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1

Co-existing conditions for deaths from infectious and parasitic diseases in Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To examine the frequency distribution of co-existing conditions for deaths where the underlying cause was infectious and parasitic diseases.Materials and methods: Besides the underlying cause of death, the distributions of co-existing conditions for deaths from infectious and parasitic diseases were examined in total and by various age and sex groups, at individual and chapter levels, using 1998 Australian mortality

Peng Bi; Kevin A Parton; Michael Whitby

2004-01-01

2

Mathematical model for the secondary infection of infectious disease with incorporated the disease induced death rate  

Microsoft Academic Search

We construct the mathematical model and consider the secondary infection cases and the death rate from the dengue virus infection with clinical diagnosis are incorporated into Susceptible-Infectious-Recovered-Susceptible mathematical model. This paper, we use the real data in Thailand between 1997 and 2010. The model exhibits two equilibrium states are locally asymptotically stable, the disease free and the endemic equilibrium states.

Rujira Kongnuy; Ekachai Naowanich

2011-01-01

3

[Infectious diseases].  

PubMed

In 2008, several publications have highlighted the role of climate change and globalization on the epidemiology of infectious diseases. Studies have shown the extension towards Europe of diseases such as Crimea-Congo fever (Kosovo, Turkey and Bulgaria), leismaniosis (Cyprus) and chikungunya virus infection (Italy). The article also contains comments on Plasmodium knowlesi, a newly identified cause of severe malaria in humans, as well as an update on human transmission of the H5NI avian influenza virus. It also mentions new data on Bell's palsy as well as two vaccines (varicella-zoster and pneumococcus), and provides a list of recent guidelines for the treatment of common infectious diseases. PMID:19216322

Chapuis-Taillard, Caroline; de Vallière, Serge; Bochud, Pierre-Yves

2009-01-01

4

Infectious Diseases  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

With the threat of a warmer, wetter world and a larger global population, scientists are researching how climate change may impact the spread of infectious diseases,Âsuch as cholera and dengue fever, and how outbreaks may be prevented. "Changing Planet" is produced in partnership with the National Science Foundation.

Learn, Nbc

2010-10-07

5

Infectious Diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Infectious diseases have keywords that represent viral, bacterial, mycobacterial, treponemal, borrelial, fungal, and yeast\\u000a organisms. Viruses include herpes simplex, varicella zoster, and variola. Even though variola (smallpox) is not present anywhere\\u000a in the world, because bioterrorism is a constant threat, it is included here. Terroristic use of this organism could lead\\u000a to devastating plagues because few people are immunized. The

Herbert B. Allen

6

Ethics and infectious disease.  

PubMed

Bioethics apparently suffers from a misdistribution of research resources analogous to the '10/90' divide in medical research. Though infectious disease should be recognized as a topic of primary importance for bioethics, the general topic of infectious disease has received relatively little attention from the discipline of bioethics in comparison with things like abortion, euthanasia, genetics, cloning, stem cell research, and so on. The fact that the historical and potential future consequences of infectious diseases are almost unrivalled is one reason that the topic of infectious disease warrants more attention from bioethicists. The 'Black Death' eliminated one third of the European population during the 14th Century; the 1989 flu killed between 20 and 100 million people; and, in the 20th Century smallpox killed perhaps three times more people than all the wars of that period. In the contemporary world, epidemics (AIDS, multi-drug resistant turberculosis, and newly emerging infectious diseases such as SARS) continue to have dramatic consequences. A second reason why the topic of infectious disease deserves further attention is that it raises difficult ethical questions of its own. While infected individuals can threaten the health of other individuals and society as a whole, for example, public health care measures such as surveillance, isolation, and quarantine can require the infringement of widely accepted basic human rights and liberties. An important and difficult ethical question asks how to strike a balance between the utilitarian aim of promoting public health, on the one hand, and libertarian aims of protecting privacy and freedom of movement, on the other, in contexts involving diseases that are--to varying degrees--contagious, deadly, or otherwise dangerous. Third, since their burden is most heavily shouldered by the poor (in developing countries), infectious diseases involve issues of justice--which should be a central concern of ethics. I conclude by providing sociological and historical explanations of why the topic of infectious disease has not already received more attention from bioethicists. PMID:16167406

Selgelid, Michael J

2005-06-01

7

[Struggle against infectious diseases in children in the Magallanes region: death, passion and life. (Part II)].  

PubMed

The first part of this work was published in the previous issue of this magazine. In order to finalize with the historical review of infectious diseases which have been determining factors on regional infant mortality, we analyze firstly the case of religious missions and its impact on the rapid extinction of Patagonian Indians. Secondly, we review the health situation of Punta Arenas during the first half of the 20th century, switching from a high mortality rate from infectious or contagious diseases, to a remarkable improvement in this issue, coming to bear the best health indicators in the country. PMID:24740781

Vieira, Matías

2014-02-01

8

Markers for Predicting Death as an Outcome for Mice Used in Infectious Disease Research  

PubMed Central

Our goal in this study was to identify objective criteria that could be used to predict an outcome of death in mice subjected to experimental inoculation with infectious organisms. We conducted a retrospective analysis of data collected from 4 independent studies that used several infectious agents (influenza virus strains A/HK/x31[H3N2] and A/Puerto Rico/8/34[H1N1], Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Candida albicans) and mouse strains (A/J, DBA/2J, C57BL/6J, BALB/cByJ). Postinoculation periods ranged from 5 to 21 d, with survival of 30% to 60% of the subjects. In all studies, mice were implanted with either a subcutaneous identification microchip or an intraabdominal radiofrequency transmitter to allow remote measurement of body temperature. After inoculation, mice were weighed and monitored regularly until death occurred or euthanasia was performed. Hypothermia was the most valuable characteristic for distinguishing mice that would survive or succumb to the infection. In addition, weight loss was useful in some of the models. In some cases, the derived measure of the product of temperature and body weight provided the best differentiation of mice in the 2 outcome categories. Therefore, the utility of these measures varied substantially depending on the specific model. This study demonstrates that specific endpoint markers are not uniformly applicable to different models. Rather, such markers should be developed and tested in the context of the model in which they will be used. The use of validated markers for eventual death can signal the need for preemptive euthanasia to alleviate terminal distress and permit timely collection of biologic samples.

Trammell, Rita A; Toth, Linda A

2011-01-01

9

Immunosenescence and infectious diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Infectious diseases are major causes, with malignancies, of morbidity and mortality in the elderly. Increased susceptibility to infections may result from underlying dysfunction of an aged immune system; moreover, inappropriate immunologic functions associated with aging can determine an insufficient response to vaccines. Impairments of cellular, humoral and innate immunity in the elderly, contributing to increased incidence of infectious diseases, are

Lia Ginaldi; Maria Francesca Loreto; Maria Pia Corsi; Marco Modesti; Massimo De Martinis

2001-01-01

10

Ecology of Infectious Diseases (EID)  

NSF Publications Database

... Infectious Diseases (EID) Synopsis of Program: The Ecology of Infectious Diseases special ... Requirements Proposal Review Information NSF Proposal Review Process Review Protocol and Associated ...

11

Modeling Infectious Diseases  

MedlinePLUS

... simulations with the help of customized programs called computational models. Different models address different questions. The ones ... 2004, a network of researchers has been building computational models of infectious disease outbreaks. The network is ...

12

GLOBALIZATION OF HUMAN INFECTIOUS DISEASE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Globalization has facilitated the spread of numerous infectious agents to all corners of the planet. Analysis of the Global Infectious Disease and Epidemiology Network (GIDEON) database quantitatively illustrates that the globalization of human infectious agents depends significantly on the range of hosts used. Infectious agents specific to humans are broadly and uniformly distributed, whereas zoonotic infectious agents are far more

Katherine F. Smith; Dov F. Sax; Steven D. Gaines; Vanina Guernier; Jean-François Guégan

2007-01-01

13

Introduction: Infectious diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

In any discussion of the great challenges facing humanity in addressing global environmental problems, a small number of topics automatically rise to the top: climate change, the loss of biodiversity, and the sustainability of the services ecosystems provide us. But no threats to human welfare are more urgent than those posed by infectious diseases; we suffer already the devastating consequences

SIMON A. LEVIN

2007-01-01

14

Infectious Disease Specialist: What Is an Infectious Disease Specialist?  

MedlinePLUS

... school 3 years training as a doctor of internal medicine 2-3 years specialized training in infectious diseases ... difficult certification examination by the American Board of Internal Medicine in both internal medicine and infectious diseases. Back ...

15

Emerging Infectious Diseases  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The definition of "emerging" infectious diseases includes those diseases "whose incidences in humans has increased in the past 2 decades or threatens to increase in the near future." The journal of Emerging Infectious Diseases continues to be an invaluable resource for public health professionals, scholars, and others. On the journal's homepage, users can read over the current issue and take a look at all of the articles and various commentaries contained within. Visitors can also peruse the archive, which dates back to the journal's first issue in 1995. As with many online journals, visitors can sign up to receive their RSS feed and they even have a podcast archive. The podcasts are a nice bonus, and they include programs like "Strategies For Fighting Pandemic Flu in Developing Countries" and "The Mystery of Increased Hospitalization of Elderly Patients".

16

Infectious diseases: an ecological perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

By the middle of the 20th century, infectious diseases were no longer the major causes of mortality in developed countries. The eradication of smallpox reinforced the perception that infectious diseases could be eliminated. Improved sanitation, clean water, and better living conditions, along with vaccines and antimicrobial agents, brought many infectious diseases under control in industrialised countries, but infections continued to

Mary E Wilson

1995-01-01

17

Cryoglobulins and infectious diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  The relationship between infectious diseases due to various pathogenetic factors and cryoglobulin production mechanisms has\\u000a been investigated. Cryoglobulins have been evidenced in infections caused by very heterogeneous pathogens, i.e. leptospirosis,\\u000a psittacosis, Mediterranean tick typhus, brucellosis, gram-negative bacterial septicemias, in which they had never been previously\\u000a reported. In type A hepatitis a high cryoglobulin prevalence (91%) has been confirmed during the

Massimo Galli; Fulvio Invernizzi; Marilynn Chemotti; Giuseppe Monti; Maria G. Gasparro; Francesco Caredda; Cristina Negri; Mauro Moroni

1986-01-01

18

Vaccines and infectious disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The exponential growth in vaccine research over the last decade, in which many infectious diseases now appear to be amenable\\u000a to prevention through immunization, is built upon three factors: first, a richer understanding of the immune response (in\\u000a particular, cellular immunity), second, a greater finesse in understanding the molecular biology of pathogenicity, and third,\\u000a an expanding use of genetic engineering

Mark A. Fletcher; Pierre Saliou

19

Immunoserology of infectious diseases.  

PubMed Central

The immune response to microorganisms not only participates in the elimination of unwanted organisms from the body, but also assists in diagnosis of infectious diseases. The nonspecific immune response is the first line of defense, assisting the body until the specific immune response can be mobilized to provide protective mechanisms. The specific immune response involves humoral or cell-mediated immunity or both, dependent on the nature of the organism and its site of sequestration. A variety of test systems have been developed to identify the causative organisms of infectious diseases. Test systems used in immunoserology have classically included methods of detecting antigen-antibody reactions which range from complement fixation to immunoassay methods. Relevant test systems for detecting antigens and antibodies are described. With numerous test systems available to detect antigens and antibodies, there can be confusion regarding selection of the appropriate system for each application. Methods for detecting antibody to verify immunity differ from immunologic methods to diagnose disease. Techniques to detect soluble antigens present in active infectious states may appear similar to those used to detect antibody, but their differences should be appreciated.

James, K

1990-01-01

20

BORDER INFECTIOUS DISEASES SURVEILLANCE PROJECT  

EPA Science Inventory

In 1997, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the Mexican Secretariat of Health, and border health officials began the development of the Border Infectious Disease Surveillance (BIDS) project, a surveillance system for infectious diseases along the U.S.-Mexico border. ...

21

Hematology of Infectious Diseases.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Cytogenesis of blood cells in health and under the influence of infectious agents; The lymphoreticular system; The myeloid system of cells; Blood proteins and immunoglobulins; Metals of life and their role in hematologic reactions in infectious ...

J. Aleksandrowicz J. Lisiewicz

1976-01-01

22

Global mapping of infectious disease.  

PubMed

The primary aim of this review was to evaluate the state of knowledge of the geographical distribution of all infectious diseases of clinical significance to humans. A systematic review was conducted to enumerate cartographic progress, with respect to the data available for mapping and the methods currently applied. The results helped define the minimum information requirements for mapping infectious disease occurrence, and a quantitative framework for assessing the mapping opportunities for all infectious diseases. This revealed that of 355 infectious diseases identified, 174 (49%) have a strong rationale for mapping and of these only 7 (4%) had been comprehensively mapped. A variety of ambitions, such as the quantification of the global burden of infectious disease, international biosurveillance, assessing the likelihood of infectious disease outbreaks and exploring the propensity for infectious disease evolution and emergence, are limited by these omissions. An overview of the factors hindering progress in disease cartography is provided. It is argued that rapid improvement in the landscape of infectious diseases mapping can be made by embracing non-conventional data sources, automation of geo-positioning and mapping procedures enabled by machine learning and information technology, respectively, in addition to harnessing labour of the volunteer 'cognitive surplus' through crowdsourcing. PMID:23382431

Hay, Simon I; Battle, Katherine E; Pigott, David M; Smith, David L; Moyes, Catherine L; Bhatt, Samir; Brownstein, John S; Collier, Nigel; Myers, Monica F; George, Dylan B; Gething, Peter W

2013-03-19

23

INFECTIOUS DISEASES AND INTERNATIONAL SECURITY  

Microsoft Academic Search

Threats to the security of states can result from the deliberate use of pathogens (biological weapons), their accidental release from research laboratories, or naturally occurring outbreaks of particular infectious diseases. This article discusses emerging opportunities for international cooperation against infectious diseases through the Biological Weapons Convention (BWC) and the World Health Organization (WHO). The new process for reviewing the BWC

Christian Enemark

2005-01-01

24

Infectious Diseases in Day Care.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discussed in this publication are infectious illnesses for which children attending day care appear to be at special risk. Also covered are the common cold, some infectious disease problems receiving media attention, and some other annoying but not serious diseases, such as head lice, pinworms, and contagious skin conditions. Causes,…

Sleator, Esther K.

25

Infectious diseases: A global human resource challenge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Globally in 2007, infections were the proximate cause of death for about 15 million persons, and early mortality and disability from infections were responsible for more than one third of the disability-adjusted life years [1]. Although most of these outcomes could be prevented through known public health interventions and better access to competent primary care, the prepared infectious disease (ID)

Allan Ronald

2008-01-01

26

Conflict and Emerging Infectious Diseases  

PubMed Central

Detection and control of emerging infectious diseases in conflict situations are major challenges due to multiple risk factors known to enhance emergence and transmission of infectious diseases. These include inadequate surveillance and response systems, destroyed infrastructure, collapsed health systems and disruption of disease control programs, and infection control practices even more inadequate than those in resource-poor settings, as well as ongoing insecurity and poor coordination among humanitarian agencies. This article outlines factors that potentiate emergence and transmission of infectious diseases in conflict situations and highlights several priority actions for their containment and control.

Legros, Dominique; Formenty, Pierre; Connolly, Maire A.

2007-01-01

27

Trends in Infectious Disease Mortality Rates, Spain, 1980-2011  

PubMed Central

Using mortality data from National Institute of Statistics in Spain, we analyzed trends of infectious disease mortality rates in Spain during 1980–2011 to provide information on surveillance and control of infectious diseases. During the study period, 628,673 infectious disease–related deaths occurred, the annual change in the mortality rate was ?1.6%, and the average infectious disease mortality rate was 48.5 deaths/100,000 population. Although the beginning of HIV/AIDS epidemic led to an increased mortality rate, a decreased rate was observed by the end of the twentieth century. By codes from the International Classification of Diseases, 9th revision, the most frequent underlying cause of death was pneumonia. Emergence and reemergence of infectious diseases continue to be public health problems despite reduced mortality rates produced by various interventions. Therefore, surveillance and control systems should be reinforced with a goal of providing reliable data for useful decision making.

Llacer, Alicia; Palmera-Suarez, Rocio; Gomez-Barroso, Diana; Savulescu, Camelia; Gonzalez-Yuste, Paloma; Fernandez-Cuenca, Rafael

2014-01-01

28

FastStats: Infectious Disease  

MedlinePLUS

... tuberculosis cases: 10,528 (2011) Number of new salmonella cases: 51,887 (2011) Number of new Lyme ... table 10 [PDF - 330 KB] More data AIDS/HIV Infectious Disease Prevalence in Los Angeles County–A ...

29

76 FR 39041 - Infectious Diseases  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), Labor. ACTION: Notice of stakeholder...SUMMARY: OSHA invites interested parties to participate...occupational exposure to infectious diseases. OSHA plans to use the information gathered...

2011-07-05

30

The burden of infectious disease in New Zealand.  

PubMed

New Zealand mortality records for the years 1980 to 1993 were analysed to estimate the aggregate burden of infectious disease using a recoding of ICD-9 codes to identify deaths with infectious aetiology. The recoding scheme was modified from one developed by US CDC, which used expert panels to assign ICD codes to categories dependent on the proportion of the code attributable to infection. ICD-9 Chapter One ('Infectious and parasitic diseases') accounted for only 0.7% of total deaths. Following recoding, this proportion increased tenfold, with 6.9% of deaths attributable to infectious disease. This proportion was stable or declined only slowly between 1980 and 1993. While rates varied by age, gender and ethnicity, the results indicate that infectious disease still accounts for a substantial proportion of the burden of disease in New Zealand. PMID:9744188

Christie, S; Tobias, M

1998-04-01

31

Infectious Disease, Endangerment, and Extinction  

PubMed Central

Infectious disease, especially virulent infectious disease, is commonly regarded as a cause of fluctuation or decline in biological populations. However, it is not generally considered as a primary factor in causing the actual endangerment or extinction of species. We review here the known historical examples in which disease has, or has been assumed to have had, a major deleterious impact on animal species, including extinction, and highlight some recent cases in which disease is the chief suspect in causing the outright endangerment of particular species. We conclude that the role of disease in historical extinctions at the population or species level may have been underestimated. Recent methodological breakthroughs may lead to a better understanding of the past and present roles of infectious disease in influencing population fitness and other parameters.

MacPhee, Ross D. E.; Greenwood, Alex D.

2013-01-01

32

Emerging and Re-emerging Infectious Diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) are characterized by a new or an increased occurrence within the last few decades. They\\u000a include the following categories Emerging diagnosis of infectious diseases: old diseases that are newly classified as infectious\\u000a diseases because of the discovery of a responsible infectious agent.

Thomas Löscher; Luise Prüfer-Krämer

33

Systematic reviews of infectious diseases.  

PubMed

The World Wide Web provides ready access to a wealth of information on infectious diseases topics. Systematic reviews and practice guidelines help to focus that evidence with in-depth literature analysis of a specific question. These reviews are typically rigidly structured, often periodically updated, and include critical evaluation of available data. In this article, Web sites of organizations that publish systematic reviews and practice guidelines for infectious diseases are identified and reviewed with regard to ease of use, comprehensiveness, quality of information, and cost. Examples of information available in databases of practice guidelines and systematic reviews are provided. A hypothetical case is used to illustrate the use of electronic resources in evidence-based infectious diseases practice. PMID:12015699

Schmitt, Steven K; Mehta, Neil

2002-06-01

34

Adventures in Infectious Diseases  

SciTech Connect

Dr. Susan Fisher-Hoch, Virologist and Epidemiologist, will discuss her research and travels associated with viral hemorrhagic fevers. From the Ebola outbreak in Reston, Virginia to outbreaks of Crimean Congo Hemorrhagic Fever in South Africa, Senegal, and Saudi Arabia, Dr. Fisher-Hoch has studied and tracked the pathophysiology of these viral diseases. These studies have led her from the Center for Disease Control in the United States, to Lyon, France where she was instrumental in designing, constructing, and rendering operational a laboratory capable of containing some of the world's most dangerous diseases.

Fisher-Hoch, Susan (University of Texas School of Public Health) [University of Texas School of Public Health

2011-11-01

35

Overview of Infectious Diseases  

MedlinePLUS

... reappear later in life as shingles (herpes zoster). Germs and Children: Terminology normal flora Bacteria that live on or in a child pathogen A germ that can cause a disease colonization Presence of ...

36

Emerging Infectious Diseases: Rabies.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Rabies is a reemerging disease in China. The high incidence of rabies leads to numerous concerns: a potential carrier-dog phenomenon, undocumented transmission of rabies virus from wildlife to dogs, counterfeit vaccines, vaccine mismatching, and seroconve...

2009-01-01

37

Current outlook of infectious diseases in Taiwan.  

PubMed

The "emerging" infectious diseases have received global attention. Taiwan is a country which is going through the process of becoming "developed" from being "developing". If we compare five leading causes of death in 1952 and in 1993, three were infectious diseases in 1952 and there was none in 1993. And yet today, infectious diseases remain a major problem in this country as well in every country in the world, whether developing or developed. Some of the problems Taiwan faces are old problems with old faces. They have never been adequately solved because the societal and environmental sanitary infrastructure does not ensure proper sewage disposal, safe potable water and freedom from dangerous vectors. Examples are the diarrheal diseases, parasitic diseases, scrub typhus and Japanese encephalitis. Some of the Taiwan's problems are caused by old agents which present a new face. Mortality from tuberculosis took a dramatic and gratifying plunge in the last fifty years. Yet tuberculosis is ever present and a constant public health threat. Dengue has become a problem again because of a world breakdown in the control of the mosquito, Aedes egypti, and it is partly contributed to by increased urbanization and world travel. The problem of antibiotic resistant bacteria causing hospital acquired and community acquired infections is probably the most serious "new" problem. The most important cause is excessive and indiscriminate use of antibiotics in the community and in hospitals. We propose the establishment of "Bacterial Infections Reference Laboratory" at the National Health Research Institutes to be a national facility to study the epidemiology and control of antibiotic resistance. All infectious diseases require a rigorous system of surveillance, and precise etiological diagnosis before they can be treated or prevented. This should be kept clearly in mind when one considers the changing role of the infectious disease physician in Taiwan in the face of unsolved disease problems and a new health care system. There is inadequate attention to precise microbiological definition of most infectious diseases in Taiwan. The community of infectious disease specialists may well redirect its attention to improving the competence and utilization of microbiological laboratory diagnosis. PMID:10596983

Ho, M

1998-06-01

38

Molecular diagnostics of infectious diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the past several years, the development and appli- cation of molecular diagnostic techniques has initiated a revolution in the diagnosis and monitoring of infectious diseases. Microbial phenotypic characteristics, such as protein, bacteriophage, and chromatographic profiles, as well as biotyping and susceptibility testing, are used in most routine laboratories for identification and differ- entiation. Nucleic acid techniques, such as plasmid

Yi-Wei Tang; Gary W. Procop; David H. Persing

39

Combinatorial immunotherapies for infectious diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Combating pathogenic organisms by combinatorial approaches involving appropriate immune response molecules and antimicrobial drugs represents a progessively more apparent and successful therapeutic paradigm for the treatment of acute and chronic persistent infectious diseases. This review explores areas of current innovation and provides an update of the present state of knowledge concerning combination of chemotherapy with several immune-based interventions in infections.

Hartmut Hengel; K. Noel Masihi

2003-01-01

40

Revisiting Emerging Infectious Diseases: The Unfinished Agenda  

Microsoft Academic Search

Infectious diseases present a formidable threat to the world today. Not only are new infectious diseases emerging, but those presumed to be contained or eradicated are re-emerging. Developing nations, with the least resources to respond, bear the greatest burden of this threat. However, with the potential to spread rapidly and ubiquitously, infectious diseases present a significant risk to the health

Gilbert C. Kombe; Danielle M. Darrow

2001-01-01

41

Chemoprophylaxis of Tropical Infectious Diseases  

PubMed Central

Travelers to tropical countries are at risk for a variety of infectious diseases. In some cases effective vaccinations are available, but for other infections chemoprophylaxis can be offered. Malaria prevention has become increasingly complex as Plasmodium species become resistant to available drugs. In certain high risk settings, antibiotics can be used to prevent leptospirosis, scrub typhus and other infections. Post-exposure prophylaxis is appropriate for selected virulent infections. In this article the evidence for chemoprophylaxis will be reviewed.

McBride, William J. H.

2010-01-01

42

[Genomic medicine and infectious diseases].  

PubMed

Relentless progress in our knowledge of the nature and functional consequences of human genetic variation allows for a better understanding of the protracted battle between pathogens and their human hosts. Multiple polymorphisms have been identified that impact our response to infections or to anti-infective drugs, and some of them are already used in the clinic. However, to make personalized medicine a reality in infectious diseases, a sustained effort is needed not only in research but also in genomic education. PMID:24800771

Fellay, Jacques

2014-05-01

43

Social consequences of emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Infectious diseases are responsible for nearly half of all deaths in developing countries. The re-emergence of old diseases and drug-resistant pathogens is creating enormous public health challenges. New diseases have been and are being detected. This article suggests that if we act quickly widespread outbreak can be averted.

Michael M. O. Seipel

2005-01-01

44

Emerging Infectious Diseases in Mongolia  

PubMed Central

Since 1990, Mongolia’s health system has been in transition. Impressive gains have been accomplished through a national immunization program, which was instituted in 1991. Nevertheless, the country continues to confront four major chronic infections: hepatitis B and C, brucellosis, tuberculosis, and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). As of 2001, only two cases of HIV infections had been detected in Mongolia, but concern grows that the rate will increase along with the rising rates of STDs and increase in tourism. Other infectious diseases of importance in Mongolia include echinococcus, plague, tularemia, anthrax, foot-and-mouth, and rabies.

Altantsetseg, Togoo; Oyungerel, Ravdan

2003-01-01

45

Post-infectious disease syndrome.  

PubMed Central

Many post-infectious syndromes have been recognized in the last 50 years, some following viral infections and others closely related to bacterial disease. The occurrence of prolonged fatigue following an apparent viral illness of varying severity is also well documented. The lack of a recognizable precipitating cause and the tendency for epidemic fatigue to occur among hospital staff led many to believe that the illness may be psychogenic in origin. However, there is serological evidence that some cases may follow enterovirus infections or occasionally delayed convalescence from infectious mononucleosis. Much interesting work is currently in progress relating fatigue to persisting immunological abnormalities, and the development of molecular immunology makes this a most exciting field of research. This paper reviews the evidence for and against a definitive post-viral fatigue syndrome and examines the results of research carried out in the last 50 years.

Bannister, B. A.

1988-01-01

46

Life course epidemiology and infectious diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

There has been a traditional view that divided epidemiology into infectious and chronic diseases. Since we now know that at least 15% of cancers worldwide are caused by infections,1 that infections frequently have a natural history lasting decades and that the same epidemiological methods can be applied to both infectious and non-infectious diseases, this view can be considered purely historical.

Andrew J Hall; Leland J Yee; Sara L Thomas

2002-01-01

47

Livestock infectious diseases and zoonoses  

PubMed Central

Infectious diseases of livestock are a major threat to global animal health and welfare and their effective control is crucial for agronomic health, for safeguarding and securing national and international food supplies and for alleviating rural poverty in developing countries. Some devastating livestock diseases are endemic in many parts of the world and threats from old and new pathogens continue to emerge, with changes to global climate, agricultural practices and demography presenting conditions that are especially favourable for the spread of arthropod-borne diseases into new geographical areas. Zoonotic infections that are transmissible either directly or indirectly between animals and humans are on the increase and pose significant additional threats to human health and the current pandemic status of new influenza A (H1N1) is a topical example of the challenge presented by zoonotic viruses. In this article, we provide a brief overview of some of the issues relating to infectious diseases of livestock, which will be discussed in more detail in the papers that follow.

Tomley, Fiona M.; Shirley, Martin W.

2009-01-01

48

Infectious Diseases and Vaccine Sciences: Strategic Directions  

PubMed Central

Despite substantial progress, infectious diseases remain important causes of ill-health and premature deaths in Bangladesh. Bangladesh has experienced a >90% reduction in the incidence of deaths due to childhood diarrhoea over the last 25 years. Further reductions can be achieved through the introduction of effective vaccines against rotavirus and improvements in home hygiene, quality of drinking-water, and clinical case management, including appropriate use of oral rehydration solution and zinc. Pneumonia is now the leading cause of childhood deaths in Bangladesh, and the pneumonia-specific child mortality is largely unchanged over the last 25 years. Reductions in mortality due to pneumonia can be achieved through the introduction of protein conjugate vaccines against Haemophilus influenza type b and Streptococcus pneumoniae, improvements in case management, including efforts to prevent delays in providing appropriate treatment, and the wider use of zinc. Tuberculosis is responsible for an estimated 70,000 deaths each year in Bangladesh. Although services for directly-observed therapy have expanded markedly, improved case finding and involvement of private practitioners will be important to reduce the burden of disease.

Luby, Stephen P.; Brooks, W. Abdullah; Zaman, K.; Hossain, Shahed; Ahmed, Tahmeed

2008-01-01

49

Emerging Infectious Diseases and Amphibian Population Declines  

Microsoft Academic Search

We review recent research on the pathology, ecology, and biogeography of two emerging infectious wildlife diseases, chytridiomycosis and ranaviral disease, in the context of host-parasite population biology. We examine the role of these diseases in the global decline of amphibian populations and propose hypotheses for the origins and impact of these panzootics. Finally, we discuss emerging infectious diseases as a

Peter Daszak; Lee Berger; Andrew A. Cunningham; Alex D. Hyatt; D. Earl Green; Rick Speare

1999-01-01

50

Genetics of susceptibitlity to human infectious disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Before Robert Koch's work in the late nineteenth century, diseases such as tuberculosis and leprosy were widely believed to be inherited disorders. Heritability of susceptibility to several infectious diseases has been confirmed by studies in the twentieth century. Infectious diseases, old and new, continue to be an important cause of mortality worldwide. A greater understanding of disease processes is needed

Graham S. Cooke; Adrian V. S. Hill

2001-01-01

51

Interleukin-12 in infectious diseases.  

PubMed Central

Interleukin-12 (IL-12) is a potent immunoregulatory cytokine that is crucially involved in a wide range of infectious diseases. In several experimental models of bacterial, parasitic, viral, and fungal infection, endogenous IL-12 is required for early control of infection and for generation and perhaps maintenance of acquired protective immunity, directed by T helper type 1 (Th1) cells and mediated by phagocytes. Although the relative roles of IL-12 and gamma interferon in Th1-cell priming may be to a significant extent pathogen dependent, common to most infections is that IL-12 regulates the magnitude of the gamma interferon response at the initiation of infection, thus potentiating natural resistance, favoring Th1-cell development; and inhibiting Th2 responses. Treatment of animals with IL-12, either alone or as a vaccine adjuvant, has been shown to prevent disease by many of the same infectious agents, by stimulating innate resistance or promoting specific reactivity. Although IL-12 may enhance protective memory responses in vaccination or in combination with antimicrobial chemotherapy, it is yet unclear whether exogenous IL-12 can alter established responses in humans. Continued investigation into the possible application of IL-12 therapy to human infections is warranted by the role of the cytokine in inflammation, immunopathology, and autoimmunity.

Romani, L; Puccetti, P; Bistoni, F

1997-01-01

52

Infectious Diseases and the Immune System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The lesson is design to explain the basic functions of the human immune system, including specific and nonspecific immune response, vaccines, and antibiotics. Primarily, it focuses on infectious diseases and how the immune system defend the body against infectious diseases. The lesson uses the 5E model as an approach for students to become engage, analytical and inquisitive in learning about infectious diseases and the immune system.

Cruz, Arnel D.

2012-06-28

53

Informatics for Infectious Disease Research and Control  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The goal of infectious disease informatics is to optimize the clinical and public health management of infectious diseases\\u000a through improvements in the development and use of antimicrobials, the design of more effective vaccines, the identification\\u000a of biomarkers for life-threatening infections, a better understanding of host-pathogen interactions, and biosurveillance and\\u000a clinical decision support. Infectious disease informatics can lead to more targeted

Vitali Sintchenko

54

What Is a Pediatric Infectious Diseases Specialist?  

MedlinePLUS

... on Twitter Growth Charts Immunization Schedules Newsletters Safety Checklists Symptom ... > Health Management - Medical Home > Pediatric Specialists > What is a Pediatric Infectious Diseases Specialist? ...

55

Geography, ecology and emerging infectious diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emerging infectious diseases are the focus of increased attention and even alarm in the scholarly and popular literature. The emergence of new diseases and the resurgence of older and previously recognized infectious diseases both in developing and developed country poses challenges for understanding the ecological web of causation, including social, economic, environmental and biological components. This paper is a synthesis

Jonathan D. Mayera

56

Geography, ecology and emerging infectious diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emerging infectious diseases are the focus of increased attention and even alarm in the scholarly and popular literature. The emergence of new diseases and the resurgence of older and previously recognized infectious diseases both in developing and developed country poses challenges for understanding the ecological web of causation, including social, economic, environmental and biological components. This paper is a synthesis

Jonathan D. Mayer

2000-01-01

57

Confl ict and Emerging Infectious Diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Detection and control of emerging infectious diseases in confl ict situations are major challenges due to multiple risk factors known to enhance emergence and transmission of infectious diseases. These include inadequate surveillance and response systems, destroyed infrastructure, collapsed health systems and disruption of disease control programs, and infection control practices even more inadequate than those in resource-poor settings, as well

Michelle Gayer; Dominique Legros; Pierre Formenty; Maire A. Connolly

2007-01-01

58

Selected Infectious Diseases of Birds of Prey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Infectious diseases of bacterial, viral, fungal, and parasitic origin are common in wild and captive birds of prey presented to veterinary hospitals for medical care. Veterinarians should be knowledgeable of the infectious agents, clinical signs associated with disease, as well as diagnostic methods and treatment to increase the survival rate of raptors infected with these devastating and fatal diseases. The

Michael P. Jones

2006-01-01

59

Evolutionary Response to Human Infectious Diseases  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Gives an overview of human history, relating cultural changes with resulting changes in population density and in ecological balance to patterns of infectious diseases in man. Discusses mechanisms of evolution of resistance. Suggests that in populations where infectious diseases can be controlled, attention should shift to degenerative diseases

Armelagos, George J.; Dewey, John R.

1970-01-01

60

Therapeutic vaccines against infectious diseases.  

PubMed

Therapeutic vaccines against chronic infectious diseases aim at eliciting broad humoral and cellular immune responses against multiple target antigens. Importantly, the development of such vaccines will help to establish surrogate markers of protection in humans and thus will augment the subsequent development of efficient prophylactic vaccines. A combination of synthetic small-molecule drugs and immunotherapeutics is likely to represent a powerful means of controlling chronic infections in the future. Challenges faced in developing therapeutic vaccines include the following: first, overcoming the potential impairment of immune responses due to established infection; second, optimizing schedules of vaccine administration in combination with standard of care chemotherapy; and third, defining what biological and immunological read-outs should be used to infer vaccine efficacy. PMID:14572538

Moingeon, Philippe; Almond, Jeffrey; de Wilde, Michel

2003-10-01

61

An Interdisciplinary Perspective: Infectious Diseases and History.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduces the course "Infectious Diseases and History" which is designed for freshman and sophomore students. Aims to teach about infectious diseases, develop skills of using libraries and computer resources, and develop oral and written communication skills. Focuses on tuberculosis as an example of an instructional approach and explains its…

Turco, Jenifer; Byrd, Melanie

2001-01-01

62

Infectious diseases associated with renal homotransplantation  

PubMed Central

Infectious diseases occurred in 26 of 30 renal homotransplantation patients and contributed to eight of the 12 deaths in this series. There were 52 infections, 17 occurring before and 35 after transplantation. Infections were produced primarily by staphylococci, Pseudomonas species, and the enteric gram-negative bacilli. Staphylococcal infections occurred in 17 of 19 carriers of this organism and in only one of 11 noncarriers. Thirty-three of the 35 postoperative infections followed the intensification of immunosuppressive therapy for treatment of attempted homograft rejection. Granulocytopenia, steroid-induced diabetes, and hypogammaglobulinemia, from suppressive drug therapy, routinely preceded the onset of these complications. The infections, largely of endogenous origin, occurred when the host’s defense mechanisms were depressed.

Rifkind, David; Marchioro, Thomas L.; Waddell, William R.; Starzl, Thomas E.

2010-01-01

63

National Foundation for Infectious Diseases  

MedlinePLUS

... Reasons to Get Vaccinated Vaccine Safety Newsroom Image Library News Conferences Press Releases Public Service Announcements Blogs Related Links Antimicrobial Resistance Bioterrorism Infectious ...

64

Emerging and Re-emerging Infectious Diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microbial pathogens discovered as aetiological agents of human disease over the last 25 years are reviewed. Strengthening of laboratory and public health surveillance is of paramount importance for early detection and management of emerging infectious diseases.

U. Desselberger

2000-01-01

65

Emerging infectious diseases and amphibian population declines.  

PubMed Central

We review recent research on the pathology, ecology, and biogeography of two emerging infectious wildlife diseases, chytridiomycosis and ranaviral disease, in the context of host-parasite population biology. We examine the role of these diseases in the global decline of amphibian populations and propose hypotheses for the origins and impact of these panzootics. Finally, we discuss emerging infectious diseases as a global threat to wildlife populations.

Daszak, P.; Berger, L.; Cunningham, A. A.; Hyatt, A. D.; Green, D. E.; Speare, R.

1999-01-01

66

76 FR 27070 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases;  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

2011-05-10

67

Emerging and Re-Emerging Infectious Diseases  

MedlinePLUS

... Emerging and Re-emerging Infectious Diseases Skip Content Marketing Share this: Main Content Area Research at NIAID Introduction and Goals Despite remarkable advances in medical research and treatments ...

68

Bioterrorism Preparedness for Infectious Disease (BTPID) Proposal.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Bioterrorism preparedness for infectious disease (BTPID) as part of homeland defense initiatives continues to advance. Significant opportunities exist for new research and development of bioinformatics and telecommunications solutions for BTPlD that can c...

L. P. Burgess

2007-01-01

69

Hospital Based Infectious Disease Related Proportional Mortality Study  

PubMed Central

Objective: To understand the temporal trends in mortality in Rural Central India. Design: Retrospective review of physician issued death certificates from a rural teaching hospital. Materials and Methods: Physician issued death certificates from 1979 to 2008, available with a rural teaching hospital were analyzed and information on age, gender, date, and cause of death was abstracted. We estimated cause-specific, proportional mortality ratio (PMR) stratified by age, and gender. We compared the difference in PMR in first fifteen years of the study period (period A, 1979-1993) with the later (period B, 1994-2008). Results: We found 20494 death certificates between 1979 and 2008. Proportion of infectious disease related mortality declined from 35% in 1979-1983-26% in 2004-2008. In the same periods, injury related mortality increased from 4.6% to 13.4%, and chronic disease mortality from 19% to 28%. The absolute difference in PMR (per 1000 deaths) was statistically significant between period B and period A, for infections (a decline of 80.67 [95% CI 66.97-94.03]), chronic diseases (an increase of 45.85 [95% CI 33.49-58.55]), and injuries (an increase of 42.98 [95% CI 33.87-52.26]). Conclusion: Temporal trend in mortality from a single hospital in rural Central-India over the past three decades shows decline in infectious diseases, and rise in injuries and chronic diseases.

Joshi, Rajnish; Lodhe, Rahul; Agrawal, Sachin; Jain, AP

2014-01-01

70

Contagious Rhythm: Infectious Diseases of 20th Century Musicians  

PubMed Central

Infectious diseases have led to illness and death for many famous musicians, from the classical period to the rock ’n’ roll era. By the 20th century, as public health improved and orchestral composers began living more settled lives, infections among American and European musicians became less prominent. By mid-century, however, seminal jazz musicians famously pursued lifestyles characterized by drug and alcohol abuse. Among the consequences of this risky lifestyle were tuberculosis, syphilis, and chronic viral hepatitis. More contemporary rock musicians have experienced an epidemic of hepatitis C infection and HIV/AIDS related to intravenous drug use and promiscuity. Musical innovation is thus often accompanied by diseases of neglect and overindulgence, particularly infectious illnesses, although risky behavior and associated infectious illnesses tend to decrease as the style matures.

Sartin, Jeffrey S.

2010-01-01

71

Infectious diseases and travelers (image)  

MedlinePLUS

Different areas of the world have different diseases and different prevalence rates of diseases. Travelers going to foreign countries may encounter diseases to which they have no natural immunity and should take any possible precautions.

72

Global climate change and infectious diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of global climate change on infectious diseases are hypothetical until more is known about the degree of change in temperature and humidity that will occur. Diseases most likely to increase in their distribution and severity have three-factor (agent, vector, and human being) and four-factor (plus vertebrate reservoir host) ecology. Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus mosquitoes may move northward

Shope

1991-01-01

73

Disinfection and the prevention of infectious disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reviews published literature to determine the role environmental disinfection plays in the prevention of infectious disease. Health benefits from disinfection have been established through studies of applications such as critical instrument sterilization, water treatment, and food production. Guidelines by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the Food and Drug Administration, the Environmental Protection Agency, and the International

Ann Cozad; Rhonda D. Jones

2003-01-01

74

Does biodiversity protect humans against infectious disease?  

PubMed

Control of human infectious disease has been promoted as a valuable ecosystem service arising from the conservation of biodiversity. There are two commonly discussed mechanisms by which biodiversity loss could increase rates of infectious disease in a landscape. First, loss of competitors or predators could facilitate an increase in the abundance of competent reservoir hosts. Second, biodiversity loss could disproportionately affect non-competent, or less competent reservoir hosts, which would otherwise interfere with pathogen transmission to human populations by, for example, wasting the bites of infected vectors. A negative association between biodiversity and disease risk, sometimes called the "dilution effect hypothesis," has been supported for a few disease agents, suggests an exciting win-win outcome for the environment and society, and has become a pervasive topic in the disease ecology literature. Case studies have been assembled to argue that the dilution effect is general across disease agents. Less touted are examples in which elevated biodiversity does not affect or increases infectious disease risk for pathogens of public health concern. In order to assess the likely generality of the dilution effect, we review the association between biodiversity and public health across a broad variety of human disease agents. Overall, we hypothesize that conditions for the dilution effect are unlikely to be met for most important diseases of humans. Biodiversity probably has little net effect on most human infectious diseases but, when it does have an effect, observation and basic logic suggest that biodiversity will be more likely to increase than to decrease infectious disease risk. PMID:24933803

Wood, Chelsea L; Lafferty, Kevin D; DeLeo, Giulio; Young, Hillary S; Hudson, Peter J; Kuris, Armand M

2014-04-01

75

Postdoctoral fellowship in pediatric infectious disease pharmacotherapy.  

PubMed

The first postdoctoral fellowship program in pediatric infectious disease pharmacotherapy is described. The fellowship program is designed to train a clinical pharmacist to be an independent researcher. The features of this program include: (1) two-year duration; (2) about 80 percent of time devoted to research-related activities and 20 percent to teaching and consultative practice; (3) formal course work; (4) training in in vitro and in vivo animal as well as clinical studies; and (5) interdisciplinary personnel and laboratory resources. This program should help meet the need for clinical scientists in pediatric infectious disease pharmacotherapy. PMID:3698829

Nahata, M C

1986-04-01

76

DNA microarrays in the clinic: infectious diseases.  

PubMed

We argue that the most-promising area of clinical application of microarrays in the foreseeable future is the diagnostics and monitoring of infectious diseases. Microarrays for the detection and characterization of human pathogens have already found their way into clinical practice in some countries. After discussing the persistent, yet often underestimated, importance of infectious diseases for public health, we consider the technologies that are best suited for the detection and clinical investigation of pathogens. Clinical application of microarray technologies for the detection of mycobacteria, Bacillus anthracis, HIV, hepatitis and influenza viruses, and other major pathogens, as well as the analysis of their drug-resistance patterns, illustrate our main thesis. PMID:18536036

Mikhailovich, Vladimir; Gryadunov, Dmitry; Kolchinsky, Alexander; Makarov, Alexander A; Zasedatelev, Alexander

2008-07-01

77

Emerging infectious diseases and animal social systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emerging infectious diseases threaten a wide diversity of animals, and important questions remain concerning disease emergence\\u000a in socially structured populations. We developed a spatially explicit simulation model to investigate whether—and under what\\u000a conditions—disease-related mortality can impact rates of pathogen spread in populations of polygynous groups. Specifically,\\u000a we investigated whether pathogen-mediated dispersal (PMD) can occur when females disperse after the resident

Charles L. Nunn; Peter H. Thrall; Kelly Stewart; Alexander H. Harcourt

2008-01-01

78

Vaccination and herd immunity to infectious diseases  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An understanding of the relationship between the transmission dynamics of infectious agents and herd immunity provides a template for the design of effective control programmes based on mass immunization. Mathematical models of the spread and persistence of infection provide important insights into the problem of how best to protect the community against disease.

Anderson, Roy M.; May, Robert M.

1985-11-01

79

Emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

In human history, numerous infectious diseases have emerged and re-emerged. Aside from many others, the so-called 'exotic' agents in particular are a threat to our public health systems due to limited experience in case management and lack of appropriate resources. Many of these agents are zoonotic in origin and transmitted from animals to man either directly or via vectors. The

Heinz Feldmann; Markus Czub; Steven Jones; Daryl Dick; Michael Garbutt; Allen Grolla; Harvey Artsob

2002-01-01

80

Opinion: The Pharmacometrics of Infectious Disease  

PubMed Central

The application of pharmacometric principles to the treatment of infectious diseases must address important biological issues across the diversity of pathogenic organisms. Recent applications of pharmacometric tools in this therapeutic area have had important translational impact not only in drug development but on real-world clinical practice. The fruitful fusion of preclinical and population methodologies promises increasingly personalized and mechanistic approaches.

Davies, G R; Hope, W; Khoo, S

2013-01-01

81

Future Infectious Disease Threats to Europe  

PubMed Central

We examined how different drivers of infectious disease could interact to threaten control efforts in Europe. We considered projected trends through 2020 for 3 broad groups of drivers: globalization and environmental change, social and demographic change, and health system capacity. Eight plausible infectious disease threats with the potential to be significantly more problematic than they are today were identified through an expert consultation: extensively drug-resistant bacteria, vector-borne diseases, sexually transmitted infections, food-borne infections, a resurgence of vaccine-preventable diseases, health care–associated infections, multidrug-resistant tuberculosis, and pandemic influenza. Preemptive measures to be taken by the public health community to counteract these threats were identified.

Suk, Jonathan E.

2011-01-01

82

Rediscovering Biology - Unit 5: Emerging Infectious Diseases  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page is the jumping-off point for an educational unit on emerging infectious diseases. There are links to a course outline and classroom activity worksheets, a 30-minute video, an online textbook chapter, a collection of relevant images and animations that supplement the chapter, transcripts of interviews with five experts featured in the video, and a glossary and bibliography. The video and textbook chapter cover two main phenomena of emerging diseases - evolution of antibiotic resistance, and mutation of disease organisms due to novel environmental pressures. There are detailed explanations of microbial evolution by mutation and acquisition of new genetic material, as well as case studies of infectious diseases spread by animals. The course outline provides a structure for incorporating the video, the textbook chapter, and five classroom activities into a 2.5hr session appropriate for high school or undergraduate students.

Learner.org, Annenberg M.

83

Combining forces to combat infectious diseases.  

PubMed

Because the threat of infectious diseases can cause widespread fear in a community, these diseases receive much public attention. Collaborations that bring together industry, academia, regulators, and the public can lead to improved and accelerated drug development. The collaborations must be grounded in strong science and expertise in clinical trials. Development of drugs to treat infections caused by resistant bacteria, drugs to treat hepatitis C virus (HCV), and drugs to prevent HIV is taking advantage of these collaborations. PMID:25056386

Reynolds, K S

2014-08-01

84

Challenges of infectious diseases in the USA.  

PubMed

In the USA, infectious diseases continue to exact a substantial toll on health and health-care resources. Endemic diseases such as chronic hepatitis, HIV, and other sexually transmitted infections affect millions of individuals and widen health disparities. Additional concerns include health-care-associated and foodborne infections--both of which have been targets of broad prevention efforts, with success in some areas, yet major challenges remain. Although substantial progress in reduction of the burden of vaccine-preventable diseases has been made, continued cases and outbreaks of these diseases persist, driven by various contributing factors. Worldwide, emerging and reemerging infections continue to challenge prevention and control strategies while the growing problem of antimicrobial resistance needs urgent action. An important priority for control of infectious disease is to ensure that scientific and technological advances in molecular diagnostics and bioinformatics are well integrated into public health. Broad and diverse partnerships across governments, health care, academia, and industry, and with the public, are essential to effectively reduce the burden of infectious diseases. PMID:24996590

Khabbaz, Rima F; Moseley, Robin R; Steiner, Riley J; Levitt, Alexandra M; Bell, Beth P

2014-07-01

85

[The past decade's infectious diseases].  

PubMed

The past decade saw emerging infections such as SARS, avian and pandemic influenza, food-borne infections and the bioterror threat. New vaccines became available and novel technologies for detection and typing of microorganisms were applied. In the years to come, control of antimicrobial drug resistance and nosocomial infections will continue to pose challenges in the light of an increasing number of senior citizens and individuals with chronic diseases. There will also be unknown challenges: We have not faced the last HIV, ebola, SARS or avian or swine flu epidemic. PMID:21299933

Mølbak, Kåre

2011-02-01

86

Epidemiological monitoring for emerging infectious diseases  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Homeland Security News Wire has been reporting on new ways to fight epidemics using digital tools such as iPhone, social networks, Wikipedia, and other Internet sites. Instant two-way communication now gives consumers the ability to complement official reports on emerging infectious diseases from health authorities. However, there is increasing concern that these communications networks could open the door to mass panic from unreliable or false reports. There is thus an urgent need to ensure that epidemiological monitoring for emerging infectious diseases gives health authorities the capability to identify, analyze, and report disease outbreaks in as timely and efficient a manner as possible. One of the dilemmas in the global dissemination of information on infectious diseases is the possibility that information overload will create inefficiencies as the volume of Internet-based surveillance information increases. What is needed is a filtering mechanism that will retrieve relevant information for further analysis by epidemiologists, laboratories, and other health organizations so they are not overwhelmed with irrelevant information and will be able to respond quickly. This paper introduces a self-organizing ontology that could be used as a filtering mechanism to increase relevance and allow rapid analysis of disease outbreaks as they evolve in real time.

Greene, Marjorie

2010-04-01

87

77 FR 16247 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Allergy and Infectious Diseases, including consideration...Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, NIH, Building 31...including taxicabs, hotel, and airport shuttles...Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research,...

2012-03-20

88

78 FR 14312 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Allergy and Infectious Diseases, including consideration...Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, NIH Building 31...including taxicabs, hotel, and airport shuttles...Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research,...

2013-03-05

89

75 FR 26760 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...personal privacy. Name of Committee: Microbiology, Infectious Diseases and AIDS Initial Review Group; Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research...Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases...

2010-05-12

90

76 FR 55074 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...personal privacy. Name of Committee: Microbiology, Infectious Diseases and AIDS Initial Review Group, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research...Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases...

2011-09-06

91

75 FR 49502 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...personal privacy. Name of Committee: Microbiology, Infectious Diseases and AIDS Initial Review Group; Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research...Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases...

2010-08-13

92

78 FR 3011 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...personal privacy. Name of Committee: Microbiology, Infectious Diseases and AIDS Initial Review Group; Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research...Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases...

2013-01-15

93

77 FR 29676 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...personal privacy. Name of Committee: Microbiology, Infectious Diseases and AIDS Initial Review Group; Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research...Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases...

2012-05-18

94

75 FR 81631 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...personal privacy. Name of Committee: Microbiology, Infectious Diseases and AIDS Initial Review Group. Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research...Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases...

2010-12-28

95

76 FR 77241 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Infectious Diseases Council, Allergy, Immunology and Transplantation Subcommittee. Date...Infectious Diseases Council, Allergy, Immunology and Transplantation Subcommittee. Date...Infectious Diseases Council, Allergy, Immunology and Transplantation Subcommittee....

2011-12-12

96

75 FR 76475 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Infectious Diseases Council; Allergy, Immunology and Transplantation Subcommittee. Date...Infectious Diseases Council Allergy, Immunology and Transplantation Subcommittee. Date...Infectious Diseases Council; Allergy, Immunology and Transplantation Subcommittee....

2010-12-08

97

78 FR 79703 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Infectious Diseases Council; Allergy, Immunology and Transplantation Subcommittee. Date...Infectious Diseases Council; Allergy, Immunology and Transplantation Subcommittee. Date...Infectious Diseases Council; Allergy, Immunology and Transplantation Subcommittee....

2013-12-31

98

77 FR 76296 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Infectious Diseases Council: Allergy, Immunology and Transplantation Subcommittee, Date...Infectious Diseases Council: Allergy, Immunology and Transplantation Subcommittee. Date...Infectious Diseases Council: Allergy, Immunology and Transplantation Subcommittee....

2012-12-27

99

Management of Chronic Infectious Diseases in School Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document contains guidelines for developing policies and procedures related to chronic infectious diseases, as recommended by the Illinois Task Force on School Management of Infectious Disease. It is designed to help school personnel understand how infectious diseases can be transmitted, and to assist school districts in the development and…

Illinois State Board of Education, Springfield.

100

The Challenge of Infectious Diseases to the Biomedical Paradigm  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The resurgence of infectious diseases and the emergence of infectious diseases raise questions on how to cope with the situation. The germ or clinical approach is the hegemonic biomedical paradigm. In this article, the author argues that the spread of infectious diseases has posted a challenge to the biomedical paradigm and shows how lock-in…

Foladori, Guillermo

2005-01-01

101

National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created over fifty years ago, the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NAID) "conducts and supports basic and applied research to better understand, treat, and ultimately prevent infectious, immunologic, and allergic diseases." In recent years, the scope of the institute's research activities has expanded to include emerging issues such as the possibility of bioterrorism and West Nile virus. The site contains a wealth of information on the activities of NAID, such as the most recent publications, organizational hierarchy, and funding opportunities for researchers and scholars. The newsroom area is quite thorough, as visitors have access to the database of news releases dating back to 1995 and access to SciBites, which features brief summaries of articles about NAID-funded research, updated weekly. The site is notable for its extensive special section on the growing battery of research on biodefense strategies.

102

In ovo Vaccine Against Infectious Bursal Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

A recombinant attenuated vaccine against infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) was administered in ovo to 18-day-old embryos. The vaccine was genetically tailored to protect from challenges in the field against classic and variant strains of IBDV. The vaccine virus contains neutralizing epitopes from both classic (D78) and variant strain (GLS), and abrogates expression of the nonstructural protein, VP5 of IBDV.

L. Moura; V. Vakharia; M. Liu; H. Song

2007-01-01

103

Sex Differences in Pediatric Infectious Diseases  

PubMed Central

The success of the immune response is finely balanced between, on the one hand, the need to engage vigorously with, and clear, certain pathogens; and, on the other, the requirement to minimize immunopathology and autoimmunity. Distinct immune strategies to achieve this balance have evolved in females and males and also in infancy through to adulthood. Sex differences in outcome from a range of infectious diseases can be identified from as early as fetal life, such as in congenital cytomegalovirus infection. The impact of sex hormones on the T-helper 1/T-helper 2 cytokine balance has been proposed to explain the higher severity of most infectious diseases in males. In the minority where greater morbidity and mortality is observed in females, this is hypothesized to arise because of greater immunopathology and/or autoimmunity. However, a number of unexplained exceptions to this rule are described. Studies that have actually measured the sex differences in children in the immune responses to infectious diseases and that would further test these hypotheses, are relatively scarce.

Muenchhoff, Maximilian; Goulder, Philip J. R.

2014-01-01

104

Sex differences in pediatric infectious diseases.  

PubMed

The success of the immune response is finely balanced between, on the one hand, the need to engage vigorously with, and clear, certain pathogens; and, on the other, the requirement to minimize immunopathology and autoimmunity. Distinct immune strategies to achieve this balance have evolved in females and males and also in infancy through to adulthood. Sex differences in outcome from a range of infectious diseases can be identified from as early as fetal life, such as in congenital cytomegalovirus infection. The impact of sex hormones on the T-helper 1/T-helper 2 cytokine balance has been proposed to explain the higher severity of most infectious diseases in males. In the minority where greater morbidity and mortality is observed in females, this is hypothesized to arise because of greater immunopathology and/or autoimmunity. However, a number of unexplained exceptions to this rule are described. Studies that have actually measured the sex differences in children in the immune responses to infectious diseases and that would further test these hypotheses, are relatively scarce. PMID:24966192

Muenchhoff, Maximilian; Goulder, Philip J R

2014-07-15

105

Global climate change and infectious diseases  

SciTech Connect

The effects of global climate change on infectious diseases are hypothetical until more is known about the degree of change in temperature and humidity that will occur. Diseases most likely to increase in their distribution and severity have three-factor (agent, vector, and human being) and four-factor (plus vertebrate reservoir host) ecology. Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus mosquitoes may move northward and have more rapid metamorphosis with global warming. These mosquitoes transmit dengue virus, and Aedes aegypti transmits yellow fever virus. The faster metamorphosis and a shorter extrinsic incubation of dengue and yellow fever viruses could lead to epidemics in North America. Vibrio cholera is harbored persistently in the estuaries of the U.S. Gulf Coast. Over the past 200 years, cholera has become pandemic seven times with spread from Asia to Europe, Africa, and North America. Global warming may lead to changes in water ecology that could enhance similar spread of cholera in North America. Some other infectious diseases such as LaCrosse encephalitis and Lyme disease are caused by agents closely dependent on the integrity of their environment. These diseases may become less prominent with global warming because of anticipated modification of their habitats. Ecological studies will help as to understand more fully the possible consequences of global warming. New and more effective methods for control of vectors will be needed. 12 refs., 1 tab.

Shope, R. (Yale Univ. School of Medicine, New Haven, CT (United States))

1991-12-01

106

Infectious disease burden in Gujarat (2005-2011): comparison of selected infectious disease rates with India  

PubMed Central

Background India is known to be endemic to numerous infectious diseases. The infectious disease profile of India is changing due to increased human environmental interactions, urbanisation and climate change. There are also predictions of explosive growth in infectious and zoonotic diseases. The Integrated Disease Surveillance Project (IDSP) was implemented in Gujarat in 2004. Methods We analysed IDSP data on seven laboratory confirmed infectious diseases from 2005–2011 on temporal and spatial trends and compared this to the National Health Profile (NHP) data for the same period and with other literature. We chose laboratory cases data for Enteric fever, Cholera, Hepatitis, Dengue, Chikungunya, Measles and Diphtheria in the state since well designed vertical programs do not exist for these diseases. Statistical and GIS analysis was done using appropriate software. Results Our analysis shows that the existing surveillance system in the state is predominantly reporting urban cases. There are wide variations among reported cases within the state with reports of Enteric fever and Measles being less than half of the national average, while Cholera, Viral Hepatitis and Dengue being nearly double. Conclusions We found some limitations in the IDSP system with regard to the number of reporting units and cases in the background of a mixed health system with multiplicity of treatment providers and payment mechanisms. Despite these limitations, IDSP can be strengthened into a comprehensive surveillance system capable of tackling the challenge of reversing the endemicity of these diseases and preventing the emergence of others.

Iyer, Veena; Azhar, Gulrez Shah; Choudhury, Nandini; Dhruwey, Vidwan Singh; Dacombe, Russell; Upadhyay, Ashish

2014-01-01

107

The Impact of Infection on Population Health: Results of the Ontario Burden of Infectious Diseases Study  

PubMed Central

Background Evidence-based priority setting is increasingly important for rationally distributing scarce health resources and for guiding future health research. We sought to quantify the contribution of a wide range of infectious diseases to the overall infectious disease burden in a high-income setting. Methodology/Principal Findings We used health-adjusted life years (HALYs), a composite measure comprising premature mortality and reduced functioning due to disease, to estimate the burden of 51 infectious diseases and associated syndromes in Ontario using 2005–2007 data. Deaths were estimated from vital statistics data and disease incidence was estimated from reportable disease, healthcare utilization, and cancer registry data, supplemented by local modeling studies and national and international epidemiologic studies. The 51 infectious agents and associated syndromes accounted for 729 lost HALYs, 44.2 deaths, and 58,987 incident cases per 100,000 population annually. The most burdensome infectious agents were: hepatitis C virus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, human papillomavirus, hepatitis B virus, human immunodeficiency virus, Staphylococcus aureus, influenza virus, Clostridium difficile, and rhinovirus. The top five, ten, and 20 pathogens accounted for 46%, 67%, and 75% of the total infectious disease burden, respectively. Marked sex-specific differences in disease burden were observed for some pathogens. The main limitations of this study were the exclusion of certain infectious diseases due to data availability issues, not considering the impact of co-infections and co-morbidity, and the inability to assess the burden of milder infections that do not result in healthcare utilization. Conclusions/Significance Infectious diseases continue to cause a substantial health burden in high-income settings such as Ontario. Most of this burden is attributable to a relatively small number of infectious agents, for which many effective interventions have been previously identified. Therefore, these findings should be used to guide public health policy, planning, and research.

Kwong, Jeffrey C.; Ratnasingham, Sujitha; Campitelli, Michael A.; Daneman, Nick; Deeks, Shelley L.; Manuel, Douglas G.; Allen, Vanessa G.; Bayoumi, Ahmed M.; Fazil, Aamir; Fisman, David N.; Gershon, Andrea S.; Gournis, Effie; Heathcote, E. Jenny; Jamieson, Frances B.; Jha, Prabhat; Khan, Kamran M.; Majowicz, Shannon E.; Mazzulli, Tony; McGeer, Allison J.; Muller, Matthew P.; Raut, Abhishek; Rea, Elizabeth; Remis, Robert S.; Shahin, Rita; Wright, Alissa J.; Zagorski, Brandon; Crowcroft, Natasha S.

2012-01-01

108

Timeliness of notification in infectious disease cases.  

PubMed Central

Records of notification in cases of eight infectious diseases in the "Servei Territorial de Salut Publica" of the Province of Barcelona, Spain, between 1982 and 1986 were reviewed. Time from onset of symptoms to notification, time from notification to completion of data collection, and time from onset to completion of the case investigation were analyzed. For the period from onset to notification, the shortest mean was registered for meningococcal infection (6.31 days) and the longest was for pulmonary tuberculosis (54.79 days). For time from notification to complete investigation, the shortest value was for pulmonary tuberculosis (12.20 days) and the longest for rickettsioses (35.79 days). Time from onset to completion of data collection was 22.87 days for meningococcal infection and 72.34 days for tuberculosis of other organs (probably because of the long period of time that elapses between the onset of the first symptoms and notification). It would appear that both physicians and the general population must be educated so that lay-men can identify early signs and symptoms of disease and physicians can realize that statutory notification of infectious diseases is strongly linked to community health care.

Dominguez, A; Coll, J J; Fuentes, M; Salleras, L

1992-01-01

109

Selected infectious disease disasters for nursing staff training at Egyptian Eastern Border.  

PubMed

Infectious disease disasters are events that involve a biological agent, disease and that result in mass casualties, such as a bioterrorism attack, an emerging outbreak of infectious disease; all disasters pose a risk of infection transmission. But, infectious disease disasters pose the great-risk to illness or death from an infectious disease. This study raised the awareness and improved knowledge by educational program for Military Nursing Staff on selected infectious disease disasters acquired at Egyptian Eastern Border. The selected arthropod-borne diseases were Anthrax, Tick borne relapsing, Louse borne replasing fever and liver fluke; Clonorchis sinensis. An interventional study was used, for 125 staff nurse who accepted to participate. The tools dealt with four questionnaires: (1) Some sociodemographic characteristics data (2) Educational needs assessment a structured questionnaire. (3) Knowledge test (pre/post-test) and (4) Participants' reactions questionnaire. The results showed that educational intervention significantly improvements the nursing staff knowledge, which were achieved at the immediate post intervention phase, and retained via three months post-test phase. In the service training programs about infectious disease disasters at Egyptian Eastern Border must be established and continued on regular basis. This would improve their knowledge about the epidemiology of these infectious disease disasters. PMID:24961011

El-Bahnasawy, Mamdouh M; Labib, Nargis Albert; Abdel-Fattah, Magda Abdel Hameed; Ibrahim, Abeer Mohammad Abdallah; Morsy, Tosson A

2014-04-01

110

Hajj: infectious disease surveillance and control.  

PubMed

Religious festivals attract a large number of pilgrims from worldwide and are a potential risk for the transmission of infectious diseases between pilgrims, and to the indigenous population. The gathering of a large number of pilgrims could compromise the health system of the host country. The threat to global health security posed by infectious diseases with epidemic potential shows the importance of advanced planning of public health surveillance and response at these religious events. Saudi Arabia has extensive experience of providing health care at mass gatherings acquired through decades of managing millions of pilgrims at the Hajj. In this report, we describe the extensive public health planning, surveillance systems used to monitor public health risks, and health services provided and accessed during Hajj 2012 and Hajj 2013 that together attracted more than 5 million pilgrims from 184 countries. We also describe the recent establishment of the Global Center for Mass Gathering Medicine, a Saudi Government partnership with the WHO Collaborating Centre for Mass Gatherings Medicine, Gulf Co-operation Council states, UK universities, and public health institutions globally. PMID:24857703

Memish, Ziad A; Zumla, Alimuddin; Alhakeem, Rafat F; Assiri, Abdullah; Turkestani, Abdulhafeez; Al Harby, Khalid D; Alyemni, Mohamed; Dhafar, Khalid; Gautret, Philippe; Barbeschi, Maurizio; McCloskey, Brian; Heymann, David; Al Rabeeah, Abdullah A; Al-Tawfiq, Jaffar A

2014-06-14

111

[Development of Gastrointestinal Infectious Diseases between 2000 and 2012].  

PubMed

Background: Infectious gastroenterological diseases are of increasing medical and health-economic significance. Method: To evaluate the development of gastroenterolgical infections (GI) over the past 10 years, we have analysed the published data of the German Federal Statistics Office on GI hospital admissions between 2001 and 2011 and the data on cases of infection reported to the Robert-Koch Institute between 2001 and 2012. Results: In 2011 520?795 patients with infectious diarrhoea (ICD 10 A00-A09) required hospital admission. The number of coded main diagnoses alone has more than doubled from 127?867 to 282?199 cases per year. The increase in the group of over 65-year-old patients was particularly high. The highest increase among hospitalised patients was seen for Clostridium difficile infections (99?779 cases in 2011) together with noro- and rotavirus infections, whereas the number of cases with salmonella declined. The number of hospital deaths related to infectious gastrointestinal diseases (major clinical diagnosis) rose from 401 in 2000 to 4152 in 2011. Particularly frequent were deaths coded under the ICD 10 diagnosis A04, which includes Clostridium difficile infections (CDI). Discussion: In spite of the limitations due to differing data sources, reporting and recording rules, the analysed data do allow conclusions as to the development of the last 10 years. Gastrointestinal infections have not only markedly increased but also required increasing hospital capacities in gastroenterological departments. Since, with the exception of rotavirus infections, no vaccination strategies are available, these developments will have to be combatted above all by improved infectiological training for gastroenterologists. PMID:24905106

Lynen Jansen, P; Stallmach, A; Lohse, A W; Lerch, M M

2014-06-01

112

How We Defend Ourselves Against Infectious Diseases  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

I have spent years investigating how we have survived as a species in spite of the fact that we are prey to a terrifying assortment of bacterial, viral, fungal and animal pathogens. This struggle between us and our pathogens is conducted in subtle and complex ways, and a similar struggle is also going on between millions of other host animals and plants and their respective pathogens throughout the living world. To understand these processes, it is necessary to look at the selective forces acting on our own species and also to ask more sweeping questions: what is the true evolutionary role of disease in the natural world? Are diseases, in spite of the suffering and misery they cause, entirely a negative influence? Our principal defense against infectious diseases is the immune system. This system, next to our brains, is the most complex product of evolution that we know. It protects us against wide variety of pathogens. A prescient cartoon from the 1820s- drawn decades before Pasteur developed his germ theory of disease and well before John Snow stopped an outbreak of typhoid fever in London by removing the handle of the public water pump in Broad Street depicts creatures that supposedly inhabited the filthy waters of the River Thames. Although a fantasy, the cartoon vividly anticipates those subsequent scientific discoveries as well as the simple fact that many varied, living pathogenic organisms cause diseases.

Wills, Christopher

2000-01-01

113

Global Climate and Infectious Disease: The Cholera Paradigm  

Microsoft Academic Search

Historically, infectious diseases have had a profound effect on human populations, including their evolution and cultural development. Despite significant advances in medical science, infectious diseases continue to impact human populations in many parts of the world. Emerging diseases are considered to be those infections that either are newly appearing in the population or are rapidly increasing in incidence or expanding

Rita R. Colwell

1996-01-01

114

Ills in the pipeline: emerging infectious diseases and wildlife  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In the recent film Contagion, a medical thriller released in fall 2011, the fictitious MEV-1 virus—passed from bat to pig to humans—spreads across the globe as easily as the common cold, killing millions of humans and causing mass hysteria as medical researchers race to find a cure. Though it's Hollywood hyperbole, the film holds a kernel of truth: Researchers believe that the close proximity of Malaysian hog farms to forested areas—the natural habitat for fruit bats—allowed the previously unknown Nipah virus to spill from bats into pigs and subsequently into people, resulting in more than 100 human deaths (Epstein et al. 2006). There is no doubt that in recent times we have seen an unprecedented number of emerging infectious diseases, defined by the Institute for Medicine as new, reemerging, or drug-resistant infections whose incidence has increased or whose incidence threatens to increase in the near future. Many of these have a wildlife origin (Taylor et al. 2001). While this jump may be due, in part, to increased vigilance and reporting, there is a general consensus that current global conditions are creating a situation that is very favorable to the transmission of microbes that cause diseases. (For reviews, see Daszak et al. 2001 and Keesing et al. 2010). Likewise, it's increasingly important that wildlife professionals become aware of how and why new infectious diseases spread and what, if anything, can be done to minimize impacts on wildlife.

Sleeman, Jonathan; Gillin, Colin

2012-01-01

115

Epidemic patterns of infectious diseases from the results of the surveillance of infectious diseases in Japan.  

PubMed

Epidemic patterns of 12 infectious diseases based on the data derived from the surveillance system of infectious diseases in Japan are analyzed. Weekly numbers of patients per one monitor station (general clinics and hospitals) are calculated by prefecture. Based on these data, the patterns of epidemic are classified into five categories: Category 1, nationwide outbreak of short duration (rotavirus enteritis, hand-foot-mouth disease and herpangina); Category 2, nationwide outbreak of long duration (varicella); Category 3, concurrent outbreaks in several districts (rubella and erythema infectiosum); Category 4, epidemic of long duration in several prefectures at different times (measles, mumps, pertussis, streptococcal infection and atypical pneumonia); Category 5, unclear epidemic pattern (exanthema subitum). PMID:3368259

Nakamura, Y; Yanagawa, H; Nagai, M

1988-04-01

116

The Effect of Global Warming on Infectious Diseases  

PubMed Central

Global warming has various effects on human health. The main indirect effects are on infectious diseases. Although the effects on infectious diseases will be detected worldwide, the degree and types of the effect are different, depending on the location of the respective countries and socioeconomical situations. Among infectious diseases, water- and foodborne infectious diseases and vector-borne infectious diseases are two main categories that are forecasted to be most affected. The effect on vector-borne infectious diseases such as malaria and dengue fever is mainly because of the expansion of the infested areas of vector mosquitoes and increase in the number and feeding activity of infected mosquitoes. There will be increase in the number of cases with water- and foodborne diarrhoeal diseases. Even with the strongest mitigation procedures, global warming cannot be avoided for decades. Therefore, implementation of adaptation measures to the effect of global warming is the most practical action we can take. It is generally accepted that the impacts of global warming on infectious diseases have not been apparent at this point yet in East Asia. However, these impacts will appear in one form or another if global warming continues to progress in future. Further research on the impacts of global warming on infectious diseases and on future prospects should be conducted.

Kurane, Ichiro

2010-01-01

117

Noninvasive biophotonic imaging for studies of infectious disease  

PubMed Central

According to World Health Organization estimates, infectious organisms are responsible for approximately one in four deaths worldwide. Animal models play an essential role in the development of vaccines and therapeutic agents but large numbers of animals are required to obtain quantitative microbiological data by tissue sampling. Biophotonic imaging (BPI) is a highly sensitive, nontoxic technique based on the detection of visible light, produced by luciferase-catalysed reactions (bioluminescence) or by excitation of fluorescent molecules, using sensitive photon detectors. The development of bioluminescent/fluorescent microorganisms therefore allows the real-time noninvasive detection of microorganisms within intact living animals. Multiple imaging of the same animal throughout an experiment allows disease progression to be followed with extreme accuracy, reducing the number of animals required to yield statistically meaningful data. In the study of infectious disease, the use of BPI is becoming widespread due to the novel insights it can provide into established models, as well as the impact of the technique on two of the guiding principles of using animals in research, namely reduction and refinement. Here, we review the technology of BPI, from the instrumentation through to the generation of a photonic signal, and illustrate how the technique is shedding light on infection dynamics in vivo.

Andreu, Nuria; Zelmer, Andrea; Wiles, Siouxsie

2011-01-01

118

Infectious Disease: Connecting Innate Immunity to Biocidal Polymers  

PubMed Central

Infectious disease is a critically important global healthcare issue. In the U.S. alone there are 2 million new cases of hospital-acquired infections annually leading to 90,000 deaths and 5 billion dollars of added healthcare costs. Couple these numbers with the appearance of new antibiotic resistant bacterial strains and the increasing occurrences of community-type outbreaks, and clearly this is an important problem. Our review attempts to bridge the research areas of natural host defense peptides (HDPs), a component of the innate immune system, and biocidal cationic polymers. Recently discovered peptidomimetics and other synthetic mimics of HDPs, that can be short oligomers as well as polymeric macromolecules, provide a unique link between these two areas. An emerging class of these mimics are the facially amphiphilic polymers that aim to emulate the physicochemical properties of HDPs but take advantage of the synthetic ease of polymers. These mimics have been designed with antimicrobial activity and, importantly, selectivity that rivals natural HDPs. In addition to providing some perspective on HDPs, selective mimics, and biocidal polymers, focus is given to the arsenal of biophysical techniques available to study their mode of action and interactions with phospholipid membranes. The issue of lipid type is highlighted and the important role of negative curvature lipids is illustrated. Finally, materials applications (for instance, in the development of permanently antibacterial surfaces) are discussed as this is an important part of controlling the spread of infectious disease.

Gabriel, Gregory J.; Som, Abhigyan; Madkour, Ahmad E.; Eren, Tarik; Tew, Gregory N.

2007-01-01

119

Infectious Diseases and Malnutrition Status in Nepal: an Overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper sheds light on infectious diseases and the status of malnutrition in Nepal, a Himalayan country located in South Asia. In spite of efforts by both Government and non-government sectors, infectious diseases are rampant in the countries constituting a major cause of morbidity and mortality, which in turn, impose a socio-economic and public health burden for the country. Intestinal

Shiba Kumar Rai; Kazuko Hirai; Ayako Abe; Yoshimi Ohno

2002-01-01

120

Spatial heterogeneity and the persistence of infectious diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

The endemic persistence of infectious diseases can often not be understood without taking into account the relevant heterogeneities of host mixing. Here, we consider spatial heterogeneity, defined as ‘patchiness’ of the host population. After briefly reviewing how disease persistence is influenced by population size, reproduction number and infectious period, we explore its dependence on the level of spatial heterogeneity. Analysis

T. J. Hagenaars; C. A. Donnelly; N. M. Ferguson

2004-01-01

121

Cyberinfrastructure for Biodefense and Emerging and Re emerging Infectious Diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

e Cyberinfrastructure Group (CIG) develops and uses methods, infrastructure, and resources to enable scientifi c discoveries in infectious disease research by applying the principles of cyberinfrastructure to integrate data, computational infrastructure, and people (Atkins, 2003). CIG has developed many public resources for curated, diverse molecular and literature data from various infectious disease systems, and implemented the processes, systems, and databases

Chris Bowns; Cory Byrd; Stephen Cammer; Sarah Cousins; Oswald Crasta; Mike Czar; Chitti Dharmanolla; Nataraj Dongre; William Donnell; Matt Dyer; Joe Gabbard; James Gardner; Joe Gillespie; Debby Hix; Ranjan Jha; Ron Kenyon; Christine Lee; Jian Li; Zhiyi Li; Dan Liu; Jian Lu; Shrinivasrao Mane; Bharat Mehrotra; Eric Nordberg; Anjan Purkayastha; Daphne Rainey; Harsha Rajasimha; Vincent Samaco; Mark Scott; João Setubal; Joshua Shallom; Shamira Shallom; Maulik Shukla; Eric Snyder; Bruno Sobral; Jeetendra Soneja; Wei Sun; Yuying Tian; Nirali Vaghela; Rebecca Wattam; Kelly Williams; Tian Xue; Boyu Yang; Hyunseung Yoo; Qiang Yu; Chengdong Zhang; Dan Sullivan; Satish Tadepalli; Sally Waldon; Gongxin Yu; Fengkai Zhang; Yan Zhang; Jing Zhao

122

Stressful life events in childhood and risk of infectious disease hospitalization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Individuals exposed to high levels of stress might have an increased risk of infectious diseases. However, most of the previous\\u000a studies have been conducted among adults. To examine the effect of childhood stress, we conducted a nationwide cohort study\\u000a including all Danish children born from 1977 to 2004. Stressful life events (SFLE) included parental death, death of sibling\\u000a or parental

Nete Munk Nielsen; Anne Vinkel Hansen; Jacob Simonsen; Anders Hviid

123

Telemicrobiology for Mission Support in the Field of Infectious Diseases.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Infectious diseases are among the most common diseases in missions abroad. Their diagnosis requires special procedures and expertise, both provided by the microbiological field laboratories. In order to support the diagnostic process by means of telemedic...

P. Scheid

2010-01-01

124

Endemic tickborne infectious diseases in Louisiana and the Gulf South.  

PubMed

Most emerging infectious diseases today, such as West Nile virus and sudden acute respiratory distress syndrome (SARS), arise from zoonotic reservoirs and many are transmitted by arthropod vectors. Ticks are among the most competent and versatile arthropod vectors of infectious diseases because ticks of all ages and both sexes remain infectious for generations without having to reacquire infections from reservoir hosts. Today, ticks transmit the most common arthropod-borne infectious disease in the United States (US), Lyme disease (LD); and the most lethal arthropod-borne infectious disease in the US, Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF). Both LD and RMSF are endemic in Louisiana and the Gulf South. Ticks have also become frequent vectors of emerging zoonotic diseases in the Gulf South, including southern tick-associated rash illness (STARI), transmitted by the lone star tick, and Maculatum disease, transmitted by the Gulf Coast tick. Recent environmental changes and human lifestyle choices now place humans and ticks together outdoors in the Gulf South for longer periods in welcoming ecosystems for breeding, blood-feeding, and infectious disease transmission. An increasing incidence of emerging and re-emerging, endemic infectious diseases transmitted by existing and unanticipated tick vectors may be expected. PMID:20108827

Diaz, James H

2009-01-01

125

Non-antibiotic therapies for infectious diseases.  

PubMed

The emergence of multiple antibiotic resistant organisms in the general community is a potentially serious threat to public health. The emergence of antibiotic resistance has not yet prompted a radical revision of antibiotic utilisation. Instead it has prompted the development of additional antibiotics. Unfortunately, this does not relieve the underlying selection pressure that drives the development of resistance. A paradigm shift in the treatment of infectious disease is necessary to prevent antibiotics becoming obsolete and, where appropriate, alternatives to antibiotics ought to be considered. There are already several non-antibiotic approaches to the treatment and prevention of infection including probiotics, phages and phytomedicines. There is some evidence that probiotics such as Lactobacillus spp. or Saccharomyces boulardii are useful in the prevention and treatment of diarrhoea, including Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhoea that can be difficult to treat and recurs frequently. Bacteriophages have received renewed attention for the control of both staphylococcal and gastrointestinal infections. Phytomedicines that have been utilised in the treatment of infections include artesunate for malaria, tea tree oil for skin infections, honey for wound infections, mastic gum for Helicobacter pylori gastric ulcers and cranberry juice for urinary tract infections. Many infections may prove amenable to safe and effective treatment with non-antibiotics. PMID:12807291

Carson, Christine F; Riley, Thomas V

2003-01-01

126

Networks and the Epidemiology of Infectious Disease  

PubMed Central

The science of networks has revolutionised research into the dynamics of interacting elements. It could be argued that epidemiology in particular has embraced the potential of network theory more than any other discipline. Here we review the growing body of research concerning the spread of infectious diseases on networks, focusing on the interplay between network theory and epidemiology. The review is split into four main sections, which examine: the types of network relevant to epidemiology; the multitude of ways these networks can be characterised; the statistical methods that can be applied to infer the epidemiological parameters on a realised network; and finally simulation and analytical methods to determine epidemic dynamics on a given network. Given the breadth of areas covered and the ever-expanding number of publications, a comprehensive review of all work is impossible. Instead, we provide a personalised overview into the areas of network epidemiology that have seen the greatest progress in recent years or have the greatest potential to provide novel insights. As such, considerable importance is placed on analytical approaches and statistical methods which are both rapidly expanding fields. Throughout this review we restrict our attention to epidemiological issues.

Danon, Leon; Ford, Ashley P.; House, Thomas; Jewell, Chris P.; Keeling, Matt J.; Roberts, Gareth O.; Ross, Joshua V.; Vernon, Matthew C.

2011-01-01

127

75 FR 56117 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting  

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2010-09-15

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78 FR 65344 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting  

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2013-10-31

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2013-02-08

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2013-05-02

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2013-05-10

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77 FR 29678 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting  

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2012-05-18

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2011-11-10

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78 FR 737 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting  

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2013-01-04

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75 FR 10488 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings  

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2010-03-08

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75 FR 41212 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings  

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75 FR 16816 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings  

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2011-12-21

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77 FR 59940 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings  

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2012-10-01

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75 FR 30046 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings  

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2011-01-27

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76 FR 21754 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings  

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2011-04-18

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2012-02-24

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2010-04-09

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76 FR 63933 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

2011-10-14

150

75 FR 54895 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

2010-09-09

151

77 FR 50139 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

2012-08-20

152

75 FR 57972 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...conducted by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, including consideration...Intramural Research, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, NIH,...

2010-09-23

153

75 FR 28260 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

2010-05-20

154

77 FR 10541 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

2012-02-22

155

76 FR 52670 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

2011-08-23

156

78 FR 28858 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

2013-05-16

157

76 FR 18230 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

2011-04-01

158

77 FR 69639 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

2012-11-20

159

75 FR 69451 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

2010-11-12

160

75 FR 48978 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Meetings...given of meetings of the National Advisory Allergy and Infectious Diseases Council. The...Name of Committee: National Advisory Allergy and Infectious Diseases Council....

2010-08-12

161

77 FR 297 - National Institute of Allergy And Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy And Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

2012-01-04

162

78 FR 27976 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

2013-05-13

163

75 FR 7488 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

2010-02-19

164

76 FR 72959 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings.  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...of Copmmittee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

2011-11-28

165

78 FR 38998 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

2013-06-28

166

76 FR 53688 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

2011-08-29

167

77 FR 52338 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

2012-08-29

168

78 FR 59707 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

2013-09-27

169

76 FR 63311 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

2011-10-12

170

78 FR 39300 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

2013-07-01

171

75 FR 13769 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

2010-03-23

172

76 FR 22112 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

2011-04-20

173

75 FR 7487 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

2010-02-19

174

78 FR 52778 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

2013-08-26

175

76 FR 35224 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

2011-06-16

176

78 FR 11897 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

2013-02-20

177

78 FR 29373 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

2013-05-20

178

78 FR 33428 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

2013-06-04

179

77 FR 58851 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...conducted by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, including consideration...Intramural Research, National Institute of Allergy, and Infectious Diseases, NIH,...

2012-09-24

180

75 FR 59276 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

2010-09-27

181

76 FR 17928 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

2011-03-31

182

75 FR 18510 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

2010-04-12

183

77 FR 12604 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

2012-03-01

184

77 FR 72364 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

2012-12-05

185

76 FR 60509 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

2011-09-29

186

77 FR 14028 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

2012-03-08

187

76 FR 45586 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...conducted by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, including consideration...Intramural Research, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, NIH,...

2011-07-29

188

75 FR 993 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

2010-01-07

189

76 FR 66731 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

2011-10-27

190

75 FR 19408 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

2010-04-14

191

75 FR 994 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

2010-01-07

192

77 FR 4051 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

2012-01-26

193

78 FR 75928 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

2013-12-13

194

75 FR 53321 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

2010-08-31

195

78 FR 41939 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

2013-07-12

196

78 FR 76847 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

2013-12-19

197

76 FR 58024 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

2011-09-19

198

76 FR 53691 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

2011-08-29

199

76 FR 75552 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

2011-12-02

200

78 FR 77473 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

2013-12-23

201

78 FR 108 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

2013-01-02

202

77 FR 48165 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

2012-08-13

203

77 FR 68136 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

2012-11-15

204

75 FR 54891 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

2010-09-09

205

76 FR 67749 - National Institute of Allergy And Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy And Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

2011-11-02

206

78 FR 62640 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

2013-10-22

207

76 FR 54240 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

2011-08-31

208

77 FR 14816 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

2012-03-13

209

77 FR 13133 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

2012-03-05

210

78 FR 63999 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

2013-10-25

211

75 FR 3472 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...personal privacy. Name of Committee: Microbiology, Infectious Diseases and AIDS Initial Review Group; Microbiology and Infectious Diseases B Subcommittee...Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases...

2010-01-21

212

77 FR 2736 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...personal privacy. Name of Committee: Microbiology, Infectious Diseases and AIDS Initial Review Group; Microbiology and Infectious Diseases B Subcommittee...Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases...

2012-01-19

213

77 FR 298 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...nih.gov. Name of Committee: Microbiology, Infectious Diseases and AIDS Initial Review Group; Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research...Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases...

2012-01-04

214

78 FR 6126 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...personal privacy. Name of Committee: Microbiology, Infectious Diseases and AIDS Initial Review Group, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases B Subcommittee...Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases...

2013-01-29

215

77 FR 56660 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...personal privacy. Name of Committee: Microbiology, Infectious Diseases and AIDS Initial Review Group; Microbiology and Infectious Diseases B Subcommittee...nih.gov. Name of Committee: Microbiology, Infectious Diseases and AIDS...

2012-09-13

216

76 FR 28997 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...personal privacy. Name of Committee: Microbiology, Infectious Diseases and AIDS Initial Review Group,Microbiology and Infectious Diseases B Subcommittee...Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases...

2011-05-19

217

76 FR 2128 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...personal privacy. Name of Committee: Microbiology, Infectious Diseases and AIDS Initial Review Group. Microbiology and Infectious Diseases B Subcommittee...Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases...

2011-01-12

218

77 FR 28398 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Notice of Closed Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...personal privacy. Name of Committee: Microbiology, Infectious Diseases and AIDS Initial Review Group, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases B Subcommittee...Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases...

2012-05-14

219

76 FR 28443 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...nih.gov. Name of Committee: Microbiology, Infectious Diseases and AIDS Initial Review Group, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research...Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases...

2011-05-17

220

Emerging and Reemerging Infectious Diseases: A Global Problem  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The issue-focused interview reflects on how infectious diseases, such as SARS and AIDS, are a more serious global problem than in the past because: urban populations are growing, thereby increasing opportunities for person-to-person transmittal of these diseases, people are more prone to be in contact with animals that may pass on zoonotic diseases, and public health services may not be equipped to deal with some infectious outbreaks.

Stephen Morse (Mailman School of Public Health of Columbia University;)

2004-05-01

221

Dynamics of Indirectly Transmitted Infectious Diseases with Immunological Threshold  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are numerous examples of human pathogens which persist in environmental reservoirs while infectious outbreaks remain rare. In this manuscript, we consider the dynamics of infectious diseases for which the primary mode of transmission is indirect and mediated by contact with a contaminated reservoir. We evaluate the realistic scenario in which the number of ingested pathogens must be above a

Richard I. Joh; Hao Wang; Howard Weiss; Joshua S. Weitz

2008-01-01

222

76 FR 58522 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...of Committee: Microbiology, Infectious Diseases and AIDS Initial Review Group, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases B Subcommittee. Date: October...Place: Bethesda North Marriott Hotel & Conference Center, 5701...

2011-09-21

223

Infectious diseases associated with complement deficiencies.  

PubMed Central

The complement system consists of both plasma and membrane proteins. The former influence the inflammatory response, immune modulation, and host defense. The latter are complement receptors, which mediate the cellular effects of complement activation, and regulatory proteins, which protect host cells from complement-mediated injury. Complement activation occurs via either the classical or the alternative pathway, which converge at the level of C3 and share a sequence of terminal components. Four aspects of the complement cascade are critical to its function and regulation: (i) activation of the classical pathway, (ii) activation of the alternative pathway, (iii) C3 convertase formation and C3 deposition, and (iv) membrane attack complex assembly and insertion. In general, mechanisms evolved by pathogenic microbes to resist the effects of complement are targeted to these four steps. Because individual complement proteins subserve unique functional activities and are activated in a sequential manner, complement deficiency states are associated with predictable defects in complement-dependent functions. These deficiency states can be grouped by which of the above four mechanisms they disrupt. They are distinguished by unique epidemiologic, clinical, and microbiologic features and are most prevalent in patients with certain rheumatologic and infectious diseases. Ethnic background and the incidence of infection are important cofactors determining this prevalence. Although complement undoubtedly plays a role in host defense against many microbial pathogens, it appears most important in protection against encapsulated bacteria, especially Neisseria meningitidis but also Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and, to a lesser extent, Neisseria gonorrhoeae. The availability of effective polysaccharide vaccines and antibiotics provides an immunologic and chemotherapeutic rationale for preventing and treating infection in patients with these deficiencies.

Figueroa, J E; Densen, P

1991-01-01

224

Day Old Vaccination Against Infectious Bursal Disease in Broiler Chickens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Infectious bursal disease (IBD) also known as Gumboro disease is an important viral disease in poultry industry due to significant economic losses resulting from high mortality and immunosuppression. The disease can only be controlled and prevented by proper vaccination and biosecurity. It was the objective of the study to determine the efficacy of an \\

2004-01-01

225

Return to play after acute infectious disease in football players.  

PubMed

Abstract Acute infectious diseases are common in athletes and can impair their ability to train and to compete. Furthermore, continuing exercise during infectious diseases may lead to prolongation or aggravation of illness with severe acute or chronic organ manifestations. Therefore, even simple infectious diseases require a sufficient period of convalescence and recovery, during which exercise may be not allowed. Nowadays, especially in professional football with high pressures on players, staff and clubs due to broad public interests as well as financial constraints, the return-to-play decision is of utmost significance. Based on previous suggestions and our own experience within amateur and professional athletes and football players, this article aims to give a short overview on return-to-play decisions after common acute infectious diseases in football players. PMID:24784357

Scharhag, Jürgen; Meyer, Tim

2014-07-01

226

Large-Scale Phylogenetic Analysis of Emerging Infectious Diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microorganisms that cause infectious diseases present critical issues of national security, public health, and economic welfare.\\u000a For example, in recent years, highly pathogenic strains of avian influenza have emerged in Asia, spread through Eastern Europe,\\u000a and threaten to become pandemic. As demonstrated by the coordinated response to Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) and\\u000a influenza, agents of infectious disease are being

D. Janies; D. Pol

227

Mapping Climate Change Vulnerabilities to Infectious Diseases in Europe  

PubMed Central

Background: The incidence, outbreak frequency, and distribution of many infectious diseases are generally expected to change as a consequence of climate change, yet there is limited regional information available to guide decision making. Objective: We surveyed government officials designated as Competent Bodies for Scientific Advice concerning infectious diseases to examine the degree to which they are concerned about potential effects of climate change on infectious diseases, as well as their perceptions of institutional capacities in their respective countries. Methods: In 2007 and 2009/2010, national infectious disease experts from 30 European Economic Area countries were surveyed about recent and projected infectious disease patterns in relation to climate change in their countries and the national capacity to cope with them. Results: A large majority of respondents agreed that climate change would affect vector-borne (86% of country representatives), food-borne (70%), water-borne (68%), and rodent-borne (68%) diseases in their countries. In addition, most indicated that institutional improvements are needed for ongoing surveillance programs (83%), collaboration with the veterinary sector (69%), management of animal disease outbreaks (66%), national monitoring and control of climate-sensitive infectious diseases (64%), health services during an infectious disease outbreak (61%), and diagnostic support during an epidemic (54%). Conclusions: Expert responses were generally consistent with the peer-reviewed literature regarding the relationship between climate change and vector- and water-borne diseases, but were less so for food-borne diseases. Shortcomings in institutional capacity to manage climate change vulnerability, identified in this assessment, should be addressed in impact, vulnerability, and adaptation assessments.

Suk, Jonathan E.; Estevez, Virginia; Ebi, Kristie L.; Lindgren, Elisabet

2011-01-01

228

A PubMed-Wide Associational Study of Infectious Diseases  

PubMed Central

Background Computational discovery is playing an ever-greater role in supporting the processes of knowledge synthesis. A significant proportion of the more than 18 million manuscripts indexed in the PubMed database describe infectious disease syndromes and various infectious agents. This study is the first attempt to integrate online repositories of text-based publications and microbial genome databases in order to explore the dynamics of relationships between pathogens and infectious diseases. Methodology/Principal Findings Herein we demonstrate how the knowledge space of infectious diseases can be computationally represented and quantified, and tracked over time. The knowledge space is explored by mapping of the infectious disease literature, looking at dynamics of literature deposition, zooming in from pathogen to genome level and searching for new associations. Syndromic signatures for different pathogens can be created to enable a new and clinically focussed reclassification of the microbial world. Examples of syndrome and pathogen networks illustrate how multilevel network representations of the relationships between infectious syndromes, pathogens and pathogen genomes can illuminate unexpected biological similarities in disease pathogenesis and epidemiology. Conclusions/Significance This new approach based on text and data mining can support the discovery of previously hidden associations between diseases and microbial pathogens, clinically relevant reclassification of pathogenic microorganisms and accelerate the translational research enterprise.

Sintchenko, Vitali; Anthony, Stephen; Phan, Xuan-Hieu; Lin, Frank; Coiera, Enrico W.

2010-01-01

229

78 FR 5467 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel...Predictive Modeling of Infectious. Date: February 25-27...Sheraton Silver Spring Hotel, 8777 Georgia Avenue...Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research,...

2013-01-25

230

[Breastfeeding and infectious diseases: state of the art].  

PubMed

Despite the well-known nutritive, psychological, immunological and economical benefits of breast-feeding, some contraindications exist, such as some mother infectious diseases transmitted through the breastfeeding itself. The risk of transmitting an infectious agent through breast milk seems to be relatively low, except for some virus diseases (CMV HIV), for some invasive bacteria forms (Salmonella typhimurium and Brucella) and for the presence of abscesses and mastitis. In some mother infectious disease, a correct hygiene allows the continuation of breastfeeding without risks for the infant, whereas in other cases it is recommended to breastfeed for the role of defence carried out from specific antibodies contained in the breast milk. Therefore, the decision of interrupting the breastfeeding may be done only after comparing risks and benefits, considering current knowledge on transmission of infectious pathologies. PMID:20940673

Zuppa, A A; Antichi, E; Fracchiolla, A; Carducci, C; Catenazzi, P; Romagnoli, C

2010-08-01

231

Modelling infectious disease — time to think outside the box?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Models occupy an essential position in the study of infectious disease as a result of the ethical problems of exposing humans to potentially lethal agents. Deliberately induced infections in well-defined animal models provide much useful information about disease processes in an approximation of their natural context. Despite this, animal models are not the natural disease process, and recent experimental advances

William P. Hanage; Gad Frankel; Brian Robertson; Siouxsie Wiles

2006-01-01

232

SPATIAL DYNAMICS OF LAND COVER AND INFECTIOUS DISEASE RISK  

EPA Science Inventory

Climate changes may allow for vector-transmitted tropical diseases to spread into temperate areas. Areas of low ecological diversity are at higher risk of infectious disease transmission due to decreased zooprophylaxis, the diversion of disease carrying insects from humans to ...

233

Modeling rapidly disseminating infectious disease during mass gatherings  

PubMed Central

We discuss models for rapidly disseminating infectious diseases during mass gatherings (MGs), using influenza as a case study. Recent innovations in modeling and forecasting influenza transmission dynamics at local, regional, and global scales have made influenza a particularly attractive model scenario for MG. We discuss the behavioral, medical, and population factors for modeling MG disease transmission, review existing model formulations, and highlight key data and modeling gaps related to modeling MG disease transmission. We argue that the proposed improvements will help integrate infectious-disease models in MG health contingency plans in the near future, echoing modeling efforts that have helped shape influenza pandemic preparedness plans in recent years.

2012-01-01

234

Recommendations for Training and Certification for Pharmacists Practicing, Mentoring, and Educating in Infectious Diseases Pharmacotherapy Joint Opinion of the Society of Infectious Diseases Pharmacists and the Infectious Diseases Practice and Research Network of the American College of Clinical Pharmacy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently created guidelines for the development of institutional antimicrobial stewardship programs recommend that a pharmacist with infectious diseases training be included as a core member of the antimicrobial stewardship team. However, training and certification requirements for infectious diseases - trained clinical pharmacists have not been established. Although pharmacists have nurtured their interest in infectious diseases by self-directed learning or on-the-job

Erika J. Ernst; Michael E. Klepser; John A. Bosso; Michael J. Rybak; Elizabeth D. Hermsen; Marisel Segarra-Newnham; Richard H. Drew

2009-01-01

235

Infectious diseases following natural disasters: prevention and control measures.  

PubMed

Natural disasters may lead to infectious disease outbreaks when they result in substantial population displacement and exacerbate synergic risk factors (change in the environment, in human conditions and in the vulnerability to existing pathogens) for disease transmission. We reviewed risk factors and potential infectious diseases resulting from prolonged secondary effects of major natural disasters that occurred from 2000 to 2011. Natural disasters including floods, tsunamis, earthquakes, tropical cyclones (e.g., hurricanes and typhoons) and tornadoes have been secondarily described with the following infectious diseases including diarrheal diseases, acute respiratory infections, malaria, leptospirosis, measles, dengue fever, viral hepatitis, typhoid fever, meningitis, as well as tetanus and cutaneous mucormycosis. Risk assessment is essential in post-disaster situations and the rapid implementation of control measures through re-establishment and improvement of primary healthcare delivery should be given high priority, especially in the absence of pre-disaster surveillance data. PMID:22149618

Kouadio, Isidore K; Aljunid, Syed; Kamigaki, Taro; Hammad, Karen; Oshitani, Hitoshi

2012-01-01

236

Pediatric malignancies presenting as a possible infectious disease  

PubMed Central

Background The clinical, laboratory, and radiological features of malignancy can overlap with those of infection. The purpose of this study was to determine the findings in children who were initially thought to have an infectious disease but ultimately proved to have a malignancy. Methods The database of patients diagnosed with a malignancy in the Northern Alberta Children's Cancer Program (NACCP) January 1, 1993 to December 31, 2003 was merged with the database of inpatients referred to the infectious diseases service at the Stollery Children's Hospital and charts were reviewed on all patients referred to the infectious diseases consult service prior to the diagnosis of malignancy. Results An infectious diseases consultation for diagnosis was requested in 21 of 561 patients prior to the confirmation of malignancy, and 3 of these 21 patients had both infection and malignancy (leukemia (N = 13), lymphoma (N = 3), rhabdomyosarcoma (N = 1), Langerhan's cell histiocytosis (N = 1), fibrous histicocytosis (N = 1), ependymoma (N = 1), and neuroblastoma (N = 1). The most common reason for infectious diseases consultation was suspected muskuloskeletal infection (N = 9). A palpable or radiographically enlarged spleen was noted in 11 patients (52%). All but 2 patients had abnormal hematologic parameters while an elevated lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) occurred in 10 patients (48%). Delay of diagnosis because of investigation or therapy for an infectious disease occurred in only 2 patients. Conclusion It is not common for treatment of pediatric malignancies to be delayed because infection is thought to be the primary diagnosis. However, pediatric infectious diseases physicians should consider malignancy in the differential diagnosis when they see patients with fever and bone pain, unexplained splenomegaly or abnormal complete blood cell counts. Other clues may include hepatomegaly or elevated LDH.

Forgie, Sarah E; Robinson, Joan L

2007-01-01

237

After 2015: infectious diseases in a new era of health and development  

PubMed Central

Running over timescales that span decades or centuries, the epidemiological transition provides the central narrative of global health. In this transition, a reduction in mortality is followed by a reduction in fertility, creating larger, older populations in which the main causes of illness and death are no longer acute infections of children but chronic diseases of adults. Since the year 2000, the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) have provided a framework for accelerating the decline of infectious diseases, backed by a massive injection of foreign investment to low-income countries. Despite the successes of the MDGs era, the inhabitants of low-income countries still suffer an enormous burden of disease owing to diarrhoea, pneumonia, HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, malaria and other pathogens. Adding to the predictable burden of endemic disease, the threat of pandemics is ever-present and global. With a view to the future, this review spotlights five aspects of the fight against infection beyond 2015, when the MDGs will be replaced by a new set of goals for poverty reduction and sustainable development. These aspects are: exploiting the biological links between infectious and non-infectious diseases; controlling infections among the new urban majority; enhancing the response to international health threats; expanding childhood immunization programmes to prevent acute and chronic diseases in adults; and working towards universal health coverage. By scanning the wider horizon now, infectious disease specialists have the chance to shape the post-2015 era of health and development.

Dye, Christopher

2014-01-01

238

After 2015: infectious diseases in a new era of health and development.  

PubMed

Running over timescales that span decades or centuries, the epidemiological transition provides the central narrative of global health. In this transition, a reduction in mortality is followed by a reduction in fertility, creating larger, older populations in which the main causes of illness and death are no longer acute infections of children but chronic diseases of adults. Since the year 2000, the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) have provided a framework for accelerating the decline of infectious diseases, backed by a massive injection of foreign investment to low-income countries. Despite the successes of the MDGs era, the inhabitants of low-income countries still suffer an enormous burden of disease owing to diarrhoea, pneumonia, HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, malaria and other pathogens. Adding to the predictable burden of endemic disease, the threat of pandemics is ever-present and global. With a view to the future, this review spotlights five aspects of the fight against infection beyond 2015, when the MDGs will be replaced by a new set of goals for poverty reduction and sustainable development. These aspects are: exploiting the biological links between infectious and non-infectious diseases; controlling infections among the new urban majority; enhancing the response to international health threats; expanding childhood immunization programmes to prevent acute and chronic diseases in adults; and working towards universal health coverage. By scanning the wider horizon now, infectious disease specialists have the chance to shape the post-2015 era of health and development. PMID:24821913

Dye, Christopher

2014-01-01

239

Dynamics of Indirectly Transmitted Infectious Diseases with Immunological Threshold  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are numerous examples of human pathogens which persist in environmental reservoirs while infectious outbreaks remain\\u000a rare. In this manuscript, we consider the dynamics of infectious diseases for which the primary mode of transmission is indirect\\u000a and mediated by contact with a contaminated reservoir. We evaluate the realistic scenario in which the number of ingested\\u000a pathogens must be above a

Richard I. Joh; Hao Wang; Howard Weiss; Joshua S. Weitz

2009-01-01

240

Transmission Heterogeneity and Control Strategies for Infectious Disease Emergence  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundThe control of emergence and spread of infectious diseases depends critically on the details of the genetic makeup of pathogens and hosts, their immunological, behavioral and ecological traits, and the pattern of temporal and spatial contacts among the age\\/stage-classes of susceptible and infectious host individuals.Methods and FindingsWe show that failing to acknowledge the existence of heterogeneities in the transmission rate

Luca Bolzoni; Leslie Real; Giulio de Leo; Matthew Baylis

2007-01-01

241

Infectious and zoonotic disease testing in pet birds.  

PubMed

Pet bird ownership and the veterinary diagnostic market for avian and exotic species testing have grown markedly during the past 20 years. Birds present with both unique infectious diseases and other diseases that are known to the human medical community, including aspergillosis, mycobacteriosis, chlamydophilosis, and bornavirus infection, some of which have clear zoonotic implications. Although diagnostic testing for these avian infectious diseases has grown considerably and includes the newer technology of polymerase chain reaction as well as traditional serologic testing, guidelines for the use and interpretation of these tests and standardization of tests among veterinary laboratories remains an unmet challenge. PMID:21295723

Cray, Carolyn

2011-03-01

242

Perspectives of public health laboratories in emerging infectious diseases  

PubMed Central

The world has experienced an increased incidence and transboundary spread of emerging infectious diseases over the last four decades. We divided emerging infectious diseases into four categories, with subcategories in categories 1 and 4. The categorization was based on the nature and characteristics of pathogens or infectious agents causing the emerging infections, which are directly related to the mechanisms and patterns of infectious disease emergence. The factors or combinations of factors contributing to the emergence of these pathogens vary within each category. We also classified public health laboratories into three types based on function, namely, research, reference and analytical diagnostic laboratories, with the last category being subclassified into primary (community-based) public health and clinical (medical) analytical diagnostic laboratories. The frontline/leading and/or supportive roles to be adopted by each type of public health laboratory for optimal performance to establish the correct etiological agents causing the diseases or outbreaks vary with respect to each category of emerging infectious diseases. We emphasize the need, especially for an outbreak investigation, to establish a harmonized and coordinated national public health laboratory system that integrates different categories of public health laboratories within a country and that is closely linked to the national public health delivery system and regional and international high-end laboratories.

Chua, Kaw Bing; Gubler, Duane J

2013-01-01

243

Travel and migration associated infectious diseases morbidity in Europe, 2008  

PubMed Central

Background Europeans represent the majority of international travellers and clinicians encountering returned patients have an essential role in recognizing, and communicating travel-associated public health risks. Methods To investigate the morbidity of travel associated infectious diseases in European travellers, we analysed diagnoses with demographic, clinical and travel-related predictors of disease, in 6957 ill returned travellers who presented in 2008 to EuroTravNet centres with a presumed travel associated condition. Results Gastro-intestinal (GI) diseases accounted for 33% of illnesses, followed by febrile systemic illnesses (20%), dermatological conditions (12%) and respiratory illnesses (8%). There were 3 deaths recorded; a sepsis caused by Escherichia coli pyelonephritis, a dengue shock syndrome and a Plasmodium falciparum malaria. GI conditions included bacterial acute diarrhea (6.9%), as well as giardiasis and amebasis (2.3%). Among febrile systemic illnesses with identified pathogens, malaria (5.4%) accounted for most cases followed by dengue (1.9%) and others including chikungunya, rickettsial diseases, leptospirosis, brucellosis, Epstein Barr virus infections, tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) and viral hepatitis. Dermatological conditions were dominated by bacterial infections, arthropod bites, cutaneous larva migrans and animal bites requiring rabies post-exposure prophylaxis and also leishmaniasis, myasis, tungiasis and one case of leprosy. Respiratory illness included 112 cases of tuberculosis including cases of multi-drug resistant or extensively drug resistant tuberculosis, 104 cases of influenza like illness, and 5 cases of Legionnaires disease. Sexually transmitted infections (STI) accounted for 0.6% of total diagnoses and included HIV infection and syphilis. A total of 165 cases of potentially vaccine preventable diseases were reported. Purpose of travel and destination specific risk factors was identified for several diagnoses such as Chagas disease in immigrant travellers from South America and P. falciparum malaria in immigrants from sub-Saharan Africa. Travel within Europe was also associated with health risks with distinctive profiles for Eastern and Western Europe. Conclusions In 2008, a broad spectrum of travel associated diseases were diagnosed at EuroTravNet core sites. Diagnoses varied according to regions visited by ill travellers. The spectrum of travel associated morbidity also shows that there is a need to dispel the misconception that travel, close to home, in Europe, is without significant health risk.

2010-01-01

244

Incidence and Impact of Selected Infectious Diseases in Childhood.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report provides estimates of the lifetime and annual incidence of certain infectious diseases of children in various demographic groups. Data on the social and health care impact of the diseases in terms of limited activity, days spent in bed, school days lost, contacts with physicians, hospitalizations, surgery, and use of medication are…

Vital and Health Statistics, 1991

1991-01-01

245

Coronary artery disease: an inflammatory or infectious process  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is well accepted that coronary artery disease is linked to an inflammatory process. It is unknown which agents may cause or accelerate coronary artery disease. An inflammation of the vessel wall may be caused by a number of mechanisms such as accumulation of glycosylated proteins in diabetic patients, oxidised LDL in patients with hypercholesterolemia or infectious agents. Among the

J. Jahn; K. Dalhoff; H. A. Katus

2000-01-01

246

Regulators of cell death in disease resistance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cell death and disease resistance are intimately connected in plants. Plant disease resistance genes (R genes) are key components in pathogen perception and have a potential to activate cell death pathways. Analysis of R proteins suggests common molecular mechanisms for pathogen recognition and signal emission whereas the subsequent signalling unexpectedly involves a network of pathways of parallel, branching and converging

Ken Shirasu; Paul Schulze-Lefert

2000-01-01

247

Combating infectious diseases of poverty: a year on  

PubMed Central

The Infectious Diseases of Poverty journal, launched a year ago, is a platform to engage outside the traditional disciplinary boundaries, and disseminate high quality science towards the improvement of health. This paper reviews the milestone achievements during its first year of operation. The journal has filled an important niche, addressing some of the main priorities in the Global Report for Research on Infectious Diseases of Poverty. Highlights include the publication of three thematic issues on health systems, surveillance and response systems, as well as co-infection and syndemics. The thematic issues have foregrounded the importance and innovation that can be achieved through transdisciplinary research. The journal has been indexed by PubMed since April 2013, with the publication of a total of 38 articles. Finally, the journal is delivering to wider range readers both in developing and developed countries with sustained efforts with a focus on relevant and strategic information towards elimination of infectious diseases of poverty.

2013-01-01

248

Trends in Notifiable Infectious Diseases in China: Implications for Surveillance and Population Health Policy  

PubMed Central

This study aimed to analyse trends in notifiable infectious diseases in China, in their historical context. Both English and Chinese literature was searched and diseases were categorised according to the type of disease or transmission route. Temporal trends of morbidity and mortality rates were calculated for eight major infectious diseases types. Strong government commitment to public health responses and improvements in quality of life has led to the eradication or containment of a wide range of infectious diseases in China. The overall infectious diseases burden experienced a dramatic drop during 1975–1995, but since then, it reverted and maintained a gradual upward trend to date. Most notifiable diseases are contained at a low endemic level; however, local small-scale outbreaks remain common. Tuberculosis, as a bacterial infection, has re-emerged since the 1990s and has become prevalent in the country. Sexually transmitted infections are in a rapid, exponential growth phase, spreading from core groups to the general population. Together human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), they account for 39% of all death cases due to infectious diseases in China in 2008. Zoonotic infections, such as severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), rabies and influenza, pose constant threats to Chinese residents and remain the most deadly disease type among the infected individuals. Therefore, second-generation surveillance of behavioural risks or vectors associated with pathogen transmission should be scaled up. It is necessary to implement public health interventions that target HIV and relevant coinfections, address transmission associated with highly mobile populations, and reduce the risk of cross-species transmission of zoonotic pathogens.

Zhang, Lei; Wilson, David P.

2012-01-01

249

The Value of Infectious Diseases Consultation in Staphylococcus aureus Bacteremia  

PubMed Central

Background Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia results in substantial mortality. Infectious diseases specialist consultation can improve adherence to evidence-based management of S. aureus bacteremia, but its effect on mortality is unclear. Methods We performed a 2-year prospective cohort study of patients with S. aureus bacteremia at a large, tertiary care hospital. Patients who died within 2 days of diagnosis were excluded. Independent risk factors for 28-day mortality were determined. Results Among 341 patients with S. aureus bacteremia, 189 (55%) were male; 196 (58%) were Caucasian; 185 (54%) had methicillin-resistant S. aureus; 108 (32%) had nosocomial bacteremia; and 231 (68%) had a central venous catheter at the time of diagnosis. The median age was 56 years (range 22-95). One hundred eleven (33%) patients had an infectious diseases consultation. Fifty-four (16%) patients died with 28 days after diagnosis. Factors associated with mortality were intensive care unit admission ? 48 hours after the first positive blood culture [adjusted hazard ratio (aHR), 4.65; 95% confidence interval (CI), 2.65-8.18], cirrhosis (aHR, 4.44; 95% CI, 2.40-8.20), and advanced age (aHR, 1.27 per every 10 years of age; 95% CI, 1.08-1.50). Infectious diseases consultation was associated with a 56% reduction in 28-day mortality (aHR, 0.44; 95% CI, 0.22-0.89). Conclusion Only one-third of patients with S. aureus bacteremia in this cohort had an infectious diseases specialist consultation. Infectious diseases consultation was independently associated with a reduction in 28-day mortality. Routine infectious diseases consultation should be considered for patients with S. aureus bacteremia, especially those with higher severity of illness or multiple co-morbidities.

Honda, Hitoshi; Krauss, Melissa J; Jones, Jeffrey C.; Olsen, Margaret A; Warren, David K

2013-01-01

250

SOCS proteins in infectious diseases of mammals.  

PubMed

As for most biological processes, the immune response to microbial infections has to be tightly controlled to remain beneficial for the host. Inflammation is one of the major consequences of the host's immune response. For its orchestration, this process requires a fine-tuned interplay between interleukins, endothelial cells and various types of recruited immune cells. Suppressors of cytokine signalling (SOCS) proteins are crucially involved in the complex control of the inflammatory response through their actions on various signalling pathways including the JAK/STAT and NF-?B pathways. Due to their cytokine regulatory functions, they are frequent targets for exploitation by infectious agents trying to escape the host's immune response. This review article aims to summarize our current knowledge regarding SOCS family members in the different mammalian species studied so far, and to display their complex molecular interactions with microbial pathogens. PMID:23219158

Delgado-Ortega, Mario; Marc, Daniel; Dupont, Joëlle; Trapp, Sascha; Berri, Mustapha; Meurens, François

2013-01-15

251

Diseases and Causes of Death in European Bats: Dynamics in Disease Susceptibility and Infection Rates  

PubMed Central

Background Bats receive increasing attention in infectious disease studies, because of their well recognized status as reservoir species for various infectious agents. This is even more important, as bats with their capability of long distance dispersal and complex social structures are unique in the way microbes could be spread by these mammalian species. Nevertheless, infection studies in bats are predominantly limited to the identification of specific pathogens presenting a potential health threat to humans. But the impact of infectious agents on the individual host and their importance on bat mortality is largely unknown and has been neglected in most studies published to date. Methodology/Principal Findings Between 2002 and 2009, 486 deceased bats of 19 European species (family Vespertilionidae) were collected in different geographic regions in Germany. Most animals represented individual cases that have been incidentally found close to roosting sites or near human habitation in urban and urban-like environments. The bat carcasses were subjected to a post-mortem examination and investigated histo-pathologically, bacteriologically and virologically. Trauma and disease represented the most important causes of death in these bats. Comparative analysis of pathological findings and microbiological results show that microbial agents indeed have an impact on bats succumbing to infectious diseases, with fatal bacterial, viral and parasitic infections found in at least 12% of the bats investigated. Conclusions/Significance Our data demonstrate the importance of diseases and infectious agents as cause of death in European bat species. The clear seasonal and individual variations in disease prevalence and infection rates indicate that maternity colonies are more susceptible to infectious agents, underlining the possible important role of host physiology, immunity and roosting behavior as risk factors for infection of bats.

Muhldorfer, Kristin; Speck, Stephanie; Kurth, Andreas; Lesnik, Rene; Freuling, Conrad; Muller, Thomas; Kramer-Schadt, Stephanie; Wibbelt, Gudrun

2011-01-01

252

Climate variability and outbreaks of infectious diseases in Europe  

PubMed Central

Several studies provide evidence of a link between vector-borne disease outbreaks and El Niño driven climate anomalies. Less investigated are the effects of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO). Here, we test its impact on outbreak occurrences of 13 infectious diseases over Europe during the last fifty years, controlling for potential bias due to increased surveillance and detection. NAO variation statistically influenced the outbreak occurrence of eleven of the infectious diseases. Seven diseases were associated with winter NAO positive phases in northern Europe, and therefore with above-average temperatures and precipitation. Two diseases were associated with the summer or spring NAO negative phases in northern Europe, and therefore with below-average temperatures and precipitation. Two diseases were associated with summer positive or negative NAO phases in southern Mediterranean countries. These findings suggest that there is potential for developing early warning systems, based on climatic variation information, for improved outbreak control and management.

Morand, Serge; Owers, Katharine A.; Waret-Szkuta, Agnes; McIntyre, K. Marie; Baylis, Matthew

2013-01-01

253

Infectious disease agents mediate interaction in food webs and ecosystems.  

PubMed

Infectious agents are part of food webs and ecosystems via the relationship with their host species that, in turn, interact with both hosts and non-hosts. Through these interactions, infectious agents influence food webs in terms of structure, functioning and stability. The present literature shows a broad range of impacts of infectious agents on food webs, and by cataloguing that range, we worked towards defining the various mechanisms and their specific effects. To explore the impact, a direct approach is to study changes in food-web properties with infectious agents as separate species in the web, acting as additional nodes, with links to their host species. An indirect approach concentrates not on adding new nodes and links, but on the ways that infectious agents affect the existing links across host and non-host nodes, by influencing the 'quality' of consumer-resource interaction as it depends on the epidemiological state host involved. Both approaches are natural from an ecological point of view, but the indirect approach may connect more straightforwardly to commonly used tools in infectious disease dynamics. PMID:24403336

Selakovic, Sanja; de Ruiter, Peter C; Heesterbeek, Hans

2014-02-22

254

75 FR 12769 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel...in Immune- Mediated Diseases. Date: April 7-8...Place: Crowne Plaza Hotel--Silver Spring...Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research,...

2010-03-17

255

76 FR 6628 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel; Asthma and Allergic Diseases Cooperative Research...Place: Crowne Plaza Hotel--Silver Spring...Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research,...

2011-02-07

256

Spontaneous Generation of Infectious Prion Disease in Transgenic Mice  

PubMed Central

We generated transgenic mice expressing bovine cellular prion protein (PrPC) with a leucine substitution at codon 113 (113L). This protein is homologous to human protein with mutation 102L, and its genetic link with Gerstmann–Sträussler–Scheinker syndrome has been established. This mutation in bovine PrPC causes a fully penetrant, lethal, spongiform encephalopathy. This genetic disease was transmitted by intracerebral inoculation of brain homogenate from ill mice expressing mutant bovine PrP to mice expressing wild-type bovine PrP, which indicated de novo generation of infectious prions. Our findings demonstrate that a single amino acid change in the PrPC sequence can induce spontaneous generation of an infectious prion disease that differs from all others identified in hosts expressing the same PrPC sequence. These observations support the view that a variety of infectious prion strains might spontaneously emerge in hosts displaying random genetic PrPC mutations.

Castilla, Joaquin; Pintado, Belen; Gutierrez-Adan, Alfonso; Andreoletti, Olivier; Aguilar-Calvo, Patricia; Arroba, Ana-Isabel; Parra-Arrondo, Beatriz; Ferrer, Isidro; Manzanares, Jorge; Espinosa, Juan-Carlos

2013-01-01

257

Premature birth and the changing composition of newborn infectious disease mortality: Reconsidering “exogenous” mortality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Linked death and birth records from San Antonio, Texas reveal that infectious infant mortality is increasingly a function\\u000a of premature birth and low birth weight. Between 1935 and 1944, 4% of infectious infant deaths had associated causes involving\\u000a prematurity and related conditions; by 1980, 25% of infectious infant deaths involved prematurity and more than 40% of those\\u000a infants weighed less

KATHRYN Ao SOWARDS

1997-01-01

258

The role of exosomes in infectious diseases.  

PubMed

An exosome is a nano vesicle that buds from the endosomal compartment; it is produced and released by all kinds of mammalian cells. This vesicle contains a variety of proteins, lipids, mRNAs and miRNAs. These components are specific to the origin of the exosomes and contribute to cell-cell communications. Recently, it has been reported that a few single cell eukaryotic pathogens such as Cryptoccoccus neoformance and Leishmania major and donovanican secrete an exosome and influence the host immune system. In addition, it has been observed that cells infected by intracellular pathogens are capable of secreting an exosome which is involved in the fate of the infection. Furthermore, retroviruses recruit the host`s endosomal compartments in order to generate viral vesicles which are similar to the exosome. Most of the exosomes involved in infectious biology can either spread or limit an infection based on the type of pathogen and its target cells. Hence, an exosome may be an appropriate candidate for a vaccine therapy in prophylaxis and treatment. PMID:23441990

Hosseini, Hamideh Mahmoodzadeh; Fooladi, Abbas Ali Imani; Nourani, Mohammad Reza; Ghanezadeh, Faezeh

2013-02-01

259

Infectious agents and atherosclerotic vascular disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The pathological changes underlying occlusive vas- cular disease show considerable overlap with those caused by a range of infections. Particular viral and bacterial pathogens have long been suspected of playing a part, directly or indirectly, in the process leading to atherosclerosis. We review recent evid- ence of links between infections and ischaemic heart disease, particularly in the case of

P. J. Cook; G. Y. H. Lip

1996-01-01

260

Incentives for Reporting Infectious Disease Outbreaks  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The global spread of diseases such as swine flu and SARS highlights the difficult decision governments face when presented with evidence of a local outbreak. Reporting the outbreak may bring medical assistance but is also likely to trigger trade sanctions by countries hoping to contain the disease. Suppressing the information may avoid trade…

Malani, Anup; Laxminarayan, Ramanan

2011-01-01

261

Mortality in East African shorthorn zebu cattle under one year: predictors of infectious-disease mortality  

PubMed Central

Background Infectious livestock diseases remain a major threat to attaining food security and are a source of economic and livelihood losses for people dependent on livestock for their livelihood. Knowledge of the vital infectious diseases that account for the majority of deaths is crucial in determining disease control strategies and in the allocation of limited funds available for disease control. Here we have estimated the mortality rates in zebu cattle raised in a smallholder mixed farming system during their first year of life, identified the periods of increased risk of death and the risk factors for calf mortality, and through analysis of post-mortem data, determined the aetiologies of calf mortality in this population. A longitudinal cohort study of 548 zebu cattle was conducted between 2007 and 2010. Each calf was followed during its first year of life or until lost from the study. Calves were randomly selected from 20 sub-locations and recruited within a week of birth from different farms over a 45 km radius area centered on Busia in the Western part of Kenya. The data comprised of 481.1 calf years of observation. Clinical examinations, sample collection and analysis were carried out at 5 week intervals, from birth until one year old. Cox proportional hazard models with frailty terms were used for the statistical analysis of risk factors. A standardized post-mortem examination was conducted on all animals that died during the study and appropriate samples collected. Results The all-cause mortality rate was estimated at 16.1 (13.0-19.2; 95% CI) per 100 calf years at risk. The Cox models identified high infection intensity with Theileria spp., the most lethal of which causes East Coast Fever disease, infection with Trypanosome spp., and helminth infections as measured by Strongyle spp. eggs per gram of faeces as the three important infections statistically associated with infectious disease mortality in these calves. Analysis of post-mortem data identified East Coast Fever as the main cause of death accounting for 40% of all deaths, haemonchosis 12% and heartwater disease 7%. Conclusion The findings demonstrate the impact of endemic parasitic diseases in indigenous animals expected to be well adapted against disease pressures. Additionally, agreement between results of Cox models using data from simple diagnostic procedures and results from post-mortem analysis underline the potential use such diagnostic data to reduce calf mortality. The control strategies for the identified infectious diseases have been discussed.

2013-01-01

262

Lurking in the Shadows: Emerging Rodent Infectious Diseases  

PubMed Central

Rodent parvoviruses, Helicobacter spp., murine norovirus, and several other previously unknown infectious agents have “emerged” in laboratory rodents relatively recently. These agents have been discovered serendipitously or through active investigation of atypical serology results, cell culture contamination, unexpected histopathology, or previously unrecognized clinical disease syndromes. The potential research impact of these agents is not fully known. Infected rodents have demonstrated immunomodulation, tumor suppression, clinical disease (particularly in immunodeficient rodents), and histopathology. Perturbations of organismal and cellular physiology also likely occur. These agents posed unique challenges to laboratory animal resource programs once discovered; it was necessary to develop specific diagnostic assays and an understanding of their epidemiology and transmission routes before attempting eradication, and then evaluate eradication methods for efficacy. Even then management approaches varied significantly, from apathy to total exclusion, and such inconsistency has hindered the sharing and transfer of rodents among institutions, particularly for genetically modified rodent models that may not be readily available. As additional infectious agents are discovered in laboratory rodents in coming years, much of what researchers have learned from experiences with the recently identified pathogens will be applicable. This article provides an overview of the discovery, detection, and research impact of infectious agents recently identified in laboratory rodents. We also discuss emerging syndromes for which there is a suspected infectious etiology, and the unique challenges of managing newly emerging infectious agents.

Besselsen, David G.; Franklin, Craig L.; Livingston, Robert S.; Riley, Lela K.

2013-01-01

263

Global climate and infectious disease: The cholera paradigm  

SciTech Connect

Historically, infectious diseases have had a profound effect on human populations, including their evolution and cultural development. Despite significant advances in medical science, infectious diseases continue to impact human populations in many parts of the world. Emerging diseases are considered to be those infections that either are newly appearing in the population or are rapidly increasing in incidence or expanding in geographic range. Emergence of disease is not a simple phenomenon, mainly because infectious diseases are dynamic. Most new infections are not caused by truly new pathogens but are microorganisms (viruses, bacteria, fungi, protozoa, and helminths) that find a new way to enter a susceptible host and are newly recognized because of recently developed, sensitive techniques. Human activities drive emergence of disease and a variety of social, economic, political, climatic, technological, and environmental factors can shape the pattern of a disease and influence its emergence into populations. For example, travel affects emergence of disease, and human migrations have been the main source of epidemics throughout history. Trade caravans, religious pilgrimage, and military campaigns facilitated the spread of plague, smallpox, and cholera. Global travel is a fact of modern life and, equally so, the continued evolution of microorganisms; therefore, new infections will continue to emerge, and known infections will change in distribution, frequency, and severity. 88 refs., 1 fig.

Colwell, R.R. [Univ. of Maryland Biotechnology Inst., College Park, MD (United States)] [Univ. of Maryland Biotechnology Inst., College Park, MD (United States)

1996-12-20

264

Programmed Cell Death in Parkinson's Disease  

PubMed Central

Parkinson's disease is a debilitating disorder characterized by a progressive loss of dopaminergic neurons caused by programmed cell death. The aim of this review is to provide an up-to-date summary of the major programmed cell death pathways as they relate to PD. For a long time, programmed cell death has been synonymous with apoptosis but there now is evidence that other types of programmed cell death exist, such as autophagic cell death or programmed necrosis, and that these types of cell death are relevant to PD. The pathways and signals covered here include namely the death receptors, BCL-2 family, caspases, calpains, cdk5, p53, PARP-1, autophagy, mitophagy, mitochondrial fragmentation, and parthanatos. The review will present evidence from postmortem PD studies, toxin-induced models (especially MPTP/MPP+, 6-hydroxydopamine and rotenone), and from ?-synuclein, LRRK2, Parkin, DJ-1, and PINK1 genetic models of PD, both in vitro and in vivo.

Venderova, Katerina; Park, David S.

2012-01-01

265

Vaccines for Autoimmune and Infectious Disease.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The present invention provides HLA-restricted antigens as vaccines for treating or preventing autoimmune diseases or conditions, transplant rejection or vasculitis in a patient. In particular aspects, there is provided Pr3, a myeloid tissue-restricted pro...

J. Molldrem

2004-01-01

266

Infectious Disease Clinical Research Program Annual Report, 2012.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Highlights from this report include: HIV work continues to be very productive, with the HIV Natural History Study as the central engine; The Trauma Infectious Disease Outcomes Study really took off this year, with new collaborators in the surgical and pat...

2012-01-01

267

Drug-recommendation system for patients with infectious diseases.  

PubMed

We developed a decision support system that helps doctors select appropriate first-line drugs. The system classifies patients' abilities to protect themselves from infectious diseases as a risk level for infection. In an evaluation of the prototype system, the risk level it determined correlated with the decisions of specialists. The system is very effective and convenient for doctors to use. PMID:16779399

Shimada, Kazuyuki; Takada, Hidekatsu; Mitsuyama, Satoshi; Ban, Hideyuki; Matsuo, Hitoshi; Otake, Hitoshi; Kunishima, Hiroyuki; Kanemitsu, Keiji; Kaku, Mitsuo

2005-01-01

268

Castes, Migration, Immunogenetics and Infectious Diseases in South India  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been said that the grandest genetic experiment of nature has been conducted in south India in the name of the caste system. One can expect the frequency of an infectious disease to be equal to the product of the frequencies of various indicated loci\\/alleles, whether physiological, hormonal or immunological, in an endemic area. The sympatrically isolated caste and

R. M. Pitchappan

2002-01-01

269

[The use of immunoglobulins in the treatment of infectious diseases].  

PubMed

The use of immunoglobulins in the treatment of infectious diseases has a long tradition. Initially immunoglobulins from hyperimmunised animals were used for their antitoxic and antimicrobial activity. The development of preparations of human intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) and the observations of their long-term use enabled to assess their usefulness in the treatment of the diseases of proven or probable infectious etiology. In the treatment of infectious diseases IVIG are currently used as immunomodulating drugs or immunosuppressive therapy, more frequently than the specific antibodies against the viruses, bacteria or their toxins. In practice of the infectious ward IVIG are used as a drug of choice in the treatment of Kawasaki disease, in toxic epidermolysis and Stevens-Johnson syndrome. As adjunctive therapy IVIG are used in the infection with parvovirus B19, in hemophagocytic syndrome, for treatment of infections presenting with a severe toxemia caused by Clostridium difficile, Streptococcus pyogenes and Staphylococcus aureus. The rationale for the use of IVIG may be also serious infections caused by enteroviruses, particularly neuroinfections. The use of IVIG in the treatment of sepsis is controversial, since their effectiveness is not proven. PMID:21751556

Szenborn, Leszek

2011-06-01

270

Sheep Movement Networks and the Transmission of Infectious Diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and MethodologyVarious approaches have been used to investigate how properties of farm contact networks impact on the transmission of infectious diseases. The potential for transmission of an infection through a contact network can be evaluated in terms of the basic reproduction number, R0. The magnitude of R0 is related to the mean contact rate of a host, in this

Victoriya V. Volkova; Richard Howey; Nicholas J. Savill; Mark E. J. Woolhouse; Alison P. Galvani

2010-01-01

271

Modified phages: Novel antimicrobial agents to combat infectious diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Researchers increasingly believe that microbial, molecular and synthetic biology techniques along with genetic engineering will facilitate the treatment of persistent infectious diseases. However, such therapy has been plagued by the emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria, resulting in significant obstacles to treatment. Phage therapy is one promising alternative to antibiotics, especially now that recent modifications to ubiquitous phages have made them more

Zahra Moradpour; Abdollah Ghasemian

2011-01-01

272

A health disparities perspective on developing emerging infectious disease preparedness  

Microsoft Academic Search

A systematic review of the literature yielded 10 articles that explored the interaction between race\\/ethnicity, citizenship, socioeconomic status, and health literacy domains with respect to preparedness agenda development. Current emerging infectious disease (EID) preparedness plans do not adequately address the needs of vulnerable populations for the events before, during, and after an epidemic. Central to the disadvantage of most vulnerable

Jose L Louro

2011-01-01

273

Seasonality and critical community size for infectious diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

The endemicity of infectious diseases is investigated from a deterministic viewpoint. Sus- tained oscillation of infectives is often due to seasonal effects which may be related to climatic changes. For example the transmission of the measles virus by droplets is en- hanced in cooler, more humid seasons. In many countries the onset of cooler, more humid weather coincides with the

R. M. Cullen; A. Korobeinikov; W. J. Walker

2003-01-01

274

Organ-specific immune responses associated with infectious disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

The immune response to infection can vary markedly in different organs of the same animal. In some organs, the infection can resolve with subsequent immunity to re-infection, whereas in other organs, pathogens can persist. Here, Christian Engwerda and Paul Kaye highlight the importance of defining organ-specific immune mechanisms for developing strategies that deal effectively with infectious diseases and their associated

Christian R Engwerda; Paul M Kaye

2000-01-01

275

Infectious diseases among animals : combining models with data  

Microsoft Academic Search

To eradicate or control the spread of infectious diseases, knowledge on the spread of the infection between (groups of) animals is necessary. Models can include such information and can subsequently be used to observe the efficacy of various control measures in fighting the infection. However, the availability of information and data to build and quantify these models is essential for

Alina Annette de Koeijer

2003-01-01

276

Post-genomic challenges for collaborative research in infectious diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although high-burden pathogens have been prioritized for sequencing, genomic research has yet to yield effective vaccines, diagnostics or therapeutics for the infectious diseases that burden developing countries. International research partnerships are needed more today than ever before, and we propose that increased participation by scientists in endemic areas would overcome current roadblocks and is an essential path towards translational research

Iruka N. Okeke; John Wain

2008-01-01

277

Poverty trap formed by the ecology of infectious diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

While most of the world has enjoyed exponential economic growth, more than one-sixth of the world is today roughly as poor as their ancestors were many generations ago. Widely accepted general explanations for the persistence of such poverty have been elusive and are needed by the international development community. Building on a well-established model of human infectious diseases, we show

Matthew H. Bonds; Donald C. Keenan; Pejman Rohani; Jeffrey D. Sachs

2009-01-01

278

Mobile infectious disease references: from the bedside to the beach.  

PubMed

Point-of-care access to current medical information is easily available to the practitioner through the use of smartphones, iPads, and other personal digital assistants. There are numerous mobile applications (apps) that provide easy-to-use and often well-referenced medical guidance for the infectious diseases practitioner. We reviewed 6 commonly utilized mobile apps available for handheld devices: the Emergency Medicine Residents' Association's (EMRA's) Antibiotic Guide, Epocrates Deluxe, Johns Hopkins Antibiotic Guide, Sanford Guide, the Medscape mobile app, and the Infectious Diseases Compendium. We evaluated several basic infectious diseases topics (including but not limited to endocarditis, vancomycin, and Acinetobacter infection) and attempted to objectively score them for metrics that would help the provider determine which mobile app would be most useful for his or her practice. The Johns Hopkins Antibiotic Guide and the Sanford Guide had the highest cumulative scores, whereas EMRA scored the lowest. We found that no single app will meet all of the needs of an infectious diseases physician. Each app delivers content in a unique way and would meet divergent needs for all practitioners, from the experienced clinician to the trainee. The ability to rapidly access trusted medical knowledge at the point of care can help all healthcare providers better treat their patients' infections. PMID:22679027

Burdette, Steven D; Trotman, Robin; Cmar, John

2012-07-01

279

FYI: Services to Poor Families; Controlling Infectious Diseases; Parent Groups.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses services and resources available for families, parents, and child care providers. Describes a National Resource Center for Children in Poverty; a guide for controlling infectious diseases among young children in day care; a directory of parent support groups; and reports of a link between household pesticides and childhood leukemia. (BB)

Children Today, 1987

1987-01-01

280

Management of Chronic Infectious Diseases in School Children. Revised Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual contains current guidelines for Illinois school personnel to follow when working with children who have infectious diseases. The first chapter focuses on school district development of policies and procedures and program implementation. The next chapter provides information on characteristics, mode of transmission, prevention, and…

Illinois State Board of Education, Springfield.

281

Pediatric malignancies presenting as a possible infectious disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The clinical, laboratory, and radiological features of malignancy can overlap with those of infection. The purpose of this study was to determine the findings in children who were initially thought to have an infectious disease but ultimately proved to have a malignancy. METHODS: The database of patients diagnosed with a malignancy in the Northern Alberta Children's Cancer Program (NACCP)

Sarah E Forgie; Joan L Robinson

2007-01-01

282

Nutritional therapy and infectious diseases: a two-edged sword  

Microsoft Academic Search

The benefits and risks of nutritional therapies in the prevention and management of infectious diseases in the developed world are reviewed. There is strong evidence that early enteral feeding of patients prevents infections in a variety of traumatic and surgical illnesses. There is, however, little support for similar early feeding in medical illnesses. Parenteral nutrition increases the risk of infection

Haig Donabedian

2006-01-01

283

Cytokine Polymorphisms and Susceptibility to Severe Infectious Diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cytokines are key regulators of the host response to infection, controlling the inflammatory reaction which is an essential component of the defense mechanisms. The major importance of these proteins in the pathogenesis and outcome of infectious diseases has been clearly demonstrated. In humans, there is increasing evidence that the host's cytokine response is genetically determined and that the genetic variability

Jean-Daniel Chiche; Shidasp Siami; Jean-FrançDois Dhainaut; Jean-Paul Mira

2001-01-01

284

Global factors driving emerging infectious diseases.  

PubMed

The extinction of species across the globe is accelerating directly or indirectly from human activities. Biological impoverishment, habitat fragmentation, climate change, increasing toxification, and the rapid global movement of people and other living organisms have worked synergistically to diminish ecosystem function. This has resulted in unprecedented levels of disease emergence driven by human-induced environmental degradation, which poses a threat to the survival and health of biodiversity. What is often overlooked in the discussion of the health consequences to humans is that critically endangered wildlife species are at grave risk of extinction by disease outbreaks. As habitat becomes more compressed and with migration routes cut off, gene pools of small species are stranded in isolated habitat fragments. Species now are vulnerable to encroachment, malnutrition, environmental pollutants, and epidemics from domestic animals and humans. Furthermore, the continuous degradation of ecosystems is leading to increased stress, immunosuppression, and greater susceptibility to disease. Disease can be catastrophic to a diminished stressed population, becoming in some instances the leading factor of local, regional, and global extinctions. The strategies of the new field of conservation medicine include long-term monitoring, health assessment, and interventions to protect species at risk. We particularly must minimize the threat of any potentially catastrophic disease outbreaks resulting from anthropogenic changes to the environment. Current and future diagnostic molecular techniques offer new opportunities to identify tools for the management and possible treatment of diseases in imperiled species. PMID:19120161

Aguirre, A Alonso; Tabor, Gary M

2008-12-01

285

Noma: an "infectious" disease of unknown aetiology.  

PubMed

Noma (cancrum oris) is a devastating gangrenous disease that leads to severe tissue destruction in the face and is associated with high morbidity and mortality. It is seen almost exclusively in young children living in remote areas of less developed countries, particularly in Africa. The exact prevalence of the disease is unknown, but a conservative estimate is that 770000 people are currently affected by noma sequelae. The cause remains unknown, but a combination of several elements of a plausible aetiology has been identified: malnutrition, a compromised immune system, poor oral hygiene and a lesion of the gingival mucosal barrier, and an unidentified bacterial factor acting as a trigger for the disease. This review discusses the epidemiology, clinical features, current understanding of the pathophysiology, and treatment of the acute phase and sequelae requiring reconstructive surgery. Noma may be preventable if recognised at an early stage. Further research is needed to identify more exactly the causative agents. PMID:12837347

Baratti-Mayer, Denise; Pittet, Brigitte; Montandon, Denys; Bolivar, Ignacio; Bornand, Jacques-Etienne; Hugonnet, Stéphane; Jaquinet, Alexandre; Schrenzel, Jacques; Pittet, Didier

2003-07-01

286

Immunomodulators in infectious diseases: panoply of possibilites.  

PubMed

Infections which caused ravages in the past centuries are again resurgent and newly emerging pathogens capable of human diseases continue to surface. Multidrug antibiotic resistance has turned into a major medical problem. Judicious concepts for combating infections in the 21st century have acquired a new poignancy. Immunomodulators of natural, synthetic, and recombinant origin can stimulate host defense mechanisms for the prophylaxis and treatment of diverse viral, bacterial, parasitic and fungal diseases. Some immunomodulator preparations are already licensed for use in patients and numerous others are being extensively investigated in preclinical and clinical studies. Immunomodulators offer a novel adjunct to established antimicrobial therapies. PMID:11137615

Masihi, K N

2000-12-01

287

Carcinoma of the Cervix: An Infectious Disease  

PubMed Central

Investigation of the viral types of sexually transmitted diseases has disclosed that they not only produce local infections but may also cause profound pathological changes. The authors of this article review several types of sexually transmitted viral infections and make suggestions for their investigation and management. Further research and development in this area of medicine would be valuable.

Mackel, J.V.; Krikke, E.H.

1989-01-01

288

Infectious Disease and the Public Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The paper examines policy options for schools regarding appropriate services for children with highly communicable, potentially life threatening diseases such as Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) and Herpes. Briefly considered are the school's legal responsibility, implied risk and inability, and actual risk and its control. General…

Crosson, James E.

289

GLOBAL DYNAMICS OF A STAGED PROGRESSION MODEL FOR INFECTIOUS DISEASES  

Microsoft Academic Search

We analyze a mathematical model for infectious diseases that progress through distinct stages within infected hosts. An example of such a disease is AIDS, which results from HIV infection. For a general n-stage stage-progression (SP) model with bilinear incidences, we prove that the global dynamics are completely determined by the basic reproduction number R0: If R0 • 1; then the

Hongbin Guo; Michael Y. Li

2006-01-01

290

Infectious diseases in paediatric pathology: experience from a developing country.  

PubMed

Infectious and parasitic diseases have always challenged man. Although many of them are typically seen in some areas of the world and can be adequately managed by just improving socioeconomic status and sanitary conditions, they are still quite prevalent and may sometimes be seen outside their original geographical areas. Human migration due to different reasons, tourism, blood transfusion and solid organ transplantation has created new concerns for health professionals all over the world. If not for diagnostic purposes, at least these tropical and infectious diseases should be largely known because their epidemiology, pathogenesis, host/parasite interaction, inflammatory and reparative responses are quite interesting and teach us about human biology. Curiosity is inherent to pathology practice and so we are compelled to look for things other than tumours or degenerative diseases. This review focuses on infectious and parasitic diseases found in a developing country and brings up-to-date information on diseases caused by viruses (dengue, yellow fever), bacteria (typhoid fever, leprosy), parasites (Chagas' disease, cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis, amoebiasis, Capillaria hepatica, schistosomiasis, cysticercosis) and caused by fungi (paracoccidioidomycosis, cryptococcosis, histoplasmosis) that may be useful for pathologists when facing somewhat strange cases from developing countries. PMID:18203038

Peres, Luiz Cesar; Saggioro, Fabiano Pinto; Dias, Leonidas Braga; Alves, Venâncio Avancini Ferreira; Brasil, Roosecelis Araújo; Luiz, Veridiana Ester Dias de Barros; Neder, Luciano; Rosman, Fernando Colonna; Fleury, Raul Negrão; Ura, Somei; Orsi, Ana Tereza; Talhari, Carolina; Ferreira, Luiz Carlos de Lima; Ramos, Simone Gusmão; Rey, Luís Carlos; Martinez-Espinosa, Flor E; Sim, Franklin; Filho, Otilde Es de Satana; Duarte, Maria Irma Seixas; Lambertucci, José Roberto; Chimelli, Leila M Cardão; Rosa, Patrícia Sammarco; Belone, Andrea de Faria Fernandes

2008-02-01

291

Combating Tropical Infectious Diseases: Report of the Disease Control Priorities in Developing Countries Project  

Microsoft Academic Search

Infectious diseases are responsible for 125% of the global disease toll. The new Disease Control Priorities in Developing Countries Project (DCPP) aims to decrease the burden of these diseases by producing science-based analyses from demo- graphic, epidemiologic, disease intervention, and economic evidence for the purpose of defining disease priorities and im- plementing control measures. The DCPP recently reviewed selected tropical

Peter J. Hotez; Jan H. F. Remme; Paulo Buss; George Alleyne; Carlos Morel; Joel G. Breman

2004-01-01

292

A guide to interpreting economic studies in infectious diseases.  

PubMed

Healthcare providers continue to seek improved methods for preventing, detecting and treating diseases that affect human survival and quality of life. At the same time, there will always be financial constraints because of limited societal resources. Many of the discussions on how to provide economically sound solutions to this challenge have not fully engaged the input of clinicians in the field. The purpose of this review is to increase economic knowledge for clinicians. We cover healthcare cost elements and methods used to assign value to a health outcome. We outline the challenges in conducting economic studies in the field of infectious diseases. Finally, we discuss the meaning of efficiency from multiple perspectives, and how the concept of economic externalities applies to infectious diseases. PMID:20825433

Roberts, R R; Mensah, E K; Weinstein, R A

2010-12-01

293

Infectious Diseases and Vaccination Strategies: How to Protect the "Unprotectable"?  

PubMed Central

Introduction. The circulation of infectious diseases puts small infants too young to be vaccinated at risk of morbidity and mortality, often requiring prolonged hospitalization. Material and Methods. We have reviewed the medical records of children not eligible for vaccination because of age, admitted to hospital for pertussis, measles, or varicella from February 1, 2010, till February 1, 2012. Results. Of the case records scrutinized, 21 were hospitalized for pertussis, 18 for measles, and 32 for varicella. Out of them, 42%, 66%, and 78% diagnosed with, respectively, pertussis, measles, and varicella had a complicated course of the disease. Discussion. To avoid infectious disease circulation, childhood immunization strategies should be adopted, such as vaccination of healthcare givers, adult household contacts, and parents planning to have, or who have had, a newborn baby.

Bozzola, Elena; Bozzola, Mauro; Calcaterra, Valeria; Barberi, Salvatore; Villani, Alberto

2013-01-01

294

Why We Need Crowdsourced Data in Infectious Disease Surveillance  

PubMed Central

In infectious disease surveillance, public health data such as environmental, hospital, or census data have been extensively explored to create robust models of disease dynamics. However, this information is also subject to its own biases, including latency, high cost, contributor biases, and imprecise resolution. Simultaneously, new technologies, including Internet and mobile phone based tools, now enable information to be garnered directly from individuals at the point of care. Here, we consider how these crowdsourced data offer the opportunity to fill gaps in and augment current epidemiological models. Challenges and methods for overcoming limitations of the data are also reviewed. As more new information sources become mature, incorporating these novel data into epidemiological frameworks will enable us to learn more about infectious disease dynamics.

Chunara, Rumi; Smolinski, Mark S.; Brownstein, John S.

2013-01-01

295

Panmicrobial Oligonucleotide Array for Diagnosis of Infectious Diseases  

PubMed Central

To facilitate rapid, unbiased, differential diagnosis of infectious diseases, we designed GreeneChipPm, a panmicrobial microarray comprising 29,455 sixty-mer oligonucleotide probes for vertebrate viruses, bacteria, fungi, and parasites. Methods for nucleic acid preparation, random primed PCR amplification, and labeling were optimized to allow the sensitivity required for application with nucleic acid extracted from clinical materials and cultured isolates. Analysis of nasopharyngeal aspirates, blood, urine, and tissue from persons with various infectious diseases confirmed the presence of viruses and bacteria identified by other methods, and implicated Plasmodium falciparum in an unexplained fatal case of hemorrhagic feverlike disease during the Marburg hemorrhagic fever outbreak in Angola in 2004–2005.

Palacios, Gustavo; Quan, Phenix-Lan; Jabado, Omar J.; Conlan, Sean; Hirschberg, David L.; Liu, Yang; Zhai, Junhui; Renwick, Neil; Hui, Jeffrey; Hegyi, Hedi; Grolla, Allen; Strong, James E.; Towner, Jonathan S.; Geisbert, Thomas W.; Jahrling, Peter B.; Buchen-Osmond, Cornelia; Ellerbrok, Heinz; Sanchez-Seco, Maria Paz; Lussier, Yves; Formenty, Pierre; Nichol, Stuart T.; Feldmann, Heinz; Briese, Thomas

2007-01-01

296

Airline operating realities and the global spread of infectious diseases.  

PubMed

The advent of long-haul travel in the past 10 years has considerably reduced the time of potential disease spread from one side of the world to the other. The implication for travelers is that they may unwittingly be in the prodromal phase of influenza and become symptomatic a few days after travel. Alternatively they may knowingly travel with an infectious disease by masking symptoms. This article outlines the myths that have abounded about the cabin environment being "unclean" and discusses the low likelihood of in-flight transmission with effective air-conditioning and filtration systems. The 2009 H1N1 pandemic highlighted the operational challenges of dealing with infectious disease, including the need for accurate passenger information to allow contact tracing, in contrast to futile measures such as thermal scanners. Containment attempts did not stop the rapid global spread of H1N1 influenza. PMID:20566546

Webster, Cliff H

2010-07-01

297

Relating phylogenetic trees to transmission trees of infectious disease outbreaks.  

PubMed

Transmission events are the fundamental building blocks of the dynamics of any infectious disease. Much about the epidemiology of a disease can be learned when these individual transmission events are known or can be estimated. Such estimations are difficult and generally feasible only when detailed epidemiological data are available. The genealogy estimated from genetic sequences of sampled pathogens is another rich source of information on transmission history. Optimal inference of transmission events calls for the combination of genetic data and epidemiological data into one joint analysis. A key difficulty is that the transmission tree, which describes the transmission events between infected hosts, differs from the phylogenetic tree, which describes the ancestral relationships between pathogens sampled from these hosts. The trees differ both in timing of the internal nodes and in topology. These differences become more pronounced when a higher fraction of infected hosts is sampled. We show how the phylogenetic tree of sampled pathogens is related to the transmission tree of an outbreak of an infectious disease, by the within-host dynamics of pathogens. We provide a statistical framework to infer key epidemiological and mutational parameters by simultaneously estimating the phylogenetic tree and the transmission tree. We test the approach using simulations and illustrate its use on an outbreak of foot-and-mouth disease. The approach unifies existing methods in the emerging field of phylodynamics with transmission tree reconstruction methods that are used in infectious disease epidemiology. PMID:24037268

Ypma, Rolf J F; van Ballegooijen, W Marijn; Wallinga, Jacco

2013-11-01

298

75 FR 76478 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Meetings  

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2010-12-08

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75 FR 8084 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings  

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2010-02-23

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2013-10-30

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2011-12-05

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2013-07-08

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2010-03-30

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75 FR 77650 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice...Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel; Ancillary Studies in Immunomodulation Clinical...Assistance Program Nos. 93.855, Allergy, Immunology, and...

2010-12-13

307

National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Profile: Fiscal Year 2000.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) conducts and supports scientific research on infectious and immunologic diseases. The goals of this research are to delineate pathogenesis, improve diagnosis and treatment, and develop vacc...

2001-01-01

308

75 FR 8975 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of...of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel, Consortium of Food Allergy Research (CoFAR) and CoFAR...

2010-02-26

309

76 FR 65204 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: Microbiology, Infectious Diseases and AIDS Initial Review Group, Acquired...Immunology, and Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research, National Institutes...

2011-10-20

310

78 FR 68857 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: Microbiology, Infectious Diseases and AIDS Initial Review Group; Acquired...Immunology, and Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research, National Institutes...

2013-11-15

311

77 FR 64816 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: Microbiology, Infectious Diseases and AIDS Initial Review Group; Acquired...Immunology, and Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research, National Institutes...

2012-10-23

312

75 FR 62546 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: Microbiology, Infectious Diseases and AIDS Initial Review Group, Acquired...Immunology, and Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research, National Institutes...

2010-10-12

313

78 FR 69683 - Board of Scientific Counselors, Office of Infectious Diseases (BSC, OID)  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...activities of the infectious disease national centers; and focused discussions on 1) the public health use of molecular-based diagnostics, 2) school- based efforts to prevent infectious diseases, and 3) immunization changes at the state...

2013-11-20

314

Strongyloidiasis: An Emerging Infectious Disease in China  

PubMed Central

Since the first case of strongyloidiasis reported in China in 1973, there have been 330 confirmed cases as of 2011. The present study conducted a meta-analysis on 106 cases for which detailed information on clinical symptoms, diagnosis, and outcome was available. Most (63%) cases were from the past decade. Immunocompromised patients and those given cortical hormones accounted for 68% of the cases, and case-fatality rate was 38%. General clinical symptoms included abdominal pain (53%), diarrhea (46%), fever (40%), and vomiting (39%). The parasite positivity rate in feces, sputum, and urine by microscopic diagnosis was 75%, 24%, and 8%, respectively, and gastrointestinal endoscopy or other biopsy detection rates were 17%. A lack of specific clinical manifestations makes early diagnosis and correct treatment difficult. Strongyloidiasis is an emerging disease in China, and public and clinical awareness needs to be raised to improve prevention and control.

Wang, Chunmei; Xu, Jiabao; Zhou, Xiaohong; Li, Juan; Yan, Guiyun; James, Anthony A.; Chen, Xiaoguang

2013-01-01

315

Outpatient Parenteral Antimicrobial Therapy Practices among Adult Infectious Disease Physicians.  

PubMed

Objective.?To identify current outpatient parenteral antibiotic therapy practice patterns and complications. Methods.?We administered an 11-question survey to adult infectious disease physicians participating in the Emerging Infections Network (EIN), a Centers for Disease Control and Prevention-sponsored sentinel event surveillance network in North America. The survey was distributed electronically or via facsimile in November and December 2012. Respondent demographic characteristics were obtained from EIN enrollment data. Results.?Overall, 555 (44.6%) of EIN members responded to the survey, with 450 (81%) indicating that they treated 1 or more patients with outpatient parenteral antimicrobial therapy (OPAT) during an average month. Infectious diseases consultation was reported to be required for a patient to be discharged with OPAT by 99 respondents (22%). Inpatient (282 [63%] of 449) and outpatient (232 [52%] of 449) infectious diseases physicians were frequently identified as being responsible for monitoring laboratory results. Only 26% (118 of 448) had dedicated OPAT teams at their clinical site. Few infectious diseases physicians have systems to track errors, adverse events, or "near misses" associated with OPAT (97 [22%] of 449). OPAT-associated complications were perceived to be rare. Among respondents, 80% reported line occlusion or clotting as the most common complication (occurring in 6% of patients or more), followed by nephrotoxicity and rash (each reported by 61%). Weekly laboratory monitoring of patients who received vancomycin was reported by 77% of respondents (343 of 445), whereas 19% of respondents (84 of 445) reported twice weekly laboratory monitoring for these patients. Conclusions.?Although use of OPAT is common, there is significant variation in practice patterns. More uniform OPAT practices may enhance patient safety. PMID:24915212

Lane, Michael A; Marschall, Jonas; Beekmann, Susan E; Polgreen, Philip M; Banerjee, Ritu; Hersh, Adam L; Babcock, Hilary M

2014-07-01

316

Sex differences in infectious diseases-common but neglected.  

PubMed

Women and men are different-and this fundamental observation extends to their susceptibility and response to different diseases, including autoimmune and infectious diseases. Apart from cultural and behavioral differences between the sexes that play a prominent role in the exposure to pathogens, increasing data show that women and men also differ in their immune responses to infections. This applies to infections with viruses, bacteria, and parasites, including the pathogens most relevant for human health, causing malaria, tuberculosis, AIDS, hepatitis, and influenza. Only recently, the biological pathways responsible for these sex-based differences in the manifestations of infectious diseases have been started to be unveiled. These include immunological pathways affected by sex hormones, as well as consequences of differential expression of X-chromosome-encoded genes on immune responses to pathogens. Further research is required to gain a better understanding of the differences in immunity to infections between women and men in order to develop individualized treatment concepts in infectious diseases that take sex-specific host factors into account. PMID:24966193

van Lunzen, Jan; Altfeld, Marcus

2014-07-15

317

Risk of Infectious Disease Transmission Through Use of Allografts  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a – \\u000a The number of musculoskeletal and other allografts implanted in patients continues to increase because of the desirable characteristics\\u000a of such grafts for use in plastic and reconstructive surgery. Allografts, however, can harbor pathogens and pose at least\\u000a some risk for transmission of infectious diseases to recipients.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a – \\u000a Case reports document that bacterial, viral, and prion diseases (Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease or

Robert H. Kennedy; C. Randal Mills; Paul Brown

318

Effects of Extreme Precipitation to the Distribution of Infectious Diseases in Taiwan, 1994–2008  

Microsoft Academic Search

The incidence of extreme precipitation has increased with the exacerbation of worldwide climate disruption. We hypothesize an association between precipitation and the distribution patterns that would affect the endemic burden of 8 infectious diseases in Taiwan, including water- and vector-borne infectious diseases. A database integrating daily precipitation and temperature, along with the infectious disease case registry for all 352 townships

Mu-Jean Chen; Chuan-Yao Lin; Yi-Ting Wu; Pei-Chih Wu; Shih-Chun Lung; Huey-Jen Su

2012-01-01

319

Taking sociology seriously: a new approach to the bioethical problems of infectious disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

After a history of neglect, bioethicists have recently turned their attention to the topic of infectious disease. In this paper we link bioethicists' earlier neglect of infectious disease to their under-appreciation of the extent to which the problem of infectious disease is related to social factors and thus to questions of justice. We argue that a social causation of illness

J. Selgelid; Mark Tausig; Michael J. Selgelid; Sree Subedi; Janardan Subedi

320

EMERGING AND RE-EMERGING INFECTIOUS DISEASES: The Third Epidemiologic Transition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract We use an expanded framework of multiple epidemiologic transitions to review the issues of re\\/emerging infection. The first epidemiologic transition was associated with a rise in infectious diseases that accompanied the Neolithic Revolution. The second epidemiologic transition involved the shift from infectious to chronic disease mortality associated with industrialization. The recent resurgence of infectious disease mortality marks a third

Ronald Barrett; Christopher W. Kuzawa; Thomas McDade; George J. Armelagos

1998-01-01

321

Bats, emerging infectious diseases, and the rabies paradigm revisited  

PubMed Central

The significance of bats as sources of emerging infectious diseases has been increasingly appreciated, and new data have been accumulated rapidly during recent years. For some emerging pathogens the bat origin has been confirmed (such as lyssaviruses, henipaviruses, coronaviruses), for other it has been suggested (filoviruses). Several recently identified viruses remain to be ‘orphan’ but have a potential for further emergence (such as Tioman, Menangle, and Pulau viruses). In the present review we summarize information on major bat-associated emerging infections and discuss specific characteristics of bats as carriers of pathogens (from evolutionary, ecological, and immunological positions). We also discuss drivers and forces of an infectious disease emergence and describe various existing and potential approaches for control and prevention of such infections at individual, populational, and societal levels.

Kuzmin, Ivan V.; Bozick, Brooke; Guagliardo, Sarah A.; Kunkel, Rebekah; Shak, Joshua R.; Tong, Suxiang; Rupprecht, Charles E

2011-01-01

322

Molecular Methods and Platforms for Infectious Diseases Testing  

PubMed Central

The superior sensitivity and specificity associated with the use of molecular assays has greatly improved the field of infectious disease diagnostics by providing clinicians with results that are both accurate and rapidly obtained. Herein, we review molecularly based infectious disease diagnostic tests that are Food and Drug Administration approved or cleared and commercially available in the United States as of December 31, 2010. We describe specific assays and their performance, as stated in the Food and Drug Administration's Summary of Safety and Effectiveness Data or the Office of In Vitro Diagnostic Device Evaluation and Safety's decision summaries, product inserts, or peer-reviewed literature. We summarize indications for testing, limitations, and challenges related to implementation in a clinical laboratory setting for a wide variety of common pathogens. The information presented in this review will be particularly useful for laboratories that plan to implement or expand their molecular offerings in the near term.

Emmadi, Rajyasree; Boonyaratanakornkit, Jerry B.; Selvarangan, Rangaraj; Shyamala, Venkatakrishna; Zimmer, Barbara L.; Williams, Laurina; Bryant, Bonita; Schutzbank, Ted; Schoonmaker, Michele M.; Amos Wilson, Jean A.; Hall, Leslie; Pancholi, Preeti; Bernard, Kathryn

2011-01-01

323

Surveillance and control of infectious diseases: progress toward the 1990 objectives.  

PubMed Central

Great progress has been made in the United States in reducing infectious disease mortality. However, infectious diseases remain the greatest cause of morbidity in this country. Newer infectious diseases or agents have been recognized, but newer tools for surveillance and control have also been made available. Specific objectives for the reduction of infectious diseases by 1990 have been set by the Public Health Service. The opportunities appear to be good for achieving by 1990 objectives for nosocomial infections, Legionnaires' disease, tuberculosis, and surveillance and control of infectious diseases. Achievement of the 1990 objectives for hepatitis B, pneumococcal pneumonia, and bacterial meningitis, however, will require both scientific advances and additional resources.

Dowdle, W R

1983-01-01

324

Cytokines in the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and other infectious diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  The pathogenesis of several infectious diseases is frequently related not only to their etiological agents of viral, bacterial,\\u000a or parasitic nature, but also to the host immune response. Both inflammatory responses and specific immune responses to the\\u000a invading microorganisms are controlled by complex networks of intercellular signalling molecules, namely cytokines. This rapidly\\u000a growing family of mediators includes lymphokines, interleukins, and

G. Poli; E. Vicenzi; S. Ghezzi; A. Lazzarin

1995-01-01

325

Wildlife Trade and the Emergence of Infectious Diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most recent emerging infectious diseases have been zoonotic in origin. It is our contention that one of the factors responsible\\u000a for such emergence is the trade in wildlife and bushmeat in particular. This article considers the effect of increasing diversity\\u000a in the species hunted on the probability of global epidemics such as SARS. In particular, we develop a mathematical model

Louise Swift; Paul R. Hunter; Alexander C. Lees; Diana J. Bell

2007-01-01

326

Parasitic and Infectious Disease Responses to Changing Global Nutrient Cycles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Parasitic and infectious diseases (PIDs) are a significant threat to human, livestock, and wildlife health and are changing\\u000a dramatically in the face of human-induced environmental changes such as those in climate and land use. In this article we\\u000a explore the little-studied but potentially important response of PIDs to another major environmental change, that in the global\\u000a nutrient cycles. Humans have

Valerie J. McKenzie; Alan R. Townsend

2007-01-01

327

Effects of Global Climate on Infectious Disease: the Cholera Model  

PubMed Central

Recently, the role of the environment and climate in disease dynamics has become a subject of increasing interest to microbiologists, clinicians, epidemiologists, and ecologists. Much of the interest has been stimulated by the growing problems of antibiotic resistance among pathogens, emergence and/or reemergence of infectious diseases worldwide, the potential of bioterrorism, and the debate concerning climate change. Cholera, caused by Vibrio cholerae, lends itself to analyses of the role of climate in infectious disease, coupled to population dynamics of pathogenic microorganisms, for several reasons. First, the disease has a historical context linking it to specific seasons and biogeographical zones. In addition, the population dynamics of V. cholerae in the environment are strongly controlled by environmental factors, such as water temperature, salinity, and the presence of copepods, which are, in turn, controlled by larger-scale climate variability. In this review, the association between plankton and V. cholerae that has been documented over the last 20 years is discussed in support of the hypothesis that cholera shares properties of a vector-borne disease. In addition, a model for environmental transmission of cholera to humans in the context of climate variability is presented. The cholera model provides a template for future research on climate-sensitive diseases, allowing definition of critical parameters and offering a means of developing more sophisticated methods for prediction of disease outbreaks.

Lipp, Erin K.; Huq, Anwar; Colwell, Rita R.

2002-01-01

328

Infectious diseases citation patterns: mapping the literature 2008-2010  

PubMed Central

Objectives: The research identified the publication types and ages most frequently cited in the infectious diseases literature and the most commonly cited journals. Methods: From 2008–2010, 5,056 articles in 5 infectious diseases journals cited 166,650 items. Two random samples were drawn: one (n?=?1,060) from the total set of citations and one (n?=?1,060) from the citations to journal articles. For each sample citation, publication type and date, age of cited item, and inclusion of uniform resource locator (URL) were collected. For each item in the cited journal articles sample, journal title, publication date, and age of the cited article were collected. Bradford zones were used for further analysis. Results: Journal articles (91%, n?=?963) made up the bulk of cited items, followed by miscellaneous items (4.6%, n?=?49). Dates of publication for cited items ranged from 1933–2010 (mean?=?2001, mode?=?2007). Over half (50.2%, n?=?483) of cited journal articles were published within the previous 5 years. The journal article citations included 358 unique journal titles. Discussion: The citations to current and older publications in a range of disciplines, heavy citation of journals, and citation of miscellaneous and government documents revealed the depth and breadth of resources needed for the study of infectious diseases.

Rethlefsen, Melissa L.; Livinski, Alicia A.

2013-01-01

329

Successes and failures in the control of infectious diseases in Brazil: social and environmental context, policies, interventions, and research needs.  

PubMed

Despite pronounced reductions in the number of deaths due to infectious diseases over the past six decades, infectious diseases are still a public health problem in Brazil. In this report, we discuss the major successes and failures in the control of infectious diseases in Brazil, and identify research needs and policies to further improve control or interrupt transmission. Control of diseases such as cholera, Chagas disease, and those preventable by vaccination has been successful through efficient public policies and concerted efforts from different levels of government and civil society. For these diseases, policies dealt with key determinants (eg, the quality of water and basic sanitation, vector control), provided access to preventive resources (such as vaccines), and successfully integrated health policies with broader social policies. Diseases for which control has failed (such as dengue fever and visceral leishmaniasis) are vector-borne diseases with changing epidemiological profiles and major difficulties in treatment (in the case of dengue fever, no treatment is available). Diseases for which control has been partly successful have complex transmission patterns related to adverse environmental, social, economic, or unknown determinants; are sometimes transmitted by insect vectors that are difficult to control; and are mostly chronic diseases with long infectious periods that require lengthy periods of treatment. PMID:21561657

Barreto, Mauricio L; Teixeira, M Gloria; Bastos, Francisco I; Ximenes, Ricardo A A; Barata, Rita B; Rodrigues, Laura C

2011-05-28

330

Infectious diseases of animals and plants: an interdisciplinary approach.  

PubMed

Animal and plant diseases pose a serious and continuing threat to food security, food safety, national economies, biodiversity and the rural environment. New challenges, including climate change, regulatory developments, changes in the geographical concentration and size of livestock holdings, and increasing trade make this an appropriate time to assess the state of knowledge about the impact that diseases have and the ways in which they are managed and controlled. In this paper, the case is explored for an interdisciplinary approach to studying the management of infectious animal and plant diseases. Reframing the key issues through incorporating both social and natural science research can provide a holistic understanding of disease and increase the policy relevance and impact of research. Finally, in setting out the papers in this Theme Issue, a picture of current and future animal and plant disease threats is presented. PMID:21624914

Wilkinson, Katy; Grant, Wyn P; Green, Laura E; Hunter, Stephen; Jeger, Michael J; Lowe, Philip; Medley, Graham F; Mills, Peter; Phillipson, Jeremy; Poppy, Guy M; Waage, Jeff

2011-07-12

331

Infectious diseases of animals and plants: an interdisciplinary approach  

PubMed Central

Animal and plant diseases pose a serious and continuing threat to food security, food safety, national economies, biodiversity and the rural environment. New challenges, including climate change, regulatory developments, changes in the geographical concentration and size of livestock holdings, and increasing trade make this an appropriate time to assess the state of knowledge about the impact that diseases have and the ways in which they are managed and controlled. In this paper, the case is explored for an interdisciplinary approach to studying the management of infectious animal and plant diseases. Reframing the key issues through incorporating both social and natural science research can provide a holistic understanding of disease and increase the policy relevance and impact of research. Finally, in setting out the papers in this Theme Issue, a picture of current and future animal and plant disease threats is presented.

Wilkinson, Katy; Grant, Wyn P.; Green, Laura E.; Hunter, Stephen; Jeger, Michael J.; Lowe, Philip; Medley, Graham F.; Mills, Peter; Phillipson, Jeremy; Poppy, Guy M.; Waage, Jeff

2011-01-01

332

A Comparative Analysis of Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers and Polychlorinated Biphenyls in Southern Sea Otters that Died of Infectious Diseases and Noninfectious Causes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Southern sea otters (Enhydra lutris nereis) from the California coast continue to exhibit a slower population regrowth rate than the population in Alaska. Infectious\\u000a diseases have been identified as a frequent cause of death. Infectious diseases caused by varied pathogens including bacteria,\\u000a fungi, and parasites were suggestive of compromised immunological health of mature animals in this population. To test the

Kurunthachalam Kannan; Emily Perrotta; Nancy J. Thomas; Kenneth M. Aldous

2007-01-01

333

Analysis of host- and strain-dependent cell death responses during infectious salmon anemia virus infection in vitro  

PubMed Central

Background Infectious salmon anemia virus (ISAV) is an aquatic orthomyxovirus and the causative agent of infectious salmon anemia (ISA), a disease of great importance in the Atlantic salmon farming industry. In vitro, ISAV infection causes cytophatic effect (CPE) in cell lines from Atlantic salmon, leading to rounding and finally detachment of the cells from the substratum. In this study, we investigated the mode of cell death during in vitro ISAV infection in different Atlantic salmon cell lines, using four ISAV strains causing different mortality in vivo. Results The results show that caspase 3/7 activity increased during the course of infection in ASK and SHK-1 cells, infected cells showed increased surface expression of phosphatidylserine and increased PI uptake, compared to mock infected cells; and morphological alterations of the mitochondria were observed. Expression analysis of immune relevant genes revealed no correlation between in vivo mortality and expression, but good correlation in expression of interferon genes. Conclusion Results from this study indicate that there is both strain and cell type dependent differences in the virus-host interaction during ISAV infection. This is important to bear in mind when extrapolating in vitro findings to the in vivo situation.

Schi?tz, Berit L; Baekkevold, Espen S; Poulsen, Lene C; Mjaaland, Siri; Gj?en, Tor

2009-01-01

334

Infectious disease mortality among american indians and alaska natives, 1999-2009.  

PubMed

Objectives. We described death rates and leading causes of death caused by infectious diseases (IDs) in American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) persons. Methods. We analyzed national mortality data, adjusted for AI/AN race by linkage with Indian Health Service registration records, for all US counties and Contract Health Service Delivery Area (CHSDA) counties. The average annual 1999 to 2009 ID death rates per 100?000 persons for AI/AN persons were compared with corresponding rates for Whites. Results. The ID death rate in AI/AN populations was significantly higher than that of Whites. A reported 8429 ID deaths (rate 86.2) in CHSDA counties occurred among AI/AN persons; the rate was significantly higher than the rate in Whites (44.0; rate ratio [RR]?=?1.96; 95% confidence interval [CI]?=?1.91, 2.00). The rates for the top 10 ID underlying causes of death were significantly higher for AI/AN persons than those for Whites. Lower respiratory tract infection and septicemia were the top-ranked causes. The greatest relative rate disparity was for tuberculosis (RR?=?13.51; 95% CI?=?11.36, 15.93). Conclusions. Health equity might be furthered by expansion of interventions to reduce IDs among AI/AN communities. PMID:24754622

Cheek, James E; Holman, Robert C; Redd, John T; Haberling, Dana; Hennessy, Thomas W

2014-06-01

335

Infectious Disease Mortality Among American Indians and Alaska Natives, 1999-2009  

PubMed Central

Objectives. We described death rates and leading causes of death caused by infectious diseases (IDs) in American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) persons. Methods. We analyzed national mortality data, adjusted for AI/AN race by linkage with Indian Health Service registration records, for all US counties and Contract Health Service Delivery Area (CHSDA) counties. The average annual 1999 to 2009 ID death rates per 100?000 persons for AI/AN persons were compared with corresponding rates for Whites. Results. The ID death rate in AI/AN populations was significantly higher than that of Whites. A reported 8429 ID deaths (rate 86.2) in CHSDA counties occurred among AI/AN persons; the rate was significantly higher than the rate in Whites (44.0; rate ratio [RR]?=?1.96; 95% confidence interval [CI]?=?1.91, 2.00). The rates for the top 10 ID underlying causes of death were significantly higher for AI/AN persons than those for Whites. Lower respiratory tract infection and septicemia were the top-ranked causes. The greatest relative rate disparity was for tuberculosis (RR?=?13.51; 95% CI?=?11.36, 15.93). Conclusions. Health equity might be furthered by expansion of interventions to reduce IDs among AI/AN communities.

Cheek, James E.; Holman, Robert C.; Redd, John T.; Haberling, Dana

2014-01-01

336

Infectious coryza: overview of the disease and new diagnostic options.  

PubMed

Infectious coryza is a well-recognized and commonly encountered upper respiratory tract disease of chickens that is caused by the bacterium Haemophilus paragallinarum. The occurrence of recent outbreaks in North America has emphasized that the disease can be significant in meat chickens as well as layer chickens. In developing countries, coryza is commonly complicated by the presence of a range of other infections, resulting in severe disease and significant economic losses. Unusual forms of the disease, involving arthritis and septicemia, again associated with the presence of other pathogens, have been found in South America. Newly recognized bacteria such as Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale and phenotypic variant forms of both H. paragallinarum and close relatives (variant in that they no longer require V-factor for growth in vitro) have increased the difficulty associated with diagnosing the disease. There have been suggestions in both South America and South Africa that new serovars or serovar variants, associated with unusual clinical manifestations and causing vaccine failures, are emerging. Definitive evidence to confirm or deny the role of these "variants" in vaccine failures is currently not available. A new DNA-based diagnostic technique, involving PCR, has been recently described and will greatly assist in the diagnosis of infectious coryza. PMID:10515906

Blackall, P J

1999-10-01

337

Infectious Coryza: Overview of the Disease and New Diagnostic Options  

PubMed Central

Infectious coryza is a well-recognized and commonly encountered upper respiratory tract disease of chickens that is caused by the bacterium Haemophilus paragallinarum. The occurrence of recent outbreaks in North America has emphasized that the disease can be significant in meat chickens as well as layer chickens. In developing countries, coryza is commonly complicated by the presence of a range of other infections, resulting in severe disease and significant economic losses. Unusual forms of the disease, involving arthritis and septicemia, again associated with the presence of other pathogens, have been found in South America. Newly recognized bacteria such as Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale and phenotypic variant forms of both H. paragallinarum and close relatives (variant in that they no longer require V-factor for growth in vitro) have increased the difficulty associated with diagnosing the disease. There have been suggestions in both South America and South Africa that new serovars or serovar variants, associated with unusual clinical manifestations and causing vaccine failures, are emerging. Definitive evidence to confirm or deny the role of these “variants” in vaccine failures is currently not available. A new DNA-based diagnostic technique, involving PCR, has been recently described and will greatly assist in the diagnosis of infectious coryza.

Blackall, P. J.

1999-01-01

338

Transmission Heterogeneity and Control Strategies for Infectious Disease Emergence  

PubMed Central

Background The control of emergence and spread of infectious diseases depends critically on the details of the genetic makeup of pathogens and hosts, their immunological, behavioral and ecological traits, and the pattern of temporal and spatial contacts among the age/stage-classes of susceptible and infectious host individuals. Methods and Findings We show that failing to acknowledge the existence of heterogeneities in the transmission rate among age/stage-classes can make traditional eradication and control strategies ineffective, and in some cases, policies aimed at controlling pathogen emergence can even increase disease incidence in the host. When control strategies target for reduction in numbers those subsets of the population that effectively limit the production of new susceptible individuals, then control can produce a flush of new susceptibles entering the population. The availability of a new cohort of susceptibles may actually increase disease incidence. We illustrate these general points using Classical Swine Fever as a reference disease. Conclusion Negative effects of culling are robust to alternative formulations of epidemiological processes and underline the importance of better assessing transmission structure in the design of wildlife disease control strategies.

Bolzoni, Luca; Real, Leslie; De Leo, Giulio

2007-01-01

339

Reasons for the increase in emerging and re-emerging viral infectious diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the past two decades, humans have faced many new viral infectious agents in emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases (EIDs). Many factors contribute to the appearance of EIDs. These factors are complex but can be classified into three different categories: virus factors, human factors, and ecological factors. The factors contributing to the cause of such viral infectious diseases will be

Eric Ka-Wai Hui

2006-01-01

340

78 FR 12769 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...discussion, and evaluation of individual intramural programs and projects conducted by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious...Allergy, Immunology, and Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research, National Institutes...

2013-02-25

341

Rectal biopsy in patients presenting to an infectious disease unit with diarrhoeal disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of sigmoidoscopy and rectal biopsy was investigated in patients referred to an infectious diseases unit with diarrhoea. Seventy-four patients were studied. Nine patients (12%) had inflammatory bowel disease, either ulcerative colitis or Crohn's disease. Thirty-six patients (48%) had infective diarrhoea. A wide variety of conditions accounted for the diarrhoea in the remaining patients. Sigmoidoscopy was abnormal in 25

R J Dickinson; H M Gilmour; D B McClelland

1979-01-01

342

Compensation for work-related hematologic, liver, and infectious diseases.  

PubMed

Occupational diseases may be defined only medically or scientifically, and even then, their definition is not simple. However, compensable occupational diseases involve the additional layer of legal systems and social welfare policies as well. Their multifaceted nature makes determining the work-relatedness of these diseases more complex. Korea has established standards for the recognition of occupational diseases in Schedule 5 of the Enforcement Decree of the Labor Standards Act, and specific criteria for the recognition of occupational diseases are listed in Schedule 3 of the Enforcement Decree of the Industrial Accident Compensation Insurance Act. The new list of compensable occupational diseases comprises 13 articles as an open-ended system. The newly added articles pertain to lymphohematopoietic (Article 5) and infectious diseases (Article 9), as well as diseases of other target organs. Furthermore, the article on liver diseases (Article 8) has been partially revised. The new act has been changed to clarify the meaning as it has been presented in recent research. It is necessary to achieve agreement among concerned parties, including experts from the legal, medical, and social domains to resolve the issues of work-relatedness, causation, notion of aggravation, and so on for preparing a list and a process that are more reasonable. PMID:25006327

Kim, Jung-Won; Kang, Dong-Mug

2014-06-01

343

Applications of luminescent systems to infectious disease methodology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The characterization of a clinical sample by a simple, fast, accurate, automatable analytical measurement is important in the management of infectious disease. Luminescence assays offer methods rich with options for these measurements. The instrumentation is common to each assay, and the investment is reasonable. Three general procedures were developed to varying degrees of completeness which measure bacterial levels by measuring their ATP, FMN and iron porphyrins. Bacteriuria detection and antibiograms can be determined within half a day. The characterization of the sample for its soluble ATP, FMN or prophyrins was also performed.

Picciolo, G. L.; Chappelle, E. W.; Deming, J. W.; Mcgarry, M. A.; Nibley, D. A.; Okrend, H.; Thomas, R. R.

1976-01-01

344

Antimicrobial stewardship program prompts increased and earlier infectious diseases consultation  

PubMed Central

A recent analysis demonstrated that infectious diseases (ID) specialty intervention was associated with decreased mortality and hospital readmission. These benefits were greatest if involvement occurred within two days of hospital admission. Antimicrobial stewardship programs should augment the services of an ID specialist team and promote formal consultation. Implementation of an antimicrobial stewardship program at the Providence Veterans Affairs Medical Center was associated with an increased number of consults (increase of 72.2%) and decreased time to consult (3.5 days sooner), which might also dramatically improve patient outcomes, including mortality and readmission rates.

2014-01-01

345

Infectious and Inflammatory Diseases Masquerading as Head and Neck Malignancy.  

PubMed

Lesions of the head and neck and upper respiratory tract can be quite difficult to diagnose at times when presenting symptoms and signs appear out of character or biopsy of affected tissue reveals nonspecific results. A heightened awareness of important historical facts such as place of birth and residence, travel and occupation may provide important clues to narrow the differential diagnosis. Not all destructive ulcers and tumors of the head and neck are malignant. Inflammatory and infectious diseases that mimic cancer are presented. PMID:10886947

Greene; Sandin; Hiemenz; Toney

1994-01-01

346

A critical review of the infectious diseases surveillance system in the Gaza Strip.  

PubMed

The development and strengthening of national surveillance systems is a key part of communicable disease control. This review article describes and evaluates the Palestinian surveillance system and discusses the role of the epidemiology departments and other health providers in Gaza Strip in reporting infectious diseases, considers the use of the data collected, and makes recommendations for strengthening infectious diseases surveillance. Underreporting of infectious diseases remains a major problem in communicable diseases surveillance. Recommendations include the unification of the reporting forms between different health providers, increased involvement of health providers in reporting of infectious diseases, and complete separation of surveillance and clinical activities in epidemiology departments. PMID:12596978

Awad, R; Al Rahman Omer, A; Abu Shahla, N

2001-01-01

347

The Role of Macrophage Polarization in Infectious and Inflammatory Diseases  

PubMed Central

Macrophages, found in circulating blood as well as integrated into several tissues and organs throughout the body, represent an important first line of defense against disease and a necessary component of healthy tissue homeostasis. Additionally, macrophages that arise from the differentiation of monocytes recruited from the blood to inflamed tissues play a central role in regulating local inflammation. Studies of macrophage activation in the last decade or so have revealed that these cells adopt a staggering range of phenotypes that are finely tuned responses to a variety of different stimuli, and that the resulting subsets of activated macrophages play critical roles in both progression and resolution of disease. This review summarizes the current understanding of the contributions of differentially polarized macrophages to various infectious and inflammatory diseases and the ongoing effort to develop novel therapies that target this key aspect of macrophage biology.

Labonte, Adam C.; Tosello-Trampont, Annie-Carole; Hahn, Young S.

2014-01-01

348

The Pathogen- and Incidence-Based DALY Approach: An Appropriated Methodology for Estimating the Burden of Infectious Diseases  

PubMed Central

In 2009, the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control initiated the ‘Burden of Communicable Diseases in Europe (BCoDE)’ project to generate evidence-based and comparable burden-of-disease estimates of infectious diseases in Europe. The burden-of-disease metric used was the Disability-Adjusted Life Year (DALY), composed of years of life lost due to premature death (YLL) and due to disability (YLD). To better represent infectious diseases, a pathogen-based approach was used linking incident cases to sequelae through outcome trees. Health outcomes were included if an evidence-based causal relationship between infection and outcome was established. Life expectancy and disability weights were taken from the Global Burden of Disease Study and alternative studies. Disease progression parameters were based on literature. Country-specific incidence was based on surveillance data corrected for underestimation. Non-typhoidal Salmonella spp. and Campylobacter spp. were used for illustration. Using the incidence- and pathogen-based DALY approach the total burden for Salmonella spp. and Campylobacter spp. was estimated at 730 DALYs and at 1,780 DALYs per year in the Netherlands (average of 2005–2007). Sequelae accounted for 56% and 82% of the total burden of Salmonella spp. and Campylobacter spp., respectively. The incidence- and pathogen-based DALY methodology allows in the case of infectious diseases a more comprehensive calculation of the disease burden as subsequent sequelae are fully taken into account. Not considering subsequent sequelae would strongly underestimate the burden of infectious diseases. Estimates can be used to support prioritisation and comparison of infectious diseases and other health conditions, both within a country and between countries.

Mangen, Marie-Josee J.; Plass, Dietrich; Havelaar, Arie H.; Gibbons, Cheryl L.; Cassini, Alessandro; Muhlberger, Nikolai; van Lier, Alies; Haagsma, Juanita A.; Brooke, R. John; Lai, Taavi; de Waure, Chiara; Kramarz, Piotr; Kretzschmar, Mirjam E. E.

2013-01-01

349

Combating tropical infectious diseases: report of the Disease Control Priorities in Developing Countries Project.  

PubMed

Infectious diseases are responsible for >25% of the global disease toll. The new Disease Control Priorities in Developing Countries Project (DCPP) aims to decrease the burden of these diseases by producing science-based analyses from demographic, epidemiologic, disease intervention, and economic evidence for the purpose of defining disease priorities and implementing control measures. The DCPP recently reviewed selected tropical infectious diseases, examined successful control experiences, and defined unsettled patient treatment, prevention, and research issues. Disease elimination programs against American trypanosomiasis (Chagas disease), onchocerciasis, lymphatic filariasis, leprosy, trachoma, and measles are succeeding. Dengue, leishmaniasis, African trypanosomiasis, malaria, diarrheal diseases, helminthic infections, and tuberculosis have reemerged because of inadequate interventions and control strategies and the breakdown of health delivery systems. Application of technologies must be cost-effective and intensified research is essential if these and other scourges are to be controlled or eliminated in the 21st century. PMID:14999633

Hotez, Peter J; Remme, Jan H F; Buss, Paulo; Alleyne, George; Morel, Carlos; Breman, Joel G

2004-03-15

350

Sex Bias in Infectious Disease Epidemiology: Patterns and Processes  

PubMed Central

Background Infectious disease incidence is often male-biased. Two main hypotheses have been proposed to explain this observation. The physiological hypothesis (PH) emphasizes differences in sex hormones and genetic architecture, while the behavioral hypothesis (BH) stresses gender-related differences in exposure. Surprisingly, the population-level predictions of these hypotheses are yet to be thoroughly tested in humans. Methods and Findings For ten major pathogens, we tested PH and BH predictions about incidence and exposure-prevalence patterns. Compulsory-notification records (Brazil, 2006–2009) were used to estimate age-stratified ?:? incidence rate ratios for the general population and across selected sociological contrasts. Exposure-prevalence odds ratios were derived from 82 published surveys. We estimated summary effect-size measures using random-effects models; our analyses encompass ?0.5 million cases of disease or exposure. We found that, after puberty, disease incidence is male-biased in cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis, schistosomiasis, pulmonary tuberculosis, leptospirosis, meningococcal meningitis, and hepatitis A. Severe dengue is female-biased, and no clear pattern is evident for typhoid fever. In leprosy, milder tuberculoid forms are female-biased, whereas more severe lepromatous forms are male-biased. For most diseases, male bias emerges also during infancy, when behavior is unbiased but sex steroid levels transiently rise. Behavioral factors likely modulate male–female differences in some diseases (the leishmaniases, tuberculosis, leptospirosis, or schistosomiasis) and age classes; however, average exposure-prevalence is significantly sex-biased only for Schistosoma and Leptospira. Conclusions Our results closely match some key PH predictions and contradict some crucial BH predictions, suggesting that gender-specific behavior plays an overall secondary role in generating sex bias. Physiological differences, including the crosstalk between sex hormones and immune effectors, thus emerge as the main candidate drivers of gender differences in infectious disease susceptibility.

Guerra-Silveira, Felipe; Abad-Franch, Fernando

2013-01-01

351

Sudden death in Lesch-Nyhan disease  

PubMed Central

To increase awareness of sudden and unexpected death in Lesch-Nyhan disease (LND) and to explore its potential causes, we report the anteceding clinical features and laboratory evaluations of five males with LND who ultimately experienced sudden and unexpected death, along with three additional males who suffered serious respiratory events during life. The ages of patients ranged from 2 to 45 years. The cause of sudden death in LND appears to have a respiratory rather than a cardiogenic basis. All cases cannot be linked readily with a single respiratory process. Instead, different respiratory processes appear to operate in different cases. These may include aspiration, laryngospasm, central apnea, cyanotic breath-holding spells, and high cervical spine damage. Better recognition of these processes will help to guide appropriate workup and management that could include chest imaging, endoscopy of the airways, polysomnography, electroencephalogram, and brain and/or spine imaging.

Neychev, Vladimir Kostadinov; Jinnah, H A

2012-01-01

352

Suicidal and death ideation in Parkinson's disease.  

PubMed

Parkinson's disease (PD) is a chronic, disabling illness affecting primarily the elderly and is associated with a high prevalence of depression. Although these are known risk factors for suicidal and death ideation, little is known about the prevalence and correlates of such ideation in PD. A convenience sample of 116 outpatients with idiopathic PD at two movement disorders centers were administered a modified Paykel Scale for suicidal and death ideation, as well as an extensive psychiatric, neuropsychological, and neurological battery. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression models were used to determine the correlates of suicidal or death ideation. Current death ideation (28%) or suicide ideation (11%) were present in 30% of the sample, and 4% had a lifetime suicide attempt. On univariate logistic regression analysis, increasing severity of depression (odds ratio = 2.92, 95% CI 2.01-4.24, P < 0.001), impulse control disorder (ICD) behaviors sometime during PD (odds ratio = 6.08, 95% CI 1.90-19.49, P = 0.002), and psychosis (odds ratio = 2.45, 95% CI 1.05-5.69, P = 0.04) were associated with either ideation. On multivariate logistic regression analysis, only increasing severity of depressive symptoms (odds ratio = 2.76, 95% CI 1.88-4.07, P < 0.001) predicted suicidal or death ideation. In conclusion, active suicidal or death ideation occurs in up to one-third of PD patients. Comorbid psychiatric disorders, more than PD-related disease variables, are associated with this ideation, highlighting the need for a comprehensive approach to the clinical care of PD patients. PMID:18618660

Nazem, Sarra; Siderowf, Andrew D; Duda, John E; Brown, Gregory K; Ten Have, Tom; Stern, Matthew B; Weintraub, Daniel

2008-08-15

353

Suicidal and Death Ideation in Parkinson's Disease  

PubMed Central

Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a chronic, disabling illness affecting primarily the elderly and is associated with a high prevalence of depression. Although these are known risk factors for suicidal and death ideation, little is known about the prevalence and correlates of such ideation in PD. A convenience sample of 116 outpatients with idiopathic PD at two movement disorders centers were administered a modified Paykel Scale for suicidal and death ideation, as well as an extensive psychiatric, neuropsychological, and neurological battery. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression models were used to determine the correlates of suicidal or death ideation. Current death ideation (28%) or suicide ideation (11%) were present in 30% of the sample, and 4% had a lifetime suicide attempt. On univariate logistic regression analysis, increasing severity of depression (odds ratio = 2.92, 95% CI 2.01-4.24, P < 0.001), impulse control disorder (ICD) behaviors sometime during PD (odds ratio = 6.08, 95% CI 1.90-19.49, P = 0.002), and psychosis (odds ratio = 2.45, 95% CI 1.05-5.69, P = 0.04) were associated with either ideation. On multivariate logistic regression analysis, only increasing severity of depressive symptoms (odds ratio = 2.76, 95% CI 1.88-4.07, P < 0.001) predicted suicidal or death ideation. In conclusion, active suicidal or death ideation occurs in up to one-third of PD patients. Comorbid psychiatric disorders, more than PD-related disease variables, are associated with this ideation, highlighting the need for a comprehensive approach to the clinical care of PD patients.

Nazem, Sarra; Siderowf, Andrew D.; Duda, John E.; Brown, Gregory K.; Have, Tom Ten; Stern, Matthew B.; Weintraub, Daniel

2009-01-01

354

A new disorder of lymphocyte apoptosis: combination of autoimmunity, infectious lymphadenopathy, double negative T cells, and impaired activation-induced cell death.  

PubMed

A new symptom-complex is described characterized by manifestations of autoimmune disease, infectious lymphadenopathy, double negative T cells, and impaired activation-induced cell death that developed in late adolescence. Similarities, but also significant differences, to autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndromes (ALPS, Canale-Smith syndrome) and autoimmune lymphoproliferative disease (ALD, Dianzani syndrome), were observed. The main clinical features were recurrent bacterial infections with subsequent lymphadenopathy due to autoimmune neutropenia. Laboratory results revealed a large proportion of alphabetaTCR positive, CD4 negative, CD8 negative, peripheral T cells, and a decreased apoptosis upon activation with phytohemagglutinin and interleukin 2, but normal Fas-mediated apoptosis. Genetic investigations excluded mutations in Fas gene death domain and in the 4 exons of Fas ligand gene. Despite unknown pathogenesis, this new syndrome might belong to the growing group of diseases with defects in apoptosis. PMID:12607726

Hundt, Matthias; Posovszky, Carsten; Schmidt, Reinhold E

2002-12-01

355

Nanotechnology and pulmonary delivery to overcome resistance in infectious diseases.  

PubMed

Used since ancient times especially for the local treatment of pulmonary diseases, lungs and airways are a versatile target route for the administration of both local and systemic drugs. Despite the existence of different platforms and devices for the pulmonary administration of drugs, only a few formulations are marketed, partly due to physiological and technological limitations. Respiratory infections represent a significant burden to health systems worldwide mainly due to intrahospital infections that more easily affect immune-compromised patients. Moreover, tuberculosis (TB) is an endemic infectious disease in many developing nations and it has resurged in the developed world associated with the human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) epidemic. Currently, medicine faces the specter of antibiotic resistance. Besides the development of new anti-infectious drugs, the development of innovative and more efficient delivery systems for drugs that went off patent appears as a promising strategy pursued by the pharmaceutical industry to improve the therapeutic outcomes and to prolong the utilities of their intellectual property portfolio. In this context, nanotechnology-based drug delivery systems (nano-DDS) emerged as a promising approach to circumvent the limitations of conventional formulations and to treat drug resistance, opening the hypothesis for new developments in this area. PMID:23932923

Andrade, Fernanda; Rafael, Diana; Videira, Mafalda; Ferreira, Domingos; Sosnik, Alejandro; Sarmento, Bruno

2013-11-30

356

Immunomodulatory Properties of HLA-G in Infectious Diseases  

PubMed Central

HLA-G is a nonclassical major histocompatibility complex molecule first described at the maternal-fetal interface, on extravillous cytotrophoblasts. Its expression is restricted to some tissues in normal conditions but increases strongly in pathological conditions. The expression of this molecule has been studied in detail in cancers and is now also beginning to be described in infectious diseases. The relevance of studies on HLA-G expression lies in the well known inhibitory effect of this molecule on all cell types involved in innate and adaptive immunity, favoring escape from immune control. In this review, we summarize the features of HLA-G expression by type of infections (i.e, bacterial, viral, or parasitic) detailing the state of knowledge for each pathogenic agent. The polymorphism, the interference of viral proteins with HLA-G intracellular trafficking, and various cytokines have been described to modulate HLA-G expression during infections. We also discuss the cellular source of HLA-G, according to the type of infection and the potential role of HLA-G. New therapeutic approaches based on synthetic HLA-G-derived proteins or antibodies are emerging in mouse models of cancer or transplantation, and these new therapeutic tools may eventually prove useful for the treatment of infectious diseases.

Amiot, Laurence; Vu, Nicolas; Samson, Michel

2014-01-01

357

Immunomodulatory properties of HLA-G in infectious diseases.  

PubMed

HLA-G is a nonclassical major histocompatibility complex molecule first described at the maternal-fetal interface, on extravillous cytotrophoblasts. Its expression is restricted to some tissues in normal conditions but increases strongly in pathological conditions. The expression of this molecule has been studied in detail in cancers and is now also beginning to be described in infectious diseases. The relevance of studies on HLA-G expression lies in the well known inhibitory effect of this molecule on all cell types involved in innate and adaptive immunity, favoring escape from immune control. In this review, we summarize the features of HLA-G expression by type of infections (i.e, bacterial, viral, or parasitic) detailing the state of knowledge for each pathogenic agent. The polymorphism, the interference of viral proteins with HLA-G intracellular trafficking, and various cytokines have been described to modulate HLA-G expression during infections. We also discuss the cellular source of HLA-G, according to the type of infection and the potential role of HLA-G. New therapeutic approaches based on synthetic HLA-G-derived proteins or antibodies are emerging in mouse models of cancer or transplantation, and these new therapeutic tools may eventually prove useful for the treatment of infectious diseases. PMID:24839609

Amiot, Laurence; Vu, Nicolas; Samson, Michel

2014-01-01

358

Problems and perspectives of molecular epidemiology of infectious diseases.  

PubMed

Current tendencies and problems of molecular biology and its application in infectious diseases are discussed. Basic stages of the development of molecular epidemiology as a leading tool for epidemiological studies are reviewed. More than 30 years ago, molecular epidemiology was first used to study nosocomial infections. Special attention is given to the achievements of Russian scientists, especially in the discovery of Astrakhan spotted fever Rickettsia, noncultured forms of Vibrio cholerae, and the microorganism "Montezuma." Also, the development of PCR-based methods of identification and typing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis by Russian specialists and its significant role in strategies for diagnosing and treatment of tuberculosis are discussed. Now, the most important field of application of molecular biology methods is bacterial evolution, especially with regard to pathogenic microorganisms and emerging infections. Searching for the novel pathogenic agents, establishment of the infectious nature of diseases with unclear origin, and determining the precise mechanisms of pathogenicity are most intriguing issues. So, molecular biology should play a major role both in clinical and research fields. PMID:12860718

Tarasevich, I V; Shaginyan, I A; Mediannikov, O Y

2003-06-01

359

Neglected infectious diseases: are push and pull incentive mechanisms suitable for promoting drug development research?  

PubMed

Infectious diseases are among the main causes of death and disability in developing countries, and they are a major reason for the health disparity between rich and poor countries. One of the reasons for this public health tragedy is a lack of lifesaving essential medicines, which either do not exist or badly need improvements. In this article, we analyse which of the push and pull mechanisms proposed in the recent literature may serve to promote research into neglected infectious diseases. A combination of push programmes that subsidise research inputs through direct funding and pull programmes that reward research output rather than research input may be the appropriate strategy to stimulate research into neglected diseases. On the one hand, early-stage (basic) research should be supported through push mechanisms, such as research grants or publicly financed research institutions. On the other hand, pull mechanisms, such as prize funds that link reward payments to the health impacts of effective medicines, have the potential to stimulate research into neglected diseases. PMID:23343639

Mueller-Langer, Frank

2013-04-01

360

Creating a global dialogue on infectious disease surveillance: connecting organizations for regional disease surveillance (CORDS).  

PubMed

Connecting Organizations for Regional Disease Surveillance (CORDS) is an international non-governmental organization focused on information exchange between disease surveillance networks in different areas of the world. By linking regional disease surveillance networks, CORDS builds a trust-based social fabric of experts who share best practices, surveillance tools and strategies, training courses, and innovations. CORDS exemplifies the shifting patterns of international collaboration needed to prevent, detect, and counter all types of biological dangers - not just naturally occurring infectious diseases, but also terrorist threats. Representing a network-of-networks approach, the mission of CORDS is to link regional disease surveillance networks to improve global capacity to respond to infectious diseases. CORDS is an informal governance cooperative with six founding regional disease surveillance networks, with plans to expand; it works in complement and cooperatively with the World Health Organization (WHO), the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE), and the Food and Animal Organization of the United Nations (FAO). As described in detail elsewhere in this special issue of Emerging Health Threats, each regional network is an alliance of a small number of neighboring countries working across national borders to tackle emerging infectious diseases that require unified regional efforts. Here we describe the history, culture and commitment of CORDS; and the novel and necessary role that CORDS serves in the existing international infectious disease surveillance framework. PMID:23362412

Gresham, Louise S; Smolinski, Mark S; Suphanchaimat, Rapeepong; Kimball, Ann Marie; Wibulpolprasert, Suwit

2013-01-01

361

Creating a Global Dialogue on Infectious Disease Surveillance: Connecting Organizations for Regional Disease Surveillance (CORDS)  

PubMed Central

Connecting Organizations for Regional Disease Surveillance (CORDS) is an international non-governmental organization focused on information exchange between disease surveillance networks in different areas of the world. By linking regional disease surveillance networks, CORDS builds a trust-based social fabric of experts who share best practices, surveillance tools and strategies, training courses, and innovations. CORDS exemplifies the shifting patterns of international collaboration needed to prevent, detect, and counter all types of biological dangers – not just naturally occurring infectious diseases, but also terrorist threats. Representing a network-of-networks approach, the mission of CORDS is to link regional disease surveillance networks to improve global capacity to respond to infectious diseases. CORDS is an informal governance cooperative with six founding regional disease surveillance networks, with plans to expand; it works in complement and cooperatively with the World Health Organization (WHO), the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE), and the Food and Animal Organization of the United Nations (FAO). As described in detail elsewhere in this special issue of Emerging Health Threats, each regional network is an alliance of a small number of neighboring countries working across national borders to tackle emerging infectious diseases that require unified regional efforts. Here we describe the history, culture and commitment of CORDS; and the novel and necessary role that CORDS serves in the existing international infectious disease surveillance framework.

Gresham, Louise S.; Smolinski, Mark S.; Suphanchaimat, Rapeepong; Kimball, Ann Marie; Wibulpolprasert, Suwit

2013-01-01

362

Risk factors for infectious diseases in backyard poultry farms in the Poyang Lake area, China.  

PubMed

Emergence and transmission of infectious diseases have an enormous impact on the poultry industry and present a serious threat to the health of humans and wild birds. Noncommercial poultry operations, such as backyard poultry facilities in China, are potential sources of virus exchange between commercial poultry and wild birds. It is particularly critical in wetland areas where backyard poultry have close contact with commercial poultry and migratory birds, therefore increasing the risk of contracting infectious diseases. To evaluate the transmission risks, a cross-sectional study was undertaken in the Poyang Lake area, China, involving 309 residents in the backyard poultry farms in three counties (Region A, B, and C) of Jiangxi Province. We examined the backyard poultry population, poultry species, presence of poultry deaths from infectious diseases, food sources, and biosecurity practices. Region B ranked highest for biosecurity while region C ranked lowest. The risks of infectious diseases were assessed by adjusted odds ratio based on multivariate logistic regression analysis. Potential risk factors in the three regions of the study site were compared. In Region A, significant factor was contact of poultry with wild birds (OR: 6.573, 95% CI: 2.148-20.115, P=0.001). In Region B, the most significant factor was contact of poultry with neighboring backyard waterfowls (OR: 3.967, 95% CI: 1.555-10.122, P=0.004). In Region C, significant factors were poultry purchase from local live bird markets (OR: 3.740, 95% CI: 1.243-11.255, P=0.019), and contact of poultry with wild birds (OR: 3.379, 95% CI: 1.058-10.791, P=0.040). In summary, backyard poultry was significantly affected by neighboring commercial poultry and close contact with wild birds. The results are expected to improve our understanding of the transmission risks of infectious diseases in a typical backyard poultry environment in rural China, and address the need to improve local farming practices and take preventive measures. PMID:23840680

Wang, Yong; Jiang, Zhiben; Jin, Zhenyu; Tan, Hua; Xu, Bing

2013-01-01

363

Natural selection and infectious disease in human populations.  

PubMed

The ancient biological 'arms race' between microbial pathogens and humans has shaped genetic variation in modern populations, and this has important implications for the growing field of medical genomics. As humans migrated throughout the world, populations encountered distinct pathogens, and natural selection increased the prevalence of alleles that are advantageous in the new ecosystems in both host and pathogens. This ancient history now influences human infectious disease susceptibility and microbiome homeostasis, and contributes to common diseases that show geographical disparities, such as autoimmune and metabolic disorders. Using new high-throughput technologies, analytical methods and expanding public data resources, the investigation of natural selection is leading to new insights into the function and dysfunction of human biology. PMID:24776769

Karlsson, Elinor K; Kwiatkowski, Dominic P; Sabeti, Pardis C

2014-06-01

364

Poverty trap formed by the ecology of infectious diseases  

PubMed Central

While most of the world has enjoyed exponential economic growth, more than one-sixth of the world is today roughly as poor as their ancestors were many generations ago. Widely accepted general explanations for the persistence of such poverty have been elusive and are needed by the international development community. Building on a well-established model of human infectious diseases, we show how formally integrating simple economic and disease ecology models can naturally give rise to poverty traps, where initial economic and epidemiological conditions determine the long-term trajectory of the health and economic development of a society. This poverty trap may therefore be broken by improving health conditions of the population. More generally, we demonstrate that simple human ecological models can help explain broad patterns of modern economic organization.

Bonds, Matthew H.; Keenan, Donald C.; Rohani, Pejman; Sachs, Jeffrey D.

2010-01-01

365

Infectious diseases in large-scale cat hoarding investigations.  

PubMed

Animal hoarders accumulate animals in over-crowded conditions without adequate nutrition, sanitation, and veterinary care. As a result, animals rescued from hoarding frequently have a variety of medical conditions including respiratory infections, gastrointestinal disease, parasitism, malnutrition, and other evidence of neglect. The purpose of this study was to characterize the infectious diseases carried by clinically affected cats and to determine the prevalence of retroviral infections among cats in large-scale cat hoarding investigations. Records were reviewed retrospectively from four large-scale seizures of cats from failed sanctuaries from November 2009 through March 2012. The number of cats seized in each case ranged from 387 to 697. Cats were screened for feline leukemia virus (FeLV) and feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) in all four cases and for dermatophytosis in one case. A subset of cats exhibiting signs of upper respiratory disease or diarrhea had been tested for infections by PCR and fecal flotation for treatment planning. Mycoplasma felis (78%), calicivirus (78%), and Streptococcus equi subspecies zooepidemicus (55%) were the most common respiratory infections. Feline enteric coronavirus (88%), Giardia (56%), Clostridium perfringens (49%), and Tritrichomonas foetus (39%) were most common in cats with diarrhea. The seroprevalence of FeLV and FIV were 8% and 8%, respectively. In the one case in which cats with lesions suspicious for dermatophytosis were cultured for Microsporum canis, 69/76 lesional cats were culture-positive; of these, half were believed to be truly infected and half were believed to be fomite carriers. Cats from large-scale hoarding cases had high risk for enteric and respiratory infections, retroviruses, and dermatophytosis. Case responders should be prepared for mass treatment of infectious diseases and should implement protocols to prevent transmission of feline or zoonotic infections during the emergency response and when transferring the rescued cats to other shelters or to adopters. PMID:24934262

Polak, K C; Levy, J K; Crawford, P C; Leutenegger, C M; Moriello, K A

2014-08-01

366

Sheep Movement Networks and the Transmission of Infectious Diseases  

PubMed Central

Background and Methodology Various approaches have been used to investigate how properties of farm contact networks impact on the transmission of infectious diseases. The potential for transmission of an infection through a contact network can be evaluated in terms of the basic reproduction number, R0. The magnitude of R0 is related to the mean contact rate of a host, in this case a farm, and is further influenced by heterogeneities in contact rates of individual hosts. The latter can be evaluated as the second order moments of the contact matrix (variances in contact rates, and co-variance between contacts to and from individual hosts). Here we calculate these quantities for the farms in a country-wide livestock network: >15,000 Scottish sheep farms in each of 4 years from July 2003 to June 2007. The analysis is relevant to endemic and chronic infections with prolonged periods of infectivity of affected animals, and uses different weightings of contacts to address disease scenarios of low, intermediate and high animal-level prevalence. Principal Findings and Conclusions Analysis of networks of Scottish farms via sheep movements from July 2003 to June 2007 suggests that heterogeneities in movement patterns (variances and covariances of rates of movement on and off the farms) make a substantial contribution to the potential for the transmission of infectious diseases, quantified as R0, within the farm population. A small percentage of farms (<20%) contribute the bulk of the transmission potential (>80%) and these farms could be efficiently targeted by interventions aimed at reducing spread of diseases via animal movement.

Volkova, Victoriya V.; Howey, Richard; Savill, Nicholas J.; Woolhouse, Mark E. J.

2010-01-01

367

Infectious Disease Modeling of Social Contagion in Networks  

PubMed Central

Many behavioral phenomena have been found to spread interpersonally through social networks, in a manner similar to infectious diseases. An important difference between social contagion and traditional infectious diseases, however, is that behavioral phenomena can be acquired by non-social mechanisms as well as through social transmission. We introduce a novel theoretical framework for studying these phenomena (the SISa model) by adapting a classic disease model to include the possibility for ‘automatic’ (or ‘spontaneous’) non-social infection. We provide an example of the use of this framework by examining the spread of obesity in the Framingham Heart Study Network. The interaction assumptions of the model are validated using longitudinal network transmission data. We find that the current rate of becoming obese is 2 per year and increases by 0.5 percentage points for each obese social contact. The rate of recovering from obesity is 4 per year, and does not depend on the number of non-obese contacts. The model predicts a long-term obesity prevalence of approximately 42, and can be used to evaluate the effect of different interventions on steady-state obesity. Model predictions quantitatively reproduce the actual historical time course for the prevalence of obesity. We find that since the 1970s, the rate of recovery from obesity has remained relatively constant, while the rates of both spontaneous infection and transmission have steadily increased over time. This suggests that the obesity epidemic may be driven by increasing rates of becoming obese, both spontaneously and transmissively, rather than by decreasing rates of losing weight. A key feature of the SISa model is its ability to characterize the relative importance of social transmission by quantitatively comparing rates of spontaneous versus contagious infection. It provides a theoretical framework for studying the interpersonal spread of any state that may also arise spontaneously, such as emotions, behaviors, health states, ideas or diseases with reservoirs.

Hill, Alison L.; Rand, David G.; Nowak, Martin A.; Christakis, Nicholas A.

2010-01-01

368

Identifying risk factors of avian infectious diseases at household level in Poyang Lake region, China.  

PubMed

Poultry kept in backyard farms are susceptible to acquiring and spreading infectious diseases because of free ranging and poor biosecurity measures. Since some of these diseases are zoonoses, this is also a significant health concern to breeders and their families. Backyard farms are common in rural regions of China. However, there is lack of knowledge of backyard poultry in the country. To obtain first-hand information of backyard poultry and identify risk factors of avian infectious diseases, a cross-sectional study was carried out at household level in rural regions around Poyang Lake. A door-to-door survey was conducted to collect data on husbandry practices, trading practices of backyard farmers, and surrounding environments of backyard farms. Farms were categorized into cases and controls based on their history of poultry death. Data were collected for 137 farms, and the association with occurrence of poultry death event was explored by chi-square tests. Results showed that vaccination implementation was a protective factor (odds ratio OR=0.40, 95% confidence interval CI: 0.20-0.80, p=0.01), while contact with other backyard flocks increased risk (OR=1.72, 95% CI: 0.79-3.74, p=0.16). A concept of "farm connectivity" characterized by the density of particular land-use types in the vicinity of the farm was proposed to characterize the degree of contact between poultry in one household farm and those in other household farms. It was found that housing density in a 20-m buffer zone of the farmhouse was most significantly associated with poultry death occurrence (OR=1.08, 95% CI: 1.02-1.17, p=0.03), and was in agreement with observation of villagers. Binary logistic regression was applied to evaluate the relationship between poultry death event and density of land-use types in all buffer zones. When integrated with vaccination implementation for poultry, prediction accuracy of poultry death event reached 72.0%. Results combining questionnaire survey with geographical approaches indicated that occurrence of poultry death event among backyard farms within a village was heavily impacted by farm connectivity. This study provides new insight for the study and help to develop more targeted prevention and countermeasure in a typical rural environment of China. PMID:24861426

Jiang, Qian; Zhou, Jieting; Jiang, Zhiben; Xu, Bing

2014-09-01

369

Genetic Resistance of Egyptian Chickens to Infectious Bursal Disease and Newcastle Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic resistance of native Egyptian breeds to very virulent infectious bursal disease virus (vvIBDV) and Newcastle disease virus (NDV) was investigated in two experiments. In the first experiment, birds from four breeds (Gimmizah, Sina, Dandrawi and Mandarah) were challenged with vvIBDV. The Mandarah chickens had the lowest mortalities (10%) compared to the Gimmizah, Sina and Dandrawi chickens (55%, 35% and

M. K. Hassan; M. A. Afify; M. M. Aly

2004-01-01

370

Water-Borne Infectious Disease Outbreaks Associated with Water Scarcity and Rainfall Events  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a An important number of major infectious diseases are related to water. The greatest consequences for the human population\\u000a are the faecal-oral water-borne infectious diseases, which are transmitted by ingestion of the causal agents that are released\\u000a into water through faeces. The occurrence of outbreaks of water-borne infectious diseases could be affected by water scarcity\\u000a at different degrees depending on the

Juan Jofre; Anicet R. Blanch; Francisco Lucena

371

Global Infectious Diseases and Epidemiology Network (GIDEON): A World Wide Web–Based Program for Diagnosis and Informatics in Infectious Diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Global Infectious Diseases and Epidemiology Network (GIDEON) (http:\\/\\/www.gideononline.com) consists of 4 modules. The first is designed to generate a ranked differential diagnosis list for any infectious diseases scenario in any of 220 countries. The second follows the country-specific epidemiology of 337 individual diseases. The third presents a comprehensive ency- clopedia of 308 generic anti-infective drugs and vaccines, including a

Stephen C. Edberg

2005-01-01

372

Parasitic Diseases as the Cause of Death of Prisoners of War during the Korean War (1950-1953)  

PubMed Central

To determine the cause of death of prisoners of war during the Korean War (1950-1953), death certificates or medical records were analyzed. Out of 7,614 deaths, 5,013 (65.8%) were due to infectious diseases. Although dysentery and tuberculosis were the most common infectious diseases, parasitic diseases had caused 14 deaths: paragonimiasis in 5, malaria in 3, amoebiasis in 2, intestinal parasitosis in 2, ascariasis in 1, and schistosomiasis in 1. These results showed that paragonimiasis, malaria, and amoebiasis were the most fatal parasitic diseases during the early 1950s in the Korean Peninsula. Since schistosomiasis is not endemic to Korea, it is likely that the infected private soldier moved from China or Japan to Korea.

2014-01-01

373

Applications of gold nanoparticles in the detection and identification of infectious diseases and biothreats.  

PubMed

The situation of infectious diseases and biothreats all over the world remains serious. The effective identification of such diseases plays a very important role. In recent years, gold nanoparticles have been widely used in biosensor design to improve the performance for the detection of infectious diseases and biothreats. Here, recent advances of gold-nanoparticle-based biosensors in this field are summarized. PMID:23977699

Lin, Meihua; Pei, Hao; Yang, Fan; Fan, Chunhai; Zuo, Xiaolei

2013-07-01

374

THE POTENTIAL IMPACT OF CLIMATE CHANGE ON INFECTIOUS DISEASES OF ARCTIC FAUNA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Climate change is already affecting Arctic species including infectious disease agents and greater changes are expected. Some infectious diseases are already increasing but future changes are difficult to predict because of the complexity of host - agent - environment relationships. However mechanisms related to climate change that will influence disease patterns are understood. Warmer temperatures will benefit free living bacteria

Michael J. Bradley; Susan J. Kutz; Emily Jenkins; Todd M. O'Hara

2005-01-01

375

[Epidemiological situation of infectious diseases in Lvov and Cracow during and after World War I (until the year 1922)].  

PubMed

In Lvov and Cracow at the times of World War I, the infectious diseases such as tuberculosis followed by typhus fever, typhoid fever, dysentery, as well as scarlet fever, diphtheria, measles, whooping cough, smallpox, cholera and venereal diseases (particularly syphilis) posed one of the most significant and dangerous problems for inhabitants. Their increased prevalence was the result of deteriorating sanitary and living conditions of the city population. The spread of epidemic infectious diseases was enhanced by marching troops, migration of civilians and war prisoners, return of large groups of displaced people and demobilized soldiers after regaining independence in November 1918. Additionally, unfavorable epidemiological situation in Lvov deteriorated at the time of the war with Ukrainians (November 1918-April 1919) and Bolsheviks (July-August 1920). The control of infectious diseases was in the hands of regional local physicians who referred patients to hospitals, isolated homes, bath and disinfection institutions, and conducted vaccinations against smallpox. A decrease in infectious diseases prevalence and deaths to the prewar levels occurred in 1922. PMID:19522244

Berner, W?odzimierz

2009-01-01

376

Towards one health disease surveillance: the Southern African Centre for Infectious Disease Surveillance approach.  

PubMed

Africa has the highest burden of infectious diseases in the world and yet the least capacity for its risk management. It has therefore become increasingly important to search for 'fit-for- purpose' approaches to infectious disease surveillance and thereby targeted disease control. The fact that the majority of human infectious diseases are originally of animal origin means we have to consider One Health (OH) approaches which require inter-sectoral collaboration for custom-made infectious disease surveillance in the endemic settings of Africa. A baseline survey was conducted to assess the current status and performance of human and animal health surveillance systems and subsequently a strategy towards OH surveillance system was developed. The strategy focused on assessing the combination of participatory epidemiological approaches and the deployment of mobile technologies to enhance the effectiveness of disease alerts and surveillance at the point of occurrence, which often lies in remote areas. We selected three study sites, namely the Ngorongoro, Kagera River basin and Zambezi River basin ecosystems. We have piloted and introduced the next-generation Android mobile phones running the EpiCollect application developed by Imperial College to aid geo-spatial and clinical data capture and transmission of this data from the field to the remote Information Technology (IT) servers at the research hubs for storage, analysis, feedback and reporting. We expect that the combination of participatory epidemiology and technology will significantly improve OH disease surveillance in southern Africa. PMID:23327374

Karimuribo, Esron D; Sayalel, Kuya; Beda, Eric; Short, Nick; Wambura, Philemon; Mboera, Leonard G; Kusiluka, Lughano J M; Rweyemamu, Mark M

2012-01-01

377

Large-scale spatial population databases in infectious disease research  

PubMed Central

Modelling studies on the spatial distribution and spread of infectious diseases are becoming increasingly detailed and sophisticated, with global risk mapping and epidemic modelling studies now popular. Yet, in deriving populations at risk of disease estimates, these spatial models must rely on existing global and regional datasets on population distribution, which are often based on outdated and coarse resolution data. Moreover, a variety of different methods have been used to model population distribution at large spatial scales. In this review we describe the main global gridded population datasets that are freely available for health researchers and compare their construction methods, and highlight the uncertainties inherent in these population datasets. We review their application in past studies on disease risk and dynamics, and discuss how the choice of dataset can affect results. Moreover, we highlight how the lack of contemporary, detailed and reliable data on human population distribution in low income countries is proving a barrier to obtaining accurate large-scale estimates of population at risk and constructing reliable models of disease spread, and suggest research directions required to further reduce these barriers.

2012-01-01

378

Mosquito vectors of infectious diseases: are they neglected health disaster in Egypt?  

PubMed

In spite of the great technological progress achieved worldwide, still arthropod borne infectious diseases is a puzzle disturbing the health authorities. Among these arthropods, mosquitoes from medical, veterinary and economic point of view top all groups. They are estimated to transmit disease to more than 700 million people annually worldwide mainly in Africa, South America, Central America, Mexico and much of Asia with millions of deaths. In Europe, Russia, Greenland, Canada, the United States, Australia, New Zealand, Japan and other temperate and developed countries, mosquito bites are now mostly an irritating nuisance; but still cause some deaths each year. Mosquito-borne diseases include Malaria, West Nile Virus, Elephantiasis, Rift Valley Fever, Dengue Fever, Yellow Fever and Dog Heartworm....etc. Apart from diseases transmission, mosquitoes can make human life miserable. The successful long term mosquito control requires the ecological and biological knowledge of where and how they develop. The importance of mosquitoes is given herein to clarify the problem and to think together what one must do? PMID:24260815

El-Bahnasawy, Mamdouh M; Fadil, Eman Ebrahim Abdel; Morsy, Tosson A

2013-08-01

379

The Global Threat of New and Reemerging Infectious Diseases  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Authored by Jennifer Brower and Peter Chalk, working on behalf of the RAND Corporation, this 140-page online book explores an in-depth analysis of the security implications posed by the dissemination of various infectious diseases. Throughout the work, the authors draw on two case studies, namely the HIV/ AIDS epidemic in South Africa and the public health response system within the United States. The book itself is available as six separate chapters, including an appendix and bibliography. For those looking for a brief synopsis of the work, a nine-page summary is also available. The authors conclude their work by presenting several recommendations that may address various existing shortcomings, including increased coordination between public health authorities at all levels of government, integration of the private sector into overall public health efforts, and a large-scale education and information campaign.

Brower, Jennifer, 1967-.; Chalk, Peter.

380

Point-of-care nucleic acid testing for infectious diseases  

PubMed Central

Nucleic acid testing for infectious diseases at the point of care is beginning to enter clinical practice in developed and developing countries; especially for applications requiring fast turnaround times, and in settings where a centralized laboratory approach faces limitations. Current systems for clinical diagnostic applications are mainly PCR-based, can only be used in hospitals, and are still relatively complex and expensive. Integrating sample preparation with nucleic acid amplification and detection in a cost-effective, robust, and user-friendly format remains challenging. This review describes recent technical advances that might be able to address these limitations, with a focus on isothermal nucleic acid amplification methods. It briefly discusses selected applications related to the diagnosis and management of tuberculosis, HIV, and perinatal and nosocomial infections.

Niemz, Angelika; Ferguson, Tanya M.; Boyle, David S.

2013-01-01

381

Infectious disease or Hashimoto's encephalopathy flares: a case report.  

PubMed

Hashimoto's encephalopathy is an under-recognized and rare disease that presents a diagnostic conundrum since many features are suggestive of infectious etiologies and yet treatment is immunosuppressive medications. We describe a case of a male with a history of recurrent seizures who presented with a subacute onset of confusion, persistent leukocytosis and fever while on immunosuppressant therapy, whose response to high dose steroids was incomplete and who achieved a complete remission of all symptoms when plasmapheresis was initiated. A negative cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and serum microbiological testing in a patient with an abnormal EEG, increased CSF protein, and elevated thyroid antibodies should prompt consideration of Hashimoto's encephalopathy. If after treating with high dose steroids, there is a sub-optimal clinical response, plasmapheresis should be considered. PMID:21684767

Huang, Wenyan; Xia, Chang; Chatham, Marie

2011-11-01

382

Research on an Infectious Disease Transmission by Flocking Birds  

PubMed Central

The swarm intelligence is becoming a hot topic. The flocking of birds is a natural phenomenon, which is formed and organized without central or external controls for some benefits (e.g., reduction of energy consummation). However, the flocking also has some negative effects on the human, as the infectious disease H7N9 will easily be transmited from the denser flocking birds to the human. Zombie-city model has been proposed to help analyzing and modeling the flocking birds and the artificial society. This paper focuses on the H7N9 virus transmission in the flocking birds and from the flocking birds to the human. And some interesting results have been shown: (1) only some simple rules could result in an emergence such as the flocking; (2) the minimum distance between birds could affect H7N9 virus transmission in the flocking birds and even affect the virus transmissions from the flocking birds to the human.

Mao, Xinjun; Guessoum, Zahia

2013-01-01

383

Research on an infectious disease transmission by flocking birds.  

PubMed

The swarm intelligence is becoming a hot topic. The flocking of birds is a natural phenomenon, which is formed and organized without central or external controls for some benefits (e.g., reduction of energy consummation). However, the flocking also has some negative effects on the human, as the infectious disease H7N9 will easily be transmited from the denser flocking birds to the human. Zombie-city model has been proposed to help analyzing and modeling the flocking birds and the artificial society. This paper focuses on the H7N9 virus transmission in the flocking birds and from the flocking birds to the human. And some interesting results have been shown: (1) only some simple rules could result in an emergence such as the flocking; (2) the minimum distance between birds could affect H7N9 virus transmission in the flocking birds and even affect the virus transmissions from the flocking birds to the human. PMID:23864820

Tang, Mingsheng; Mao, Xinjun; Guessoum, Zahia

2013-01-01

384

Edge-based compartmental modelling for infectious disease spread  

PubMed Central

The primary tool for predicting infectious disease spread and intervention effectiveness is the mass action susceptible–infected–recovered model of Kermack & McKendrick. Its usefulness derives largely from its conceptual and mathematical simplicity; however, it incorrectly assumes that all individuals have the same contact rate and partnerships are fleeting. In this study, we introduce edge-based compartmental modelling, a technique eliminating these assumptions. We derive simple ordinary differential equation models capturing social heterogeneity (heterogeneous contact rates) while explicitly considering the impact of partnership duration. We introduce a graphical interpretation allowing for easy derivation and communication of the model and focus on applying the technique under different assumptions about how contact rates are distributed and how long partnerships last.

Miller, Joel C.; Slim, Anja C.; Volz, Erik M.

2012-01-01

385

Vaccines for mucosal immunity to combat emerging infectious diseases.  

PubMed Central

The mucosal immune system consists of molecules, cells, and organized lymphoid structures intended to provide immunity to pathogens that impinge upon mucosal surfaces. Mucosal infection by intracellular pathogens results in the induction of cell- mediated immunity, as manifested by CD4-positive (CD4 + ) T helper-type 1 cells, as well as CD8 + cytotoxic T-lymphocytes. These responses are normally accompanied by the synthesis of secretory immunoglobulin A (S-IgA) antibodies, which provide an important first line of defense against invasion of deeper tissues by these pathogens. New-generation live, attenuated viral vaccines, such as the cold-adapted, recombinant nasal influenza and oral rotavirus vaccines, optimize this form of mucosal immune protection. Despite these advances, new and reemerging infectious diseases are tipping the balance in favor of the parasite; continued mucosal vaccine development will be needed to effectively combat these new threats.

van Ginkel, F. W.; Nguyen, H. H.; McGhee, J. R.

2000-01-01

386

Tropical American plants in the treatment of infectious diseases.  

PubMed

The increasingly diverse U.S. immigrant populations and the growing use of medicinal herbs create a need for health care professionals to expand their knowledge in this area. This is a review of tropical plants, Annona Muricata, Artemisia absinthium, Cinchona officinalis, Illicium verum, Momordica charantia, Opuntia streptacantha, Schinus terebinthifolius, and Tabebuia avellanedae (impetiginosa), commonly used by Latino and Haitian populations for the treatment of infectious disease. All the eight plants discussed here have one or more of the following: antibacterial, antiviral, antifungal, or antiparasitic properties. All of these plants are primarily known and used in the tropical region, but they are also readily available for purchase in the United States, specifically in the ethnic markets. This review discusses their traditional uses, chemical constituents, proven scientific evidence, and toxicities. PMID:22436096

Dvorkin-Camiel, Lana; Whelan, Julia S

2008-01-01

387

Genetic characterisation of infectious bursal disease virus isolates in Ethiopia  

PubMed Central

The objective of the investigation was to characterise infectious bursal disease viruses (IBDV) circulating in commercial and breeding poultry farms in Ethiopia between 2009 and 2011. The nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequence for VP2 hypervariable region of ten IBDVs were determined by RT-PCR, sequenced and compared to well characterised IBDV isolates worldwide. IBDV genetic material was amplified directly from bursa or cell passaged material. Phylogenetically, Ethiopian IBDVs represented two genetic lineages: very virulent (vv) IBDVs or variants of the classical attenuated vaccine strain (D78). The nucleotide identity between Ethiopian vvIBDVs ranged between 0% and 2.6%. Ethiopian vvIBDVs are clustered phylogenetically with the African IBDV genetic lineage, independent of the Asian/European lineage. This report demonstrates the circulation of vvIBDV in commercial and breeding poultry farms in Ethiopia.

Jenberie, Shiferaw; Lynch, Stacey E.; Kebede, Fekadu; Christley, Robert M.; Gelaye, Esayas; Negussie, Haileleul; Asmare, Kassahun; Ayelet, Gelagay

2014-01-01

388

Technology innovation for infectious diseases in the developing world.  

PubMed

Enabling innovation and access to health technologies remains a key strategy in combating infectious diseases in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). However, a gulf between paying markets and the endemicity of such diseases has contributed to the dearth of R&D in meeting these public health needs. While the pharmaceutical industry views emerging economies as potential new markets, most of the world's poorest bottom billion now reside in middle-income countries--a fact that has complicated tiered access arrangements. However, product development partnerships--particularly those involving academic institutions and small firms--find commercial opportunities in pursuing even neglected diseases; and a growing pharmaceutical sector in BRICS countries offers hope for an indigenous base of innovation. Such innovation will be shaped by 1) access to building blocks of knowledge; 2) strategic use of intellectual property and innovative financing to meet public health goals; 3) collaborative norms of open innovation; and 4) alternative business models, some with a double bottom line. Facing such resource constraints, LMICs are poised to develop a new, more resource-effective model of innovation that holds exciting promise in meeting the needs of global health. PMID:23849080

So, Anthony D; Ruiz-Esparza, Quentin

2012-01-01

389

Technology innovation for infectious diseases in the developing world  

PubMed Central

Enabling innovation and access to health technologies remains a key strategy in combating infectious diseases in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). However, a gulf between paying markets and the endemicity of such diseases has contributed to the dearth of R&D in meeting these public health needs. While the pharmaceutical industry views emerging economies as potential new markets, most of the world’s poorest bottom billion now reside in middle-income countries--a fact that has complicated tiered access arrangements. However, product development partnerships--particularly those involving academic institutions and small firms--find commercial opportunities in pursuing even neglected diseases; and a growing pharmaceutical sector in BRICS countries offers hope for an indigenous base of innovation. Such innovation will be shaped by 1) access to building blocks of knowledge; 2) strategic use of intellectual property and innovative financing to meet public health goals; 3) collaborative norms of open innovation; and 4) alternative business models, some with a double bottom line. Facing such resource constraints, LMICs are poised to develop a new, more resource-effective model of innovation that holds exciting promise in meeting the needs of global health.

2012-01-01

390

Combating infectious diseases in the Pacific Islands: sentinel surveillance, environmental health, and geospatial tools.  

PubMed

Abstract Infectious diseases are responsible for significant disease burden in the Pacific Islands. Environmental drivers of disease transmission and public health challenges vary between diseases, at times of emergence versus outbreaks, and also during the last stages of elimination where prevalence is low. In order to more effectively combat infectious diseases in the region, innovative approaches such as sentinel surveillance, environmental monitoring, the use of geospatial tools should be explored. PMID:24566353

Lau, Colleen

2014-01-01

391

Autoimmune and infectious skin diseases that target desmogleins  

PubMed Central

Desmosomes are intercellular adhesive junctions of epithelial cells that contain two major transmembrane components, the desmogleins (Dsg) and desmocollins (Dsc), which are cadherin-type cell–cell adhesion molecules and are anchored to intermediate filaments of keratin through interactions with plakoglobin and desmoplakin. Desmosomes play an important role in maintaining the proper structure and barrier function of the epidermis and mucous epithelia. Four Dsg isoforms have been identified to date, Dsg1–Dsg4, and are involved in several skin and heart diseases. Dsg1 and Dsg3 are the two major Dsg isoforms in the skin and mucous membranes, and are targeted by IgG autoantibodies in pemphigus, an autoimmune disease of the skin and mucous membranes. Dsg1 is also targeted by exfoliative toxin (ET) released by Staphylococcus aureus in the infectious skin diseases bullous impetigo and staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome (SSSS). ET is a unique serine protease that shows lock and key specificity to Dsg1. Dsg2 is expressed in all tissues possessing desmosomes, including simple epithelia and myocardia, and mutations in this gene are responsible for arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy/dysplasia. Dsg4 plays an important adhesive role mainly in hair follicles, and Dsg4 mutations cause abnormal hair development. Recently, an active disease model for pemphigus was generated by a unique approach using autoantigen-deficient mice that do not acquire tolerance against the defective autoantigen. Adoptive transfer of Dsg3?/? lymphocytes into mice expressing Dsg3 induces stable anti-Dsg3 IgG production with development of the pemphigus phenotype. This mouse model is a valuable tool with which to investigate immunological mechanisms of harmful IgG autoantibody production in pemphigus. Further investigation of desmoglein molecules will continue to provide insight into the unsolved pathophysiological mechanisms of diseases and aid in the development of novel therapeutic strategies with minimal side effects.

AMAGAI, Masayuki

2010-01-01

392

Worldwide trends in quantity and quality of published articles in the field of infectious diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Trying to confront with the widespread burden of infectious diseases, the society worldwide invests considerably on research. We evaluated the contribution of different world regions in research production in Infectious Diseases. METHODS: Using the online Pubmed database we retrieved articles from 38 journals included in the \\

Ioannis A Bliziotis; Konstantinos Paraschakis; Paschalis I Vergidis; Antonia I Karavasiou; Matthew E Falagas

2005-01-01

393

Incidence of infectious diseases in infants fed follow-on formula containing synbiotics: an observational study  

PubMed Central

Aim Infectious diseases in infants are a major public health issue. Synbiotic-enriched formulas (EF) are intended to mimic the beneficial effects of human milk on infectious diseases. We performed an observational study in infants switching to follow-on formula to determine the effects of synbiotic-enriched formula compared to standard formula (SF). Methods We recorded family characteristics, medical history and growth data, as well as the symptoms, severity and treatment of infectious diseases. Main outcome measures were compared after adjustments for baseline characteristics. Results Between January and June 2007, 771 healthy infants were included in the study; 35.4% experienced at least one infectious disease during the 3-month study period. The most common were upper respiratory tract (24.1%), otitis (6.6%) and gastrointestinal infectious diseases (5.0%). Infants fed synbiotic-enriched formula had fewer infectious diseases overall (EF: 31.0%; SF: 40.6%; p = 0.005) and significantly fewer gastrointestinal infectious diseases (EF: 3.5%; SF: 6.8%; p = 0.03). During follow-up, weight gain was significantly higher (p = 0.0467) in infants fed synbiotic-enriched formula (18.3 ± 8.7 g/day) versus SF (16.9 ± 7.5 g/day). Conclusions Supplementation with synbiotics may have beneficial effects on the incidence of infectious disease and growth in infants. Further studies are needed determine optimal doses and composition of synbiotics in infant formula.

Picaud, Jean-Charles; Chapalain, Veronique; Paineau, Damien; Zourabichvili, Othar; Bornet, Francis RJ; Duhamel, Jean-Francois

2010-01-01

394

Possible impact of rising sea levels on vector-borne infectious diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Vector-borne infectious diseases are a significant cause of human and animal mortality and morbidity. Modeling studies predict that changes in climate that accompany global warming will alter the transmission risk of many vector-borne infectious diseases in different parts of the world. Global warming will also raise sea levels, which will lead to an increase in saline and brackish water

Ranjan Ramasamy; Sinnathamby N Surendran

2011-01-01

395

Effect of variability in infection period on the persistence and spatial spread of infectious diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of the mean infection (incubation plus infectious) period on the dynamics of infectious diseases are well understood. We examine the dynamics and persistence of epidemics when the distribution of the infection period also is modelled, using the well-documented childhood disease measles as a test case. We pay particular attention to the differences between exponentially distributed and constant periods.

M. J. Keeling; B. T. Grenfell

1998-01-01

396

Social networks and the spread of infectious diseases: The AIDS example  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conceptualizing a population as a set of individuals linked together to form a large social network provides a fruitful perspective for better understanding the spread of some infectious diseases. Data related to AIDS (the acquired immune deficiency syndrome) were used to illustrate the potential usefulness of a network approach in evaluating the infectious agent hypothesis when studying a disease or

Alden S. Klovdahl

1985-01-01

397

Diversifying animal models: the use of hispid cotton rats ( Sigmodon hispidus ) in infectious diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The hispid cotton rat ( Sigm odon hispidus ) has been a longstanding laboratory animal model of infectious diseases. In this review, the most common usage of hispid cotton rats as models of infectious diseases is discussed in detail and all organisms, which have been shown to infect cotton rats, are listed. A state of the art overview is

Stefan Niewiesk; Gregory Prince

2002-01-01

398

Ability of online drug databases to assist in clinical decision-making with infectious disease therapies  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Infectious disease (ID) is a dynamic field with new guidelines being adopted at a rapid rate. Clinical decision support tools (CDSTs) have proven beneficial in selecting treatment options to improve outcomes. However, there is a dearth of information on the abilities of CDSTs, such as drug information databases. This study evaluated online drug information databases when answering infectious disease-specific

Hyla H Polen; Antonia Zapantis; Kevin A Clauson; Jennifer Jebrock; Mark Paris

2008-01-01

399

Male circumcision, religion, and infectious diseases: an ecologic analysis of 118 developing countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Both religious practices and male circumcision (MC) have been associated with HIV and other sexually-transmitted infectious diseases. Most studies have been limited in size and have not adequately controlled for religion, so these relationships remain unclear. METHODS: We evaluated relationships between MC prevalence, Muslim and Christian religion, and 7 infectious diseases using country-specific data among 118 developing countries. We

Paul K Drain; Daniel T Halperin; James P Hughes; Jeffrey D Klausner; Robert C Bailey

2006-01-01

400

DISEASE IN HUMAN EVOLUTION: THE RE-EMERGENCE OF INFECTIOUS DISEASE IN THE THIRD EPIDEMIOLOGICAL TRANSITION  

Microsoft Academic Search

For millions of years, humans and their ancestors suffered from diseases -- both the kind caused by infectious pathogens (e.g., bacteria, viruses, parasites) and the kind caused by our own bodies as they age and degenerate. Over this long period, humans constantly created new ways of living and eating, and actual physical or genetic changes evolved to minimize the effects

George J. Armelagos; Kathleen C. Barnes; James Lin

401

The Chemotherapy of Infectious Diseases caused by Protozoa and Bacteria  

PubMed Central

The possibility of combating infectious diseases with chemotherapeutically active substances depends to a large extent on the structure of the pathogenic organism. Apart from the cure of contagious pleuro-pneumonia in horses with neosalvarsan, we have, as yet, no chemotherapeutic substance which is active in virus diseases. The position is scarcely better when we turn to bacterial infections due to cocci and bacilli. These two types of infective organisms occupy the lowest level in the scale of micro-organisms. On the other hand, the spirochætes, which also belong to the bacteria group, and, still more so, those causal organisms belonging to the protozoa, represent relatively highly differentiated species, and the more highly developed a pathogenic organism is, the more points for attack it appears to offer to the action of chemotherapeutic substances. It is, therefore, not to be wondered at that the best results with chemotherapeutically active substances have been obtained in spirochætal diseases (syphilis, relapsing fever, frambœsia, etc.), and above all, in protozoal diseases. There is scarcely a protozoal disease of man which cannot be cured nowadays by early treatment with the appropriate synthetic drug. (Sleeping sickness, malaria, amœbic dysentery, leishmaniasis.) Epizootics resembling human diseases, as for example, trypanoses, are also relatively easily dealt with by the same drugs as have been found of value in the treatment of disease in man. On the other hand, there has been a lack of success, up to the present, in the treatment of those diseases of animals which are not generally related to the tropical diseases of man. The most important of these epizootics are the piroplasmoses, which are caused by babesiæ and theileriæ and which are found, not only in tropical and subtropical regions, but also in temperate zones. In this paper the discovery of a new remedy against piroplasmosis will be reported (acaprin). Further, advice will be given of a new class of substances, which have an actual chemotherapeutic action in streptococcal infections (prontosil, prontosil S), so that one can hope to be able in the future also to attack bacterial infections due to cocci chemotherapeutically.

Horlein, H.

1936-01-01

402

Current and Emerging Biomarkers of Cell Death in Human Disease  

PubMed Central

Cell death is a critical biological process, serving many important functions within multicellular organisms. Aberrations in cell death can contribute to the pathology of human diseases. Significant progress made in the research area enormously speeds up our understanding of the biochemical and molecular mechanisms of cell death. According to the distinct morphological and biochemical characteristics, cell death can be triggered by extrinsic or intrinsic apoptosis, regulated necrosis, autophagic cell death, and mitotic catastrophe. Nevertheless, the realization that all of these efforts seek to pursue an effective treatment and cure for the disease has spurred a significant interest in the development of promising biomarkers of cell death to early diagnose disease and accurately predict disease progression and outcome. In this review, we summarize recent knowledge about cell death, survey current and emerging biomarkers of cell death, and discuss the relationship with human diseases.

Li, Kongning; Wu, Deng; Chen, Xi; Zhang, Ting; Zhang, Lu; Yi, Ying; Miao, Zhengqiang; Jin, Nana; Bi, Xiaoman; Wang, Hongwei; Wang, Dong

2014-01-01

403

Taking sociology seriously: a new approach to the bioethical problems of infectious disease.  

PubMed

After a history of neglect, bioethicists have recently turned their attention to the topic of infectious disease. In this paper we link bioethicists' earlier neglect of infectious disease to their under-appreciation of the extent to which the problem of infectious disease is related to social factors and thus to questions of justice. We argue that a social causation of illness model - well-known to sociologists of medicine, but incompletely understood by bioethicists - will improve future bioethical analysis of issues related to infectious disease. By emphasising the relationships between social and economic structures of inequality and health, the social causation model provides a richer approach to ethical issues associated with infectious disease than the more commonly used biomedical model. PMID:17184421

Tausig, Mark; Selgelid, Michael J; Subedi, Sree; Subedi, Janardan

2006-09-01

404

Gold nanoparticles based colorimetric nanodiagnostics for cancer and infectious diseases  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Traditional in vitro diagnostics requires specialized laboratories and costly instrumentation, both for the amplification of nucleic acid targets (usually achieved by PCR) and for the assay readout, often based on fluorescence. We are developing hybrid nanomaterials-based sensors for the rapid and low-cost diagnosis of various disease biomarkers, for applications in portable platforms for diagnostics at the point-of-care. To this aim, we exploited the size and distancedependent optical properties of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) to achieve colorimetric detection. Moreover, in order to avoid the complexity of thermal cycles associated to traditional PCR, the design of our systems includes signal amplification schemes, achieved by the use of enzymes (nucleases, helicase) or DNAzymes. Focused on instrument-free and sensitive detection, we carefully combined the intrinsic sensitivity by multivalency of functionalized AuNPs with isothermal and non-stringent enzyme-aided reaction conditions, controlled AuNPs aggregates, universal reporters and magnetic microparticles, the latter used both as a substrate and as a means for the colorimetric detection. We obtained simple and robust assays for the sensitive (pM range or better) naked-eye detection of cancer or infectious diseases (HPV, HCV) biomarkers, requiring no instrumentation except for a simple heating plate. Finally, we are also developing non-medical applications of these bio-nanosensors, such as in the development of on-field rapid tests for the detection of pollutants and other food and water contaminants.

Valentini, Paola; Persano, Stefano; Cecere, Paola; Sabella, Stefania; Pompa, Pier Paolo

2014-03-01

405

[Kenya Research Station and viral infectious disease research].  

PubMed

The Institute of Tropical Medicine, Kenya Research Station, Nagasaki University was established by a fund of the Ministry of Education (MEXT) in 2005. Currently, the station has been on ''The Clinical and Epidemiological Research Program of Tropical Medicine and Emerging Infectious Diseases-Establishment of Education and Research System between Africa and Japan- ''. The project has been supported by about 20 Japanese staff and 85 Kenyan staff, and in the research station, 10 research teams have worked on their researches for the prevention of tropical medicine and emerging diseases collaborating with other researches and The JICA Grassroots Technical Cooperation Project has also started in 2012. In April 2010, Nagasaki University, Africa Station has been established along with Kenya Research Station, and it made possible for other faculties to join research in Kenya. School of Dentistry has started oral health survey in Mbita, while School of Fishery, School of Engineering and School of Health Science have a plan of a joint project targeting areas by Lake Victoria. Our aim is to develop a foundation which enables all researchers from different fields to carry out their research for improvement health and living standards of the locals. PMID:24769581

Ichinose, Yoshio

2013-01-01

406

Multiscale mobility networks and the spatial spreading of infectious diseases  

PubMed Central

Among the realistic ingredients to be considered in the computational modeling of infectious diseases, human mobility represents a crucial challenge both on the theoretical side and in view of the limited availability of empirical data. To study the interplay between short-scale commuting flows and long-range airline traffic in shaping the spatiotemporal pattern of a global epidemic we (i) analyze mobility data from 29 countries around the world and find a gravity model able to provide a global description of commuting patterns up to 300 kms and (ii) integrate in a worldwide-structured metapopulation epidemic model a timescale-separation technique for evaluating the force of infection due to multiscale mobility processes in the disease dynamics. Commuting flows are found, on average, to be one order of magnitude larger than airline flows. However, their introduction into the worldwide model shows that the large-scale pattern of the simulated epidemic exhibits only small variations with respect to the baseline case where only airline traffic is considered. The presence of short-range mobility increases, however, the synchronization of subpopulations in close proximity and affects the epidemic behavior at the periphery of the airline transportation infrastructure. The present approach outlines the possibility for the definition of layered computational approaches where different modeling assumptions and granularities can be used consistently in a unifying multiscale framework.

Balcan, Duygu; Colizza, Vittoria; Goncalves, Bruno; Hu, Hao; Ramasco, Jose J.; Vespignani, Alessandro

2009-01-01

407

Multiscale mobility networks and the spatial spreading of infectious diseases.  

PubMed

Among the realistic ingredients to be considered in the computational modeling of infectious diseases, human mobility represents a crucial challenge both on the theoretical side and in view of the limited availability of empirical data. To study the interplay between short-scale commuting flows and long-range airline traffic in shaping the spatiotemporal pattern of a global epidemic we (i) analyze mobility data from 29 countries around the world and find a gravity model able to provide a global description of commuting patterns up to 300 kms and (ii) integrate in a worldwide-structured metapopulation epidemic model a timescale-separation technique for evaluating the force of infection due to multiscale mobility processes in the disease dynamics. Commuting flows are found, on average, to be one order of magnitude larger than airline flows. However, their introduction into the worldwide model shows that the large-scale pattern of the simulated epidemic exhibits only small variations with respect to the baseline case where only airline traffic is considered. The presence of short-range mobility increases, however, the synchronization of subpopulations in close proximity and affects the epidemic behavior at the periphery of the airline transportation infrastructure. The present approach outlines the possibility for the definition of layered computational approaches where different modeling assumptions and granularities can be used consistently in a unifying multiscale framework. PMID:20018697

Balcan, Duygu; Colizza, Vittoria; Gonçalves, Bruno; Hu, Hao; Ramasco, José J; Vespignani, Alessandro

2009-12-22

408

Toll-like receptors in skin infectious and inflammatory diseases  

PubMed Central

The skin is the ultimate example of the function of innate immunity, it alerts the host of danger by many systems including sensing pathogen-associated molecule patterns (PAMPs) through Toll-like receptors and other pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), yet normally provides defense without inflammation. The skin responds rapidly to invading microbes by producing antimicrobial peptides or other antimicrobial intermediates before cytokine release results in inflammation. To achieve maximal immune responses for clearing invading microbes, the activation of select PRRs in skin then initiates and shapes adaptive immune responses through the activation of dendritic cells and recruitment of T cell subsets. Importantly, cross-talk between TLRs can influence this system in several ways including augmenting or suppressing the immune response. As a consequence of their pivotal role, TLR responses need to be tightly controlled by associated negative regulators or negative feedback loops to prevent detrimental effects from TLRs overactivation. This review focuses on describing the involvement of TLRs in the development of skin infectious and inflammatory diseases, and highlights the potential application of TLR agonists or antagonists in these skin diseases.

Lai, Yuping; Gallo, Richard L

2009-01-01

409

Translational research in infectious disease: current paradigms and challenges ahead  

PubMed Central

In recent years, the biomedical community has witnessed a rapid scientific and technological evolution following the development and refinement of high-throughput methodologies. Concurrently and consequentially, the scientific perspective has changed from the reductionist approach of meticulously analyzing the fine details of a single component of biology, to the “holistic” approach of broadmindedly examining the globally interacting elements of biological systems. The emergence of this new way of thinking has brought about a scientific revolution in which genomics, proteomics, metabolomics and other “omics” have become the predominant tools by which large amounts of data are amassed, analyzed and applied to complex questions of biology that were previously unsolvable. This enormous transformation of basic science research and the ensuing plethora of promising data, especially in the realm of human health and disease, have unfortunately not been followed by a parallel increase in the clinical application of this information. On the contrary, the number of new potential drugs in development has been steadily decreasing, suggesting the existence of roadblocks that prevent the translation of promising research into medically relevant therapeutic or diagnostic application. In this paper we will review, in a non-inclusive fashion, several recent scientific advancements in the field of translational research, with a specific focus on how they relate to infectious disease. We will also present a current picture of the limitations and challenges that exist for translational research, as well as ways that have been proposed by the National Institutes of Health to improve the state of this field.

Fontana, Judith M.; Alexander, Elizabeth; Salvatore, Mirella

2012-01-01

410

Glomerular Disease in Patients with Infectious Processes Developing Antineutrophil Cytoplasmic Antibodies  

PubMed Central

To identify differences in treatment and outcome of various types of glomerulonephritis developing in the course of infections triggering antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA) formation, we analyzed published reports of 50 patients. Immunosuppressives were added to antibiotics in 22 of 23 patients with pauci-immune glomerulonephritis. Improvement was noted in 85% of 20 patients with information on outcomes. Death rate was 13%. Corticosteroids were added to antibiotics in about 50% of 19 patients with postinfectious glomerulonephritis. Improvement rate was 74%, and death rate was 26%. Two patients with mixed histological features were analyzed under both pauci-immune and post-infectious glomerulonephritis categories. In 9 patients with other renal histology, treatment consisted of antibiotics alone (7 patients), antibiotics plus immunosuppressives (1 patient), or immunosuppressives alone (1 patient). Improvement rate was 67%, permanent renal failure rate was 22%, and death rate was 11%. One patient with antiglomerular basement disease glomerulonephritis required maintenance hemodialysis. Glomerulonephritis developing in patients who became ANCA-positive during the course of an infection is associated with significant mortality. The histological type of the glomerulonephritis guides the choice of treatment. Pauci-immune glomerulonephritis is usually treated with addition of immunosuppressives to antibiotics.

Konstantinov, Konstantin N.; Emil, Suzanne N.; Barry, Marc; Kellie, Susan; Tzamaloukas, Antonios H.

2013-01-01

411

Ecology of Infectious Diseases Grants Awarded by National Science Foundation, National Institutes of Health  

NSF Publications Database

... ecology of infectious diseases." The current spread of West Nile virus, for example, brings home the ... EID awards include studies of the origins and spread of the aspergillus-gorgonian coral disease, and ...

412

76 FR 81954 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Diseases Special Emphasis Panel, Resource-Related Research Projects. Date: January 26, 2012. Time: 10 a.m. to 2 p.m...Allergy, Immunology, and Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research, National Institutes...

2011-12-29

413

78 FR 68855 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Diseases Special Emphasis Panel, NIAID Resource Related Research Projects (R24). Date: December 11, 2013. Time: 11:30 a.m...Allergy, Immunology, and Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research, National Institutes...

2013-11-15

414

The spectrum of oculocutaneous disease: Part I. Infectious, inflammatory, and genetic causes of oculocutaneous disease.  

PubMed

Many skin diseases are associated with ocular findings, emphasizing the need for dermatologists to be fully aware of their presence, and as a result, avoid overlooking conditions with potentially major ocular complications, including blindness. We review important oculocutaneous disease associations with recommendations for the management of the ocular complications and appropriate referral to our ophthalmology colleagues. Part I of this 2-part review focuses on the infectious, inflammatory, and genetic relationships. PMID:24742848

Horner, Mary E; Abramson, Amanda K; Warren, Richard B; Swanson, Susan; Menter, M Alan

2014-05-01

415

Infectious diseases investment decision evaluation algorithm: a quantitative algorithm for prioritization of naturally occurring infectious disease threats to the U.S. military.  

PubMed

Identification of the most significant infectious disease threats to deployed U.S. military forces is important for developing and maintaining an appropriate countermeasure research and development portfolio. We describe a quantitative algorithmic method (the Infectious Diseases Investment Decision Evaluation Algorithm) that uses Armed Forces Medical Intelligence Center information to determine which naturally occurring pathogens pose the most substantial threat to U.S. deployed forces in the absence of specific mitigating countermeasures. The Infectious Diseases Investment Decision Evaluation Algorithm scores the relative importance of various diseases by taking into account both their severity and the likelihood of infection on a country-by-country basis. In such an analysis, the top three endemic disease threats to U.S. deployed forces are malaria, bacteria-caused diarrhea, and dengue fever. PMID:18333494

Burnette, W Neal; Hoke, Charles H; Scovill, John; Clark, Kathryn; Abrams, Jerry; Kitchen, Lynn W; Hanson, Kevin; Palys, Thomas J; Vaughn, David W

2008-02-01

416

Ethical Dilemmas in Protecting Individual Rights Versus Public Protection in the Case of Infectious Diseases  

PubMed Central

Infectious diseases—including emerging and re-emerging diseases such as Ebola and tuberculosis—continue to be important causes of morbidity and mortality in the globalizing, contemporary world. This article discusses the ethical issues associated with protecting the rights of individuals versus the protection of the health of populations in the case of infectious diseases. The discussion uses the traditional medical ethics approach together with the public health approach presented by Faden and Shebaya.3 Infectious diseases such as Ebola hemorrhagic fever, Nipah virus and HIV/AIDS (together with tuberculosis) will be used to illustrate particular points in the discussion.

Phua, Kai-Lit

2013-01-01

417

Oral Manifestations of Tropical Infectious Diseases of Central and South America. Part I. Protozoan and Helminthic Infections.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Oral manifestations of tropical infectious diseases are seldom discussed extensively in most current textbooks of oral diagnosis or oral pathology. This paper is the result of a survey of literature in which the oral manifestations of infectious diseases ...

T. Zislis J. C. Adrian D. E. Cutright

1979-01-01

418

Oral Manifestations of Tropical Infectious Diseases of Central and South America. Part II. Bacterial and Mycotic Infections.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Oral manifestations of tropical infectious diseases are seldom discussed extensively in most current textbooks of oral diagnosis or oral pathology. This paper is the result of a survey of literature in which the oral manifestations of infectious diseases ...

T. Zislis J. C. Adrian D. E. Cutright

1979-01-01

419

Clinical Applications of Molecular Biology for Infectious Diseases  

PubMed Central

Molecular biological methods for the detection and characterisation of microorganisms have revolutionised diagnostic microbiology and are now part of routine specimen processing. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) techniques have led the way into this new era by allowing rapid detection of microorganisms that were previously difficult or impossible to detect by traditional microbiological methods. In addition to detection of fastidious microorganisms, more rapid detection by molecular methods is now possible for pathogens of public health importance. Molecular methods have now progressed beyond identification to detect antimicrobial resistance genes and provide public health information such as strain characterisation by genotyping. Treatment of certain microorganisms has been improved by viral resistance detection and viral load testing for the monitoring of responses to antiviral therapies. With the advent of multiplex PCR, real-time PCR and improvements in efficiency through automation, the costs of molecular methods are decreasing such that the role of molecular methods will further increase. This review will focus on the clinical utility of molecular methods performed in the clinical microbiology laboratory, illustrated with the many examples of how they have changed laboratory diagnosis and therefore the management of infectious diseases.

Speers, David J

2006-01-01

420

Comparative Pathogenomics of Bacteria Causing Infectious Diseases in Fish  

PubMed Central

Fish living in the wild as well as reared in the aquaculture facilities are susceptible to infectious diseases caused by a phylogenetically diverse collection of bacterial pathogens. Control and treatment options using vaccines and drugs are either inadequate, inefficient, or impracticable. The classical approach in studying fish bacterial pathogens has been looking at individual or few virulence factors. Recently, genome sequencing of a number of bacterial fish pathogens has tremendously increased our understanding of the biology, host adaptation, and virulence factors of these important pathogens. This paper attempts to compile the scattered literature on genome sequence information of fish pathogenic bacteria published and available to date. The genome sequencing has uncovered several complex adaptive evolutionary strategies mediated by horizontal gene transfer, insertion sequence elements, mutations and prophage sequences operating in fish pathogens, and how their genomes evolved from generalist environmental strains to highly virulent obligatory pathogens. In addition, the comparative genomics has allowed the identification of unique pathogen-specific gene clusters. The paper focuses on the comparative analysis of the virulogenomes of important fish bacterial pathogens, and the genes involved in their evolutionary adaptation to different ecological niches. The paper also proposes some new directions on finding novel vaccine and chemotherapeutic targets in the genomes of bacterial pathogens of fish.

Sudheesh, Ponnerassery S.; Al-Ghabshi, Aliya; Al-Mazrooei, Nashwa; Al-Habsi, Saoud

2012-01-01

421

Infectious disease transmission as a forensic problem: who infected whom?  

PubMed

Observations on infectious diseases often consist of a sample of cases, distinguished by symptoms, and other characteristics, such as onset dates, spatial locations, genetic sequence of the pathogen and/or physiological and clinical data. Cases are often clustered, in space and time, suggesting that they are connected. By defining kernel functions for pairwise analysis of cases, a matrix of transmission probabilities can be estimated. We set up a Bayesian framework to integrate various sources of information to estimate the transmission network. The method is illustrated by analysing data from a multi-year study (2002-2007) of nosocomial outbreaks of norovirus in a large university hospital in the Netherlands. The study included 264 cases, the norovirus genotype was known in approximately 60 per cent of the patients. Combining all the available data allowed likely identification of individual transmission links between most of the cases (72%). This illustrates that the proposed method can be used to accurately reconstruct transmission networks, enhancing our understanding of outbreak dynamics and possibly leading to new insights into how to prevent outbreaks. PMID:23389896

Teunis, Peter; Heijne, Janneke C M; Sukhrie, Faizel; van Eijkeren, Jan; Koopmans, Marion; Kretzschmar, Mirjam

2013-04-01

422

The next step in infectious disease: taming bacteria.  

PubMed

Except for immunization programs our warfare with bacteria has always been a frontal assault with antibiotics. In this warfare we win battles, but with every new battle the enemy gets stronger. We need other options. Recent experience suggests two alternatives. First, public health measures designed to control the spread of infectious disease are associated with the selection of less virulent strains of microorganisms. Second, the same selection pressures obtained by public health measures outside the body are brought into play when we inhibit the adherence of bacteria within the body. Two recent studies using food sugars known to inhibit bacterial adherence show long-term benefits best explained by the previously observed decreases in bacterial virulence, following chronic exposure to the respective substances. Cranberry juice selects for less uropathogenic strains of Escherichia coli and xylitol for less caries producing Streptococcus mutans. The ability of these substances to reduce bacterial adherence in the human host has been known for some time, but poorly utilized. Their in vitro ability to decrease virulence has been reported but not clinically studied. PMID:12606230

Jones, A H

2003-02-01

423

The activation of vivax malaria hypnozoites by infectious diseases.  

PubMed

The periodicity of vivax malaria relapses may be explained by the activation of latent hypnozoites acquired from a previous malarial infection. The activation stimulus could be the febrile illness associated with acute malaria or a different febrile infection. We review historical records to examine the association between relapses of Plasmodium vivax and febrile infectious diseases. In data from British soldiers in Palestine, epidemic falciparum malaria triggered a smaller epidemic of P vivax relapses only in those who had been extensively exposed to malaria previously. Relapses did not follow pandemic influenza infection. Evidence from three simultaneous typhoid and malaria epidemics suggest that typhoid fever might activate P vivax hypnozoites. Some data lend support to the notion that vivax malaria relapse followed febrile illness caused by relapsing fever, trench fever, epidemic typhus, and Malta fever (brucellosis). These observations suggest that systemic parasitic and bacterial infections, but not viral infections, can activate P vivax hypnozoites. Specific components of the host's acute febrile inflammatory response, and not fever alone, are probably important factors in the provocation of a relapse of vivax malaria. PMID:23809889

Shanks, G Dennis; White, Nicholas J

2013-10-01

424

Influence of an Infectious Diseases Specialist on ICU Multidisciplinary Rounds  

PubMed Central

Objective. To ascertain the influence of a physician infectious diseases specialist (IDS) on antibiotic use in a medical/surgical intensive care unit. Method. Over a 5-month period, the antibiotic regimens ordered by the ICU multidisciplinary team were studied. The days of antibiotic therapy (DOT) when management decisions included an IDS were compared to DOT in the absence of an IDS. The associated treatment expense was calculated. Results. Prior to multidisciplinary rounds (MDRs), 79-80% of the patients were receiving one or more antibiotic. IDS participation occurred in 61 multidisciplinary rounding sessions. There were 384 patients who before MDRs had orders for 669 days of antimicrobial therapy (DOT). After MDRs, the antimicrobial DOT were reduced to 511 with a concomitant cost saving of $3772. There were 51 MDR sessions that occurred in the absence of the IDS. There were 352 patients who before MDRs had orders for 593 DOT. After MDRs, the DOT were reduced to 572 with a cost savings of $727. The results were normalized by number of patients evaluated with statistically greater reductions when MDRs included the IDS. In addition, the number of rounding sessions with a reduction in DOT was greater with the participation of the IDS. Conclusion. The addition of an IDS to multidisciplinary ICU patient rounds resulted in a reduction in antibiotic DOT and attendant drug expense.

Gilbert, David N.

2014-01-01

425

Validation of Laboratory-Developed Molecular Assays for Infectious Diseases  

PubMed Central

Summary: Molecular technology has changed the way that clinical laboratories diagnose and manage many infectious diseases. Excellent sensitivity, specificity, and speed have made molecular assays an attractive alternative to culture or enzyme immunoassay methods. Many molecular assays are commercially available and FDA approved. Others, especially those that test for less common analytes, are often laboratory developed. Laboratories also often modify FDA-approved assays to include different extraction systems or additional specimen types. The Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments (CLIA) federal regulatory standards require clinical laboratories to establish and document their own performance specifications for laboratory-developed tests to ensure accurate and precise results prior to implementation of the test. The performance characteristics that must be established include accuracy, precision, reportable range, reference interval, analytical sensitivity, and analytical specificity. Clinical laboratories are challenged to understand the requirements and determine the types of experiments and analyses necessary to meet the requirements. A variety of protocols and guidelines are available in various texts and documents. Many of the guidelines are general and more appropriate for assays in chemistry sections of the laboratory but are applied in principle to molecular assays. This review presents information that laboratories may consider in their efforts to meet regulatory requirements.

Burd, Eileen M.

2010-01-01

426

Infectious Diseases in a Global Economy - Consequences for Developing Nations  

PubMed Central

Since the end of the cold war the world economy has become dominated by Western [largely US] interests. In this period there have developed several pandemics or epidemics of infectious diseases that have affected most nations. HIV, SARS, Avian Influenza, Hepatitis-C, Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy, drug-resistant TB, viral zoonoses, are specific examples that will be discussed in terms of their genesis, economic impact and consequences for ways of life in the range of economies – developed, developing and under developed countries. The burden falls most on the underdeveloped countries who are least able to mount the resources to combat the consequences of these global infections. The capability to diagnose, prevent, treat and manage is largely in the hands of commercial interests that are anchored into international trade agreements. This circumstance contrasts with the situation that existed for vaccine development and distribution in the early parts of 20th century. Most countries established “public good” institutions that developed vaccines for public health purposes [diphtheria, tetanus, polio, pneumococcal antisera are examples]. In this 21st century the international capability for developing vaccines is largely in the hands of industry. Thus the developing countries need support of UN or similar global organizations to underwrite product development that suits their needs. The process of product development, safety and efficacy assessment will be presented in a manner that indicates the crucial and essential role of developing nations – and why they should receive fair recognition for their contributions.

Peter, McDonald AM

2006-01-01

427

"RED-LEG"--AN INFECTIOUS DISEASE OF FROGS  

PubMed Central

The epidemics we have observed, were due to the presence and growth in the frogs of Bacillus hydrophilus fuscus. This was proved by recovering the bacillus in pure culture from the body fluids of frogs sick or dead of the disease, and the inoculation of healthy frogs with an emulsion of the pure culture, and by obtaining the same clinical picture and pathological findings as in the original diseased frogs; and, finally, by recovering the bacillus in pure culture from frogs inoculated and sick or dying as a result of the inoculation. The disease is widely distributed throughout North America and Europe, and in this country and Canada is known as "red-leg." It has been observed by us chiefly in the warm weather of September and October. The disease is characterized by congestion of the ventral surfaces of the body, with more or less ulceration in, and hæmorrhage beneath, the skin, bloating due to serous exudation into the lymph sacs, gradual failure to respond to stimuli, which symptoms are followed by coma and death, the last being occasionally preceded by tetanic seizures. After death hæmorrhages into the muscles and degenerative changes in the muscles, spleen, liver, and, to a slight degree, in the intestinal tract, are found. The blood shows an advanced degree of anæmia and leucocytosis. Predisposing causes of the disease are lesions of the skin, which seem to be the usual portal of entry of the infection, and lowered resistance from heat and from anæmia. By a series of controlled experiments with inoculated frogs we have shown that, while temperatures a little above freezing have no harmful effect upon the frogs, they completely control all manifestations of the disease in inoculated or diseased frogs, if the frogs are left in the cold for a period as long as seven days; and, further, that even short periods in the cold chamber will bring about a delay of the fatal results in diseased or inoculated frogs. The anæmia so often found in apparently healthy frogs seems in many cases to be due to the presence in the lungs of the frog of a parasite, the Distomum cylindraceum, which, occurring in sufficiently large numbers in an individual frog, is capable of materially diminishing the available supply of red corpuscles. Severe laking of the blood, the presence of numerous isolated red-cell nuclei, and great diminution in the number, or almost total absence of the red cells in the diseased frogs, are in proportion to the severity of the infection and due to bacterial action. The presence of the hæmatozoan parasite, the Drepanidium, does not play any part as a predisposing or exciting cause of the disease. The ascarid Rhabdomena nigrovenosum, although frequently present as a parasite in the lungs of the frogs, plays no part in causing or promoting the disease.

Emerson, Haven; Norris, Charles

1905-01-01

428

Standard requirements for vaccines against infectious bursal disease.  

PubMed

A variety of criteria must be considered when examining the suitability of preparations of live infectious bursal disease (IBD) virus for use as vaccines: identity and purity of the vaccine strain, lack of spread, or of tendency to revert to virulence, lack of immunosuppressive effect, safety and potency. Arguments as to th identity of IBD virus are well documented, and after ensuring that the virus strain is in fact IBD virus, it must be ascertained that it is free from contaminating agents. If the vaccine strain spreads, lack of reversion to virulence must be determined by several direct chick to chick passages: histological observations of bursae from first and final passages must be made to ensure that no change has occurred. In order to formulate proposals for standard tests of safety, lack of immunosuppressive effect and potency for IBD vaccines, comparative studies were made of products of different origins. Safety of the vaccines was assessed by observing young chicks after administration and measuring loss in weight gain. The effect on the bursa was judged by weighing and making microscopic observations at intervals. The immunosuppressive effect of the vaccines was assessed by comparing the serological and protective responses to subsequent Newcastle disease (ND) vaccination with the response in chicks given no IBD vaccine. Potency of the vaccines was determined by challenge of vaccinated chicks with virulent IBD virus. Various properties were found in the products examined. Some were concluded to be insufficiently attenuated because of the effect on the bird or upon its bursa and the consequent effect on the bird's immune competence. The ability to confer protection was not correlated with the degree of damage caused in the bursa. Vaccines which had no adverse effect on the health of the bird, caused little or no damage to the bursa and conferred adequate protection against challenge were considered to be of a satisfactory standard. PMID:182592

Thornton, D H

1976-01-01

429

Role of Sphingomyelinase in Infectious Diseases Caused by Bacillus cereus  

PubMed Central

Bacillus cereus (B. cereus) is a pathogen in opportunistic infections. Here we show that Bacillus cereus sphingomyelinase (Bc-SMase) is a virulence factor for septicemia. Clinical isolates produced large amounts of Bc-SMase, grew in vivo, and caused death among mice, but ATCC strains isolated from soil did not. A transformant of the ATCC strain carrying a recombinant plasmid containing the Bc-SMase gene grew in vivo, but that with the gene for E53A, which has little enzymatic activity, did not. Administration of an anti-Bc-SMase antibody and immunization against Bc-SMase prevented death caused by the clinical isolates, showing that Bc-SMase plays an important role in the diseases caused by B. cereus. Treatment of mouse macrophages with Bc-SMase resulted in a reduction in the generation of H2O2 and phagocytosis of macrophages induced by peptidoglycan (PGN), but no effect on the release of TNF-? and little release of LDH under our experimental conditions. Confocal laser microscopy showed that the treatment of mouse macrophages with Bc-SMase resulted in the formation of ceramide-rich domains. A photobleaching analysis suggested that the cells treated with Bc-SMase exhibited a reduction in membrane fluidity. The results suggest that Bc-SMase is essential for the hydrolysis of SM in membranes, leading to a reduction in phagocytosis.

Oda, Masataka; Hashimoto, Manabu; Takahashi, Masaya; Ohmae, Yuka; Seike, Soshi; Kato, Ryoko; Fujita, Aoi; Tsuge, Hideaki; Nagahama, Masahiro; Ochi, Sadayuki; Sasahara, Teppei; Hayashi, Shunji; Hirai, Yoshikazu; Sakurai, Jun

2012-01-01

430

Death in infancy from unrecognised congenital heart disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was undertaken to identify all congenital heart disease in infancy, including deaths before diagnosis, to provide a truer picture of the spectrum of congenital heart disease and to assess the 'treatability' of those dying before diagnosis. All births, infant deaths, and surviving babies with congenital heart disease in one health region in 1985-90 were identified and were classified

M Abu-Harb; E Hey; C Wren

1994-01-01

431

Emerging infectious diseases: opportunities at the human-animal-environment interface.  

PubMed

Infectious diseases pose a serious threat to the wellbeing of both human and animal populations. Here, in the fifth in Veterinary Record's series of articles promoting One Health, Mathew Dixon, Osman Dar and David Heymann examine lessons learned from previous disease outbreaks; they also consider current threats and how a better understanding of underlying risk factors could stimulate a paradigm shift from treatment to prevention of zoonotic infectious diseases. PMID:24920712

Dixon, Matthew A; Dar, Osman A; Heymann, David L

2014-05-31

432

A code of practice on dealing with infectious diseases on aircraft.  

PubMed

Increasing numbers of people are travelling to and from more distant destinations with the possibility of exposure to common as well as exotic disease. At the present time there are no readily accessible rules or guidance for dealing with possible cases of infectious disease occurring during international flights. A 'Code of Practice on dealing with infectious disease on aircraft' is proposed as a ready means of dealing with the problem without excessive action or expense. PMID:7643344

Grainger, C R; Young, M J; John, H H

1995-06-01

433

Infectious Disease Outbreaks in Competitive SportsA Review of the Literature  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent outbreaks of infectious diseases in athletes in competitive sports have stimulated considerable interest. The environments in which these athletes compete, practice, receive therapy for injuries, and travel, both domestically and internationally, provide varied opportunities for the transmission of infectious organisms. The purpose of this medical literature review is to identify the agents most commonly reported in the medical literature

Sean D. Turbeville; Linda D. Cowan; Ronald A. Greenfield

2006-01-01

434

The periodontal disease-systemic health-infectious disease axis in developing countries.  

PubMed

Oral health is relatively low priority in the health policy of many developing countries. These countries, particularly those in sub-Saharan Africa, are still constrained by a wide range of infectious diseases such as HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, measles and malaria, as well as by a heavy burden of intergenerational malnutrition. There is currently a disturbing trend in the rise of noncommunicable diseases in these countries. The noncommunicable diseases share many risk factors with periodontal diseases, the prevalence and severity of which are already markedly influenced by microbial infections. There are many fundamental gaps in our understanding of oral diseases, particularly in resource-poor settings. Perhaps this is the time to integrate neglected oral diseases and the noncommunicable diseases into the relatively well-funded global programs for the elimination of malaria, tuberculosis, AIDS and malnutrition. PMID:22909107

Enwonwu, Cyril O; Salako, Nathanael

2012-10-01

435

Indole Alkaloids from Marine Sources as Potential Leads against Infectious Diseases  

PubMed Central

Indole alkaloids comprise a large and complex class of natural products found in a variety of marine sources. Infectious diseases remain a major threat to public health, and in the absence of long-term protective vaccines, the control of these infectious diseases is based on a small number of chemotherapeutic agents. Furthermore, the emerging resistance against these drugs makes it urgently necessary to discover and develop new, safe and, effective anti-infective agents. In this regard, the aim of this review is to highlight indole alkaloids from marine sources which have been shown to demonstrate activity against infectious diseases.

Franca, Paulo H. B.; Barbosa, Daniel P.; da Silva, Daniel L.; Ribeiro, Eurica A. N.; Santana, Antonio E. G.; Santos, Barbara V. O.; Barbosa-Filho, Jose M.; Quintans, Jullyana S. S.; Barreto, Rosana S. S.; Quintans-Junior, Lucindo J.; de Araujo-Junior, Joao X.

2014-01-01

436

18F-FDG PET in Detecting Metastatic Infectious Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Timely identification of metastatic complications of bloodstream infections due to spreading of the microorganisms to distant sites, although critical, is often difficult. As (18)F-FDG accumulates in activated leukocytes in infectious lesions, (18)F-FDG PET represents a promising imaging technique in these patients. The aim of this study was to assess the value of (18)F-FDG PET in detecting infectious foci in patients

Chantal P. Bleeker-Rovers; Fidel J. Vos; Geert J. A. Wanten; Frans H. M. Corstens; Bart-Jan Kullberg; Wim J. G. Oyen

2005-01-01

437

The genetic theory of infectious diseases: a brief history and selected illustrations.  

PubMed

Until the mid-nineteenth century, life expectancy at birth averaged 20 years worldwide, owing mostly to childhood fevers. The germ theory of diseases then gradually overcame the belief that diseases were intrinsic. However, around the turn of the twentieth century, asymptomatic infection was discovered to be much more common than clinical disease. Paradoxically, this observation barely challenged the newly developed notion that infectious diseases were fundamentally extrinsic. Moreover, interindividual variability in the course of infection was typically explained by the emerging immunological (or somatic) theory of infectious diseases, best illustrated by the impact of vaccination. This powerful explanation is, however, best applicable to reactivation and secondary infections, particularly in adults; it can less easily account for interindividual variability in the course of primary infection during childhood. Population and clinical geneticists soon proposed a complementary hypothesis, a germline genetic theory of infectious diseases. Over the past century, this idea has gained some support, particularly among clinicians and geneticists, but has also encountered resistance, particularly among microbiologists and immunologists. We present here the genetic theory of infectious diseases and briefly discuss its history and the challenges encountered during its emergence in the context of the apparently competing but actually complementary microbiological and immunological theories. We also illustrate its recent achievements by highlighting inborn errors of immunity underlying eight life-threatening infectious diseases of children and young adults. Finally, we consider the far-reaching biological and clinical implications of the ongoing human genetic dissection of severe infectious diseases. PMID:23724903

Casanova, Jean-Laurent; Abel, Laurent

2013-01-01

438

Infectious microbial diseases and host defense responses in Sydney rock oysters  

PubMed Central

Aquaculture has long been seen as a sustainable solution to some of the world's growing food shortages. However, experience over the past 50 years indicates that infectious diseases caused by viruses, bacteria, and eukaryotes limit the productivity of aquaculture. In extreme cases, these types of infectious agents threaten the viability of entire aquaculture industries. This article describes the threats from infectious diseases in aquaculture and then focuses on one example (QX disease in Sydney rock oysters) as a case study. QX appears to be typical of many emerging diseases in aquaculture, particularly because environmental factors seem to play a crucial role in disease outbreaks. Evidence is presented that modulation of a generic subcellular stress response pathway in oysters is responsible for both resistance and susceptibility to infectious microbes. Understanding and being able to manipulate this pathway may be the key to sustainable aquaculture.

Raftos, David A.; Kuchel, Rhiannon; Aladaileh, Saleem; Butt, Daniel

2014-01-01

439

Infectious diseases in Yellowstone’s canid community  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Each summer Yellowstone Wolf Project staff visit den sites to monitor the success of wolf reproduction and pup rearing behavior. For the purposes of wolf monitoring, Yellowstone National Park (YNP) is divided into two study areas, the northern range and the interior, each distinguished by their ecological and physiographical differences. The 1,000 square kilometer northern range, characterized by lower elevations (1,500–2,200 m), serves as prime winter habitat for ungulates and supports a higher density of wolves than the interior (20–99 wolves/1,000 km2 versus 2–11 wolves/1,000 km2). The interior of the park encompasses 7,991 square kilometers, is higher in elevation, receives higher annual snowfall, and generally supports lower densities of wolves and ungulates. During the Yellowstone Wolf Project’s 2005 observations on the northern range, researchers noticed that some wolf pups were disappearing and those that remained were unusually listless. The Slough Creek pups, at first numbering 18, dwindled to three survivors. Similar findings were mirrored at other den sites across the northern range. When annual den surveys were conducted in late July, all that remained were scattered piles of bones and fur. Coyotes suffered similar setbacks in 2005, with many of the survivors exhibiting neurological shakes and tremors. The park’s canids had been affected by something, but what? Prompted by what seemed to be a disease outbreak, the Yellowstone Wolf Project, the Yellowstone Ecological Research Center (YERC), and the University of Minnesota decided to take several collaborative approaches toward improving our understanding of the presence and role of infectious disease in Yellowstone’s canid community. Several serological studies have been conducted in the past among the park’s coyotes (Gese et al. 1997) and cougars (Biek 2006), providing a helpful foundation on which to build and compare. A serological survey was conducted, using serum samples collected during routine wolf and coyote captures over a period of 18 years (Almberg et al. 2009). Simulation models were used to explore the dynamics of canine distemper virus (Almberg et al. 2010)—one of the more prominent pathogens in terms of its effects on its hosts—and several long-term pathogen surveillance projects were initiated which are intended to someday provide a foundation for more advanced genetic-based analyses of pathogen dynamics. Since these initial efforts, the group has also expanded the research to include a study of sarcoptic mange, which began affecting wolves and coyotes in YNP in 2006 and 2007.

Almberg, Emily S.; Cross, Paul C.; Mech, L. David; Smith, Doug W.; Sheldon, Jennifer W.; Crabtree, Robert L.

2011-01-01

440

Land-Use Change and Emerging Infectious Disease on an Island Continent  

PubMed Central

A more rigorous and nuanced understanding of land-use change (LUC) as a driver of emerging infectious disease (EID) is required. Here we examine post hunter-gatherer LUC as a driver of infectious disease in one biogeographical region with a compressed and documented history—continental Australia. We do this by examining land-use and native vegetation change (LUCC) associations with infectious disease emergence identified through a systematic (1973–2010) and historical (1788–1973) review of infectious disease literature of humans and animals. We find that 22% (20) of the systematically reviewed EIDs are associated with LUCC, most frequently where natural landscapes have been removed or replaced with agriculture, plantations, livestock or urban development. Historical clustering of vector-borne, zoonotic and environmental disease emergence also follows major periods of extensive land clearing. These advanced stages of LUCC are accompanied by changes in the distribution and density of hosts and vectors, at varying scales and chronology. This review of infectious disease emergence in one continent provides valuable insight into the association between accelerated global LUC and concurrent accelerated infectious disease emergence.

McFarlane, Rosemary A.; Sleigh, Adrian C.; McMichael, Anthony J.

2013-01-01

441

Weighted Markov chains for forecasting and analysis in Incidence of infectious diseases in jiangsu Province, China?  

PubMed Central

This paper first applies the sequential cluster method to set up the classification standard of infectious disease incidence state based on the fact that there are many uncertainty characteristics in the incidence course. Then the paper presents a weighted Markov chain, a method which is used to predict the future incidence state. This method assumes the standardized self-coefficients as weights based on the special characteristics of infectious disease incidence being a dependent stochastic variable. It also analyzes the characteristics of infectious diseases incidence via the Markov chain Monte Carlo method to make the long-term benefit of decision optimal. Our method is successfully validated using existing incidents data of infectious diseases in Jiangsu Province. In summation, this paper proposes ways to improve the accuracy of the weighted Markov chain, specifically in the field of infection epidemiology.

Peng, Zhihang; Bao, Changjun; Zhao, Yang; Yi, Honggang; Xia, Letian; Yu, Hao; Shen, Hongbing; Chen, Feng

2010-01-01

442

Ask Dr. Sue--Updates: Infectious Diseases, SIDS, HIV/AIDS.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes new concerns about infectious diseases in childcare settings (tuberculosis, gastrointestinal infections, and lice); sleep position and SIDS; HIV/AIDS issues; and the use of sterilized sand in sand boxes. (DR)

Aronson, Susan S.

1995-01-01

443

76 FR 51996 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...nih.gov. Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel; Tropical Medicine Research Centers. Date: September 12-14, 2011. Time: 8:00 am to 5:30 pm. Agenda: To review and...

2011-08-19

444

78 FR 18355 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Special Emphasis Panel; Operation of a Facility for Testing...6700B Rockledge Drive, MSC 7616, Bethesda, MD 20892-7616...Immunology, and Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research, National Institutes...

2013-03-26

445

75 FR 65639 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Biocontainment Laboratories (NBLs) Operations Support. Date: November...6700-B Rockledge Drive, MSC, 7616, Bethesda, MD 20892-7616...Immunology, and Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research, National Institutes...

2010-10-26

446

From glanders to Hendra virus: 125 years of equine infectious diseases.  

PubMed

Josh Slater looks back at the past 125 years of developments in equine infectious disease, including landmark discoveries in microbiology and genomics, and considers what the future may hold. PMID:23997164

Slater, Josh

2013-08-31

447

75 FR 48978 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel; T-Cell Immunology. Date: September 16, 2010. Time: 12:30 p.m. to 4...Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.855, Allergy, Immunology, and Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology...

2010-08-12

448

75 FR 4094 - National Institute of Allergy And Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Edward W. Schroder, PhD, Chief, Microbiology Review Branch, Scientific Review Program...Edward W. Schroder, PhD, Chief, Microbiology Review Branch, Scientific Review Program...Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases...

2010-01-26

449

Using Satellite Images of Environmental Changes to Predict Infectious Disease Outbreaks  

PubMed Central

Recent events clearly illustrate a continued vulnerability of large populations to infectious diseases, which is related to our changing human-constructed and natural environments. A single person with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in 2007 provided a wake-up call to the United States and global public health infrastructure, as the health professionals and the public realized that today’s ease of airline travel can potentially expose hundreds of persons to an untreatable disease associated with an infectious agent. Ease of travel, population increase, population displacement, pollution, agricultural activity, changing socioeconomic structures, and international conflicts worldwide have each contributed to infectious disease events. Today, however, nothing is larger in scale, has more potential for long-term effects, and is more uncertain than the effects of climate change on infectious disease outbreaks, epidemics, and pandemics. We discuss advances in our ability to predict these events and, in particular, the critical role that satellite imaging could play in mounting an effective response.

Colwell, Rita R.; Rose, Joan B.; Morse, Stephen S.; Rogers, David J.; Yates, Terry L.

2009-01-01

450

76 FR 51995 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...20892, 301-435-3564, ec17w@nih.gov. (Catalogue of Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.855, Allergy, Immunology, and Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research, National Institutes of...

2011-08-19

451

78 FR 45541 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...301-435-3754, jbradac@mail.nih.gov. (Catalogue of Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.855, Allergy, Immunology, and Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research, National Institutes of...

2013-07-29

452

77 FR 36563 - National Institute of Allergy And Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...301-594-0985, vijhs@niaid.nih.gov. (Catalogue of Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.855, Allergy, Immunology, and Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research, National Institutes of...

2012-06-19

453

78 FR 10623 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...301-451-1740, varthakaviv@niaid.nih.gov. (Catalogue of Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.855, Allergy, Immunology, and Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research, National Institutes of...

2013-02-14

454

77 FR 24967 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Special Emphasis Panel; NIAID Investigator Initiated Program Project Applications. Date: May 16, 2012. Time: 12 p.m. to...Allergy, Immunology, and Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research, National Institutes...

2012-04-26

455

78 FR 737 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Special Emphasis Panel, NIAID Investigator Initiated Program Project Applications (P01). Date: January 29, 2013. Time: 2...Allergy, Immunology, and Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research, National Institutes...

2013-01-04

456

78 FR 9707 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Special Emphasis Panel; NIAID Investigator Initiated Program Project Application (P01). Date: March 7-8, 2013. Time: 1...Allergy, Immunology, and Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research, National Institutes...

2013-02-11

457

76 FR 61719 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Special Emphasis Panel, ``Investigator Initiated Program Project Application.'' Date: October 26, 2011. Time: 11 a...Allergy, Immunology, and Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research, National Institutes...

2011-10-05

458

77 FR 23488 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Special Emphasis Panel; NIAID Investigator Initiated Program Project Applications (P01). Date: May 10, 2012. Time: 10 a...Allergy, Immunology, and Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research, National Institutes...

2012-04-19

459

77 FR 5035 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Special Emphasis Panel, NIAID Investigator Initiated Program Project Applications (PO1). Date: February 22, 2012. Time...Allergy, Immunology, and Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research, National Institutes...

2012-02-01

460

76 FR 79199 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Special Emphasis Panel, NIAID Investigator Initiated Program Project Applications. Date: January 18, 2012. Time: 2 p.m...Allergy, Immunology, and Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research, National Institutes...

2011-12-21

461

78 FR 20933 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...NIAID Investigator Initiated Program Project Applications (P01). Date: May 3...Edward W. Schroder, Ph.D., Chief, Microbiology Review Branch, Scientific Review Program...Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research,...

2013-04-08

462

77 FR 76057 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...NIAID Investigator Initiated Program Project Application (P01). Date: January...NIAID Investigator Initiated Program Project Applications (P01). Date: January...Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research,...

2012-12-26

463

77 FR 16845 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Special Emphasis Panel; NIAID Investigator Initiated Program Project Applications (P01). Date: April 11, 2012. Time: 12...Allergy, Immunology, and Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research, National Institutes...

2012-03-22

464

78 FR 3009 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...NIAID Investigator Initiated Program Project Applications (P01). Date: February...NIAID Investigator Initiated Program Project Applications (P01). Date: February...Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research,...

2013-01-15

465

76 FR 65737 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Special Emphasis Panel, NIAID Investigator Initiated Program Project Application (P01). Date: November 16, 2011. Time: 2...Allergy, Immunology, and Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research, National Institutes...

2011-10-24

466

78 FR 27409 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Special Emphasis Panel; NIAID Investigator Initiated Program Project Applications (P01). Date: June 6-7, 2013. Time: 2...Allergy, Immunology, and Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research, National Institutes...

2013-05-10

467

77 FR 49001 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Special Emphasis Panel, NIAID Investigator Initiated Program Project Application (P01). Date: September 26, 2012. Time...Allergy, Immunology, and Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research, National Institutes...

2012-08-15

468

76 FR 3917 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel; Characterization of Pandemic Flu. Date: February 11, 2011. Time: 12 p.m. to 3 p.m. Agenda: To review and evaluate grant applications. Place:...

2011-01-21

469

76 FR 6626 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Advisory Allergy and Infectious Diseases Council; Allergy, Immunology and Transplantation Subcommittee. Date: September 19, 2011...Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.855, Allergy, Immunology, and Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology...

2011-02-07

470

75 FR 11896 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel; B cell Immunology Partnership Program for HIV-1 Vaccine Discovery (U19...Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.855, Allergy, Immunology, and Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology...

2010-03-12

471

75 FR 13561 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Advisory Allergy and Infectious Diseases Council Allergy, Immunology and Transplantation Subcommittee. Date: May 24, 2010...Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.855, Allergy, Immunology, and Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology...

2010-03-22

472

78 FR 71628 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel Immunology Quality Assessment (IQA) Program. Date: December 19...Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.855, Allergy, Immunology, and Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology...

2013-11-29

473

75 FR 26760 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel; TB Immunology and Drug Discovery. Date: June 2, 2010. Time: 8 a.m...Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.855, Allergy, Immunology, and Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology...

2010-05-12

474

75 FR 43181 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel, Pathogenesis/Immunology of Tularemia. Date: August 17, 2010. Time: 8:30 a...Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.855, Allergy, Immunology, and Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology...

2010-07-23

475

A comparative analysis of polybrominated diphenyl ethers and polychlorinated biphenyls in Southern sea otters that died of infectious diseases and noninfectious causes.  

PubMed

Southern sea otters (Enhydra lutris nereis) from the California coast continue to exhibit a slower population regrowth rate than the population in Alaska. Infectious diseases have been identified as a frequent cause of death. Infectious diseases caused by varied pathogens including bacteria, fungi, and parasites were suggestive of compromised immunol