of such experimentation is its capability to provide empirical evidence for -- or against -- the effectiveness of plausible methods in helping people find problems in knowledge bases. The three-day experiment included 20 participants from three nuclear utilities, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission`s Technical training Center, the University of Maryland, EG&G Idaho, and SAIC. The study used two real nuclear expert systems: a boiling water reactor emergency operating procedures tracking system and a pressurized water reactor safety assessment systems. Ten participants were assigned to each of the expert systems. All participants were trained in and then used a sequence of four different V&V methods selected as being the best and most appropriate for study on the basis of prior evaluation activities. These methods either involved the analysis and tracing of requirements to elements in the knowledge base (requirements grouping and requirements tracing) or else involved direct inspection of the knowledge base for various kinds of errors. Half of the subjects within each system group used the best manual variant of the V&V methods (the control group), while the other half were supported by the results of applying real or simulated automated tools to the knowledge bases (the experimental group).

  4. Consumption of PCB-contaminated sport fish and risk of spontaneous fetal death.

    PubMed Central

    Mendola, P; Buck, G M; Vena, J E; Zielezny, M; Sever, L E

    1995-01-01

    Spontaneous fetal death has been observed among various mammalian species after exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Our exposure-based cohort study assessed the relationship between consumption of PCB-contaminated Lake Ontario sport fish and spontaneous fetal death using 1820 multigravid fertile women from the 1990-1991 New York State Angler Cohort Study. Fish consumption data were obtained from food frequency questionnaires and history of spontaneous fetal death from live birth certificates. Analyses were stratified by number of prior pregnancies and controlled for smoking and maternal age. No significant increases in risk for fetal death were observed across four measures of exposure: a lifetime estimate of PCB exposure based on species-specific PCB levels; the number of years of fish consumption; kilograms of sport fish consumed in 1990-1991; and a lifetime estimate of kilograms eaten. A slight risk reduction was seen for women with two prior pregnancies at the highest level of PCB exposure (odds ratio = 0.36; 95% CI, 0.14-0.92) and for women with three or more prior pregnancies with increasing years of fish consumption (odds ratio = 0.97; 95% CI, 0.94-0.99). These findings suggest that consumption of PCB-contaminated sport fish does not increase the risk of spontaneous fetal death. PMID:7656880

  5. Consumption of PCB-contaminated sport fish and risk of spontaneous fetal death

    SciTech Connect

    Mendola, P.; Buck, G.M.; Vena, J.E.; Zielezny, M.; Sever, L.E.

    1995-05-01

    Spontaneous fetal death has been observed among various mammalian species after exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Our exposure-based cohort study assessed the relationship between consumption of PCB-contaminated Lake Ontario sport fish and spontaneous fetal death using 1820 multigravid fertile women from the 1990-1991 New York State Angler Cohort Study. Fish consumption data were obtained from food frequency questionnaires and history of spontaneous fetal death from live birth certificates. Analyses were stratified by number of prior pregnancies and controlled for smoking and maternal age. No significant increases in risk for fetal death were observed across four measures of exposure: a lifetime estimate of PCB exposure based on species-specific PCB levels; the number of years of fish consumption; kilograms of sport fish consumed in 1990-1991; and a lifetime estimate of kilograms eaten. A slight risk reduction was seen for women with two prior pregnancies at the highest level of PCB exposure (odds ratio = 0.36; 95% CI, 0.14-0.92) and for women with three or more prior pregnancies with increasing years of fish consumption (odds ratio = 0.97; 95% CI, 0.94-0.99). These findings suggest that consumption of PCB-contaminated sport fish does not increase the risk of spontaneous fetal death. 50 refs., 2 tabs.

  6. Building Intercultural Competence through Intercultural Competency Certification of Undergraduate Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Janeiro, Maria G. Fabregas; Fabre, Ricardo Lopez; Nuno de la Parra, Jose Pablo

    2014-01-01

    The Intercultural Competency Certificate (CCI in Spanish) designed for the Universidad Popular Autonoma del Estado de Puebla (UPAEP University) is a theory based comprehensive plan to develop undergraduate students' intercultural competence. This Certificate is based in the Developmental Model of Intercultural Sensitivity (DMIS) developed by…

  7. Building Intercultural Competence through Intercultural Competency Certification of Undergraduate Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Janeiro, Maria G. Fabregas; Fabre, Ricardo Lopez; Nuno de la Parra, Jose Pablo

    2014-01-01

    The Intercultural Competency Certificate (CCI in Spanish) designed for the Universidad Popular Autonoma del Estado de Puebla (UPAEP University) is a theory based comprehensive plan to develop undergraduate students' intercultural competence. This Certificate is based in the Developmental Model of Intercultural Sensitivity (DMIS) developed by

  8. Value, Challenges, and Satisfaction of Certification for Multiple Sclerosis Specialists

    PubMed Central

    Halper, June

    2014-01-01

    Background: Specialist certification among interdisciplinary multiple sclerosis (MS) team members provides formal recognition of a specialized body of knowledge felt to be necessary to provide optimal care to individuals and families living with MS. Multiple sclerosis specialist certification (MS Certified Specialist, or MSCS) first became available in 2004 for MS interdisciplinary team members, but prior to the present study had not been evaluated for its perceived value, challenges, and satisfaction. Methods: A sample consisting of 67 currently certified MS specialists and 20 lapsed-certification MS specialists completed the following instruments: Perceived Value of Certification Tool (PVCT), Perceived Challenges and Barriers to Certification Scale (PCBCS), Overall Satisfaction with Certification Scale, and a demographic data form. Results: Satisfactory reliability was shown for the total scale and four factored subscales of the PVCT and for two of the three factored PCBCS subscales. Currently certified MS specialists perceived significantly greater value and satisfaction than lapsed-certification MS specialists in terms of employer and peer recognition, validation of MS knowledge, and empowering MS patients. Lapsed-certification MS specialists reported increased confidence and caring for MS patients using evidence-based practice. Both currently certified and lapsed-certification groups reported dissatisfaction with MSCS recognition and pay/salary rewards. Conclusions: The results of this study can be used in efforts to encourage initial certification and recertification of interdisciplinary MS team members. PMID:25061432

  9. Spontaneous fetal death among multigravid fertile women in relation to sport fish consumption and PCB exposure, New York State Angler Study

    SciTech Connect

    Mendola, P.

    1994-01-01

    Spontaneous fetal death, a sentinel event for environmental reproductive toxicity, has been observed among various mammalian species following polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) exposure. This exposure-based cohort study assessed the relationship between PCB exposure due to consumption of contaminated Lake Ontario sport fish and spontaneous fetal death. Using 1,820 women from the 1990-1991 New York State Angler Study, fish consumption data were obtained from food frequency questionnaires and reproductive histories from live birth certificates. A reliability study demonstrated an excellent level of agreement between the exact number of spontaneous fetal deaths recorded on the birth certificate compared with telephone interview data (kappa = 0.83). Women who had never eaten Lake Ontario sport fish were unexposed (n = 979) and 841 women reported various levels of exposure. Analyses were stratified by maternal gravidity and controlled for smoking status and maternal age. No significant increases in risk for spontaneous fetal death were seen for any estimate of PCB exposure including lifetime estimate of PCB exposure based on species-specific PCB levels, years of fish consumption, and kilograms of fish consumed, either in the 1990-1991 season or in a lifetime estimate. The only significant finding was a slight risk reduction for women of gravidity three or more with years of fish consumption (odds ratio = 0.97; p = 0.03; 95% confidence interval = 0.94-0.99). These findings suggest that PCB exposure from contaminated sport fish does not increase the risk of spontaneous fetal death.

  10. Studies on time of death estimation in the early post mortem period -- application of a method based on eyeball temperature measurement to human bodies.

    PubMed

    Kaliszan, Micha?

    2013-09-01

    This paper presents a verification of the thermodynamic model allowing an estimation of the time of death (TOD) by calculating the post mortem interval (PMI) based on a single eyeball temperature measurement at the death scene. The study was performed on 30 cases with known PMI, ranging from 1h 35min to 5h 15min, using pin probes connected to a high precision electronic thermometer (Dostmann-electronic). The measured eye temperatures ranged from 20.2 to 33.1C. Rectal temperature was measured at the same time and ranged from 32.8 to 37.4C. Ambient temperatures which ranged from -1 to 24C, environmental conditions (still air to light wind) and the amount of hair on the head were also recorded every time. PMI was calculated using a formula based on Newton's law of cooling, previously derived and successfully tested in comprehensive studies on pigs and a few human cases. Thanks to both the significantly faster post mortem decrease of eye temperature and a residual or nonexistent plateau effect in the eye, as well as practically no influence of body mass, TOD in the human death cases could be estimated with good accuracy. The highest TOD estimation error during the post mortem intervals up to around 5h was 1h 16min, 1h 14min and 1h 03min, respectively in three cases among 30, while for the remaining 27 cases it was not more than 47min. The mean error for all 30 cases was 31min. All that indicates that the proposed method is of quite good precision in the early post mortem period, with an accuracy of 1h for a 95% confidence interval. On the basis of the presented method, TOD can be also calculated at the death scene with the use of a proposed portable electronic device (TOD-meter). PMID:23879937

  11. PEM public key certificate cache server

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheung, T.

    1993-12-01

    Privacy Enhanced Mail (PEM) provides privacy enhancement services to users of Internet electronic mail. Confidentiality, authentication, message integrity, and non-repudiation of origin are provided by applying cryptographic measures to messages transferred between end systems by the Message Transfer System. PEM supports both symmetric and asymmetric key distribution. However, the prevalent implementation uses a public key certificate-based strategy, modeled after the X.509 directory authentication framework. This scheme provides an infrastructure compatible with X.509. According to RFC 1422, public key certificates can be stored in directory servers, transmitted via non-secure message exchanges, or distributed via other means. Directory services provide a specialized distributed database for OSI applications. The directory contains information about objects and then provides structured mechanisms for accessing that information. Since directory services are not widely available now, a good approach is to manage certificates in a centralized certificate server. This document describes the detailed design of a centralized certificate cache serve. This server manages a cache of certificates and a cache of Certificate Revocation Lists (CRL's) for PEM applications. PEMapplications contact the server to obtain/store certificates and CRL's. The server software is programmed in C and ELROS. To use this server, ISODE has to be configured and installed properly. The ISODE library 'libisode.a' has to be linked together with this library because ELROS uses the transport layer functions provided by 'libisode.a.' The X.500 DAP library that is included with the ELROS distribution has to be linked in also, since the server uses the DAP library functions to communicate with directory servers.

  12. Diagnosis of brain death

    PubMed Central

    Machado, Calixto

    2010-01-01

    Brain death (BD) should be understood as the ultimate clinical expression of a brain catastrophe characterized by a complete and irreversible neurological stoppage, recognized by irreversible coma, absent brainstem reflexes, and apnea. The most common pattern is manifested by an elevation of intracranial pressure to a point beyond the mean arterial pressure, and hence cerebral perfusion pressure falls and, as a result, no net cerebral blood flow is present, in due course leading to permanent cytotoxic injury of the intracranial neuronal tissue. A second mechanism is an intrinsic injury affecting the nervous tissue at a cellular level which, if extensive and unremitting, can also lead to BD. We review here the methodology of diagnosing death, based on finding any of the signs of death. The irreversible loss of cardio-circulatory and respiratory functions can cause death only when ischemia and anoxia are prolonged enough to produce an irreversible destruction of the brain. The sign of such loss of brain functions, that is to say BD diagnosis, is fully reviewed. PMID:21577338

  13. Sex Differences in Dose Escalation and Overdose Death during Chronic Opioid Therapy: A Population-Based Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Kaplovitch, Eric; Gomes, Tara; Camacho, Ximena; Dhalla, Irfan A.; Mamdani, Muhammad M.; Juurlink, David N.

    2015-01-01

    Background The use of opioids for noncancer pain is widespread, and more than 16,000 die of opioid-related causes in the United States annually. The patients at greatest risk of death are those receiving high doses of opioids. Whether sex influences the risk of dose escalation or opioid-related mortality is unknown. Methods and Findings We conducted a cohort study using healthcare records of 32,499 individuals aged 15 to 64 who commenced chronic opioid therapy for noncancer pain between April 1, 1997 and December 31, 2010 in Ontario, Canada. Patients were followed from their first opioid prescription until discontinuation of therapy, death from any cause or the end of the study period. Among patients receiving chronic opioid therapy, 589 (1.8%) escalated to high dose therapy and n = 59 (0.2%) died of opioid-related causes while on treatment. After multivariable adjustment, men were more likely than women to escalate to high-dose opioid therapy (adjusted hazard ratio 1.44; 95% confidence interval 1.21 to 1.70) and twice as likely to die of opioid-related causes (adjusted hazard ratio 2.04; 95% confidence interval 1.18 to 3.53). These associations were maintained in a secondary analysis of 285,520 individuals receiving any opioid regardless of the duration of therapy. Conclusions Men are at higher risk than women for escalation to high-dose opioid therapy and death from opioid-related causes. Both outcomes were more common than anticipated. PMID:26291716

  14. Certification of training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibson, Richard S.

    1994-01-01

    Training has been around as an informal process for countless years. Most higher order animals require some level of training in hunting, social skills, or other survival related skills to continue their existence beyond early infancy. Much of the training is accomplished through imitation, trial and error, and good luck. In some ways the essentials of training in aviation have not deviated from this original formula a great deal. One of the major changes in aviation and other technical areas is that more complex response chains based on a broader base of knowledge are now required. 'To certify' means many things according to the American Heritage dictionary of the English Language. These meanings range from 'to guarantee as meeting a standard' to 'to declare legally insane'. For this discussion, we will use the definition 'an action taken by some authoritative body that essentially guarantees that the instruction meets some defined standard'. In order to make this certification, the responsible body subjects the educational process, training, training device, or simulator to some type of examination to determine its adequacy or validity.

  15. Low Lipoprotein(a) Concentration Is Associated with Cancer and All-Cause Deaths: A Population-Based Cohort Study (The JMS Cohort Study)

    PubMed Central

    Kayaba, Kazunori; Nakahara, Ken-ichi; Matsushita, Satoru

    2012-01-01

    Background Experimental studies support the anti-neoplastic effect of apo(a), but several clinical studies have reported contradictory results. The purpose of this study was to determine whether a low lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] concentration is related to mortality from major causes of death, especially cancer. Methods The subjects were 10,413 participants (4,005 men and 6,408 women) from a multi-center population-based cohort study in Japan (The Jichi Medical School cohort study). The average age at registration was 55.0 years, and the median observation period was 4,559 days. As the estimated hazard ratio was high for both the low and very high Lp(a) levels, we defined two Lp(a) groups: a low Lp(a) group [Lp(a)<80 mg/L] and an intermediate-to-high Lp(a) group [Lp(a)?80]. Participants who died from malignant neoplasms (n?=?316), cardiovascular disease (202), or other causes (312) during the observation period were examined. Results Cumulative incidence plots showed higher cumulative death rates for the low Lp(a) group than for the intermediate-to-high Lp(a) group for all-cause, cancer, and miscellaneous-cause deaths (p<0.001, p?=?0.03, and p?=?0.03, respectively). Cox proportional hazards analyses with the sex and age of the participants, body mass index, and smoking and drinking histories as covariates showed that a low Lp(a) level was a significant risk for all-cause, cancer, and miscellaneous-cause deaths (p<0.001, p?=?0.003, and p?=?0.01, respectively). The hazard ratio (95% CI) [1.48, 1.151.92] of a low Lp(a) level for cancer deaths was almost the same as that for a male sex (1.46, 1.002.13). Conclusions This is the first report to describe the association between a low Lp(a) level and all-cause or cancer death, supporting the anti-neoplastic effect of Lp(a). Further epidemiological studies are needed to confirm the present results. PMID:22485129

  16. Certification Exams. Let's Proceed.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKinney, William R.; Pope, Michael S.

    1986-01-01

    The authors discuss why certification examinations for park, recreation, and leisure professionals are needed and highlight specific concerns now being addressed by the Test Development Management Committee of the National Recreation and Park Association. (MT)

  17. Waterfront Certification Changes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Brien, Laurie

    1995-01-01

    Overviews certification changes affecting lifeguard training, progressive swimming instructors, CPR and first aid training, canoeing and kayaking instructors, sailing instructors, water skiing instructors, and instructor trainers. Addresses how changes impact American Camping Association standards. Provides addresses of training organizations. (LP)

  18. Operator Certification Study Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Water Works Association, Denver, CO.

    This study guide contains typical questions and answers that all levels of water treatment plant operators might expect to find on a certification examination. The manual covers the basic sciences, treatment techniques, testing procedures, and federal legislation. (Author/SB)

  19. An A+ Certification Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubenstein, Charles

    2003-01-01

    Describes the computer technology program at Thomas A. Edison Vocational and Technical High School in Queens, New York, all of whose graduates go on to specialty secondary schools for additional certification or to postsecondary education programs. (JOW)

  20. Laminar Flow Aircraft Certification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Louis J. (Compiler)

    1986-01-01

    Various topics telative to laminar flow aircraft certification are discussed. Boundary layer stability, flaps for laminar flow airfoils, computational wing design studies, manufacturing requirements, windtunnel tests, and flow visualization are among the topics covered.

  1. [Unnatural deaths must be investigated better--risk of crimes being missed. Examination of the police and the health care system management of deaths in three counties].

    PubMed

    Pettersson, Gisela; Eriksson, Anders

    In 2008 only 55 % of all deaths not deemed to be natural in Sweden underwent a medicolegal autopsy. In the present study we describe and compare the characteristics of unnatural deaths in three counties through review of death certificates for unnatural deaths and, when applicable, corresponding police reports. The majority of unnatural deaths that were not reported to the police were among elderly decedents, with the deaths most often resulting from a fall-related fracture or head injury. One subgroup among these deaths that were not recognized as reportable by the involved physician, estimated by extrapolation to a total of approximately 300 annually, nationwide, was considered to be at elevated risk for a criminal death (homicide). The causes of death in this group were due to, for example, high energy or sharp force trauma, gunshot injury, asphyxia, and drug and/or alcohol intoxication. We conclude that additional training in the handling of unnatural deaths is indicated for Swedish physicians. PMID:25423339

  2. Atomic oxygen interaction with spacecraft materials: Relationship between orbital and ground-based testing for materials certification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cross, Jon B.; Koontz, Steven L.; Lan, Esther H.

    1993-01-01

    The effects of atomic oxygen on boron nitride (BN), silicon nitride (Si3N4), Intelsat 6 solar cell interconnects, organic polymers, and MoS2 and WS2 dry lubricant, were studied in Low Earth Orbit (LEO) flight experiments and in a ground based simulation facility. Both the inflight and ground based experiments employed in situ electrical resistance measurements to detect penetration of atomic oxygen through materials and Electron Spectroscopy for Chemical Analysis (ESCA) analysis to measure chemical composition changes. Results are given. The ground based results on the materials studied to date show good qualitative correlation with the LEO flight results, thus validating the simulation fidelity of the ground based facility in terms of reproducing LEO flight results. In addition it was demonstrated that ground based simulation is capable of performing more detailed experiments than orbital exposures can presently perform. This allows the development of a fundamental understanding of the mechanisms involved in the LEO environment degradation of materials.

  3. Causes of death among undocumented migrants in Sweden, 19972010

    PubMed Central

    Wahlberg, Anna; Kllestl, Carina; Lundgren, AnnaCarin; Essn, Birgitta

    2014-01-01

    Background Undocumented migrants are one of the most vulnerable groups in Swedish society, where they generally suffer from poor health and limited health care access. Due to their irregular status, such migrants are an under-researched group and are not included in the countrys Cause of Death Register (CDR). Objective To determine the causes of death among undocumented migrants in Sweden and to ascertain whether there are patterns in causes of death that differ between residents and undocumented migrants. Design This is a cross-sectional study of death certificates issued from 1997 to 2010 but never included in the CDR from which we established our study sample of undocumented migrants. As age adjustments could not be performed due to lack of data, comparisons between residents and undocumented migrants were made at specific age intervals, based on the study samples mean age at deatha half standard deviation. Results Out of 7,925 individuals surveyed, 860 were classified as likely to have been undocumented migrants. External causes (49.8%) were the most frequent cause of death, followed by circulatory system diseases, and then neoplasms. Undocumented migrants had a statistically significant increased risk of dying from external causes (odds ratio [OR] 3.57, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.834.52) and circulatory system diseases (OR 2.20, 95% CI: 1.732.82) compared to residents, and a lower risk of dying from neoplasms (OR 0.07, 95% CI: 0.040.14). Conclusions We believe our study is the first to determine national figures on causes of death of undocumented migrants. We found inequity in health as substantial differences in causes of death between undocumented migrants and residents were seen. Legal ambiguities regarding health care provision must be addressed if equity in health is to be achieved in a country otherwise known for its universal health coverage. PMID:24909409

  4. Certification of computational results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sullivan, Gregory F.; Wilson, Dwight S.; Masson, Gerald M.

    1993-01-01

    A conceptually novel and powerful technique to achieve fault detection and fault tolerance in hardware and software systems is described. When used for software fault detection, this new technique uses time and software redundancy and can be outlined as follows. In the initial phase, a program is run to solve a problem and store the result. In addition, this program leaves behind a trail of data called a certification trail. In the second phase, another program is run which solves the original problem again. This program, however, has access to the certification trail left by the first program. Because of the availability of the certification trail, the second phase can be performed by a less complex program and can execute more quickly. In the final phase, the two results are compared and if they agree the results are accepted as correct; otherwise an error is indicated. An essential aspect of this approach is that the second program must always generate either an error indication or a correct output even when the certification trail it receives from the first program is incorrect. The certification trail approach to fault tolerance is formalized and realizations of it are illustrated by considering algorithms for the following problems: convex hull, sorting, and shortest path. Cases in which the second phase can be run concurrently with the first and act as a monitor are discussed. The certification trail approach are compared to other approaches to fault tolerance.

  5. USING RISK-BASED CORRECTIVE ACTION (RBCA) TO ASSESS (THEORETICAL) CANCER DEATHS AVERTED COMPARED TO THE (REAL) COST OF ENVIRONMENTAL REMEDIATION

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, M. L.; Hylko, J. M.

    2002-02-25

    In 1978, on the basis of existing health studies at the time, the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project legislation was proposed that would authorize remedial action at inactive uranium processing sites and vicinity properties. The cost of the program to the Federal Government was expected to be $180 million. With the completion of this project, approximately 1300 theoretical cancer deaths were prevented in the next 100 years at a cost of $1.45 billion, based on the Fiscal Year 1998 Federal UMTRA budget. The individual site costs ranged from $0.2 million up to $18 billion spent per theoretical cancer death averted over the next 100 years. Resources required to sustain remediation activities such as this are subject to reduction over time, and are originally based on conservative assumptions that tend to overestimate risks to the general public. This evaluation used a process incorporating risk-based corrective action (RBCA); a three-tiered, decision-making process tailoring corrective action activities according to site-specific conditions and risks. If RBCA had been applied at the start of the UMTRA Project, and using a criterion of >1 excess cancer death prevented as justification to remediate the site, only 50% of the existing sites would have been remediated, yielding a cost savings of $303.6 million to the Federal Government and affected States, which share 10% of the cost. This cost savings equates to 21% of the overall project budget. In addition, only 22% of the vicinity properties had structural contamination contributing to elevated interior gamma exposure and radon levels. Focusing only on these particular properties could have saved an additional $269.3 million, yielding a total savings of $573 million; 40% of the overall project budget. As operational experience is acquired, including greater understanding of the radiological and nonradiological risks, decisions should be based on the RBCA process, rather than relying on conservative assumptions that tend to overestimate risks to the general public.

  6. Viking site selection and certification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Masursky, H.; Crabill, N. L.

    1981-01-01

    The landing site selection and certification effort for the Viking mission to Mars is reviewed from the premission phase through the acquisition of data and decisions during mission operations and the immediate postlanding evaluation. The utility and limitations of the orbital television and infrared data and ground based radar observation of candidate and actual landing sites are evaluated. Additional instruments and types of observations which would have been useful include higher resolution cameras, radar altimeters, and terrain hazard avoidance capability in the landing system. Suggestions based on this experience that might be applied to future missions are included.

  7. Spatial analysis of deaths from pulmonary tuberculosis in the city of São Luís, Brazil*

    PubMed Central

    Santos-Neto, Marcelino; Yamamura, Mellina; Garcia, Maria Concebida da Cunha; Popolin, Marcela Paschoal; Silveira, Tatiane Ramos dos Santos; Arcêncio, Ricardo Alexandre

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To characterize deaths from pulmonary tuberculosis, according to sociodemographic and operational variables, in the city of São Luís, Brazil, and to describe their spatial distribution. METHODS: This was an exploratory ecological study based on secondary data from death certificates, obtained from the Brazilian Mortality Database, related to deaths from pulmonary tuberculosis. We included all deaths attributed to pulmonary tuberculosis that occurred in the urban area of São Luís between 2008 and 2012. We performed univariate and bivariate analyses of the sociodemographic and operational variables of the deaths investigated, as well as evaluating the spatial distribution of the events by kernel density estimation. RESULTS: During the study period, there were 193 deaths from pulmonary tuberculosis in São Luís. The median age of the affected individuals was 52 years. Of the 193 individuals who died, 142 (73.60%) were male, 133 (68.91%) were Mulatto, 102 (53.13%) were single, and 64 (33.16%) had completed middle school. There was a significant positive association between not having received medical care prior to death and an autopsy having been performed (p = 0.001). A thematic map by density of points showed that the spatial distribution of those deaths was heterogeneous and that the density was as high as 8.12 deaths/km2. CONCLUSIONS: The sociodemographic and operational characteristics of the deaths from pulmonary tuberculosis evaluated in this study, as well as the identification of priority areas for control and surveillance of the disease, could promote public health policies aimed at reducing health inequities, allowing the optimization of resources, as well as informing decisions regarding the selection of strategies and specific interventions targeting the most vulnerable populations. PMID:25410843

  8. Correction of vital statistics based on a proactive search of deaths and live births: evidence from a study of the North and Northeast regions of Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In the last 20years, Brazil has undergone dramatic changes in terms of socioeconomic development and health care. In the first decade of the 2000s, the Ministry of Health (MoH) developed a series of programs focused on reducing infant mortality, including the Family Health Program as a national policy for primary care. In this paper, we propose a method to correct underreporting of deaths and live births. After vital statistics are corrected, infant mortality trends are analyzed for the period 20002010 by macro-geographical region. Methods A proactive search of live births and deaths was carried out in the Amazon and Northeast regions in 2010 to find vital events that occurred in 2008 and were not reported to the Ministry of Health. The probabilistic sample of 133 municipalities was stratified by adequacy of vital information reporting. For each municipality, the adequacy analysis was based on the reported age-standardized mortality rate per 1,000 population and the ratio between reported and estimated live births. Correction factors were estimated by strata based on additional vital events found in the proactive search. The procedure was generalized to correct municipal vital statistics for the period 20002010. Results In the proactive search, 35% of non-reported deaths were found within the health system (hospitals and other health establishments), but 28% were found in non-official sources, like illegal cemeteries. In areas of extreme poverty and unreliable vital information, the estimated completeness of infant death reporting was only 33%. After correction of vital information, the estimated infant mortality rate decreased from 26.1 in 2000 to 16.0 in 2010, with an annual rate of decrease of 4.7%, greater than the required rate to achieve the Millennium Development Goal. Among Brazilian regions, the Northeast showed the largest decrease, from 38.4 to 20.1 per 1,000 live births. Conclusions The proactive search for vital events was shown to be a good strategy both in terms of understanding local irregularities and for correcting vital statistics. The methodology could be applied in other countries to routinely assess the pattern and extent of birth and death under-registration in order to improve the utility of these data to inform health policies. PMID:24966804

  9. Sudden infant death syndrome

    MedlinePLUS

    Crib death; SIDS ... However, SIDS is still a major cause of death in infants under one year old. Thousands of ... affects boys more often than girls. Most SIDS deaths occur in the winter. The following may increase ...

  10. Death: 'nothing' gives insight.

    PubMed

    Ettema, Eric J

    2013-08-01

    According to a widely accepted belief, we cannot know our own death--death means 'nothing' to us. At first sight, the meaning of 'nothing' just implies the negation or absence of 'something'. Death then simply refers to the negation or absence of life. As a consequence, however, death has no meaning of itself. This leads to an ontological paradox in which death is both acknowledged and denied: death is nothing. In this article, I investigate whether insight into the ontological paradox of the nothingness of death can contribute to a good end-of-life. By analysing Aquinas', Heidegger's and Derrida's understanding of death as nothingness, I explore how giving meaning to death on different ontological levels connects to, and at the same time provides resistance against, the harsh reality of death. By doing so, I intend to demonstrate that insight into the nothingness of death can count as a framework for a meaningful dealing with death. PMID:23054426

  11. Assessment of a sudden death case due to coronary artery disease based on the PMCT and forensic autopsy.

    PubMed

    Wan, Lei; Zhang, Jian-hua; Huang, Ping; Ying, Chong-liang; Liu, Ning-guo; Zhu, Guang-you

    2012-10-01

    It is never an easy thing to diagnose heart vascular disease only depending on the unenhanced postmortem computed tomography (PMCT). This article reported a case of sudden natural death after the complaint of anterior chest pain in which coronary artery calcification (CAC) was clearly displayed using PMCT scan. The entire coronary artery system was almost reconstructed via multiplanar reformation (MPR) and volume-rendering reconstruction (VR), and the total calcium score of the coronary arteries was obtained with CaScoring automatic analysis software. The results showed that CAC was conspicuous; the total calcium score was 640.3, considerably higher than 400. The pulmonary ground-glass opacity (GGO) and small amount of fluid both in the subglottic trachea and main bronchi were also found. The imaging results confirmed those of autopsy. In addition, the results concluded that PMCT might serve as an invaluable adjunct to the classic autopsy procedure. PMID:23213791

  12. Personnel Issues in School-Based Physical Therapy: A Look at Supply and Demand, Professional Preparation, Licensure, and Certification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rapport, Mary Jane K.; Effgen, Susan K.

    2004-01-01

    Physical therapy in school settings focuses on outcomes and is based on meeting the educational needs of the child or student. Despite the expansion in delivery models beyond direct one-to-one intervention, and the use of multiple team members, to achieve outcomes for students in educational environments, there continue to be shortages of physical

  13. In vitro study of cell death with 5-aminolevulinic acid based photodynamic therapy to improve the efficiency of cancer treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Firdous, S.; Nawaz, M.; Ikram, M.; Ahmed, M.

    2012-03-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a kind of photochemo therapeutic treatment that exerts its effect mainly through the induction of cell death. Distinct types of cell death may be elicited by different PDT regimes. In this study, efforts are underway to optimize PDT protocols for improved efficacy and combination of all three PDT mechanisms involved in the different human carcinomas cell narcosis. Our in vitro cell culture experiments with 5-aminolevulanic acid (ALA) a clinically approved photiosensitizer (PS) and 635 nm laser light have yielded promising results, as follow: (1) (human cervical cancer (HeLa) cell line incubated, for 18 h, with 30 ?g/ml of 5-ALA, treated with laser light dose of 50 J/cm2 can produce 85% of cell killing (2) human larynx carcinoma (Hep2c) cell line incubated, for 7 h, with 55 ?g/ml of 5-ALA, treated with laser light dose of 85 J/cm2 can produce 75% of cell killing (3) human liver cancer (HepG2) cell line incubated, for 22-48 h, with 262 ?g/ml of 5-ALA, treated with laser light dose of 120 J/cm2 can produce 95% of cell killing (4) human muscle cancer (RD) cell line incubated, for 47 h, with 250 ?g/ml of 5-ALA, treated with laser light dose of 80 J/cm2 can produce 76% of cell killing (5) Human embryonic kidney (HEK293T) cell line incu-bated, for 18 h, with 400 ?g/ml of 5-ALA, treated with laser light dose of 40 J/cm2 can produce 82% of cell killing confirming the efficacy of photodynamic therapy.

  14. Disease classification: measuring the effect of the Tenth Revision of the International Classification of Diseases on cause-of-death data in the United States.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Robert N; Rosenberg, Harry M

    2003-05-15

    The purpose of this paper is to describe the statistical impact of the Tenth Revision of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10) on cause-of-death data for the United States. ICD-10 was implemented in the U.S. effective with deaths occurring in 1999. The paper is based on cause-of-death information from a large sample of 1996 death certificates filed in the 50 States and the District of Columbia. Cause-of-death information in the sample includes underlying cause of death classified by both ICD-9 and ICD-10. Preliminary comparability ratios by cause of death presented in this paper indicate the extent of discontinuities in cause-of-death trends from 1998 to 1999 resulting from implementing ICD-10. For some leading causes (for example, septicaemia, influenza and pneumonia, Alzheimer's disease, and nephritis, nephrotic syndrome and nephrosis) the discontinuity in trend is substantial. Results of this study, although preliminary, are essential to analysing trends in mortality statistics between ICD-9 and ICD-10. In particular, the results provide a means for interpreting changes between 1998, which is the last year in which ICD-9 was used, and 1999, the year in which ICD-10 was implemented for mortality in the United States. Published in 2003 by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:12704615

  15. Dealing with Human Death: The Floating Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenyon, Gary M.

    1991-01-01

    Explores approach to dealing with human death. Describes floating perspective, based on insights from Choron and Jaspers, as suggesting it is possible to deal with human death by refraining from taking ultimate position on the problem. Position encourages openness to death. Examines role of anxiety and describes possible meaningful outcomes of

  16. Death Education for the Health Professional.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benoliel, Jeanne Quint, Ed.

    The perspectives of a number of health professionals based on their experiences in providing death education courses are presented in essays. In "Interdisciplinary Death Education in a Nursing School" (Helen L. Swain and Kathleen V. Cowles), the development of an undergraduate elective course in death, dying, and bereavement at the University of…

  17. 7 CFR 205.405 - Denial of certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Denial of certification. 205.405 Section 205.405... agent has reason to believe, based on a review of the information specified in § 205.402 or § 205.404....501(a)(14). (d) A notice of denial of certification must state the reason(s) for denial and...

  18. The Assessment of Alternative Certification Practices. Panel Presentations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allegro, Annalisa

    This panel discussion focuses on alternative teacher certification. Alternative certification is a way of becoming a bilingual education or English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) teacher without completing a preservice college program. It has three areas: formal instruction, school-based supervision, and evaluation. It serves the purpose of more…

  19. Developing an Online Certification Program for Nutrition Education Assistants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christofferson, Debra; Christensen, Nedra; LeBlanc, Heidi; Bunch, Megan

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To develop an online certification program for nutrition education paraprofessionals to increase knowledge and confidence and to overcome training barriers of programming time and travel expenses. Design: An online interactive certification course based on Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program-Education and Expanded Food and…

  20. 30 CFR 35.9 - Certificates of approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS FIRE-RESISTANT HYDRAULIC FLUIDS General Provisions 35.9 Certificates of approval. (a) Upon completion of an investigation of a hydraulic fluid MSHA will issue to the applicant... hydraulic fluid upon which the certificate of approval is based. In addition to the applicant's record...

  1. 30 CFR 35.9 - Certificates of approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS FIRE-RESISTANT HYDRAULIC FLUIDS General Provisions 35.9 Certificates of approval. (a) Upon completion of an investigation of a hydraulic fluid MSHA will issue to the applicant... hydraulic fluid upon which the certificate of approval is based. In addition to the applicant's record...

  2. 30 CFR 35.9 - Certificates of approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS FIRE-RESISTANT HYDRAULIC FLUIDS General Provisions 35.9 Certificates of approval. (a) Upon completion of an investigation of a hydraulic fluid MSHA will issue to the applicant... hydraulic fluid upon which the certificate of approval is based. In addition to the applicant's record...

  3. 30 CFR 35.9 - Certificates of approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS FIRE-RESISTANT HYDRAULIC FLUIDS General Provisions 35.9 Certificates of approval. (a) Upon completion of an investigation of a hydraulic fluid MSHA will issue to the applicant... hydraulic fluid upon which the certificate of approval is based. In addition to the applicant's record...

  4. A Parallel Universe: Certification in the Information Technology Guild.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adelman, Clifford

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the growing importance of transnational, competency-based training in information technology and considers implications for traditional institutions of higher education. Considers the awarding of certificates rather than degrees; the types of providers offering training; the role of testing companies in the certification process; and the

  5. 30 CFR 35.9 - Certificates of approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS FIRE-RESISTANT HYDRAULIC FLUIDS General Provisions § 35.9 Certificates of approval. (a) Upon completion of an investigation of a hydraulic fluid MSHA will issue to the applicant... hydraulic fluid upon which the certificate of approval is based. In addition to the applicant's record...

  6. Developing an Online Certification Program for Nutrition Education Assistants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christofferson, Debra; Christensen, Nedra; LeBlanc, Heidi; Bunch, Megan

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To develop an online certification program for nutrition education paraprofessionals to increase knowledge and confidence and to overcome training barriers of programming time and travel expenses. Design: An online interactive certification course based on Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program-Education and Expanded Food and

  7. Problem Solving Abilities and Perceptions in Alternative Certification Mathematics Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Brian R.

    2012-01-01

    It is important for teacher educators to understand new alternative certification middle and high school teachers' mathematical problem solving abilities and perceptions. Teachers in an alternative certification program in New York were enrolled in a proof-based algebra course. At the beginning and end of a semester participants were given a

  8. Subspecialty Certification by the American Board of Psychiatry and Neurology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juul, Dorthea; Scheiber, Stephen C.; Kramer, Thomas A. M.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: The authors describe the approval processes for subspecialties and the mechanisms for certification and recertification and review the status of training programs and numbers of diplomates with subspecialty certification. Methods: Published information and relevant data bases were reviewed. To date, 5,327 child and adolescent

  9. 15 CFR 996.22 - Certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... REQUIREMENTS FOR NOAA HYDROGRAPHIC PRODUCTS AND SERVICES QUALITY ASSURANCE AND CERTIFICATION REQUIREMENTS FOR NOAA HYDROGRAPHIC PRODUCTS AND SERVICES Certification of a Hydrographic Product and Decertification... automatically be considered for certification by NOAA. NOAA shall make its certification determination, if...

  10. 15 CFR 996.22 - Certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... REQUIREMENTS FOR NOAA HYDROGRAPHIC PRODUCTS AND SERVICES QUALITY ASSURANCE AND CERTIFICATION REQUIREMENTS FOR NOAA HYDROGRAPHIC PRODUCTS AND SERVICES Certification of a Hydrographic Product and Decertification... automatically be considered for certification by NOAA. NOAA shall make its certification determination, if...

  11. 15 CFR 996.22 - Certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... REQUIREMENTS FOR NOAA HYDROGRAPHIC PRODUCTS AND SERVICES QUALITY ASSURANCE AND CERTIFICATION REQUIREMENTS FOR NOAA HYDROGRAPHIC PRODUCTS AND SERVICES Certification of a Hydrographic Product and Decertification... automatically be considered for certification by NOAA. NOAA shall make its certification determination, if...

  12. 15 CFR 996.22 - Certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... REQUIREMENTS FOR NOAA HYDROGRAPHIC PRODUCTS AND SERVICES QUALITY ASSURANCE AND CERTIFICATION REQUIREMENTS FOR NOAA HYDROGRAPHIC PRODUCTS AND SERVICES Certification of a Hydrographic Product and Decertification... automatically be considered for certification by NOAA. NOAA shall make its certification determination, if...

  13. 15 CFR 996.22 - Certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... REQUIREMENTS FOR NOAA HYDROGRAPHIC PRODUCTS AND SERVICES QUALITY ASSURANCE AND CERTIFICATION REQUIREMENTS FOR NOAA HYDROGRAPHIC PRODUCTS AND SERVICES Certification of a Hydrographic Product and Decertification... automatically be considered for certification by NOAA. NOAA shall make its certification determination, if...

  14. Council on Certification Professional Practice Analysis.

    PubMed

    Zaglaniczny, K L

    1993-06-01

    The CCNA has completed a PPA and will begin implementing its recommendations with the December 1993 certification examination. The results of the PPA provide content validation for the CCNA certification examination. The certification examination is reflective of the knowledge and skill required for entry-level practice. Assessment of this knowledge is accomplished through the use of questions that are based on the areas represented in the content outline. Analysis of the PPA has resulted in changes in the examination content outline and percentages of questions in each area to reflect current entry-level nurse anesthesia practice. The new outline is based on the major domains of knowledge required for nurse anesthesia practice. These changes are justified by the consistency in the responses of the practitioners surveyed. There was overall agreement as to the knowledge and skills related to patient conditions, procedures, agents, techniques, and equipment that an entry-level CRNA must have to practice. Members of the CCNA and Examination Committee will use the revised outline to develop questions for the certification examination. The questions will be focused on the areas identified as requiring high levels of expertise and those that appeared higher in frequency. The PPA survey will be used as a basis for subsequent content validation studies. It will be revised to reflect new knowledge, technology, and techniques related to nurse anesthesia practice. The CCNA has demonstrated its commitment to the certification process through completion of the PPA and implementation of changes in the structure of the examination. PMID:8291387

  15. Too many or too few unintentional firearm deaths in official U.S. mortality data?

    PubMed

    Barber, Catherine; Hemenway, David

    2011-05-01

    We examined the accuracy of data on unintentional firearm fatalities in the United States. We began with data from the National Violent Death Reporting System (NVDRS) and examined every firearm death reported as an accident by any NVDRS data source--the NVDRS abstracter, the State Vital Statistics Registry (i.e., the ICD-10 Underlying Cause of Death code and manner of death from the death certificate), the medical examiner or coroner report, and the police Supplementary Homicide Report. After carefully reading the information from all sources, we then classified each case as either unintentional or intentional using NVDRS definitions. Comparing our classification with that of the NVDRS abstracter, we conclude that NVDRS data accurately report unintentional firearm deaths (sensitivity 98%; positive predictive value [PPV] 99%). We then compared our classification with that of the State Vital Statistics Registry based on the ICD-10 Underlying Cause of Death code and found great inaccuracy (sensitivity 62%; PPV 58%). Thirty-eight percent of true cases were missed and 42% of reported cases were false positives. As has been previously reported in the literature, over half of unintentional shootings that were inflicted by another person were classified as homicides, not accidents. This is a particular problem for the data on young victims. What was unexpected, however, was the opposite problem: we found many unambiguous suicides and homicides that were reported as accidents. We believe this is due to the ICD-10 coding practice of assigning injury deaths to the "accident" category when manner of death is "pending" or left blank. Finally, at the state-level, we compared our overall results for each state and year with the official National Vital Statistics System count (reported on CDC's WONDER website). We found evidence of even greater over-reporting of unintentional firearm deaths there. In answer to the question, "Are there too many or too few unintentional firearm deaths in official mortality data?" the best answer is, "Both." Many true accidents are missed, while many suicides and homicides are mistakenly reported as accidents. By contrast, the NVDRS applies a case definition for unintentional firearm deaths with consistency and accuracy. PMID:21376860

  16. Child deaths of unknown cause: review of 7 years' experience.

    PubMed

    Bowen, Kathryn A; Marshall, William N

    2004-01-01

    Using data from the Pima County (Arizona) Child Fatality Review Team, we sought to describe the nature of unknown cause pediatric deaths. Of 1,150 total deaths (1995-2001), 22 were unknown cause and 3 had only a mode of death on the death certificate. There were 15 infants <6 months, 4 children 1-4 years, 2 children 5-9 years, 1 preteen (10-14 years), and 3 aged 15-17 years. Four patterns were seen: those resembling SIDS but with confounding history, autopsy, or scene investigation; sleeping toddlers with respiratory symptoms; children with underlying conditions not expected to cause death; and deaths without complete investigation. PMID:15583775

  17. Ferroptosis: Death by Lipid Peroxidation.

    PubMed

    Yang, Wan Seok; Stockwell, Brent R

    2016-03-01

    Ferroptosis is a regulated form of cell death driven by loss of activity of the lipid repair enzyme glutathione peroxidase 4 (GPX4) and subsequent accumulation of lipid-based reactive oxygen species (ROS), particularly lipid hydroperoxides. This form of iron-dependent cell death is genetically, biochemically, and morphologically distinct from other cell death modalities, including apoptosis, unregulated necrosis, and necroptosis. Ferroptosis is regulated by specific pathways and is involved in diverse biological contexts. Here we summarize the discovery of ferroptosis, the mechanism of ferroptosis regulation, and its increasingly appreciated relevance to both normal and pathological physiology. PMID:26653790

  18. 20 CFR 656.26 - Board of Alien Labor Certification Appeals review of denials of labor certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... IN THE UNITED STATES Labor Certification Process 656.26 Board of Alien Labor Certification Appeals... received from any court, DHS, or the Department of State, upon which the debarment was based. (2) The...(f), a request for review of the denial, revocation, or debarment may be made to the Board of...

  19. 20 CFR 656.26 - Board of Alien Labor Certification Appeals review of denials of labor certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... IN THE UNITED STATES Labor Certification Process 656.26 Board of Alien Labor Certification Appeals... received from any court, DHS, or the Department of State, upon which the debarment was based. (2) The...(f), a request for review of the denial, revocation, or debarment may be made to the Board of...

  20. 20 CFR 656.26 - Board of Alien Labor Certification Appeals review of denials of labor certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... IN THE UNITED STATES Labor Certification Process 656.26 Board of Alien Labor Certification Appeals... received from any court, DHS, or the Department of State, upon which the debarment was based. (2) The...(f), a request for review of the denial, revocation, or debarment may be made to the Board of...

  1. 20 CFR 656.26 - Board of Alien Labor Certification Appeals review of denials of labor certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... IN THE UNITED STATES Labor Certification Process 656.26 Board of Alien Labor Certification Appeals... received from any court, DHS, or the Department of State, upon which the debarment was based. (2) The...(f), a request for review of the denial, revocation, or debarment may be made to the Board of...

  2. 20 CFR 656.26 - Board of Alien Labor Certification Appeals review of denials of labor certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... IN THE UNITED STATES Labor Certification Process 656.26 Board of Alien Labor Certification Appeals... received from any court, DHS, or the Department of State, upon which the debarment was based. (2) The...(f), a request for review of the denial, revocation, or debarment may be made to the Board of...

  3. Certification assays for HIV-1-based vectors: frequent passage of gag sequences without evidence of replication-competent viruses.

    PubMed

    Sastry, Lakshmi; Xu, Yi; Johnson, Terry; Desai, Kunal; Rissing, David; Marsh, Jonathan; Cornetta, Kenneth

    2003-11-01

    A principal concern regarding the safety of HIV-1-based vectors is replication-competent lentivirus (RCL). We have developed two PCR assays for detecting RCL; the first detects recombination between gag regions in the transfer vector and the packaging construct (sensitivity of detection approximately 10-100 copies of target sequence). The second assay uses real-time PCR to detect vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein (VSVG) envelope DNA (sensitivity approximately 5-50 VSVG sequences). In an attempt to amplify any RCL, test vectors were used to transduce C8166 and 293 cells, which were then screened weekly for 3 weeks. Psi-gag recombinants were routinely detected (20 of 21 analyses) in four transductions using the RRL-CMV-GFP vector. In contrast, VSVG sequences were detected only once in 21 analyses. Interestingly, p24 levels (as measured by ELISA) were occasionally detectable after 3 weeks of culture. To determine if a true RCL was present, 21-day cell-free medium was used to transduce nave cells. No evidence of psi-gag or VSVG transfer was detected, indicating that the recombination events were insufficient to reconstitute a true RCL. These findings have important implications for the design and safety of HIV-1-based vectors intended for clinical applications. PMID:14599817

  4. Issues and Opinions on Special Education Certification in the State of Alaska. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Marilyn Kay

    A survey of agencies and persons involved with the education of handicapped students in Alaska was undertaken to examine state practices in teacher certification. A review of the literature on such issues as accreditation, certification, endorsement and competency based certification across the country was performed. Alaska state laws and

  5. Atomic oxygen interaction with spacecraft materials: Relationship between orbital and ground-based testing for materials certification

    SciTech Connect

    Cross, J.B. ); Koontz, S.L. . Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center); Lan, E.H. )

    1991-01-01

    The effects of atomic oxygen on boron nitride, silicon nitride, solar cell interconnects used on the Intelsat 6 satellite, organic polymers, and MoS{sub 2} and WS{sub 2} dry lubricant have been studied in low Earth orbit (LEO) flight experiments and in our ground-based simulation facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory. Both the in-flight and ground-based experiments employed in situ electrical resistance measurements to detect penetration of atomic oxygen through materials and ESCA analysis to measure chemical composition changes. In the presence of atomic oxygen, silver oxidizes to form silver oxide, which has a much higher electrical resistance than pure silver. Permeation of atomic oxygen through BN overcoated on thin silver was observed. No permeation of atomic oxygen through Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} was observed. Test results on the Intelsat 6 satellite interconnects used on its photovoltaic array indicate that more than 60--80% of the original thickness of silver should remain after completion of the proposed Space Shuttle rescue/reboost mission. Gas phase reaction products produced by the interaction of high kinetic energy atomic oxygen (AO) with Kapton were found to be H{sub 2}, H{sub 2}O, CO, and CO{sub 2} with NO being a possible secondary product. Hydrogen abstraction at high AO kinetic energy is postulated to be the key reaction controlling the erosion rate of Kapton. An Arrhenius-like expression having an activation barrier of 0.4 eV can be fit to the data, which suggests that the rate limiting step in the AO/Kapton reaction mechanism can be overcome by translational energy. Oxidation of MoS{sub 2} and WS{sub 2} dry lubricants in both ground-based and orbital exposures indicated the formation of MoO{sub 3} and WO{sub 3} respectively. A protective oxide layer is formed {approx}30 monolayers thick which has a high initial friction coefficient until the layer is worn off.

  6. 7 CFR 1401.4 - Commodity certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... exchanged for cash, as provided for in this section. Commodity certificates shall be subject to the... certificate to CCC shall endorse the certificate to CCC. (d) Exchange of commodity certificate for CCC-owned... section, any holder of a commodity certificate may exchange such certificate, by itself or together...

  7. 7 CFR 1401.4 - Commodity certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... exchanged for cash, as provided for in this section. Commodity certificates shall be subject to the... certificate to CCC shall endorse the certificate to CCC. (d) Exchange of commodity certificate for CCC-owned... section, any holder of a commodity certificate may exchange such certificate, by itself or together...

  8. Role of connexin-based gap junction channels and hemichannels in ischemia-induced cell death in nervous tissue

    PubMed Central

    Contreras, Jorge E.; Snchez, Helmuth A.; Vliz, Loreto P.; Bukauskas, Feliksas F.; Bennett, Michael V.L.; Sez, Juan C.

    2013-01-01

    Gap junction channels and hemichannels formed of connexin subunits are found in most cell types in vertebrates. Gap junctions connect cells via channels not open to the extracellular space and permit the passage of ions and molecules of ~1 kDa. Single connexin hemichannels, which are connexin hexamers, are present in the surface membrane before docking with a hemichannel in an apposed membrane. Because of their high conductance and permeability in cellcell channels, it had been thought that connexin hemichannels remained closed until docking to form a cellcell channel. Now it is clear that at least some hemichannels can open to allow passage of molecules between the cytoplasm and extracellular space. Here we review evidence that gap junction channels may allow intercellular diffusion of necrotic or apoptotic signals, but may also allow diffusion of ions and substances from healthy to injured cells, thereby contributing to cell survival. Moreover, opening of gap junction hemichannels may exacerbate cell injury or mediate paracrine or autocrine signaling. In addition to the cell specific features of an ischemic insult, propagation of cell damage and death within affected tissues may be affected by expression and regulation of gap junction channels and hemichannels formed by connexins. PMID:15572178

  9. Children and Death.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brennan, Andrew J. J.

    Health professionals and educators should develop their abilities to educate about death and to comfort the bereaved. Due to lower death rates, the lack of philosophical religious views, and distorted perceptions of death contributed by television, death has become a mystery instead of a segment of the common experience. Particularly when a child

  10. Certification as a Quality Initiative.

    PubMed

    Leyden, Christine

    2015-10-01

    The vice president of the Certification and Measurement Services for the American Nurses Credentialing Center presents this month's column focused on the value of certification for both the patient and the organization. PMID:26425967

  11. Certification et equivalence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colardyn, Danielle

    1992-11-01

    The new economic and social equilibrium which is gradually coming about in Europe has significant consequences in terms of mobility, recognition of qualifications and certification. Specifically in the educational arena, questions are raised as to the social and vocational value of certificates, and the recognition of vocational skills. These skills are part of the wealth of the particular countries in the Community, and of each of the individuals who are now confronted by the enlarged economic and social space, in its varying forms. In this European context, what is examined here is more particularly the French situation, from the point of view of the evolution of the notion of certification and recognition of skills, and of policies both of qualification, and of initial and continuing training of the work force.

  12. Facility Death Review of Maternal and Neonatal Deaths in Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Biswas, Animesh; Rahman, Fazlur; Eriksson, Charli; Halim, Abdul; Dalal, Koustuv

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To explore the experiences, acceptance, and effects of conducting facility death review (FDR) of maternal and neonatal deaths and stillbirths at or below the district level in Bangladesh. Methods This was a qualitative study with healthcare providers involved in FDRs. Two districts were studied: Thakurgaon district (a pilot district) and Jamalpur district (randomly selected from three follow-on study districts). Data were collected between January and November 2011. Data were collected from focus group discussions, in-depth interviews, and document review. Hospital administrators, obstetrics and gynecology consultants, and pediatric consultants and nurses employed in the same departments of the respective facilities participated in the study. Content and thematic analyses were performed. Results FDR for maternal and neonatal deaths and stillbirths can be performed in upazila health complexes at sub-district and district hospital levels. Senior staff nurses took responsibility for notifying each death and conducting death reviews with the support of doctors. Doctors reviewed the FDRs to assign causes of death. Review meetings with doctors, nurses, and health managers at the upazila and district levels supported the preparation of remedial action plans based on FDR findings, and interventions were planned accordingly. There were excellent examples of improved quality of care at facilities as a result of FDR. FDR also identified gaps and challenges to overcome in the near future to improve maternal and newborn health. Discussion FDR of maternal and neonatal deaths is feasible in district and upazila health facilities. FDR not only identifies the medical causes of a maternal or neonatal death but also explores remediable gaps and challenges in the facility. FDR creates an enabled environment in the facility to explore medical causes of deaths, including the gaps and challenges that influence mortality. FDRs mobilize health managers at upazila and district levels to forward plan and improve healthcare delivery. PMID:26540233

  13. Child Maltreatment Fatalities in Children under 5: Findings from the National Violence Death Reporting System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klevens, Joanne; Leeb, Rebecca T.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To describe the distribution of child maltreatment fatalities of children under 5 by age, sex, race/ethnicity, type of maltreatment, and relationship to alleged perpetrator using data from the National Violent Death Reporting System (NVDRS). Study design: Two independent coders reviewed information from death certificates, medical

  14. Certification in Distance Learning for Online Instructors: Exploration of the Creation of an Organic Model for a Research-Based State Institution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham, Lee; Thomas, Lisa

    2011-01-01

    The traditional and most highly utilized manner of instruction in the online Certification Course focuses on training instructors to teach a pre-designed course with common features. This model limits instructional options for faculty to those which are available in the course. Faculty who are accustomed to academic freedom and autonomy may not be

  15. Comprehensive review of sleep-related sudden unexpected infant deaths and their investigations: Florida 2008.

    PubMed

    Sauber-Schatz, Erin K; Sappenfield, William M; Shapiro-Mendoza, Carrie K

    2015-02-01

    To describe 2008 Florida sleep-related sudden unexpected infant deaths (SUIDs) by describing (a) percentage distribution of medical examiner (ME) cause-of-death determinations; (b) mortality rates by maternal and infant characteristics; (c) prevalence of selected suffocation or sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) risk and protective factors; (d) frequency of selected scene investigation and autopsy components (including extent of missing data); and (e) percentage with public health program contact. In this population-based study, we identified sleep-related SUIDs occurring among Florida residents from the 2008-linked Florida infant death and birth certificates. Information about the circumstances of death was abstracted from ME, law enforcement, and hospital records. We used frequencies and percentages to describe characteristics of sleep-related SUID cases. Of 215 sleep-related SUID cases, MEs identified 47.9% as accidental suffocation and strangulation in bed, 35.4% as unknown or undetermined cause, and 16.7% as SIDS. Sleep-related SUID most frequently occurred in an adult bed (n = 108; 50.2%). At death, 82.4% of sleep-related SUIDs had ?1 suffocation or SIDS risk factor with 54.4% infants sharing a sleep surface, 38.1% placed nonsupine, 24.2% placed on a pillow, and 10.2% having head covering. Missing data frequently resulted from incomplete scene investigation and autopsy components. SUID contributed to ?1 in seven Florida infant deaths in 2008. Approximately 80% of sleep-related SUIDs were reported among infants placed in unsafe sleeping environments. Effective interventions are needed to promote safe sleep among caregivers of Florida infants. These interventions must reach infant caregivers at highest risk and change unsafe sleep practices. The substantial percentage of missing investigation data reinforces the need for standardized reporting. PMID:24898690

  16. Environmental gas displacement: three accidental deaths in the workplace.

    PubMed

    Gill, James R; Ely, Susan F; Hua, Zhongxue

    2002-03-01

    The authors describe three accidental deaths resulting from occupational hazards involving environmental gas alterations. One involved the displacement of oxygen caused by leakage of liquid nitrogen during the installation of a magnetic resonance imaging system. Two involved elevated environmental carbon dioxide concentrations: dry ice sublimation in a walk-in refrigerator in a research laboratory, and activation of a carbon dioxide fire alarm-extinguisher system by a woman locked in a bank vault. The autopsy findings, scene investigations, and certifications of these deaths, as related to the mechanisms of death, are discussed. PMID:11953489

  17. Board Certification in Counseling Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crowley, Susan L.; Lichtenberg, James W.; Pollard, Jeffrey W.

    2012-01-01

    Although specialty board certification by the American Board of Professional Psychology (ABPP) has been a valued standard for decades, the vast majority of counseling psychologists do not pursue board certification in the specialty. The present article provides a brief history of board certification in general and some historical information about…

  18. Brainstem death: A comprehensive review in Indian perspective

    PubMed Central

    Dhanwate, Anant Dattatray

    2014-01-01

    With the advent of cardiopulmonary resuscitation techniques, the cardiopulmonary definition of death lost its significance in favor of brain death. Brain death is a permanent cessation of all functions of the brain in which though individual organs may function but lack of integrating function of the brain, lack of respiratory drive, consciousness, and cognition confirms to the definition that death is an irreversible cessation of functioning of the organism as a whole. In spite of medical and legal acceptance globally, the concept of brain death and brain-stem death is still unclear to many. Brain death is not promptly declared due to lack of awareness and doubts about the legal procedure of certification. Many brain dead patients are kept on life supporting systems needlessly. In this comprehensive review, an attempt has been made to highlight the history and concept of brain death and brain-stem death; the anatomical and physiological basis of brain-stem death, and criteria to diagnose brain-stem death in India. PMID:25249744

  19. Increase in deaths from ischaemic heart-disease after blizzards.

    PubMed

    Glass, R I; Zack, M M

    1979-03-01

    Death certificates in eastern Massachusetts after six blizzards in 1974--78, including the record blizzard of Feb. 6, 1978, were examined to identify the effect on mortality of these storms. The total number of deaths was significantly higher (8%) in a "blizzard week" than in the preceding and subsequent (control) weeks (114.1 vs. 105.3 deaths per day). Deaths from ischaemic heart-disease (I.H.D.), which rose significantly by 22% in the blizzard week from 36.7 to 44.6 deaths per day, accounted for 90% of the excess total deaths. The increase was greater in males than in females (30% vs. 12%), and in both sexes there was no difference in the distribution of deaths by age between the blizzard and control weeks. I.H.D. deaths were increased for 8 days after a snowstorm, suggesting that the effect was related to activities such as snow shovelling rather than the storm itself. The identification of those at increased risk of I.H.D. death after major snowstorms and of the circumstances surrounding such deaths could lead to public-health measures to reduce these weather-related premature deaths. PMID:85066

  20. Expert system-based mineral mapping in northern Death Valley, California/Nevada, using the Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kruse, F. A.; Lefkoff, A. B.; Dietz, J. B.

    1993-01-01

    Integrated analysis of imaging spectrometer data and field spectral measurements were used in conjunction with conventional geologic field mapping to characterize bedrock and surficial geology at the northern end of Death Valley, California and Nevada. A knowledge-based expert system was used to automatically produce image maps showing the principal surface mineralogy from Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) data. Linear spectral unmixing of the AVIRIS data allowed further determination of relative mineral, abundances and identification of mineral assemblages and mixtures. The imaging spectrometer data show the spatial distribution of spectrally distinct minerals occurring both as primary rockforming minerals and as alteration and weathering products. Field spectral measurements were used to verify the mineral maps and field mapping was used to extend the remote sensing results. Geographically referenced image maps produced from these data form new base maps from which to develop improved understanding of the processes of deposition and erosion affecting the present land surface.

  1. Deaths in World Trade Center terrorist attacks--New York City, 2001.

    PubMed

    2002-09-11

    On September 11, 2001, terrorists flew two hijacked airplanes into the World Trade Center (WTC) in lower Manhattan in New York City (NYC), destroying both towers of the WTC. This report presents preliminary vital statistics on the deaths caused by the terrorist attacks and describes the procedures developed by the New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene (NYCDOHMH) to issue death certificates in response to the attacks. These data underscore the need for legal mechanisms to expedite the issuance of death certificates in the absence of human remains and the need for vital registration systems that can be relocated in case of emergency. PMID:12238537

  2. Consensus recommendations on rater training and certification.

    PubMed

    West, Mark D; Daniel, David G; Opler, Mark; Wise-Rankovic, Alexandria; Kalali, Amir

    2014-01-01

    There is currently no accepted standard for the clinical research industry to follow when selecting and training raters to administer rating scales in clinical neuroscience trials. This article offers guidelines, based on expert recommendations of the CNS Summit Rater Training and Certification Committee, for selecting, training, and evaluating raters. The article also defines terminology and offers recommendations for considering raters with prior training and certification. These guidelines are intended for investigators, pharmaceutical companies, contract research organizations, and other entities involved in clinical neuroscience trials. PMID:25621182

  3. A hospital-based estimate of major causes of death among under-five children from a health facility in Lagos, Southwest Nigeria: possible indicators of health inequality

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Current evidence on the root-causes of deaths among children younger than 5years is critical to direct international efforts to improve child survival, focus on health promotion and achieve Millennium Development Goal 4. We report a hospital-based estimate for 2005-2007 of the major causes of death in children in this age-group in south-west Nigeria. Methods We used retrospective data from the intensive care unit of a second-tier health facility to extract the presenting complaints, clinical diagnosis, treatment courses, prognosis and outcome among children aged 659months. SPSS-19 was used for data analysis. Results Of the 301 children (58% males, 42% females) admitted into the ICU within the period of study, 173 (26%) presented with complaints related to the gastrointestinal system, 138 (21%) with respiratory symptoms and 196 (29%) with complaints of fever. Overall, 708 investigations were requested for among which were full blood count (215, 30%) and blood slides for malaria parasite (166, 23%). Infection ranked highest (181, 31%) in clinicians diagnosis, followed by haematological health problems (109, 19%) and respiratory illnesses (101, 17%). There were negative correlations between outcome of the illness and patients weight (r=-0.195, p=0.001) and a strong positive correlation between prognosis and outcome of admission (r=0.196, p=0.001). Of the 59 (20%) children that died, presentation of respiratory tract illnesses were significantly higher in females (75%) than in males (39%) (?=7.06; p=0.008) and diagnoses related to gastrointestinal pathology were significantly higher in males (18%) than in females (0%) (?=4.07; p=0.05). Majority of the deaths (21%) occurred among children aged 1.0 to 1.9years old and among weight group of 5.1-15.0kg. Conclusion The major causes of deaths among under-five years old originate from respiratory, gastrointestinal and infectious diseases diseases that were recognized as major causes of childhood mortality about half a century earlier. Realization of MDG4 - to reduce child mortality by two-thirds is only possible if the government and donor agencies look beyond the health sector to find hidden causative factors such as education and housing and within the health sector such as vibrant maternal, new-born, and child health interventions. PMID:22873746

  4. Deaths From Bites and Stings of Venomous Animals

    PubMed Central

    Ennik, Franklin

    1980-01-01

    Data abstracted from 34 death certificates indicate that the three venomous animal groups most often responsible for human deaths in California from 1960 through 1976 were Hymenoptera (bees, wasps, ants and the like) (56 percent), snakes (35 percent) and spiders (6 percent). An average incidence of 2.0 deaths per year occurred during these 17 years, or an average death rate of 0.01 per 100,000 population per year. Nearly three times more males than females died of venomous animal bites and stings. Half of the deaths from venomous snake bites occurred in children younger than 5 years of age. Susceptible persons 40 years or older appeared to be particularly vulnerable to hymenopterous insect stings and often quickly died of anaphylaxis. Fatal encounters with venomous animals occurred more often around the home than at places of employment or during recreational activities. Deaths resulting from spider bites are rare in California but many bites are reported. Medical practitioners are urged to seek professional assistance in identifying offending animals causing human discomfort and to use these animals' scientific names on death certificates and in journal articles. ImagesIGN. PMID:7467305

  5. 40 CFR 745.89 - Firm certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Firm certification. 745.89 Section 745.89 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT LEAD-BASED PAINT POISONING PREVENTION IN CERTAIN RESIDENTIAL STRUCTURES Residential Property...

  6. 40 CFR 745.89 - Firm certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Firm certification. 745.89 Section 745.89 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT LEAD-BASED PAINT POISONING PREVENTION IN CERTAIN RESIDENTIAL STRUCTURES Residential Property...

  7. 40 CFR 745.89 - Firm certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Firm certification. 745.89 Section 745.89 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT LEAD-BASED PAINT POISONING PREVENTION IN CERTAIN RESIDENTIAL STRUCTURES Residential Property...

  8. 40 CFR 745.89 - Firm certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Firm certification. 745.89 Section 745.89 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT LEAD-BASED PAINT POISONING PREVENTION IN CERTAIN RESIDENTIAL STRUCTURES Residential Property...

  9. Professional Certification: Will It Become a Reality?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bratton, Barry

    1984-01-01

    Discussion of the development of a list of certification competencies for instructional designers by National Society for Performance and Instruction's Standards Committee and Association for Educational Communications and Technology's Division of Instructional Development includes precepts on which competencies are based, ways list will be

  10. 7 CFR 1216.70 - Certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS.... Certification shall be based, in addition to other available information, upon a factual report submitted by the... represented in setting the organization's policies; (4) Evidence of stability and permanency of...

  11. Kentucky's Automotive Certification Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kentucky State Dept. of Education, Frankfort. Office of Vocational Education.

    The state of Kentucky recognized a need to standardize automotive mechanics training throughout the state and to establish minimum guidelines for the quality of instruction in such programs. To meet these needs, the Office of Vocational Education selected the National Institute for Automotive Service Excellence (ASE) and began the certification

  12. Certification/Licensure Dictionary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Dept. of Education, Columbus.

    This document helps districts implement the new teacher licensure standards and ensure that staff are assigned to classes they are qualified to teach. It identifies both the existing certification areas and the new licensure areas that are required for teaching specific courses. The areas included are: agriculture; business; career-based…

  13. Certificates in Adult Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deutscher Volkshochschul-Verband, Frankfurt (West Germany).

    Certificates are awarded to adult candidates who satisfy the examiners that their standard of ability in everyday English is adequate for them to express themselves in writing and to take an active part in conversations about everyday topics. The examination, which makes use of the techniques of objective testing, is set by a central Examining…

  14. Measurement Issues in Certification.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shrock, Sharon A.; Foshay, Wellesley R.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses methods of sampling the best information from instruction/training developers/candidates for professional certification and examines the problems of interpreting that information and making classification decisions. Assessment strategies including criterion-referenced, multiple-choice, short answer, and essay questions, and portfolio

  15. What is organic certification?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Certified organic crop production is a holistic approach to sustainable and healthy food production to enhance the well being of the consumer, while protecting natural resources. Organic certification was implemented by the National Organic Program (NOP) in 2002 in recognition of the necessity for c...

  16. School Nursing Certification Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selekman, Janice; Wolfe, Linda C.

    2010-01-01

    The 2010 update to the resource you have been waiting for to help you prepare to take the National School Nurse Certification Exam. Dr. Janice Selekman DNSc, RN, NCSN, a recognized expert in pediatric nursing, and NASN Past President Linda C. Wolfe MEd, BSN, RN, NCSN, FNASN are the authors. This text was created in response to many years of

  17. Standards and Certification. Symposium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2002

    This document contains three papers from a symposium on standards and certification in human resource development (HRD). "Implementing Management Standards in the UK" (Jonathan Winterton, Ruth Winterton) reports on a study that explored the implementation of management standards in 16 organizations and identified 36 key themes and strategic issues…

  18. Boat Operator Certification

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    On September 16, 2014 staff from the Maine Office headed to the Kennebec River in Gardiner for their boat operator re-certification. The USGS routinely uses manned boats for discharge measurements on rivers throughout the state and after our initial training, are re-certified every 5 years. In this...

  19. School Nursing Certification Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selekman, Janice; Wolfe, Linda C.

    2010-01-01

    The 2010 update to the resource you have been waiting for to help you prepare to take the National School Nurse Certification Exam. Dr. Janice Selekman DNSc, RN, NCSN, a recognized expert in pediatric nursing, and NASN Past President Linda C. Wolfe MEd, BSN, RN, NCSN, FNASN are the authors. This text was created in response to many years of…

  20. Certification Considerations for Adaptive Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhattacharyya, Siddhartha; Cofer, Darren; Musliner, David J.; Mueller, Joseph; Engstrom, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Advanced capabilities planned for the next generation of aircraft, including those that will operate within the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen), will necessarily include complex new algorithms and non-traditional software elements. These aircraft will likely incorporate adaptive control algorithms that will provide enhanced safety, autonomy, and robustness during adverse conditions. Unmanned aircraft will operate alongside manned aircraft in the National Airspace (NAS), with intelligent software performing the high-level decision-making functions normally performed by human pilots. Even human-piloted aircraft will necessarily include more autonomy. However, there are serious barriers to the deployment of new capabilities, especially for those based upon software including adaptive control (AC) and artificial intelligence (AI) algorithms. Current civil aviation certification processes are based on the idea that the correct behavior of a system must be completely specified and verified prior to operation. This report by Rockwell Collins and SIFT documents our comprehensive study of the state of the art in intelligent and adaptive algorithms for the civil aviation domain, categorizing the approaches used and identifying gaps and challenges associated with certification of each approach.

  1. Midcourse Space Experiment Data Certification and Technology Transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pollock, David B.

    1998-01-01

    The Midcourse Space Experiment spacecraft, launched April 24, 1996, is expected to have a 5 year useful lifetime with a 12 month lifetime for the cryogenically cooled IR sensor. A pre-launch, ground based calibration of the instruments provided a basis for the pre-launch certification of the Level 2 data base these instruments produce. With the spacecraft in-orbit the certification of the instrument's Level 2 data base is being extended to the in-orbit environment.

  2. Firearm deaths by law enforcement.

    PubMed

    Gill, James R; Pasquale-Styles, Melissa

    2009-01-01

    The use of deadly force during law enforcement is a matter that compels public scrutiny. There were 42 gunshot deaths caused by police over a 4-year period in New York City. The decedents' average age was 31 years and ranged from 17 to 64 years. There were 41 males and one female; and 26 Black, nine Hispanic, and seven White decedents. Ethanol and/or drugs of abuse were detected in 78% (31/40) of the decedents. The vast majority of shootings occurred with the police responding to a crime and 90% of the decedents were armed (26 handguns, six knives, one axe, one metal pipe, and one toy gun). Vehicles were used as weapons in two incidents. A total of 177 bullets struck the 42 decedents. Fourteen decedents sustained single gunshot wounds (GSWs), and the remainder had multiple GSWs ranging from 2 to 21. In the majority of the cases in this study, the number of GSWs of the body was three or fewer. Thirteen decedents had at least one GSW of the back or buttocks, accounting for 25 of the total 177 wounds, and four of the 13 had GSWs of only the back. With the exception of the upper extremities, GSWs of all locations were more likely to penetrate than perforate. Although these deaths may be high profile, the certification is typically straightforward and the cause (i.e., GSW) and manner of death (homicide) are readily apparent. Although police shootings in which the decedent was unarmed and/or sustained numerous GSWs are widely reported by the lay press, these types of shootings were not typical in our study. PMID:19040676

  3. Monitoring Cell Death in Regorafenib-Treated Experimental Colon Carcinomas Using Annexin-Based Optical Fluorescence Imaging Validated by Perfusion MRI

    PubMed Central

    Kazmierczak, Philipp M.; Burian, Egon; Eschbach, Ralf; Hirner-Eppeneder, Heidrun; Moser, Matthias; Havla, Lukas; Eisenbltter, Michel; Reiser, Maximilian F.; Nikolaou, Konstantin; Cyran, Clemens C.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate annexin-based optical fluorescence imaging (OI) for monitoring regorafenib-induced early cell death in experimental colon carcinomas in rats, validated by perfusion MRI and multiparametric immunohistochemistry. Materials and Methods Subcutaneous human colon carcinomas (HT-29) in athymic rats (n = 16) were imaged before and after a one-week therapy with regorafenib (n = 8) or placebo (n = 8) using annexin-based OI and perfusion MRI at 3 Tesla. Optical signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and MRI tumor perfusion parameters (plasma flow PF, mL/100mL/min; plasma volume PV, %) were assessed. On day 7, tumors underwent immunohistochemical analysis for tumor cell apoptosis (TUNEL), proliferation (Ki-67), and microvascular density (CD31). Results Apoptosis-targeted OI demonstrated a tumor-specific probe accumulation with a significant increase of tumor SNR under therapy (mean ? +7.782.95, control: -0.802.48, p = 0.021). MRI detected a significant reduction of tumor perfusion in the therapy group (mean ?PF -8.172.32 mL/100 mL/min, control -0.113.36 mL/100 mL/min, p = 0.036). Immunohistochemistry showed significantly more apoptosis (TUNEL; 113921486 vs. 2921334, p = 0.001), significantly less proliferation (Ki-67; 1754184 vs. 2883323, p = 0.012), and significantly lower microvascular density (CD31; 10710 vs. 18222, p = 0.006) in the therapy group. Conclusions Annexin-based OI allowed for the non-invasive monitoring of regorafenib-induced early cell death in experimental colon carcinomas, validated by perfusion MRI and multiparametric immunohistochemistry. PMID:26393949

  4. The death watch: certifying death using cardiac criteria.

    PubMed

    DeVita, M A

    2001-03-01

    In the past, inadequate diagnostic instruments sometimes led to incorrect diagnoses of death, so careful and prolonged observation--the "death watch"--was required. Diagnostic instruments are now accurate and determining the presence or absence of circulation and cerebral function is easy in virtually all cases. Still, ambiguity and controversy in diagnosing death persists because the current criteria, irreversible cessation of cardiac or whole brain function, are ambiguous. Recent reintroduction of non-heart-beating organ donation has highlighted the controversy. Data on the ability to achieve restoration of spontaneous circulation are quite consistent, but they support several different sets of reasonable death criteria. This article concludes with a rejection of a fixed notion of "irreversibility" because it does not conform to current practice, is potentially deleterious to social events at the time of death, and the reversibility of cardiopulmonary arrest is dependent on available means of resuscitation. Finally, the time required to ensure irreversible cessation of cardiac function despite potential intervention is too broad to be clinically applicable and is unreasonable. Diagnosis of death should be based on the context in which it occurs because the medical means available determine what is irreversible. PMID:11357558

  5. 7 CFR 160.61 - Kinds of certificates issued.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    .... The kind of certificates issued are as follows: (a) Turpentine analysis and classification certificate. (b) Turpentine field classification certificate. (c) Rosin classification and grade certificate....

  6. 7 CFR 160.61 - Kinds of certificates issued.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    .... The kind of certificates issued are as follows: (a) Turpentine analysis and classification certificate. (b) Turpentine field classification certificate. (c) Rosin classification and grade certificate....

  7. A new hierarchical classification of causes of infant deaths in England and Wales.

    PubMed

    Alberman, E; Botting, B; Blatchley, N; Twidell, A

    1994-05-01

    In 1986 The Office of Population Censuses and Surveys (OPCS) introduced new certificates for stillbirths and neonatal deaths. This allowed certifiers more flexibility in the completion of the certificate, and the number and ordering of the causes given. Tabulations have been published of the fetal and maternal causes of death mentioned on the certificates for every year from 1986 to 1991 in annual reference volumes. It has not been possible either to derive a single cause group for each death, however, or to compare the information available on neonatal deaths with that on postneonatal deaths, which are still derived from the standard death certificate. The aim of the work described here was to adapt previous classifications to derive a single cause grouping for stillbirths and infant deaths which would provide the maximum information about preventability and yet meet the national and international responsibilities of OPCS. The methods used and the tests carried out on the validity and consistency of the chosen classification are described. PMID:8017962

  8. Evidence for a heritable predisposition to death due to influenza.

    PubMed

    Albright, Frederick S; Orlando, Patricia; Pavia, Andrew T; Jackson, George G; Cannon Albright, Lisa A

    2008-01-01

    Animal model studies and human epidemiological studies have shown that some infectious diseases develop primarily in individuals with an inherited predisposition. A heritable contribution to the development of severe influenza virus infection (i.e., that which results in death) has not previously been hypothesized or tested. Evidence for a heritable contribution to death due to influenza was examined using a resource consisting of a genealogy of the Utah population linked to death certificates in Utah over a period of 100 years. The relative risks of death due to influenza were estimated for the relatives of 4,855 individuals who died of influenza. Both close and distant relatives of individuals who died of influenza were shown to have a significantly increased risk of dying of influenza, consistent with a combination of shared exposure and genetic effects. These data provide strong support for a heritable contribution to predisposition to death due to influenza. PMID:18171280

  9. Attitude Toward Death, Fear of Being Declared Dead Too Soon, and Donation of Organs After Death.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hessing, Dick J.; Elffers, Henk

    1987-01-01

    Describes a study of willingness to donate organs for transplantation after death based on Weyant's cost-benefit model for altruistic behavior. Two death anxieties (the attitude toward death and the fear of being declared dead too soon) were introduced to help explain the discrepancy between attitudes and behavior in the matter of organ donation.

  10. Mitigating Circumstances in Death Penalty Decisions: Using Evidence-Based Research to Inform Social Work Practice in Capital Trials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schroeder, Julie; Guin, Cecile C.; Pogue, Rene; Bordelon, Danna

    2006-01-01

    Providing an effective defense for individuals charged with capital crimes requires a diligent, thorough investigation by a mitigation specialist. However, research suggests that mitigation often plays a small role in the decision for life. Jurors often make sentencing decisions prematurely, basing those decisions on their personal reactions to…

  11. Mitigating Circumstances in Death Penalty Decisions: Using Evidence-Based Research to Inform Social Work Practice in Capital Trials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schroeder, Julie; Guin, Cecile C.; Pogue, Rene; Bordelon, Danna

    2006-01-01

    Providing an effective defense for individuals charged with capital crimes requires a diligent, thorough investigation by a mitigation specialist. However, research suggests that mitigation often plays a small role in the decision for life. Jurors often make sentencing decisions prematurely, basing those decisions on their personal reactions to

  12. God's dominion over death.

    PubMed

    Schulling, Sharon

    2012-01-01

    This article briefly overviews the criteria for and physiological process of death, contrasting physical death with biblical passages revealing how God interceded in this universal process when Jesus was on earth. PMID:22359838

  13. 40 CFR 91.118 - Certification procedure-testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... use as a test engine any engine which incurs major mechanical failure necessitating disassembly of the... certificate of conformity; or (ii) Model year 2003 based on good engineering judgement. (2) Upon request...

  14. Children's Experience with Death.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeligs, Rose

    Children's concepts of death grow with their age and development The three-year-old begins to notice that living things move and make sounds. The five-year-old thinks that life and death are reversable, but the six-year-old knows that death is final and brings sorrow. Children from eight through ten are interested in the causes of death and what

  15. Autoerotic death. A definition.

    PubMed

    Byard, R W; Bramwell, N H

    1991-03-01

    A definition of autoerotic death is suggested that restricts the use of this term to accidental deaths that occur during individual, usually solitary, sexual activity in which a device, apparatus, or prop that was employed to enhance the sexual stimulation of the deceased in some way caused unintended death. The case of the autoerotic asphyxial death of a 48-year-old man is reported in order to demonstrate the application of this definition. PMID:2063822

  16. Sudden cardiac death in young Danes.

    PubMed

    Winkel, Bo Gregers

    2012-02-01

    Sudden Cardiac Death (SCD) in the young (aged 1-35 years), although presumably rare, is always a tragic and devastating event often occurring in apparently healthy persons. Through the last decades, research have been undertaken to estimate the incidence rate and underlying causes of these deaths. However, because autopsy is not always conducted, the true incidence of SCD might be underestimated. The incidence of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) has previously been thoroughly investigated, also in Denmark. However, data has not been precise in sudden unexpected death in infancy (SUDI) estimates. SIDS is a diagnosis of exclusion and an ICD-10 diagnosis (R95.9), but to what extent this diagnosis is being accurately applied has not been investigated in Denmark. A genetic screening for mutations in an otherwise unexplained death, might identify a likely cause of (inherited) death. It would be of great clinical interest if DNA derived from the Danish Neonatal Screening Biobank, containing DNA from all Danes born after 1981, could be used in this respect. In this thesis we provide nationwide data on SCD, SUDI and SIDS in Denmark for the period 2000-2006 by reading death certificates, autopsy reports, and registry data. We report the highest possible incidence rate of SCD in the young. We elaborate on regional differences in post-mortem investigations of sudden death cases in Denmark and validate a method for whole-genome amplification of DNA from Guthrie cards to be used in genetic screening for disease causing mutations. We found 7% of all deaths in the young could be attributed to SCD. A total of 25% of sudden unexpected death in the 1-35 years old were not autopsied. The incidence of SCD of 2.8 per 100,000 person-years--when including non-autopsied cases--was higher than previously reported. Unexplained deaths were abundant and accounted for 22% of all sudden unexpected deaths. Sudden deaths occurring during competitive sports, however, were only seen in few cases. We found that regional differences exist in the investigation of sudden unexpected deaths. Fewer deaths were medico-legally investigated by external examinations ("retslgeligt ligsyn") in some parts of Denmark compared to other parts. The same was the case in autopsy ratios. In infant deaths we found that almost 1 in 2000 live-borns died suddenly and unexpectedly during their first year of life. The R95.9 diagnosis did not reflect the SIDS cases we identified. We were able to get DNA from the Danish Neonatal Screening Biobank on 93 cases of unexplained deaths (including SIDS). Due to the limited amount of DNA available from the dried blood spots, we performed whole-genome amplification on the DNA (wgaDNA). We investigated the use of wgaDNA for genetic screening and it completely resembled genomic DNA (gDNA). Future research will focus on the genetics substrate of sudden unexplained death. In addition, we will investigate the causes of death in the 36-49 years old, as these may also suffer from cardiac disease that can be predisposed in the family. PMID:22293060

  17. Mitigating circumstances in death penalty decisions: using evidence-based research to inform social work practice in capital trials.

    PubMed

    Schroeder, Julie; Guin, Cecile C; Pogue, Rene; Bordelon, Danna

    2006-10-01

    Providing an effective defense for individuals charged with capital crimes requires a diligent, thorough investigation by a mitigation specialist. However, research suggests that mitigation often plays a small role in the decision for life. Jurors often make sentencing decisions prematurely, basing those decisions on their personal reactions to the defendant (for example, fear, anger), their confusion about the rules of law, and their lack of understanding regarding their role and responsibilities. This article proposes an evidence-based conceptual model of the complicating problems surrounding mitigation practice and a focused discussion about how traditional social work mitigation strategies might be evolved to a set of best practices that more effectively ensure jurors' careful consideration of mitigation evidence. PMID:17152633

  18. Death and Grief

    MedlinePLUS

    ... How Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Death and Grief KidsHealth > For Teens > Death and Grief Print A A A Text Size ... the reaction we have in response to a death or loss. Grief can affect our body, mind, ...

  19. Dreams of Death.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrett, Deirdre

    1989-01-01

    Examined frequency and characteristics of overt dreams of dying among healthy young adults. Dreams of dying were found to be rare but distinctive content category, representing overwhelmingly pleasant dreams. Over one-half of death dreams involved lengthy afterlife sequence, remainder focused on process of death. Death dreams of these healthy…

  20. Asphyxiophilia and autoerotic death.

    PubMed

    Diamond, M; Innala, S M; Ernulf, K E

    1990-01-01

    Eight cases of autoerotic asphyxia deaths on Oahu are reviewed. Distinguishing features typically separate these deaths from intentional suicides or homicides. The sexual nature of these incidents is a salient feature of the death. The etiology of the practice is unknown but worth investigation. PMID:2303347