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Sample records for death certificate based

  1. Mortality associated with neurofibromatosis type 1: A study based on Italian death certificates (1995-2006)

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Persons affected by neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) have a decreased survival, yet information on NF1-associated mortality is limited. Methods/Aim The National Mortality Database and individual Multiple-Causes-of-Death records were used to estimate NF1-associated mortality in Italy in the period 1995-2006, to compare the distribution of age at death (as a proxy of survival) to that of the general population and to evaluate the relation between NF1 and other medical conditions by determining whether the distribution of underlying causes of NF1-associated deaths differs from that of general population. Results Of the nearly 6.75 million deaths in the study period, 632 had a diagnosis of NF1, yet for nearly three-fourths of them the underlying cause was not coded as neurofibromatosis. The age distribution showed that NF1-associated deaths also occurred among the elderly, though mortality in early ages was high. The mean age for NF1-associated death was approximately 20 years lower than that for the general population. The gender differential may suggest that women are affected by more severe NF1-related complications, or they may simply reflect a greater tendency for NF1 to be reported on the death certificates of young women. Regarding the relation with other medical conditions, we found an excess, as the underlying cause of death, for malignant neoplasm of connective and other soft tissue and brain, but not for other sites. We also found an excess for obstructive chronic bronchitis and musculoskeletal system diseases among elderly persons. Conclusion This is the first nationally representative population-based study on NF1-associated mortality in Italy. It stresses the importance of the Multiple-Causes-of-Death Database in providing a more complete picture of mortality for conditions that are frequently not recorded as the underlying cause of death, or to study complex chronic diseases or diseases that have no specific International Classification of

  2. An accessible method for teaching doctors about death certification.

    PubMed

    Walker, Sue; Rampatige, Rasika; Wainiqolo, Iris; Aumua, Audrey

    2012-01-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends that data on mortality in its member countries are collected utilising the Medical Certificate of Cause of Death published in the instruction volume of the ICD-10. However, investment in health information processes necessary to promote the use of this certificate and improve mortality information is lacking in many countries. An appeal for support to make improvements has been launched through the Health Metrics Network's MOVE-IT strategy (Monitoring of Vital Events Information Technology) (WHO 2011). Despite this international spotlight on the need for capture of mortality data and in the use of the ICD-10 to code the data reported on such certificates, there is little cohesion in the way that certifiers of deaths receive instruction in how to complete the death certificate, which is the main source document for mortality statistics. Complete and accurate documentation of the immediate, underlying and contributory causes of death of the decedent on the death certificate is a requirement to produce standardised statistical information and to the ability to produce cause-specific mortality statistics that can be compared between populations and across time. This paper reports on a research project conducted to determine the efficacy and accessibility of the certification module of the WHO's newly-developed web based training tool for coders and certifiers of deaths. Involving a population of medical students from the Fiji School of Medicine and a pre- and post-research design, the study entailed completion of death certificates based on vignettes before and after access to the training tool. The ability of the participants to complete the death certificates and analysis of the completeness and specificity of the ICD-10 coding of the reported causes of death were used to measure the effect of the students' learning from the training tool. The quality of death certificate completion was assessed using a Quality Index

  3. [Death certificates of women in childbearing age: search for maternal deaths].

    PubMed

    Gil, Mariana Marcos; Gomes-Sponholz, Flavia Azevedo

    2013-01-01

    In Brazil, there is a lack of complete records on death certificates, and its reliability is questioned, especially for causes attributed to pregnancy and childbirth. We investigated, based on death certificates of women in reproductive age, any fields for identifying maternal deaths. Documentary research, conducted in hospital records. We analyzed in death certificates, maternal and no maternal deaths, inconclusive deaths and hidden deaths. To analyze the underlying causes of death we used ICD 10th Revision. Of the 301 death certificates reviewed, 60% had the fields 43/44 completed, and 40% had these fields blank and/or ignored. We found 58.5% of no maternal deaths, 2% of maternal deaths and 39.5% inconclusive. The analysis of inconclusive deaths allowed us to classify 4.3% as hidden deaths. To overcome the incompletitudes of civil registries, it is necessary that all health professionals be committed to the reliability of the information, so the priority target could be reached. PMID:23887780

  4. Principles and Pitfalls: a Guide to Death Certification

    PubMed Central

    Brooks, Erin G.; Reed, Kurt D.

    2015-01-01

    Death certificates serve the critical functions of providing documentation for legal/administrative purposes and vital statistics for epidemiologic/health policy purposes. In order to satisfy these functions, it is important that death certificates be filled out completely, accurately, and promptly. The high error rate in death certification has been documented in multiple prior studies, as has the effectiveness of educational training interventions at mitigating errors. The following guide to death certification is intended to illustrate some basic principles and common pitfalls in electronic death registration with the goal of improving death certification accuracy. PMID:26185270

  5. Age-based disparities in end-of-life decisions in Belgium: a population-based death certificate survey

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background A growing body of scientific research is suggesting that end-of-life care and decision making may differ between age groups and that elderly patients may be the most vulnerable to exclusion of due care at the end of life. This study investigates age-related disparities in the rate of end-of-life decisions with a possible or certain life shortening effect (ELDs) and in the preceding decision making process in Flanders, Belgium in 2007, where euthanasia was legalised in 2002. Comparing with data from an identical survey in 1998 we also study the plausibility of the ‘slippery slope’ hypothesis which predicts a rise in the rate of administration of life ending drugs without patient request, especially among elderly patients, in countries where euthanasia is legal. Method We performed a post-mortem survey among physicians certifying a large representative sample (n = 6927) of death certificates in 2007, identical to a 1998 survey. Response rate was 58.4%. Results While the rates of non-treatment decisions (NTD) and administration of life ending drugs without explicit request (LAWER) did not differ between age groups, the use of intensified alleviation of pain and symptoms (APS) and euthanasia/assisted suicide (EAS), as well as the proportion of euthanasia requests granted, was bivariately and negatively associated with patient age. Multivariate analysis showed no significant effects of age on ELD rates. Older patients were less often included in decision making for APS and more often deemed lacking in capacity than were younger patients. Comparison with 1998 showed a decrease in the rate of LAWER in all age groups except in the 80+ age group where the rate was stagnant. Conclusion Age is not a determining factor in the rate of end-of-life decisions, but is in decision making as patient inclusion rates decrease with old age. Our results suggest there is a need to focus advance care planning initiatives on elderly patients. The slippery slope hypothesis

  6. Identification of pneumonia and influenza deaths using the death certificate pipeline

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Death records are a rich source of data, which can be used to assist with public surveillance and/or decision support. However, to use this type of data for such purposes it has to be transformed into a coded format to make it computable. Because the cause of death in the certificates is reported as free text, encoding the data is currently the single largest barrier of using death certificates for surveillance. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to demonstrate the feasibility of using a pipeline, composed of a detection rule and a natural language processor, for the real time encoding of death certificates using the identification of pneumonia and influenza cases as an example and demonstrating that its accuracy is comparable to existing methods. Results A Death Certificates Pipeline (DCP) was developed to automatically code death certificates and identify pneumonia and influenza cases. The pipeline used MetaMap to code death certificates from the Utah Department of Health for the year 2008. The output of MetaMap was then accessed by detection rules which flagged pneumonia and influenza cases based on the Centers of Disease and Control and Prevention (CDC) case definition. The output from the DCP was compared with the current method used by the CDC and with a keyword search. Recall, precision, positive predictive value and F-measure with respect to the CDC method were calculated for the two other methods considered here. The two different techniques compared here with the CDC method showed the following recall/ precision results: DCP: 0.998/0.98 and keyword searching: 0.96/0.96. The F-measure were 0.99 and 0.96 respectively (DCP and keyword searching). Both the keyword and the DCP can run in interactive form with modest computer resources, but DCP showed superior performance. Conclusion The pipeline proposed here for coding death certificates and the detection of cases is feasible and can be extended to other conditions. This method provides an

  7. Performance Based Counselor Certification.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernknopf, Stan; Ware, William B.

    For the past four years the Georgia Department of Education has been involved in a statewide effort to establish standards and procedures for certification of educational personnel based on competency demonstration. As part of this effort, a project was commissioned to develop a performance-based system for the certification of school counselors.…

  8. Inadequacies of death certification in Beirut: who is responsible?

    PubMed Central

    Sibai, Abla M.; Nuwayhid, Iman; Beydoun, May; Chaaya, Monique

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the completeness of data on death certificates over the past 25 years in Beirut, Lebanon, and to examine factors associated with the absence of certifiers' signatures and the non-reporting of the underlying cause of death. METHODS: A systematic 20% sample comprising 2607 death certificates covering the 1974, 1984, 1994, 1997 and 1998 registration periods was retrospectively reviewed for certification practices and missing data. FINDINGS: The information on the death certificates was almost complete in respect of all demographic characteristics of the deceased persons except for occupation and month of birth. Data relating to these variables were missing on approximately 95% and 78% of the certificates, respectively. Around half of the certificates did not carry a certifier's signature. Of those bearing such a signature, 21.6% lacked documentation of the underlying cause of death. The certifier's signature was more likely to be absent on: certificates corresponding to the younger and older age groups than on those of persons aged 15-44 years; those of females than on those of males; those of persons who had been living remotely from the registration governorate than on those of other deceased persons; and those for which there had been delays in registration exceeding six months than on certificates for which registration had been quicker. For certificates that carried the certifier's signature there was no evidence that any of the demographic characteristics of the deceased person was associated with decreased likelihood of reporting an underlying cause of death. CONCLUSION: The responsibility for failure to report causes of death in Beirut lies with families who lack an incentive to call for a physician and with certifying physicians who do not carry out this duty. The deficiencies in death certification are rectifiable. However, any changes should be sensitive to the constraints of the organizational and legal infrastructure governing death

  9. Assessing the Awareness of Agents Involved in Issuance of Death Certificates About Death Registration Rules in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Mahdavi, Abdollah; Sedghi, Shahram; Sadoghi, Farahnaz; Azar, Farbod Ebadi Fard

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: In the death registration system, issuance of death certificate, as a binding rule, is considered among the major necessities of preparation of death statistics. In order to prepare death statistics that are adequately valid for subsequent applications, it is necessary to properly encode death certificates and fully follow rules on causes underlying death. This study aimed to assess the awareness and performance of agents involved in issuance of death certificate in the national death records system. Methods: It was a descriptive cross-sectional research, which was performed from September 2013 to March 2014 on 96 agents involved in issuance of death certificate Imam Khomeini, Alavi, Fatemi and BuAli education and treatment centers of Ardebil University of Medical Sciences. The population included faculty staff physicians, residents and health information management staffs. The research scale was also a researcher-made questionnaire that questioned the demographic information as well as awareness and performance of participants regarding death certificate coding rules. Research data was analyzed based on descriptive statistics and the chi-square test method in the SPSS software at a confidence level of 95%. Findings: A total of 34.42% of participants were aware of the general rules on issuance of death certificates while faculty staff higher specialists (41.67%) and clinical coders (38.34%) with five years of experience demonstrated the highest awareness levels. Only 23 participants (24.6%) were trained to issue death certificates. A total of 76 participants (79.3%) announced their need for learning how to complete death certificate forms on a constant basis. The awareness of participants about the general principle was assessed to be low (30.25%). Moreover, their awareness of selection rules and modification rules was low (27.75%) and moderate (45.25%), respectively. The chi-square test revealed a significant relationship between work experience and

  10. Contemporary accuracy of death certificates for coding prostate cancer as a cause of death: Is reliance on death certification good enough? A comparison with blinded review by an independent cause of death evaluation committee

    PubMed Central

    Turner, Emma L; Metcalfe, Chris; Donovan, Jenny L; Noble, Sian; Sterne, Jonathan A C; Lane, J Athene; I Walsh, Eleanor; Hill, Elizabeth M; Down, Liz; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav; Oliver, Steven E; Evans, Simon; Brindle, Peter; Williams, Naomi J; Hughes, Laura J; Davies, Charlotte F; Ng, Siaw Yein; Neal, David E; Hamdy, Freddie C; Albertsen, Peter; Reid, Colette M; Oxley, Jon; McFarlane, John; Robinson, Mary C; Adolfsson, Jan; Zietman, Anthony; Baum, Michael; Koupparis, Anthony; Martin, Richard M

    2016-01-01

    Background: Accurate cause of death assignment is crucial for prostate cancer epidemiology and trials reporting prostate cancer-specific mortality outcomes. Methods: We compared death certificate information with independent cause of death evaluation by an expert committee within a prostate cancer trial (2002–2015). Results: Of 1236 deaths assessed, expert committee evaluation attributed 523 (42%) to prostate cancer, agreeing with death certificate cause of death in 1134 cases (92%, 95% CI: 90%, 93%). The sensitivity of death certificates in identifying prostate cancer deaths as classified by the committee was 91% (95% CI: 89%, 94%); specificity was 92% (95% CI: 90%, 94%). Sensitivity and specificity were lower where death occurred within 1 year of diagnosis, and where there was another primary cancer diagnosis. Conclusions: UK death certificates accurately identify cause of death in men with prostate cancer, supporting their use in routine statistics. Possible differential misattribution by trial arm supports independent evaluation in randomised trials. PMID:27253172

  11. Determining injury at work on the California death certificate.

    PubMed Central

    Peek-Asa, C; McArthur, D L; Kraus, J F

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study examined decisions of California Country Coroner's offices in determining injury at work and identified factors influencing this decision. METHODS: Surveys were sent to California County Coroner's offices (response rate = 93%). The survey included 23 vignettes that required the respondent to determine whether the fatality involved an injury at work. The Rasch method was used to determine internal consistency in endorsing vignettes and to determine overall endorsability of vignettes based on underlying factors. RESULTS: Respondents showed internal consistency but much disagreement in their endorsement of vignettes. Decedents who were performing paid work or were on their work site during working hours were almost unanimously endorsed as having incurred an injury at work. Non-payment, travel/transportation, suicide, and nontraditional work sites and work hours led to disagreement and uncertainty among respondents. CONCLUSIONS: Coroners have different methods of determining injury at work on the death certificate, and available guidelines do not define many of the ambiguous situations encountered by coroners. PMID:9224183

  12. Completing Death Certificates from an EMR: Analysis of a Novel Public-Private Partnership

    PubMed Central

    Tripp, Jacob S.; Duncan, Jeffrey D.; Finch, Leisa; Huff, Stanley M.

    2015-01-01

    With the objective of increasing electronic death registration, Intermountain Healthcare and the Utah Office of Vital Records and Statistics have developed a system enabling death certification from within Intermountain’s electronic medical record (EMR), consisting of an EMR module and an HL7 interface. Comparison of post-intervention death certification at Intermountain Healthcare against a baseline study found a slight increase in the percentage of deaths certified electronically (73% pre vs. 77% post). Analysis of deaths certified using the EMR-module found that they were completed significantly sooner than those certified on paper or using the state’s web-based electronic death registration system (EDRS) (Mean time: Paper = 114.72 hours, EDRS = 81.84 hours, EMR = 43.92 hours; p < 0.0001). EMR-certified deaths also contained significantly more causes of deaths than either alternative method (Mean number of causes: Paper = 3.9 causes, EDRS = 4.0 causes, EMR = 5.5 causes; p < 0.0001). PMID:26958261

  13. Completing Death Certificates from an EMR: Analysis of a Novel Public-Private Partnership.

    PubMed

    Tripp, Jacob S; Duncan, Jeffrey D; Finch, Leisa; Huff, Stanley M

    2015-01-01

    With the objective of increasing electronic death registration, Intermountain Healthcare and the Utah Office of Vital Records and Statistics have developed a system enabling death certification from within Intermountain's electronic medical record (EMR), consisting of an EMR module and an HL7 interface. Comparison of post-intervention death certification at Intermountain Healthcare against a baseline study found a slight increase in the percentage of deaths certified electronically (73% pre vs. 77% post). Analysis of deaths certified using the EMR-module found that they were completed significantly sooner than those certified on paper or using the state's web-based electronic death registration system (EDRS) (Mean time: Paper = 114.72 hours, EDRS = 81.84 hours, EMR = 43.92 hours; p < 0.0001). EMR-certified deaths also contained significantly more causes of deaths than either alternative method (Mean number of causes: Paper = 3.9 causes, EDRS = 4.0 causes, EMR = 5.5 causes; p < 0.0001). PMID:26958261

  14. Death certification: issues from a pilot of the Shipman Inquiry's interim proposals.

    PubMed

    Sinfield, Paul; Wilson, Andrew

    2005-01-01

    This article investigates the issue of death certification in England and Wales. The Shipman Inquiry published interim proposals designed to make the system of death certification safer and more accurate. The proposed forms were piloted by doctors and relatives on a sample of deaths in one locality. They were then interviewed to assess the forms' feasibility and acceptability. PMID:15962727

  15. Medical certification of death in South Africa--moving forward.

    PubMed

    Burger, E H; Groenewald, P; Rossouw, A; Bradshaw, D

    2015-01-01

    Despite improvements to the Death Notification Form (DNF) used in South Africa (SA), the quality of cause-of-death information remains suboptimal. To address these inadequacies, the government ran a train-the-trainer programme on completion of the DNF, targeting doctors in public sector hospitals. Training materials were developed and workshops were held in all provinces. This article reflects on the lessons learnt from the training and highlights issues that need to be addressed to improve medical certification and cause-of-death data in SA. The DNF should be completed truthfully and accurately, and confidentiality of the information on the form should be maintained. The underlying cause of death should be entered on the lowest completed line in the cause-of-death section, and if appropriate, HIV should be entered here. Exclusion clauses for HIV in life insurance policies with Association of Savings and Investments South Africa companies were scrapped in 2005. Interactive workshops provide a good learning environment, but are logistically challenging. More use should be made of online training resources, particularly with continuing professional development accreditation and helpline support. In addition, training in the completion of the DNF should become part of the curriculum in all medical schools, and part of the orientation of interns and community service doctors in all facilities. PMID:26046158

  16. 25 CFR 15.104 - Does the agency need a death certificate to prepare a probate file?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...) Yes. You must provide us with a certified copy of the death certificate if a death certificate exists... death; (2) The last known address of the deceased; (3) Names and addresses of others who may...

  17. Evaluating an educational intervention to improve the accuracy of death certification among trainees from various specialties

    PubMed Central

    Villar, Jesús; Pérez-Méndez, Lina

    2007-01-01

    Background The inaccuracy of death certification can lead to the misallocation of resources in health care programs and research. We evaluated the rate of errors in the completion of death certificates among medical residents from various specialties, before and after an educational intervention which was designed to improve the accuracy in the certification of the cause of death. Methods A 90-min seminar was delivered to seven mixed groups of medical trainees (n = 166) from several health care institutions in Spain. Physicians were asked to read and anonymously complete a same case-scenario of death certification before and after the seminar. We compared the rates of errors and the impact of the educational intervention before and after the seminar. Results A total of 332 death certificates (166 completed before and 166 completed after the intervention) were audited. Death certificates were completed with errors by 71.1% of the physicians before the educational intervention. Following the seminar, the proportion of death certificates with errors decreased to 9% (p < 0.0001). The most common error in the completion of death certificates was the listing of the mechanism of death instead of the cause of death. Before the seminar, 56.8% listed respiratory or cardiac arrest as the immediate cause of death. None of the participants listed any mechanism of death after the educational intervention (p < 0.0001). Conclusion Major errors in the completion of the correct cause of death on death certificates are common among medical residents. A simple educational intervention can dramatically improve the accuracy in the completion of death certificates by physicians. PMID:18005414

  18. Assessing quality of medical death certification: Concordance between gold standard diagnosis and underlying cause of death in selected Mexican hospitals

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background In Mexico, the vital registration system relies on information collected from death certificates to generate official mortality figures. Although the death certificate has high coverage across the country, there is little information regarding its validity. The objective of this study was to assess the concordance between the underlying cause of death in official statistics obtained from death certificates and a gold standard diagnosis of the same deaths derived from medical records of hospitals. Methods The study sample consisted of 1,589 deaths that occurred in 34 public hospitals in the Federal District and the state of Morelos, Mexico in 2009. Neonatal, child, and adult cases were selected for causes of death that included infectious diseases, noncommunicable diseases, and injuries. We compared the underlying cause of death, obtained from medical death certificates, against a gold standard diagnosis derived from a review of medical records developed by the Population Health Metrics Research Consortium. We used chance-corrected concordance and accuracy as metrics to evaluate the quality of performance of the death certificate. Results Analysis considering only the underlying cause of death resulted in a median chance-corrected concordance between the cause of death in medical death certificates versus the gold standard of 54.3% (95% uncertainty interval [UI]: 52.2, 55.6) for neonates, 38.5% (37.0, 40.0) for children, and 66.5% (65.9, 66.9) for adults. The accuracy resulting from the same analysis was 0.756 (0.747, 0.769) for neonates, 0.683 (0.663, 0.701) for children, and 0.780 (0.774, 0.785) for adults. Median chance-corrected concordance and accuracy increased when considering the mention of any cause of death in the death certificate, not just the underlying cause. Concordance varied substantially depending on cause of death, and accuracy varied depending on the true cause-specific mortality fraction composition. Conclusions Although we cannot

  19. Occupation and bladder cancer: a death-certificate study.

    PubMed Central

    Dolin, P. J.; Cook-Mozaffari, P.

    1992-01-01

    Occupational statements on death certificates of 2,457 males aged 25-64 who died from bladder cancer in selected coastal and estaurine regions of England and Wales during 1965-1980 were studied. Excess mortality was found for deck and engine room crew of ships, railway workers, electrical and electronic workers, shoemakers and repairers, and tobacco workers. An excess of cases also occurred among food workers, particularly those employed in the bread and flour confectionary industry or involved in the extraction of animal and vegetable oils and fats. Use of a job-exposure matrix revealed elevated risk for occupations in which most workers were exposed to paints and pigments, benzene and cutting oils. PMID:1520596

  20. Varying Estimates of Sepsis Mortality Using Death Certificates and Administrative Codes--United States, 1999-2014.

    PubMed

    Epstein, Lauren; Dantes, Ray; Magill, Shelley; Fiore, Anthony

    2016-04-01

    Sepsis is a clinical syndrome caused by a dysregulated host response to infection (1). Because there is no confirmatory diagnostic test, the diagnosis of sepsis is based on evidence of infection and clinical judgement. Both death certificates and health services utilization data (administrative claims) have been used to assess sepsis incidence and mortality, but estimates vary depending on the surveillance definition and data source. To highlight the challenges and variability associated with estimating sepsis mortality, CDC compared national estimates of sepsis-related mortality based on death certificates using the CDC WONDER database with published sepsis mortality estimates generated using administrative claims data from hospital discharges reported in the Nationwide Inpatient Sample, Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project, Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (2). During 2004-2009, using data rounded to thousands, the annual range of published sepsis-related mortality estimates based on administrative claims data was 15% to 140% higher (range = 168,000-381,000) than annual estimates generated using death certificate data (multiple causes) (range = 146,000-159,000). Differences in sepsis-related mortality reported using death certificates and administrative claims data might be explained by limitations inherent in each data source. These findings underscore the need for a reliable sepsis surveillance definition based on objective clinical data to more accurately track national sepsis trends and enable objective assessment of the impact of efforts to increase sepsis awareness and prevention. PMID:27054476

  1. Reduction of Death Certificate Only (DCO) Registrations by Active Follow Back.

    PubMed

    Turano, LM; Laudico, AV; Esteban, DB; Pisani, P; Parkin, DM

    2002-01-01

    Death certificates are an important source of information for cancer registries that help to improve completeness of case finding. In many countries where routine mortality data are considered of poor quality, this source is often regarded as being of little value. We evaluated the contribution of death certificates to the total number of registrations in the years 1993-1997, in the Manila Cancer Registry (MCR). We compared the "standard" practice of retrieving clinical information if the death certificate was completed in a hospital, with active search of additional information from the deceased's relatives when the death was certified at home.The standard procedure allowed us to reduce the proportion of cases registered from a death certificate by 5%. The improvement varied significantly among the most common sites with a reduction of 10% for lymphomas to less than 1% for cancers of the cervix.The proportion of liver cancers registered from a death certificate only (DCO), originally 47%, was reduced to 29% by contacting relatives of the deceased patients. In countries with limited investment in information systems, death certificates, even when recognised as being of poor quality, are an important source of information for cancer registries. PMID:12718591

  2. Certification-Based Process Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knight, Russell L.

    2013-01-01

    Space mission architects are often challenged with knowing which investment in technology infusion will have the highest return. Certification-based analysis (CBA) gives architects and technologists a means to communicate the risks and advantages of infusing technologies at various points in a process. Various alternatives can be compared, and requirements based on supporting streamlining or automation can be derived and levied on candidate technologies. CBA is a technique for analyzing a process and identifying potential areas of improvement. The process and analysis products are used to communicate between technologists and architects. Process means any of the standard representations of a production flow; in this case, any individual steps leading to products, which feed into other steps, until the final product is produced at the end. This sort of process is common for space mission operations, where a set of goals is reduced eventually to a fully vetted command sequence to be sent to the spacecraft. Fully vetting a product is synonymous with certification. For some types of products, this is referred to as verification and validation, and for others it is referred to as checking. Fundamentally, certification is the step in the process where one insures that a product works as intended, and contains no flaws.

  3. 38 CFR 3.806 - Death gratuity; certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Death gratuity... ADJUDICATION Pension, Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation Special Benefits § 3.806 Death... claim filed with it that: (1) Death resulted from: (i) Disease or injury incurred or aggravated while...

  4. 38 CFR 3.806 - Death gratuity; certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Death gratuity... ADJUDICATION Pension, Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation Special Benefits § 3.806 Death... claim filed with it that: (1) Death resulted from: (i) Disease or injury incurred or aggravated while...

  5. 38 CFR 3.806 - Death gratuity; certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Death gratuity... ADJUDICATION Pension, Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation Special Benefits § 3.806 Death... claim filed with it that: (1) Death resulted from: (i) Disease or injury incurred or aggravated while...

  6. 38 CFR 3.806 - Death gratuity; certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Death gratuity... ADJUDICATION Pension, Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation Special Benefits § 3.806 Death... claim filed with it that: (1) Death resulted from: (i) Disease or injury incurred or aggravated while...

  7. 38 CFR 3.806 - Death gratuity; certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Death gratuity... ADJUDICATION Pension, Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation Special Benefits § 3.806 Death... claim filed with it that: (1) Death resulted from: (i) Disease or injury incurred or aggravated while...

  8. Comments on "Teen Suicide and Changing Cause-of-Death Certification, 1953-1987."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Kim

    1991-01-01

    Responds to previous article by Males on teenage suicides and changing cause-of-death certification from 1953 through 1987. After closely examining Males' arguments, author comes to different conclusions concerning increase in teenage suicides during that time period. Concludes that increase in youth suicide is real and that increase is twice that…

  9. [On the mistakes during the completion of the medical certificate of death].

    PubMed

    Pogorelova, E I

    2007-01-01

    The article deals with the typical mistakes made by physicians during the completion of the medical certificate of death. To enhance the reliability of mortality statistics such means as canvass of mistakes and application of the new technologies (the software package "The monitoring of natality and mortality" and the courseware "RUTEN-DON") are proposed. PMID:17402577

  10. 34 CFR 682.402 - Death, disability, closed school, false certification, unpaid refunds, and bankruptcy payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Death, disability, closed school, false certification, unpaid refunds, and bankruptcy payments. 682.402 Section 682.402 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION (CONTINUED) FEDERAL FAMILY EDUCATION LOAN...

  11. 34 CFR 682.402 - Death, disability, closed school, false certification, unpaid refunds, and bankruptcy payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Death, disability, closed school, false certification, unpaid refunds, and bankruptcy payments. 682.402 Section 682.402 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION (CONTINUED) FEDERAL FAMILY EDUCATION LOAN...

  12. Mortality incidence estimation using federal death certificate and natality data with an application to Tay-Sachs disease.

    PubMed

    Jalal, Kabir; Carter, Randy L

    2015-09-01

    For confidentiality reasons, US federal death certificate data are incomplete with regards to the dates of birth and death for the decedents, making calculation of total lifetime of a decedent impossible and thus estimation of mortality incidence difficult. This paper proposes the use of natality data and an imputation-based method to estimate age-specific mortality incidence rates in the face of this missing information. By utilizing previously determined probabilities of birth, a birth date and death date are imputed for every decedent in the dataset. Thus, the birth cohort of each individual is imputed, and the total on-study time can be calculated. This idea is implemented in two approaches for estimation of mortality incidence rates. The first is an extension of a person-time approach, while the second is an extension of a life table approach. Monte Carlo simulations showed that both approaches perform well in comparison to the ideal complete data methods, but that the person-time method is preferred. An application to Tay-Sachs disease is demonstrated. It is concluded that the imputation methods proposed provide valid estimates of the incidence of death from death certificate data without the need for additional assumptions under which usual mortality rates provide valid estimates. PMID:26080753

  13. Comparison of diagnoses of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis by use of death certificates and hospital discharge data in the Danish population.

    PubMed

    Kioumourtzoglou, Marianthi-Anna; Seals, Ryan M; Himmerslev, Liselotte; Gredal, Ole; Hansen, Johnni; Weisskopf, Marc G

    2015-06-01

    Because ALS is rare, large-scale studies are difficult. Hospital and death certificate data are valuable tools, but understanding of how well they capture cases is needed. We identified 3650 incident cases in the Danish National Patient Register (NPR) between 1982 and 2009, using ICD-8 (before 1994) or ICD-10 codes. Death certificates were obtained from the Danish Register of Causes of Death. We obtained medical records for 173 of the cases identified in the NPR and classified these according to the El Escorial criteria. We compared ALS identification from death certificates to hospital discharges, and both to medical records. Results showed that the sensitivity for use of death certificates was 84.2% (95% CI 82.9-85.5%) and was significantly higher for females, subjects younger than 77 years, and when coded with ICD-8. Using only the underlying cause of death resulted in significantly lower sensitivity. The estimated overall positive predictive value (PPV) was 82.0% (95% CI 80.0-83.8%). Sensitivity and PPV were similar compared with medical records. In conclusion, we found that use of hospital discharges and death certificates is highly reliable and, therefore, a valuable tool for ALS epidemiologic studies. The possible effects on findings of slight differences by age, gender, and ICD coding should be considered. PMID:25946516

  14. Comparison of Diagnoses of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis by Use of Death Certificates and Hospital Discharge Data in the Danish Population

    PubMed Central

    Kioumourtzoglou, Marianthi-Anna; Seals, Ryan M.; Himmerslev, Liselotte; Gredal, Ole; Hansen, Johnni; Weisskopf, Marc G.

    2015-01-01

    Background Because ALS is rare, large-scale studies are difficult. Hospital and death certificate data are valuable tools, but understanding how well they capture cases is needed. Methods We identified 3650 incident cases in the Danish National Patient Register (NPR) between 1982–2009, using ICD-8 (before 1994) or ICD-10 codes. Death certificates were obtained from the Danish Register of Causes of Death. We obtained medical records for 173 of the cases identified in the NPR and classified these according to El Escorial criteria. We compared ALS identification from death certificates to hospital discharges, and both to medical records. Results The sensitivity for use of death certificates was 84.2% (95%CI:82.9–85.5%), and was significantly higher for women, subjects younger than 77 years and when coded with ICD-8. Using only the underlying cause of death resulted in significantly lower sensitivity. The estimated overall positive predictive value (PPV) was 82.0% (95%CI:80.0–83.8%). Sensitivity and PPV were similar when comparison was with medical records. Conclusion We found that use of hospital discharges and death certificates is highly reliable and, therefore, a valuable tool for ALS epidemiologic studies. The possible effects on findings of slight differences by age, gender, and ICD coding should be considered. PMID:25946516

  15. State Variation in Underreporting of Alcohol Involvement on Death Certificates: Motor Vehicle Traffic Crash Fatalities as an Example

    PubMed Central

    Castle, I-Jen P; Yi, Hsiao-Ye; Hingson, Ralph W; White, Aaron M

    2014-01-01

    Objective: We used motor vehicle traffic (MVT) crash fatalities as an example to examine the extent of underreporting of alcohol involvement on death certificates and state variations. Method: We compared MVT-related death certificates identified from national mortality data (Multiple Cause of Death [MCoD] data) with deaths in national traffic census data from the Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS). Because MCoD data were not individually linked to FARS data, the comparisons were at the aggregate level. Reporting ratio of alcohol involvement on death certificates was thus computed as the prevalence of any mention of alcohol-related conditions among MVT deaths in MCoD, divided by the prevalence of decedents with blood alcohol concentration (BAC) test results (not imputed) of .08% or greater in FARS. Through bivariate analysis and multiple regression, we explored state characteristics correlated with state reporting ratios. Results: Both MCoD and FARS identified about 450,000 MVT deaths in 1999–2009. Reporting ratio was only 0.16 for all traffic deaths and 0.18 for driver deaths nationally, reflecting that death certificates captured only a small percentage of MVT deaths involving BAC of .08% or more. Reporting ratio did not improve over time, even though FARS indicated that the prevalence of BAC of at least .08% in MVT deaths increased from 19.9% in 1999 to 24.2% in 2009. State reporting ratios varied widely, from 0.02 (Nevada and New Jersey) to 0.81 (Delaware). Conclusions: The comparison of MCoD with FARS revealed a large discrepancy in reporting alcohol involvement in MVT deaths and considerable state variation in the magnitude of underreporting. We suspect similar underreporting and state variations in alcohol involvement in other types of injury deaths. PMID:24650824

  16. 25 CFR 15.104 - Does the agency need a death certificate to prepare a probate file?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Does the agency need a death certificate to prepare a probate file? 15.104 Section 15.104 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROBATE PROBATE OF INDIAN ESTATES, EXCEPT FOR MEMBERS OF THE OSAGE NATION AND THE FIVE CIVILIZED TRIBES...

  17. 25 CFR 15.104 - Does the agency need a death certificate to prepare a probate file?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Does the agency need a death certificate to prepare a probate file? 15.104 Section 15.104 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROBATE PROBATE OF INDIAN ESTATES, EXCEPT FOR MEMBERS OF THE OSAGE NATION AND THE FIVE CIVILIZED TRIBES...

  18. Occupation and five cancers: a case-control study using death certificates.

    PubMed Central

    Magnani, C; Coggon, D; Osmond, C; Acheson, E D

    1987-01-01

    A case-control approach has been used to examine mortality from five cancers--oesophagus, pancreas, cutaneous melanoma, kidney, and brain--among young and middle aged men resident in three English counties. The areas studied were chosen because they include major centres of chemical manufacture. By combining data from 20 years it was possible to look at local industries with greater statistical power than is possible using routine national statistics. Each case was matched with up to four controls of similar age who died in the same year from other causes. The occupations and industries recorded on death certificates were coded to standard classifications and risk estimates derived for each job category. Where positive associations were found the records of the cases concerned were examined in greater detail to see whether the risk was limited to specific combinations of occupation and industry. The most interesting findings to emerge were risks of brain cancer associated with the production of meat and fish products (relative risk (RR) = 9.7, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.6-36.8) and with mineral oil refining (RR = 2.9, CI 1.2-7.0), and a cluster of four deaths from melanoma among refinery workers (RR = 16.0, CI CI 1.8-143.2). A job-exposure matrix was applied to the data but gave no strong indications of further disease associations. Local analyses of occupational mortality such as this can usefully supplement national statistics. PMID:3689708

  19. Frequency of recording of diabetes on U.S. death certificates: analysis of the 1986 National Mortality Followback Survey.

    PubMed

    Bild, D E; Stevenson, J M

    1992-03-01

    We used data from the 1986 National Mortality Followback Survey to estimate the frequency of recording of diabetes on death certificates and to determine factors associated with recording of diabetes among decedents aged 25 years and older who died in the U.S. in 1986. Among 2766 decedents for whom a history of diabetes was provided by a personal informant, diabetes was recorded on an estimated 38.2% of death certificates and was listed as the underlying cause of death on an estimated 9.6%. The frequency of recording of diabetes was strongly related to age and duration of diabetes--among those aged 25-44 years who had had diabetes for 15 or more years, the frequency of recording was 71.9%. When other listed causes of death included conditions that may have been related to diabetes, such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes was recorded between 45 and 70% of the time, depending on the other causes. Diabetes is usually not recorded on death certificates, and the likelihood of recording is related to decedent characteristics, particularly age, duration of diabetes, and co-morbidity. PMID:1569424

  20. Certification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayhurst, Kelly

    2010-01-01

    Objective 1: Provide regulators with a methodology for development of airworthiness requirements for certification of UAS. a) Rationale: a comprehensive methodology does not currently exist to support development of regulation for certification of UAS. Regulation is essential to enable routine access to the NAS. b) Approach: 1) assess existing approaches and classification schemes for deriving acceptable means of compliance to airworthiness requirements. 2) investigate a service-based approach to classification of UAS. 3) conduct comparative analysis of different methodologies. 4) work with FAA to determine best approach and conduct case study. 5) participate in regulatory/standards organizations developing safety and performance requirements for UAS. Objective 2: Provide regulators and industry with hazard and risk-related data to support criteria for UAS type design. a) Rationale: There is presently little UAS specific data (incident, accident, and reliability), especially in a civil context, to support risk assessment and development of standards and regulation. b) Approach: Identify gaps in existing data, provide measured data as needed, and formulate recommendations by: 1) evaluating UAS incident/accident data collection efforts and determining additional support necessary for regulation. 2) assessing UAS-specific hazards and risks. 3) evaluating need for reliability data for UAS-unique systems, components and subsystem, and determining additional measurement requirements. 4) developing guidance and best practices for UAS type design.

  1. Mandated Competency-Based Teacher Certification and the Public Interest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spaulding, Robert L.

    Responding to the current lack of an empirical basis for competency-based teacher certification, Georgia has mandated studies leading to the establishment of empirical criteria. In the Carroll County Competency-Based Teacher Certification Project, the instructional behaviors of some 60 certified teachers and the classroom behaviors of the…

  2. Cause-Specific Mortality and Death Certificate Reporting in Adults with Moderate to Profound Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tyrer, F.; McGrother, C.

    2009-01-01

    Background: The study of premature deaths in people with intellectual disability (ID) has become the focus of recent policy initiatives in England. This is the first UK population-based study to explore cause-specific mortality in adults with ID compared with the general population. Methods: Cause-specific standardised mortality ratios (SMRs) and…

  3. The impact of the variation in death certification and coding practices on trends in mortality from ischaemic heart disease.

    PubMed

    Chen, Linping; Walker, Sue; Tong, Shilu

    2002-01-01

    This review examines the literature relating to the effect of death certification practices, coding and the terminology used by certifiers on trends in mortality from ischaemic heart disease (IHD). The review identifies factors that affect mortality trends in a number of countries and discusses methods for assessing the impact of these issues on trends in mortality from IHD. The review found that although the magnitude of the effects of the issues on trends in mortality from ischaemic heart disease varied among countries and sub-populations, miscertification and the resultant assignment of misleading ICD codes, particularly for ill-defined cardiovascular conditions, were important factors affecting the IHD mortality trends. In light of these findings, it is essential to monitor regularly the accuracy of death certificates for IHD and consider necessary adjustments in analysing mortality trends from IHD. PMID:12404982

  4. Studying sudden and unexpected infant deaths in a time of changing death certification and investigation practices: evaluating sleep-related risk factors for infant death in New York City.

    PubMed

    Senter, Lindsay; Sackoff, Judith; Landi, Kristen; Boyd, Lorraine

    2011-02-01

    We describe an approach for quantifying and characterizing the extent to which sudden and unexpected infant deaths (SUIDs) result from unsafe sleep environments (e.g., prone position, bedsharing, soft bedding); and present data on sleep-related infant deaths in NYC. Using a combination of vital statistics and medical examiner data, including autopsy and death scene investigation findings, we analyzed any death due to accidental threat to breathing (ATB) (ICD-10 W75 & W84), and deaths of undetermined intent (UND) (Y10-Y34) between 2000 and 2003 in NYC for the presence of sleep-related factors (SRF). Homicide deaths were excluded as were SIDS, since in NYC SIDS is not a certification option if environmental factors were possibly contributors to the death. All 19 ATB and 69 (75%) UND had SRFs as per the OCME investigation. Black infants and infants born to teen mothers had higher SRF death rates for both ATB and UND deaths. Bedsharing was the most common SRF (53%-ATB; 72%-UND deaths); the majority of non-bedsharing infants were found in the prone position (60%-ATB; 78%-UND deaths). We found a high prevalence of SRFs among ATB and UND deaths. This is the first local study to illustrate the importance of knowing how SUIDs are certified in order to ascertain the prevalence of infant deaths with SRFs. Advancing the research requires clarity on the criteria used by local medical examiners to categorize SUIDs. This will help jurisdictions interpret their infant mortality statistics, which in turn will improve education and prevention efforts. PMID:20177757

  5. [Production of information on mortality from external causes: meanings and significances in the filling out of death certificates].

    PubMed

    de Melo, Cristiane Magalhães; Bevilacqua, Paula Dias; Barletto, Marisa

    2013-05-01

    The study sought to understand the meanings and significances that physicians attribute to the Death Certificate (DO) and the implications of subjectivity in the production of information on mortality. Guided by qualitative research, semi-structured interviews and content analysis, techniques were chosen for understanding representations and experiences involved in the filling out of the DO. The results revealed that different meanings and significances are attributed to the DO depending on how death occurred, in accordance with the different attributes the document acquires from a practical standpoint, in terms of 'epidemiological' and 'legal' functions. The results suggest that the DO used as a technical and objective instrument for data collection and production of health statistics does not lack subjectivity, which turns it into an instrument that in the medical practice and social reality reflects cultural issues, the social position of the subjects who fill it out and their representations of death. PMID:23670450

  6. Certificates.

    PubMed

    Fry, F

    1994-06-01

    The Concise Oxford English Dictionary defines 'dilemma' as "an argument forcing one to choose one of two alternatives both unfavourable to him (or her)". This is situation that frequently confronts the general practitioner. In this article a personal solution to the problem of 'certificates' is presented. Not every one will necessarily agree with the solutions presented and some may find them unacceptable, or have better solutions. The author warmly welcomes correspondence, either personal, or in the form of Letters to the Editor, as this is a subject in which consensus decisions are important. PMID:8053842

  7. A Program Certification Assistant Based on Fully Automated Theorem Provers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Denney, Ewen; Fischer, Bernd

    2005-01-01

    We describe a certification assistant to support formal safety proofs for programs. It is based on a graphical user interface that hides the low-level details of first-order automated theorem provers while supporting limited interactivity: it allows users to customize and control the proof process on a high level, manages the auxiliary artifacts produced during this process, and provides traceability between the proof obligations and the relevant parts of the program. The certification assistant is part of a larger program synthesis system and is intended to support the deployment of automatically generated code in safety-critical applications.

  8. United States non-Hodgkin's lymphoma surveillance by occupation 1984-1989: a twenty-four state death certificate study.

    PubMed

    Figgs, L W; Dosemeci, M; Blair, A

    1995-06-01

    Death certificates from 23,890 male and female non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) cases and 119,450 noncancer controls from 24 states for the period 1984-1989 were used to generate hypotheses regarding occupational associations. Cases were frequency matched by age, race, and gender with five controls per case. Odds ratios were calculated for 231 industries and 509 occupations. Significant associations were observed for a variety of white-collar professionals (i.e., real estate agents, secretaries, bookkeepers, teachers, postal employees, business agents, engineers, chemists, and medical professionals) and blue-collar occupations (i.e., firefighters, farm managers, aircraft mechanics, electronic repairers, mining machine operators, and crane and tower operators). PMID:7645576

  9. Performance criteria for verbal autopsy-based systems to estimate national causes of death: development and application to the Indian Million Death Study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Verbal autopsy (VA) has been proposed to determine the cause of death (COD) distributions in settings where most deaths occur without medical attention or certification. We develop performance criteria for VA-based COD systems and apply these to the Registrar General of India’s ongoing, nationally-representative Indian Million Death Study (MDS). Methods Performance criteria include a low ill-defined proportion of deaths before old age; reproducibility, including consistency of COD distributions with independent resampling; differences in COD distribution of hospital, home, urban or rural deaths; age-, sex- and time-specific plausibility of specific diseases; stability and repeatability of dual physician coding; and the ability of the mortality classification system to capture a wide range of conditions. Results The introduction of the MDS in India reduced the proportion of ill-defined deaths before age 70 years from 13% to 4%. The cause-specific mortality fractions (CSMFs) at ages 5 to 69 years for independently resampled deaths and the MDS were very similar across 19 disease categories. By contrast, CSMFs at these ages differed between hospital and home deaths and between urban and rural deaths. Thus, reliance mostly on urban or hospital data can distort national estimates of CODs. Age-, sex- and time-specific patterns for various diseases were plausible. Initial physician agreement on COD occurred about two-thirds of the time. The MDS COD classification system was able to capture more eligible records than alternative classification systems. By these metrics, the Indian MDS performs well for deaths prior to age 70 years. The key implication for low- and middle-income countries where medical certification of death remains uncommon is to implement COD surveys that randomly sample all deaths, use simple but high-quality field work with built-in resampling, and use electronic rather than paper systems to expedite field work and coding. Conclusions Simple

  10. Teen Suicide and Changing Cause-of-Death Certification, 1953-1987.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Males, Mike

    1991-01-01

    Examined whether tripling in teenage suicides since 1950s represents increase in suicides or in skill of medical examiners. Examined firearms and poisoning death from 1953-87. Concludes that increase in youth suicide is less dramatic than reported, and suicide increase indicated among youths and adults occurred from 1964-71 and has since…

  11. The environmental impact statement: an important addition to the certification of early deaths.

    PubMed

    Pacy, H

    1978-05-20

    An environmental impact statement (EIS) has been made in conjunction with a prospective study of 56 consecutive deaths of persons under 60 years of age in a local population. EIS is the cheapest and the quickest means by which to continually highlight the weaknesses of a national health system. PMID:683064

  12. Windshear certification data base for forward-look detection systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Switzer, George F.; Hinton, David A.; Proctor, Fred H.

    1994-01-01

    Described is an introduction to a comprehensive database that is to be used for certification testing of airborne forward-look windshear detection systems. The database was developed by NASA Langley Research Center, at the request of the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), to support the industry initiative to certify and produce forward-looking windshear detection equipment. The database contains high-resolution three-dimensional fields for meteorological variables that may be sensed by forward-looking systems. The database is made up of seven case studies that are generated by the Terminal Area Simulation System, a state-of-the-art numerical system for the realistic modeling of windshear phenomena. The selected cases contained in the certification documentation represent a wide spectrum of windshear events. The database will be used with vendor-developed sensor simulation software and vendor-collected ground-clutter data to demonstrate detection performance in a variety of meteorological conditions using NASA/FAA pre-defined path scenarios for each of the certification cases. A brief outline of the contents and sample plots from the database documentation are included. These plots show fields of hazard factor, or F-factor (Bowles 1990), radar reflectivity, and velocity vectors on a horizontal plane overlayed with the applicable certification paths. For the plot of the F-factor field the region of 0.105 and above signify an area of hazardous, performance decreasing windshear, while negative values indicate regions of performance increasing windshear. The values of F-factor are based on 1-Km averaged segments along horizontal flight paths, assuming an air speed of 150 knots (approx. 75 m/s). The database has been released to vendors participating in the certification process. The database and associated document have been transferred to the FAA for archival storage and distribution.

  13. Efficient Certificate-Based Signcryption Secure against Public Key Replacement Attacks and Insider Attacks

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jiguo

    2014-01-01

    Signcryption is a useful cryptographic primitive that achieves confidentiality and authentication in an efficient manner. As an extension of signcryption in certificate-based cryptography, certificate-based signcryption preserves the merits of certificate-based cryptography and signcryption simultaneously. In this paper, we present an improved security model of certificate-based signcryption that covers both public key replacement attack and insider security. We show that an existing certificate-based signcryption scheme is insecure in our model. We also propose a new certificate-based signcryption scheme that achieves security against both public key replacement attacks and insider attacks. We prove in the random oracle model that the proposed scheme is chosen-ciphertext secure and existentially unforgeable. Performance analysis shows that the proposed scheme outperforms all the previous certificate-based signcryption schemes in the literature. PMID:24959606

  14. Space Based Range Demonstration and Certification (SBRDC)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sakahara, Robert

    2005-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation describes the development, utilization and testing of technologies for range safety and range user systems. The contents include: 1) Space Based Range (SBR) Goals and Objectives; 2) Today s United States Range; 3) Future Range; 4) Another Vision for the Future Range; 5) STARS Project Goals; 6) STARS Content; 7) STARS Configuration Flight Demonstrations 1 & 2; 8) Spaceport And Range Technologies STARS Objectives and Results; 9) Spaceport And Range Technologies STARS FD2 Objectives; 10) Range Safety Hardware; 11) Range User Hardware; and 12) Past/Future Flight Demo Plans

  15. GPS-based certification for the microwave landing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thornton, C. L.; Young, L. E.; Wu, S. C.; Thomas, J. B.

    1984-01-01

    An MLS (microwave landing system) certification system based on the Global Positioning System (GPS) is described. To determine the position history of the flight inspection aircraft during runway approach, signals from the GPS satellites, together with on-board radar altimetry, are used. It is shown that the aircraft position relative to a fixed point on the runway at threshold can be determined to about 30 cm vertically and 1 m horizontally. A requirement of the system is that the GPS receivers be placed on each flight inspection aircraft and at selected ground sites. The effects of different error sources on the determination of aircraft instantaneous position and its dynamics are analyzed.

  16. Factors associated with reporting multiple causes of death

    PubMed Central

    Wall, Melanie M; Huang, Jinzhou; Oswald, John; McCullen, Diane

    2005-01-01

    Background There is analytical potential for multiple cause of death data collected from death certificates. This study examines relationships of multiple causes of death as a function of factors available on the death certificate (demographics of decedent, place of death, type of certifier, disposal method, whether an autopsy was performed, and year of death). Methods Data from 326,332 Minnesota death certificates from 1990–1998 are examined. Underlying and non-underlying causes of death are examined (based on record axis codes) as well as demographic and death-related covariates. Associations between covariates and prevalence of multiple causes of death and conditional probability of underlying compared to non-underlying causes of death are examined. The occurrence of ischemic heart disease or diabetes as underlying causes are specifically examined. Results Both the probability of multiple causes of death and the proportion of underlying cause compared to non-underlying cause of death are associated with demographic characteristics of the deceased and other non-medical conditions related to filing death certificate such as place of death. Conclusions Multiple cause of death data provide a potentially useful way of looking for inaccuracies in reporting of causes of death. Differences across demographics in the proportion of time a cause is selected as underlying compared to non-underlying exist and can potentially provide useful information about the overall impact of causes of death in different populations. PMID:15655070

  17. Certificate-based authorization policy in a PKI environment

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, Mary R.; Essiari, Abdelilah; Mudumbai, Srilekha

    2003-02-15

    The major emphasis of Public Key Infrastructure has been to provide acryptographically secure means of authenticating identities. However, procedures for authorizing the holders of these identities to perform specific actions still need additional research and development. While there are a number of proposed standards for authorization structures and protocols such as KeyNote, SPKI and SAML based on X.509 or other key-based identities, none have been widely adopted. As part of an effort to use X.509 identities to provide authorization in highly distributed environments, we have developed and deployed an authorization service based on X.509 identified users and access policy contained in certificates signed by X.509 identified stakeholders. The major goal of this system, called Akenti, is to produce a usable authorization system for an environment consisting of distributed resources used by geographically and administratively distributed users. Akenti assumes communication between user s and resources over a secure protocol such as Transport Layer Security(TLS) to provide mutual authentication with X.509 certificates. This paper explains the authorization model and policy language used by Akenti, and how we have implemented an Apache authorization module to provide Akenti authorization.

  18. Statewide Systematic Evaluation of Sudden, Unexpected Infant Death Classification: Results from a National Pilot Project

    PubMed Central

    Kryscio, Richard; Holsinger, James W.; Krous, Henry F.

    2009-01-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention funded seven states, including Kentucky, to clarify statewide death certification practices in sudden, unexpected infant death and compare state performances with national expectations. Accurate assignment of the cause and manner of death in cases of sudden, unexpected infant death is critical for accurate vital statistics data to direct limited resources to appropriate targets, and to implement optimal and safe risk reduction strategies. The primary objectives are to (1) Compare SUID death certifications recommended by the KY medical examiners with the stated cause of death text field on the hard copy death electronic death certificates and (2) Compare KY and national SUID rates. Causes of death for SUID cases recommended by the medical examiners and those appearing on the hard copy and electronic death certificates in KY were collected retrospectively for 2004 and 2005. Medical examiner recommendations were based upon a classification scheme devised by them in 2003. Coroners hard copy death certificates and the cause of death rates in KY were compared to those occurring nationally. Eleven percent of infants dying suddenly and unexpectedly did not undergo autopsy during the study interval. The KY 2003 classification scheme for SIDS is at variance with the NICHD and San Diego SIDS definitions. Significant differences in causes of death recommended by medical examiners and those appearing on the hard copy and electronic death certificates were identified. SIDS rates increased in KY in contrast to decreasing rates nationally. Nationwide adoption of a widely used SIDS definition, such as that proposed in San Diego in 2004 as well as legislation by states to ensure autopsy in all cases of sudden unexpected infant death are recommended. Medical examiners’ recommendations for cause of death should appear on death certificates. Multidisciplinary pediatric death review teams prospectively evaluating cases before death

  19. 38 CFR 51.20 - Application for recognition based on certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) PER DIEM FOR NURSING HOME CARE OF VETERANS IN STATE HOMES Obtaining Per Diem for Nursing Home Care in State Homes § 51.20 Application for recognition based on certification. To apply for recognition and certification of a State home for nursing home care, a State must: (a) Send...

  20. 38 CFR 51.20 - Application for recognition based on certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) PER DIEM FOR NURSING HOME CARE OF VETERANS IN STATE HOMES Obtaining Per Diem for Nursing Home Care in State Homes § 51.20 Application for recognition based on certification. To apply for recognition and certification of a State home for nursing home care, a State must: (a) Send...

  1. 38 CFR 51.20 - Application for recognition based on certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) PER DIEM FOR NURSING HOME CARE OF VETERANS IN STATE HOMES Obtaining Per Diem for Nursing Home Care in State Homes § 51.20 Application for recognition based on certification. To apply for recognition and certification of a State home for nursing home care, a State must: (a) Send...

  2. 38 CFR 51.20 - Application for recognition based on certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) PER DIEM FOR NURSING HOME CARE OF VETERANS IN STATE HOMES Obtaining Per Diem for Nursing Home Care in State Homes § 51.20 Application for recognition based on certification. To apply for recognition and certification of a State home for nursing home care, a State must: (a) Send...

  3. 38 CFR 51.20 - Application for recognition based on certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) PER DIEM FOR NURSING HOME CARE OF VETERANS IN STATE HOMES Obtaining Per Diem for Nursing Home Care in State Homes § 51.20 Application for recognition based on certification. To apply for recognition and certification of a State home for nursing home care, a State must: (a) Send...

  4. 38 CFR 52.20 - Application for recognition based on certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) PER DIEM FOR ADULT DAY HEALTH CARE OF VETERANS IN STATE HOMES Obtaining Per Diem for Adult Day Health Care in State Homes § 52.20 Application for recognition based on certification. To apply for recognition and certification of a State home for adult day health care, a...

  5. 38 CFR 52.20 - Application for recognition based on certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) PER DIEM FOR ADULT DAY HEALTH CARE OF VETERANS IN STATE HOMES Obtaining Per Diem for Adult Day Health Care in State Homes § 52.20 Application for recognition based on certification. To apply for recognition and certification of a State home for adult day health care, a...

  6. 38 CFR 52.20 - Application for recognition based on certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) PER DIEM FOR ADULT DAY HEALTH CARE OF VETERANS IN STATE HOMES Obtaining Per Diem for Adult Day Health Care in State Homes § 52.20 Application for recognition based on certification. To apply for recognition and certification of a State home for adult day health care, a...

  7. The Role of Industry-Based Certifications in Career and Technical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilcox, Dave

    2006-01-01

    This article presents a brief summary of statewide applications of industry-based certifications (IBCs). Many state systems and local institutions are developing additional creative ways of using IBCs to support learning and program objectives. The technology of assessment and certification is advancing, so the snapshot of "the current reality"…

  8. Coherent state quantum key distribution based on entanglement sudden death

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaeger, Gregg; Simon, David; Sergienko, Alexander V.

    2016-03-01

    A method for quantum key distribution (QKD) using entangled coherent states is discussed which is designed to provide key distribution rates and transmission distances surpassing those of traditional entangled photon pair QKD by exploiting entanglement sudden death. The method uses entangled electromagnetic signal states of `macroscopic' average photon numbers rather than single photon or entangled photon pairs, which have inherently limited rate and distance performance as bearers of quantum key data. Accordingly, rather than relying specifically on Bell inequalities as do entangled photon pair-based methods, the security of this method is based on entanglement witnesses and related functions.

  9. Early Childhood Injury Deaths in Washington State.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starzyk, Patricia M.

    This paper discusses data on the deaths of children aged 1-4 years in Washington State. A two-fold approach was used in the analysis. First, Washington State death certificate data for 1979-85 were used to characterize the deaths and identify hazardous situations. Second, death certificates were linked to birth certificates of children born in…

  10. The effectiveness of market-based conservation in the tropics: forest certification in Ecuador and Bolivia.

    PubMed

    Ebeling, Johannes; Yasué, Maï

    2009-02-01

    During the last decade, forest certification has gained momentum as a market-based conservation strategy in tropical forest countries. Certification has been promoted to enhance forest management in countries where governance capacities are insufficient to adequately manage natural resources and enforce pertinent regulations, given that certification relies largely on non-governmental organisations and private businesses. However, at present there are few tropical countries with large areas of certified forests. In this study, we conducted semi-structured stakeholder interviews in Ecuador and Bolivia to identify key framework conditions that influence the costs and benefits for companies to switch from conventional to certified forestry operations. Bolivia has a much greater relative area under certified forest management than Ecuador and also significantly more certified producers. The difference in the success of certification between both countries is particularly notable because Bolivia is a poorer country with more widespread corruption, and is landlocked with less access to export routes. Despite these factors, several characteristics of the Bolivian forest industry contribute to lower additional costs of certified forest management compared to Ecuador. Bolivia has stronger government enforcement of forestry regulations a fact that increases the cost of illegal logging, management units are larger, and vertical integration in the process chain from timber extraction to markets is higher. Moreover, forestry laws in Bolivia are highly compatible with certification requirements, and the government provides significant tax benefits to certified producers. Results from this study suggest that certification can be successful in countries where governments have limited governance capacity. However, the economic incentives for certification do not only arise from favourable market conditions. Certification is likely to be more successful where governments enforce

  11. Death duties

    PubMed Central

    Myers, Kathryn A.; Eden, David

    2007-01-01

    PROBLEM BEING ADDRESSED Family physicians are often called upon to pronounce and certify the deaths of patients. Inadequate knowledge of the Coroners Act (in the province of Ontario) and of the correct process of certifying death can make physicians uncomfortable when confronted with these tasks. OBJECTIVE OF PROGRAM To educate family physicians about how to perform the administrative tasks required of them when patients die. PROGRAM DESCRIPTION The program included an educational video, a tutorial outlining the process of death certification, and discussion with a regional coroner about key features of the Coroners Act. In small groups, participants worked through cases of patient deaths in which they were asked to determine whether a coroner needed to be involved, to determine the manner of death, and to complete a mock death certificate for each case. CONCLUSION All participants reported a high level of satisfaction with the workshop and thought the main objective of the program had been achieved. Results of a test given 3 months after the workshop showed substantial improvement in participants’ knowledge of the coroner’s role and of the process of death certification. PMID:17872782

  12. Occupational risk factors for cancer of the central nervous system: a case-control study on death certificates from 24 U.S. states.

    PubMed

    Cocco, P; Dosemeci, M; Heineman, E F

    1998-03-01

    The risk of cancer of the central nervous system (CNS) by industry and occupation was investigated with a case-control analysis of the death certificates of 28,416 cases and 113,664 controls, selected from over 4.5 million deaths in 24 U.S. states between 1984 and 1992. Industries showing consistent increases in risk by gender and race included textile mills, paper mills, printing and publishing industries, petroleum refining, motor vehicles manufacturing, telephone and electric utilities, department stores, health care services, elementary and secondary schools, and colleges and universities. CNS cancer risk was increased for administrators in education and related fields, secondary school teachers, and other education- and health-related occupations. The application of job-exposure matrices to the industry/occupation combinations revealed a modest increase in risk for potential contact with the public at work and exposure to solvents. Occupational exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMF) was not associated with CNS cancer, although an association was observed with a few EMF-related occupations and industries. Agricultural exposures were associated with significant risk increases among white women and white men. Further work is required to investigate in more detail specific occupational exposures or possible confounders responsible for the observed associations. PMID:9481423

  13. 40 CFR 745.238 - Fees for accreditation and certification of lead-based paint activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Fees for accreditation and certification of lead-based paint activities. 745.238 Section 745.238 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT LEAD-BASED PAINT POISONING PREVENTION IN CERTAIN RESIDENTIAL STRUCTURES Lead-Based...

  14. 5 CFR 843.310 - Annuity based on death of an employee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Annuity based on death of an employee... SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES RETIREMENT SYSTEM-DEATH BENEFITS AND EMPLOYEE REFUNDS Current and Former Spouse Benefits § 843.310 Annuity based on death of an employee. Except as provided...

  15. 5 CFR 843.310 - Annuity based on death of an employee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Annuity based on death of an employee... SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES RETIREMENT SYSTEM-DEATH BENEFITS AND EMPLOYEE REFUNDS Current and Former Spouse Benefits § 843.310 Annuity based on death of an employee. Except as provided...

  16. 5 CFR 843.310 - Annuity based on death of an employee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Annuity based on death of an employee... SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES RETIREMENT SYSTEM-DEATH BENEFITS AND EMPLOYEE REFUNDS Current and Former Spouse Benefits § 843.310 Annuity based on death of an employee. Except as provided...

  17. PVDaCS - A prototype knowledge-based expert system for certification of spacecraft data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wharton, Cathleen; Shiroma, Patricia J.; Simmons, Karen E.

    1989-01-01

    On-line data management techniques to certify spacecraft information are mandated by increasing telemetry rates. Knowledge-based expert systems offer the ability to certify data electronically without the need for time-consuming human interaction. Issues of automatic certification are explored by designing a knowledge-based expert system to certify data from a scientific instrument, the Orbiter Ultraviolet Spectrometer, on an operating NASA planetary spacecraft, Pioneer Venus. The resulting rule-based system, called PVDaCS (Pioneer Venus Data Certification System), is a functional prototype demonstrating the concepts of a larger system design. A key element of the system design is the representation of an expert's knowledge through the usage of well ordered sequences. PVDaCS produces a certification value derived from expert knowledge and an analysis of the instrument's operation. Results of system performance are presented.

  18. Multiple cause of death mortality patterns among Californians

    SciTech Connect

    White, M.C.

    1989-11-28

    The purpose of this study was to describe mortality patterns among the elderly using single versus multiple cause of death data and examine ways that multiple cause of death data can best be processed, analyzed and presented. Deaths among white California aged 65 and older for the years 1970, 1975 and 1980 were analyzed. Overall, mortality rates decreased over time, at all ages and for both sexes but more so for females, although the number of causes of death increased with age. Underlying cause mortality rates were compared to rates based on any mention of a cause on the death certificate; diabetes and atherosclerosis were more frequent causes of both than would be indicated by single cause statistics, and heart diseases other than ischemic heart disease increased in mentions on the death certificated while ischemic heart disease underlying mortality rates decreased. Pairs of causes of death showed increased likelihood of occurrence of a number of combinations of chronic diseases. In all pair combinations studied, the addition of another serious chronic disease lowered the mean age of death resulted in an older mean age of death. This result combined with higher number of causes per death but lower mortality rates among females raised interesting questions about interpreting more causes on death certificates as an indication of a sicker person at time of death. This study confirmed morbidity and mortality work on other that mortality of older adults in decreasing but that the number of causes of death per person is increasing. 82 refs., 30 figs., 59 tabs.

  19. Certification Framework Based on Effective Trapping for Geologic Carbon Sequestration

    SciTech Connect

    Oldenburg, Curtis M.; Bryant, Steven L.; Nicot, Jean-Philippe

    2009-01-15

    We have developed a certification framework (CF) for certifying the safety and effectiveness of geologic carbon sequestration (GCS) sites. Safety and effectiveness are achieved if CO{sub 2} and displaced brine have no significant impact on humans, other living things, resources, or the environment. In the CF, we relate effective trapping to CO{sub 2} leakage risk which takes into account both the impact and probability of leakage. We achieve simplicity in the CF by using (1) wells and faults as the potential leakage pathways, (2) compartments to represent environmental resources that may be impacted by leakage, (3) CO{sub 2} fluxes and concentrations in the compartments as proxies for impact to vulnerable entities, (4) broad ranges of storage formation properties to generate a catalog of simulated plume movements, and (5) probabilities of intersection of the CO{sub 2} plume with the conduits and compartments. We demonstrate the approach on a hypothetical GCS site in a Texas Gulf Coast saline formation. Through its generality and flexibility, the CF can contribute to the assessment of risk of CO{sub 2} and brine leakage as part of the certification process for licensing and permitting of GCS sites around the world regardless of the specific regulations in place in any given country.

  20. 47 CFR 64.606 - Internet-based TRS provider and TRS program certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Internet-based TRS provider and TRS program... Services and Related Customer Premises Equipment for Persons With Disabilities § 64.606 Internet-based TRS provider and TRS program certification. (a) Documentation—(1) Certified state program. Any state,...

  1. 47 CFR 64.606 - Internet-based TRS provider and TRS program certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Internet-based TRS provider and TRS program... Services and Related Customer Premises Equipment for Persons With Disabilities § 64.606 Internet-based TRS provider and TRS program certification. (a) Documentation—(1) Certified state program. Any state,...

  2. 47 CFR 64.606 - Internet-based TRS provider and TRS program certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Internet-based TRS provider and TRS program... Services and Related Customer Premises Equipment for Persons With Disabilities § 64.606 Internet-based TRS provider and TRS program certification. (a) Documentation—(1) Certified state program. Any state,...

  3. 47 CFR 64.606 - Internet-based TRS provider and TRS program certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Internet-based TRS provider and TRS program... Services and Related Customer Premises Equipment for Persons With Disabilities § 64.606 Internet-based TRS provider and TRS program certification. (a) Documentation—(1) Certified state program. Any state,...

  4. The Impact of Competency-Based Teacher Education and Certification Programs in Utah.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mouritsen, Roger C.

    Utah is a member of a nine-state consortium to study competency-based teacher education and certification programs. This paper presents an overview of the nationwide movement for competency-based teacher education, followed by a description of the situation in Utah. The State Board of Education is making an effort through the Teacher Education and…

  5. Competency-Based Teacher Certification in the United States. A Working Paper of the Pennsylvania Competency-Assessment Certification Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maurer, Wallace M., Ed.

    With the exception of Vermont, all state educational agencies responded to a survey questionnaire designed to ascertain the current status of competency assessment teacher certification (CAC). Only 19 states presently award certificates through CAC. This can be explained partially by the fact that state educational agencies can attain the goal of…

  6. 38 CFR 51.10 - Per diem based on recognition and certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) PER DIEM FOR NURSING HOME CARE OF VETERANS IN STATE HOMES Obtaining Per Diem for Nursing Home Care in State Homes § 51.10 Per diem based on recognition and certification. VA will pay per diem to a State for providing nursing home care to eligible veterans in a facility if...

  7. 38 CFR 51.10 - Per diem based on recognition and certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) PER DIEM FOR NURSING HOME CARE OF VETERANS IN STATE HOMES Obtaining Per Diem for Nursing Home Care in State Homes § 51.10 Per diem based on recognition and certification. VA will pay per diem to a State for providing nursing home care to eligible veterans in a facility if...

  8. 38 CFR 51.10 - Per diem based on recognition and certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) PER DIEM FOR NURSING HOME CARE OF VETERANS IN STATE HOMES Obtaining Per Diem for Nursing Home Care in State Homes § 51.10 Per diem based on recognition and certification. VA will pay per diem to a State for providing nursing home care to eligible veterans in a facility if...

  9. 38 CFR 51.10 - Per diem based on recognition and certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) PER DIEM FOR NURSING HOME CARE OF VETERANS IN STATE HOMES Obtaining Per Diem for Nursing Home Care in State Homes § 51.10 Per diem based on recognition and certification. VA will pay per diem to a State for providing nursing home care to eligible veterans in a facility if...

  10. 38 CFR 51.10 - Per diem based on recognition and certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) PER DIEM FOR NURSING HOME CARE OF VETERANS IN STATE HOMES Obtaining Per Diem for Nursing Home Care in State Homes § 51.10 Per diem based on recognition and certification. VA will pay per diem to a State for providing nursing home care to eligible veterans in a facility if...

  11. 40 CFR 94.912 - Optional certification to land-based standards for auxiliary marine engines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Optional certification to land-based standards for auxiliary marine engines. 94.912 Section 94.912 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM MARINE COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES Exclusion and...

  12. 38 CFR 52.10 - Per diem based on recognition and certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) PER DIEM FOR ADULT DAY HEALTH CARE OF VETERANS IN STATE HOMES Obtaining Per Diem for Adult Day Health Care in State Homes § 52.10 Per diem based on recognition and certification. VA will pay per diem to a State for providing adult day health care to eligible veterans in...

  13. 38 CFR 52.10 - Per diem based on recognition and certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) PER DIEM FOR ADULT DAY HEALTH CARE OF VETERANS IN STATE HOMES Obtaining Per Diem for Adult Day Health Care in State Homes § 52.10 Per diem based on recognition and certification. VA will pay per diem to a State for providing adult day health care to eligible veterans in...

  14. 40 CFR 745.238 - Fees for accreditation and certification of lead-based paint activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...-certification (every 3 years, see 40 CFR 745.226(f)(7) for details) Firm $550 $550 Combined Renovation and Lead... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT LEAD-BASED PAINT POISONING PREVENTION IN CERTAIN..., see 40 CFR 745.225(f)(1) for details) Initial CourseInspector Risk assessor Supervisor Worker...

  15. 40 CFR 745.238 - Fees for accreditation and certification of lead-based paint activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...-certification (every 3 years, see 40 CFR 745.226(f)(7) for details) Firm $550 $550 Combined Renovation and Lead... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT LEAD-BASED PAINT POISONING PREVENTION IN CERTAIN..., see 40 CFR 745.225(f)(1) for details) Initial CourseInspector Risk assessor Supervisor Worker...

  16. 40 CFR 745.238 - Fees for accreditation and certification of lead-based paint activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...-certification (every 3 years, see 40 CFR 745.226(f)(7) for details) Firm $550 $550 Combined Renovation and Lead... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT LEAD-BASED PAINT POISONING PREVENTION IN CERTAIN..., see 40 CFR 745.225(f)(1) for details) Initial CourseInspector Risk assessor Supervisor Worker...

  17. 40 CFR 745.238 - Fees for accreditation and certification of lead-based paint activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...-certification (every 3 years, see 40 CFR 745.226(f)(7) for details) Firm $550 $550 Combined Renovation and Lead... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT LEAD-BASED PAINT POISONING PREVENTION IN CERTAIN..., see 40 CFR 745.225(f)(1) for details) Initial CourseInspector Risk assessor Supervisor Worker...

  18. Video-Based Teacher Performance Assessment: Innovations in New York State Teacher Certification Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silvestro, John R.; And Others

    The New York State Education Department is currently developing an innovative and comprehensive system for teacher certification assessment. One component is the Assessment of Teaching Skills-Performance (ATS-P), a video-based performance assessment for which teachers would prepare and submit a videotape of their instruction for evaluation by…

  19. 38 CFR 52.10 - Per diem based on recognition and certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) PER DIEM FOR ADULT DAY HEALTH CARE OF VETERANS IN STATE HOMES Obtaining Per Diem for Adult Day Health Care in State Homes § 52.10 Per diem based on recognition and certification. VA will pay per diem to a State for providing adult day health care to eligible veterans in...

  20. 78 FR 54758 - Listing of Color Additives Exempt From Certification; Mica-Based Pearlescent Pigments...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-06

    ... the Federal Register of June 12, 2013 (78 FR 35115). The final rule amended the color additive... the Federal Register of June 12, 2013 (78 FR 35115), we amended the color additive regulations in Sec... Certification; Mica-Based Pearlescent Pigments; Confirmation of Effective Date AGENCY: Food and...

  1. 2015 Edition Health Information Technology (Health IT) Certification Criteria, 2015 Edition Base Electronic Health Record (EHR) Definition, and ONC Health IT Certification Program Modifications. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2015-10-16

    This final rule finalizes a new edition of certification criteria (the 2015 Edition health IT certification criteria or "2015 Edition'') and a new 2015 Edition Base Electronic Health Record (EHR) definition, while also modifying the ONC Health IT Certification Program to make it open and accessible to more types of health IT and health IT that supports various care and practice settings. The 2015 Edition establishes the capabilities and specifies the related standards and implementation specifications that Certified Electronic Health Record Technology (CEHRT) would need to include to, at a minimum, support the achievement of meaningful use by eligible professionals (EPs), eligible hospitals, and critical access hospitals (CAHs) under the Medicare and Medicaid EHR Incentive Programs (EHR Incentive Programs) when such edition is required for use under these programs. PMID:26477063

  2. Place and Cause of Death in Centenarians: A Population-Based Observational Study in England, 2001 to 2010

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Catherine J.; Ho, Yuen; Daveson, Barbara A.; Hall, Sue; Higginson, Irene J.; Gao, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Background Centenarians are a rapidly growing demographic group worldwide, yet their health and social care needs are seldom considered. This study aims to examine trends in place of death and associations for centenarians in England over 10 years to consider policy implications of extreme longevity. Methods and Findings This is a population-based observational study using death registration data linked with area-level indices of multiple deprivations for people aged ≥100 years who died 2001 to 2010 in England, compared with those dying at ages 80-99. We used linear regression to examine the time trends in number of deaths and place of death, and Poisson regression to evaluate factors associated with centenarians’ place of death. The cohort totalled 35,867 people with a median age at death of 101 years (range: 100–115 years). Centenarian deaths increased 56% (95% CI 53.8%–57.4%) in 10 years. Most died in a care home with (26.7%, 95% CI 26.3%–27.2%) or without nursing (34.5%, 95% CI 34.0%–35.0%) or in hospital (27.2%, 95% CI 26.7%–27.6%). The proportion of deaths in nursing homes decreased over 10 years (−0.36% annually, 95% CI −0.63% to −0.09%, p = 0.014), while hospital deaths changed little (0.25% annually, 95% CI −0.06% to 0.57%, p = 0.09). Dying with frailty was common with “old age” stated in 75.6% of death certifications. Centenarians were more likely to die of pneumonia (e.g., 17.7% [95% CI 17.3%–18.1%] versus 6.0% [5.9%–6.0%] for those aged 80–84 years) and old age/frailty (28.1% [27.6%–28.5%] versus 0.9% [0.9%–0.9%] for those aged 80–84 years) and less likely to die of cancer (4.4% [4.2%–4.6%] versus 24.5% [24.6%–25.4%] for those aged 80–84 years) and ischemic heart disease (8.6% [8.3%–8.9%] versus 19.0% [18.9%–19.0%] for those aged 80–84 years) than were younger elderly patients. More care home beds available per 1,000 population were associated with fewer deaths in hospital (PR 0.98, 95% CI 0.98

  3. 5 CFR 843.311 - Annuity based on death of a separated employee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Annuity based on death of a separated... Current and Former Spouse Benefits § 843.311 Annuity based on death of a separated employee. (a) Except as provided in § 843.312, if a separated employee who has completed at least 10 years of service dies...

  4. 5 CFR 880.205 - Determinations of death.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Determinations of death. 880.205 Section... Determinations of death. OPM does not make findings of presumed death. A claimant for CSRS, FERS, or FEGLI death... § 880.207 must submit a death certificate or other legal certification of death issued by an...

  5. 5 CFR 880.205 - Determinations of death.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Determinations of death. 880.205 Section... Determinations of death. OPM does not make findings of presumed death. A claimant for CSRS, FERS, or FEGLI death... § 880.207 must submit a death certificate or other legal certification of death issued by an...

  6. 5 CFR 880.205 - Determinations of death.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Determinations of death. 880.205 Section... Determinations of death. OPM does not make findings of presumed death. A claimant for CSRS, FERS, or FEGLI death... § 880.207 must submit a death certificate or other legal certification of death issued by an...

  7. 5 CFR 880.205 - Determinations of death.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Determinations of death. 880.205 Section... Determinations of death. OPM does not make findings of presumed death. A claimant for CSRS, FERS, or FEGLI death... § 880.207 must submit a death certificate or other legal certification of death issued by an...

  8. 5 CFR 880.205 - Determinations of death.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Determinations of death. 880.205 Section... Determinations of death. OPM does not make findings of presumed death. A claimant for CSRS, FERS, or FEGLI death... § 880.207 must submit a death certificate or other legal certification of death issued by an...

  9. Maternal death audit in Rwanda 2009–2013: a nationwide facility-based retrospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Sayinzoga, Felix; Bijlmakers, Leon; van Dillen, Jeroen; Mivumbi, Victor; Ngabo, Fidèle; van der Velden, Koos

    2016-01-01

    Objective Presenting the results of 5 years of implementing health facility-based maternal death audits in Rwanda, showing maternal death classification, identification of substandard (care) factors that have contributed to death, and conclusive recommendations for quality improvements in maternal and obstetric care. Design Nationwide facility-based retrospective cohort study. Settings All cases of maternal death audited by district hospital-based audit teams between January 2009 and December 2013 were reviewed. Maternal deaths that were not subjected to a local audit are not part of the cohort. Population 987 audited cases of maternal death. Main outcome measures Characteristics of deceased women, timing of onset of complications, place of death, parity, gravida, antenatal clinic attendance, reported cause of death, service factors and individual factors identified by committees as having contributed to death, and recommendations made by audit teams. Results 987 cases were audited, representing 93.1% of all maternal deaths reported through the national health management information system over the 5-year period. Almost 3 quarters of the deaths (71.6%) occurred at district hospitals. In 44.9% of these cases, death occurred in the post-partum period. Seventy per cent were due to direct causes, with post-partum haemorrhage as the leading cause (22.7%), followed by obstructed labour (12.3%). Indirect causes accounted for 25.7% of maternal deaths, with malaria as the leading cause (7.5%). Health system failures were identified as the main responsible factor for the majority of cases (61.0%); in 30.3% of the cases, the main factor was patient or community related. Conclusions The facility-based maternal death audit approach has helped hospital teams to identify direct and indirect causes of death, and their contributing factors, and to make recommendations for actions that would reduce the risk of reoccurrence. Rwanda can complement maternal death audits with other

  10. Development and Effectiveness Analysis of a Personalized Ubiquitous Multi-Device Certification Tutoring System Based on Bloom's Taxonomy of Educational Objectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hwang, Gwo-Haur; Chen, Beyin; Huang, Cin-Wei

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, with the gradual increase in the importance of professional certificates, improvement in certification tutoring systems has become more important. In this study, we have developed a personalized ubiquitous multi-device certification tutoring system (PUMDCTS) based on "Bloom's Taxonomy of Educational Objectives," and…

  11. Drug insight: cancer therapy strategies based on restoration of endogenous cell death mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Reed, John C

    2006-07-01

    Cell death is a normal facet of human physiology, ensuring tissue homeostasis by offsetting cell production with cell demise. Neoplasms arise in part because of defects in physiological cell death mechanisms, contributing to pathological cell expansion. Defects in normal cell death pathways also contribute to cancer progression by permitting progressively aberrant cell behaviors, while also desensitizing tumor cells to immune-mediated attack, radiation, and chemotherapy. Through basic research, much has been learned about the molecular mechanisms responsible for cell turnover and how tumors escape cell death. By exploiting this knowledge base, several innovative strategies for eradicating malignancies have materialized that are based on restoration of natural pathways for cell autodestruction. Some of these strategies have advanced into human clinical trials. Several of the current strategies based on targeting core components of the cell death machinery for cancer therapy are reviewed here, and a summary of progress toward clinical applications is provided. PMID:16826219

  12. Cigarette Smoking as a Risk Factor for Sudden Infant Death Syndrome: A Population-Based Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haglund, Bengt; Cnattingius, Sven

    1990-01-01

    Examines risk factors for sudden infant death syndrome based on Swedish births between 1983 and 1985. Results indicate that maternal smoking doubles the risk of infant death, and infants of smokers also died sooner. The more the mother smoked the more likely her infant was to die. (JS)

  13. Improving maternity care in Ethiopia through facility based review of maternal deaths and near misses.

    PubMed

    Gebrehiwot, Yirgu; Tewolde, Birukkidus T

    2014-10-01

    The present study aimed to initiate facility based review of maternal deaths and near misses as part of the Ethiopian effort to reduce maternal mortality and achieve United Nations Millennium Development Goals 4 and 5. An in-depth review of all maternal deaths and near misses among women who visited 10 hospitals in four regions of Ethiopia was conducted between May 2011 and October 2012 as part of the FIGO LOGIC initiative. During the study period, a total of 2774 cases (206 deaths and 2568 near misses) were reviewed. The ratio of maternal deaths to near misses was 1:12 and the overall maternal death rate was 728 per 100 000 live births. Socioeconomic factors associated with maternal mortality included illiteracy 1672 (60.3%) and lack of employment outside the home 2098 (75.6%). In all, 1946 (70.2%) women arrived at hospital after they had developed serious complications owing to issues such as lack of transportation. Only 1223 (44.1%) women received prenatal follow-up and 157 (76.2%) deaths were attributed to direct obstetric causes. Based on the findings, facilities adopted a number of quality improvement measures such as providing 24-hour services, and making ambulances available. Integrating review of maternal deaths and near misses into regular practice provides accurate information on causes of maternal deaths and near misses and also improves quality of care in facilities. PMID:25261109

  14. Possible Prevention of Neonatal Death: A Regional Population-Based Study in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Yanagi, Takahide; Ono, Tetsuo; Tsuji, Shunichiro; Takahashi, Kentaro

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The neonatal mortality rate in Japan has currently been at the lowest level in the world. However, it is unclear whether there are still some potentially preventable neonatal deaths. We, therefore, aimed to examine the backgrounds of neonatal death and the possibilities of prevention in a region of Japan. Materials and Methods This is a population-based study of neonatal death in Shiga Prefecture of Japan. Results The 103 neonatal deaths in our prefecture between 2007 and 2011 were included. After reviewing by a peer-review team, we classified the backgrounds of these neonatal deaths and analyzed end-of-life care approaches associated with prenatal diagnosis. Furthermore, we evaluated the possibilities of preventable neonatal death, suggesting specific recommendations for its prevention. We analyzed 102 (99%) of the neonatal deaths. Congenital malformations and extreme prematurity were the first and the second most common causes of death, respectively. More than half of the congenital abnormalities (59%) including malformations and chromosome abnormality had been diagnosed before births. We had 22 neonates with non-intensive care including eighteen cases with congenital abnormality and four with extreme prematurity. Twenty three cases were judged to have had some possibility of prevention with one having had a strong possibility of prevention. Among specific recommendations of preventable neonatal death, more than half of them were for obstetricians. Conclusion There is room to reduce neonatal deaths in Japan. Prevention of neonatal death requires grater prenatal care by obstetricians before birth rather than improved neonatal care by neonatologists after birth. PMID:26847296

  15. An analysis of death ascertainment and follow-up through statistics Canada's Mortality Data Base system.

    PubMed

    Schnatter, A R; Acquavella, J F; Thompson, F S; Donaleski, D; Thériault, G

    1990-01-01

    The Canadian Mortality Data Base (MDB) was utilized in mortality follow-up of 17,446 refinery and petrochemical workers throughout Canada. The performance of the system in detecting 757 previously known deaths was evaluated. Of the deaths submitted, 93.1% (90% confidence interval (CI) 91.5-94.5) were detected, including 97.6% (90% CI 96.5-98.4) of deaths which occurred in Canada. Detection was generally unaffected by age, year of death (1964-1973), and the presence of middle initial or the remainder of first name. Slightly lower ascertainment was found for deaths occurring in Quebec (94.5%) and Newfoundland (93.3%). This could be due to several factors, including fewer MDB records with complete identifier information for these provinces, or lower accuracy of linking fields for records supplied to the Agency. Few links were made to employees presumed to be alive, indicating 99.8% specificity for these records. PMID:2311053

  16. A population-based study on deaths by drowning incidents in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Turgut, Adnan; Turgut, Tevfik

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to find the numbers of deaths by drowning incidents by using online search engines and online newspaper reports for all age groups covering five years (2007-2011) in Turkey, in order to conduct a population-based study for the first time in Turkey and to identify the risk factors associated with deaths from drowning. This is a web-based, descriptive, retrospective study on the deaths caused by unintentional drowning incidents. In the period of the study, 3216 persons died from drowning in Turkey; 84.0% (2703 persons) were males, and 16.0% (513 persons) were females. Death rates from drowning in overall years were 0.89; 1.44 for males, and 0.28 for females per 100,000. For persons aged between 10-19 years, the death rate was the highest with 1.76 deaths per 100,000 people. The drowning rate in provinces and districts (1.01 per 100,000) was almost twice than that in towns and villages (0.53 per 100,000) and 75.7% of all deaths were in natural water environments such as fresh/still water, and the sea. As the first population-based study on drowning, this study presents vital information to build preventative strategies and policies against drowning incidents, which threaten public health in Turkey. PMID:23330832

  17. 40 CFR 745.226 - Certification of individuals and firms engaged in lead-based paint activities: target housing and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... LEAD-BASED PAINT POISONING PREVENTION IN CERTAIN RESIDENTIAL STRUCTURES Lead-Based Paint Activities § 745.226 Certification of individuals and firms engaged in lead-based paint activities: target housing... engaged in lead-based paint activities: target housing and child-occupied facilities. 745.226 Section...

  18. 40 CFR 745.226 - Certification of individuals and firms engaged in lead-based paint activities: target housing and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... LEAD-BASED PAINT POISONING PREVENTION IN CERTAIN RESIDENTIAL STRUCTURES Lead-Based Paint Activities § 745.226 Certification of individuals and firms engaged in lead-based paint activities: target housing... engaged in lead-based paint activities: target housing and child-occupied facilities. 745.226 Section...

  19. 40 CFR 745.226 - Certification of individuals and firms engaged in lead-based paint activities: target housing and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... LEAD-BASED PAINT POISONING PREVENTION IN CERTAIN RESIDENTIAL STRUCTURES Lead-Based Paint Activities § 745.226 Certification of individuals and firms engaged in lead-based paint activities: target housing... engaged in lead-based paint activities: target housing and child-occupied facilities. 745.226 Section...

  20. 40 CFR 745.226 - Certification of individuals and firms engaged in lead-based paint activities: target housing and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... LEAD-BASED PAINT POISONING PREVENTION IN CERTAIN RESIDENTIAL STRUCTURES Lead-Based Paint Activities § 745.226 Certification of individuals and firms engaged in lead-based paint activities: target housing... engaged in lead-based paint activities: target housing and child-occupied facilities. 745.226 Section...

  1. 40 CFR 745.229 - Certification of individuals and firms engaged in lead-based paint activities: public and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT LEAD-BASED PAINT POISONING PREVENTION IN CERTAIN RESIDENTIAL STRUCTURES Lead-Based Paint Activities § 745.229 Certification of individuals and firms engaged in lead-based paint activities... engaged in lead-based paint activities: public and commercial buildings, bridges and superstructures....

  2. Development of the Knowledge-Based Standard for the Written Certification Examination of the American Board of Anesthesiology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slogoff, Stephen; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Application of a knowledge-based standard in evaluating a written certification examination developed by the American Board of Anesthesiology established a standard of 57 percent correct over two years' examinations. This process is recommended for developing mastery-based (rather than normative-based) success criteria for evaluation of medical…

  3. [A study on death: an analysis based on Vigotski's dialectical method].

    PubMed

    Combinato, Denise Stefanoni; Queiroz, Marcos de Souza

    2011-09-01

    This article focuses on the concept of death and, in particular, the social construction of its meaning for a professional healthcare team working in an intensive hospital care unit. Thirteen professionals (six physicians and seven nurses) participated in the research, through semi-structured interviews. Despite the fact that death is part of the human cycle and is present in the daily working life of these health professionals, the denial of its existence imposed by the culture of the modern western world prevents the development of specific strategies to address this problem. Based on the Vigotski's dialectical method, three main conceptions of death were extracted from the interviews: death as a natural consequence of life; death as a biological process and death as a divine blessing. In the absence of a proper space for a more systematical approach, the social representations from the professionals on this theme are restricted to subjective opinions. In the conclusion, the need for change in the institutional context and in health education is emphasized, with a specific focus directed on death and on the process of dying. PMID:21987332

  4. Impedance-Based Monitoring of Ongoing Cardiomyocyte Death Induced by Tumor Necrosis Factor-α

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Yiling; Liao, Ronglih; Zhang, Xin

    2009-01-01

    Deregulated cardiomyocyte death is a critical risk factor in a variety of cardiovascular diseases. Although various assays have been developed to detect cell responses during cell death, the capability of monitoring cell detachment will enhance the understanding of death processes by providing instant information at its early phase. In this work, we developed an impedance-sensing assay for real-time monitoring of cardiomyocyte death induced by tumor necrosis factor-α based on recording the change in cardiomyocyte adhesion to extracellular matrix. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy was employed in impedance data processing, followed by calibration with the electrical cell-substrate impedance-sensing technique. The adhesion profile of cardiomyocytes undergoing cell death processes was recorded as the time course of equivalent cell-substrate distance. The cell detachment was detected with our assay and proved related to cell death in the following experiments, indicating its advantage against the conventional assays, such as Trypan blue exclusion. An optimal concentration of tumor necrosis factor-α (20 ng/mL) was determined to induce cardiomyocyte apoptosis rather than the combinative cell death of necrosis and apoptosis by comparing the concentration-related adhesion profiles. The cardiomyocytes undergoing apoptosis experienced an increase of cell-substrate distance from 59.1 to 89.2 nm within 24 h. The early change of cell adhesion was proved related to cardiomyocyte apoptosis in the following TUNEL test at t = 24 h, which suggested the possibility of early and noninvasive detection of cardiomyocyte apoptosis. PMID:19254558

  5. Child Deaths in New Jersey: Social Characteristics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crowley, Charles J.

    This report discusses trends in the causes of child deaths in New Jersey in recent years and closely examines child deaths in the state in 1974. Demographic data on child deaths are reported with an emphasis on types of deaths in which neglect or nonaccidental injury are likely to have been a factor. Death certificate data were obtained from the…

  6. A Computer-Based Private Pilot (Airplane) Certification Exam: A First Step Toward Nation-Wide Computer-Administration of FAA Certification Exams.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Richard I.; Trollip, Stanley R.

    1982-01-01

    To assess the feasibility of computer-assisted Federal Aviation Administration certification examinations, a system for administering the Private Pilot Certification Examination was implemented using PLATO. Characteristics, reactions, and guidelines for use of the test are included. (Author/JJD)

  7. Meeting the community halfway to reduce maternal deaths? Evidence from a community-based maternal death review in Uttar Pradesh, India

    PubMed Central

    Raj, Sunil Saksena; Maine, Deborah; Sahoo, Pratap Kumar; Manthri, Suneedh; Chauhan, Kavita

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Uttar Pradesh (UP) is the most populous state in India with the second highest reported maternal mortality ratio in the country. In an effort to analyze the reasons for maternal deaths and implement appropriate interventions, the Government of India introduced Maternal Death Review guidelines in 2010. Methods: We assessed causes of and factors leading to maternal deaths in Unnao District, UP, through 2 methods. First, we conducted a facility gap assessment in 15 of the 16 block-level and district health facilities to collect information on the performance of the facilities in terms of treating obstetric complications. Second, teams of trained physicians conducted community-based maternal death reviews (verbal autopsies) in a sample of maternal deaths occurring between June 1, 2009, and May 31, 2010. Results: Of the 248 maternal deaths that would be expected in this district in a year, we identified 153 (62%) through community workers and conducted verbal autopsies with families of 57 of them. Verbal autopsies indicated that 23% and 30% of these maternal deaths occurred at home and on the way to a health facility, respectively. Most of the women who died had been taken to at least 2 health facilities. The facility assessment revealed that only the district hospital met the recommended criteria for either basic or comprehensive emergency obstetric and neonatal care. Conclusions: Life-saving treatment of obstetric complications was not offered at the appropriate level of government facilities in a representative district in UP, and an inadequate referral system provided fatal delays. Expensive transportation costs to get pregnant women to a functioning medical facility also contributed to maternal death. The maternal death review, coupled with the facility gap assessment, is a useful tool to address the adequacy of emergency obstetric and neonatal care services to prevent further maternal deaths. PMID:25276519

  8. Physician-assisted deaths under the euthanasia law in Belgium: a population-based survey

    PubMed Central

    Chambaere, Kenneth; Bilsen, Johan; Cohen, Joachim; Onwuteaka-Philipsen, Bregje D.; Mortier, Freddy; Deliens, Luc

    2010-01-01

    Background Legalization of euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide has been heavily debated in many countries. To help inform this debate, we describe the practices of euthanasia and assisted suicide, and the use of life-ending drugs without an explicit request from the patient, in Flanders, Belgium, where euthanasia is legal. Methods We mailed a questionnaire regarding the use of life-ending drugs with or without explicit patient request to physicians who certified a representative sample (n = 6927) of death certificates of patients who died in Flanders between June and November 2007. Results The response rate was 58.4%. Overall, 208 deaths involving the use of life-ending drugs were reported: 142 (weighted prevalence 2.0%) were with an explicit patient request (euthanasia or assisted suicide) and 66 (weighted prevalence 1.8%) were without an explicit request. Euthanasia and assisted suicide mostly involved patients less than 80 years of age, those with cancer and those dying at home. Use of life-ending drugs without an explicit request mostly involved patients 80 years of older, those with a disease other than cancer and those in hospital. Of the deaths without an explicit request, the decision was not discussed with the patient in 77.9% of cases. Compared with assisted deaths with the patient’s explicit request, those without an explicit request were more likely to have a shorter length of treatment of the terminal illness, to have cure as a goal of treatment in the last week, to have a shorter estimated time by which life was shortened and to involve the administration of opioids. Interpretation Physician-assisted deaths with an explicit patient request (euthanasia and assisted suicide) and without an explicit request occurred in different patient groups and under different circumstances. Cases without an explicit request often involved patients whose diseases had unpredictable end-of-life trajectories. Although opioids were used in most of these cases

  9. 40 CFR 745.229 - Certification of individuals and firms engaged in lead-based paint activities: public and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Certification of individuals and firms engaged in lead-based paint activities: public and commercial buildings, bridges and superstructures. 745.229 Section 745.229 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT LEAD-BASED...

  10. 40 CFR 745.226 - Certification of individuals and firms engaged in lead-based paint activities: target housing and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Certification of individuals and firms engaged in lead-based paint activities: target housing and child-occupied facilities. 745.226 Section 745.226 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT LEAD-BASED PAINT POISONING PREVENTION...

  11. Two New Reference Materials Based on Tobacco Leaves: Certification for over a Dozen of Toxic and Essential Elements

    PubMed Central

    Samczyński, Zbigniew; Dybczyński, Rajmund S.; Polkowska-Motrenko, Halina; Chajduk, Ewelina; Pyszynska, Marta; Danko, Bożena; Czerska, Elżbieta; Kulisa, Krzysztof; Doner, Katarzyna; Kalbarczyk, Paweł

    2012-01-01

    The preparation, certification, and characterization of two new biological certified reference materials for inorganic trace analysis have been presented. They are based on two different varieties of tobacco leaves, namely, Oriental Basma Tobacco Leaves (INCT-OBTL-5), grown in Greece, and Polish Virginia Tobacco Leaves (INCT-PVTL-6), grown in Poland. Certification of the materials was based on the statistical evaluation of results obtained in a worldwide interlaboratory comparison, in which 87 laboratories from 18 countries participated, providing 2568 laboratory averages on nearly 80 elements. It was possible to establish the certified values of concentration for many elements in the new materials, that is, 37 in INCT-OBTL-5 and 36 in INCT-PVTL-6, including several toxic ones like As, Cd, Hg, Pb, and so forth. The share and the role of instrumental analytical techniques used in the process of certification of the new CRMs are discussed. PMID:22536124

  12. Infant mortality in southern Brazil: a population based study of causes of death.

    PubMed Central

    Barros, F C; Victora, C G; Vaughan, J P; Teixeira, A M; Ashworth, A

    1987-01-01

    The causes of 215 infant deaths occurring in a population based cohort of 5914 infants from southern Brazil were determined. Perinatal problems were responsible for 43% of these deaths and infectious diseases for 32%. In the group who died of infectious diseases, respiratory infections and diarrhoea were equally important, each accounting for 12% of all deaths. A total of 87% of the deaths occurred in the first six months of life, and this proportion remained high (77%) even after perinatal causes had been excluded. On the other hand, 53% of the infants who died were of low birth weight, as opposed to 7.9% of the survivors. This suggests that low birthweight infants need to be carefully followed by health workers at primary level, especially during the first six months. It was estimated that if the incidence of low birth weight was reduced from the present 8.8% to 5% the likely reduction in infant mortality would be 20%. This reduction would be 33% for deaths due to perinatal causes, 14% for respiratory infections, and only 5% for diarrhoea. Efforts for the prevention of infant deaths in southern Brazil are more likely to be effective if they concentrate on improving perinatal health care and environmental conditions. PMID:3606182

  13. Combined Prediction Model of Death Toll for Road Traffic Accidents Based on Independent and Dependent Variables

    PubMed Central

    Zhong-xiang, Feng; Shi-sheng, Lu; Wei-hua, Zhang; Nan-nan, Zhang

    2014-01-01

    In order to build a combined model which can meet the variation rule of death toll data for road traffic accidents and can reflect the influence of multiple factors on traffic accidents and improve prediction accuracy for accidents, the Verhulst model was built based on the number of death tolls for road traffic accidents in China from 2002 to 2011; and car ownership, population, GDP, highway freight volume, highway passenger transportation volume, and highway mileage were chosen as the factors to build the death toll multivariate linear regression model. Then the two models were combined to be a combined prediction model which has weight coefficient. Shapley value method was applied to calculate the weight coefficient by assessing contributions. Finally, the combined model was used to recalculate the number of death tolls from 2002 to 2011, and the combined model was compared with the Verhulst and multivariate linear regression models. The results showed that the new model could not only characterize the death toll data characteristics but also quantify the degree of influence to the death toll by each influencing factor and had high accuracy as well as strong practicability. PMID:25610454

  14. Performance on Specific Cognitive Domains and Cause of Death: A Prospective Population-Based Study in Non-Demented Older Adults (NEDICES).

    PubMed

    Benito-León, Julián; Contador, Israel; Mitchell, Alex J; Domingo-Santos, Ángela; Bermejo-Pareja, Félix

    2016-02-01

    Evidence regarding the relationship between performance on specific cognitive domains and cause of death is scarce. We assessed whether specific cognitive domains predicted mortality and the presence of any association with specific causes of death in a population-dwelling sample of non-demented older adults. In this population-based, prospective study (NEDICES), 2,390 non-demented subjects ≥65 years completed a brief neuropsychological battery. Cox's proportional hazards models, adjusted by sociodemographic and comorbidity factors, global cognitive performance, educational level, and premorbid intelligence were used to assess the risk of death. Participants were followed for a median of 9.2 years (range 0.01-10.7), after which the death certificates of those who died were examined. 880 (36.8%) of 2,390 participants died over a median follow-up of 5.5 years (range 0.01-10.5). Using adjusted Cox regression models, we found that hazard ratios for mortality in participants within the lowest tertiles (worse performance) were 1.31 (speed of cognitive processing, p = 0.03); 1.22 (semantic fluency, p = 0.04), 1.32 (delayed free recall, p = 0.003), and 1.23 (delayed logical memory, p = 0.03). Poor performance on delayed recall and speed of cognitive processing tests were associated with dementia and cerebrovascular disease mortality, respectively. Further, poor performance on semantic fluency was associated with decreased cancer mortality. In this study of community dwelling non-demented older adults, worse neuropsychological performance was associated with increased risk of mortality. Performance on specific cognitive domains were related to different causes of death. Of particular note there appears to be an inverse association between poor semantic fluency and cancer mortality. PMID:26890757

  15. PRESENT CONDITION OF FOOD WASTE RECYCLING LOOP BASED ON RECYCLING PROJECT CERTIFICATION OF THE FOOD WASTE RECYCLING LAW

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kita, Tomoko; Kanaya, Ken

    Purpose of this research is to clear present condition of food waste recycling loops based on recycling project certification of the Food Waste Recycling Law. Method of this research is questionnaire survey to companies constituting the loops. Findings of this research are as follows: 1. Proponents of the loop is most often the recycling companies. 2. Food waste recycling rate is 61% for the food retailing industry and 81% for the food service industry. These values are higher than the national average in 2006. The effect of the revision of recycling project certification is suggested.

  16. Modular Certification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rushby, John; Miner, Paul S. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Airplanes are certified as a whole: there is no established basis for separately certifying some components, particularly software-intensive ones, independently of their specific application in a given airplane. The absence of separate certification inhibits the development of modular components that could be largely "precertified" and used in several different contexts within a single airplane, or across many different airplanes. In this report, we examine the issues in modular certification of software components and propose an approach based on assume-guarantee reasoning. We extend the method from verification to certification by considering behavior in the presence of failures. This exposes the need for partitioning, and separation of assumptions and guarantees into normal and abnormal cases. We then identify three classes of property that must be verified within this framework: safe function, true guarantees, and controlled failure. We identify a particular assume-guarantee proof rule (due to McMillan) that is appropriate to the applications considered, and formally verify its soundness in PVS.

  17. A Perspective Evaluation of Problem-Based Learning in ESL Classroom in the Malaysian Higher School Certificate Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rashid, Radzuwan Ab.

    2011-01-01

    This study was initiated to explore how pre-university students who enrolled in the Malaysian Higher School Certificate program perceived their experiences in learning ESL through Problem-Based Learning (PBL). This small scale study involved 35 pre-university students in an upper sixth form in a secondary school in Kelantan, Malaysia. Participants…

  18. Predictive Power of School Based Assessment Scores on Students' Achievement in Junior Secondary Certificate Examination (JSCE) in English and Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Opara, Ijeoma M.; Onyekuru, Bruno U.; Njoku, Joyce U.

    2015-01-01

    The study investigated the predictive power of school based assessment scores on students' achievement in Junior Secondary Certificate Examination (JSCE) in English and Mathematics. Two hypotheses tested at 0.05 level of significance guided the study. The study adopted an ex-post facto research design. A sample of 250 students were randomly drawn…

  19. 29 CFR 1919.50 - Eligibility for accreditation to certificate shore-based material handling devices covered by...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Eligibility for accreditation to certificate shore-based material handling devices covered by § 1917.50 of this chapter, safety and health regulations for marine terminals. 1919.50 Section 1919.50 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT...

  20. 40 CFR 745.229 - Certification of individuals and firms engaged in lead-based paint activities: public and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Certification of individuals and firms engaged in lead-based paint activities: public and commercial buildings, bridges and superstructures. 745...: public and commercial buildings, bridges and superstructures....

  1. 40 CFR 745.229 - Certification of individuals and firms engaged in lead-based paint activities: public and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Certification of individuals and firms engaged in lead-based paint activities: public and commercial buildings, bridges and superstructures. 745...: public and commercial buildings, bridges and superstructures....

  2. 40 CFR 745.229 - Certification of individuals and firms engaged in lead-based paint activities: public and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Certification of individuals and firms engaged in lead-based paint activities: public and commercial buildings, bridges and superstructures. 745...: public and commercial buildings, bridges and superstructures....

  3. Test Security and Item Exposure Control for Computer-Based Examinations: Performance of a Computerized Classification Test for Professional Certification.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalohn, John C.; Spray, Judith A.

    A client of American College Testing, Inc. (ACT) decided to implement a computer-based testing program to replace their paper-pencil format for professional certification. This paper reports on the results of the developed test after 1 year's use, especially as the results relate to test security issues. ACT research shows that a variable length…

  4. The Issue of Death and Dying: Employing Problem-Based Learning in Nursing Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mok, Esther; Lee, Wai Man; Wong, Frances Kam-yuet

    2002-01-01

    Hong Kong nursing students used journals to problem-based learning (PBL) related to dying patients. Increased self-awareness, positive attitude toward death, and culturally sensitive care resulted. PBL methods included information searches, interviews with experts and patients, and tutorials for sharing feelings and information. (Contains 21…

  5. 40 CFR 94.912 - Optional certification to land-based standards for auxiliary marine engines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... certified to the requirements that apply to compression-ignition engines under 40 CFR part 89 or 1039 for... certificate issued under 40 CFR part 86 or 1039 for each engine to also be a valid certificate of conformity... applicable requirements from 40 CFR part 89 or 1039. This paragraph (c) applies to engine manufacturers,...

  6. 40 CFR 94.912 - Optional certification to land-based standards for auxiliary marine engines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... certified to the requirements that apply to compression-ignition engines under 40 CFR part 89 or 1039 for... certificate issued under 40 CFR part 86 or 1039 for each engine to also be a valid certificate of conformity... applicable requirements from 40 CFR part 89 or 1039. This paragraph (c) applies to engine manufacturers,...

  7. 40 CFR 94.912 - Optional certification to land-based standards for auxiliary marine engines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... certified to the requirements that apply to compression-ignition engines under 40 CFR part 89 or 1039 for... certificate issued under 40 CFR part 86 or 1039 for each engine to also be a valid certificate of conformity... applicable requirements from 40 CFR part 89 or 1039. This paragraph (c) applies to engine manufacturers,...

  8. 40 CFR 94.912 - Optional certification to land-based standards for auxiliary marine engines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... certified to the requirements that apply to compression-ignition engines under 40 CFR part 89 or 1039 for... certificate issued under 40 CFR part 86 or 1039 for each engine to also be a valid certificate of conformity... applicable requirements from 40 CFR part 89 or 1039. This paragraph (c) applies to engine manufacturers,...

  9. Inference of Epidemiological Dynamics Based on Simulated Phylogenies Using Birth-Death and Coalescent Models

    PubMed Central

    Boskova, Veronika; Bonhoeffer, Sebastian; Stadler, Tanja

    2014-01-01

    Quantifying epidemiological dynamics is crucial for understanding and forecasting the spread of an epidemic. The coalescent and the birth-death model are used interchangeably to infer epidemiological parameters from the genealogical relationships of the pathogen population under study, which in turn are inferred from the pathogen genetic sequencing data. To compare the performance of these widely applied models, we performed a simulation study. We simulated phylogenetic trees under the constant rate birth-death model and the coalescent model with a deterministic exponentially growing infected population. For each tree, we re-estimated the epidemiological parameters using both a birth-death and a coalescent based method, implemented as an MCMC procedure in BEAST v2.0. In our analyses that estimate the growth rate of an epidemic based on simulated birth-death trees, the point estimates such as the maximum a posteriori/maximum likelihood estimates are not very different. However, the estimates of uncertainty are very different. The birth-death model had a higher coverage than the coalescent model, i.e. contained the true value in the highest posterior density (HPD) interval more often (2–13% vs. 31–75% error). The coverage of the coalescent decreases with decreasing basic reproductive ratio and increasing sampling probability of infecteds. We hypothesize that the biases in the coalescent are due to the assumption of deterministic rather than stochastic population size changes. Both methods performed reasonably well when analyzing trees simulated under the coalescent. The methods can also identify other key epidemiological parameters as long as one of the parameters is fixed to its true value. In summary, when using genetic data to estimate epidemic dynamics, our results suggest that the birth-death method will be less sensitive to population fluctuations of early outbreaks than the coalescent method that assumes a deterministic exponentially growing infected

  10. School-Based Initial Vocational Education in the Republic of Ireland: The Parity of Esteem and Fitness for Purpose of the Leaving Certificate Applied

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gleeson, Jim; O'Flaherty, Joanne

    2013-01-01

    The Irish Leaving Certificate Applied (LCA) is a school-based, pre-vocational alternative to the "high stakes" established Leaving Certificate. Its origins lie in European Union funded "school to work" initiatives and it is currently taken to completion by some 5% of Irish senior cycle students. Since it was designed 20 years…

  11. NATIONAL VITAL STATISTICS SYSTEM - LINKED BIRTH AND INFANT DEATH DATA

    EPA Science Inventory

    In 1983, NCHS established a research data set comprised of linked birth and death certificates for infants born in the United States who died before reaching one year of age. In this data set, information from the death certificate is linked with information from the birth certif...

  12. Ceramide, sphingoid bases, and sphingoid base metabolites as lipid mediators in signaling pathways leading to cell death and disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increased ceramide generation de novo is known to be involved in the mechanism of action of many chemotherapeutic agents and conditions which disrupt cell cycle progression and induce cell death. Conversely, the metabolism of ceramide to sphingoid bases and and sphingoid base 1-phosphates has been i...

  13. Record-linkage comparison of verbal autopsy and routine civil registration death certification in rural north-east South Africa: 2006–09

    PubMed Central

    Joubert, Jané; Bradshaw, Debbie; Kabudula, Chodziwadziwa; Rao, Chalapati; Kahn, Kathleen; Mee, Paul; Tollman, Stephen; Lopez, Alan D; Vos, Theo

    2014-01-01

    Background: South African civil registration (CR) provides a key data source for local health decision making, and informs the levels and causes of mortality in data-lacking sub-Saharan African countries. We linked mortality data from CR and the Agincourt Health and Socio-demographic Surveillance System (Agincourt HDSS) to examine the quality of rural CR data. Methods: Deterministic and probabilistic techniques were used to link death data from 2006 to 2009. Causes of death were aggregated into the WHO Mortality Tabulation List 1 and a locally relevant short list of 15 causes. The matching rate was compared with informant-reported death registration. Using the VA diagnoses as reference, misclassification patterns, sensitivity, positive predictive values and cause-specific mortality fractions (CSMFs) were calculated for the short list. Results: A matching rate of 61% [95% confidence interval (CI): 59.2 to 62.3] was attained, lower than the informant-reported registration rate of 85% (CI: 83.4 to 85.8). For the 2264 matched cases, cause agreement was 15% (kappa 0.1083, CI: 0.0995 to 0.1171) for the WHO list, and 23% (kappa 0.1631, CI: 0.1511 to 0.1751) for the short list. CSMFs were significantly different for all but four (tuberculosis, cerebrovascular disease, other heart disease, and ill-defined natural) of the 15 causes evaluated. Conclusion: Despite data limitations, it is feasible to link official CR and HDSS verbal autopsy data. Data linkage proved a promising method to provide empirical evidence about the quality and utility of rural CR mortality data. Agreement of individual causes of death was low but, at the population level, careful interpretation of the CR data can assist health prioritization and planning. PMID:25146564

  14. A Telepathology Based Virtual Reference and Certification Centre for DNA Image Cytometry

    PubMed Central

    Haroske, G.; Giroud, Francoise; Kunze, K. D.; Meyer, W.

    2000-01-01

    An increasing need for flexible consultation between pathologists, including the application of fast evolving supplementary technologies, has been identified during the last years. Although pathology is already one of the most advanced application of telemedicine there is more to come from the fast evolution towards computerized microscope image analysis: A reproducible quantification of measurable descriptors of the lesions in cells and tissues (so‐called biological markers) is an indispensable adjunct to routine diagnostic application. Among such quantitative methods DNA image cytometry is increasingly applied by pathologists for assistance in diagnostics. As for other pathological issues, too, a reference center for the clinical application of DNA image cytometry might be therefore of utmost value for pathologists using that method. Based on advanced telematic technologies, a Virtual Reference and Certification Center (VRCC) could be installed for certifying the cytometry hardware and software, the analytical procedures, and the basic interpretation of the results. It will be designed to be operated as a non‐attended service, based on quantification servers accessible via Internet round the clock. The VRCC will supply appropriate standardization and normalization materials and run a GroupWare platform for consensus making by experts. PMID:11339562

  15. A telepathology based Virtual Reference and Certification Centre for DNA image cytometry.

    PubMed

    Haroske, G; Giroud, F; Kunze, K D; Meyer, W

    2000-01-01

    An increasing need for flexible consultation between pathologists, including the application of fast evolving supplementary technologies, has been identified during the last years. Although pathology is already one of the most advanced application of telemedicine there is more to come from the fast evolution towards computerized microscope image analysis: A reproducible quantification of measurable descriptors of the lesions in cells and tissues (so-called biological markers) is an indispensable adjunct to routine diagnostic application. Among such quantitative methods DNA image cytometry is increasingly applied by pathologists for assistance in diagnostics. As for other pathological issues, too, a reference center for the clinical application of DNA image cytometry might be therefore of utmost value for pathologists using that method. Based on advanced telematic technologies, a Virtual Reference and Certification Center (VRCC) could be installed for certifying the cytometry hardware and software, the analytical procedures, and the basic interpretation of the results. It will be designed to be operated as a non-attended service, based on quantification servers accessible via Internet round the clock. The VRCC will supply appropriate standardization and normalization materials and run a GroupWare platform for consensus making by experts. PMID:11339562

  16. Prison tobacco control policies and deaths from smoking in United States prisons: population based retrospective analysis

    PubMed Central

    Carson, E Ann; Krueger, Patrick M; Mueller, Shane R; Steiner, John F; Sabol, William J

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine the mortality attributable to smoking and years of potential life lost from smoking among people in prison and whether bans on smoking in prison are associated with reductions in smoking related deaths. Design Analysis of cross sectional survey data with the smoking attributable mortality, morbidity, and economic costs system; population based time series analysis. Setting All state prisons in the United States. Main outcome measures Prevalence of smoking from cross sectional survey of inmates in state correctional facilities. Data on state prison tobacco policies from web based searches of state policies and legislation. Deaths and causes of death in US state prisons from the deaths in custody reporting program of the Bureau of Justice Statistics for 2001-11. Smoking attributable mortality and years of potential life lost was assessed from the smoking attributable mortality, morbidity, and economic costs system of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Multivariate Poisson models quantified the association between bans and smoking related cancer, cardiovascular and pulmonary deaths. Results The most common causes of deaths related to smoking among people in prison were lung cancer, ischemic heart disease, other heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, and chronic airways obstruction. The age adjusted smoking attributable mortality and years of potential life lost rates were 360 and 5149 per 100 000, respectively; these figures are higher than rates in the general US population (248 and 3501, respectively). The number of states with any smoking ban increased from 25 in 2001 to 48 by 2011. In prisons the mortality rate from smoking related causes was lower during years with a ban than during years without a ban (110.4/100 000 v 128.9/100 000). Prisons that implemented smoking bans had a 9% reduction (adjusted incidence rate ratio 0.91, 95% confidence interval 0.88 to 0.95) in smoking related deaths. Bans in place for longer than

  17. Burden of Severe Pneumonia, Pneumococcal Pneumonia and Pneumonia Deaths in Indian States: Modelling Based Estimates

    PubMed Central

    Farooqui, Habib; Jit, Mark; Heymann, David L.; Zodpey, Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    The burden of severe pneumonia in terms of morbidity and mortality is unknown in India especially at sub-national level. In this context, we aimed to estimate the number of severe pneumonia episodes, pneumococcal pneumonia episodes and pneumonia deaths in children younger than 5 years in 2010. We adapted and parameterized a mathematical model based on the epidemiological concept of potential impact fraction developed CHERG for this analysis. The key parameters that determine the distribution of severe pneumonia episode across Indian states were state-specific under-5 population, state-specific prevalence of selected definite pneumonia risk factors and meta-estimates of relative risks for each of these risk factors. We applied the incidence estimates and attributable fraction of risk factors to population estimates for 2010 of each Indian state. We then estimated the number of pneumococcal pneumonia cases by applying the vaccine probe methodology to an existing trial. We estimated mortality due to severe pneumonia and pneumococcal pneumonia by combining incidence estimates with case fatality ratios from multi-centric hospital-based studies. Our results suggest that in 2010, 3.6 million (3.3–3.9 million) episodes of severe pneumonia and 0.35 million (0.31–0.40 million) all cause pneumonia deaths occurred in children younger than 5 years in India. The states that merit special mention include Uttar Pradesh where 18.1% children reside but contribute 24% of pneumonia cases and 26% pneumonia deaths, Bihar (11.3% children, 16% cases, 22% deaths) Madhya Pradesh (6.6% children, 9% cases, 12% deaths), and Rajasthan (6.6% children, 8% cases, 11% deaths). Further, we estimated that 0.56 million (0.49–0.64 million) severe episodes of pneumococcal pneumonia and 105 thousand (92–119 thousand) pneumococcal deaths occurred in India. The top contributors to India’s pneumococcal pneumonia burden were Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Madhya Pradesh and Rajasthan in that order. Our

  18. Does Marital Status Predict the Odds of Suicidal Death in Taiwan? A Seven-Year Population-Based Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeh, Jui-Yuan; Xirasagar, Sudha; Liu, Tsai-Ching; Li, Chong-Yi; Lin, Herng-Ching

    2008-01-01

    Using nationwide, 7-year population-based data for 1997-2003, we examined marital status to see if it predicted suicide among the ethnic Chinese population of Taiwan. Using cause of death data, with a case-control design, two groups--total adult suicide deaths, n = 17,850, the study group, and adult deaths other than suicide, n = 71,400 (randomly…

  19. Modeling and using a web-based and tutored portfolio to support certification of professional competence in transfusion medicine

    PubMed Central

    Staccini, Pascal; Rouger, Philippe

    2008-01-01

    In order to manage a nationwide assessment program leading to certification of professional competence in blood transfusion throughout France, the National Institute of Blood Transfusion (INTS) and the University of Nice-Sophia Antipolis designed and developed a structured and tutored web-based portfolio. The entire process of certification has been approved by the national healthcare agency (HAS). Eleven assessment programs have been written. The structure of this e-portfolio is based on a matrix of actions defined according to standards of practice. For each action, elements of proof are uploaded by the physician and peer-reviewed by an expert (a tutor) before validation. The electronic portfolio stores all the history of the actions performed by users. This tracking feature generates alerts which are e-mailed to users (physicians and tutors) according to a list of monitored events. After one year of design and development, the application is now being used routinely. PMID:18999167

  20. Towards FAA Certification of UAVs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, Stacy

    2003-01-01

    As of June 30, 2003, all Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV), no matter how small, must adhere to the same FAA regulations as human-piloted aircraft. These regulations include certification for flying in controlled airspace and certification of flight software based on RTCA DO-178B. This paper provides an overview of the steps necessary to obtain certification, as well as a discussion about the challenges UAV's face when trying to meet these requirements. It is divided into two parts: 1) Certifications for Flying in Controlled Airspace; 2) Certification of Flight Software per RTCA DO-178B.

  1. Do multiple temperature measurements improve temperature-based death time estimation? The information degradation inequality.

    PubMed

    Hubig, M; Muggenthaler, H; Schenkl, S; Mall, G

    2016-09-01

    The accuracy of the input parameter values limits the accuracy of the output values in forensic temperature-based death time estimation (TDE) like in many scientific methods. A standard strategy to overcome this problem is to perform multiple measurements of the input parameter values, but such approaches are subject to noise accumulation and stochastic dependencies. A quantitative mathematical analysis of advantages as well as disadvantages of multiple measurements approaches (MMAs) was performed. The results are A general stochastic model of MMA. The information degradation inequality quantifying gains and losses of MMAs. Example calculations of the information degradation inequality for the following two MMAs relevant to TDE: o Multiple successive rectal temperature measurements o Multiple synchronous body layer temperature measurements Neither multiple successive rectal temperature measurements nor multiple synchronous body layer temperature measurements seem to significantly improve death time estimation. MMAs are superior to the single measurement approach only in the very early body cooling phase. PMID:26872468

  2. Patterns in Place of Cancer Death in the State of Qatar: A Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Mohsen, Hassan; Haddad, Pascale; Allam, Ayman; Hassan, Azza

    2014-01-01

    Background International studies show that most people prefer to die at home; however, hospitals remain the most common place of death (PoD). This study aims to investigate the patterns in PoD and the associated factors, which are crucial for end-of-life cancer care enhancement. Method This retrospective, population-based study analyzed all registered cancer deaths in Qatar between January 1, 2006 and December 31, 2012 (n = 1,224). The main outcome measures were patient characteristics: age, gender, nationality, cancer diagnosis, year of death, and PoD. Time trends for age-standardized proportions of death in individual PoDs were evaluated using chi-square analysis. Odds ratio (OR) were determined for variables associated with the most preferred (acute palliative care unit [APCU] and hematology/oncology ward) versus least preferred (ICU and general medicine ward) PoDs in Qatar, stratified by nationality. Results The hematology/oncology ward was the most common PoD (32.4%; 95% CI 26.7–35.3%) followed by ICU (31.4%; 95% CI 28.7–34.3%), APCU (26.9%; 95% CI 24.3–29.6%), and general medicine ward (9.2%; 95% CI 7.6–11.1%). APCU trended upward (+0.057/year; p<0.001), while the hematology/oncology ward trended downward (−0.055/year; p<0.001). No statistically significant changes occurred in the other PoDs; home deaths remained low (0.4%; 95% Cl 0.38–0.42). Qataris who died from liver cancer (OR 0.23) and aged 65 or older (OR 0.64) were less likely to die in the APCU or hematology/oncology ward (p<0.05). Non-Qataris who died from pancreatic cancer (OR 3.12) and female (OR 2.05) were more likely to die in the APCU or hematology/oncology ward (p<0.05). Both Qataris and non-Qataris who died from hematologic malignancy (OR 0.18 and 0.41, respectively) were more likely to die in the ICU or general medicine ward (p<0.05). Conclusion A high percentage of cancer deaths in Qatar occur in hospital. As home was the preferred PoD for most people, effective home care and

  3. Certification Testing

    SciTech Connect

    1996-06-01

    Wind turbine certification is becoming increasingly important for companies competing in the international marketplace. In support of the U.S. wind energy industry, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) now offers testing services at the National Wind Technology Center (NWTC) that lead to wind turbine certification. This document describes available testing capabilities offered at NWTC. Performance testing, Noise emissions testing, blade structural testing are discussed. Efforts to integrate turbine design and certification are presented.

  4. Cell death following BNCT: a theoretical approach based on Monte Carlo simulations.

    PubMed

    Ballarini, F; Bakeine, J; Bortolussi, S; Bruschi, P; Cansolino, L; Clerici, A M; Ferrari, C; Protti, N; Stella, S; Zonta, A; Zonta, C; Altieri, S

    2011-12-01

    In parallel to boron measurements and animal studies, investigations on radiation-induced cell death are also in progress in Pavia, with the aim of better characterisation of the effects of a BNCT treatment down to the cellular level. Such studies are being carried out not only experimentally but also theoretically, based on a mechanistic model and a Monte Carlo code. Such model assumes that: (1) only clustered DNA strand breaks can lead to chromosome aberrations; (2) only chromosome fragments within a certain threshold distance can undergo misrejoining; (3) the so-called "lethal aberrations" (dicentrics, rings and large deletions) lead to cell death. After applying the model to normal cells exposed to monochromatic fields of different radiation types, the irradiation section of the code was purposely extended to mimic the cell exposure to a mixed radiation field produced by the (10)B(n,α) (7)Li reaction, which gives rise to alpha particles and Li ions of short range and high biological effectiveness, and by the (14)N(n,p)(14)C reaction, which produces 0.58 MeV protons. Very good agreement between model predictions and literature data was found for human and animal cells exposed to X- or gamma-rays, protons and alpha particles, thus allowing to validate the model for cell death induced by monochromatic radiation fields. The model predictions showed good agreement also with experimental data obtained by our group exposing DHD cells to thermal neutrons in the TRIGA Mark II reactor of the University of Pavia; this allowed to validate the model also for a BNCT exposure scenario, providing a useful predictive tool to bridge the gap between irradiation and cell death. PMID:21481595

  5. An Open Letter to Deans of Teacher Education and Directors of Teacher Certification on Performance-Based Teacher Education/Certification (Is It a "No Exit" Syndrome?) AFT QuEST Paper No. 14.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhaerman, Robert D.

    This open letter focuses on performance-based teacher education and certification (PBTE/C). The first section of the letter deals with anxieties about PBTE/C and about some of the people who have brought about this innovation. It comprises a survey. The second part of the paper makes various recommendations: a) the establishment of an independent…

  6. 28 CFR 26.23 - Certification process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ....23 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE DEATH SENTENCES PROCEDURES Certification Process for... state that it has provided notice of its request for certification to the chief or presiding justice or judge of the state's highest court with jurisdiction over criminal matters. (c) Upon receipt of a...

  7. An Exploration of Initial Certification Candidates' TPACK and Mathematics-Based Applications Using Touch Device Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCrory, Michael Ray

    2010-01-01

    This qualitative research study employed a multiple-case study approach to describe the experiences of a group of Initial Certification Candidates (ICCs) as they participated in explorations of readings and third-party applications (apps) run on touch screen technology devices. The group of ICCs was comprised of two Undergraduate Teacher…

  8. Getting Started on Assessment: Developing a Voluntary System of Assessment and Certification Based on Skill Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Skill Standards Board (DOL/ETA), Washington, DC.

    This manual provides practical advice for voluntary partnerships that, since 1994, are part of the effort to build a voluntary national system of skill standards, assessment, and certification. Intended to be used with guidance from the National Skill Standards Board, it is designed for the voluntary partnerships that have completed the standards…

  9. Estimated incidence and risk factors of sudden unexpected death

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Feng-Chang; Mehta, Neil; Mounsey, Louisa; Nwosu, Anthony; Pursell, Irion; Chung, Eugene H; Mounsey, J Paul; Simpson, Ross J

    2016-01-01

    Objective In this manuscript, we estimate the incidence and identify risk factors for sudden unexpected death in a socioeconomically and racially diverse population in one county in North Carolina. Estimates of the incidence and risk factors contributing to sudden death vary widely. The Sudden Unexpected Death in North Carolina (SUDDEN) project is a population-based investigation of the incidence and potential causes of sudden death. Methods From 3 March 2013 to 2 March 2014, all out-of-hospital deaths in Wake County, North Carolina, were screened to identify presumed sudden unexpected death among free-living residents between the ages of 18 and 64 years. Death certificate, public and medical records were reviewed and adjudicated to confirm sudden unexpected death cases. Results Following adjudication, 190 sudden unexpected deaths including 122 men and 68 women were identified. Estimated incidence was 32.1 per 100 000 person-years overall: 42.7 among men and 22.4 among women. The majority of victims were white, unmarried men over age 55 years, with unwitnessed deaths at home. Hypertension and dyslipidaemia were common in men and women. African-American women dying from sudden unexpected death were over-represented. Women who were under age 55 years with coronary disease accounted for over half of female participants with coronary artery disease. Conclusions The overall estimated incidence of sudden unexpected death may account for approximately 10% of all deaths classified as ‘natural’. Women have a lower estimated incidence of sudden unexpected death than men. However, we found no major differences in age or comorbidities between men and women. African-Americans and young women with coronary disease are at risk for sudden unexpected death. PMID:27042316

  10. Developing Competency-Based Preparation and Performance-Based Certification in Georgia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solomon, Lester M.

    The state of Georgia has been moving toward competency/performance-based education since the late 1960's. All of the groups concerned with education and the preparation of teachers (higher education institutions, the Georgia Teacher Education Council, professional organizations, and the Georgia Department of Education) have been involved. In…

  11. Predictors of Death among Patients Who Completed Tuberculosis Treatment: A Population-Based Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Millet, Juan-Pablo; Orcau, Angels; Rius, Cristina; Casals, Marti; de Olalla, Patricia Garcia; Moreno, Antonio; Nelson, Jeanne L.; Caylà, Joan A.

    2011-01-01

    Background Mortality among patients who complete tuberculosis (TB) treatment is still high among vulnerable populations. The objective of the study was to identify the probability of death and its predictive factors in a cohort of successfully treated TB patients. Methods A population-based retrospective longitudinal study was performed in Barcelona, Spain. All patients who successfully completed TB treatment with culture-confirmation and available drug susceptibility testing between 1995–1997 were retrospectively followed-up until December 31, 2005 by the Barcelona TB Control Program. Socio-demographic, clinical, microbiological and treatment variables were examined. Mortality, TB Program and AIDS registries were reviewed. Kaplan-Meier and a Cox regression methods with time-dependent covariates were used for the survival analysis, calculating the hazard ratio (HR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results Among the 762 included patients, the median age was 36 years, 520 (68.2%) were male, 178 (23.4%) HIV-infected, and 208 (27.3%) were alcohol abusers. Of the 134 (17.6%) injecting drug users (IDU), 123 (91.8%) were HIV-infected. A total of 30 (3.9%) recurrences and 173 deaths (22.7%) occurred (mortality rate: 3.4/100 person-years of follow-up). The predictors of death were: age between 41–60 years old (HR: 3.5; CI:2.1–5.7), age greater than 60 years (HR: 14.6; CI:8.9–24), alcohol abuse (HR: 1.7; CI:1.2–2.4) and HIV-infected IDU (HR: 7.9; CI:4.7–13.3). Conclusions The mortality rate among TB patients who completed treatment is associated with vulnerable populations such as the elderly, alcohol abusers, and HIV-infected IDU. We therefore need to fight against poverty, and promote and develop interventions and social policies directed towards these populations to improve their survival. PMID:21980423

  12. Healthcare teams over the Internet: programming a certificate-based approach.

    PubMed

    Georgiadis, Christos K; Mavridis, Ioannis K; Pangalos, George I

    2003-07-01

    Healthcare environments are a representative case of collaborative environments since individuals (e.g. doctors) in many cases collaborate in order to provide care to patients in a more proficient way. At the same time modern healthcare institutions are increasingly interested in sharing access of their information resources in the networked environment. Healthcare applications over the Internet offer an attractive communication infrastructure at worldwide level but with a noticeably great factor of risk. Security has, therefore, become a major concern. However, although an adequate level of security can be relied upon digital certificates, if an appropriate security model is used, additional security considerations are needed in order to deal efficiently with the above team-work concerns. The already known Hybrid Access Control (HAC) security model supports and handles efficiently healthcare teams with active security capabilities and is capable to exploit the benefits of certificate technology. In this paper we present the way for encoding the appropriate authoritative information in various types of certificates, as well as the overall operational architecture of the implemented access control system for healthcare collaborative environments over the Internet. A pilot implementation of the proposed methodology in a major Greek hospital has shown the applicability of the proposals and the flexibility of the access control provided. PMID:12909167

  13. 16 CFR 1204.14 - Certification tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... STANDARD FOR OMNIDIRECTIONAL CITIZENS BAND BASE STATION ANTENNAS Certification § 1204.14 Certification... variations in production, etc., over the production interval would not cause any antenna to fail if...

  14. 16 CFR 1204.14 - Certification tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... STANDARD FOR OMNIDIRECTIONAL CITIZENS BAND BASE STATION ANTENNAS Certification § 1204.14 Certification... variations in production, etc., over the production interval would not cause any antenna to fail if...

  15. 16 CFR 1204.14 - Certification tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... STANDARD FOR OMNIDIRECTIONAL CITIZENS BAND BASE STATION ANTENNAS Certification § 1204.14 Certification... variations in production, etc., over the production interval would not cause any antenna to fail if...

  16. Differences in late fetal death rates in association with determinants of small for gestational age fetuses: population based cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Cnattingius, Sven; Haglund, Bengt; Kramer, Michael S

    1998-01-01

    Objective: To examine differences in late fetal death rates in association with determinants of small for gestational age fetuses. Design: Population based cohort study. Subjects: 1 026 249 pregnancies without congenital malformations. Setting: Sweden 1983-92. Main outcome measure: Late fetal death rate. Results: Depending on underlying determinants late fetal death rates were greatly increased in extremely small for gestational age fetuses (range 16 to 45 per 1000) compared with non-small for gestational age fetuses (1.4 to 4.6). In extremely small for gestational age fetuses late fetal death rates were increased from 31 per 1000 in mothers aged less than 35 years to 45 per 1000 in older mothers, and from 22 per 1000 in women <155 cm in height to 33 per 1000 in women ⩾175 cm tall. Late fetal death rates were also higher in extremely small for gestational age fetuses in singleton compared with twin pregnancies and in non-hypertensive pregnancies compared with pregnancies complicated by severe pre-eclampsia or other hypertensive disorders. Slightly higher late fetal death rates were observed in nulliparous compared with parous women and in non-smokers compared with smokers. Conclusions: Although the risk of late fetal death is greatly increased in fetuses that are extremely small for gestational age the risk is strongly modified by underlying determinants—for example, there is a lower risk of late fetal death in a small for gestational age fetus if the mother is of short stature, has a twin pregnancy, or has hypertension. Key messages Small for gestational age fetuses are at increased risk of late fetal death regardless of the underlying determinants The effect of birthweight ratio on risk of late fetal death is modified by underlying determinants, except maternal age Regardless of birthweight ratio the rates of late fetal death are higher among women aged 35 years or older compared with younger women In pregnancies of extremely small for gestational age

  17. Certification trails for data structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sullivan, Gregory F.; Masson, Gerald M.

    1993-01-01

    Certification trails are a recently introduced and promising approach to fault detection and fault tolerance. The applicability of the certification trail technique is significantly generalized. Previously, certification trails had to be customized to each algorithm application; trails appropriate to wide classes of algorithms were developed. These certification trails are based on common data-structure operations such as those carried out using these sets of operations such as those carried out using balanced binary trees and heaps. Any algorithms using these sets of operations can therefore employ the certification trail method to achieve software fault tolerance. To exemplify the scope of the generalization of the certification trail technique provided, constructions of trails for abstract data types such as priority queues and union-find structures are given. These trails are applicable to any data-structure implementation of the abstract data type. It is also shown that these ideals lead naturally to monitors for data-structure operations.

  18. Performance-based regulation: enterprise responsibility for reducing death, injury, and disease caused by consumer products.

    PubMed

    Sugarman, Stephen D

    2009-12-01

    This article offers a bold new idea for confronting the staggering level of death, injury, and disease caused by five consumer products: cigarettes, alcohol, guns, junk food, and motor vehicles. Business leaders try to frame these negative outcomes as "collateral damage" that is someone else's problem. That framing not only is morally objectionable but also overlooks the possibility that, with proper prodding, industry could substantially lessen these public health disasters. I seek to reframe the public perception of who is responsible and propose to deploy a promising approach called "performance-based regulation" to combat the problem. Performance-based regulation would impose on manufacturers a legal obligation to reduce the negative social costs of their products. Rather than involving them in litigation or forcing them to operate differently (as "command-and-control" regimes do), performance-based regulation allows the firms to determine how best to decrease bad public health consequences. Like other public health strategies, performance-based regulation focuses on those who are far more likely than individual consumers to achieve real gains. Analogous to a tax on causing harm that exceeds a threshold level, performance-based regulation seeks to harness private initiative in pursuit of the public good. PMID:20018990

  19. Brain death: the Asian perspective.

    PubMed

    Chua, Hoe Chin; Kwek, Tong Kiat; Morihara, Hirofumi; Gao, Daiquan

    2015-04-01

    Asia is the largest and most populous continent in the world with people from many diverse ethnic groups, religions and government systems. The authors surveyed 14 countries accounting for the majority of Asia's population and found that, although the concept of brain death is widely accepted, there is wide variability in the criteria for certification. Although most Asian countries have adopted the "whole-brain" concept of brain death, most countries with past colonial links to the United Kingdom follow the UK "brainstem" concept of brain death. Despite this difference, most countries require only neurologic testing of irreversible coma and absent brainstem reflexes as criteria for certification of brain death. Variability exists in the number of personnel required, qualifications of certifying doctors, need for repeat examination, minimum time interval between examinations, and requirement for and choice of confirmatory tests. PMID:25839724

  20. Infant Maltreatment-Related Mortality in Alaska: Correcting the Count and Using Birth Certificates to Predict Mortality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parrish, Jared W.; Gessner, Bradford D.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: To accurately count the number of infant maltreatment-related fatalities and to use information from the birth certificates to predict infant maltreatment-related deaths. Methods: A population-based retrospective cohort study of infants born in Alaska for the years 1992 through 2005 was conducted. Risk factor variables were ascertained…

  1. Online Information Technologies Certificate Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yukselturk, Erman

    2005-01-01

    In this study, Information Technologies Certificate Program which is based on synchronous and asynchronous communication methods over the Internet offered by cooperation of Middle East Technical University, Computer Engineering Department and Continuing Education Center were examined. This online certificate program started in May 1998 and it is…

  2. 34 CFR 674.61 - Discharge for death or disability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Discharge for death or disability. 674.61 Section 674... Discharge for death or disability. (a) Death. An institution must discharge the unpaid balance of a borrower... discharge the loan on the basis of an original or certified copy of the death certificate, or an...

  3. 34 CFR 674.61 - Discharge for death or disability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Discharge for death or disability. 674.61 Section 674... Discharge for death or disability. (a) Death. An institution must discharge the unpaid balance of a borrower... discharge the loan on the basis of an original or certified copy of the death certificate, or an...

  4. 34 CFR 674.61 - Discharge for death or disability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Discharge for death or disability. 674.61 Section 674... Discharge for death or disability. (a) Death. An institution must discharge the unpaid balance of a borrower... discharge the loan on the basis of an original or certified copy of the death certificate, or an...

  5. 34 CFR 674.61 - Discharge for death or disability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Discharge for death or disability. 674.61 Section 674... Discharge for death or disability. (a) Death. An institution must discharge the unpaid balance of a borrower... discharge the loan on the basis of an original or certified copy of the death certificate, or an...

  6. 16 CFR 1204.14 - Certification tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Certification tests. 1204.14 Section 1204.14 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR OMNIDIRECTIONAL CITIZENS BAND BASE STATION ANTENNAS Certification § 1204.14 Certification tests. (a) General. As explained in...

  7. A district-based audit of the causes and circumstances of maternal deaths in South Kalimantan, Indonesia.

    PubMed Central

    Supratikto, Gunawan; Wirth, Meg E.; Achadi, Endang; Cohen, Surekha; Ronsmans, Carine

    2002-01-01

    A district-based audit of maternal and perinatal mortality began during 1994 in three provinces of South Kalimantan, Indonesia. Both medical and non-medical factors were documented and an effort was made to progress from merely assessing substandard care to recommending improvements in access to care and the quality of care. Extensive discussions of cases of maternal death were held during regular meetings with providers, policy-makers and community members. The sources of information included verbal autopsies with family members and medical records. Between 1995 and 1999 the audit reviewed 130 maternal deaths. The leading causes of death were haemorrhage (41%) and hypertensive diseases (32%). Delays in decision-making and poor quality of care in health facilities were seen as contributory factors in 77% and 60% of the deaths, respectively. Economic constraints were believed to have contributed to 37% of the deaths. The distance between a patient's home and a health provider or facility did not appear to have a significant influence, nor did transport problems. The audit led to changes in the quality of obstetric care in the district. Its success was particularly attributable to the process of accountability of both health providers and policy-makers and to improved working relationships between health providers at different levels and between providers and the community. With a view to the continuation and further expansion of the audit it may be necessary to reconsider the role of the provincial team, the need of health providers for confidentiality, the added benefit of facility-based audits, the need to incorporate scientific evidence into the review process, and the possible consideration of severe complications as well as deaths. It may also be necessary to recognize that village midwives are not solely responsible for maternal deaths. PMID:11984609

  8. Brain death.

    PubMed

    Wijdicks, Eelco F M

    2013-01-01

    The diagnosis of brain death should be based on a simple premise. If every possible confounder has been excluded and all possible treatments have been tried or considered, irreversible loss of brain function is clinically recognized as the absence of brainstem reflexes, verified apnea, loss of vascular tone, invariant heart rate, and, eventually, cardiac standstill. This condition cannot be reversed - not even partly - by medical or surgical intervention, and thus is final. Many countries in the world have introduced laws that acknowledge that a patient can be declared brain-dead by neurologic standards. The U.S. law differs substantially from all other brain death legislation in the world because the U.S. law does not spell out details of the neurologic examination. Evidence-based practice guidelines serve as a standard. In this chapter, I discuss the history of development of the criteria, the current clinical examination, and some of the ethical and legal issues that have emerged. Generally, the concept of brain death has been accepted by all major religions. But patients' families may have different ideas and are mostly influenced by cultural attitudes, traditional customs, and personal beliefs. Suggestions are offered to support these families. PMID:24182378

  9. Effect of medium/ω-6 long chain triglyceride-based emulsion on leucocyte death and inflammatory gene expression

    PubMed Central

    Cury-Boaventura, M F; Gorjão, R; Martins de Lima, T; Fiamoncini, J; Godoy, A B P; Deschamphs, F C; Soriano, F G; Curi, R

    2011-01-01

    Lipid emulsion (LE) containing medium/ω-6 long chain triglyceride-based emulsion (MCT/ω-6 LCT LE) has been recommended in the place of ω-6 LCT-based emulsion to prevent impairment of immune function. The impact of MCT/ω-6 LCT LE on lymphocyte and neutrophil death and expression of genes related to inflammation was investigated. Seven volunteers were recruited and infusion of MCT/ω-6 LCT LE was performed for 6 h. Four volunteers received saline and no change was found. Blood samples were collected before, immediately afterwards and 18 h after LE infusion. Lymphocytes and neutrophils were studied immediately after isolation and after 24 and 48 h in culture. The following determinations were carried out: plasma-free fatty acids, triacylglycerol and cholesterol concentrations, plasma fatty acid composition, neutral lipid accumulation in lymphocytes and neutrophils, signs of lymphocyte and neutrophil death and lymphocyte expression of genes related to inflammation. MCT/ω-6 LCT LE induced lymphocyte and neutrophil death. The mechanism for MCT/ω-6 LCT LE-dependent induction of leucocyte death may involve changes in neutral lipid content and modulation of expression of genes related to cell death, proteolysis, cell signalling, inflammatory response, oxidative stress and transcription. PMID:21682721

  10. Rotavirus mortality in India: estimates based on a nationally representative survey of diarrhoeal deaths

    PubMed Central

    Awasthi, Shally; Khera, Ajay; Bassani, Diego G; Kang, Gagandeep; Parashar, Umesh D; Kumar, Rajesh; Shet, Anita; Glass, Roger I; Jha, Prabhat

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Objective To estimate the number of rotavirus-associated deaths among Indian children younger than five years. Methods We surveyed more than 23 000 child deaths from a nationally representative survey of 1.1 million Indian households during 2001–2003. Diarrhoeal deaths were characterized by region, age and sex and were combined with the proportion of deaths attributable to rotavirus, as determined by hospital microbiologic data collected by the Indian Rotavirus Strain Surveillance Network from December 2005 to November 2007. Rotavirus vaccine efficacy data from clinical trials in developing countries were used to estimate the number of deaths preventable by a national vaccination programme. Data were analysed using Stata SE version 10. Findings Rotavirus caused an estimated 113 000 deaths (99% confidence interval, CI: 86 000–155 000); 50% (54 700) and 75% (85 400) occurred before one and two years of age, respectively. One child in 242 died from rotavirus infection before five years of age. Rotavirus-associated mortality rates overall, among girls and among boys were 4.14 (99% CI: 3.14–5.68), 4.89 (99% CI: 3.75–6.79) and 3.45 (99% CI: 2.58–4.66) deaths per 1000 live births, respectively. Rates were highest in Bihar, Uttar Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh, which together accounted for > 50% of deaths (64 400) nationally. Rotavirus vaccine could prevent 41 000–48 000 deaths among children aged 3–59 months. Conclusion The burden of rotavirus-associated mortality is high among Indian children, highlighting the potential benefits of rotavirus vaccination. PMID:23109739

  11. PREPARING FOR A SUCCESSFUL EVMS CERTIFICATION

    SciTech Connect

    CROWE SL; BASCHE AD

    2011-02-09

    The client, a government agency, requires its contractor to obtain an Earned Value Management System (EVMS) certification that meets the intent of ANSI/EIA-748-B, Earned Value Management Systems. The contractor has extensive experience with certification preparation, having completed two certifications within two years. Information from a previous EVMS certification and internal system surveillances are used to prepare for client-based EVMS certifications and bi-annual surveillances. The contractor also sent members of its group to assist other companies preparing for surveillances and certifications to perform 'Black Hat Reviews.' This paper is a lessons learned on preparing a team for EVMS certification. The information is also applicable for surveillances, since the contractor prepares its team for the surveillance in the same manner as the initial certification. Some of the areas covered include required documents, tracing the data through the systems, Control Account Manager (CAM) preparation, and system verification.

  12. Reflection on family consent: based on a pregnant death in a Beijing hospital.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xinqing

    2012-12-01

    The 'family consent' process has been placed at the centre of Chinese clinical practice. Although there has been critical analysis of how the process functions in relation to the autonomy and rights of patients, there has been little examination of the perceptions and attitude of patients and their families and the medical professionals, in relation to moral dilemmas that arise in real cases in the bioethical discourse. When faced with a consent form in an emergency situation, the family member's capacity to act is reduced, as he/she becomes enmeshed in the hospital structure of tacit, socially-imposed rules. In a questionnaires based on a real death case in 2008, 70.9% of the surveyed medical professionals (n = 3,665) disagreed with performing surgery without the consent of the family even if the patient's life was in danger, while 36.6% of the surveyed patients (n = 1,198) hold the same position. This work demonstrates the weakness of the family consent process as a safeguard of patient's autonomy. Finally, I argue that saving the patient's life should be the overriding obligation rather than the respect for the surrogate's autonomous choice at such a decisive moment. PMID:21266002

  13. Killing by organ procurement: brain-based death and legal fictions.

    PubMed

    Veatch, Robert M

    2015-06-01

    The dead donor rule (DDR) governs procuring life-prolonging organs. They should be taken only from deceased donors. Miller and Truog have proposed abandoning the rule when patients have decided to forgo life-sustaining treatment and have consented to procurement. Organs could then be procured from living patients, thus killing them by organ procurement. This proposal warrants careful examination. They convincingly argue that current brain or circulatory death pronouncement misidentifies the biologically dead. After arguing convincingly that physicians already cause death by withdrawing treatment, they claim no bright-line differences preclude organ removal from the living. The argument fails for those who accept the double effect doctrine or other grounds for distinguishing forgoing life support from active, intentional killing. If the goal is determining irreversible loss of somatic function, they correctly label current death pronouncement a "legal fiction." Recognizing a second, public policy meaning of the term death provides grounds for maintaining the DDR without jeopardizing procurement. PMID:25889264

  14. Hospital-based study of severe malaria and associated deaths in Myanmar.

    PubMed Central

    Ejov, M. N.; Tun, T.; Aung, S.; Lwin, S.; Sein, K.

    1999-01-01

    The present study identifies factors that contribute to malaria deaths in township hospitals reporting large numbers of such deaths in Myanmar. Between July and December 1995, we identified a total of 101 patients with severe and complicated malaria by screening the cases admitted to hospital with a primary diagnosis of falciparum malaria. Unrousable coma and less marked impairment of consciousness with or without other severe malaria complications, in contrast to severe malaria anaemia, were associated with all malaria deaths. Adult patients with severe malaria were 2.8 times more likely to die than child patients, with the higher risk of death among adults probably being associated with previous exposure to malaria, delay in seeking treatment and severity of the illness before admission. In view of this, we consider that malaria mortality could be reduced by improving peripheral facilities for the management of severe malaria and providing appropriate education to communities, without stepping up vector control activities. PMID:10327709

  15. Community based maternal death review: lessons learned from ten districts in Andhra Pradesh, India.

    PubMed

    Singh, Samiksha; Murthy, Gudlavalleti V S; Thippaiah, Anitha; Upadhyaya, Sanjeev; Krishna, Murali; Shukla, Rajan; Srikrishna, S R

    2015-07-01

    Maternal death is as much a social phenomenon as a medical event. Maternal death review (MDR), a strategy for monitoring maternal deaths, provides information on medical, social and health system factors that should be addressed to redress gaps in service provision or utilisation. To strengthen MDR implementation in the state of Andhra Pradesh, India. The project involved development of state specific guidelines, technical assistance in operationalization and analysing processes and findings of MDR in ten districts. 284 deaths were recorded over 6 months (April-September 2012) of which 193 (75.4 %) could be reviewed. Post-partum haemorrhage (24 %) and hypertensive disorders (27.4 %) followed by puerperal sepsis in the post-partum period (16.8 %) were the leading causes of maternal deaths. 68.3 % deaths occurred at health facilities. 67 % of mothers dying during the natal or post-natal period, delivered at home, though the death occurred in a health facility. Type 1 delay (58.9 %) was the most common underlying cause of death, followed by type 3 delay (33.3 %). Under or nil reporting from the facilities was observed. Program staff could identify broad areas of intervention but lacked capacity to monitor, analyse, interpret and utilize the generated information to develop feasible actionable plans. Information gathered was incomplete and inaccurate in many cases. Challenges observed showed that it will require more time and continuous committed efforts of health staff for implementation of high quality MDR. Successful implementation will improve the response of the health system and contribute to improved maternal health. PMID:25636651

  16. 23 CFR Appendix C to Part 1240 - Certification (Calendar Year 1998 Survey Based on Survey Approved Under 23 U.S.C. 153)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Certification-Calendar Year 1998 Seat Belt Use Survey State of Seat Belt Use Rate Reported for Calendar Year ____ : ____ %. In accordance with the provisions of 23 CFR 1240.12(c)(2), I hereby certify as follows: 1. The seat... GRANTS FOR USE OF SEAT BELTS-ALLOCATIONS BASED ON SEAT BELT USE RATES Pt. 1240, App. C Appendix C to...

  17. 23 CFR Appendix C to Part 1240 - Certification (Calendar Year 1998 Survey Based on Survey Approved Under 23 U.S.C. 153)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Certification-Calendar Year 1998 Seat Belt Use Survey State of Seat Belt Use Rate Reported for Calendar Year ____ : ____ %. In accordance with the provisions of 23 CFR 1240.12(c)(2), I hereby certify as follows: 1. The seat... GRANTS FOR USE OF SEAT BELTS-ALLOCATIONS BASED ON SEAT BELT USE RATES Pt. 1240, App. C Appendix C to...

  18. 23 CFR Appendix C to Part 1240 - Certification (Calendar Year 1998 Survey Based on Survey Approved Under 23 U.S.C. 153)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Certification-Calendar Year 1998 Seat Belt Use Survey State of Seat Belt Use Rate Reported for Calendar Year ____ : ____ %. In accordance with the provisions of 23 CFR 1240.12(c)(2), I hereby certify as follows: 1. The seat... GRANTS FOR USE OF SEAT BELTS-ALLOCATIONS BASED ON SEAT BELT USE RATES Pt. 1240, App. C Appendix C to...

  19. 23 CFR Appendix C to Part 1240 - Certification (Calendar Year 1998 Survey Based on Survey Approved Under 23 U.S.C. 153)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Certification-Calendar Year 1998 Seat Belt Use Survey State of Seat Belt Use Rate Reported for Calendar Year ____ : ____ %. In accordance with the provisions of 23 CFR 1240.12(c)(2), I hereby certify as follows: 1. The seat... GRANTS FOR USE OF SEAT BELTS-ALLOCATIONS BASED ON SEAT BELT USE RATES Pt. 1240, App. C Appendix C to...

  20. 23 CFR Appendix C to Part 1240 - Certification (Calendar Year 1998 Survey Based on Survey Approved Under 23 U.S.C. 153)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Certification (Calendar Year 1998 Survey Based on Survey Approved Under 23 U.S.C. 153) C Appendix C to Part 1240 Highways NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION AND FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GUIDELINES SAFETY INCENTIVE GRANTS FOR USE OF SEAT...

  1. "We Brought It upon Ourselves": University-Based Teacher Education and the Emergence of Boot-Camp-Style Routes to Teacher Certification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedrich, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    The proliferation of boot-camp-style routes to teacher certification in the last two decades is seen by many university-based teacher educators as the result of the advancement of conservative interests aimed at de-professionalizing teaching. This essay argues that this view only accounts for one piece of the answer, the other one being that some…

  2. Does marital status predict the odds of suicidal death in taiwan? A seven-year population-based study.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Jui-Yuan; Xirasagar, Sudha; Liu, Tsai-Ching; Li, Chong-Yi; Lin, Herng-Ching

    2008-06-01

    Using nationwide, 7-year population-based data for 1997-2003, we examined marital status to see if it predicted suicide among the ethnic Chinese population of Taiwan. Using cause of death data, with a case-control design, two groups-total adult suicide deaths, n = 17,850, the study group, and adult deaths other than suicide, n = 71,400 (randomly selected from age, sex, and geographic region matched controls, four per suicide)-were studied. Using multiple logistic regression analysis including age-marital status interaction, adjusted estimates show divorced status to be the most detrimental for suicide propensity, with males showing stronger effect size. Females never married, aged below 35 and 65-plus, and widowed 65-plus had lower suicide odds. PMID:18611128

  3. Development of a Web-based child safety education program for Busan Safe City WHO Certification Project.

    PubMed

    Bae, Jeongyee; Panuncio, Rosel L; Sohn, Haesook

    2009-12-01

    As a nation that is tremendously affected by disaster- and injury-related deaths, Korea's second largest city, Busan, earnestly heeds World Health Organization's call for an international network of safe communities. As citizens of Busan dream of a safe city, officials are dedicating efforts in planning, developing and implementing sustainable programs aiming to reduce risk and promote safety awareness. The present article outlines the Busan Safe City Project and describes the development process of one of its programs, a Web-based safety education for children. Child safety remains a nationwide issue because in 2007, Korea ranked third in numbers of accident-related child deaths among the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development countries. Future stages will involve program evaluation, revision and public release. This development process will guide other programs specific for other target populations. With everyone's help, the city continues to strive to be a healthy, safe, and dynamic Busan. PMID:19909442

  4. 29 CFR 1919.50 - Eligibility for accreditation to certificate shore-based material handling devices covered by...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) GEAR CERTIFICATION Accreditation To Certificate... material handling devices covered by § 1917.50 of this chapter, safety and health regulations for marine... handling devices covered by § 1917.50 of this chapter, safety and health regulations for marine...

  5. The Effects of "High Stakes" Certification Demands on the Generalizability and Dependability of a Classroom-Based Teacher Assessment System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellett, Chad D.; And Others

    This paper presents the results of ongoing analyses of the reliability of the System for Teaching and Learning Assessment and Review (STAR) as a comprehensive measure of classroom teaching and learning for making teacher certification decisions. Focus was on the effects of high stakes assessment conditions for certification on the generalizability…

  6. Alternative Certification and Retention of Secondary Math and Science Teachers: A Study Based on "SASS/TFS"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tai, Robert H.; Liu, Christine Qi; Fan, Xiato

    2006-01-01

    In light of shortages of mathematics and science teachers, alternative certification was introduced in the mid-1980s. This study examined the effect of alternative certification among math and science teachers who moved to a different school or left the profession. This was accomplished using the national "SASS" and "TFS"…

  7. Emergency referral transport for maternal complication: lessons from the community based maternal death audits in Unnao district, Uttar Pradesh, India

    PubMed Central

    Raj, Sunil Saksena; Manthri, Suneedh; Sahoo, Pratap Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Background: An effective emergency referral transport system is the link between the home of the pregnant woman and a health facility providing basic or comprehensive emergency obstetric care. This study attempts to explore the role of emergency transport associated with maternal deaths in Unnao district, Uttar Pradesh (UP). Methods: A descriptive study was carried out to assess the causes of and factors leading to maternal deaths in Unnao district, UP, through community based Maternal Death Review (MDR) using verbal autopsy, in a sample of 57 maternal deaths conducted between June 1, 2009, and May 31, 2010. A facility review was also conducted in 15 of the 16 block level and district health facilities to collect information on preparedness of the facilities for treating obstetric complications including referral transportation. A descriptive analysis was carried out using ratios and percentages to analyze the availability of basic facilities which may lead to maternal deaths. Results: It was found that there were only 10 ambulances available at 15 facilities against 19 required as per Indian Public Health Standards (IPHS). About 47% of the deaths took place in a facility, 30% enroute to a health facility and 23% at home. Twenty five percent of women were taken to one facility, 32% were taken to two facilities, and 25% were taken to three facilities while 19% were not taken to any facility before their death. Sixteen percent of the pregnant women could not arrange transportation to reach any facility. The mean time to make arrangements for travel from home to facility-1 and facility-2 to facility-3 was 3.1 hours; whereas from facility-1 to facility-2 was 9.9 hours. The mean travel time from home to facility-1 was 1 hour, from facility-1 to facility-2 was 1.4 hours and facility-2 to facility-3 was 1.6 hours. Conclusion: The public health facility review and MDR, clearly indicates that the inter-facility transfers appropriateness and timeliness of referral are major

  8. Comparative risk of death in older adults treated with antipsychotics: A population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Schmedt, Niklas; Kollhorst, Bianca; Enders, Dirk; Jobski, Kathrin; Krappweis, Jutta; Garbe, Edeltraut; Schink, Tania

    2016-09-01

    Although the use of antipsychotics has been associated with an increased risk of death, data on the safety of individual substances is scarce. We thus aimed to compare the risk of death in new users of individual antipsychotics aged =>65 years and conducted a cohort study in the German Pharmacoepidemiological Research Database between 2005 and 2011. Patients were followed from initiation of treatment until death, 90 days after cohort entry, end of insurance or the end of the study period. Multivariable cox regression was used to estimate confounder adjusted hazard ratios (aHR) of death for 14 individual antipsychotics compared to risperidone. In sensitivity analyses, we also applied high-dimensional propensity score (HDPS) methods to explore possible unmeasured confounding. In a cohort of 137,713 new users of antipsychotics, a higher risk of death was found for haloperidol (aHR: 1.45; 95% confidence interval: 1.35-1.55), levomepromazine (aHR: 1.34; 1.16-1.54), zuclopenthixol (aHR: 1.32; 1.02-1.72) and to a lesser extent for melperone (aHR: 1.13; 1.07-1.19) compared to risperidone. Lower risks were observed for quetiapine, prothipendyl, olanzapine, tiapride, clozapine, perazine and flupentixol. In subgroup analyses, levomepromazine and chlorprothixene were only associated with a higher risk of death in patients aged =>80 years and with dementia. The application of HDPS methods did not substantially change the results. In conclusion, our study suggests that initiation of haloperidol, levomepromazine, zuclopenthixol and chlorprothixene treatment is associated with an increased risk of death compared to risperidone and should be avoided in older patients except in palliative care when treatment alternatives are available. PMID:27475994

  9. A CRISPR-based screen identifies genes essential for West Nile virus-induced cell death

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Hongming; Dang, Ying; Wu, Yonggan; Jia, Gengxiang; Anaya, Edgar; Zhang, Junli; Abraham, Sojan; Choi, Jang-Gi; Shi, Guojun; Qi, Ling; Manjunath, N.; Wu, Haoquan

    2015-01-01

    Summary West Nile virus (WNV) causes an acute neurological infection attended by massive neuronal cell death. However, the mechanism(s) behind the virus-induced cell death is poorly understood. Using a library containing 77,406 sgRNAs targeting 20,121 genes, we performed a genome-wide screen followed by a second screen with a sub-library. Among the genes identified, seven genes, EMC2, EMC3, SEL1L, DERL2, UBE2G2, UBE2J1, and HRD1, stood out as having the strongest phenotype, whose knockout conferred strong protection against WNV-induced cell death with two different WNV strains and in three cell lines. Interestingly, knockout of these genes did not block WNV replication. Thus, these appear to be essential genes that link WNV replication to downstream cell death pathway(s). In addition, the fact that all of these genes belong to the endoplasmic reticulum-associated protein degradation (ERAD) pathway suggests that this might be the primary driver of WNV-induced cell death. PMID:26190106

  10. The contribution of infections to neonatal deaths in England and Wales.

    PubMed

    Depani, Sarita J; Ladhani, Shamez; Heath, Paul T; Lamagni, Theresa L; Johnson, Alan P; Pebody, Richard G; Ramsay, Mary E; Sharland, Mike

    2011-04-01

    This study used anonymized death certificate data to determine the contribution of specific infections to neonatal deaths in England and Wales between 2003 and 2005. Infection was recorded in 11% of deaths, with two-thirds occurring in premature neonates. Group B Streptococcus was indicated in 32% of death certificates that specified a bacterial infection and in 11% of all infection-related deaths. PMID:21317829

  11. Mortality, Causes of Death and Associated Factors Relate to a Large HIV Population-Based Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Miró, Josep M.; Ocaña, Inma; Knobel, Hernando; Barberá, Maria Jesús; Humet, Victoria; Domingo, Pere; Gatell, Josep M.; Ribera, Esteve; Gurguí, Mercè; Marco, Andrés

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Antiretroviral therapy has led to a decrease in HIV-related mortality and to the emergence of non-AIDS defining diseases as competing causes of death. This study estimates the HIV mortality rate and their risk factors with regard to different causes in a large city from January 2001 to June 2013. Materials and Methods We followed-up 3137 newly diagnosed HIV non-AIDS cases. Causes of death were classified as HIV-related, non-HIV-related and external. We examined the effect of risk factors on survival using mortality rates, Kaplan-Meier plots and Cox models. Finally, we estimated survival for each main cause of death groups through Fine and Gray models. Mortality Results 182 deaths were found [14.0/1000 person-years of follow-up (py); 95% confidence interval (CI):12.0–16.1/1000 py], 81.3% of them had a known cause of death. Mortality rate by HIV-related causes and non-HIV-related causes was the same (4.9/1000 py; CI:3.7–6.1/1000 py), external was lower [1.7/1000 py; (1.0–2.4/1000 py)]. Survival Results Kaplan-Meier estimate showed worse survival in intravenous drug user (IDU) and heterosexuals than in men having sex with men (MSM). Factors associated with HIV-related causes of death include: IDU male (subHazard Ratio (sHR):3.2; CI:1.5–7.0) and <200 CD4 at diagnosis (sHR:2.7; CI:1.3–5.7) versus ≥500 CD4. Factors associated with non-HIV-related causes of death include: ageing (sHR:1.5; CI:1.4–1.7) and heterosexual female (sHR:2.8; CI:1.1–7.3) versus MSM. Factors associated with external causes of death were IDU male (sHR:28.7; CI:6.7–123.2) and heterosexual male (sHR:11.8; CI:2.5–56.4) versus MSM. Conclusion and Recommendation There are important differences in survival among transmission groups. Improved treatment is especially necessary in IDUs and heterosexual males. PMID:26716982

  12. Violent death in Connecticut, 2001 to 2004.

    PubMed

    Borrup, Kevin; Gelven, Erica S; Carver, H Wayne; Banco, Leonard; Lapidus, Garry

    2008-04-01

    We reviewed medical examiner, law enforcement, crime laboratory data, and death certificates on all 1,530 violent deaths (homicide, suicide, undetermined firearm) in Connecticut occurring from 2001-2004. There was an average of 383 deaths (rate = 11.2 deaths per 100,000 persons annually). Overall, males aged 20 to 29 were at the greatest risk of violent death (rate = 30.5/100,000). Of all violent deaths 72% were suicides and 28% were homicides. Firearms were used in 33% of suicides and 58% of homicides. The rate of violent death is lower than most other states in the country. In Connecticut suicide is the leading cause of violent death overall; however, in areas characterized by the highest levels of poverty and lowest levels of education, homicide is the leading cause of violent death. PMID:18478984

  13. Postmortem CT is more accurate than clinical diagnosis for identifying the immediate cause of death in hospitalized patients: a prospective autopsy-based study.

    PubMed

    Inai, Kunihiro; Noriki, Sakon; Kinoshita, Kazuyuki; Sakai, Toyohiko; Kimura, Hirohiko; Nishijima, Akihiko; Iwasaki, Hiromichi; Naiki, Hironobu

    2016-07-01

    Despite 75 to 90 % physician accuracy in determining the underlying cause of death, precision of determination of the immediate cause of death is approximately 40 %. In contrast, two thirds of immediate causes of death in hospitalized patients are correctly diagnosed by postmortem computed tomography (CT). Postmortem CT might provide an alternative approach to verifying the immediate cause of death. To evaluate the effectiveness of postmortem CT as an alternative method to determine the immediate cause of death in hospitalized patients, an autopsy-based prospective study was performed. Of 563 deaths from September 2011 to August 2013, 50 consecutive cadavers undergoing hospital autopsies with consent for additional postmortem CT at the University of Fukui were enrolled. The accuracy of determination of the immediate cause of death by postmortem CT was evaluated in these patients. Diagnostic discrepancy was also compared between radiologists and attending physicians. The immediate cause of death was correctly diagnosed in 37 of 50 subjects using postmortem CT (74 %), concerning 29 cases of respiratory failure, 4 of hemorrhage, 3 of liver failure and 1 of septic shock. Six cases of organ failure involving 13 patients were not identified as the cause of death by postmortem CT. Regarding the immediate cause of death, accuracy of clinical diagnosis was significantly lower than that of postmortem CT (46 vs 74 %, P < 0.01). Postmortem CT may be more useful than clinical diagnosis for identifying the immediate cause of death in hospitalized patients not undergoing autopsy. PMID:27085336

  14. Cot Deaths.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tyrrell, Shelagh

    1985-01-01

    Addresses the tragedy of crib deaths, giving particular attention to causes, prevention, and medical research on Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS). Gives anecdotal accounts of coping strategies used by parents and families of SIDS infants. (DT)

  15. The Global Burden of Snakebite: A Literature Analysis and Modelling Based on Regional Estimates of Envenoming and Deaths

    PubMed Central

    Kasturiratne, Anuradhani; Wickremasinghe, A. Rajitha; de Silva, Nilanthi; Gunawardena, N. Kithsiri; Pathmeswaran, Arunasalam; Premaratna, Ranjan; Savioli, Lorenzo; Lalloo, David G; de Silva, H. Janaka

    2008-01-01

    Background Envenoming resulting from snakebites is an important public health problem in many tropical and subtropical countries. Few attempts have been made to quantify the burden, and recent estimates all suffer from the lack of an objective and reproducible methodology. In an attempt to provide an accurate, up-to-date estimate of the scale of the global problem, we developed a new method to estimate the disease burden due to snakebites. Methods and Findings The global estimates were based on regional estimates that were, in turn, derived from data available for countries within a defined region. Three main strategies were used to obtain primary data: electronic searching for publications on snakebite, extraction of relevant country-specific mortality data from databases maintained by United Nations organizations, and identification of grey literature by discussion with key informants. Countries were grouped into 21 distinct geographic regions that are as epidemiologically homogenous as possible, in line with the Global Burden of Disease 2005 study (Global Burden Project of the World Bank). Incidence rates for envenoming were extracted from publications and used to estimate the number of envenomings for individual countries; if no data were available for a particular country, the lowest incidence rate within a neighbouring country was used. Where death registration data were reliable, reported deaths from snakebite were used; in other countries, deaths were estimated on the basis of observed mortality rates and the at-risk population. We estimate that, globally, at least 421,000 envenomings and 20,000 deaths occur each year due to snakebite. These figures may be as high as 1,841,000 envenomings and 94,000 deaths. Based on the fact that envenoming occurs in about one in every four snakebites, between 1.2 million and 5.5 million snakebites could occur annually. Conclusions Snakebites cause considerable morbidity and mortality worldwide. The highest burden exists in

  16. Infant death scene investigation.

    PubMed

    Tabor, Pamela D; Ragan, Krista

    2015-01-01

    The sudden unexpected death of an infant is a tragedy to the family, a concern to the community, and an indicator of national health. To accurately determine the cause and manner of the infant's death, a thorough and accurate death scene investigation by properly trained personnel is key. Funding and resources are directed based on autopsy reports, which are only as accurate as the scene investigation. The investigation should include a standardized format, body diagrams, and a photographed or videotaped scene recreation utilizing doll reenactment. Forensic nurses, with their basic nursing knowledge and additional forensic skills and abilities, are optimally suited to conduct infant death scene investigations as well as train others to properly conduct death scene investigations. Currently, 49 states have child death review teams, which is an idea avenue for a forensic nurse to become involved in death scene investigations. PMID:25642921

  17. Understanding Death.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heath, Charles P.

    1986-01-01

    Bibliotherapy can help children prepare for and understand the death of a loved one. An annotated bibliography lists references with age level information on attitudes toward death and deaths of a father, friend, grandparent, mother, pet, and sibling. (Author/CL)

  18. Effect of Cause-of-Death Training on Agreement Between Hospital Discharge Diagnoses and Cause of Death Reported, Inpatient Hospital Deaths, New York City, 2008–2010

    PubMed Central

    Ong, Paulina; Gambatese, Melissa; Begier, Elizabeth; Zimmerman, Regina; Soto, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Accurate cause-of-death reporting is required for mortality data to validly inform public health programming and evaluation. Research demonstrates overreporting of heart disease on New York City death certificates. We describe changes in reported causes of death following a New York City health department training conducted in 2009 to improve accuracy of cause-of-death reporting at 8 hospitals. The objective of our study was to assess the degree to which death certificates citing heart disease as cause of death agreed with hospital discharge data and the degree to which training improved accuracy of reporting. Methods We analyzed 74,373 death certificates for 2008 through 2010 that were linked with hospital discharge records for New York City inpatient deaths and calculated the proportion of discordant deaths, that is, death certificates reporting an underlying cause of heart disease with no corresponding discharge record diagnosis. We also summarized top principal diagnoses among discordant reports and calculated the proportion of inpatient deaths reporting sepsis, a condition underreported in New York City, to assess whether documentation practices changed in response to clarifications made during the intervention. Results Citywide discordance between death certificates and discharge data decreased from 14.9% in 2008 to 9.6% in 2010 (P < .001), driven by a decrease in discordance at intervention hospitals (20.2% in 2008 to 8.9% in 2010; P < .001). At intervention hospitals, reporting of sepsis increased from 3.7% of inpatient deaths in 2008 to 20.6% in 2010 (P < .001). Conclusion Overreporting of heart disease as cause of death declined at intervention hospitals, driving a citywide decline, and sepsis reporting practices changed in accordance with health department training. Researchers should consider the effect of overreporting and data-quality changes when analyzing New York City heart disease mortality trends. Other vital records jurisdictions

  19. The epidemiological transition in Antananarivo, Madagascar: an assessment based on death registers (1900–2012)

    PubMed Central

    Masquelier, Bruno; Waltisperger, Dominique; Ralijaona, Osée; Pison, Gilles; Ravélo, Arsène

    2014-01-01

    Background Madagascar today has one of the highest life expectancies in sub-Saharan Africa, despite being among the poorest countries in the continent. There are relatively few detailed accounts of the epidemiological transition in this country due to the lack of a comprehensive death registration system at the national level. However, in Madagascar’s capital city, death registration was established around the start of the 20th century and is now considered virtually complete. Objective We provide an overview of trends in all-cause and cause-specific mortality in Antananarivo to document the timing and pace of the mortality decline and the changes in the cause-of-death structure. Design Death registers covering the period 1976–2012 were digitized and the population at risk of dying was estimated from available censuses and surveys. Trends for the period 1900–1976 were partly reconstructed from published sources. Results The crude death rate stagnated around 30‰ until the 1940s in Antananarivo. Mortality declined rapidly after the World War II and then resurged again in the 1980s as a result of the re-emergence of malaria and the collapse of Madagascar’s economy. Over the past 30 years, impressive gains in life expectancy have been registered thanks to the unabated decline in child mortality, despite political instability, a lasting economic crisis and the persistence of high rates of chronic malnutrition. Progress in adult survival has been more modest because reductions in infectious diseases and diseases of the respiratory system have been partly offset by increases in cardiovascular diseases, neoplasms, and other diseases, particularly at age 50 years and over. Conclusions The transition in Antananarivo has been protracted and largely dependent on anti-microbial and anti-parasitic medicine. The capital city now faces a double burden of communicable and non-communicable diseases. The ongoing registration of deaths in the capital generates a unique

  20. Cardiovascular Deaths among Alaskan Natives, 1980-86.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Middaugh, John P.

    1990-01-01

    Analyzes death certificate data to discover the number of deaths of Alaskan natives caused by cardiovascular disease. Rates from cardiovascular diseases and atherosclerosis from 1980-86 among Alaskan natives were lower than rates among other Alaskans, while death rates from other causes were higher. Discusses the possible impact of diet. (JS)

  1. Immunogenic Cell Death Induced by Ginsenoside Rg3: Significance in Dendritic Cell-based Anti-tumor Immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Son, Keum-joo; Choi, Ki ryung; Lee, Seog Jae

    2016-01-01

    Cancer is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide; therefore there is a need to discover new therapeutic modules with improved efficacy and safety. Immune-(cell) therapy is a promising therapeutic strategy for the treatment of intractable cancers. The effectiveness of certain chemotherapeutics in inducing immunogenic tumor cell death thus promoting cancer eradication has been reported. Ginsenoside Rg3 is a ginseng saponin that has antitumor and immunomodulatory activity. In this study, we treated tumor cells with Rg3 to verify the significance of inducing immunogenic tumor cell death in antitumor therapy, especially in DC-based immunotherapy. Rg3 killed the both immunogenic (B16F10 melanoma cells) and non-immunogenic (LLC: Lewis Lung Carcinoma cells) tumor cells by inducing apoptosis. Surface expression of immunogenic death markers including calreticulin and heat shock proteins and the transcription of relevant genes were increased in the Rg3-dying tumor. Increased calreticulin expression was directly related to the uptake of dying tumor cells by dendritic cells (DCs): the proportion of CRT+ CD11c+ cells was increased in the Rg3-treated group. Interestingly, tumor cells dying by immunogenic cell death secreted IFN-γ, an effector molecule for antitumor activity in T cells. Along with the Rg3-induced suppression of pro-angiogenic (TNF-α) and immunosuppressive cytokine (TGF-β) secretion, IFN-γ production from the Rg3-treated tumor cells may also indicate Rg3 as an effective anticancer immunotherapeutic strategy. The data clearly suggests that Rg3-induced immunogenic tumor cell death due its cytotoxic effect and its ability to induce DC function. This indicates that Rg3 may be an effective immunotherapeutic strategy. PMID:26937234

  2. 20 CFR 655.204 - Determinations based on temporary labor certification applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... the bases of the OFLC Administrator's determination in accordance with the DHS regulation at 8 CFR 214... for Logging Employment and Non-H-2A Agricultural Employment § 655.204 Determinations based...

  3. Ill-defined causes of death in Brazil: a redistribution method based on the investigation of such causes

    PubMed Central

    França, Elisabeth; Teixeira, Renato; Ishitani, Lenice; Duncan, Bruce Bartholow; Cortez-Escalante, Juan José; de Morais, Otaliba Libânio; Szwarcwald, Célia Landman

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To propose a method of redistributing ill-defined causes of death (IDCD) based on the investigation of such causes. METHODS In 2010, an evaluation of the results of investigating the causes of death classified as IDCD in accordance with chapter 18 of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10) by the Mortality Information System was performed. The redistribution coefficients were calculated according to the proportional distribution of ill-defined causes reclassified after investigation in any chapter of the ICD-10, except for chapter 18, and used to redistribute the ill-defined causes not investigated and remaining by sex and age. The IDCD redistribution coefficient was compared with two usual methods of redistribution: a) Total redistribution coefficient, based on the proportional distribution of all the defined causes originally notified and b) Non-external redistribution coefficient, similar to the previous, but excluding external causes. RESULTS Of the 97,314 deaths by ill-defined causes reported in 2010, 30.3% were investigated, and 65.5% of those were reclassified as defined causes after the investigation. Endocrine diseases, mental disorders, and maternal causes had a higher representation among the reclassified ill-defined causes, contrary to infectious diseases, neoplasms, and genitourinary diseases, with higher proportions among the defined causes reported. External causes represented 9.3% of the ill-defined causes reclassified. The correction of mortality rates by the total redistribution coefficient and non-external redistribution coefficient increased the magnitude of the rates by a relatively similar factor for most causes, contrary to the IDCD redistribution coefficient that corrected the different causes of death with differentiated weights. CONCLUSIONS The proportional distribution of causes among the ill-defined causes reclassified after investigation was not similar to the original distribution of defined causes. Therefore

  4. Deaths in Custody: A 25-Year Review of Jail Deaths in Bexar County, Texas.

    PubMed

    Lozano, Jason G; Molina, D Kimberley

    2015-12-01

    Although deaths in custody are an expected occurrence, they are often subjected to increased scrutiny and raise many questions as to circumstances surrounding the death as well as the cause and manner of death. It is usually the responsibility of the medical examiner to answer these questions. Relatively few studies have reviewed the causes and manners of death that occur while in custody and even fewer specific to jail populations. This study reviews the cause and manner of death of persons in custody in an urban county from 1985 to 2010. A retrospective review of death investigations, including death certificates and autopsy reports, was conducted on all deaths that occurred in custody during the period. The age and sex of the decedent as well as the place of death were also recorded. Most deaths were attributed to natural disease followed by suicide, and most deaths occurred either in the emergency department or in the hospital. Regarding the cause of death, cardiovascular disease followed by suicide by hanging accounted for the most number of deaths (25% and 20% of all deaths, respectively). It is recommended that all deaths in custody be reported to the medical examiner and that a thorough death investigation be conducted to properly define and document the cause and manner of death. This is particularly important given the increased scrutiny to which deaths in custody are often subjected. PMID:26196271

  5. Certification/enforcement analysis

    SciTech Connect

    1980-06-01

    Industry compliance with minimum energy efficiency standards will be assured through a two-part program approach of certification and enforcement activities. The technical support document (TSD) presents the analyses upon which the proposed rule for assuring that consumer product comply with applicable energy efficiency standards is based. Much of the TSD is based upon support provided DOE by Vitro Laboratories. The OAO Corporation provided additional support in the development of the sampling plan incorporated in the proposed rule. Vitro's recommended approach to appliance certification and enforcement, developed after consideration of various program options, benefits, and impacts, establishes the C/E program framework, general criteria, and procedures for assuring a specified level of energy efficiency performance of covered consumer products. The results of the OAO analysis are given in Volume II of the TSD.

  6. Changing Patterns in Place of Cancer Death in England: A Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Wei; Ho, Yuen K.; Verne, Julia; Glickman, Myer; Higginson, Irene J.

    2013-01-01

    Background Most patients with cancer prefer to die at home or in a hospice, but hospitals remain the most common place of death (PoD).This study aims to explore the changing time trends of PoD and the associated factors, which are essential for end-of-life care improvement. Methods and Findings The study analysed all cancer deaths in England collected by the Office for National Statistics during 1993–2010 (n = 2,281,223). Time trends of age- and gender-standardised proportion of deaths in individual PoDs were evaluated using weighted piecewise linear regression. Variables associated with PoD (home or hospice versus hospital) were determined using proportion ratio (PR) derived from the log-binomial regression, adjusting for clustering effects. Hospital remained the most common PoD throughout the study period (48.0%; 95% CI 47.9%–48.0%), followed by home (24.5%; 95% CI 24.4%–24.5%), and hospice (16.4%; 95% CI 16.3%–16.4%). Home and hospice deaths increased since 2005 (0.87%; 95% CI 0.74%–0.99%/year, 0.24%; 95% CI 0.17%–0.32%/year, respectively, p<0.001), while hospital deaths declined (−1.20%; 95% CI −1.41 to −0.99/year, p<0.001). Patients who died from haematological cancer (PRs 0.46–0.52), who were single, widowed, or divorced (PRs 0.75–0.88), and aged over 75 (PRs 0.81–0.84 for 75–84; 0.66–0.72 for 85+) were less likely to die in home or hospice (p<0.001; reference groups: colorectal cancer, married, age 25–54). There was little improvement in patients with lung cancer of dying in home or hospice (PRs 0.87–0.88). Marital status became the second most important factor associated with PoD, after cancer type. Patients from less deprived areas (higher quintile of the deprivation index) were more likely to die at home or in a hospice than those from more deprived areas (lower quintile of the deprivation index; PRs 1.02–1.12). The analysis is limited by a lack of data on individual patients' preferences for PoD or a clinical

  7. Single base substitution in OsCDC48 is responsible for premature senescence and death phenotype in rice.

    PubMed

    Huang, Qi-Na; Shi, Yong-Feng; Zhang, Xiao-Bo; Song, Li-Xin; Feng, Bao-Hua; Wang, Hui-Mei; Xu, Xia; Li, Xiao-Hong; Guo, Dan; Wu, Jian-Li

    2016-01-01

    A premature senescence and death 128 (psd128) mutant was isolated from an ethyl methane sulfonate-induced rice IR64 mutant bank. The premature senescence phenotype appeared at the six-leaf stage and the plant died at the early heading stage. psd128 exhibited impaired chloroplast development with significantly reduced photosynthetic ability, chlorophyll and carotenoid contents, root vigor, soluble protein content and increased malonaldehyde content. Furthermore, the expression of senescence-related genes was significantly altered in psd128. The mutant trait was controlled by a single recessive nuclear gene. Using map-based strategy, the mutation Oryza sativa cell division cycle 48 (OsCDC48) was isolated and predicted to encode a putative AAA-type ATPase with 809 amino-acid residuals. A single base substitution at position C2347T in psd128 resulted in a premature stop codon. Functional complementation could rescue the mutant phenotype. In addition, RNA interference resulted in the premature senescence and death phenotype. OsCDC48 was expressed constitutively in the root, stem, leaf and panicle. Subcellular analysis indicated that OsCDC48:YFP fusion proteins were located both in the cytoplasm and nucleus. OsCDC48 was highly conserved with more than 90% identity in the protein levels among plant species. Our results indicated that the impaired function of OsCDC48 was responsible for the premature senescence and death phenotype. PMID:26040493

  8. Assessment of Computer-based Geologic Mapping of Rock Units in the LANDSAT-4 Scene of Northern Death Valley, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Short, N. M.

    1984-01-01

    Results from a series of geologic classifications conducted on a thematic mapper subscene of the northern Death Valley, California are reported. Measurements of accuracy are made through comparison with the 1977 edition of the Death Valley geologic sheet. This employs a simplified map version which is registered by computer to the image data base, allowing a pixel by pixel match with the classified scene. The results show accuracy ranges from 36 to 79% depending on the type of classifier used and the statistical adjustments made to the data. Accuracy values in identifying geologic units were 2 to 3 times higher for those in the relatively flat valleys than for units in the rugged mountainous terrain. Improvements in accuracy will be sought by correcting for slope/aspect variations in mountainous terrain using topographic data recorded in Defense Mapping Agency (DMA) tapes. The above classification results will also be compared with ratio and principal component image classifications made from the same scene.

  9. Competency-Based Teacher Education and Certification Definitions: Synthesis and Schema.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roth, Robert A.

    This document is divided into an introduction and two sections. Each section is divided into two parts: definition and synthesis. Section 1 is devoted to competency-based teacher education. The "definition" part presents 14 definitions of competency-based teacher education that have been culled from various authorities. The "synthesis" part lists…

  10. Alternative certification science teachers' understanding and implementation of inquiry-based instruction in their beginning years of teaching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demir, Abdulkadir

    The purpose of this phenomenographic study was to: (a) understand how beginning science teachers recruited from various science disciplines and prepared in an Alternative Teacher Certification Program (ATCP) implemented inquiry during their initial years of teaching; (b) describe constraints and needs that these beginning science teachers perceived in implementing inquiry-based science instruction; and (c) understand the relation between what they learned in their ATCP and their practice of teaching science through inquiry. The participants of this study consisted of four ATCP teachers who are in their beginning years of teaching. Semi-structured interviews, classroom observation, field notes, and artifacts used as source of data collection. The beginning science teachers in this study held incomplete views of inquiry. These views of inquiry did not reflect inquiry as described in NRC (2000)---essential features of inquiry,---nor did they reflect views of faculty members involved in teaching science methods courses. Although the participants described themselves as reform-oriented, there were inconsistencies between their views and practices. Their practice of inquiry did not reflect inquiry either as outlined by essential features of inquiry (NRC, 2000) or inquiry as modeled in activities used in their ATCP. The research participants' perceived constraints and needs in their implementation of inquiry-based activities. Their perceived constraints included logistical and student constraints and school culture. The perceived needs included classroom management, pedagogical skills, practical knowledge, discipline, successful grade-specific models of inquiry, and access to a strong support system. Prior professional work experience, models and activities used in the ATCP, and benefits of inquiry to student learning were the declared factors that facilitated the research participants' practice of inquiry-based teaching.

  11. Causes of Deaths in Children under-Five Years Old at a Tertiary Hospital in Limpopo Province of South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Ntuli, Sam Thembelihle; Malangu, Ntambwe; Alberts, Marianne

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Accurate and timely information on the causes of child deaths is essential in guiding efforts to improve child survival, by providing data from which health profiles can be constructed and relevant health policies formulated. The purpose of this study was to identify causes of death in children younger than 5 years-old in a tertiary hospital in South Africa. Methods: Death certificates from the Pietersburg/Mankweng hospital complex, for the period of January 1, 2008 through December 31, 2010, were obtained for all patients younger than 5 years and were retrospectively reviewed. Data were collected using a data collection form designed for the study. Information abstracted included: date of death, age, sex, and cause of death. Results: A total of 1266 deaths were recorded, the sex ratio was 1.26 boys per girl. About 611 (48%) of deaths were listed as neonatal deaths (0-28 days), 387 (31%) were listed as infant deaths (29 days-11 months), and 268 (21%) as children’s death (1-4 years). For neonates the leading causes of death were: prematurity/low birth weight, birth asphyxia and pneumonia. For the infant death group, the leading causes of death were pneumonia, diarrhea, and HIV/AIDS; and in the children’s group, the leading causes were injuries, diarrhea and pneumonia. There was no statistical significant difference in the proportions of causes of death based on the sex of children. Conclusion: The top 10 leading causes of death in children under-5 years old treated at Pietersburg/Mankweng Hospital Complex were in descending order: prematurity/low birth weight, pneumonia, diarrheal diseases, birth asphyxia, and severe malnutrition, HIV/AIDS, hydrocephalus, unintentional injuries, meningitis and other infections. These ten conditions represent 73.9% of causes of death at this facility. A mix of multi-faceted interventions is needed to address these causes of death in children. PMID:23618479

  12. Certification Change versus Actual Behavior Change in Teenage Suicide Rates, 1955-1979.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gist, Richard; Welch, Q. B.

    1989-01-01

    Examined national data on firearm suicides and accidental deaths for 15- through 19-year-olds from 1955-1979. Considered improved accuracy in determination and certification of suicide in equivocal firearm deaths, actual increases in rate of firearm suicides, or combination. Data support hypothesis of certification changes as primary factor…

  13. 20 CFR 655.204 - Determinations based on temporary labor certification applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... the bases of the OFLC Administrator's determination in accordance with the DHS regulation at 8 CFR 214... date of the notice, file by facsimile (fax), telegram, or other means normally assuring next...

  14. 20 CFR 655.204 - Determinations based on temporary labor certification applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... the bases of the OFLC Administrator's determination in accordance with the DHS regulation at 8 CFR 214... date of the notice, file by facsimile (fax), telegram, or other means normally assuring next...

  15. Aetiology of sudden cardiac death in sport: a histopathologist's perspective

    PubMed Central

    Sheppard, Mary N

    2012-01-01

    In the UK, when a young person dies suddenly, the coroner is responsible for establishing the cause of death. They will ask a consultant pathologist to carry out an autopsy in order to ascertain when, where and how that person died. Once the cause of death is established and is due to natural causes, the coroner can issue a death certificate. Importantly, the coroner is not particularly interested in the cause of death as long as it is due to natural causes, which avoids the need for an inquest (a public hearing about the death). However, if no identifiable cause is established at the initial autopsy, the coroner can refer the heart to a cardiac pathologist, since the cause of death is usually due to heart disease in most cases. Consultant histopathologists are responsible for the analysis of human tissue from both living individuals and the dead in order to make a diagnosis of disease. With recent advancements in the management protocols for routine autopsy practice and assessment following the sudden death of a young individual, this review describes the role of the consultant histopathologist in the event of a sudden death of a young athletic individual, together with the older middle-aged ‘weekend warrior’ athlete. It provides concise mechanisms for the main causes of sudden cardiac death (including coronary artery disease, cardiomyopathies, valve abnormalities, major vessel ruptures and electrical conduction abnormalities) based on detailed autopsy data from our specialised cardiac pathology laboratory. Finally, the review will discuss the role of the histopathologist in the event of a ‘negative’ autopsy. PMID:23097474

  16. Psychosocial Functioning and Intelligence Both Partly Explain Socioeconomic Inequalities in Premature Death. A Population-Based Male Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Falkstedt, Daniel; Sorjonen, Kimmo; Hemmingsson, Tomas; Deary, Ian J.; Melin, Bo

    2013-01-01

    Objective The possible contributions of psychosocial functioning and intelligence differences to socioeconomic status (SES)-related inequalities in premature death were investigated. None of the previous studies focusing on inequalities in mortality has included measures of both psychosocial functioning and intelligence. Methods The study was based on a cohort of 49 321 men born 1949–1951 from the general community in Sweden. Data on psychosocial functioning and intelligence from military conscription at ∼18 years of age were linked with register data on education, occupational class, and income at 35–39 years of age. Psychosocial functioning was rated by psychologists as a summary measure of differences in level of activity, power of initiative, independence, and emotional stability. Intelligence was measured through a multidimensional test. Causes of death between 40 and 57 years of age were followed in registers. Results The estimated inequalities in all-cause mortality by education and occupational class were attenuated with 32% (95% confidence interval: 20–45%) and 41% (29–52%) after adjustments for individual psychological differences; both psychosocial functioning and intelligence contributed to account for the inequalities. The inequalities in cardiovascular and injury mortality were attenuated by as much as 51% (24–76%) and 52% (35–68%) after the same adjustments, and the inequalities in alcohol-related mortality were attenuated by up to 33% (8–59%). Less of the inequalities were accounted for when those were measured by level of income, with which intelligence had a weaker correlation. The small SES-related inequalities in cancer mortality were not attenuated by adjustment for intelligence. Conclusions Differences in psychosocial functioning and intelligence might both contribute to the explanation of observed SES-related inequalities in premature death, but the magnitude of their contributions likely varies with measure of socioeconomic

  17. Fetal deaths in Brazil: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Barbeiro, Fernanda Morena dos Santos; Fonseca, Sandra Costa; Tauffer, Mariana Girão; Ferreira, Mariana de Souza Santos; da Silva, Fagner Paulo; Ventura, Patrícia Mendonça; Quadros, Jesirée Iglesias

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To review the frequency of and factors associated with fetal death in the Brazilian scientific literature. METHODS A systematic review of Brazilian studies on fetal deaths published between 2003 and 2013 was conducted. In total, 27 studies were analyzed; of these, 4 studies addressed the quality of data, 12 were descriptive studies, and 11 studies evaluated the factors associated with fetal death. The databases searched were PubMed and Lilacs, and data extraction and synthesis were independently performed by two or more examiners. RESULTS The level of completeness of fetal death certificates was deficient, both in the completion of variables, particularly sociodemographic variables, and in defining the underlying causes of death. Fetal deaths have decreased in Brazil; however, inequalities persist. Analysis of the causes of death indicated maternal morbidities that could be prevented and treated. The main factors associated with fetal deaths were absent or inadequate prenatal care, low education level, maternal morbidity, and adverse reproductive history. CONCLUSIONS Prenatal care should prioritize women that are most vulnerable (considering their social environment or their reproductive history and morbidities) with the aim of decreasing the fetal mortality rate in Brazil. Adequate completion of death certificates and investment in the committees that investigate fetal and infant deaths are necessary. PMID:25902565

  18. 78 FR 35115 - Listing of Color Additives Exempt From Certification; Mica-Based Pearlescent Pigments

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-12

    ... of mica-based pearlescent pigments in food (Sec. 73.350) and ingested drugs (Sec. 73.1350) (71 FR... FR 16784), FDA announced that a color additive petition (CAP 2C0294) had been filed by E. & J. Gallo... and at the 90th percentile, respectively, for the subgroup of children aged 2 to 5 years (71 FR...

  19. Place of death: hospital-based advanced home care versus conventional care. A prospective study in palliative cancer care.

    PubMed

    Ahlner-Elmqvist, Marianne; Jordhøy, Marit S; Jannert, Magnus; Fayers, Peter; Kaasa, Stein

    2004-10-01

    The purpose of this prospective nonrandomized study was to evaluate time spent at home, place of death and differences in sociodemographic and medical characteristics of patients, with cancer in palliative stage, receiving either hospital-based advanced home care (AHC), including 24-hour service by a multidisciplinary palliative care team or conventional hospital care (CC). Recruitment to the AHC group and to the study was a two-step procedure. The patients were assigned to either hospital-based AHC or CC according to their preferences. Following this, the patients were asked to participate in the study. Patients were eligible for the study if they had malignant disease, were older than 18 years and had a survival expectancy of 2-12 months. A total of 297 patients entered the study and 280 died during the study period of two and a half years, 117 in the AHC group and 163 in the CC group. Significantly more patients died at home in the AHC group (45%) compared with the CC group (10%). Preference for and referral to hospital-based AHC were not related to sociodemographic or medical characteristics. However, death at home was associated with living together with someone. Advanced hospital-based home care targeting seriously ill cancer patients with a wish to remain at home enable a substantial number of patients to die in the place they desire. PMID:15540666

  20. Practicing death.

    PubMed

    Avny, Ohad; Alon, Aya

    2016-07-01

    This narrative describes the struggle of a primary care physician contending with the challenge of remaining committed to his patient's care despite a sense of burnout in relation to an intense period of patient deaths. The story presents two patient deaths and the physician's reflections on how he handled both cases. PMID:26899633

  1. 42 CFR 486.312 - De-certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... an agreement immediately in cases of urgent need, such as the discovery of unsound medical practices... requirements for certification at § 486.318, based on findings from the most recent re-certification cycle,...

  2. 42 CFR 486.312 - De-certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... an agreement immediately in cases of urgent need, such as the discovery of unsound medical practices... requirements for certification at § 486.318, based on findings from the most recent re-certification cycle,...

  3. 42 CFR 486.312 - De-certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... an agreement immediately in cases of urgent need, such as the discovery of unsound medical practices... requirements for certification at § 486.318, based on findings from the most recent re-certification cycle,...

  4. 42 CFR 486.312 - De-certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... an agreement immediately in cases of urgent need, such as the discovery of unsound medical practices... requirements for certification at § 486.318, based on findings from the most recent re-certification cycle,...

  5. 42 CFR 486.312 - De-certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... an agreement immediately in cases of urgent need, such as the discovery of unsound medical practices... requirements for certification at § 486.318, based on findings from the most recent re-certification cycle,...

  6. 16 CFR 1204.13 - Certificate of compliance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... CFR part 1204)”, (2) The name and address of the manufacturer or importer issuing the certificate, and... SAFETY STANDARD FOR OMNIDIRECTIONAL CITIZENS BAND BASE STATION ANTENNAS Certification §...

  7. 16 CFR 1204.13 - Certificate of compliance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... CFR part 1204)”, (2) The name and address of the manufacturer or importer issuing the certificate, and... SAFETY STANDARD FOR OMNIDIRECTIONAL CITIZENS BAND BASE STATION ANTENNAS Certification §...

  8. 16 CFR 1204.13 - Certificate of compliance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... CFR part 1204)”, (2) The name and address of the manufacturer or importer issuing the certificate, and... SAFETY STANDARD FOR OMNIDIRECTIONAL CITIZENS BAND BASE STATION ANTENNAS Certification §...

  9. 16 CFR 1204.13 - Certificate of compliance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... CFR part 1204)”, (2) The name and address of the manufacturer or importer issuing the certificate, and... SAFETY STANDARD FOR OMNIDIRECTIONAL CITIZENS BAND BASE STATION ANTENNAS Certification §...

  10. End-of-life medical decisions in France: a death certificate follow-up survey 5 years after the 2005 act of parliament on patients’ rights and end of life

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The “Patients’ Rights and End of Life Care” Act came into force in France in 2005. It allows withholding/withdrawal of life-support treatment, and intensified use of medications that may hasten death through a double effect, as long as hastening death is not the purpose of the decision. It also specifies the requirements of the decision-making process. This study assesses the situation by examining the frequency of end-of-life decisions by patients’ and physicians’ characteristics, and describes the decision-making processes. Methods We conducted a nationwide retrospective study of a random sample of adult patients who died in December 2009. Questionnaires were mailed to the physicians who certified/attended these deaths. Cases were weighted to adjust for response rate bias. Bivariate analyses and logistic regressions were performed for each decision. Results Of all deaths, 16.9% were sudden deaths with no information about end of life, 12.2% followed a decision to do everything possible to prolong life, and 47.7% followed at least one medical decision that may certainly or probably hasten death: withholding (14.6%) or withdrawal (4.2%) of treatments, intensified use of opioids and/or benzodiazepines (28.1%), use of medications to deliberately hasten death (i.e. not legally authorized) (0.8%), at the patient’s request (0.2%) or not (0.6%). All other variables held constant, cause of death, patient's age, doctor’s age and specialty, and place of death, influenced the frequencies of decisions. When a decision was made, 20% of the persons concerned were considered to be competent. The decision was discussed with the patient if competent in 40% (everything done) to 86% (intensification of alleviation of symptoms) of cases. Legal requirements regarding decision-making for incompetent patients were frequently not complied with. Conclusions This study shows that end-of-life medical decisions are common in France. Most are in compliance with the