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1

Infectious Diseases  

MedlinePLUS

Infectious diseases kill more people worldwide than any other single cause. Infectious diseases are caused by germs. Germs are tiny living ... live NIH: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases

2

Infectious disease  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This is a collection of viewgraphs on the Johnson Space Center's work on infectious disease. It addresses their major concern over outbreaks of infectious disease that could jeopardize the health, safety and/or performance of crew members engaged in long duration space missions. The Antarctic environment is seen as an analogous location on Earth and a good place to carry out such infectious disease studies and methods for proposed studies as suggested.

Pierson, Duane L.

1990-01-01

3

[Struggle against infectious diseases in children in the Magallanes Region: death, passion and life (Part I)].  

PubMed

Historical background of infectious diseases of children in the Region of Magallanes is reviewed, with special emphasis on their impact on infant mortality. For purposes of publication, the research is divided into two parts. In this first one, we present a brief relation of the facts that led to the death of almost all of the Spanish colonizers of the Strait of Magellan, including children (1584-1590); following, a description of the available data on infectious diseases affecting Patagonian Indians before contact with white man. Finally we describe the health situation in Punta Arenas, from the foundation of Bulnes Fort until the end of the 19th century. PMID:24522318

Vieira, Matías

2013-12-01

4

Infectious Diseases  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

With the threat of a warmer, wetter world and a larger global population, scientists are researching how climate change may impact the spread of infectious diseases,ťsuch as cholera and dengue fever, and how outbreaks may be prevented.ť "Changing Planet" is produced in partnership with the National Science Foundation.

NBC Learn

2010-10-07

5

Infectious disease.  

PubMed

Athletes are susceptible to the same infections as the general population. However, special considerations often need to be taken into account when dealing with an athlete who has contracted an infectious disease. Health care providers need to consider how even common illnesses can affect an athlete's performance, the communicability of the illness to team members, and precautions/contraindications related to athletic participation. Recent advances in the prevention, diagnosis, and/or management of frequently encountered illnesses, as well as certain conditions that warrant special attention in the athletic setting, are discussed in detail. PMID:21658549

Jaworski, Carrie A; Donohue, Brian; Kluetz, Joshua

2011-07-01

6

[Struggle against infectious diseases in children in the Magallanes region: death, passion and life. (Part II)].  

PubMed

The first part of this work was published in the previous issue of this magazine. In order to finalize with the historical review of infectious diseases which have been determining factors on regional infant mortality, we analyze firstly the case of religious missions and its impact on the rapid extinction of Patagonian Indians. Secondly, we review the health situation of Punta Arenas during the first half of the 20th century, switching from a high mortality rate from infectious or contagious diseases, to a remarkable improvement in this issue, coming to bear the best health indicators in the country. PMID:24740781

Vieira, Matías

2014-02-01

7

Parallelization: Infectious Disease  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Epidemiology is the study of infectious disease. Infectious diseases are said to be "contagious" among people if they are transmittable from one person to another. Epidemiologists can use models to assist them in predicting the behavior of infectious diseases. This module will develop a simple agent-based infectious disease model, develop a parallel algorithm based on the model, provide a coded implementation for the algorithm, and explore the scaling of the coded implementation on high performance cluster resources.

Aaron Weeden

8

Infectious diseases—far from defeated  

Microsoft Academic Search

However, since then, infectious diseases have staged a spectacular comeback. This change is well illustrated by HIV\\/AIDS, tuberculosis, and most recently SARS. These diseases show the evolutionary power of infectious agents, which distinguishes them from other causes of human misery, illness, and death. Although no unique infectious diseases have been identified in New Zealand, entirely new human pathogens have emerged

Stephen Chambers; Michael Baker

9

Ecology of Infectious Diseases  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A joint National Science Foundation (NSF) and National Institutes of Health program, Ecology of Infectious Diseases (EID), allows scientists to study how large-scale environmental events—such as habitat destruction, invasions of non-native species and pollution—alter the risks of emergence of viral, parasitic and bacterial diseases in humans and animals. Specific infectious diseases being studied include hantavirus, Lyme Disease, and Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD).

10

[Infectious diseases research].  

PubMed

There has been a significant increase in research activity into infectious diseases in Spain in the last few years. The Spanish Society of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology (SEIMC) currently has ten study groups, with the cooperation of infectious diseases specialists and microbiologists from different centres, with significant research activity. The program of Redes Temáticas de Investigación Cooperativa en Salud (Special Topics Cooperative Health Research Networks) is an appropriate framework for the strategic coordination of research groups from the Spanish autonomous communities. The Spanish Network for Research in Infectious Diseases (REIPI) and the Network for Research in AIDS (RIS) integrate investigators in Infectious Diseases from multiple groups, which continuously perform important research projects. Research using different experimental models in infectious diseases, in numerous institutions, is an important activity in our country. The analysis of the recent scientific production in Infectious Diseases shows that Spain has a good position in the context of the European Union. The research activity in Infectious Diseases carried out in our country is a great opportunity for the training of specialists in this area of knowledge. PMID:19195467

Carratalŕ, Jordi; Alcamí, José; Cordero, Elisa; Miró, José M; Ramos, José Manuel

2008-12-01

11

Modeling Infectious Diseases  

MedlinePLUS

... gov/Research/SpecificAreas/MIDAS . Learn more: Now Trending: Mining Historical Data on Infectious Diseases Computing Diseases from ... reviewed November 2014 Share Print E-mail House Image Highlight Header Highlight Body Related Links Up to ...

12

Infectious Diseases Gateway  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

BioMedNet (BMN) presents the Infectious Diseases Gateway "featuring expertly selected content from the leading publications in infectious diseases." Users will find research articles, reviews, and other resources from the Elsevier family of journals and books; all freely available to any reader (free registration required). The Web site also offers related BMN news features, links to other BMN Gateways, and a special supplement to the upcoming Interscience Conference of Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy.

13

Global Challenges of Infectious Disease Epidemiology  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a As we have seen in the last chapter, infectious and parasitic diseases are major causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide,\\u000a particularly in developing countries. Approximately 26% of global deaths and 26% of global burden of disease were attributed\\u000a to infectious diseases in 2001 (Lopez et al.2006 see Chapter 1). One in two deaths that are mostly preventable occurs in developing

Alexander Krämer

14

Seasonal infectious disease epidemiology  

Microsoft Academic Search

formally examined. This paper examines the causes and consequences of seasonality, and in so doing derives several new results concerning vaccination strategy and the interpretation of disease outbreak data. It begins with a brief review of published scientific studies in support of different causes of seasonality in infectious diseases of humans, identifying four principal mechanisms and their association with different

Nicholas C. Grassly; Christophe Fraser

2006-01-01

15

Controlling Infectious Diseases.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Advocates establishing programs to educate the public about the growing threat of communicable diseases and to promote effective strategies. Utilizes recent successes and failures to formulate those strategies. Profiles three recent infectious disease outbreaks that illustrate some of the current problems. Identifies four ways that lawyers can…

Porter, Wm. Lane; Fidler, David P.

1997-01-01

16

Cervical Histology Infectious Diseases  

E-print Network

of vision from the vagina. #12;Human papilloma virus (HPV) Over 20 serotypes Cause a variety of lesions growth) occurs in the presence of HPV, the cervix provides the best-defined model of virus-mediated carcinogenesis in humans to date! Infectious disease + cancer #12;Normal Histology The cervix is covered

Gleeson, Joseph G.

17

Dynamics of infectious diseases  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Modern infectious disease epidemiology has a strong history of using mathematics both for prediction and to gain a deeper understanding. However the study of infectious diseases is a highly interdisciplinary subject requiring insights from multiple disciplines, in particular a biological knowledge of the pathogen, a statistical description of the available data and a mathematical framework for prediction. Here we begin with the basic building blocks of infectious disease epidemiology—the SIS and SIR type models—before considering the progress that has been made over the recent decades and the challenges that lie ahead. Throughout we focus on the understanding that can be developed from relatively simple models, although accurate prediction will inevitably require far greater complexity beyond the scope of this review. In particular, we focus on three critical aspects of infectious disease models that we feel fundamentally shape their dynamics: heterogeneously structured populations, stochasticity and spatial structure. Throughout we relate the mathematical models and their results to a variety of real-world problems.

Rock, Kat; Brand, Sam; Moir, Jo; Keeling, Matt J.

2014-02-01

18

Infectious Disease Specialist: What Is an Infectious Disease Specialist?  

MedlinePLUS

What is an Infectious Disease Specialist? When do I need an ID specialist? What will my visit be like? How was my ID ... children. One of the best strategies for preventing infectious diseases is immunization. Ask your doctor for advice ...

19

Infectious diseases – A global challenge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Infectious diseases represent a continuous and increasing threat to human health and welfare. Due to emerging diseases, increasing resistances, international travelling, and the risk of bioterroristic attacks, infectious diseases concern the whole world and can only be combated by internationally coordinated and interdisciplinary approaches. When assessing the worldwide publication activities on infectious diseases in the years 1994–2004 accessible via the

Katja Becker; Ying Hu; Nikola Biller-Andorno

2006-01-01

20

Web Sites about Infectious Disease Web Sites about Infectious Disease  

E-print Network

Web Sites about Infectious Disease Web Sites about Infectious Disease Stanford Center for Tuberculosis Research-Site Links http://molepi.stanford.edu/tblinks.html Virology on the World Wide Web http://www.idsociety.org/ file:///C|/Program%20Files/Adobe/Adobe%20Dreamweav...nks/Web%20Sites%20about%20Infectious%20Disease

de Lijser, Peter

21

Emerging Infectious Diseases  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The definition of "emerging" infectious diseases includes those diseases "whose incidences in humans has increased in the past 2 decades or threatens to increase in the near future." The journal of Emerging Infectious Diseases continues to be an invaluable resource for public health professionals, scholars, and others. On the journal's homepage, users can read over the current issue and take a look at all of the articles and various commentaries contained within. Visitors can also peruse the archive, which dates back to the journal's first issue in 1995. As with many online journals, visitors can sign up to receive their RSS feed and they even have a podcast archive. The podcasts are a nice bonus, and they include programs like "Strategies For Fighting Pandemic Flu in Developing Countries" and "The Mystery of Increased Hospitalization of Elderly Patients".

22

Infectious diseases: an ecological perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

By the middle of the 20th century, infectious diseases were no longer the major causes of mortality in developed countries. The eradication of smallpox reinforced the perception that infectious diseases could be eliminated. Improved sanitation, clean water, and better living conditions, along with vaccines and antimicrobial agents, brought many infectious diseases under control in industrialised countries, but infections continued to

Mary E Wilson

1995-01-01

23

Imaging of Small-Animal Models of Infectious Diseases  

PubMed Central

Infectious diseases are the second leading cause of death worldwide. Noninvasive small-animal imaging has become an important research tool for preclinical studies of infectious diseases. Imaging studies permit enhanced information through longitudinal studies of the same animal during the infection. Herein, we briefly review recent studies of animal models of infectious disease that have used imaging modalities. PMID:23201133

Jelicks, Linda A.; Lisanti, Michael P.; Machado, Fabiana S.; Weiss, Louis M.; Tanowitz, Herbert B.; Desruisseaux, Mahalia S.

2014-01-01

24

Bedbugs and Infectious Diseases  

PubMed Central

Bedbugs are brown and flat hematophagous insects. The 2 cosmopolite species, Cimex lectularius and Cimex hemipterus, feed on humans and/or domestic animals, and recent outbreaks have been reported in occidental countries. Site assessment for bedbug eradication is complex but can be assured, despite emerging insecticide resistance, by hiring a pest-control manager. The common dermatological presentation of bites is an itchy maculopapular wheal. Urticarial reactions and anaphylaxis can also occur. Bedbugs are suspected of transmitting infectious agents, but no report has yet demonstrated that they are infectious disease vectors. We describe 45 candidate pathogens potentially transmitted by bedbugs, according to their vectorial capacity, in the wild, and vectorial competence, in the laboratory. Because of increasing demands for information about effective control tactics and public health risks of bedbugs, continued research is needed to identify new pathogens in wild Cimex species (spp) and insecticide resistance. PMID:21288844

Blanc, Véronique; Del Giudice, Pascal; Levy-Bencheton, Anna; Chosidow, Olivier; Marty, Pierre; Brouqui, Philippe

2011-01-01

25

Ecology of Infectious Diseases  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

With a dramatic image of a bustling city superimposed over a peaceful forest, the National Science Foundation's homepage on the ecology of infectious diseases is quite intriguing. After clicking on the image, visitors will be treated to an overview of this special report that asks: "Is our interaction with the environment somehow responsible for the increases in incidence of these diseases?" The report is divided into five sections, each exploring a different facet of the National Science Foundation's work on this problem. The sections include "Medical Mystery Solved" and "Lyme Disease on the Rise". Each of these sections includes helpful graphics, well-written text, and links to additional sites. Overall, the site will be most useful for science educators and members of the public health community.

26

BORDER INFECTIOUS DISEASES SURVEILLANCE PROJECT  

EPA Science Inventory

In 1997, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the Mexican Secretariat of Health, and border health officials began the development of the Border Infectious Disease Surveillance (BIDS) project, a surveillance system for infectious diseases along the U.S.-Mexico border. ...

27

Global mapping of infectious disease  

PubMed Central

The primary aim of this review was to evaluate the state of knowledge of the geographical distribution of all infectious diseases of clinical significance to humans. A systematic review was conducted to enumerate cartographic progress, with respect to the data available for mapping and the methods currently applied. The results helped define the minimum information requirements for mapping infectious disease occurrence, and a quantitative framework for assessing the mapping opportunities for all infectious diseases. This revealed that of 355 infectious diseases identified, 174 (49%) have a strong rationale for mapping and of these only 7 (4%) had been comprehensively mapped. A variety of ambitions, such as the quantification of the global burden of infectious disease, international biosurveillance, assessing the likelihood of infectious disease outbreaks and exploring the propensity for infectious disease evolution and emergence, are limited by these omissions. An overview of the factors hindering progress in disease cartography is provided. It is argued that rapid improvement in the landscape of infectious diseases mapping can be made by embracing non-conventional data sources, automation of geo-positioning and mapping procedures enabled by machine learning and information technology, respectively, in addition to harnessing labour of the volunteer ‘cognitive surplus’ through crowdsourcing. PMID:23382431

Hay, Simon I.; Battle, Katherine E.; Pigott, David M.; Smith, David L.; Moyes, Catherine L.; Bhatt, Samir; Brownstein, John S.; Collier, Nigel; Myers, Monica F.; George, Dylan B.; Gething, Peter W.

2013-01-01

28

Infectious muscle disease.  

PubMed

Infectious muscle diseases have very different aetiologies. The viral myositides are proved by clinical and laboratory evidences in various etiologic settings (Influenza A and B, Coxsackie and HIV). The bacterial myositis was considered in the near past a tropical disease, but in our days with migration of people from South to North and the endemia of AIDS it became a problem of the "civilized" world. On the other hand, tuberculous endemia in Central-Eastern Europe, including Romania, results in quite high incidence of osteoarticular tuberculosis. In this section the authors take into consideration some clinical entities, such as psoas abscess, postanginal sepsis, beta-haemolytic streptococcus infection and that caused by Koch bacillus. Other rare musculoskeletal infections such as gas gangrene and non-clostridial anaerobic myonecrosis are also reviewed. Immune depression caused by underlying diseases, therapies, alcoholism or old age is often encountered. The parasitic aetiologies include infestations with Trichinella spiralis, Cysticercus cellulosae, Toxoplasma and Amoeba. The contribution of imagistic methods to diagnosis is emphasised. Ultrasonography associated with CT imaging are usually used, while MRI should be reserved for cases in which axial skeleton is involved. The management is based on appropriate antibiotic therapy and surgery. PMID:17236294

Parasca, I; Damian, Laura; Albu, Adriana

2006-01-01

29

Infectious Diseases in Day Care.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discussed in this publication are infectious illnesses for which children attending day care appear to be at special risk. Also covered are the common cold, some infectious disease problems receiving media attention, and some other annoying but not serious diseases, such as head lice, pinworms, and contagious skin conditions. Causes,…

Sleator, Esther K.

30

Global Warming and Infectious Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Global warming has serious implications for all aspects of human life, including infectious diseases. The effect of global warming depends on the complex interaction between the human host population and the causative infectious agent. From the human standpoint, changes in the environment may trigger human migration, causing disease patterns to shift. Crop failures and famine may reduce host resistance to

Atul A. Khasnis; Mary D. Nettleman

2005-01-01

31

Conflict and Emerging Infectious Diseases  

PubMed Central

Detection and control of emerging infectious diseases in conflict situations are major challenges due to multiple risk factors known to enhance emergence and transmission of infectious diseases. These include inadequate surveillance and response systems, destroyed infrastructure, collapsed health systems and disruption of disease control programs, and infection control practices even more inadequate than those in resource-poor settings, as well as ongoing insecurity and poor coordination among humanitarian agencies. This article outlines factors that potentiate emergence and transmission of infectious diseases in conflict situations and highlights several priority actions for their containment and control. PMID:18217543

Legros, Dominique; Formenty, Pierre; Connolly, Maire A.

2007-01-01

32

Trends in infectious disease mortality rates, Spain, 1980-2011.  

PubMed

Using mortality data from National Institute of Statistics in Spain, we analyzed trends of infectious disease mortality rates in Spain during 1980-2011 to provide information on surveillance and control of infectious diseases. During the study period, 628,673 infectious disease-related deaths occurred, the annual change in the mortality rate was -1.6%, and the average infectious disease mortality rate was 48.5 deaths/100,000 population. Although the beginning of HIV/AIDS epidemic led to an increased mortality rate, a decreased rate was observed by the end of the twentieth century. By codes from the International Classification of Diseases, 9th revision, the most frequent underlying cause of death was pneumonia. Emergence and reemergence of infectious diseases continue to be public health problems despite reduced mortality rates produced by various interventions. Therefore, surveillance and control systems should be reinforced with a goal of providing reliable data for useful decision making. PMID:24750997

López-Cuadrado, Teresa; Llácer, Alicia; Palmera-Suárez, Rocio; Gómez-Barroso, Diana; Savulescu, Camelia; González-Yuste, Paloma; Fernández-Cuenca, Rafael

2014-05-01

33

The challenge of emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Infectious diseases have for centuries ranked with wars and famine as major challenges to human progress and survival. They remain among the leading causes of death and disability worldwide. Against a constant background of established infections, epidemics of new and old infectious diseases periodically emerge, greatly magnifying the global burden of infections. Studies of these emerging infections reveal the evolutionary

David M. Morens; Gregory K. Folkers; Anthony S. Fauci

2004-01-01

34

Infectious Disease, Endangerment, and Extinction  

PubMed Central

Infectious disease, especially virulent infectious disease, is commonly regarded as a cause of fluctuation or decline in biological populations. However, it is not generally considered as a primary factor in causing the actual endangerment or extinction of species. We review here the known historical examples in which disease has, or has been assumed to have had, a major deleterious impact on animal species, including extinction, and highlight some recent cases in which disease is the chief suspect in causing the outright endangerment of particular species. We conclude that the role of disease in historical extinctions at the population or species level may have been underestimated. Recent methodological breakthroughs may lead to a better understanding of the past and present roles of infectious disease in influencing population fitness and other parameters. PMID:23401844

MacPhee, Ross D. E.; Greenwood, Alex D.

2013-01-01

35

Emerging and Re-emerging Infectious Diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) are characterized by a new or an increased occurrence within the last few decades. They\\u000a include the following categories Emerging diagnosis of infectious diseases: old diseases that are newly classified as infectious\\u000a diseases because of the discovery of a responsible infectious agent.

Thomas Löscher; Luise Prüfer-Krämer

36

[Acute hepatitis in infectious diseases].  

PubMed

Hepatitis A, B, C, D, E, G are the most common causes of acute hepatitis, however, there are many infectious diseases affecting liver and with fever, early diagnostics of which is very important for the clinic of internal diseases. This review presents infections, causing fever and hepatitis, but not necessarily accompanied by jaundice. Leptospirosis, yellow fever have been considered, in which liver damage determines the clinic and the prognosis of the disease. In other cases, such as infectious mononucleosis, cytomegalovirus and herpetic hepatitis, typho-para-typhoid infections, typhoid, pneumonia, some viral diseases, malaria, Legionnaire's disease, hepatitis do not have their independent status and represent one of the important syndromes of a common disease. Modern methods of diagnostics and treatment of these diseases have been described. PMID:24294783

Podymova, S D

2013-01-01

37

Infectious diseases - a global challenge.  

PubMed

Infectious diseases represent a continuous and increasing threat to human health and welfare. Due to emerging diseases, increasing resistances, international travelling, and the risk of bioterroristic attacks, infectious diseases concern the whole world and can only be combated by internationally coordinated and interdisciplinary approaches. When assessing the worldwide publication activities on infectious diseases in the years 1994-2004 accessible via the ISI Science Citation Index Expanded, an overall increase by 24% can be monitored. Furthermore, it becomes evident that highest research priorities are given to HIV/AIDS, hepatitis C, tuberculosis, respiratory infections, and sepsis. Ten countries - including the USA, the UK, France, Germany, and Japan - contributed to more than 80% of these publications; nation-specific research priorities focusing on the current problems in the respective country can be estimated. Countries with the highest disease burdens are still not given the opportunity to contribute adequately to the scientific field. Based on our data, relatively increasing publication activities include those on respiratory infections, tuberculosis, malaria, hepatitis, and sepsis, whereas decreasing activities were determined for AIDS, diarrhoea, meningitis, schistosomiasis, and other diseases. Accordingly, the prevalence of many infectious diseases occurring in tropical countries is not clearly reflected in the worldwide publication activities. PMID:16446113

Becker, Katja; Hu, Ying; Biller-Andorno, Nikola

2006-08-01

38

Infectious Causes of Death in the Medical Examiner's Office.  

PubMed

Infectious deaths accounted for 228 (3.4%) of all autopsied cases in a US Medical Examiner's office. Most infectious deaths were rapid (ill <1 week) and pulmonary sources predominated. Drug users and the homeless were at high risk. Many patients failed to recognize how ill they were and missed opportunities for care. PMID:25626435

Yu, Lynda; Garavaglia, Jan; Wallace, Mark R

2015-03-01

39

Adventures in Infectious Diseases  

SciTech Connect

Dr. Susan Fisher-Hoch, Virologist and Epidemiologist, will discuss her research and travels associated with viral hemorrhagic fevers. From the Ebola outbreak in Reston, Virginia to outbreaks of Crimean Congo Hemorrhagic Fever in South Africa, Senegal, and Saudi Arabia, Dr. Fisher-Hoch has studied and tracked the pathophysiology of these viral diseases. These studies have led her from the Center for Disease Control in the United States, to Lyon, France where she was instrumental in designing, constructing, and rendering operational a laboratory capable of containing some of the world's most dangerous diseases.

Fisher-Hoch, Susan [University of Texas School of Public Health

2011-11-01

40

Adventures in Infectious Diseases  

ScienceCinema

Dr. Susan Fisher-Hoch, Virologist and Epidemiologist, will discuss her research and travels associated with viral hemorrhagic fevers. From the Ebola outbreak in Reston, Virginia to outbreaks of Crimean Congo Hemorrhagic Fever in South Africa, Senegal, and Saudi Arabia, Dr. Fisher-Hoch has studied and tracked the pathophysiology of these viral diseases. These studies have led her from the Center for Disease Control in the United States, to Lyon, France where she was instrumental in designing, constructing, and rendering operational a laboratory capable of containing some of the world's most dangerous diseases.

Fisher-Hoch, Susan [University of Texas School of Public Health

2014-06-25

41

Emerging infectious diseases in wildlife  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The processes which give rise to emerging infectious diseases of wildlife can be categorised as follows: ecosystem alterations of anthropogenic or natural origin; movement of pathogens or vectors, via human or natural agency; and changes in microbes or in the recognition of emerging pathogens due to advances in the techniques of epidemiology. These are simplistic divisions because factors influencing

E. S. Williams; T. Yuill; M. Artois; J. Fischer; S. A. Haigh

2002-01-01

42

Global Spread of Infectious Diseases  

E-print Network

We develop simple models for the global spread of infectious diseases, emphasizing human mobility via air travel and the variation of public health infrastructure from region to region. We derive formulas relating the total and peak number of infections in two countries to the rate of travel between them and their respective epidemiological parameters.

S. Hsu; A. Zee

2003-06-25

43

Emerging infectious plant diseases  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Healthy plants are essential to the survival of humans and animals on earth. Despite the value of plants, however, threats to plant health are generally considered secondary in importance to those of humans and animals. Although the most extensively studied pathogens are those causing disease on s...

44

Infectious disease and boxing.  

PubMed

There are no unique boxing diseases but certain factors contributing to the spread of illnesses apply strongly to the boxer, coach, and the training facility. This article examines the nature of the sport of boxing and its surrounding environment, and the likelihood of spread of infection through airborne, contact, or blood-borne routes of transmission. Evidence from other sports such as running, wrestling, and martial arts is included to help elucidate the pathophysiologic elements that could be identified in boxers. PMID:19819401

King, Osric S

2009-10-01

45

Emerging infectious diseases in Mongolia.  

PubMed

Since 1990, Mongolia's health system has been in transition. Impressive gains have been accomplished through a national immunization program, which was instituted in 1991. Nevertheless, the country continues to confront four major chronic infections: hepatitis B and C, brucellosis, tuberculosis, and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). As of 2001, only two cases of HIV infections had been detected in Mongolia, but concern grows that the rate will increase along with the rising rates of STDs and increase in tourism. Other infectious diseases of importance in Mongolia include echinococcosis, plague, tularemia, anthrax, foot-and-mouth, and rabies. PMID:14720388

Ebright, John R; Altantsetseg, Togoo; Oyungerel, Ravdan

2003-12-01

46

Infectious Diseases Subdue Serengeti Lions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Infectious diseases stalk wildlife in the Serengeti, and climate change may be an accessory. Lions face serious threats to their future, some head-on, others lurking in the grasses, unseen until it's almost too late. From growing numbers of people living along the Serengeti perimeter to the effects of infectious diseases and climate change, the king of beasts (Panthera leo) leads an uneasy life. For example, lions are subject to simultaneous outbreaks of canine distemper virus (CDV) and babesiosis. CDV, a disease that results in encephalitis and pneumonia, is transmitted by domestic dogs; babesiosis is carried by a tick-borne blood parasite called Babesia. If extreme weather events become more frequent as a result of global climate change, disease may become a major threat to animal populations that have been historically stable. Diseases once thought to have limited impacts, such as babesiosis, should be watched closely. Environmental conditions may tip the scales and result in significantly greater impacts, even in wide open places like the Serengeti.

Cheryl Dybas (Freelance; )

2009-01-01

47

Post-infectious disease syndrome.  

PubMed Central

Many post-infectious syndromes have been recognized in the last 50 years, some following viral infections and others closely related to bacterial disease. The occurrence of prolonged fatigue following an apparent viral illness of varying severity is also well documented. The lack of a recognizable precipitating cause and the tendency for epidemic fatigue to occur among hospital staff led many to believe that the illness may be psychogenic in origin. However, there is serological evidence that some cases may follow enterovirus infections or occasionally delayed convalescence from infectious mononucleosis. Much interesting work is currently in progress relating fatigue to persisting immunological abnormalities, and the development of molecular immunology makes this a most exciting field of research. This paper reviews the evidence for and against a definitive post-viral fatigue syndrome and examines the results of research carried out in the last 50 years. PMID:3074289

Bannister, B. A.

1988-01-01

48

Livestock infectious diseases and zoonoses  

PubMed Central

Infectious diseases of livestock are a major threat to global animal health and welfare and their effective control is crucial for agronomic health, for safeguarding and securing national and international food supplies and for alleviating rural poverty in developing countries. Some devastating livestock diseases are endemic in many parts of the world and threats from old and new pathogens continue to emerge, with changes to global climate, agricultural practices and demography presenting conditions that are especially favourable for the spread of arthropod-borne diseases into new geographical areas. Zoonotic infections that are transmissible either directly or indirectly between animals and humans are on the increase and pose significant additional threats to human health and the current pandemic status of new influenza A (H1N1) is a topical example of the challenge presented by zoonotic viruses. In this article, we provide a brief overview of some of the issues relating to infectious diseases of livestock, which will be discussed in more detail in the papers that follow. PMID:19687034

Tomley, Fiona M.; Shirley, Martin W.

2009-01-01

49

Infectious Diseases and Vaccine Sciences: Strategic Directions  

PubMed Central

Despite substantial progress, infectious diseases remain important causes of ill-health and premature deaths in Bangladesh. Bangladesh has experienced a >90% reduction in the incidence of deaths due to childhood diarrhoea over the last 25 years. Further reductions can be achieved through the introduction of effective vaccines against rotavirus and improvements in home hygiene, quality of drinking-water, and clinical case management, including appropriate use of oral rehydration solution and zinc. Pneumonia is now the leading cause of childhood deaths in Bangladesh, and the pneumonia-specific child mortality is largely unchanged over the last 25 years. Reductions in mortality due to pneumonia can be achieved through the introduction of protein conjugate vaccines against Haemophilus influenza type b and Streptococcus pneumoniae, improvements in case management, including efforts to prevent delays in providing appropriate treatment, and the wider use of zinc. Tuberculosis is responsible for an estimated 70,000 deaths each year in Bangladesh. Although services for directly-observed therapy have expanded markedly, improved case finding and involvement of private practitioners will be important to reduce the burden of disease. PMID:18831226

Luby, Stephen P.; Brooks, W. Abdullah; Zaman, K.; Hossain, Shahed; Ahmed, Tahmeed

2008-01-01

50

Emerging Infectious Diseases and Amphibian Population Declines  

Microsoft Academic Search

We review recent research on the pathology, ecology, and biogeography of two emerging infectious wildlife diseases, chytridiomycosis and ranaviral disease, in the context of host-parasite population biology. We examine the role of these diseases in the global decline of amphibian populations and propose hypotheses for the origins and impact of these panzootics. Finally, we discuss emerging infectious diseases as a

Peter Daszak; Lee Berger; Andrew A. Cunningham; Alex D. Hyatt; D. Earl Green; Rick Speare

1999-01-01

51

[Infectious diseases--new horizons].  

PubMed

During the last decade we have witnessed important developments in the field of infectious diseases. These developments have in a large part been made possible due to our entry into the genomic period. The main areas of progress include diagnosis, understanding of the pathophysiology, genetics, anti-microbial therapy and the prevention of disease by new vaccines. The diagnosis of infection using Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR), contributes today to the early identification of a pathogen, long before the culture and serology. In the future, we will be able to utilize molecular methodologies based on the unique response of the host to a specific infection--the genetic signature. This method will enable very early identification of the pathogen, institution of optimal treatment, and will prevent the excessive use of antibiotics. Another area that has developed in recent years is the genetics of infectious diseases. Accumulated data shows that changes in the genome, polymorphism, result in different reactions by people to different infections. As a result of these changes some people are resistant to certain infections whilst others are especially sensitive to other infections. Introduction of this knowledge into clinical practice will enable more rational medical management with an emphasis on personalized medicine. After a long period without the development of new antibiotics, there are now signs of conceptual and practical breakthroughs in the development of antibiotic agents whose activity is based on new principles and directed against sites different from those of existing antibiotics. These advances are predominantly due to progress in the field of genomics. Similarly, in the development of future vaccines, more and more vaccines will be developed using genomic methods, enabling the creation of vaccines against diseases that we have not yet succeeded to eradicate. Genomic methods will enable the design of vaccines tailored to the specific genomic structure of the host--personal vaccines. All these four aspects of progress in the field of infectious diseases are not science fiction, and it can be stated with confidence that the future is already here. PMID:23350296

Spirer, Zvi; Barzilai, Asher

2012-08-01

52

Infectious Diseases and the Immune System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The lesson is design to explain the basic functions of the human immune system, including specific and nonspecific immune response, vaccines, and antibiotics. Primarily, it focuses on infectious diseases and how the immune system defend the body against infectious diseases. The lesson uses the 5E model as an approach for students to become engage, analytical and inquisitive in learning about infectious diseases and the immune system.

ARNEL DELA CRUZ

2012-06-28

53

Geography, ecology and emerging infectious diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emerging infectious diseases are the focus of increased attention and even alarm in the scholarly and popular literature. The emergence of new diseases and the resurgence of older and previously recognized infectious diseases both in developing and developed country poses challenges for understanding the ecological web of causation, including social, economic, environmental and biological components. This paper is a synthesis

Jonathan D. Mayer

2000-01-01

54

Geography, ecology and emerging infectious diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emerging infectious diseases are the focus of increased attention and even alarm in the scholarly and popular literature. The emergence of new diseases and the resurgence of older and previously recognized infectious diseases both in developing and developed country poses challenges for understanding the ecological web of causation, including social, economic, environmental and biological components. This paper is a synthesis

Jonathan D. Mayera

55

Utility of infectious disease coding sheets for surveillance in a state medical examiner's office.  

PubMed

Medical examiners are often first to recognize unusual occurrences of fatal infectious diseases. Recognition of these deaths allows public health officials to institute appropriate public health measures. Therefore, we developed a simple method of identifying and tracking infectious disease deaths in a statewide medical examiner's office. One-page infectious disease forms were completed for 1566/1949 autopsies (80%) performed at the New Mexico Office of the Medical Investigator in 2004. In 241 cases one infectious disease was identified at autopsy and 58 cases had two infectious diseases. Fourteen of the infectious-diseases caused deaths involved diseases that are notifiable conditions in New Mexico. Pneumonia was the most commonly reported infectious process (47 deaths) followed by sepsis (25 deaths). Tracking infectious disease deaths highlighted the importance of recognizing these deaths, although hand-written entries were unstandardized. Preferably, a tracking system would be built into electronic databases at medical examiner and coroner's offices, expediting the identification of these diseases and contact of public health agencies. PMID:18544116

Lathrop, Sarah L; Paul, Ian D; Schwartz, Michael H; Nolte, Kurt B

2008-07-01

56

Infectious syphilis mimicking neoplastic disease.  

PubMed

Five patients who were initially evaluated for malignant neoplasm actually had infectious syphillis (one primary, two secondaries, two secondaries with persistence of primary). Two patients were considered for radical surgery and one for extensive radiation and/or chemotherapy. In four patients an elevated routine admission VDRL was the first indication of the correct diagnosis. Dark-field examination is the most important laboratory test in the diagnosis of primary syphillis; VDRL and FTA-ABS are most important in confirming secondary syphillis. Penicillin remains the drug of choice for therapy. At a time when the incidence of sexually transmitted diseases is increasing, it is extremely important to develop adequate educational programs for medical students and physicians. PMID:576381

Drusin, L M; Singer, C; Valenti, A J; Armstrong, D

1977-02-01

57

Genetic Contributions to Infectious Disease Risk Infectious disease in cattle production  

E-print Network

Genetic Contributions to Infectious Disease Risk Infectious disease in cattle production remains&M University have begun to consolidate our expertise in ruminant health and production, genomics, and genetic To identify genetic polymorphisms associated with infectious diseases of cattle of importance to animal

58

An Interdisciplinary Perspective: Infectious Diseases and History.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduces the course "Infectious Diseases and History" which is designed for freshman and sophomore students. Aims to teach about infectious diseases, develop skills of using libraries and computer resources, and develop oral and written communication skills. Focuses on tuberculosis as an example of an instructional approach and explains its…

Turco, Jenifer; Byrd, Melanie

2001-01-01

59

Infectious Diseases and Tropical Disease Pathology: SY16-3 PYTHIOSIS: AN ENDEMIC FATAL INFECTIOUS DISEASE.  

PubMed

Pythiosis is a life threatening infectious disease of humans and animals living in tropical and subtropical areas of the world. The causative agent is the fungus-like microorganism Pythium insidiosum, which is a member of the oomycetes. Most of the pathogenic oomycetes infect plants, several infect animals, and P. insidiosum is capable of infecting humans. Pythiosis in animals has been increasingly found worldwide, while the disease state in humans has been mostly reported in Thailand. Pythiosis has high rate of morbidity and mortality. Patients usually come with clinical features associated with an infection of eye (called ocular pythiosis, which presents with cornea ulcer or keratitis) or arteries (called vascular pythiosis, which presents with claudication and gangrenous ulcer at leg). Diagnosis of pythiosis can be difficult and delayed. Conventional antifungal drugs are not effective against P. insidiosum. Main treatment option for most patients with pythiosis is radical excision of infected organs. In advanced case, death is a final outcome. Information on the disease and its causative agent is limited. It is apparent that more needs to be done in the way of basic and applied research to provide insights into the disease, and thereby lead to the discovery of novel strategies for diagnosis and infection control, such as, better diagnostic assays, new antimicrobial agents, and vaccines. This talk will present update information on the disease, including biology of P. insidiosum, and diagnosis and treatment of pythiosis. PMID:25188120

Krajaejun, Theerapong

2014-10-01

60

77 FR 76296 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Allergy and Infectious Diseases Council: Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Subcommittee...Allergy and Infectious Diseases Council: Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Subcommittee...Allergy and Infectious Diseases Council: Microbiology and Infectious Diseases...

2012-12-27

61

76 FR 77241 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Allergy and Infectious Diseases Council, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Subcommittee...Allergy and Infectious Diseases Council, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Subcommittee...Allergy and Infectious Diseases Council, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases...

2011-12-12

62

78 FR 79703 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Allergy and Infectious Diseases Council; Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Subcommittee...Allergy and Infectious Diseases Council; Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Subcommittee...Allergy and Infectious Diseases Council; Microbiology and Infectious Diseases...

2013-12-31

63

Eradication of infectious diseases in heterogeneous populations  

SciTech Connect

A model is presented of infectious disease in heterogeneous populations, which allows for variable intra- to intergroup contact ratios. The authors give necessary and sufficient conditions for disease eradication by means of vaccination. Smallpox is used as an illustrative example.

Travis, C.C.; Lenhart, S.M.

1987-04-01

64

Infectious diseases - new and ancient threats to world health.  

SciTech Connect

When smallpox was eradicated from the globe in the late 1970s, many health experts assumed that infectious and parasitic diseases (IPDs) could at long last be conquered. Death rates from infectious and parasitic diseases had declined during the late 19th century and throughout the 20th century thanks to better public health and sanitation as well as medical advances made possible by economic development. During this period, scientists discovered the germ theory of disease, identified the epidemiology and natural history of many infectious diseases, and created a host of potent antibiotic drugs that helped save millions of lives. Medical researchers learned to identify and cultivate viruses, which led to vaccines for increasing numbers of diseases.

Olshansky, S. J.; Carnes, B.; Rogers, R. G.; Smith, L.; Center for Mechanistic Biology and Biotechnology

1997-07-01

65

76 FR 27070 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases;  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings...National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel, NIAID...National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel,...

2011-05-10

66

Emerging and Re-Emerging Infectious Diseases  

MedlinePLUS

... more information on enabling JavaScript. Emerging Infectious Diseases/Pathogens Skip Content Marketing Share this: Main Content Area ... Divisions supporting such research. NIAID Biodefense Research Priority Pathogens List of NIAID Category A-C pathogens Additional ...

67

Contagious Rhythm: Infectious Diseases of 20th Century Musicians  

PubMed Central

Infectious diseases have led to illness and death for many famous musicians, from the classical period to the rock ’n’ roll era. By the 20th century, as public health improved and orchestral composers began living more settled lives, infections among American and European musicians became less prominent. By mid-century, however, seminal jazz musicians famously pursued lifestyles characterized by drug and alcohol abuse. Among the consequences of this risky lifestyle were tuberculosis, syphilis, and chronic viral hepatitis. More contemporary rock musicians have experienced an epidemic of hepatitis C infection and HIV/AIDS related to intravenous drug use and promiscuity. Musical innovation is thus often accompanied by diseases of neglect and overindulgence, particularly infectious illnesses, although risky behavior and associated infectious illnesses tend to decrease as the style matures. PMID:20660936

Sartin, Jeffrey S.

2010-01-01

68

Substance Abuse Treatment Clinician Opinions and Infectious Disease Service Delivery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Substance abuse treatment programs are an important platform for delivery of services for infectious diseases associated with drug and alcohol use. However, important components of infectious disease care are not universally provided. Clinician training often focuses on information about infectious diseases and less attention is paid to provider opinions and attitudes that may be barriers to providing infectious diseases services.

Kathlene Tracy; Lawrence S. Brown; Steven Kritz; Donald Alderson; Jim Robinson; Edmund J. Bini; Michael Levy; Donald Calsyn; Traci Rieckmann; Bret Fuller; Pat McAuliffe; John Rotrosen

2009-01-01

69

Headaches Attributable to Infectious Diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Headache is the most common symptom that humans experience. While the vast majority of headaches are due to benign primary\\u000a headache disorders, a small but important minority of headaches are due to secondary causes. Whereas significant emphasis\\u000a is placed on educating physicians regarding prompt recognition of subarachnoid hemorrhage and headaches secondary to brain\\u000a tumors, attention toward headaches secondary to infectious

Jonathan Gladstone; Marcelo E. Bigal

2010-01-01

70

Infectious disease: Connecting innate immunity to biocidal polymers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Infectious disease is a critically important global healthcare issue. In the U.S. alone there are 2 million new cases of hospital-acquired infections annually leading to 90,000 deaths and 5 billion dollars of added healthcare costs. Couple these numbers with the appearance of new antibiotic resistant bacterial strains and the increasing occurrences of community-type outbreaks, and clearly this is an important

Gregory J. Gabriel; Abhigyan Som; Ahmad E. Madkour; Tarik Eren; Gregory N. Tew

2007-01-01

71

Epidemic! The World of Infectious Disease - Exhibit  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Web site, created to complement the museum's Epidemic! exhibit, provides an in-depth look at the world of infectious disease. It includes information on how environmental changes can affect the spread of disease, the three major groups of microbes and how disease is spread, and the factors that determine whether an outbreak will become an epidemic or a pandemic. There is a list, organized by topic and specific disease, of more than 250 Web sites and a glossary.

72

Infectious disease and amphibian population declines  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of recent papers have impli- cated pathogens and parasites in amphibian population declines. Here, we review evidence on the link between infectious disease and amphibian population declines. We conclude that available data provide the clearest link for the fungal disease amphibian chytridiomycosis, although other pathogens are also implicated. We suggest additional experimental and observa- tional data that need

Peter Daszak; Andrew A. Cunningham; Alex D. Hyatt

2003-01-01

73

Climate change and emerging infectious diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ranges of infectious diseases and vectors are changing in altitude, along with shifts in plant communities and the retreat of alpine glaciers. Additionally, extreme weather events create conditions conducive to ?clusters? of insect-, rodent- and water-borne diseases. Accelerating climate change carries profound threats for public health and society.

Paul R. Epstein

2001-01-01

74

Mathematical models of infectious disease transmission  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mathematical analysis and modelling is central to infectious disease epidemiology. Here, we provide an intuitive introduction to the process of disease transmission, how this stochastic process can be represented mathematically and how this mathematical representation can be used to analyse the emergent dynamics of observed epidemics. Progress in mathematical analysis and modelling is of fundamental importance to our growing understanding

Christophe Fraser; Nicholas C. Grassly

2008-01-01

75

Global climate change and infectious diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of global climate change on infectious diseases are hypothetical until more is known about the degree of change in temperature and humidity that will occur. Diseases most likely to increase in their distribution and severity have three-factor (agent, vector, and human being) and four-factor (plus vertebrate reservoir host) ecology. Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus mosquitoes may move northward

Shope

1991-01-01

76

IL-10 gene polymorphisms are associated with infectious cause of sudden infant death.  

PubMed

Cytokines are involved in regulating the intensity and duration of the immune response, and cytokine production is carefully regulated. With regard to sudden infant death, interleukin-10 (IL-10) is of special interest. This is an immunoregulatory cytokine that plays an important role in the development of infectious disease. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the relationship between polymorphisms in the promoter region of the IL-10 gene and sudden infant death due to either sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) or infection. The polymorphisms investigated include the SNPs in base pairs (bp) -1082, -819, -592, and the two microsatellites IL-10G and IL-10R. The main finding is an association between the ATA haplotype and the ATA/ATA genotype and infectious death. The group of infectious deaths also had a higher percentage of the genotypes G21/G22 and G21/G23, compared with the SIDS patients. In addition, G21/G22 was found in a higher percentage of the SIDS patients than in the controls. These findings lead us to speculate that, in some situations, an infant with an unfavorable IL-10 genotype may exhibit aberrant IL-10 production, which in turn leads to an imbalance in the immune response and renders the infant unable to cope with the infection. PMID:14630401

Opdal, Siri H; Opstad, Anette; Vege, Ashild; Rognum, Torleiv O

2003-12-01

77

Radiolabeled antibodies for therapy of infectious diseases  

PubMed Central

Novel approaches to treatment of infectious diseases are urgently needed. This need has resulted in renewing the interest in antibodies for therapy of infectious diseases. Radioimmunotherapy (RIT) is a cancer treatment modality, which utilizes radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). During the last decade we have translated RIT into the field of experimental fungal, bacterial and HIV infections. In addition, successful proof of principle experiments with radiolabeled pan-antibodies that bind to antigens shared by major pathogenic fungi were performed in vitro. The armamentarium of pan-antibodies would result in reducing the dependence on microorganism-specific antibodies and thus would speed up the development of RIT of infections. We believe that the time is ripe for deploying RIT into the clinic to combat infectious diseases. PMID:25599011

Dadachova, Ekaterina; Casadevall, Arturo

2014-01-01

78

Biodiversity loss and infectious diseases: chapter 5  

USGS Publications Warehouse

When conservation biologists think about infectious diseases, their thoughts are mostly negative. Infectious diseases have been associated with the extinction and endangerment of some species, though this is rare, and other factors like habitat loss and poorly regulated harvest still are the overwhelming drivers of endangerment. Parasites are pervasive and play important roles as natural enemies on par with top predators, from regulating population abundances to maintaining species diversity. Sometimes, parasites themselves can be endangered. However, it seems unlikely that humans will miss extinct parasites. Parasites are often sensitive to habitat loss and degradation, making them positive indicators of ecosystem “health”. Conservation biologists need to carefully consider infectious diseases when planning conservation actions. This can include minimizing the movement of domestic and invasive species, vaccination, and culling.

Lafferty, Kevin D.

2014-01-01

79

Climate change and infectious diseases in Europe.  

PubMed

Concerted action is needed to address public health issues raised by climate change. In this Review we discuss infections acquired through various routes (arthropod vector, rodent, water, food, and air) in view of a changing climate in Europe. Based on an extensive review of published work and expert workshops, we present an assessment of the infectious disease challenges: incidence, prevalence, and distribution are projected to shift in a changing environment. Due to the high level of uncertainty on the rate of climate change and its impact on infectious diseases, we propose to mount a proactive public health response by building an integrated network for environmental and epidemiological data. This network would have the capacity to connect epidemic intelligence and infectious disease surveillance with meteorological, entomological, water quality, remote sensing, and other data, for multivariate analyses and predictions. Insights from these analyses could then guide adaptation strategies and protect population health from impending threats related to climate change. PMID:19467476

Semenza, Jan C; Menne, Bettina

2009-06-01

80

Infectious diseases in the 21st century.  

PubMed

Infecto-contagious diseases in the twenty-first century with respect to precedent will see themselves deprived of smallpox, dracunculiasis and very probably of paralyzing poliomyelitis. Vaccination-preventable diseases, such as measles, whooping cough, diphtheria, tetanus, rabies, some forms of meningitis, yellow fever and episodes of disseminated tuberculosis will greatly diminish in their rates of morbi-lethality; the elimination of some, and the eradication of measles, are expected. Other diseases such as diarrhea (including cholera), geo-helminthiasis, some severe respiratory tract infections and the majority of vector-transmitted infectious diseases will decrease due to improvements in potable water services, drainage, sanitary food control, living quarters, and individual and community anti-vector action. Leprosy, onchocerciasis and several parasitoses will be controlled by the available antimicrobial drugs. Infectious diseases will continue to be an important health problem due to: Reduction in the immunocompetence resulting from the aging of the population, chemotherapies necessary for neoplasms, and autoimmune pathology and the survival of persons with primary immunodeficiencies; lifestyles prone to infectious pathology, such as mega-city urbanization, children in day care centers, industrialized foods, intravenous drug addiction, sexual liberation, global commerce, and tourism; antibiotic-multiresistant microbial flora; environmental disturbances as a result of global warming, deforestation, the settling of virgin areas, dams, the large-scale use of pesticides, fertilizers and antimicrobials, and natural/social disasters generators of poverty, violence and deprivation will result in emergence or re-emergence of infectious diseases already controlled in the past. PMID:9204602

Kumate, J

1997-01-01

81

Emerging infectious diseases and animal social systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emerging infectious diseases threaten a wide diversity of animals, and important questions remain concerning disease emergence\\u000a in socially structured populations. We developed a spatially explicit simulation model to investigate whether—and under what\\u000a conditions—disease-related mortality can impact rates of pathogen spread in populations of polygynous groups. Specifically,\\u000a we investigated whether pathogen-mediated dispersal (PMD) can occur when females disperse after the resident

Charles L. Nunn; Peter H. Thrall; Kelly Stewart; Alexander H. Harcourt

2008-01-01

82

Infectious Disease Risk Associated with Space Flight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This slide presentation opens with views of the shuttle in various stages of preparation for launch, a few moments after launch prior to external fuel tank separation, a few pictures of the earth,and several pictures of astronomical interest. The presentation reviews the factors effecting the risks of infectious disease during space flight, such as the crew, water, food, air, surfaces and payloads and the factors that increase disease risk, the factors affecting the risk of infectious disease during spaceflight, and the environmental factors affecting immunity, such as stress. One factor in space infectious disease is latent viral reactivation, such as herpes. There are comparisons of the incidence of viral reactivation in space, and in other analogous situations (such as bed rest, or isolation). There is discussion of shingles, and the pain and results of treatment. There is a further discussion of the changes in microbial pathogen characteristics, using salmonella as an example of the increased virulence of microbes during spaceflight. A factor involved in the risk of infectious disease is stress.

Pierson, Duane L.

2010-01-01

83

Emerging Infectious Determinants of Chronic Diseases  

PubMed Central

Evidence now confirms that noncommunicable chronic diseases can stem from infectious agents. Furthermore, at least 13 of 39 recently described infectious agents induce chronic syndromes. Identifying the relationships can affect health across populations, creating opportunities to reduce the impact of chronic disease by preventing or treating infection. As the concept is progressively accepted, advances in laboratory technology and epidemiology facilitate the detection of noncultivable, novel, and even recognized microbial origins. A spectrum of diverse pathogens and chronic syndromes emerges, with a range of pathways from exposure to chronic illness or disability. Complex systems of changing human behavioral traits superimposed on human, microbial, and environmental factors often determine risk for exposure and chronic outcome. Yet the strength of causal evidence varies widely, and detecting a microbe does not prove causality. Nevertheless, infectious agents likely determine more cancers, immune-mediated syndromes, neurodevelopmental disorders, and other chronic conditions than currently appreciated. PMID:16836820

O'Connor, Siobhán M.; Taylor, Christopher E.; Hughes, James M.

2006-01-01

84

Globalization, international law, and emerging infectious diseases.  

PubMed Central

The global nature of the threat posed by new and reemerging infectious diseases will require international cooperation in identifying, controlling, and preventing these diseases. Because of this need for international cooperation, international law will certainly play a role in the global strategy for the control of emerging diseases. Recognizing this fact, the World Health Organization has already proposed revising the International Health Regulations. This article examines some basic problems that the global campaign against emerging infectious diseases might face in applying international law to facilitate international cooperation. The international legal component of the global control strategy for these diseases needs careful attention because of problems inherent in international law, especially as it applies to emerging infections issues. PMID:8903206

Fidler, D. P.

1996-01-01

85

Rapid Analysis of Pharmacology for Infectious Diseases  

PubMed Central

Pandemic, epidemic and endemic infectious diseases are united by a common problem: how do we rapidly and cost-effectively identify potential pharmacological interventions to treat infections? Given the large number of emerging and neglected infectious diseases and the fact that they disproportionately afflict the poorest members of the global society, new ways of thinking are required to develop high productivity discovery systems that can be applied to a large number of pathogens. The growing availability of parasite genome data provides the basis for developing methods to prioritize, a priori potential drug targets and analyze the pharmacological landscape of an infectious disease. Thus the overall objective of infectious disease informatics is to enable the rapid generation of plausible, novel medical hypotheses of test-able pharmacological experiments, by uncovering undiscovered relationships in the wealth of biomedical literature and databases that were collected for other purposes. In particular our goal is to identify potential drug targets present in a pathogen genome and prioritize which pharmacological experiments are most likely to discover drug-like lead compounds rapidly against a pathogen (i.e. which specific compounds and drug targets should be screened, in which assays and where they can be sourced). An integral part of the challenge is the development and integration of methods to predict druggability, essentiality, synthetic lethality and polypharmocology in pathogen genomes, while simultaneously integrating the inevitable issues of chemical tractability and the potential for acquired drug resistance from the start. PMID:21401504

Hopkins, Andrew L; Bickerton, G. Richard; Carruthers, Ian M; Boyer, Stephen K; Rubin, Harvey; Overington, John P

2011-01-01

86

Section of Infectious Diseases Department of Medicine  

E-print Network

Section of Infectious Diseases Department of Medicine PhD studentship in HIV Immunology Research of Medicine of Imperial College London at the St Mary's Campus. Led by Professor Robin Shattock, the main. Professor Robin Shattock (http://www1.imperial.ac.uk/medicine/people/r.shattock/ ) is the academic

87

Global trends in emerging infectious diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) are a significant burden on global economies and public health. Their emergence is thought to be driven largely by socio-economic, environmental and ecological factors, but no comparative study has explicitly analysed these linkages to understand global temporal and spatial patterns of EIDs. Here we analyse a database of 335 EID `events' (origins of EIDs) between 1940

Kate E. Jones; Nikkita G. Patel; Marc A. Levy; Adam Storeygard; Deborah Balk; John L. Gittleman; Peter Daszak

2008-01-01

88

Epidemiological monitoring for emerging infectious diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Homeland Security News Wire has been reporting on new ways to fight epidemics using digital tools such as iPhone, social networks, Wikipedia, and other Internet sites. Instant two-way communication now gives consumers the ability to complement official reports on emerging infectious diseases from health authorities. However, there is increasing concern that these communications networks could open the door to

Marjorie Greene

2010-01-01

89

Coping with Stress during Infectious Disease Outbreaks  

MedlinePLUS

· 1 Coping With Stress During Infectious Disease Outbreaks What You Should Know When you hear, read, or watch news about an outbreak of ... you may feel anxious and show signs of stress—even when the outbreak affects people far from ...

90

Future Infectious Disease Threats to Europe  

PubMed Central

We examined how different drivers of infectious disease could interact to threaten control efforts in Europe. We considered projected trends through 2020 for 3 broad groups of drivers: globalization and environmental change, social and demographic change, and health system capacity. Eight plausible infectious disease threats with the potential to be significantly more problematic than they are today were identified through an expert consultation: extensively drug-resistant bacteria, vector-borne diseases, sexually transmitted infections, food-borne infections, a resurgence of vaccine-preventable diseases, health care–associated infections, multidrug-resistant tuberculosis, and pandemic influenza. Preemptive measures to be taken by the public health community to counteract these threats were identified. PMID:21940915

Suk, Jonathan E.

2011-01-01

91

Rediscovering Biology - Unit 5: Emerging Infectious Diseases  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page is the jumping-off point for an educational unit on emerging infectious diseases. There are links to a course outline and classroom activity worksheets, a 30-minute video, an online textbook chapter, a collection of relevant images and animations that supplement the chapter, transcripts of interviews with five experts featured in the video, and a glossary and bibliography. The video and textbook chapter cover two main phenomena of emerging diseases - evolution of antibiotic resistance, and mutation of disease organisms due to novel environmental pressures. There are detailed explanations of microbial evolution by mutation and acquisition of new genetic material, as well as case studies of infectious diseases spread by animals. The course outline provides a structure for incorporating the video, the textbook chapter, and five classroom activities into a 2.5hr session appropriate for high school or undergraduate students.

Annenberg Media Learner.org

92

Emerging infectious disease: global response, global alert.  

PubMed

Despite spectacular progress in the eradication of infectious diseases, malaria and tuberculosis are making a comeback in many parts of the world. After years of decline, plague, diphtheria, dengue, meningococcal meningitis, yellow fever, and cholera have reappeared as public health threats. In the last 20 years [before 1997] more than 30 new and highly infectious diseases have been identified, including Ebola-type hemorrhagic fever, HIV/AIDs, and hepatitis C. Antibiotic resistance has also emerged during this period, and fewer new antibiotics are being produced because of high development costs and licensing. Drugs no longer offer protection or cure for many infectious diseases, and consequently more people need hospitalization with higher treatment costs. The causes of the appearance of new diseases and the resurgence of old ones include the rapid increase in international travel, the growth of mega-cities with high population densities, inadequate safe water and sanitation, food-borne diseases by the globalization of trade, and human penetration into remote animal and insect habitats. Meanwhile, resources for public health are being reduced, with the result that either the appearance of new diseases or resistance to drugs go unnoticed. A recent example is the human immunodeficiency virus, which went unrecognized until a large number of people got infected. For this very reason the 1997 World Health Day featured the theme of emerging infectious diseases and global response. Such forums are held to help countries rebuild the foundations of disease surveillance and control, while the public and private sectors may be encouraged to develop better techniques for surveillance to confront a common global threat. PMID:12348002

Nakajima, H

1997-01-01

93

[History of the changes in infectious diseases].  

PubMed

The spectrum of infectious diseases is not at all constant, it changes. This statement is relevant for the great epidemics as well as for nosocomial infections and simple infectious processes. The epidemiological situation of plague, lepra, cholera and diphtheria is discussed. As concerns nosocomial infections four periods are separated: the time before Semmelweis and Lister, the period of the introduction of antiseptic/aseptic measurements to the hospitals and the chemotherapy-time (period until 1965) and the time afterwards. The spectrum of nosocomial infections and its changes as observed in the Cologne area are presented. But also the types of a certain bacterial species are changing as discussed on the example of S. aureus phagetype 80/81. As far as known factors involved in these changes are mentioned. The increasing use of plastic materials in medicine (i.e. intravenous catheters, Spitz-Holtershunts, hipps, valves, etcetera) is the cause of infectious complications, S. epidermidis being the dominant organism. PMID:3887809

Pulverer, G

1985-02-01

94

75 FR 26760 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...personal privacy. Name of Committee: Microbiology, Infectious Diseases and AIDS Initial Review Group; Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research...Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases...

2010-05-12

95

75 FR 81631 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...personal privacy. Name of Committee: Microbiology, Infectious Diseases and AIDS Initial Review Group. Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research...Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases...

2010-12-28

96

76 FR 55074 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...personal privacy. Name of Committee: Microbiology, Infectious Diseases and AIDS Initial Review Group, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research...Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases...

2011-09-06

97

75 FR 49502 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...personal privacy. Name of Committee: Microbiology, Infectious Diseases and AIDS Initial Review Group; Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research...Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases...

2010-08-13

98

77 FR 29676 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...personal privacy. Name of Committee: Microbiology, Infectious Diseases and AIDS Initial Review Group; Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research...Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases...

2012-05-18

99

78 FR 3011 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...personal privacy. Name of Committee: Microbiology, Infectious Diseases and AIDS Initial Review Group; Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research...Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases...

2013-01-15

100

Infectious Disease Modeling of Social Contagion in Networks  

E-print Network

Many behavioral phenomena have been found to spread interpersonally through social networks, in a manner similar to infectious diseases. An important difference between social contagion and traditional infectious diseases, ...

Hill, Alison Lynn

101

Occupational assessment, screening and vaccination against specified infectious diseases PROCEDURES  

E-print Network

Occupational assessment, screening and vaccination against specified infectious diseases PROCEDURES of the NSW Health Occupational Assessment, Screening and Vaccination against Specified Infectious Diseases Policy Directive. Part 2 I undertake to participate in the assessment, screening and vaccination process

Viglas, Anastasios

102

Travel and the emergence of infectious diseases.  

PubMed Central

Travel is a potent force in the emergence of disease. Migration of humans has been the pathway for disseminating infectious diseases throughout recorded history and will continue to shape the emergence, frequency, and spread of infections in geographic areas and populations. The current volume, speed, and reach of travel are unprecedented. The consequences of travel extend beyond the traveler to the population visited and the ecosystem. When they travel, humans carry their genetic makeup, immunologic sequelae of past infections, cultural preferences, customs, and behavioral patterns. Microbes, animals, and other biologic life also accompany them. Today's massive movement of humans and materials sets the stage for mixing diverse genetic pools at rates and in combinations previously unknown. Concomitant changes in the environment, climate, technology, land use, human behavior, and demographics converge to favor the emergence of infectious diseases caused by a broad range of organisms in humans, as well as in plants and animals. PMID:8903157

Wilson, M. E.

1995-01-01

103

Vaccination against infectious diseases: what is promising?  

PubMed

Vaccination has proven to be one of the best weapons protecting the mankind against infectious diseases. Along with the huge progress in microbiology, numerous highly efficacious and safe vaccines have been produced by conventional technology (cultivation), by the use of molecular biology (genetic modification), or by synthetic chemistry. Sterilising prevention is achieved by the stimulation of antibody production, while the stimulation of cell-mediated immune responses may prevent the outbreak of disease in consequence of an acute or reactivated infection. From several examples, two rules are deduced to evaluate the perspectives of future vaccine developments: They are promising, if (1) the natural infectious disease induces immunity or (2) passive immunisation (transfer of antibodies, adoptive transfer of lymphocytes) is successful in preventing infection. PMID:25064610

Doerr, Hans Wilhelm; Berger, Annemarie

2014-12-01

104

Epidemiological monitoring for emerging infectious diseases  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Homeland Security News Wire has been reporting on new ways to fight epidemics using digital tools such as iPhone, social networks, Wikipedia, and other Internet sites. Instant two-way communication now gives consumers the ability to complement official reports on emerging infectious diseases from health authorities. However, there is increasing concern that these communications networks could open the door to mass panic from unreliable or false reports. There is thus an urgent need to ensure that epidemiological monitoring for emerging infectious diseases gives health authorities the capability to identify, analyze, and report disease outbreaks in as timely and efficient a manner as possible. One of the dilemmas in the global dissemination of information on infectious diseases is the possibility that information overload will create inefficiencies as the volume of Internet-based surveillance information increases. What is needed is a filtering mechanism that will retrieve relevant information for further analysis by epidemiologists, laboratories, and other health organizations so they are not overwhelmed with irrelevant information and will be able to respond quickly. This paper introduces a self-organizing ontology that could be used as a filtering mechanism to increase relevance and allow rapid analysis of disease outbreaks as they evolve in real time.

Greene, Marjorie

2010-04-01

105

Protein crystallography and infectious diseases.  

PubMed Central

The current rapid growth in the number of known 3-dimensional protein structures is producing a database of structures that is increasingly useful as a starting point for the development of new medically relevant molecules such as drugs, therapeutic proteins, and vaccines. This development is beautifully illustrated in the recent book, Protein structure: New approaches to disease and therapy (Perutz, 1992). There is a great and growing promise for the design of molecules for the treatment or prevention of a wide variety of diseases, an endeavor made possible by the insights derived from the structure and function of crucial proteins from pathogenic organisms and from man. We present here 2 illustrations of structure-based drug design. The first is the prospect of developing antitrypanosomal drugs based on crystallographic, ligand-binding, and molecular modeling studies of glycolytic glycosomal enzymes from Trypanosomatidae. These unicellular organisms are responsible for several tropical diseases, including African and American trypanosomiases, as well as various forms of leishmaniasis. Because the target enzymes are also present in the human host, this project is a pioneering study in selective design. The second illustrative case is the prospect of designing anti-cholera drugs based on detailed analysis of the structure of cholera toxin and the closely related Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin. Such potential drugs can be targeted either at inhibiting the toxin's receptor binding site or at blocking the toxin's intracellular catalytic activity. Study of the Vibrio cholerae and E. coli toxins serves at the same time as an example of a general approach to structure-based vaccine design. These toxins exhibit a remarkable ability to stimulate the mucosal immune system, and early results have suggested that this property can be maintained by engineered fusion proteins based on the native toxin structure. The challenge is thus to incorporate selected epitopes from foreign pathogens into the native framework of the toxin such that crucial features of both the epitope and the toxin are maintained. That is, the modified toxin must continue to evoke a strong mucosal immune response, and this response must be directed against an epitope conformation characteristic of the original pathogen. PMID:7849584

Verlinde, C. L.; Merritt, E. A.; Van den Akker, F.; Kim, H.; Feil, I.; Delboni, L. F.; Mande, S. C.; Sarfaty, S.; Petra, P. H.; Hol, W. G.

1994-01-01

106

Infectious Disease Hospitalizations Among Infants in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE. This study describes the burden and epidemiologic features of infectious disease hospitalizations among infants in the United States. METHODS. Hospitalizations with an infectious disease listed as a primary diagnosis for infants (1 year of age) in the United States during 2003 were examined by using the Kids' Inpatient Database. National estimates of infectious disease hospitalizations, hospitalization rates, and various

Krista L. Yorita; Robert C. Holman; James J. Sejvar; Claudia A. Steiner; Lawrence B. Schonberger

2010-01-01

107

Immigrant and refugee health: common infectious diseases.  

PubMed

Immigrants and refugees are at risk of infectious diseases (IDs) that are rare in the United States. Screening and treatment before entry into the United States are required for some of these diseases, whereas quarantine is mandated for others. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has published specific recommendations for the evaluation and treatment of immigrants and refugees before and after they arrive in the United States. In addition, immigrants and refugees who return to their home countries are at greater risk of IDs than other travelers. Health care professionals are required to report certain IDs to state or local health departments. PMID:25127537

Rew, Karl T; Clarke, S Lindsey; Gossa, Weyinshet; Savin, Daniel

2014-08-01

108

Using biological networks to improve our understanding of infectious diseases  

PubMed Central

Infectious diseases are the leading cause of death, particularly in developing countries. Although many drugs are available for treating the most common infectious diseases, in many cases the mechanism of action of these drugs or even their targets in the pathogen remain unknown. In addition, the key factors or processes in pathogens that facilitate infection and disease progression are often not well understood. Since proteins do not work in isolation, understanding biological systems requires a better understanding of the interconnectivity between proteins in different pathways and processes, which includes both physical and other functional interactions. Such biological networks can be generated within organisms or between organisms sharing a common environment using experimental data and computational predictions. Though different data sources provide different levels of accuracy, confidence in interactions can be measured using interaction scores. Connections between interacting proteins in biological networks can be represented as graphs and edges, and thus studied using existing algorithms and tools from graph theory. There are many different applications of biological networks, and here we discuss three such applications, specifically applied to the infectious disease tuberculosis, with its causative agent Mycobacterium tuberculosis and host, Homo sapiens. The applications include the use of the networks for function prediction, comparison of networks for evolutionary studies, and the generation and use of host–pathogen interaction networks. PMID:25379138

Mulder, Nicola J.; Akinola, Richard O.; Mazandu, Gaston K.; Rapanoel, Holifidy

2014-01-01

109

Emerging, evolving, and established infectious diseases and interventions.  

PubMed

Planning, implementing, and evaluating interventions against infectious diseases depend on the nature of the infectious disease; the availability of intervention measures; and logistical, economic, and political constraints. Infectious diseases and vaccine- or drug-based interventions can be loosely categorized by the degree to which the infectious disease and the intervention are well established. Pertussis, polio, and measles are three examples of long-known infectious diseases for which global vaccination has dramatically reduced the public health burden. Pertussis vaccination was introduced in the 1940s, polio vaccination in the 1950s, and measles vaccination in the 1960s, nearly eliminating these diseases in many places. PMID:25214617

Halloran, M Elizabeth; Longini, Ira M

2014-09-12

110

Meningococcal Meningitis: An Emerging Infectious Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Meningococcal meningitis is a potentially fatal disease which can affect many 15- to 24-year-olds and those that are affected could have been protected from the disease if they had received the vaccination. The number of reported cases has increased during the past decade and account for many preventable deaths. Adolescents and young adults account for nearly 30 percent of all

Julie A. Strunk; Judith Townsend Rocchiccioli

2010-01-01

111

Pregnancy and Susceptibility to Infectious Diseases  

PubMed Central

To summarize the literature regarding susceptibility of pregnant women to infectious diseases and severity of resulting disease, we conducted a review using a PubMed search and other strategies. Studies were included if they reported information on infection risk or disease outcome in pregnant women. In all, 1454 abstracts were reviewed, and a total of 85 studies were included. Data were extracted regarding number of cases in pregnant women, rates of infection, risk factors for disease severity or complications, and maternal outcomes. The evidence indicates that pregnancy is associated with increased severity of some infectious diseases, such as influenza, malaria, hepatitis E, and herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection (risk for dissemination/hepatitis); there is also some evidence for increased severity of measles and smallpox. Disease severity seems higher with advanced pregnancy. Pregnant women may be more susceptible to acquisition of malaria, HIV infection, and listeriosis, although the evidence is limited. These results reinforce the importance of infection prevention as well as of early identification and treatment of suspected influenza, malaria, hepatitis E, and HSV disease during pregnancy. PMID:23935259

Jamieson, Denise J.; Kourtis, Athena P.

2013-01-01

112

Peripheral Nervous System Manifestations of Infectious Diseases  

PubMed Central

Infectious causes of peripheral nervous system (PNS) disease are underrecognized but potentially treatable. Heightened awareness educed by advanced understanding of the presentations and management of these infections can aid diagnosis and facilitate treatment. In this review, we discuss the clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and treatment of common bacterial, viral, and parasitic infections that affect the PNS. We additionally detail PNS side effects of some frequently used antimicrobial agents. PMID:25360209

Brizzi, Kate T.

2014-01-01

113

Mathematical Models in Infectious Disease Epidemiology  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The idea that transmission and spread of infectious diseases follows laws that can be formulated in mathematical language\\u000a is old. In 1766 Daniel Bernoulli published an article where he described the effects of smallpox variolation (a precursor\\u000a of vaccination) on life expectancy using mathematical life table analysis (Dietz and Heesterbeek 2000). However, it was only\\u000a in the twentieth century that

Mirjam Kretzschmar; Jacco Wallinga

114

Sex Differences in Pediatric Infectious Diseases  

PubMed Central

The success of the immune response is finely balanced between, on the one hand, the need to engage vigorously with, and clear, certain pathogens; and, on the other, the requirement to minimize immunopathology and autoimmunity. Distinct immune strategies to achieve this balance have evolved in females and males and also in infancy through to adulthood. Sex differences in outcome from a range of infectious diseases can be identified from as early as fetal life, such as in congenital cytomegalovirus infection. The impact of sex hormones on the T-helper 1/T-helper 2 cytokine balance has been proposed to explain the higher severity of most infectious diseases in males. In the minority where greater morbidity and mortality is observed in females, this is hypothesized to arise because of greater immunopathology and/or autoimmunity. However, a number of unexplained exceptions to this rule are described. Studies that have actually measured the sex differences in children in the immune responses to infectious diseases and that would further test these hypotheses, are relatively scarce. PMID:24966192

Muenchhoff, Maximilian; Goulder, Philip J. R.

2014-01-01

115

Electronic tools for infectious diseases and microbiology  

PubMed Central

Electronic tools for infectious diseases and medical microbiology have the ability to change the way the diagnosis and treatment of infectious diseases are approached. Medical information today has the ability to be dynamic, keeping up with the latest research or clinical issues, instead of being static and years behind, as many textbooks are. The ability to rapidly disseminate information around the world opens up the possibility of communicating with people thousands of miles away to quickly and efficiently learn about emerging infections. Electronic tools have expanded beyond the desktop computer and the Internet, and now include personal digital assistants and other portable devices such as cellular phones. These pocket-sized devices have the ability to provide access to clinical information at the point of care. New electronic tools include e-mail listservs, electronic drug databases and search engines that allow focused clinical questions. The goal of the present article is to provide an overview of how electronic tools can impact infectious diseases and microbiology, while providing links and resources to allow users to maximize their efficiency in accessing this information. Links to the mentioned Web sites and programs are provided along with other useful electronic tools. PMID:18978984

Burdette, Steven D

2007-01-01

116

Center for Infectious Diseases (CID) Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine  

E-print Network

Center for Infectious Diseases (CID) Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine Microbiology (Hotta) Pathogenesis analysis of viruses; Antiviral drugs; Vaccine development Infectious Disease and epidemiology of avian influenza Infectious Disease Control (Kawabata) Epidemiology of infectious diseases

Banbara, Mutsunori

117

Infectious etiopathogenesis of Crohn’s disease  

PubMed Central

Important advances during the last decade have been made in understanding the complex etiopathogenesis of Crohn’s disease (CD). While many gaps in our knowledge still exist, it has been suggested that the etiology of CD is multifactorial including genetic, environmental and infectious factors. The most widely accepted theory states that CD is caused by an aggressive immune response to infectious agents in genetically predisposed individuals. The rise of genome-wide association studies allowed the identification of loci and genetic variants in several components of host innate and adaptive immune responses to microorganisms in the gut, highlighting an implication of intestinal microbiota in CD etiology. Moreover, numerous independent studies reported a dysbiosis, i.e., a modification of intestinal microbiota composition, with an imbalance between the abundance of beneficial and harmful bacteria. Although microorganisms including viruses, yeasts, fungi and bacteria have been postulated as potential CD pathogens, based on epidemiological, clinicopathological, genetic and experimental evidence, their precise role in this disease is not clearly defined. This review summarizes the current knowledge of the infectious agents associated with an increased risk of developing CD. Therapeutic approaches to modulate the intestinal dysbiosis and to target the putative CD-associated pathogens, as well as their potential mechanisms of action are also discussed. PMID:25232246

Carričre, Jessica; Darfeuille-Michaud, Arlette; Nguyen, Hang Thi Thu

2014-01-01

118

Global climate change and infectious diseases  

SciTech Connect

The effects of global climate change on infectious diseases are hypothetical until more is known about the degree of change in temperature and humidity that will occur. Diseases most likely to increase in their distribution and severity have three-factor (agent, vector, and human being) and four-factor (plus vertebrate reservoir host) ecology. Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus mosquitoes may move northward and have more rapid metamorphosis with global warming. These mosquitoes transmit dengue virus, and Aedes aegypti transmits yellow fever virus. The faster metamorphosis and a shorter extrinsic incubation of dengue and yellow fever viruses could lead to epidemics in North America. Vibrio cholera is harbored persistently in the estuaries of the U.S. Gulf Coast. Over the past 200 years, cholera has become pandemic seven times with spread from Asia to Europe, Africa, and North America. Global warming may lead to changes in water ecology that could enhance similar spread of cholera in North America. Some other infectious diseases such as LaCrosse encephalitis and Lyme disease are caused by agents closely dependent on the integrity of their environment. These diseases may become less prominent with global warming because of anticipated modification of their habitats. Ecological studies will help as to understand more fully the possible consequences of global warming. New and more effective methods for control of vectors will be needed. 12 refs., 1 tab.

Shope, R. (Yale Univ. School of Medicine, New Haven, CT (United States))

1991-12-01

119

Global Transport Networks and Infectious Disease Spread  

PubMed Central

Air, sea and land transport networks continue to expand in reach, speed of travel and volume of passengers and goods carried. Pathogens and their vectors can now move further, faster and in greater numbers than ever before. Three important consequences of global transport network expansion are infectious disease pandemics, vector invasion events and vector-borne pathogen importation. This review briefly examines some of the important historical examples of these disease and vector movements, such as the global influenza pandemics, the devastating Anopheles gambiae invasion of Brazil and the recent increases in imported Plasmodium falciparum malaria cases. We then outline potential approaches for future studies of disease movement, focussing on vector invasion and vector-borne disease importation. Such approaches allow us to explore the potential implications of international air travel, shipping routes and other methods of transport on global pathogen and vector traffic. PMID:16647974

Tatem, A.J.; Rogers, D.J.; Hay, S.I.

2011-01-01

120

Infectious diseases: Surveillance, genetic modification and simulation  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Infectious diseases such as influenza and dengue have the potential of becoming a worldwide pandemic that may exert immense pressures on existing medical infrastructures. Careful surveillance of these diseases, supported by consistent model simulations, provides a means for tracking the disease evolution. The integrated surveillance and simulation program is essential in devising effective early warning systems and in implementing efficient emergency preparedness and control measures. This paper presents a summary of simulation analysis on influenza A (H1N1) 2009 in Malaysia. This simulation analysis provides insightful lessons regarding how disease surveillance and simulation should be performed in the future. This paper briefly discusses the controversy over the experimental field release of genetically modified (GM) Aedes aegypti mosquito in Malaysia. Model simulations indicate that the proposed release of GM mosquitoes is neither a viable nor a sustainable control strategy. ?? 2011 WIT Press.

Koh, H.-L.; Teh, S.Y.; De Angelis, D. L.; Jiang, J.

2011-01-01

121

Selected infectious disease disasters for nursing staff training at Egyptian Eastern Border.  

PubMed

Infectious disease disasters are events that involve a biological agent, disease and that result in mass casualties, such as a bioterrorism attack, an emerging outbreak of infectious disease; all disasters pose a risk of infection transmission. But, infectious disease disasters pose the great-risk to illness or death from an infectious disease. This study raised the awareness and improved knowledge by educational program for Military Nursing Staff on selected infectious disease disasters acquired at Egyptian Eastern Border. The selected arthropod-borne diseases were Anthrax, Tick borne relapsing, Louse borne replasing fever and liver fluke; Clonorchis sinensis. An interventional study was used, for 125 staff nurse who accepted to participate. The tools dealt with four questionnaires: (1) Some sociodemographic characteristics data (2) Educational needs assessment a structured questionnaire. (3) Knowledge test (pre/post-test) and (4) Participants' reactions questionnaire. The results showed that educational intervention significantly improvements the nursing staff knowledge, which were achieved at the immediate post intervention phase, and retained via three months post-test phase. In the service training programs about infectious disease disasters at Egyptian Eastern Border must be established and continued on regular basis. This would improve their knowledge about the epidemiology of these infectious disease disasters. PMID:24961011

El-Bahnasawy, Mamdouh M; Labib, Nargis Albert; Abdel-Fattah, Magda Abdel Hameed; Ibrahim, Abeer Mohammad Abdallah; Morsy, Tosson A

2014-04-01

122

Subclinical infectious bursal disease in commercial broiler flocks in Saskatchewan.  

PubMed Central

Five commercial broiler flocks, not vaccinated for infectious bursal disease virus, derived from infectious bursal disease virus-vaccinated breeder flocks were surveyed for evidence of bursal damage and infectious bursal disease virus infection. They were compared with two groups of birds raised in isolation. Serum samples from one day old chicks contained maternal anti-infectious bursal disease virus antibodies which declined to undetectable levels by four weeks of age. Serum antibody levels remained undetectable in both control groups and one commercial flock, whereas four of the five commercial flocks had actively produced anti-infectious bursal disease virus antibodies by slaughter age. The weight of bursae from infectious bursal disease virus-positive flocks declined as compared to controls after four weeks of age. The decline in weight correlated with the appearance of histopathological lesions. Infectious bursal disease virus antigen was demonstrated in selected infected bursae and infectious bursal disease bursae and infectious bursal disease virus was isolated from some of these damaged bursae. Clinical infectious bursal disease was not observed in any of the commercial flocks. The importance of subclinical bursal damage and immunosuppression is discussed. Images Fig. 6. Fig. 7. Fig. 8. PMID:6268263

Armstrong, L D; Tabel, H; Riddell, C

1981-01-01

123

Emerging and Reemerging Infectious Diseases: Biocomplexity as an Interdisciplinary Paradigm  

Microsoft Academic Search

Understanding factors responsible for reemergence of diseases believed to have been controlled and outbreaks of previously\\u000a unknown infectious diseases is one of the most difficult scientific problems facing society today. Significant knowledge gaps\\u000a exist for even the most studied emerging infectious diseases. Coupled with failures in the response to the resurgence of infectious\\u000a diseases, this lack of information is embedded

Bruce A. Wilcox; Rita R. Colwell

2005-01-01

124

The changing pattern of infectious disease.  

PubMed Central

Several factors contribute towards a decrease in the prevalence of infectious disease in a population. These include active control measures, active immunisation, and improvement in the socioeconomic state of the population. There appears, however, to be a progressive increase in the resistance of a population in relation to the length of time the population has been exposed to an agent. This increasing resistance is currently thought to be an expression of natural selection but transmission of actively acquired immunity cannot be ruled out and in the light of current evidence remains a highly probable contributory factor. PMID:6437550

Ikwueke, K

1984-01-01

125

Entry screening for infectious diseases in humans.  

PubMed

In response to the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) pandemic of 2003 and the influenza pandemic of 2009, many countries instituted border measures as a means of stopping or slowing the spread of disease. The measures, usually consisting of a combination of border entry/exit screening, quarantine, isolation, and communications, were resource intensive, and modeling and observational studies indicate that border screening is not effective at detecting infectious persons. Moreover, border screening has high opportunity costs, financially and in terms of the use of scarce public health staff resources during a time of high need. We discuss the border-screening experiences with SARS and influenza and propose an approach to decision-making for future pandemics. We conclude that outbreak-associated communications for travelers at border entry points, together with effective communication with clinicians and more effective disease control measures in the community, may be a more effective approach to the international control of communicable diseases. PMID:25625224

Selvey, Linda A; Antăo, Catarina; Hall, Robert

2015-02-01

126

Microbiology and Epidemiology of Infectious Spinal Disease  

PubMed Central

Objective Infectious spinal disease is regarded as an infection by a specific organism that affects the vertebral body, intervertebral disc and adjacent perivertebral soft tissue. Its incidence seems to be increasing as a result of larger proportion of the older patients with chronic debilitating disease, the rise of intravenous drug abuser, and the increase in spinal procedure and surgery. In Korea, studies assessing infectious spinal disease are rare and have not been addressed in recent times. The objectives of this study are to describe the epidemiology of all kind of spinal infectious disease and their clinical and microbiological characteristics as well as to assess the diagnostic methodology and the parameters related to the outcomes. Methods A retrospective study was performed in all infectious spinal disease cases presenting from January 2005 to April 2010 to three tertiary teaching hospitals within a city of 1.5 million in Korea. Patient demographics, risk factors, clinical features, and outcomes were assessed. Risk factors entailed the presence of diabetes, chronic renal failure, liver cirrhosis, immunosuppressants, remote infection, underlying malignancy and previous spinal surgery or procedure. We comparatively analyzed the results between the groups of pyogenic and tuberculous spinal infection. SPSS version 14 statistical software was used to perform the analyses of the data. The threshold for statistical significance was established at p<0.05. Results Ninety-two cases fulfilled the inclusion criteria and were reviewed. Overall, patients of tuberculous spinal infection (TSI) and pyogenic spinal infection (PSI) entailed 20 (21.7%) and 72 (78.3%) cases, respectively. A previous spinal surgery or procedure was the most commonly noted risk factor (39.1%), followed by diabetes (15.2%). The occurrence of both pyogenic and tuberculous spondylitis was predominant in the lumbar spine. Discs are more easily invaded in PSI. At initial presentation, white cell blood count and C-reactive protein levels were higher in PSI compared to TSI (p<0.05). Etiological agents were identified in 53.3%, and the most effective method for identification of etiological agents was tissue culture (50.0%). Staphyococcus aureus was the most commonly isolated infective agent associated with pyogenic spondylitis, followed by E. coli. Surgical treatment was performed in 31.5% of pyogenic spondylitis and in 35.0% of tuberculous spondylitis cases. Conclusion Many previous studies in Korea usually reported that tuberculous spondylitis is the predominant infection. However, in our study, the number of pyogenic infection was 3 times greater than that of tuberculous spinal disease. Etiological agents were identified in a half of all infectious spinal disease. For better outcomes, we should try to identify the causative microorganism before antibiotic therapy and make every effort to improve the result of culture and biopsy. PMID:25289121

Jeong, Se-Jin; Youm, Jin-Young; Kim, Hyun-Woo; Ha, Ho-Gyun; Yi, Jin-Seok

2014-01-01

127

Hajj: infectious disease surveillance and control.  

PubMed

Religious festivals attract a large number of pilgrims from worldwide and are a potential risk for the transmission of infectious diseases between pilgrims, and to the indigenous population. The gathering of a large number of pilgrims could compromise the health system of the host country. The threat to global health security posed by infectious diseases with epidemic potential shows the importance of advanced planning of public health surveillance and response at these religious events. Saudi Arabia has extensive experience of providing health care at mass gatherings acquired through decades of managing millions of pilgrims at the Hajj. In this report, we describe the extensive public health planning, surveillance systems used to monitor public health risks, and health services provided and accessed during Hajj 2012 and Hajj 2013 that together attracted more than 5 million pilgrims from 184 countries. We also describe the recent establishment of the Global Center for Mass Gathering Medicine, a Saudi Government partnership with the WHO Collaborating Centre for Mass Gatherings Medicine, Gulf Co-operation Council states, UK universities, and public health institutions globally. PMID:24857703

Memish, Ziad A; Zumla, Alimuddin; Alhakeem, Rafat F; Assiri, Abdullah; Turkestani, Abdulhafeez; Al Harby, Khalid D; Alyemni, Mohamed; Dhafar, Khalid; Gautret, Philippe; Barbeschi, Maurizio; McCloskey, Brian; Heymann, David; Al Rabeeah, Abdullah A; Al-Tawfiq, Jaffar A

2014-06-14

128

Towards effective emerging infectious disease surveillance.  

PubMed

Editor's note In this plenary talk given at the annual meeting of the Association for Politics and the Life Sciences at Texas Tech University last October, Professor Sophal Ear, then of the U.S. Naval Postgraduate School in Monterey, discussed his research on the political economy of emerging infectious disease (EID) surveillance programs. His talk reviews lessons learned for U.S. military medical research laboratories collaborating with developing countries and is comprised of three case studies: Cambodia (U.S. Naval Area Medical Research Unit 2 or NAMRU-2), Indonesia (also NAMRU-2 in the context of H5N1 or Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza), (1) and Mexico (that country's handling of A/H1N1 or Swine Flu in 2009). (2) Professor Ear's research provides policymakers with tools for improving the effectiveness of new or existing EID surveillance programs. His work also offers host countries the opportunity to incorporate ideas, provide opinions, and debate the management of political and economic constraints facing their programs. In this analysis, constraints are found for each case study and general recommendations are given for improving global emerging infectious disease surveillance across political, economic, and cultural dimensions. PMID:25514524

Ear, Sophal

2014-01-01

129

Mathematical modeling of infectious disease dynamics  

PubMed Central

Over the last years, an intensive worldwide effort is speeding up the developments in the establishment of a global surveillance network for combating pandemics of emergent and re-emergent infectious diseases. Scientists from different fields extending from medicine and molecular biology to computer science and applied mathematics have teamed up for rapid assessment of potentially urgent situations. Toward this aim mathematical modeling plays an important role in efforts that focus on predicting, assessing, and controlling potential outbreaks. To better understand and model the contagious dynamics the impact of numerous variables ranging from the micro host–pathogen level to host-to-host interactions, as well as prevailing ecological, social, economic, and demographic factors across the globe have to be analyzed and thoroughly studied. Here, we present and discuss the main approaches that are used for the surveillance and modeling of infectious disease dynamics. We present the basic concepts underpinning their implementation and practice and for each category we give an annotated list of representative works. PMID:23552814

Siettos, Constantinos I.; Russo, Lucia

2013-01-01

130

[Associated vaccination of poultry against infectious bronchitis, Newcastle disease and infectious bursitis].  

PubMed

The effectiveness of immunity was studied following a mixed vaccination with live vaccines against infectious bronchitis (strains H120 and H52), Newcastle disease (strain La Sota), and infectious bursitis (strain Th75Vn82). The three vaccines were applied simultaneously via the drinking water, through the spray method, and nasally. Experiments were carried out with a total of 31,466 birds: broilers, growing layers, broiler parents--all without preliminary treatment with biopreparations. Immunity against Newcastle disease was followed up through the hemagglutination-inhibition test and challenging with a virulent virus; against infectious bursitis--through immunodiffusion in agar gel after Ouchterlony; and against infectious bronchitis--through virus-neutralization with strain Beaudette. The birds were treated with mixed vaccines in the following combinations: infectious bronchitis--Newcastle disease; infectious bursitis--Gumboro; infectious bronchitis, Newcastle disease, Gumboro. The simultaneous application of live vaccines against infectious bronchitis, Newcastle disease, and infectious bursitis was shown to be well tolerated with no harmful aftereffects whatever. The immunity built up with the simultaneous use of the three vaccines was not inferior in effectiveness to that conferred with the use of two vaccines or only one of them. PMID:3002010

Cholakova, R

1985-01-01

131

All Hands on Deck: Transdisciplinary Approaches to Emerging Infectious Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

The increasing burden of emerging infectious diseases worldwide confronts us with numerous challenges, including the imperative\\u000a to design research and responses that are commensurate to understanding the complex social and ecological contexts in which\\u000a infectious diseases occur. A diverse group of scientists met in Hawaii in March 2005 to discuss the linked social and ecological\\u000a contexts in which infectious diseases

Margot W. Parkes; Leslie Bienen; Jaime Breilh; Lee-Nah Hsu; Marian McDonald; Jonathan A. Patz; Joshua P. Rosenthal; Mazrura Sahani; Adrian Sleigh; David Waltner-Toews; Annalee Yassi

2005-01-01

132

"Med-X": a medical examiner surveillance model for bioterrorism and infectious disease mortality.  

PubMed

We created a model surveillance system (Med-X) designed to enable medical examiners and coroners to recognize fatal infections of public health importance and deaths due to bioterrorism. All individuals who died in New Mexico and fell under medical examiner jurisdiction between November 23, 2000, and November 22, 2002, were prospectively evaluated using sets of surveillance symptoms and autopsy-based pathologic syndromes. All infectious disease deaths were evaluated to identify the specific causative agent. Of 6104 jurisdictional cases, 250 (4.1%) met Med-X criteria, of which 141 (56.4%) had a target pathologic syndrome. Ultimately, 127 (51%) of the 250 cases were due to infections. The causative organism was identified for 103 (81%) of the infectious disease deaths, of which 60 (58.3%) were notifiable conditions in New Mexico. Flu-like symptoms, fever and respiratory symptoms, and encephalopathy or new-onset seizures had predictive values positive for fatal infections of 65%, 72%, and 50%, respectively, and are useful as autopsy performance criteria. Before the development of surveillance criteria, 37 (14.8%) of the cases ordinarily would not have been autopsied resulting in a 1% increase in autopsy workload. Med-X is an effective method of detecting infectious disease deaths among medical examiner cases. Uniform criteria for performing medical examiner autopsies and reporting cases to public health authorities enhance surveillance for notifiable infectious diseases and increase the likelihood of recognizing deaths related to bioterrorism. PMID:17437862

Nolte, Kurt B; Lathrop, Sarah L; Nashelsky, Marcus B; Nine, Jeffrey S; Gallaher, Margaret M; Umland, Edith T; McLemore, Jerri L; Reichard, R Ross; Irvine, Rebecca A; McFeeley, Patricia J; Zumwalt, Ross E

2007-05-01

133

Perspectives and research challenges in veterinary infectious diseases  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The Veterinary Infectious Disease specialty section seeks to become an outlet for veterinary research into infectious diseases through the study of the pathogen or its host or the host's environment or by addressing combinations of these aspects of the disease system. We vision research in this are...

134

Introduction The management of infectious diseases is complex,  

E-print Network

Review Introduction The management of infectious diseases is complex, especially in an intensive care unit (ICU) setting, because many patients have concomitant diseases. In daily practice review the development of such models applied to infectious disease management. We use the diagnosis

Lucas, Peter

135

Infectious Diseases and Immunity Ph.D. Program UC Berkeley  

E-print Network

courses from Infectious Diseases, Molecular Biology, Immunology, Epidemiology & Biostatistics, Research Seminars, and Ethics in Research & Practice. Financial Support The Division offers full funding to admitted

Sjölander, Kimmen

136

Newborn Screening for Congenital Infectious Diseases  

PubMed Central

To estimate the prevalence of congenital toxoplasmosis, Chagas disease, cytomegalovirus, and rubella, blood samples on dried blood spot (DBS) from neonates (day 3–20 of life) were screened for immunoglobulin (Ig) M against Toxoplasma gondii, cytomegalovirus, rubella virus, and IgG against Trypanosoma cruzi by methods used for serum and adapted for use with DBS. Positive samples were further analyzed for IgM and IgG in serum from neonates and mothers. DBS samples from 364,130 neonates were tested for Toxoplasma gondii–specific IgM, and 15,873 neonates were also tested for IgM against cytomegalovirus and rubella virus and for Trypanosoma cruzi–specific IgG. A total of 195 were diagnosed with congenital toxoplasmosis, 16 with cytomegalovirus, and 11 with congenital rubella. One newborn had a confirmed result for Chagas disease, and 21 mothers had positive serum antibodies. These results suggest that infectious diseases should be considered for future inclusion in programs for newborn screening of metabolic diseases in disease-endemic areas. PMID:15207059

Rubin, Rosélia; Schulte, Jaqueline; Giugliani, Roberto

2004-01-01

137

Human louse-transmitted infectious diseases.  

PubMed

Several of the infectious diseases associated with human lice are life-threatening, including epidemic typhus, relapsing fever, and trench fever, which are caused by Rickettsia prowazekii, Borrelia recurrentis, and Bartonella quintana, respectively. Although these diseases have been known for several centuries, they remain a major public health concern in populations living in poor-hygiene conditions because of war, social disruption, severe poverty, or gaps in public health management. Poor-hygiene conditions favour a higher prevalence of body lice, which are the main vectors for these diseases. Trench fever has been reported in both developing and developed countries in populations living in poor conditions, such as homeless individuals. In contrast, outbreaks of epidemic typhus and epidemic relapsing fever have occurred in jails and refugee camps in developing countries. However, reports of a significantly high seroprevalence for epidemic typhus and epidemic relapsing fever in the homeless populations of developed countries suggest that these populations remain at high risk for outbreaks of these diseases. Additionally, experimental laboratory studies have demonstrated that the body louse can transmit other emerging or re-emerging pathogens, such as Acinetobacter baumannii and Yersinia pestis. Therefore, a strict survey of louse-borne diseases and the implementation of efficient delousing strategies in these populations should be public health priorities. PMID:22360386

Badiaga, S; Brouqui, P

2012-04-01

138

How We Defend Ourselves Against Infectious Diseases  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

I have spent years investigating how we have survived as a species in spite of the fact that we are prey to a terrifying assortment of bacterial, viral, fungal and animal pathogens. This struggle between us and our pathogens is conducted in subtle and complex ways, and a similar struggle is also going on between millions of other host animals and plants and their respective pathogens throughout the living world. To understand these processes, it is necessary to look at the selective forces acting on our own species and also to ask more sweeping questions: what is the true evolutionary role of disease in the natural world? Are diseases, in spite of the suffering and misery they cause, entirely a negative influence? Our principal defense against infectious diseases is the immune system. This system, next to our brains, is the most complex product of evolution that we know. It protects us against wide variety of pathogens. A prescient cartoon from the 1820s- drawn decades before Pasteur developed his germ theory of disease and well before John Snow stopped an outbreak of typhoid fever in London by removing the handle of the public water pump in Broad Street depicts creatures that supposedly inhabited the filthy waters of the River Thames. Although a fantasy, the cartoon vividly anticipates those subsequent scientific discoveries as well as the simple fact that many varied, living pathogenic organisms cause diseases.

Wills, Christopher

2000-01-01

139

Computational Modeling in Support of Global Eradication of Infectious Diseases  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The past century has seen tremendous advances in global health, with broad reductions in the worldwide burden of infectious disease. Science has fundamentally advanced our understanding of disease etiology and medicine has provided remarkable capabilities to diagnose many syndromes and to target the causative pathogen. The advent and proliferation of antibiotics has dramatically lowered the impact of infections that were once near certain death sentences. Vaccination has provided a route to protect each new birth cohort from pathogens which once killed a substantial fraction of each generation, and in some countries, vaccination coverage has been raised to sufficiently high levels to fully interrupt transmission of major pathogens. There were 7 million deaths among children under 5 years of age in 2010, substantially down from decades past, and even more so in terms of deaths per capita per year of populations at risk. However, the annual rate globally is 1,070 per 100,000, while in developed countries the rate is only 137 per 100,000 (IHME GBD, 2010). Therefore, bringing global rates down to rates already achieved in developed countries represents the huge gains currently available via means such as vaccination and access to modern health care...

Eckhoff, Philip A.; Gates, William H., III; Myhrvold, Nathan P.; Wood, Lowell

2014-07-01

140

Infectious Disease Proteome Biomarkers: Final Technical Report  

SciTech Connect

Research for the DOE Infectious Disease Proteome Biomarkers focused on Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) and Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus (VEEV). RVFV and VEEV are Category A and B pathogens respectively. Among the priority threats, RVFV and VEEV rank high in their potential for being weaponized and introduced to the United States, spreading quickly, and having a large health and economic impact. In addition, they both have live attenuated vaccine, which allows work to be performed at BSL-2. While the molecular biology of RVFV and VEEV are increasingly well-characterized, little is known about its host-pathogen interactions. Our research is aimed at determining critical alterations in host signaling pathways to identify therapeutics targeted against the host.

Bailey, Charles L.

2011-12-31

141

The Effect of Global Warming on Infectious Diseases  

PubMed Central

Global warming has various effects on human health. The main indirect effects are on infectious diseases. Although the effects on infectious diseases will be detected worldwide, the degree and types of the effect are different, depending on the location of the respective countries and socioeconomical situations. Among infectious diseases, water- and foodborne infectious diseases and vector-borne infectious diseases are two main categories that are forecasted to be most affected. The effect on vector-borne infectious diseases such as malaria and dengue fever is mainly because of the expansion of the infested areas of vector mosquitoes and increase in the number and feeding activity of infected mosquitoes. There will be increase in the number of cases with water- and foodborne diarrhoeal diseases. Even with the strongest mitigation procedures, global warming cannot be avoided for decades. Therefore, implementation of adaptation measures to the effect of global warming is the most practical action we can take. It is generally accepted that the impacts of global warming on infectious diseases have not been apparent at this point yet in East Asia. However, these impacts will appear in one form or another if global warming continues to progress in future. Further research on the impacts of global warming on infectious diseases and on future prospects should be conducted. PMID:24159433

Kurane, Ichiro

2010-01-01

142

Noninvasive biophotonic imaging for studies of infectious disease  

PubMed Central

According to World Health Organization estimates, infectious organisms are responsible for approximately one in four deaths worldwide. Animal models play an essential role in the development of vaccines and therapeutic agents but large numbers of animals are required to obtain quantitative microbiological data by tissue sampling. Biophotonic imaging (BPI) is a highly sensitive, nontoxic technique based on the detection of visible light, produced by luciferase-catalysed reactions (bioluminescence) or by excitation of fluorescent molecules, using sensitive photon detectors. The development of bioluminescent/fluorescent microorganisms therefore allows the real-time noninvasive detection of microorganisms within intact living animals. Multiple imaging of the same animal throughout an experiment allows disease progression to be followed with extreme accuracy, reducing the number of animals required to yield statistically meaningful data. In the study of infectious disease, the use of BPI is becoming widespread due to the novel insights it can provide into established models, as well as the impact of the technique on two of the guiding principles of using animals in research, namely reduction and refinement. Here, we review the technology of BPI, from the instrumentation through to the generation of a photonic signal, and illustrate how the technique is shedding light on infection dynamics in vivo. PMID:20955395

Andreu, Nuria; Zelmer, Andrea; Wiles, Siouxsie

2011-01-01

143

Proactive strategies to avoid infectious disease  

PubMed Central

Infectious disease exerts a large selective pressure on all organisms. One response to this has been for animals to evolve energetically costly immune systems to counter infection, while another—the focus of this theme issue—has been the evolution of proactive strategies primarily to avoid infection. These strategies can be grouped into three types, all of which demonstrate varying levels of interaction with the immune system. The first concerns maternal strategies that function to promote the immunocompetence of their offspring. The second type of strategy influences mate selection, guiding the selection of a healthy mate and one who differs maximally from the self in their complement of antigen-coding genes. The third strategy involves two classes of behaviour. One relates to the capacity of the organisms to learn associations between cues indicative of pathogen threat and immune responses. The other relates to prevention and even treatment of infection through behaviours such as avoidance, grooming, quarantine, medicine and care of the sick. In humans, disease avoidance is based upon cognition and especially the emotion of disgust. Human disease avoidance is not without its costs. There is a propensity to reject healthy individuals who just appear sick—stigmatization—and the system may malfunction, resulting in various forms of psychopathology. Pathogen threat also appears to have been a highly significant and unrecognized force in shaping human culture so as to minimize infection threats. This cultural shaping process—moralization—can be co-opted to promote human health. PMID:22042913

Stevenson, Richard J.; Case, Trevor I.; Oaten, Megan J.

2011-01-01

144

Factors in the emergence of infectious diseases.  

PubMed Central

"Emerging" infectious diseases can be defined as infections that have newly appeared in a population or have existed but are rapidly increasing in incidence or geographic range. Among recent examples are HIV/AIDS, hantavirus pulmonary syndrome, Lyme disease, and hemolytic uremic syndrome (a foodborne infection caused by certain strains of Escherichia coli). Specific factors precipitating disease emergence can be identified in virtually all cases. These include ecological, environmental, or demographic factors that place people at increased contact with a previously unfamiliar microbe or its natural host or promote dissemination. These factors are increasing in prevalence; this increase, together with the ongoing evolution of viral and microbial variants and selection for drug resistance, suggests that infections will continue to emerge and probably increase and emphasizes the urgent need for effective surveillance and control. Dr. David Satcher's article and this overview inaugurate Perspectives, a regular section in this journal intended to present and develop unifying concepts and strategies for considering emerging infections and their underlying factors. The editors welcome, as contributions to the Perspectives section, overviews, syntheses, and case studies that shed light on how and why infections emerge, and how they may be anticipated and prevented. PMID:8903148

Morse, S. S.

1995-01-01

145

Leptospirosis in an urban setting: case report and review of an emerging infectious disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Leptospiosis is a common zoonosis affecting most mammals. Leptospirosis has protean manifestations ranging from a flu-like illness to fulminant hepatic and renal failure culminating in death. Although the diagnosis is often not considered upon presentation, the literature suggests that leptospirosis is a reemerging infectious disease in urban centers throughout the industrialized world. It will be incumbent upon Emergency Physicians to

William D. Binder; Leonard A. Mermel

1998-01-01

146

Infectious Diseases Treated in Emergency Departments: United States, 2001  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emergency departments (EDs) are an important source of medical care in the United States. Information is limited concerning epidemiologic patterns of ED visits for infectious diseases. Data for 2001 from the National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey (NHAMCS) were analyzed for infectious disease visits. The NHAMCS is a national probability sample survey of visits to hospital EDs and outpatient departments

Nelson Adekoya

2005-01-01

147

Department of Immunology and Infectious Diseases Baseline Statistics  

E-print Network

Department of Immunology and Infectious Diseases Baseline Statistics October 29, 2013 Number Comparisons for the Discipline of Immunology & Infectious Disease Montana State University National Tenure and subfield. Arlington, VA (NSF 13-301). December 2012. (Immunology subfield) 89.9% 80.6% 82.1% 0.0% 10.0% 20

Maxwell, Bruce D.

148

Information Supply Chain System for Managing Rare Infectious Diseases  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Timely identification and reporting of rare infectious diseases has important economic, social and health implications. In this study, we investigate how different stakeholders in the existing reporting system influence the timeliness in identification and reporting of rare infectious diseases. Building on the vision of the information supply…

Gopalakrishna-Remani, Venugopal

2012-01-01

149

Communicating about emerging infectious disease: The importance of research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emerging infectious diseases have taken on renewed significance in the public health sector since the 1990s. Worldwide, governments are preparing emergency plans to guide them; their plans acknowledge that communication will be vital in the event of an outbreak. However, much of the emerging infectious disease communication literature deals with one-way transmission of facts to the public by experts. Little

Bev J. Holmes

2008-01-01

150

Selected Infectious Diseases of Wild Reptiles and Amphibians  

Microsoft Academic Search

Infectious diseases have caused a decline in captive and wild populations of reptiles and amphibians. Contributing factors for the decline of wild populations, and their increased susceptibility to infectious diseases, include environmental pressures, such as loss or decline of habitat, exposure to pollutants, and translocation into new habitats. Reptiles and amphibians are often exposed to new pathogens after collection from

Juergen Schumacher

2006-01-01

151

Infectious Diseases and Malnutrition Status in Nepal: an Overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper sheds light on infectious diseases and the status of malnutrition in Nepal, a Himalayan country located in South Asia. In spite of efforts by both Government and non-government sectors, infectious diseases are rampant in the countries constituting a major cause of morbidity and mortality, which in turn, impose a socio-economic and public health burden for the country. Intestinal

Shiba Kumar Rai; Kazuko Hirai; Ayako Abe; Yoshimi Ohno

2002-01-01

152

Infectious disease, development, and climate change: a scenario analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study the effects of development and climate change on infectious diseases in Sub-Saharan Africa. Infant mortality and infectious disease are closely related, but there are better data for the former. In an international cross-section, per capita income, literacy, and absolute poverty significantly affect infant mortality. We use scenarios of these three determinants and of climate change to project the

RICHARD S.J. TOL; KRISTIE L. EBI; GARY W. YOHE

2007-01-01

153

Now Trending: Mining Historical Data on Infectious Diseases  

MedlinePLUS

... resurged. New ones have also emerged. The distribution graphs (bottom) focus on eight vaccine-preventable diseases: smallpox, ... of many that will use the publicly available database to broadly look at infectious disease trends and ...

154

Modeling social response to the spread of an infectious disease  

E-print Network

With the globalization of culture and economic trade, it is increasingly important not only to detect outbreaks of infectious disease early, but also to anticipate the social response to the disease. In this thesis, we use ...

Evans, Jane A. (Jane Amanda)

2012-01-01

155

Infectious disease risk in asbestos abatement workers  

PubMed Central

Background The current literature reports increased infectious disease occurrence in various construction occupations, as an important contributor to morbidity and mortality arising from employment. These observations should be expanded to asbestos abatement workers, as the abatement can create an environment favorable for bacterial, viral and fungal infections. Discussion Asbestos abatement work employs activities resulting in cuts, blisters and abrasions to the skin, work in a dirty environment and exposure to dust, mists and fumes. Furthermore, this population exhibits a high smoking rate which increases the risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and respiratory infections. In addition, these workers also commonly employ respirators, which can accumulate dirt and debris magnifying exposure to microbes. Use of respirators and related types of personal protective equipment, especially if shared and in the close environment experienced by workers, may enhance communicability of these agents, including viruses. Summary Abatement workers need to be provided with information on hazards and targeted by appropriate health education to reduce the infection risk. Epidemiological studies to investigate this risk in asbestos removers are recommended. PMID:22897975

2012-01-01

156

A Systematic Review of Methodology: Time Series Regression Analysis for Environmental Factors and Infectious Diseases  

PubMed Central

Background: Time series analysis is suitable for investigations of relatively direct and short-term effects of exposures on outcomes. In environmental epidemiology studies, this method has been one of the standard approaches to assess impacts of environmental factors on acute non-infectious diseases (e.g. cardiovascular deaths), with conventionally generalized linear or additive models (GLM and GAM). However, the same analysis practices are often observed with infectious diseases despite of the substantial differences from non-infectious diseases that may result in analytical challenges. Methods: Following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines, systematic review was conducted to elucidate important issues in assessing the associations between environmental factors and infectious diseases using time series analysis with GLM and GAM. Published studies on the associations between weather factors and malaria, cholera, dengue, and influenza were targeted. Findings: Our review raised issues regarding the estimation of susceptible population and exposure lag times, the adequacy of seasonal adjustments, the presence of strong autocorrelations, and the lack of a smaller observation time unit of outcomes (i.e. daily data). These concerns may be attributable to features specific to infectious diseases, such as transmission among individuals and complicated causal mechanisms. Conclusion: The consequence of not taking adequate measures to address these issues is distortion of the appropriate risk quantifications of exposures factors. Future studies should pay careful attention to details and examine alternative models or methods that improve studies using time series regression analysis for environmental determinants of infectious diseases.

Imai, Chisato; Hashizume, Masahiro

2015-01-01

157

Immunology and Infectious Disease: recommended sequence of required courses www.immunology.psu.edu Immunology and Infectious Disease  

E-print Network

Immunology and Infectious Disease: recommended sequence of required courses www.immunology.psu.edu Immunology and Infectious Disease Dr. James Endres Howell (814) 867­0194 immunology@psu.edu Year 1 VB SC 050S Microbiology Laboratory MICRB 410(3) Principles of Immunology* B M B 402(3) General Biochemistry Choose

Omiecinski, Curtis

158

INFECTIOUS DISEASE OUTBREAKS Avian Flu, measles, Mumps, SARs, and other infectious diseases can pose a threat to the  

E-print Network

INFECTIOUS DISEASE OUTBREAKS Avian Flu, measles, Mumps, SARs, and other infectious diseases can Avian Flu: · There have been no reported cases of Avian Flu in humans in the United States. · A very few suspected cases of human-to-human transmission of Avian Flu have been reported globally, but these cases

Meyers, Steven D.

159

Aerobiology and Its Role in the Transmission of Infectious Diseases  

PubMed Central

Aerobiology plays a fundamental role in the transmission of infectious diseases. As infectious disease and infection control practitioners continue employing contemporary techniques (e.g., computational fluid dynamics to study particle flow, polymerase chain reaction methodologies to quantify particle concentrations in various settings, and epidemiology to track the spread of disease), the central variables affecting the airborne transmission of pathogens are becoming better known. This paper reviews many of these aerobiological variables (e.g., particle size, particle type, the duration that particles can remain airborne, the distance that particles can travel, and meteorological and environmental factors), as well as the common origins of these infectious particles. We then review several real-world settings with known difficulties controlling the airborne transmission of infectious particles (e.g., office buildings, healthcare facilities, and commercial airplanes), while detailing the respective measures each of these industries is undertaking in its effort to ameliorate the transmission of airborne infectious diseases. PMID:23365758

Fernstrom, Aaron; Goldblatt, Michael

2013-01-01

160

[Teaching of infectious diseases in medical degree studies].  

PubMed

The teaching of the infectious diseases in the Bachelor of Medicine degree consists of activities aimed at providing the student with levels of competence in this area (knowledge, abilities, attitudes) appropriate for a general physician, and to give them a solid base to achieve the skills and abilities for becoming a specialist in this area. Currently, the location, the amount and quality of infectious diseases studies in the Bachelor of Medicine degree are very disparate between the different Spanish Medical Schools. The incorporation into the European Higher Education Area, with the necessary adaptation of curricula, will enable the contents and the teaching objectives in this field to be better defined. The latest document from the Medical Schools Deans Conference clearly identifies the studies of the infectious diseases into the Medical Diseases module and in the area of human clinical training. In our opinion, infectious diseases must be considered as a major subject, preferably in the second semester of the fifth year, and having a minimum of 6 and a maximum of 9 ECTS, theoretical and practical, distributed equally among attendance, part-attendance and self-teaching credits. Infectious diseases pathology must be horizontally integrated with most of the other subjects in the clinical module and vertically integrated with the subject of microbiology. The coordination and most of the teaching of the credits in the infectious diseases subject must be done by specialists with clinical activity in infectious diseases. PMID:19195466

Gudiol Munté, Francesc; Hernández Quero, José; Moreno Guillén, Santiago; Pahissa Berga, Albert; de la Torre Cisneros, Julián

2008-12-01

161

A Method for Screening Climate Change-Sensitive Infectious Diseases  

PubMed Central

Climate change is a significant and emerging threat to human health, especially where infectious diseases are involved. Because of the complex interactions between climate variables and infectious disease components (i.e., pathogen, host and transmission environment), systematically and quantitatively screening for infectious diseases that are sensitive to climate change is still a challenge. To address this challenge, we propose a new statistical indicator, Relative Sensitivity, to identify the difference between the sensitivity of the infectious disease to climate variables for two different climate statuses (i.e., historical climate and present climate) in non-exposure and exposure groups. The case study in Anhui Province, China has demonstrated the effectiveness of this Relative Sensitivity indicator. The application results indicate significant sensitivity of many epidemic infectious diseases to climate change in the form of changing climatic variables, such as temperature, precipitation and absolute humidity. As novel evidence, this research shows that absolute humidity has a critical influence on many observed infectious diseases in Anhui Province, including dysentery, hand, foot and mouth disease, hepatitis A, hemorrhagic fever, typhoid fever, malaria, meningitis, influenza and schistosomiasis. Moreover, some infectious diseases are more sensitive to climate change in rural areas than in urban areas. This insight provides guidance for future health inputs that consider spatial variability in response to climate change. PMID:25594780

Wang, Yunjing; Rao, Yuhan; Wu, Xiaoxu; Zhao, Hainan; Chen, Jin

2015-01-01

162

A method for screening climate change-sensitive infectious diseases.  

PubMed

Climate change is a significant and emerging threat to human health, especially where infectious diseases are involved. Because of the complex interactions between climate variables and infectious disease components (i.e., pathogen, host and transmission environment), systematically and quantitatively screening for infectious diseases that are sensitive to climate change is still a challenge. To address this challenge, we propose a new statistical indicator, Relative Sensitivity, to identify the difference between the sensitivity of the infectious disease to climate variables for two different climate statuses (i.e., historical climate and present climate) in non-exposure and exposure groups. The case study in Anhui Province, China has demonstrated the effectiveness of this Relative Sensitivity indicator. The application results indicate significant sensitivity of many epidemic infectious diseases to climate change in the form of changing climatic variables, such as temperature, precipitation and absolute humidity. As novel evidence, this research shows that absolute humidity has a critical influence on many observed infectious diseases in Anhui Province, including dysentery, hand, foot and mouth disease, hepatitis A, hemorrhagic fever, typhoid fever, malaria, meningitis, influenza and schistosomiasis. Moreover, some infectious diseases are more sensitive to climate change in rural areas than in urban areas. This insight provides guidance for future health inputs that consider spatial variability in response to climate change. PMID:25594780

Wang, Yunjing; Rao, Yuhan; Wu, Xiaoxu; Zhao, Hainan; Chen, Jin

2015-01-01

163

78 FR 71628 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings  

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77 FR 11140 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings  

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...Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings...National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel; Host...Targeted Interventions As Therapeutics For Infectious Diseases. Date: March 13,...

2012-02-24

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77 FR 48165 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings...National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel; NIAID...National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel;...

2012-08-13

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76 FR 58522 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

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2011-09-21

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75 FR 53321 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings...National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel, Partnerships...National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel,...

2010-08-31

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76 FR 12745 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

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2011-03-08

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77 FR 50139 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings...National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel; NIAID...National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel;...

2012-08-20

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76 FR 58024 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings...National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel; Chemical...National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel;...

2011-09-19

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75 FR 54895 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel, Partnerships...Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel, NHP...Marriott Atlanta Downtown, 160 Spring Street, NW., Atlanta, GA...Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research, National...

2010-09-09

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77 FR 1939 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel...Infants Against Infectious Diseases (R01) Date: February...Washington DC-Silver Spring, Silver Spring, MD 20910. Contact...Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...

2012-01-12

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76 FR 53688 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

2011-08-29

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78 FR 29373 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

2013-05-20

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75 FR 30046 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

2010-05-28

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75 FR 16816 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

2010-04-02

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77 FR 16845 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

2012-03-22

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77 FR 13133 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

2012-03-05

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76 FR 45586 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...conducted by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, including consideration...Intramural Research, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, NIH,...

2011-07-29

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77 FR 297 - National Institute of Allergy And Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy And Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

2012-01-04

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76 FR 51996 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

2011-08-19

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75 FR 59276 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

2010-09-27

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77 FR 52338 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

2012-08-29

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77 FR 14028 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

2012-03-08

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77 FR 68136 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

2012-11-15

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75 FR 54891 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

2010-09-09

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77 FR 72364 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

2012-12-05

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76 FR 67749 - National Institute of Allergy And Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy And Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

2011-11-02

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76 FR 8753 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...nih.gov. Name: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

2011-02-15

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76 FR 17928 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

2011-03-31

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78 FR 52778 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

2013-08-26

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77 FR 4051 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

2012-01-26

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76 FR 79199 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

2011-12-21

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75 FR 28029 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...personal privacy. Name of Committee: Microbiology, Infectious Diseases and AIDS Initial Review Group; Microbiology and Infectious Diseases B Subcommittee...Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases...

2010-05-19

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76 FR 2128 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...personal privacy. Name of Committee: Microbiology, Infectious Diseases and AIDS Initial Review Group. Microbiology and Infectious Diseases B Subcommittee...Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases...

2011-01-12

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78 FR 6126 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...personal privacy. Name of Committee: Microbiology, Infectious Diseases and AIDS Initial Review Group, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases B Subcommittee...Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases...

2013-01-29

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78 FR 27976 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...nih.gov. Name of Committee: Microbiology, Infectious Diseases and AIDS Initial Review Group; Microbiology and Infectious Diseases B Subcommittee...Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases...

2013-05-13

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77 FR 56660 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...personal privacy. Name of Committee: Microbiology, Infectious Diseases and AIDS Initial Review Group; Microbiology and Infectious Diseases B Subcommittee...nih.gov. Name of Committee: Microbiology, Infectious Diseases and AIDS...

2012-09-13

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76 FR 28997 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...personal privacy. Name of Committee: Microbiology, Infectious Diseases and AIDS Initial Review Group,Microbiology and Infectious Diseases B Subcommittee...Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases...

2011-05-19

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75 FR 3472 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...personal privacy. Name of Committee: Microbiology, Infectious Diseases and AIDS Initial Review Group; Microbiology and Infectious Diseases B Subcommittee...Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases...

2010-01-21

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76 FR 28443 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...nih.gov. Name of Committee: Microbiology, Infectious Diseases and AIDS Initial Review Group, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research...Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases...

2011-05-17

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77 FR 28398 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Notice of Closed Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...personal privacy. Name of Committee: Microbiology, Infectious Diseases and AIDS Initial Review Group, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases B Subcommittee...Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases...

2012-05-14

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78 FR 28858 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...nih.gov. Name of Committee: Microbiology, Infectious Diseases and AIDS Initial Review Group; Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research...Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases...

2013-05-16

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78 FR 58322 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: Microbiology, Infectious Diseases and AIDS Initial Review Group, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases B Subcommittee, Microbiology & Infectious Diseases B Subcommittee (MID-B)...

2013-09-23

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77 FR 298 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...nih.gov. Name of Committee: Microbiology, Infectious Diseases and AIDS Initial Review Group; Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research...Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases...

2012-01-04

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77 FR 2736 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...personal privacy. Name of Committee: Microbiology, Infectious Diseases and AIDS Initial Review Group; Microbiology and Infectious Diseases B Subcommittee...Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases...

2012-01-19

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78 FR 75928 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel; Partnerships...of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel; Tuberculosis Research Units (U19). Date...of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel;...

2013-12-13

223

Risk assessment for airborne infectious diseases in aircraft cabins Jitendra K. Guptaa  

E-print Network

Risk assessment for airborne infectious diseases in aircraft cabins Jitendra K. Guptaa Ph.D., Chao different risks of infection from airborne infectious diseases such as influenza, severe acute respiratory words: Infectious disease transmission, airliner cabin, influenza, deterministic approach, probabilistic

Chen, Qingyan "Yan"

224

77 FR 53206 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings...of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel; Partnerships for Biodefense-- Bacterial Therapeutics (1). Date...of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel;...

2012-08-31

225

77 FR 59940 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings...of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasisn Panel; Partnerships for Biodefense-- Bacterial Therapeutics (2). Date...of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel;...

2012-10-01

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75 FR 62553 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting...of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel; Partnership...Classes for Select Viral and Bacterial Pathogens. Date: October...Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research, National...

2010-10-12

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76 FR 1443 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting...Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel, Immune Responses to Bacterial Antigens. Date: January...Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research, National...

2011-01-10

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75 FR 62546 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting...of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel, Partnership...Classes for select Viral and Bacterial Pathogens. Date: October...Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research, National...

2010-10-12

229

Imaging combined autoimmune and infectious disease microarrays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bacterial and viral pathogens are implicated in many severe autoimmune diseases, acting through such mechanisms as molecular mimicry, and superantigen activation of T-cells. For example, Helicobacter pylori, well known cause of stomach ulcers and cancers, is also identified in ischaemic heart disease (mimicry of heat shock protein 65), autoimmune pancreatitis, systemic sclerosis, autoimmune thyroiditis (HLA DRB1*0301 allele susceptibility), and Crohn's disease. Successful antibiotic eradication of H.pylori often accompanies their remission. Yet current diagnostic devices, and test-limiting cost containment, impede recognition of the linkage, delaying both diagnosis and therapeutic intervention until the chronic debilitating stage. We designed a 15 minute low cost 39 antigen microarray assay, combining autoimmune, viral and bacterial antigens1. This enables point-of-care serodiagnosis and cost-effective narrowly targeted concurrent antibiotic and monoclonal anti-T-cell and anti-cytokine immunotherapy. Arrays of 26 pathogen and 13 autoimmune antigens with IgG and IgM dilution series were printed in triplicate on epoxysilane covalent binding slides with Teflon well masks. Sera diluted 1:20 were incubated 10 minutes, washed off, anti-IgG-Cy3 (green) and anti-IgM-Dy647 (red) were incubated for 5 minutes, washed off and the slide was read in an ArrayWoRx(e) scanning CCD imager (Applied Precision, Issaquah, WA). As a preliminary model for the combined infectious disease-autoimmune diagnostic microarray we surveyed 98 unidentified, outdated sera that were discarded after Hepatitis B antibody testing. In these, significant IgG or IgM autoantibody levels were found: dsDNA 5, ssDNA 11, Ro 2, RNP 7, SSB 4, gliadin 2, thyroglobulin 13 cases. Since control sera showed no autoantibodies, the high frequency of anti-DNA and anti-thyroglobulin antibodies found in infected sera lend increased support for linkage of infection to subsequent autoimmune disease. Expansion of the antigen set with synthetic peptide sequences should reveal the shared bacterial/human epitopes involved.

Ewart, Tom; Raha, Sandeep; Kus, Dorothy; Tarnopolsky, Mark

2006-09-01

230

Type I interferons in infectious disease.  

PubMed

Type I interferons (IFNs) have diverse effects on innate and adaptive immune cells during infection with viruses, bacteria, parasites and fungi, directly and/or indirectly through the induction of other mediators. Type I IFNs are important for host defence against viruses. However, recently, they have been shown to cause immunopathology in some acute viral infections, such as influenza virus infection. Conversely, they can lead to immunosuppression during chronic viral infections, such as lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus infection. During bacterial infections, low levels of type I IFNs may be required at an early stage, to initiate cell-mediated immune responses. High concentrations of type I IFNs may block B cell responses or lead to the production of immunosuppressive molecules, and such concentrations also reduce the responsiveness of macrophages to activation by IFN?, as has been shown for infections with Listeria monocytogenes and Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Recent studies in experimental models of tuberculosis have demonstrated that prostaglandin E2 and interleukin-1 inhibit type I IFN expression and its downstream effects, demonstrating that a cross-regulatory network of cytokines operates during infectious diseases to provide protection with minimum damage to the host. PMID:25614319

McNab, Finlay; Mayer-Barber, Katrin; Sher, Alan; Wack, Andreas; O'Garra, Anne

2015-01-23

231

Emerging and Reemerging Infectious Diseases: A Global Problem  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The issue-focused interview reflects on how infectious diseases, such as SARS and AIDS, are a more serious global problem than in the past because: urban populations are growing, thereby increasing opportunities for person-to-person transmittal of these diseases, people are more prone to be in contact with animals that may pass on zoonotic diseases, and public health services may not be equipped to deal with some infectious outbreaks.

Stephen Morse (Mailman School of Public Health of Columbia University; )

2004-05-01

232

From Pasteur to genomics: progress and challenges in infectious diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the past decade, microbiology and infectious disease research have undergone the most profound revolution since the times of Pasteur. Genomic sequencing has revealed the much-awaited blueprint of most pathogens. Screening blood for the nucleic acids of infectious agents has blunted the spread of pathogens by transfusion, the field of antiviral therapeutics has exploded and technologies for the development of

Rino Rappuoli

2004-01-01

233

Rapid response research to emerging infectious diseases: lessons from SARS  

Microsoft Academic Search

New and emerging infectious diseases continue to plague the world, and there is significant concern that recombinant infectious agents can be used as bioterrorism threats. Microbiologists are increasingly being asked to apply their scientific knowledge to respond to these threats. The recent pandemic caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) coronavirus illustrated not only how a newly evolved pathogen

Raymond H. See; Robert C. Brunham; B. Brett Finlay

2004-01-01

234

International Conference on Emerging Infectious Diseases: Select Presentations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The National Center for Infectious Diseases has made available the audio (and in some cases, video) portion of more than 20 online presentations of selected sessions from the International Conference on Emerging Infectious Diseases, held July 16-19, 2000 in Atlanta, Georgia. Presentations are organized in chronological order of the conference but may also be searched by presenter. Some presentations may be downloaded in Microsoft PowerPoint. For researchers interested in the field of Emerging Infectious Diseases, this resource represents an exceptionally helpful application of Internet technology.

235

76 FR 52670 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Notice of Closed Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel; Targeting...applications. Place: Hilton Silver Spring, 8727 Colesville Road, Chesapeake...856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research, National Institutes...

2011-08-23

236

Nanocarriers in therapy of infectious and inflammatory diseases  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nanotechnology is a growing science that has applications in various areas of medicine. The composition of nanocarriers for drug delivery is critical to guarantee high therapeutic performance when targeting specific host sites. Applications of nanotechnology are prevalent in the diagnosis and treatment of infectious and inflammatory diseases. This review summarizes recent advancements in the application of nanotechnology to the therapy of infectious and inflammatory diseases. The major focus is on the design and fabrication of various nanomaterials, characteristics and physicochemical properties of drug-loaded nanocarriers, and the use of these nanoscale drug delivery systems in treating infectious and inflammatory diseases, such as AIDS, hepatitis, tuberculosis, melanoma, and representative inflammatory diseases. Clinical trials and future perspective of the use of nanocarriers are also discussed in detail. We hope that such a review will be valuable to researchers who are exploring nanoscale drug delivery systems for the treatment of specific infectious and inflammatory diseases.

Ikoba, Ufuoma; Peng, Haisheng; Li, Haichun; Miller, Cathy; Yu, Chenxu; Wang, Qun

2015-02-01

237

Factors Contributing to the Occurrence of Emerging Infectious Diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) have been receiving increasing attention for more than two decades. Such attention has resulted from observations of increasing resistance of microorganisms to the usual antibiotics, the identification of formerly unknown disease agents and the diseases they cause, and the realization that the concept of globalization includes global exposure to disease agents formerly confined to small, endemic,

Felissa R. Lashley

2003-01-01

238

Infectious diseases associated with complement deficiencies.  

PubMed Central

The complement system consists of both plasma and membrane proteins. The former influence the inflammatory response, immune modulation, and host defense. The latter are complement receptors, which mediate the cellular effects of complement activation, and regulatory proteins, which protect host cells from complement-mediated injury. Complement activation occurs via either the classical or the alternative pathway, which converge at the level of C3 and share a sequence of terminal components. Four aspects of the complement cascade are critical to its function and regulation: (i) activation of the classical pathway, (ii) activation of the alternative pathway, (iii) C3 convertase formation and C3 deposition, and (iv) membrane attack complex assembly and insertion. In general, mechanisms evolved by pathogenic microbes to resist the effects of complement are targeted to these four steps. Because individual complement proteins subserve unique functional activities and are activated in a sequential manner, complement deficiency states are associated with predictable defects in complement-dependent functions. These deficiency states can be grouped by which of the above four mechanisms they disrupt. They are distinguished by unique epidemiologic, clinical, and microbiologic features and are most prevalent in patients with certain rheumatologic and infectious diseases. Ethnic background and the incidence of infection are important cofactors determining this prevalence. Although complement undoubtedly plays a role in host defense against many microbial pathogens, it appears most important in protection against encapsulated bacteria, especially Neisseria meningitidis but also Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and, to a lesser extent, Neisseria gonorrhoeae. The availability of effective polysaccharide vaccines and antibiotics provides an immunologic and chemotherapeutic rationale for preventing and treating infection in patients with these deficiencies. PMID:1889047

Figueroa, J E; Densen, P

1991-01-01

239

Modelling the risk of airborne infectious disease using exhaled air.  

PubMed

In this paper we develop and demonstrate a flexible mathematical model that predicts the risk of airborne infectious diseases, such as tuberculosis under steady state and non-steady state conditions by monitoring exhaled air by infectors in a confined space. In the development of this model, we used the rebreathed air accumulation rate concept to directly determine the average volume fraction of exhaled air in a given space. From a biological point of view, exhaled air by infectors contains airborne infectious particles that cause airborne infectious diseases such as tuberculosis in confined spaces. Since not all infectious particles can reach the target infection site, we took into account that the infectious particles that commence the infection are determined by respiratory deposition fraction, which is the probability of each infectious particle reaching the target infection site of the respiratory tracts and causing infection. Furthermore, we compute the quantity of carbon dioxide as a marker of exhaled air, which can be inhaled in the room with high likelihood of causing airborne infectious disease given the presence of infectors. We demonstrated mathematically and schematically the correlation between TB transmission probability and airborne infectious particle generation rate, ventilation rate, average volume fraction of exhaled air, TB prevalence and duration of exposure to infectors in a confined space. PMID:25702940

Issarow, Chacha M; Mulder, Nicola; Wood, Robin

2015-05-01

240

U.S. Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases  

MedlinePLUS

... scientists and technical staff working to protect both military personnel and civilians from the threat of infectious diseases. ... the world. As the United States continues a new era of civilian biodefense research, it is also ...

241

Return to play after acute infectious disease in football players.  

PubMed

Acute infectious diseases are common in athletes and can impair their ability to train and to compete. Furthermore, continuing exercise during infectious diseases may lead to prolongation or aggravation of illness with severe acute or chronic organ manifestations. Therefore, even simple infectious diseases require a sufficient period of convalescence and recovery, during which exercise may be not allowed. Nowadays, especially in professional football with high pressures on players, staff and clubs due to broad public interests as well as financial constraints, the return-to-play decision is of utmost significance. Based on previous suggestions and our own experience within amateur and professional athletes and football players, this article aims to give a short overview on return-to-play decisions after common acute infectious diseases in football players. PMID:24784357

Scharhag, Jürgen; Meyer, Tim

2014-01-01

242

Herpetological infectious disease Screening of Indirana frogs from the  

E-print Network

with extinction (Hoffmann et al. 2010; Stuart et al. 2004). Emerging infectious diseases such as chytridiomycosis, including species in North America, South America, Central America, Africa, Europe, New Zealand

Merilä, Juha

243

[Causes of disease and death in ornamental fish--frequency and importance].  

PubMed

Between 1986 and 1990 1068 aquarium fishes from breeders, wholesale dealers and pet shops and from private owners were examined. In 45% of the cases different non infectious causes of illness or death were detected. Infectious causes were present in 38%. 14% of the fishes showed no pathologic symptoms, whereas 3% of the samples were unfit for examination. The frequency of infectious and non infectious diseases respectively in fishes from breeders vs. dealers vs. private owners is given. From these results factors of pathogenesis in aquarium fishes are discussed and compared to those in fish breeding for food fish. Advices for prevention of diseases in fancy fishes are given. PMID:1497579

Engelhardt, A

1992-06-01

244

Global burden, distribution, and interventions for infectious diseases of poverty.  

PubMed

Infectious diseases of poverty (IDoP) disproportionately affect the poorest population in the world and contribute to a cycle of poverty as a result of decreased productivity ensuing from long-term illness, disability, and social stigma. In 2010, the global deaths from HIV/AIDS have increased to 1.5 million and malaria mortality rose to 1.17 million. Mortality from neglected tropical diseases rose to 152,000, while tuberculosis killed 1.2 million people that same year. Substantial regional variations exist in the distribution of these diseases as they are primarily concentrated in rural areas of Sub-Saharan Africa, Asia, and Latin America, with geographic overlap and high levels of co-infection. Evidence-based interventions exist to prevent and control these diseases, however, the coverage still remains low with an emerging challenge of antimicrobial resistance. Therefore, community-based delivery platforms are increasingly being advocated to ensure sustainability and combat co-infections. Because of the high morbidity and mortality burden of these diseases, especially in resource-poor settings, it is imperative to conduct a systematic review to identify strategies to prevent and control these diseases. Therefore, we attempted to evaluate the effectiveness of one of these strategies, that is community-based delivery for the prevention and treatment of IDoP. In this paper, we describe the burden, epidemiology, and potential interventions for IDoP. In subsequent papers of this series, we describe the analytical framework and the methodology used to guide the systematic reviews, and report the findings and interpretations of our analyses of the impact of community-based strategies on individual IDoPs. PMID:25110585

Bhutta, Zulfiqar A; Sommerfeld, Johannes; Lassi, Zohra S; Salam, Rehana A; Das, Jai K

2014-01-01

245

Global burden, distribution, and interventions for infectious diseases of poverty  

PubMed Central

Infectious diseases of poverty (IDoP) disproportionately affect the poorest population in the world and contribute to a cycle of poverty as a result of decreased productivity ensuing from long-term illness, disability, and social stigma. In 2010, the global deaths from HIV/AIDS have increased to 1.5 million and malaria mortality rose to 1.17 million. Mortality from neglected tropical diseases rose to 152,000, while tuberculosis killed 1.2 million people that same year. Substantial regional variations exist in the distribution of these diseases as they are primarily concentrated in rural areas of Sub-Saharan Africa, Asia, and Latin America, with geographic overlap and high levels of co-infection. Evidence-based interventions exist to prevent and control these diseases, however, the coverage still remains low with an emerging challenge of antimicrobial resistance. Therefore, community-based delivery platforms are increasingly being advocated to ensure sustainability and combat co-infections. Because of the high morbidity and mortality burden of these diseases, especially in resource-poor settings, it is imperative to conduct a systematic review to identify strategies to prevent and control these diseases. Therefore, we attempted to evaluate the effectiveness of one of these strategies, that is community-based delivery for the prevention and treatment of IDoP. In this paper, we describe the burden, epidemiology, and potential interventions for IDoP. In subsequent papers of this series, we describe the analytical framework and the methodology used to guide the systematic reviews, and report the findings and interpretations of our analyses of the impact of community-based strategies on individual IDoPs. PMID:25110585

2014-01-01

246

Large-Scale Phylogenetic Analysis of Emerging Infectious Diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microorganisms that cause infectious diseases present critical issues of national security, public health, and economic welfare.\\u000a For example, in recent years, highly pathogenic strains of avian influenza have emerged in Asia, spread through Eastern Europe,\\u000a and threaten to become pandemic. As demonstrated by the coordinated response to Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) and\\u000a influenza, agents of infectious disease are being

D. Janies; D. Pol

247

Global Distribution of Outbreaks of Water-Associated Infectious Diseases  

PubMed Central

Background Water plays an important role in the transmission of many infectious diseases, which pose a great burden on global public health. However, the global distribution of these water-associated infectious diseases and underlying factors remain largely unexplored. Methods and Findings Based on the Global Infectious Disease and Epidemiology Network (GIDEON), a global database including water-associated pathogens and diseases was developed. In this study, reported outbreak events associated with corresponding water-associated infectious diseases from 1991 to 2008 were extracted from the database. The location of each reported outbreak event was identified and geocoded into a GIS database. Also collected in the GIS database included geo-referenced socio-environmental information including population density (2000), annual accumulated temperature, surface water area, and average annual precipitation. Poisson models with Bayesian inference were developed to explore the association between these socio-environmental factors and distribution of the reported outbreak events. Based on model predictions a global relative risk map was generated. A total of 1,428 reported outbreak events were retrieved from the database. The analysis suggested that outbreaks of water-associated diseases are significantly correlated with socio-environmental factors. Population density is a significant risk factor for all categories of reported outbreaks of water-associated diseases; water-related diseases (e.g., vector-borne diseases) are associated with accumulated temperature; water-washed diseases (e.g., conjunctivitis) are inversely related to surface water area; both water-borne and water-related diseases are inversely related to average annual rainfall. Based on the model predictions, “hotspots” of risks for all categories of water-associated diseases were explored. Conclusions At the global scale, water-associated infectious diseases are significantly correlated with socio-environmental factors, impacting all regions which are affected disproportionately by different categories of water-associated infectious diseases. PMID:22348158

Yang, Kun; LeJeune, Jeffrey; Alsdorf, Doug; Lu, Bo; Shum, C. K.; Liang, Song

2012-01-01

248

Structural Genomics and Drug Discovery for Infectious Diseases  

SciTech Connect

The application of structural genomics methods and approaches to proteins from organisms causing infectious diseases is making available the three dimensional structures of many proteins that are potential drug targets and laying the groundwork for structure aided drug discovery efforts. There are a number of structural genomics projects with a focus on pathogens that have been initiated worldwide. The Center for Structural Genomics of Infectious Diseases (CSGID) was recently established to apply state-of-the-art high throughput structural biology technologies to the characterization of proteins from the National Institute for Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) category A-C pathogens and organisms causing emerging, or re-emerging infectious diseases. The target selection process emphasizes potential biomedical benefits. Selected proteins include known drug targets and their homologs, essential enzymes, virulence factors and vaccine candidates. The Center also provides a structure determination service for the infectious disease scientific community. The ultimate goal is to generate a library of structures that are available to the scientific community and can serve as a starting point for further research and structure aided drug discovery for infectious diseases. To achieve this goal, the CSGID will determine protein crystal structures of 400 proteins and protein-ligand complexes using proven, rapid, highly integrated, and cost-effective methods for such determination, primarily by X-ray crystallography. High throughput crystallographic structure determination is greatly aided by frequent, convenient access to high-performance beamlines at third-generation synchrotron X-ray sources.

Anderson, W.F.

2010-09-03

249

Learning lessons from operational research in infectious diseases: can the same model be used for noncommunicable diseases in developing countries?  

PubMed

About three-quarters of global deaths from noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) occur in developing countries. Nearly a third of these deaths occur before the age of 60 years. These deaths are projected to increase, fueled by such factors as urbanization, nutrition transition, lifestyle changes, and aging. Despite this burden, there is a paucity of research on NCDs, due to the higher priority given to infectious disease research. Less than 10% of research on cardiovascular diseases comes from developing countries. This paper assesses what lessons from operational research on infectious diseases could be applied to NCDs. The lessons are drawn from the priority setting for research, integration of research into programs and routine service delivery, the use of routine data, rapid-assessment survey methods, modeling, chemoprophylaxis, and the translational process of findings into policy and practice. With the lines between infectious diseases and NCDs becoming blurred, it is justifiable to integrate the programs for the two disease groups wherever possible, eg, screening for diabetes in tuberculosis. Applying these lessons will require increased political will, research capacity, ownership, use of local expertise, and research funding. PMID:25506254

Bosu, William K

2014-01-01

250

Emerging infectious diseases: vulnerabilities, contributing factors and approaches.  

PubMed

We live in an ever more connected global village linked through international travel, politics, economics, culture and human-human and human-animal interactions. The realization that the concept of globalization includes global exposure to disease-causing agents that were formerly confined to small, remote areas and that infectious disease outbreaks can have political, economic and social roots and effects is becoming more apparent. Novel infectious disease microbes continue to be discovered because they are new or newly recognized, have expanded their geographic range, have been shown to cause a new disease spectrum, have jumped the species barrier from animals to humans, have become resistant to antimicrobial agents, have increased in incidence or have become more virulent. These emerging infectious disease microbes may have the potential for use as agents of bioterrorism. Factors involved in the emergence of infectious diseases are complex and interrelated and involve all classifications of organisms transmitted in a variety of ways. In 2003, outbreaks of interest included severe acute respiratory syndrome, monkeypox and avian influenza. Information from the human genome project applied to microbial organisms and their hosts will provide new opportunities for detection, diagnosis, treatment, prevention, control and prognosis. New technology related not only to genetics but also to satellite and monitoring systems will play a role in weather, climate and the approach to environmental manipulations that influence factors contributing to infectious disease emergence and control. Approaches to combating emerging infectious diseases include many disciplines, such as animal studies, epidemiology, immunology, ecology, environmental studies, microbiology, pharmacology, other sciences, health, medicine, public health, nursing, cultural, political and social studies, all of which must work together. Appropriate financial support of the public health infrastructure including surveillance, prevention, communication, adherence techniques and the like will be needed to support efforts to address emerging infectious disease threats. PMID:15482195

Lashley, Felissa R

2004-04-01

251

Modeling rapidly disseminating infectious disease during mass gatherings  

PubMed Central

We discuss models for rapidly disseminating infectious diseases during mass gatherings (MGs), using influenza as a case study. Recent innovations in modeling and forecasting influenza transmission dynamics at local, regional, and global scales have made influenza a particularly attractive model scenario for MG. We discuss the behavioral, medical, and population factors for modeling MG disease transmission, review existing model formulations, and highlight key data and modeling gaps related to modeling MG disease transmission. We argue that the proposed improvements will help integrate infectious-disease models in MG health contingency plans in the near future, echoing modeling efforts that have helped shape influenza pandemic preparedness plans in recent years. PMID:23217051

2012-01-01

252

After 2015: infectious diseases in a new era of health and development  

PubMed Central

Running over timescales that span decades or centuries, the epidemiological transition provides the central narrative of global health. In this transition, a reduction in mortality is followed by a reduction in fertility, creating larger, older populations in which the main causes of illness and death are no longer acute infections of children but chronic diseases of adults. Since the year 2000, the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) have provided a framework for accelerating the decline of infectious diseases, backed by a massive injection of foreign investment to low-income countries. Despite the successes of the MDGs era, the inhabitants of low-income countries still suffer an enormous burden of disease owing to diarrhoea, pneumonia, HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, malaria and other pathogens. Adding to the predictable burden of endemic disease, the threat of pandemics is ever-present and global. With a view to the future, this review spotlights five aspects of the fight against infection beyond 2015, when the MDGs will be replaced by a new set of goals for poverty reduction and sustainable development. These aspects are: exploiting the biological links between infectious and non-infectious diseases; controlling infections among the new urban majority; enhancing the response to international health threats; expanding childhood immunization programmes to prevent acute and chronic diseases in adults; and working towards universal health coverage. By scanning the wider horizon now, infectious disease specialists have the chance to shape the post-2015 era of health and development. PMID:24821913

Dye, Christopher

2014-01-01

253

Infectious Diseases Affect Marine Fisheries and Aquaculture Economics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Seafood is a growing part of the economy, but its economic value is diminished by marine diseases. Infectious diseases are common in the ocean, and here we tabulate 67 examples that can reduce commercial species' growth and survivorship or decrease seafood quality. These impacts seem most problematic in the stressful and crowded conditions of aquaculture, which increasingly dominates seafood production as wild fishery production plateaus. For instance, marine diseases of farmed oysters, shrimp, abalone, and various fishes, particularly Atlantic salmon, cost billions of dollars each year. In comparison, it is often difficult to accurately estimate disease impacts on wild populations, especially those of pelagic and subtidal species. Farmed species often receive infectious diseases from wild species and can, in turn, export infectious agents to wild species. However, the impact of disease export on wild fisheries is controversial because there are few quantitative data demonstrating that wild species near farms suffer more from infectious diseases than those in other areas. The movement of exotic infectious agents to new areas continues to be the greatest concern.

Lafferty, Kevin D.; Harvell, C. Drew; Conrad, Jon M.; Friedman, Carolyn S.; Kent, Michael L.; Kuris, Armand M.; Powell, Eric N.; Rondeau, Daniel; Saksida, Sonja M.

2015-01-01

254

Infectious diseases affect marine fisheries and aquaculture economics  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Seafood is a growing part of the economy, but its economic value is diminished by marine diseases. Infectious diseases are common in the ocean, and here we tabulate 67 examples that can reduce commercial species' growth and survivorship or decrease seafood quality. These impacts seem most problematic in the stressful and crowded conditions of aquaculture, which increasingly dominates seafood production as wild fishery production plateaus. For instance, marine diseases of farmed oysters, shrimp, abalone, and various fishes, particularly Atlantic salmon, cost billions of dollars each year. In comparison, it is often difficult to accurately estimate disease impacts on wild populations, especially those of pelagic and subtidal species. Farmed species often receive infectious diseases from wild species and can, in turn, export infectious agents to wild species. However, the impact of disease export on wild fisheries is controversial because there are few quantitative data demonstrating that wild species near farms suffer more from infectious diseases than those in other areas. The movement of exotic infectious agents to new areas continues to be the greatest concern.

Lafferty, Kevin D.; Harvell, C. Drew; Conrad, Jon M.; Friedman, Carolyn S.; Kent, Michael L.; Kuris, Armand M.; Powell, Eric N.; Rondeau, Daniel; Saksida, Sonja M.

2015-01-01

255

Pathogens: a new open access journal serving all those interested in infectious disease.  

PubMed

Infection ranks alongside cardiovascular disease as the major cause of human death across the world. Word Health Organization data for 2002 shows that 26% of all deaths, almost 15 million in number, were due to infectious disease with HIV/AIDS, TB and malaria being the top three responsible infections. A significant proportion of these deaths were due to lower respiratory infections and diarrheal diseases in children. The worldwide morbidity associated with infectious disease is incalculable. When considered along with the consequences of infection in animals, it is hard to imagine any other disease that has such a significant impact on our lives-on health systems, on agriculture and on world economics. Our understanding of the agents responsible for infections-bacteria, fungi, parasites, prions and viruses-has an interesting history that heralds the great developments in modern biology and demonstrates how an understanding of disease pathogenesis can lead to successful prophylactic and therapeutic interventions. Van Leeuwenhoek's first observation of bacteria under the light microscope, John Snow's investigations tracing the source of a cholera epidemic in Victorian London's Soho and Pasteur's vaccines for rabies and anthrax contributed to an acceptance of the germ theory of disease and to the rational, scientific application of this knowledge to develop innovative disease control measures ranging from hygienic practices to antibiotics. [...]. PMID:25436600

Young, Lawrence S

2011-01-01

256

The Ecology of Infectious Disease: Effects of Host Diversity and Community Composition on Lyme Disease Risk  

E-print Network

The Ecology of Infectious Disease: Effects of Host Diversity and Community Composition on Lyme ecology of infectious disease: Effects of host diversity and community composition on Lyme disease risk to Lyme- disease-bearing ticks. We tested the DilutionEffectmodel, which predictsthat high species

Cochran-Stafira, D. Liane

257

Pediatric malignancies presenting as a possible infectious disease  

PubMed Central

Background The clinical, laboratory, and radiological features of malignancy can overlap with those of infection. The purpose of this study was to determine the findings in children who were initially thought to have an infectious disease but ultimately proved to have a malignancy. Methods The database of patients diagnosed with a malignancy in the Northern Alberta Children's Cancer Program (NACCP) January 1, 1993 to December 31, 2003 was merged with the database of inpatients referred to the infectious diseases service at the Stollery Children's Hospital and charts were reviewed on all patients referred to the infectious diseases consult service prior to the diagnosis of malignancy. Results An infectious diseases consultation for diagnosis was requested in 21 of 561 patients prior to the confirmation of malignancy, and 3 of these 21 patients had both infection and malignancy (leukemia (N = 13), lymphoma (N = 3), rhabdomyosarcoma (N = 1), Langerhan's cell histiocytosis (N = 1), fibrous histicocytosis (N = 1), ependymoma (N = 1), and neuroblastoma (N = 1). The most common reason for infectious diseases consultation was suspected muskuloskeletal infection (N = 9). A palpable or radiographically enlarged spleen was noted in 11 patients (52%). All but 2 patients had abnormal hematologic parameters while an elevated lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) occurred in 10 patients (48%). Delay of diagnosis because of investigation or therapy for an infectious disease occurred in only 2 patients. Conclusion It is not common for treatment of pediatric malignancies to be delayed because infection is thought to be the primary diagnosis. However, pediatric infectious diseases physicians should consider malignancy in the differential diagnosis when they see patients with fever and bone pain, unexplained splenomegaly or abnormal complete blood cell counts. Other clues may include hepatomegaly or elevated LDH. PMID:17519036

Forgie, Sarah E; Robinson, Joan L

2007-01-01

258

Polycystic kidney disease: an unrecognized emerging infectious disease?  

PubMed Central

Polycystic kidney disease (PKD) is one of the most common genetic diseases in humans. We contend that it may be an emerging infectious disease and/or microbial toxicosis in a vulnerable human subpopulation. Use of a differential activation protocol for the Limulus amebocyte lysate (LAL) assay showed bacterial endotoxin and fungal (1-->3)-beta-D-glucans in cyst fluids from human kidneys with PKD. Fatty acid analysis of cyst fluid confirmed the presence of 3-hydroxy fatty acids characteristic of endotoxin. Tissue and cyst fluid from three PKD patients were examined for fungal components. Serologic tests showed Fusarium, Aspergillus, and Candida antigens. IgE, but not IgG, reactive with Fusarium and Candida were also detected in cyst fluid. Fungal DNA was detected in kidney tissue and cyst fluid from these three PKD patients, but not in healthy human kidney tissue. We examine the intertwined nature of the actions of endotoxin and fungal components, sphingolipid biology in PKD, the structure of PKD gene products, infections, and integrity of gut function to establish a mechanistic hypothesis for microbial provocation of human cystic disease. Proof of this hypothesis will require identification of the microbes and microbial components involved and multifaceted studies of PKD cell biology. PMID:9204292

Miller-Hjelle, M. A.; Hjelle, J. T.; Jones, M.; Mayberry, W. R.; Dombrink-Kurtzman, M. A.; Peterson, S. W.; Nowak, D. M.; Darras, F. S.

1997-01-01

259

Foodborne Infectious Disease - The Human Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Understanding the human impact of infectious agents potentially transmitted through the food chain is required to establish intervention priorities when considering the on-farm aspects of these agents. Canadian livestock husbandry, food processing and handling systems, and food preparation and consumption are likely sufficiently similar to the U.S. that the following U.S. information applies to the Canadian situation. On the other

John M. Gay

260

78 FR 69682 - Board of Scientific Counselors, Office of Infectious Diseases: Notice of Charter Renewal  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Board of...Counselors, Office of Infectious Diseases: Notice of Charter Renewal This...Counselors, Office of Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control...

2013-11-20

261

76 FR 72416 - Board of Scientific Counselors, Office of Infectious Diseases: Notice of Charter Renewal  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Board of...Counselors, Office of Infectious Diseases: Notice of Charter Renewal This...Counselors, Office of Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control...

2011-11-23

262

Emerging and Re-emerging Infectious Diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emerging diseases include outbreaks of previously unknown diseases or known diseases whose incidence in humans has significantly\\u000a increased in the past two decades. Re-emerging diseases are known diseases that have reappeared after a significant decline\\u000a in incidence (http:\\/\\/www3.niaid.nih.gov\\/research\\/topics\\/emerging).

Vassil St. Georgiev

263

Non-infectious skin disease in Indigenous Australians.  

PubMed

The burden of non-infectious skin disease in the Indigenous Australian population has not been previously examined. This study considers the published data on the epidemiology and clinical features of a number of non-infectious skin diseases in Indigenous Australians. It also outlines hypotheses for the possible differences in the prevalence of such diseases in this group compared with the general Australian population. There is a paucity of literature on the topic but, from the material available, Indigenous Australians appear to have a reduced prevalence of psoriasis, type 1 hypersensitivity reactions and skin cancer but increased rates of lupus erythematosus, kava dermopathy and vitamin D deficiency when compared to the non-Indigenous Australian population. This article profiles the prevalence and presentation of non-infectious skin diseases in the Indigenous Australian population to synthesise our limited knowledge and highlight deficiencies in our understanding. PMID:25117159

Heyes, Christopher; Tait, Clare; Toholka, Ryan; Gebauer, Kurt

2014-08-01

264

Travel and migration associated infectious diseases morbidity in Europe, 2008  

PubMed Central

Background Europeans represent the majority of international travellers and clinicians encountering returned patients have an essential role in recognizing, and communicating travel-associated public health risks. Methods To investigate the morbidity of travel associated infectious diseases in European travellers, we analysed diagnoses with demographic, clinical and travel-related predictors of disease, in 6957 ill returned travellers who presented in 2008 to EuroTravNet centres with a presumed travel associated condition. Results Gastro-intestinal (GI) diseases accounted for 33% of illnesses, followed by febrile systemic illnesses (20%), dermatological conditions (12%) and respiratory illnesses (8%). There were 3 deaths recorded; a sepsis caused by Escherichia coli pyelonephritis, a dengue shock syndrome and a Plasmodium falciparum malaria. GI conditions included bacterial acute diarrhea (6.9%), as well as giardiasis and amebasis (2.3%). Among febrile systemic illnesses with identified pathogens, malaria (5.4%) accounted for most cases followed by dengue (1.9%) and others including chikungunya, rickettsial diseases, leptospirosis, brucellosis, Epstein Barr virus infections, tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) and viral hepatitis. Dermatological conditions were dominated by bacterial infections, arthropod bites, cutaneous larva migrans and animal bites requiring rabies post-exposure prophylaxis and also leishmaniasis, myasis, tungiasis and one case of leprosy. Respiratory illness included 112 cases of tuberculosis including cases of multi-drug resistant or extensively drug resistant tuberculosis, 104 cases of influenza like illness, and 5 cases of Legionnaires disease. Sexually transmitted infections (STI) accounted for 0.6% of total diagnoses and included HIV infection and syphilis. A total of 165 cases of potentially vaccine preventable diseases were reported. Purpose of travel and destination specific risk factors was identified for several diagnoses such as Chagas disease in immigrant travellers from South America and P. falciparum malaria in immigrants from sub-Saharan Africa. Travel within Europe was also associated with health risks with distinctive profiles for Eastern and Western Europe. Conclusions In 2008, a broad spectrum of travel associated diseases were diagnosed at EuroTravNet core sites. Diagnoses varied according to regions visited by ill travellers. The spectrum of travel associated morbidity also shows that there is a need to dispel the misconception that travel, close to home, in Europe, is without significant health risk. PMID:21083874

2010-01-01

265

Perspectives of public health laboratories in emerging infectious diseases  

PubMed Central

The world has experienced an increased incidence and transboundary spread of emerging infectious diseases over the last four decades. We divided emerging infectious diseases into four categories, with subcategories in categories 1 and 4. The categorization was based on the nature and characteristics of pathogens or infectious agents causing the emerging infections, which are directly related to the mechanisms and patterns of infectious disease emergence. The factors or combinations of factors contributing to the emergence of these pathogens vary within each category. We also classified public health laboratories into three types based on function, namely, research, reference and analytical diagnostic laboratories, with the last category being subclassified into primary (community-based) public health and clinical (medical) analytical diagnostic laboratories. The frontline/leading and/or supportive roles to be adopted by each type of public health laboratory for optimal performance to establish the correct etiological agents causing the diseases or outbreaks vary with respect to each category of emerging infectious diseases. We emphasize the need, especially for an outbreak investigation, to establish a harmonized and coordinated national public health laboratory system that integrates different categories of public health laboratories within a country and that is closely linked to the national public health delivery system and regional and international high-end laboratories.

Chua, Kaw Bing; Gubler, Duane J

2013-01-01

266

Mad cow and other maladies: update on emerging infectious diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

ately, several emerging infectious diseases have had a great deal of play in the media, resulting in anxiety among health care workers and their patients. This article ex- plores the epidemiology and clinical characteristics of some of these emerging infections. BOVINE SPONGIFORM ENCEPHALOPATHY AND VARIANT CREUTZFELDT-JAKOB DISEASE Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), also known as \\

CRISTIE COLUMBUS

267

Control of Infectious Diseases of Wildlife in Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the last 30 years, new epidemiological patterns have emerged as free-ranging wildlife have become progressively more involved in the epidemiology of both common and emerging infectious diseases of humans and domestic animals. This has been seen in rabies, bovine tuberculosis and more recently in wild-boar classical swine fever. Emerging diseases are of interest to veterinarians as well as public

M. ARTOIS; R. DELAHAY; V. GUBERTI; C. CHEESEMAN

2001-01-01

268

Transmission of Infectious Disease in the Dental Setting  

Microsoft Academic Search

Patients in the industrialized world are at low risk of acquiring nosocomial infections; nevertheless, several aspects of care in the hospital or clinic can place patients at risk from infectious disease transmission. Paramount to the prevention of disease is the strict adherence to universal precautions for all patients. Tuberculosis has again emerged as a potential epidemic capable of dramatic morbidity

JAGDEV HEIR; VINCENT B. ZICCARDI

269

Incidence and Impact of Selected Infectious Diseases in Childhood.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report provides estimates of the lifetime and annual incidence of certain infectious diseases of children in various demographic groups. Data on the social and health care impact of the diseases in terms of limited activity, days spent in bed, school days lost, contacts with physicians, hospitalizations, surgery, and use of medication are…

Vital and Health Statistics, 1991

1991-01-01

270

Epitheliocystis, a new infectious disease of the bluegill ( Lepomis macrochirus )  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new infectious, benign and chronic disease, histopathologically distinct from the viral disease lymphocystis, has been found in the bluegill. The symptoms are much enlarged cells in skin and gill epithelium, filled with basophilic granules. By electron microscopy these granules were shown to be organisms with the morphological characteristics ofBedsonia (Miyagawanella). During an attempt to isolate the agent in the

G. L. Hoffman; C. E. Dunbar; K. Wolf; L. O. Zwillenberg

1969-01-01

271

Regulators of cell death in disease resistance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cell death and disease resistance are intimately connected in plants. Plant disease resistance genes (R genes) are key components in pathogen perception and have a potential to activate cell death pathways. Analysis of R proteins suggests common molecular mechanisms for pathogen recognition and signal emission whereas the subsequent signalling unexpectedly involves a network of pathways of parallel, branching and converging

Ken Shirasu; Paul Schulze-Lefert

2000-01-01

272

Combating infectious diseases of poverty: a year on  

PubMed Central

The Infectious Diseases of Poverty journal, launched a year ago, is a platform to engage outside the traditional disciplinary boundaries, and disseminate high quality science towards the improvement of health. This paper reviews the milestone achievements during its first year of operation. The journal has filled an important niche, addressing some of the main priorities in the Global Report for Research on Infectious Diseases of Poverty. Highlights include the publication of three thematic issues on health systems, surveillance and response systems, as well as co-infection and syndemics. The thematic issues have foregrounded the importance and innovation that can be achieved through transdisciplinary research. The journal has been indexed by PubMed since April 2013, with the publication of a total of 38 articles. Finally, the journal is delivering to wider range readers both in developing and developed countries with sustained efforts with a focus on relevant and strategic information towards elimination of infectious diseases of poverty. PMID:24246007

2013-01-01

273

The Economics of Managing Infectious Wildlife Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

We use a two-state linear control model to examine the socially optimal management of disease in a valuable wildlife population when diseased animals cannot be harvested selectively. The two control variables are nonselective harvests and supplemental feeding of wildlife, where feeding increases both in situ productivity and disease prevalence. We derive a double singular solution which depends on the initial

Richard D. Horan; Christopher A. Wolf

2005-01-01

274

Diseases and Causes of Death in European Bats: Dynamics in Disease Susceptibility and Infection Rates  

PubMed Central

Background Bats receive increasing attention in infectious disease studies, because of their well recognized status as reservoir species for various infectious agents. This is even more important, as bats with their capability of long distance dispersal and complex social structures are unique in the way microbes could be spread by these mammalian species. Nevertheless, infection studies in bats are predominantly limited to the identification of specific pathogens presenting a potential health threat to humans. But the impact of infectious agents on the individual host and their importance on bat mortality is largely unknown and has been neglected in most studies published to date. Methodology/Principal Findings Between 2002 and 2009, 486 deceased bats of 19 European species (family Vespertilionidae) were collected in different geographic regions in Germany. Most animals represented individual cases that have been incidentally found close to roosting sites or near human habitation in urban and urban-like environments. The bat carcasses were subjected to a post-mortem examination and investigated histo-pathologically, bacteriologically and virologically. Trauma and disease represented the most important causes of death in these bats. Comparative analysis of pathological findings and microbiological results show that microbial agents indeed have an impact on bats succumbing to infectious diseases, with fatal bacterial, viral and parasitic infections found in at least 12% of the bats investigated. Conclusions/Significance Our data demonstrate the importance of diseases and infectious agents as cause of death in European bat species. The clear seasonal and individual variations in disease prevalence and infection rates indicate that maternity colonies are more susceptible to infectious agents, underlining the possible important role of host physiology, immunity and roosting behavior as risk factors for infection of bats. PMID:22216354

Mühldorfer, Kristin; Speck, Stephanie; Kurth, Andreas; Lesnik, René; Freuling, Conrad; Müller, Thomas; Kramer-Schadt, Stephanie; Wibbelt, Gudrun

2011-01-01

275

Emerging and reemerging infectious diseases: the perpetual challenge.  

PubMed

Public health officials once suggested that it might someday be possible to "close the book" on the study and treatment of infectious diseases. However, it is now clear that endemic diseases as well as newly emerging ones (e.g., severe acute respiratory syndrome [SARS]), reemerging ones (e.g., West Nile virus), and even deliberately disseminated infectious diseases (e.g., anthrax from bioterrorism) continue to pose a substantial threat throughout the world. Over the past several decades, the global effort to identify and characterize infectious agents, decipher the underlying pathways by which they cause disease, and develop preventive measures and treatments for many of the world's most dangerous pathogens has helped control many endemic diseases. But despite considerable progress, infectious diseases continue to present significant challenges as new microbial threats emerge and reemerge. HIV/AIDS, malaria, tuberculosis, influenza, SARS, West Nile virus, Marburg virus, and bioterrorism are examples of some of the emerging and reemerging threats. In responding to these ongoing challenges, a new paradigm in countermeasure development is needed. In the past, U.S. government-sponsored biomedical researchers have focused on basic research and concept development, leaving product development to the pharmaceutical industry. Increasingly, however, the government has become involved in more targeted countermeasure development efforts. In this regard, partnerships between government, industry, and academia are necessary as we struggle to maintain and update our armamentarium in the struggle to outwit the microbes that pose a never-ending threat to mankind. PMID:16306276

Fauci, Anthony S

2005-12-01

276

Mass gatherings and infectious diseases: prevention, detection, and control.  

PubMed

Mass gatherings have attracted the attention of the medical community because of the increased demand made on existing services and the potential for public health problems resulting from changes in population dynamics and behaviors. Crowding, lack of hygiene, and rapid population movement at mass gatherings can lead to the emergence of infectious diseases, with the potential for spread across the globe. Numerous infections pose considerable challenges to organizers of mass gatherings and the hosts of these events. This review highlights the risks of infectious diseases, and key interventions for their prevention, at mass gatherings. PMID:22963780

Al-Tawfiq, Jaffar A; Memish, Ziad A

2012-09-01

277

75 FR 4091 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice...Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...Partnerships in Biodefense Food and Waterborne Diseases. Date...Assistance Program Nos. 93.855, Allergy, Immunology, and...

2010-01-26

278

75 FR 48973 - Board of Scientific Counselors, Coordinating Center for Infectious Diseases: Notice of Charter...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Board of Scientific...Coordinating Center for Infectious Diseases: Notice of Charter Amendment This gives...Coordinating Center for Infectious Diseases, Department of Health and Human...

2010-08-12

279

A surveillance sector review applied to infectious diseases at a country level  

PubMed Central

Background The new International Health Regulations (IHR) require World Health Organization (WHO) member states to assess their core capacity for surveillance. Such reviews also have the potential to identify important surveillance gaps, improve the organisation of disparate surveillance systems and to focus attention on upstream hazards, determinants and interventions. Methods We developed a surveillance sector review method for evaluating all of the surveillance systems and related activities across a sector, in this case those concerned with infectious diseases in New Zealand. The first stage was a systematic description of these surveillance systems using a newly developed framework and classification system. Key informant interviews were conducted to validate the available information on the systems identified. Results We identified 91 surveillance systems and related activities in the 12 coherent categories of infectious diseases examined. The majority (n = 40 or 44%) of these were disease surveillance systems. They covered all categories, particularly for more severe outcomes including those resulting in death or hospitalisations. Except for some notifiable diseases and influenza, surveillance of less severe, but important infectious diseases occurring in the community was largely absent. There were 31 systems (34%) for surveillance of upstream infectious disease hazards, including risk and protective factors. This area tended to have many potential gaps and lack integration, partly because such systems were operated by a range of different agencies, often outside the health sector. There were fewer surveillance systems for determinants, including population size and characteristics (n = 9), and interventions (n = 11). Conclusions It was possible to create and populate a workable framework for describing all the infectious diseases surveillance systems and related activities in a single developed country and to identify potential surveillance sector gaps. This is the first stage in a review process that will lead to identification of priorities for surveillance sector development. PMID:20540772

2010-01-01

280

Internet-based surveillance systems for monitoring emerging infectious diseases.  

PubMed

Emerging infectious diseases present a complex challenge to public health officials and governments; these challenges have been compounded by rapidly shifting patterns of human behaviour and globalisation. The increase in emerging infectious diseases has led to calls for new technologies and approaches for detection, tracking, reporting, and response. Internet-based surveillance systems offer a novel and developing means of monitoring conditions of public health concern, including emerging infectious diseases. We review studies that have exploited internet use and search trends to monitor two such diseases: influenza and dengue. Internet-based surveillance systems have good congruence with traditional surveillance approaches. Additionally, internet-based approaches are logistically and economically appealing. However, they do not have the capacity to replace traditional surveillance systems; they should not be viewed as an alternative, but rather an extension. Future research should focus on using data generated through internet-based surveillance and response systems to bolster the capacity of traditional surveillance systems for emerging infectious diseases. PMID:24290841

Milinovich, Gabriel J; Williams, Gail M; Clements, Archie C A; Hu, Wenbiao

2014-02-01

281

Mortality in East African shorthorn zebu cattle under one year: predictors of infectious-disease mortality  

PubMed Central

Background Infectious livestock diseases remain a major threat to attaining food security and are a source of economic and livelihood losses for people dependent on livestock for their livelihood. Knowledge of the vital infectious diseases that account for the majority of deaths is crucial in determining disease control strategies and in the allocation of limited funds available for disease control. Here we have estimated the mortality rates in zebu cattle raised in a smallholder mixed farming system during their first year of life, identified the periods of increased risk of death and the risk factors for calf mortality, and through analysis of post-mortem data, determined the aetiologies of calf mortality in this population. A longitudinal cohort study of 548 zebu cattle was conducted between 2007 and 2010. Each calf was followed during its first year of life or until lost from the study. Calves were randomly selected from 20 sub-locations and recruited within a week of birth from different farms over a 45 km radius area centered on Busia in the Western part of Kenya. The data comprised of 481.1 calf years of observation. Clinical examinations, sample collection and analysis were carried out at 5 week intervals, from birth until one year old. Cox proportional hazard models with frailty terms were used for the statistical analysis of risk factors. A standardized post-mortem examination was conducted on all animals that died during the study and appropriate samples collected. Results The all-cause mortality rate was estimated at 16.1 (13.0-19.2; 95% CI) per 100 calf years at risk. The Cox models identified high infection intensity with Theileria spp., the most lethal of which causes East Coast Fever disease, infection with Trypanosome spp., and helminth infections as measured by Strongyle spp. eggs per gram of faeces as the three important infections statistically associated with infectious disease mortality in these calves. Analysis of post-mortem data identified East Coast Fever as the main cause of death accounting for 40% of all deaths, haemonchosis 12% and heartwater disease 7%. Conclusion The findings demonstrate the impact of endemic parasitic diseases in indigenous animals expected to be well adapted against disease pressures. Additionally, agreement between results of Cox models using data from simple diagnostic procedures and results from post-mortem analysis underline the potential use such diagnostic data to reduce calf mortality. The control strategies for the identified infectious diseases have been discussed. PMID:24010500

2013-01-01

282

Infectious disease agents mediate interaction in food webs and ecosystems  

PubMed Central

Infectious agents are part of food webs and ecosystems via the relationship with their host species that, in turn, interact with both hosts and non-hosts. Through these interactions, infectious agents influence food webs in terms of structure, functioning and stability. The present literature shows a broad range of impacts of infectious agents on food webs, and by cataloguing that range, we worked towards defining the various mechanisms and their specific effects. To explore the impact, a direct approach is to study changes in food-web properties with infectious agents as separate species in the web, acting as additional nodes, with links to their host species. An indirect approach concentrates not on adding new nodes and links, but on the ways that infectious agents affect the existing links across host and non-host nodes, by influencing the ‘quality’ of consumer–resource interaction as it depends on the epidemiological state host involved. Both approaches are natural from an ecological point of view, but the indirect approach may connect more straightforwardly to commonly used tools in infectious disease dynamics. PMID:24403336

Selakovic, Sanja; de Ruiter, Peter C.; Heesterbeek, Hans

2014-01-01

283

Premature birth and the changing composition of newborn infectious disease mortality: Reconsidering “exogenous” mortality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Linked death and birth records from San Antonio, Texas reveal that infectious infant mortality is increasingly a function\\u000a of premature birth and low birth weight. Between 1935 and 1944, 4% of infectious infant deaths had associated causes involving\\u000a prematurity and related conditions; by 1980, 25% of infectious infant deaths involved prematurity and more than 40% of those\\u000a infants weighed less

KATHRYN Ao SOWARDS

1997-01-01

284

Incentives for Reporting Infectious Disease Outbreaks  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The global spread of diseases such as swine flu and SARS highlights the difficult decision governments face when presented with evidence of a local outbreak. Reporting the outbreak may bring medical assistance but is also likely to trigger trade sanctions by countries hoping to contain the disease. Suppressing the information may avoid trade…

Malani, Anup; Laxminarayan, Ramanan

2011-01-01

285

Global climate and infectious disease: The cholera paradigm  

SciTech Connect

Historically, infectious diseases have had a profound effect on human populations, including their evolution and cultural development. Despite significant advances in medical science, infectious diseases continue to impact human populations in many parts of the world. Emerging diseases are considered to be those infections that either are newly appearing in the population or are rapidly increasing in incidence or expanding in geographic range. Emergence of disease is not a simple phenomenon, mainly because infectious diseases are dynamic. Most new infections are not caused by truly new pathogens but are microorganisms (viruses, bacteria, fungi, protozoa, and helminths) that find a new way to enter a susceptible host and are newly recognized because of recently developed, sensitive techniques. Human activities drive emergence of disease and a variety of social, economic, political, climatic, technological, and environmental factors can shape the pattern of a disease and influence its emergence into populations. For example, travel affects emergence of disease, and human migrations have been the main source of epidemics throughout history. Trade caravans, religious pilgrimage, and military campaigns facilitated the spread of plague, smallpox, and cholera. Global travel is a fact of modern life and, equally so, the continued evolution of microorganisms; therefore, new infections will continue to emerge, and known infections will change in distribution, frequency, and severity. 88 refs., 1 fig.

Colwell, R.R. [Univ. of Maryland Biotechnology Inst., College Park, MD (United States)] [Univ. of Maryland Biotechnology Inst., College Park, MD (United States)

1996-12-20

286

Antibodies in infectious diseases: polyclonals, monoclonals and niche biotechnology.  

PubMed

Antibody preparations have a long history of providing protection from infectious diseases. Although antibodies remain the only natural host-derived defense mechanism capable of completely preventing infection, as products, they compete against inexpensive therapeutics such as antibiotics, small molecule inhibitors and active vaccines. The continued discovery in the monoclonal antibody (mAb) field of leads with broadened cross neutralization of viruses and demonstrable synergy of antibody with antibiotics for bacterial diseases, clearly show that innovation remains. The commercial success of mAbs in chronic disease has not been paralleled in infectious diseases for several reasons. Infectious disease immunotherapeutics are limited in scope as endemic diseases necessitate active vaccine development. Also, the complexity of these small markets draws the interest of niche companies rather than big pharmaceutical corporations. Lastly, the cost of goods for mAb therapeutics is inherently high for infectious agents due to the need for antibody cocktails, which better mimic polyclonal immunoglobulin preparations and prevent antigenic escape. In cases where vaccine or convalescent populations are available, current polyclonal hyperimmune immunoglobulin preparations (pIgG), with modern and highly efficient purification technology and standardized assays for potency, can make economic sense. Recent innovations to broaden the potency of mAb therapies, while reducing cost of production, are discussed herein. On the basis of centuries of effective use of Ab treatments, and with growing immunocompromised populations, the question is not whether antibodies have a bright future for infectious agents, but rather what formats are cost effective and generate safe and efficacious treatments to satisfy regulatory approval. PMID:21473942

Berry, Jody D; Gaudet, Ryan G

2011-09-01

287

Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE) – Infectious, Contagious, Zoonotic or Production Disease?  

Microsoft Academic Search

: In 1986, a new progressive neurological condition similar to scrapie of sheep and goats was recognised in cattle in the United Kingdom (UK), and was named bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE). There is an ongoing discussion whether BSE should be classified as infectious, contagious, or zoonotic, and if it fits the definition of a production disease. The objective of this

Marcus G Doherr

2003-01-01

288

Wild Animals as Reservoirs of Infectious Diseases in the UK  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review aims to illustrate the extent to which wildlife act as reservoirs of infectious agents that cause disease in domestic stock, pet and captive animals and humans. More than 40 agents are described. In the case of some of these, e.g. Cryptosporidium spp., Escherichia coli O157 and malignant catarrhal fever, the current evidence is that wildlife either does not

V. R. Simpson

2002-01-01

289

FYI: Services to Poor Families; Controlling Infectious Diseases; Parent Groups.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses services and resources available for families, parents, and child care providers. Describes a National Resource Center for Children in Poverty; a guide for controlling infectious diseases among young children in day care; a directory of parent support groups; and reports of a link between household pesticides and childhood leukemia. (BB)

Children Today, 1987

1987-01-01

290

Genetics and Genomics of Infectious Diseases Malaria and TB  

E-print Network

Genetics and Genomics of Infectious Diseases Malaria and TB One Day Seminar: 14th June 2013 erythrocytes: a flexible and genetically tractable human malaria model 11.00 - 11-30: Coffee 11.30 - 12.00: Julian Rayner Group Leader, Malaria Programme , Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute New approaches to scaling

Brierley, Andrew

291

Infectious Diseases and Extinction Risk in Wild Mammals  

E-print Network

Infectious Diseases and Extinction Risk in Wild Mammals AMY B. PEDERSEN, KATE E. JONES,§ CHARLES L.S.A., and Department of Animal and Plant Sciences, University of Sheffield, Western Bank, Sheffield S10 2TN, United host extinctions. The majority of mammal species considered threatened by parasites were either

292

Infectious Diseases, Human Capital and Economic Aditya Goenka  

E-print Network

Infectious Diseases, Human Capital and Economic Growth Aditya Goenka (NUS) Lin Liu (University Policy; Human Capital Department of Economics, National University of Singapore, AS2, Level 6, 1 Arts is typically high in poorer countries, and low in richer countries. The evidence also shows that human capital

Bandyopadhyay, Antar

293

Augmenting Spatio-Textual Search With an Infectious Disease Ontology  

E-print Network

Augmenting Spatio-Textual Search With an Infectious Disease Ontology Michael D. Lieberman Jagan Sperling HUD Office of Policy Development & Research (PD&R) 451 7th St. SW, Room 8146 Washington, DC 20410 USA Jon.Sperling@hud.gov Abstract-- A system is described that automatically categorizes

Samet, Hanan

294

Evolutionary analysis of the dynamics of viral infectious disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many organisms that cause infectious diseases, particularly RNA viruses, mutate so rapidly that their evolutionary and ecological behaviours are inextricably linked. Consequently, aspects of the transmission and epidemiology of these pathogens are imprinted on the genetic diversity of their genomes. Large-scale empirical analyses of the evolutionary dynamics of important pathogens are now feasible owing to the increasing availability of pathogen

Oliver G. Pybus; Andrew Rambaut

2009-01-01

295

Mathematical Studies of Dynamics and Evolution of Infectious Diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

The practical importance of understanding the dynamics and evolution of infectious diseases is steadily increasing in the contemporary world. One of the most important mortality factors for the human population is malaria. Every year, hundreds of millions of people suffer from malaria, and more than a million children die. One of the obstacles of controlling malaria is the emergence of

Yoh Iwasa; Kazunori Sato; Yasuhiro Takeuchi

296

The role of evolution in the emergence of infectious diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is unclear when, where and how novel pathogens such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), monkeypox and severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) will cross the barriers that separate their natural reservoirs from human populations and ignite the epidemic spread of novel infectious diseases. New pathogens are believed to emerge from animal reservoirs when ecological changes increase the pathogen's opportunities to

Rustom Antia; Roland R. Regoes; Jacob C. Koella; Carl T. Bergstrom

2003-01-01

297

Environmental Change, Global Warming and Infectious Diseases in Northern Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

We are increasing our clinical surveillance for new and increasing infectious diseases that may relate to environmental changes occurring in the short term and global warming over the longer term. It is predicted that with global warming the tropical north of Australia will become both hotter and wetter. This is likely to expand the receptive area within Australia for mosquito-borne

Bart J. Currie

2001-01-01

298

Network Television Evening News Coverage of Infectious Disease Events.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines coverage of several infectious diseases and teenage suicide to see whether television news favors covering illness where it clusters or when it occurs near major news centers where it is easier to cover. Finds that television news did go to where the illness broke out but tended to favor reporting urban over rural suicides. (RS)

Greenberg, Michael; Wartenberg, Daniel

1990-01-01

299

PH 412 Syllabus 2014 Infectious Disease Epidemiology and Prevention  

E-print Network

importance. Specific areas that will be addressed include: epidemiologic methods and statistics used epidemiology and prevention 2) Discuss and execute specific methods and statistics used to report and researchPH 412 Syllabus 2014 PH 412 Infectious Disease Epidemiology and Prevention Spring Quarter 2014

Contractor, Anis

300

INFECTIOUS AND COMMUNICABLE DISEASES. RESOURCE MATERIAL FOR TEACHERS.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

DESCRIPTIONS OF TWENTY-FIVE INFECTIOUS AND COMMUNICABLE DISEASES INCLUDE CAUSES, SYMPTOMS, EFFECTS, TREATMENT AND PREVENTIVE MEASURES. IT HAS BEEN DISCOVERED THAT RESPIRATORY AILMENTS OF A COMMUNICABLE NATURE ARE THE MOST COMMON CAUSE OF ABSENTEEISM AMONG STUDENTS. INFORMATION IS INTENDED FOR THE USE OF TEACHERS OF HEALTH EDUCATION OR OTHER…

ABRAMS, IRVING; HAWKINS, BARBARA A.

301

Aids and Infectious Diseases (aid) Pmp 2013 Report  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The AIDS and Infectious Diseases (AID) PMP of the WFS contributed this year with a session on August 22nd to the Plenary Sessions of the International Seminars on Planetary Emergencies and Associated Meetings--46th Session: The Role of Science in the Third Millennium (Erice, 19-24 August 2013). Furthermore a workshop on August 24th was organized...

Buonaguro, Franco M.

2014-07-01

302

Origins of major human infectious diseases Nathan D. Wolfe1  

E-print Network

pathogens, including virulent viruses like Ebola and Marburg, periodically infect human hosts but then fail­6 . Evolutionary biologists realize that infectious diseases, as a leading cause of human morbidity and mor- tality. We exclude macroparasites (in the sense of ref. 7), as well as normally benign commensals that cause

Boudouresque, Charles F.

303

The Infectious Diseases Impact Statement: A Mechanism for Addressing Emerging Diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of an Infectious Diseases Impact Statement (IDIS) is proposed for predictive assessments of local changes in infectious diseases arising from human-engineered activi- ties. IDIS is intended to be analogous to an Environmental Impact Statement. The drafting of an IDIS for specific activities, particularly in developing nations, would provide a formal mechanism for examining potential changes in local health

Edward McSweegan

1996-01-01

304

Marek's Disease Virus As a Vectored Vaccine for Infectious Laryngotracheitis and Marek's Disease  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

We replaced the MEQ gene from a bacterial artificial chromosome clone of Marek’s disease virus with gJ and gB genes from infectious laryngotracheitis virus. We will compare the efficacy of these vectored vaccines with commercial vaccines for Marek’s disease and infectious laryngotracheitis....

305

Traveler's guide to avoiding infectious diseases  

MedlinePLUS

... health care provider or local travel clinic. PREVENTING MALARIA Malaria is a serious disease that spreads by the ... It occurs mainly in tropical and subtropical climates. Malaria can cause high fevers, shaking chills, flu-like ...

306

Helicobacter pylori: an emerging infectious disease.  

PubMed

Helicobacter pylori is the most common chronic bacterial infection in the world, colonizing the stomachs of more than 50% of the human population. The discovery of this bacterium has changed the concept of care and management for peptic ulcer disease, mucosa-associated lymphomas, gastritis, and gastric carcinoma. Although the mode of transmission is not definitively known, person-to-person contact is suspected. This article discusses H. pylori, the associated clinical syndromes and diseases, risk factors, and current pharmacologic management. PMID:10971934

McManus, T J

2000-08-01

307

The spread of disease with birth and death on networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We introduce a modified epidemic model on regular and scale-free networks. In this model, we consider the birth rate dgr, cure rate ggr, infection rate lgr, and death rates agr and bgr. Through mean-field analysis, we find that on a regular network there is an epidemic threshold lgrc dependent on the parameters dgr, ggr, agr, and bgr, while for a power law degree distribution network the epidemic threshold is absent in the thermodynamic limit. The result is the same as that of the standard SIS model. This reminds us that the structure of the networks plays a very important role in the spreading properties of infectious disease.

Liu, Jingzhou; Tang, Yifa; Yang, Z. R.

2004-08-01

308

Programmed Cell Death in Parkinson's Disease  

PubMed Central

Parkinson's disease is a debilitating disorder characterized by a progressive loss of dopaminergic neurons caused by programmed cell death. The aim of this review is to provide an up-to-date summary of the major programmed cell death pathways as they relate to PD. For a long time, programmed cell death has been synonymous with apoptosis but there now is evidence that other types of programmed cell death exist, such as autophagic cell death or programmed necrosis, and that these types of cell death are relevant to PD. The pathways and signals covered here include namely the death receptors, BCL-2 family, caspases, calpains, cdk5, p53, PARP-1, autophagy, mitophagy, mitochondrial fragmentation, and parthanatos. The review will present evidence from postmortem PD studies, toxin-induced models (especially MPTP/MPP+, 6-hydroxydopamine and rotenone), and from ?-synuclein, LRRK2, Parkin, DJ-1, and PINK1 genetic models of PD, both in vitro and in vivo. PMID:22908196

Venderova, Katerina; Park, David S.

2012-01-01

309

Rapid non-invasive tests for diagnostics of infectious diseases  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A rapid test for an infectious disease that can be used at point-of-care at a physician's office, a pharmacy, or in the field is critical for the prompt and appropriate therapeutic intervention. Ultimately by treating infections early on will decrease transmission of the pathogen. In contrast to metabolic diseases or cancer where multiple biomarkers are required, infectious disease targets (e.g. antigen, antibody, nucleic acid) are simple and specific for the pathogen causing the disease. Our laboratory has focused on three major infectious disease; HIV, Tuberculosis, and Malaria. These diseases are pandemic in much of the world thus putting natives, tourists and military personnel at risk for becoming infected, and upon returning to the U.S., transmitting these diseases to their contacts. Our devices are designed to detect antigens, antibodies or nucleic acids in blood or saliva samples in less than 30 minutes. An overview describing the current status of each of the three diagnostic platforms is presented. These microfluidic point-of-care devices will be relatively inexpensive, disposable, and user friendly.

Malamud, Daniel

2014-06-01

310

AAV Vectors Vaccines Against Infectious Diseases  

PubMed Central

Since their discovery as a tool for gene transfer, vectors derived from the adeno-associated virus (AAV) have been used for gene therapy applications and attracted scientist to this field for their exceptional properties of efficiency of in vivo gene transfer and the level and duration of transgene expression. For many years, AAVs have been considered as low immunogenic vectors due to their ability to induce long-term expression of non-self-proteins in contrast to what has been observed with other viral vectors, such as adenovirus, for which strong immune responses against the same transgene products were documented. The perceived low immunogenicity likely explains why the use of AAV vectors for vaccination was not seriously considered before the early 2000s. Indeed, while analyses conducted using a variety of transgenes and animal species slowly changed the vision of immunological properties of AAVs, an increasing number of studies were also performed in the field of vaccination. Even if the comparison with other modes of vaccination was not systemically performed, the analyses conducted so far in the field of active immunotherapy strongly suggest that AAVs possess some interesting features to be used as tools to produce an efficient and sustained antibody response. In addition, recent studies also highlighted the potential of AAVs for passive immunotherapy. This review summarizes the main studies conducted to evaluate the potential of AAV vectors for vaccination against infectious agents and discusses their advantages and drawbacks. Altogether, the variety of studies conducted in this field contributes to the understanding of the immunological properties of this versatile virus and to the definition of its possible future applications. PMID:24478774

Nieto, Karen; Salvetti, Anna

2014-01-01

311

PCR/LDR/Universal Array Platforms for the Diagnosis of Infectious Disease  

PubMed Central

Infectious diseases account for between 14 and 17 million deaths worldwide each year. Accurate and rapid diagnosis of bacterial, fungal, viral, and parasitic infections is therefore essential to reduce the morbidity and mortality associated with these diseases. Classical microbiological and serological methods have long served as the gold standard for diagnosis but are increasingly being replaced by molecular diagnostic methods that demonstrate increased sensitivity and specificity and provide an identification of the etiologic agent in a shorter period of time. PCR/LDR coupled with universal array detection provides a highly sensitive and specific platform for the detection and identification of bacterial and viral infections. PMID:20217576

Pingle, Maneesh; Rundell, Mark; Das, Sanchita; Golightly, Linnie M.; Barany, Francis

2015-01-01

312

Infectious Diseases - Diseases Related to Service in Gulf War, Iraq, and Afghanistan  

MedlinePLUS

... Wars & Operations Exposure Categories A-Z Index Agent Orange Agent Orange Home Facts about Herbicides Veterans' Diseases Birth Defects ... Veterans Health Initiative Veterans Health Initiative Home Agent Orange Gulf War Infectious Diseases of Southwest Asia War ...

313

The Role of Ecotones in Emerging Infectious Diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recognition of the significance of the boundary between ecological systems, often referred to as the ecotone, has a long history\\u000a in the ecological sciences and in zoonotic disease research. More recent research in landscape ecology has produced an expanded\\u000a view of ecotones and elaboration of their characteristics and functions in ecosystems. Parallel research on emerging infectious\\u000a diseases (EIDs) and the

Dickson Despommier; Brett R. Ellis; Bruce A. Wilcox

2006-01-01

314

Travel and migration associated infectious diseases morbidity in Europe, 2008  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Europeans represent the majority of international travellers and clinicians encountering returned patients have an essential role in recognizing, and communicating travel-associated public health risks. METHODS: To investigate the morbidity of travel associated infectious diseases in European travellers, we analysed diagnoses with demographic, clinical and travel-related predictors of disease, in 6957 ill returned travellers who presented in 2008 to EuroTravNet

Vanessa Field; Philippe Gautret; Patricia Schlagenhauf; Gerd-Dieter Burchard; Eric Caumes; Mogens Jensenius; Francesco Castelli; Effrossyni Gkrania-Klotsas; Leisa Weld; Rogelio Lopez-Velez; Peter de Vries; Frank von Sonnenburg; Louis Loutan; Philippe Parola

2010-01-01

315

Climate Change and the Geographic Distribution of Infectious Diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our ability to predict the effects of climate change on the spread of infectious diseases is in its infancy. Numerous, and\\u000a in some cases conflicting, predictions have been developed, principally based on models of biological processes or mapping\\u000a of current and historical disease statistics. Current debates on whether climate change, relative to socioeconomic determinants,\\u000a will be a major influence on

Joshua Rosenthal

2009-01-01

316

Animal Migration and Infectious Disease Risk  

Microsoft Academic Search

Animal migrations are often spectacular, and migratory species harbor zoonotic pathogens of importance to humans. Animal migrations are expected to enhance the global spread of pathogens and facilitate cross-species transmission. This does happen, but new research has also shown that migration allows hosts to escape from infected habitats, reduces disease levels when infected animals do not migrate successfully, and may

Sonia Altizer; Rebecca Bartel; Barbara A. Han

2011-01-01

317

Vaccine approaches with Edinburgh Infectious Diseases  

E-print Network

animals; (g) risk for public health in case of development of antimicrobial resistance outweighs and Alzheimer's disease · Sanofi ­ universal flu #12;Strengths Weaknesses Academic reputation Large animal of England #12;#12;#12;#12;"[An antibiotic's] marketing authorisation shall be refused on any

Maizels, Rick

318

75 FR 1119 - Agency Information Collection (Survey of Appropriate and Timely Diagnosis of Infectious Diseases...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Infectious Diseases (Leishmaniasis), VA Form 10-0476. b. Survey of Appropriate and Timely Diagnosis of Infectious Diseases (Malaria), VA Form 10-0476a. OMB Control Number: 2900-New (VA Form 10-0476). Type of Review: New collection....

2010-01-08

319

Talking with Children: Tips for Caregivers, Parents, and Teachers during Infectious Disease Outbreaks  

MedlinePLUS

... Children: TIPS FOR CAREGIVERS, PARENTS, AND TEACHERS DURING INFECTIOUS DISEASE OUTBREAKS What You Should Know When children and youth watch news on TV about an infectious disease outbreak, read about it in the news, ...

320

75 FR 8084 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel...Plaza Hotel--Silver Spring, 8777 Georgia Avenue, Silver Spring, MD 20910. Contact...Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel...Plaza Hotel--Silver Spring, 8777 Georgia...

2010-02-23

321

78 FR 38998 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel; Immunity...applications. Place: Sheraton Silver Spring Hotel, 8777 Georgia Avenue, Silver...Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel;...

2013-06-28

322

76 FR 13649 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel; Martin Delaney...applications. Place: Hilton Silver Spring, 8727 Colesville Road, Silver Spring...856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research, National Institutes...

2011-03-14

323

76 FR 51995 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel, An Integrated...proposals. Place: Hilton Silver Spring, 8727 Colesville Road, Silver Spring...856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research, National Institutes...

2011-08-19

324

76 FR 14673 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel; IPCP Microbicides...Place: Crowne Plaza Hotel--Silver Spring, 8777 Georgia Avenue, Silver Spring...856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research, National Institutes...

2011-03-17

325

77 FR 29678 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel; ``Integrated...Place: Crowne Plaza Hotel--Silver Spring, 8777 Georgia Avenue, Silver Spring...856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research, National Institutes...

2012-05-18

326

78 FR 59707 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel; NIAID Peer...proposals. Place: Sheraton--Silver Spring, Cedar Room, 8777 Georgia Avenue...856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research, National Institutes...

2013-09-27

327

75 FR 18510 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel; ``In Vitro...proposals. Place: Hilton Silver Spring, 8727 Colesville Road, Silver Spring...Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel; NIAID...

2010-04-12

328

78 FR 64964 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Amended Notice of Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Amended Notice of Meeting...of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel, October...Hotel to the Sheraton Silver Spring Hotel, 8777 Georgia Avenue, Silver Spring, MD 20910. The meeting...

2013-10-30

329

75 FR 994 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel; Therapeutics...Place: Crowne Plaza Hotel--Silver Spring, 8777 Georgia Avenue, Silver Spring...Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel;...

2010-01-07

330

75 FR 56117 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel; Protective...Place: Crowne Plaza Hotel--Silver Spring, 8777 Georgia Avenue, Silver Spring...856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research, National Institutes...

2010-09-15

331

75 FR 7488 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel, NIAID Product...Place: Crowne Plaza Hotel--Silver Spring, 8777 Georgia Avenue, Silver Spring...856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research, National Institutes...

2010-02-19

332

76 FR 31618 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings...Crowne Plaza Hotel--Silver Spring, 8777 Georgia Avenue, Silver Spring, MD 20910. Contact Person...Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...

2011-06-01

333

76 FR 10383 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel; Genomics...Place: Crowne Plaza Hotel-Silver Spring, 8777 Georgia Avenue, Silver Spring...856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research, National Institutes...

2011-02-24

334

76 FR 18230 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel; Targeted...Place: Crowne Plaza Hotel--Silver Spring, 8777 Georgia Avenue, Silver Spring...Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel; Immune...

2011-04-01

335

78 FR 65344 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel; Delivering...applications. Place: Sheraton Silver Spring Hotel, 8777 Georgia Avenue, Silver...856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research, National Institutes...

2013-10-31

336

76 FR 32980 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel; NIAID Peer...Place: Crowne Plaza Hotel--Silver Spring, 8777 Georgia Avenue, Silver Spring...Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel;...

2011-06-07

337

78 FR 737 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel U.S...applications. Place: Sheraton Silver Spring Hotel, 8777 Georgia Avenue, Silver...856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research, National Institutes...

2013-01-04

338

75 FR 19408 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel, In Vitro...proposals. Place: Hilton Silver Spring, 8727 Colesville Road, Silver Spring...Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel, ``In...

2010-04-14

339

78 FR 5467 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel; ``OMICS...applications. Place: Sheraton Silver Spring Hotel, 8777 Georgia Avenue, Silver...856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research, National Institutes...

2013-01-25

340

76 FR 63311 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel; HIV Vaccine...Place: Crowne Plaza Hotel--Silver Spring, 8777 Georgia Avenue, Silver Spring...Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel; NIAID...

2011-10-12

341

76 FR 27069 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Resource Related Research Projects for AIDS, Allergy, Immunology and Transplantation...

2011-05-10

342

76 FR 65204 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: Microbiology, Infectious Diseases and AIDS Initial Review Group, Acquired...Immunology, and Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research, National Institutes...

2011-10-20

343

75 FR 62546 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: Microbiology, Infectious Diseases and AIDS Initial Review Group, Acquired...Immunology, and Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research, National Institutes...

2010-10-12

344

77 FR 64816 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: Microbiology, Infectious Diseases and AIDS Initial Review Group; Acquired...Immunology, and Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research, National Institutes...

2012-10-23

345

75 FR 8975 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...301-451-3684, bgustafson@niaid.nih.gov. Name of Committee: Microbiology, Infectious Diseases and AIDS Initial Review Group, Acquired...Immunology, and Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research, National Institutes...

2010-02-26

346

78 FR 68857 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: Microbiology, Infectious Diseases and AIDS Initial Review Group; Acquired...Immunology, and Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research, National Institutes...

2013-11-15

347

Why We Need Crowdsourced Data in Infectious Disease Surveillance  

PubMed Central

In infectious disease surveillance, public health data such as environmental, hospital, or census data have been extensively explored to create robust models of disease dynamics. However, this information is also subject to its own biases, including latency, high cost, contributor biases, and imprecise resolution. Simultaneously, new technologies, including Internet and mobile phone based tools, now enable information to be garnered directly from individuals at the point of care. Here, we consider how these crowdsourced data offer the opportunity to fill gaps in and augment current epidemiological models. Challenges and methods for overcoming limitations of the data are also reviewed. As more new information sources become mature, incorporating these novel data into epidemiological frameworks will enable us to learn more about infectious disease dynamics. PMID:23689991

Chunara, Rumi; Smolinski, Mark S.; Brownstein, John S.

2013-01-01

348

A guide to interpreting economic studies in infectious diseases.  

PubMed

Healthcare providers continue to seek improved methods for preventing, detecting and treating diseases that affect human survival and quality of life. At the same time, there will always be financial constraints because of limited societal resources. Many of the discussions on how to provide economically sound solutions to this challenge have not fully engaged the input of clinicians in the field. The purpose of this review is to increase economic knowledge for clinicians. We cover healthcare cost elements and methods used to assign value to a health outcome. We outline the challenges in conducting economic studies in the field of infectious diseases. Finally, we discuss the meaning of efficiency from multiple perspectives, and how the concept of economic externalities applies to infectious diseases. PMID:20825433

Roberts, R R; Mensah, E K; Weinstein, R A

2010-12-01

349

An integrated assessment framework for climate change and infectious diseases.  

PubMed Central

Many potential human health effects have been hypothesized to result either directly or indirectly from global climate change. Changes in the prevalence and spread of infectious diseases are some of the most widely cited potential effects of climate change, and could have significant consequences for human health as well as economic and societal impacts. These changes in disease incidence would be mediated through biologic, ecologic, sociologic, and epidemiologic processes that interact with each other and which may themselves be influenced by climate change. Although hypothesized infectious disease effects have been widely discussed, there have not yet been thorough quantitative studies addressing the many processes at work. In part this is because of the complexity of the many indirect and feedback interactions or mechanisms that bear on all aspects of the climate issue. It also results from the difficulty of including the multitude of always-changing determinants of these diseases. This paper proposes a framework for an integrated assessment of the impacts of climate change on infectious diseases. The framework allows identification of potentially important indirect interactions or mechanisms, identification of important research gaps, and a means of integrating targeted research from a variety of disciplines into an enhanced understanding of the whole system. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:10210687

Chan, N Y; Ebi, K L; Smith, F; Wilson, T F; Smith, A E

1999-01-01

350

Infectious agents associated with respiratory disease in pheasants.  

PubMed

In a case-control study of the infectious agents associated with natural outbreaks of respiratory disease in pheasants, 28 batches of birds from sites affected by disease and eight batches of birds from unaffected sites were examined by six veterinary laboratories in England, Wales and Scotland, and tested for mycoplasmas, other bacteria and viruses. Sinusitis was the commonest sign of disease and was associated with Mycoplasma gallisepticum as detected by PCR in the trachea (P < 0.05) and conjunctiva (P < 0.01). Sinusitis was also associated with pasteurella cultured from the sinus (P < 0.05), antibody to avian pneumovirus (APV) (P < 0.01) and avian coronaviruses as detected by reverse-transcriptase PCR (P < 0.05); there was no association between disease and APV as detected by PCR. Avian coronaviruses were the most common infectious agents detected. They were genetically close to infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) but differed in their gene sequence from all the serotypes of IBV previously identified in domestic fowl, and serological tests with six known IBV types showed little cross reactivity. Mycoplasma species other than M gallisepticum were cultured in 18 batches of pheasants but, with the exception of Mycoplasma gallinaceum, were not associated with disease. PMID:12054135

Welchman, D de B; Bradbury, J M; Cavanagh, D; Aebischer, N J

2002-05-25

351

The landscape genetics of infectious disease emergence and spread  

PubMed Central

The spread of parasites is inherently a spatial process often embedded in physically complex landscapes. It is therefore not surprising that infectious disease researchers are increasingly taking a landscape genetics perspective to elucidate mechanisms underlying basic ecological processes driving infectious disease dynamics and to understand the linkage between spatially-dependent population processes and the geographic distribution of genetic variation within both hosts and parasites. The increasing availability of genetic information on hosts and parasites when coupled to their ecological interactions can lead to insights for predicting patterns of disease emergence, spread, and control. Here, we review research progress in this area based on four different motivations for the application of landscape genetics approaches: (1) assessing the spatial organization of genetic variation in parasites as a function of environmental variability, (2) using host population genetic structure as a means to parameterize ecological dynamics that indirectly influence parasite populations, e.g. gene flow and movement pathways across heterogeneous landscapes and the concurrent transport of infectious agents, (3) elucidating the temporal and spatial scales of disease processes, and (4) reconstructing and understanding infectious disease invasion. Throughout this review, we emphasise that landscape genetic principles are relevant to infection dynamics across a range of scales from within host dynamics to global geographic patterns and that they can also be applied to unconventional “landscapes” such as heterogeneous contact networks underlying the spread of human and livestock diseases. We conclude by discussing some general considerations and problems for inferring epidemiological processes from genetic data and try to identify possible future directions and applications for this rapidly expanding field. PMID:20618897

Biek, Roman; Real, Leslie A.

2011-01-01

352

Genome-wide association studies and infectious disease.  

PubMed

The identification of genetic variants predisposing to complex diseases and phenotypes represent a challenge for geneticists in the early part of the 21st century. These are not simple Mendelian disorders caused by single mutations, such as cystic fibrosis or Huntington's disease, but common diseases that are usually polygenic in origin. The predisposing genes can be susceptibility factors or protective factors. One example of such a complex disease is the inflammatory skin disease psoriasis. However, another example could be protection from an infectious disease. Both of these phenotypes are due in part to the presence of low-risk variants in the host. Moreover, all of these complex phenotypes require environmental triggers as well and, in the case of infectious diseases, these are pathogens. In the case of other common diseases such as cardiovascular disease the triggers are often lifestyle-related issues such as diet or exercise. Genome-wide association studies are now identifying some of these genetic susceptibility factors. PMID:20370638

Bowcock, Anne M

2010-01-01

353

Risk of Infectious Disease Transmission Through Use of Allografts  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a – \\u000a The number of musculoskeletal and other allografts implanted in patients continues to increase because of the desirable characteristics\\u000a of such grafts for use in plastic and reconstructive surgery. Allografts, however, can harbor pathogens and pose at least\\u000a some risk for transmission of infectious diseases to recipients.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a – \\u000a Case reports document that bacterial, viral, and prion diseases (Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease or

Robert H. Kennedy; C. Randal Mills; Paul Brown

354

Infectious Disease Management through Point-of-Care Personalized Medicine Molecular Diagnostic Technologies  

PubMed Central

Infectious disease management essentially consists in identifying the microbial cause(s) of an infection, initiating if necessary antimicrobial therapy against microbes, and controlling host reactions to infection. In clinical microbiology, the turnaround time of the diagnostic cycle (>24 hours) often leads to unnecessary suffering and deaths; approaches to relieve this burden include rapid diagnostic procedures and more efficient transmission or interpretation of molecular microbiology results. Although rapid nucleic acid-based diagnostic testing has demonstrated that it can impact on the transmission of hospital-acquired infections, we believe that such life-saving procedures should be performed closer to the patient, in dedicated 24/7 laboratories of healthcare institutions, or ideally at point of care. While personalized medicine generally aims at interrogating the genomic information of a patient, drug metabolism polymorphisms, for example, to guide drug choice and dosage, personalized medicine concepts are applicable in infectious diseases for the (rapid) identification of a disease-causing microbe and determination of its antimicrobial resistance profile, to guide an appropriate antimicrobial treatment for the proper management of the patient. The implementation of point-of-care testing for infectious diseases will require acceptance by medical authorities, new technological and communication platforms, as well as reimbursement practices such that time- and life-saving procedures become available to the largest number of patients. PMID:25562799

Bissonnette, Luc; Bergeron, Michel G.

2012-01-01

355

HDL in infectious diseases and sepsis.  

PubMed

During infection significant alterations in lipid metabolism and lipoprotein composition occur. Triglyceride and VLDL cholesterol levels increase, while reduced HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) and LDL cholesterol (LDL-C) levels are observed. More importantly, endotoxemia modulates HDL composition and size: phospholipids are reduced as well as apolipoprotein (apo) A-I, while serum amyloid A (SAA) and secretory phospholipase A2 (sPLA2) dramatically increase, and, although the total HDL particle number does not change, a significant decrease in the number of small- and medium-size particles is observed. Low HDL-C levels inversely correlate with the severity of septic disease and associate with an exaggerated systemic inflammatory response. HDL, as well as other plasma lipoproteins, can bind and neutralize Gram-negative bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and Gram-positive bacterial lipoteichoic acid (LTA), thus favoring the clearance of these products. HDLs are emerging also as a relevant player during parasitic infections, and a specific component of HDL, namely, apoL-1, confers innate immunity against trypanosome by favoring lysosomal swelling which kills the parasite. During virus infections, proteins associated with the modulation of cholesterol bioavailability in the lipid rafts such as ABCA1 and SR-BI have been shown to favor virus entry into the cells. Pharmacological studies support the benefit of recombinant HDL or apoA-I mimetics during bacterial infection, while apoL-1-nanobody complexes were tested for trypanosome infection. Finally, SR-BI antagonism represents a novel and forefront approach interfering with hepatitis C virus entry which is currently tested in clinical studies. From the coming years, we have to expect new and compelling observations further linking HDL to innate immunity and infections. PMID:25522999

Pirillo, Angela; Catapano, Alberico Luigi; Norata, Giuseppe Danilo

2015-01-01

356

Guidelines to implement medical examiner/coroner-based surveillance for fatal infectious diseases and bioterrorism ("Med-X").  

PubMed

Medical examiners and coroners investigate deaths that are sudden, unexplained, and violent. Oftentimes these deaths are a consequence of infections, many of which have public health consequences. Additionally, because deaths from bioterrorism are homicides, they fall under the jurisdiction of medical examiners and coroners. Surveillance for infectious disease-related deaths can enhance the opportunities to recognize these deaths. Beginning in 2000, the New Mexico Office of the Medical Investigator developed and tested a medical examiner surveillance model for bioterrorism and infectious disease mortality ("Med-X") using a set of symptoms to determine which cases should receive an autopsy and a set of pathology-based syndromes for early reporting of cases to public health authorities. This model demonstrated that many of the symptoms had a high predictive value for infections and were useful criteria for autopsy performance. The causative organism was identified for 81% of infections of which 58% were notifiable conditions by public health standards. Uniform criteria for performing autopsies and reporting cases to public health authorities enhance surveillance for notifiable infectious diseases and increase the probability of recognizing fatalities related to bioterrorism. We have developed guidelines for medical examiners, coroners and their public health partners to use in implementing Med-X surveillance in their jurisdictions. These guidelines encompass definitions of symptoms and syndromes, specimen collection and storage procedures, laboratory diagnostic approaches, and processes for case flow, case reporting, and data collection. We also suggest resources for autopsy biosafety information and funding. PMID:20683243

Nolte, Kurt B; Fischer, Marc; Reagan, Sarah; Lynfield, Ruth

2010-12-01

357

DISEASES OF SOYBEAN: SUDDEN DEATH SYNDROME  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Soybean yield losses due to sudden death syndrome (SDS) occur regularly. This relatively new disease caused by a toxin producing form of the Fusarium solani fungus [F. solani f. sp. glycines Roy, (= F. virguliforme O’Donnell)] has become a serious disease of soybeans in the southern and midwestern ...

358

Molecular Methods and Platforms for Infectious Diseases Testing  

PubMed Central

The superior sensitivity and specificity associated with the use of molecular assays has greatly improved the field of infectious disease diagnostics by providing clinicians with results that are both accurate and rapidly obtained. Herein, we review molecularly based infectious disease diagnostic tests that are Food and Drug Administration approved or cleared and commercially available in the United States as of December 31, 2010. We describe specific assays and their performance, as stated in the Food and Drug Administration's Summary of Safety and Effectiveness Data or the Office of In Vitro Diagnostic Device Evaluation and Safety's decision summaries, product inserts, or peer-reviewed literature. We summarize indications for testing, limitations, and challenges related to implementation in a clinical laboratory setting for a wide variety of common pathogens. The information presented in this review will be particularly useful for laboratories that plan to implement or expand their molecular offerings in the near term. PMID:21871973

Emmadi, Rajyasree; Boonyaratanakornkit, Jerry B.; Selvarangan, Rangaraj; Shyamala, Venkatakrishna; Zimmer, Barbara L.; Williams, Laurina; Bryant, Bonita; Schutzbank, Ted; Schoonmaker, Michele M.; Amos Wilson, Jean A.; Hall, Leslie; Pancholi, Preeti; Bernard, Kathryn

2011-01-01

359

Bats, emerging infectious diseases, and the rabies paradigm revisited  

PubMed Central

The significance of bats as sources of emerging infectious diseases has been increasingly appreciated, and new data have been accumulated rapidly during recent years. For some emerging pathogens the bat origin has been confirmed (such as lyssaviruses, henipaviruses, coronaviruses), for other it has been suggested (filoviruses). Several recently identified viruses remain to be ‘orphan’ but have a potential for further emergence (such as Tioman, Menangle, and Pulau viruses). In the present review we summarize information on major bat-associated emerging infections and discuss specific characteristics of bats as carriers of pathogens (from evolutionary, ecological, and immunological positions). We also discuss drivers and forces of an infectious disease emergence and describe various existing and potential approaches for control and prevention of such infections at individual, populational, and societal levels. PMID:24149032

Kuzmin, Ivan V.; Bozick, Brooke; Guagliardo, Sarah A.; Kunkel, Rebekah; Shak, Joshua R.; Tong, Suxiang; Rupprecht, Charles E

2011-01-01

360

Spread of Infectious Diseases with a Latent Period  

E-print Network

Infectious diseases spread through human networks. Susceptible-Infected-Removed (SIR) model is one of the epidemic models to describe infection dynamics on a complex network connecting individuals. In the metapopulation SIR model, each node represents a population (group) which has many individuals. In this paper, we propose a modified metapopulation SIR model in which a latent period is taken into account. We call it SIIR model. We divide the infection period into two stages: an infected stage, which is the same as the previous model, and a seriously ill stage, in which individuals are infected and cannot move to the other populations. The two infectious stages in our modified metapopulation SIR model produce a discontinuous final size distribution. Individuals in the infected stage spread the disease like individuals in the seriously ill stage and never recover directly, which makes an effective recovery rate smaller than the given recovery rate.

Mizuno, Kanako

2015-01-01

361

Infectious prion diseases in humans: cannibalism, iatrogenicity and zoonoses.  

PubMed

In contrast with other neurodegenerative disorders associated to protein misfolding, human prion diseases include infectious forms (also called transmitted forms) such as kuru, iatrogenic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease and variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. The transmissible agent is thought to be solely composed of the abnormal isoform (PrP(Sc)) of the host-encoded prion protein that accumulated in the central nervous system of affected individuals. Compared to its normal counterpart, PrP(Sc) is ?-sheet enriched and aggregated and its propagation is based on an autocatalytic conversion process. Increasing evidence supports the view that conformational variations of PrP(Sc) encoded the biological properties of the various prion strains that have been isolated by transmission studies in experimental models. Infectious forms of human prion diseases played a pivotal role in the emergence of the prion concept and in the characterization of the very unconventional properties of prions. They provide a unique model to understand how prion strains are selected and propagate in humans. Here, we review and discuss how genetic factors interplay with strain properties and route of transmission to influence disease susceptibility, incubation period and phenotypic expression in the light of the kuru epidemics due to ritual endocannibalism, the various series iatrogenic diseases secondary to extractive growth hormone treatment or dura mater graft and the epidemics of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease linked to dietary exposure to the agent of bovine spongiform encephalopathy. PMID:24956437

Haďk, Stéphane; Brandel, Jean-Philippe

2014-08-01

362

The Guinea Pig as a Model of Infectious Diseases  

PubMed Central

The words ‘guinea pig’ are synonymous with scientific experimentation, but much less is known about this species than many other laboratory animals. This animal model has been used for approximately 200 y and was the first to be used in the study of infectious diseases such as tuberculosis and diphtheria. Today the guinea pig is used as a model for a number of infectious bacterial diseases, including pulmonary, sexually transmitted, ocular and aural, gastrointestinal, and other infections that threaten the lives of humans. Most studies on the immune response to these diseases, with potential therapies and vaccines, have been conducted in animal models (for example, mouse) that may have less similarity to humans because of the large number of immunologic reagents available for these other species. This review presents some of the diseases for which the guinea pig is regarded as the premier model to study infections because of its similarity to humans with regard to symptoms and immune response. Furthermore, for diseases in which guinea pigs share parallel pathogenesis of disease with humans, they are potentially the best animal model for designing treatments and vaccines. Future studies of immune regulation of these diseases, novel therapies, and preventative measures require the development of new immunologic reagents designed specifically for the guinea pig. PMID:18724774

Padilla-Carlin, Danielle J; McMurray, David N; Hickey, Anthony J

2008-01-01

363

Altered Antibody Profiles against Common Infectious Agents in Chronic Disease  

PubMed Central

Despite the important diagnostic value of evaluating antibody responses to individual human pathogens, antibody profiles against multiple infectious agents have not been used to explore health and disease mainly for technical reasons.  We hypothesized that the interplay between infection and chronic disease might be revealed by profiling antibodies against multiple agents. Here, the levels of antibodies against a panel of 13 common infectious agents were evaluated with the quantitative Luciferase Immunoprecipitation Systems (LIPS) in patients from three disease cohorts including those with pathogenic anti-interferon-? autoantibodies (IFN-? AAB), HIV and Sjögren’s syndrome (SjS) to determine if their antibody profiles differed from control subjects.  The IFN-? AAB patients compared to controls demonstrated statistically higher levels of antibodies against VZV (p=0.0003), EBV (p=0.002), CMV (p=0.003), and C. albicans (p=0.03), but lower antibody levels against poliovirus (p=0.04). Comparison of HIV patients with blood donor controls revealed that the patients had higher levels of antibodies against CMV (p=0.0008), HSV-2 (p=0.0008), EBV (p=0.001), and C. albicans (p=0.01), but showed decreased levels of antibodies against coxsackievirus B4 (p=0.0008), poliovirus (p=0.0005),   and HHV-6B (p=0.002). Lastly, SjS patients had higher levels of anti-EBV antibodies (p=0.03), but lower antibody levels against several enteroviruses including a newly identified picornavirus, HCoSV-A (p=0.004), coxsackievirus B4 (p=0.04), and poliovirus (p=0.02). For the IFN-? AAB and HIV cohorts, principal component analysis revealed unique antibody clusters that showed the potential to discriminate patients from controls.  The results suggest that antibody profiles against these and likely other common infectious agents may yield insight into the interplay between exposure to infectious agents, dysbiosis, adaptive immunity and disease activity. PMID:24312567

Burbelo, Peter D.; Ching, Kathryn H.; Morse, Caryn G.; Alevizos, Ilias; Bayat, Ahmad; Cohen, Jeffrey I.; Ali, Mir A.; Kapoor, Amit; Browne, Sarah K.; Holland, Steven M.; Kovacs, Joseph A.; Iadarola, Michael J.

2013-01-01

364

Altered antibody profiles against common infectious agents in chronic disease.  

PubMed

Despite the important diagnostic value of evaluating antibody responses to individual human pathogens, antibody profiles against multiple infectious agents have not been used to explore health and disease mainly for technical reasons.  We hypothesized that the interplay between infection and chronic disease might be revealed by profiling antibodies against multiple agents. Here, the levels of antibodies against a panel of 13 common infectious agents were evaluated with the quantitative Luciferase Immunoprecipitation Systems (LIPS) in patients from three disease cohorts including those with pathogenic anti-interferon-? autoantibodies (IFN-? AAB), HIV and Sjögren's syndrome (SjS) to determine if their antibody profiles differed from control subjects.  The IFN-? AAB patients compared to controls demonstrated statistically higher levels of antibodies against VZV (p=0.0003), EBV (p=0.002), CMV (p=0.003), and C. albicans (p=0.03), but lower antibody levels against poliovirus (p=0.04). Comparison of HIV patients with blood donor controls revealed that the patients had higher levels of antibodies against CMV (p=0.0008), HSV-2 (p=0.0008), EBV (p=0.001), and C. albicans (p=0.01), but showed decreased levels of antibodies against coxsackievirus B4 (p=0.0008), poliovirus (p=0.0005),   and HHV-6B (p=0.002). Lastly, SjS patients had higher levels of anti-EBV antibodies (p=0.03), but lower antibody levels against several enteroviruses including a newly identified picornavirus, HCoSV-A (p=0.004), coxsackievirus B4 (p=0.04), and poliovirus (p=0.02). For the IFN-? AAB and HIV cohorts, principal component analysis revealed unique antibody clusters that showed the potential to discriminate patients from controls.  The results suggest that antibody profiles against these and likely other common infectious agents may yield insight into the interplay between exposure to infectious agents, dysbiosis, adaptive immunity and disease activity. PMID:24312567

Burbelo, Peter D; Ching, Kathryn H; Morse, Caryn G; Alevizos, Ilias; Bayat, Ahmad; Cohen, Jeffrey I; Ali, Mir A; Kapoor, Amit; Browne, Sarah K; Holland, Steven M; Kovacs, Joseph A; Iadarola, Michael J

2013-01-01

365

“Wrong, but Useful”: Negotiating Uncertainty in Infectious Disease Modelling  

PubMed Central

For infectious disease dynamical models to inform policy for containment of infectious diseases the models must be able to predict; however, it is well recognised that such prediction will never be perfect. Nevertheless, the consensus is that although models are uncertain, some may yet inform effective action. This assumes that the quality of a model can be ascertained in order to evaluate sufficiently model uncertainties, and to decide whether or not, or in what ways or under what conditions, the model should be ‘used’. We examined uncertainty in modelling, utilising a range of data: interviews with scientists, policy-makers and advisors, and analysis of policy documents, scientific publications and reports of major inquiries into key livestock epidemics. We show that the discourse of uncertainty in infectious disease models is multi-layered, flexible, contingent, embedded in context and plays a critical role in negotiating model credibility. We argue that usability and stability of a model is an outcome of the negotiation that occurs within the networks and discourses surrounding it. This negotiation employs a range of discursive devices that renders uncertainty in infectious disease modelling a plastic quality that is amenable to ‘interpretive flexibility’. The utility of models in the face of uncertainty is a function of this flexibility, the negotiation this allows, and the contexts in which model outputs are framed and interpreted in the decision making process. We contend that rather than being based predominantly on beliefs about quality, the usefulness and authority of a model may at times be primarily based on its functional status within the broad social and political environment in which it acts. PMID:24146851

Christley, Robert M.; Mort, Maggie; Wynne, Brian; Wastling, Jonathan M.; Heathwaite, A. Louise; Pickup, Roger; Austin, Zoë; Latham, Sophia M.

2013-01-01

366

Pediatric infectious disease: unusual head and neck infections.  

PubMed

Infections in children in the head and neck regions are common, leading to frequent use and overuse of antibiotics. This review includes common as well as diverse and unusual infectious diseases, such as PFAPA (Periodic Fever Aphthous stomatitis, Pharyngitis, Adenitis) syndrome, Lemierre Syndrome, Arcanobacterium infection, and tuberculous and nontuberculous adenitis, which occur in infants, children, and adolescents. In addition, the first pediatric vaccines available with the potential to prevent oropharyngeal cancers are reviewed. PMID:22739434

Moffett, Kathryn S

2012-08-01

367

Wildlife Trade and the Emergence of Infectious Diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most recent emerging infectious diseases have been zoonotic in origin. It is our contention that one of the factors responsible\\u000a for such emergence is the trade in wildlife and bushmeat in particular. This article considers the effect of increasing diversity\\u000a in the species hunted on the probability of global epidemics such as SARS. In particular, we develop a mathematical model

Louise Swift; Paul R. Hunter; Alexander C. Lees; Diana J. Bell

2007-01-01

368

20 CFR 718.303 - Death from a respirable disease.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Death from a respirable disease. 718.303...DETERMINING COAL MINERS' TOTAL DISABILITY OR DEATH DUE TO PNEUMOCONIOSIS Presumptions Applicable...Eligibility Determinations § 718.303 Death from a respirable disease....

2013-04-01

369

20 CFR 718.303 - Death from a respirable disease.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Death from a respirable disease. 718.303...DETERMINING COAL MINERS' TOTAL DISABILITY OR DEATH DUE TO PNEUMOCONIOSIS Presumptions Applicable...Eligibility Determinations § 718.303 Death from a respirable disease....

2010-04-01

370

20 CFR 718.303 - Death from a respirable disease.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Death from a respirable disease. 718.303...DETERMINING COAL MINERS' TOTAL DISABILITY OR DEATH DUE TO PNEUMOCONIOSIS Presumptions Applicable...Eligibility Determinations § 718.303 Death from a respirable disease....

2011-04-01

371

20 CFR 718.303 - Death from a respirable disease.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Death from a respirable disease. 718.303...DETERMINING COAL MINERS' TOTAL DISABILITY OR DEATH DUE TO PNEUMOCONIOSIS Presumptions Applicable...Eligibility Determinations § 718.303 Death from a respirable disease....

2012-04-01

372

Imaging of infectious diseases using [18F] fluorodeoxyglucose PET.  

PubMed

The role of fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG PET) in the diagnostic localization of infectious diseases has expanded rapidly in years. In general, sensitivity of FDG PET in depicting infections compares favorably to other diagnostic modalities . It is shown to be useful in patients with suspected osteomyelitis, especially in chronic low grade infections and in vertebral osteomyelitis. although the sensitivity of FDG PET in prosthetic joint infections is very high, reported specificity varies considerably. In experienced centers, FDG uptake localized along the interface between bone and prosthesis can be used to diagnose infection with acceptable specificity. Combined leukocyte scintigraphy and bone scanning, however, remains the standard scintigraphic method for diagnosis of infected joint prostheses. FDG PET has shown promising results in vascular graft infections, in the evaluation of metastatic infectious foci inpatients with blood stream infections and in neutropenic patients, but further studies are needed before definitive conclusions can be drawn . In fever of unknown origin (FUO), FDG PET appears to be of great advantage as malignancy, inflammation and infection can be detected. Image fusion combining PET and computed tomography facilitates anatomical localization of increased FDG uptake and better guiding for further diagnostic tests to achieve a final diagnosis. In conclusion, the body of evidence on utility of FDG PET in infectious diseases and FUO is growing and FDG PET may become one of the preferred diagnostic procedures for many of these diseases, especially when a definite diagnosis cannot easily be achieved. PMID:17657204

Bleeker-Rovers, C P; Vos, F J; Corstens, F H M; Oyen, W J G

2008-03-01

373

Alzheimer's Disease: The Death of the Disease.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Alzheimer's disease, a form of dementia in middle-age and older adults is becoming more evident because of growing numbers of older people and better diagnosis and detection methods. Describes the behavioral and physical symptoms of the disease as well as specific suggestions for care of patients with Alzheimer's disease, including dealing with…

McBroom, Lynn W.

1987-01-01

374

Cell death in disease: from 2010 onwards  

PubMed Central

The strong interest in cell death, and the shift in emphasis from basic mechanisms to translational aspects fostered the launch last year of the new sister journal of Cell Death and Differentiation, named Cell Death and Disease, to reflect its stronger focus towards clinical applications. Here, we review that first year of activity, which reflects an enthusiastic response by the scientific community. On the basis of this, we now launch two novel initiatives, the start of a new section dedicated to cancer metabolism and the opening of a new editorial office in Shanghai. PMID:21881604

Knight, R A; Melino, G

2011-01-01

375

Use of telemedicine technologies in the management of infectious diseases: a review.  

PubMed

Telemedicine technologies are rapidly being integrated into infectious diseases programs with the aim of increasing access to infectious diseases specialty care for isolated populations and reducing costs. We summarize the utility and effectiveness of telemedicine in the evaluation and treatment of infectious diseases patients. The use of telemedicine in the management of acute infectious diseases, chronic hepatitis C, human immunodeficiency virus, and active pulmonary tuberculosis is considered. We recapitulate and evaluate the advantages of telemedicine described in other studies, present challenges to adopting telemedicine, and identify future opportunities for the use of telemedicine within the realm of clinical infectious diseases. PMID:25516192

Parmar, Parmvir; Mackie, David; Varghese, Sunil; Cooper, Curtis

2015-04-01

376

Biodegradable polymeric microsphere-based vaccines and their applications in infectious diseases.  

PubMed

Vaccination, which provides effective, safe infectious disease protection, is among the most important recent public health and immunological achievements. However, infectious disease remains the leading cause of death in developing countries because several vaccines require repeated administrations and children are often incompletely immunized. Microsphere-based systems, providing controlled release delivery, can obviate the need for repeat immunizations. Here, we review the function of sustained and pulsatile release of biodegradable polymeric microspheres in parenteral and mucosal single-dose vaccine administration. We also review the active-targeting function of polymeric particles. With their shield and co-delivery functions, polymeric particles are applied to develop single-dose and mucosally administered vaccines as well as to improve subunit vaccines. Because polymeric particles are easily surface-modified, they have been recently used in vaccine development for cancers and many infectious diseases without effective vaccines (e.g., human immunodeficiency virus infection). These polymeric particle functions yield important vaccine carriers and multiple benefits. PMID:25839217

Lin, Chi-Ying; Lin, Shih-Jie; Yang, Yi-Chen; Wang, Der-Yuan; Cheng, Hwei-Fang; Yeh, Ming-Kung

2015-03-01

377

Extracellular DNA traps in allergic, infectious, and autoimmune diseases.  

PubMed

Extracellular DNA traps are part of the innate immune response and are seen with many infectious, allergic, and autoimmune diseases. They can be generated by several different leukocytes, including neutrophils, eosinophils, and monocytes, as well as mast cells. Here, we review the composition of these extracellular DNA-containing structures as well as potential mechanisms for their production and function. In general, extracellular DNA traps have been described as binding to and killing pathogens, particularly bacteria, fungi, but also parasites. On the other hand, it is possible that DNA traps contribute to immunopathology in chronic inflammatory diseases, such as bronchial asthma. In addition, it has been demonstrated that they can initiate and/or potentiate autoimmune diseases. Extracellular DNA traps represent a frequently observed phenomenon in inflammatory diseases, and they appear to participate in the cross-talk between different immune cells. These new insights into the pathogenesis of inflammatory diseases may open new avenues for targeted therapies. PMID:23409745

Simon, D; Simon, H U; Yousefi, S

2013-04-01

378

Infectious diseases of animals and plants: an interdisciplinary approach  

PubMed Central

Animal and plant diseases pose a serious and continuing threat to food security, food safety, national economies, biodiversity and the rural environment. New challenges, including climate change, regulatory developments, changes in the geographical concentration and size of livestock holdings, and increasing trade make this an appropriate time to assess the state of knowledge about the impact that diseases have and the ways in which they are managed and controlled. In this paper, the case is explored for an interdisciplinary approach to studying the management of infectious animal and plant diseases. Reframing the key issues through incorporating both social and natural science research can provide a holistic understanding of disease and increase the policy relevance and impact of research. Finally, in setting out the papers in this Theme Issue, a picture of current and future animal and plant disease threats is presented. PMID:21624914

Wilkinson, Katy; Grant, Wyn P.; Green, Laura E.; Hunter, Stephen; Jeger, Michael J.; Lowe, Philip; Medley, Graham F.; Mills, Peter; Phillipson, Jeremy; Poppy, Guy M.; Waage, Jeff

2011-01-01

379

[Thailand: resurgence of infectious diseases and epidemiologic transition].  

PubMed

Despite progress in various facts (sanitation, education, access to health care...) that allowed a significant reduction in infectious and parasitic diseases, they persist in some poor geographical areas and populations most in need, especially in young children. An epidemiological transition (increased incidence of cancers, cardiovascular attacks...) clearly tends to replace the old public health problems, rather in urban areas and among the most advantaged social classes. Diseases (re)emerging are also serious concerns for the future: return of resistant malaria, outbreaks of severe clinic forms of dengue, explosion of VHI/TB resistant.... PMID:22235606

Ménard, B

2011-10-01

380

Pertussis. A reemerging and an underreported infectious disease.  

PubMed

Pertussis or whooping cough is a highly infectious, vaccine preventable disease. The incidence of the disease  has greatly been reduced since the introduction of the diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis vaccine. Pertussis resurgence has been observed in highly vaccinated populations of Western countries since 1990s. Poor vaccine quality, waning vaccine induced immunity, pathogen adaptation, and enhanced surveillance as well as advancements in diagnostic facilities are some of the reasons considered responsible for the increased reporting of pertussis cases. Pertussis may have been ignored and unnoticed due to its atypical manifestations in partially immunized population or people with waning immunity. We review the reports of pertussis resurgence from different countries and attempt to investigate reasons behind the reappearance of the disease. Pertussis is still an under reported disease and the available data from the developing countries is not a true picture of the story.  Therefore, developing countries need to improve their surveillance systems.  PMID:25316461

Syed, Muhammad A; Bana, Noureen F

2014-10-01

381

Modelling power-law spread of infectious diseases  

E-print Network

Short-time human travel behaviour can be well described by a power law with respect to distance. We incorporate this information in space-time models for infectious disease surveillance data to better capture the dynamics of disease spread. Two previously established model classes are extended, which both decompose disease risk additively into endemic and epidemic components: a space-time point process model for individual point-referenced data, and a multivariate time series model for aggregated count data. In both frameworks, the power-law spread is embedded into the epidemic component and its decay parameter is estimated simultaneously with all other unknown parameters using (penalised) likelihood inference. The performance of the new approach is investigated by a re-analysis of individual cases of invasive meningococcal disease in Germany (2002-2008), and count data on influenza in 140 administrative districts of Southern Germany (2001-2008). In both applications, the power-law formulations substantially ...

Meyer, Sebastian

2013-01-01

382

Apoptosis in the pathogenesis of infectious diseases of the eastern oyster Crassostrea virginica.  

PubMed

Apoptosis, or programmed cell death, has been reported as being pivotal in infectious diseases of different organisms. The effects of apoptosis on the progression and transmission of the protistan parasites Perkinsus marinus and Haplosporidium nelsoni in the eastern oyster Crassostrea virginica were studied. Oysters were diagnosed for their respective infections by standard methods, and apoptosis was detected using in situ hybridization to detect DNA fragments by end labeling on paraffin sections. A digoxigenin nucleotide probe was used to label the 200 bp fragment produced by apoptosis and detected immunohistochemically using an antidigoxigenin peroxidase conjugate. The probe/DNA fragment complex was stained with a peroxidase substrate and tissues were counterstained with methyl green. Uninfected oysters had large numbers of apoptotic hemocytes present in the connective tissue underlying the stomach, gill, and mantle epithelia, whereas oysters infected with P. marinus had a reduced number of apoptotic hemocytes. The parasite may prevent hemocyte apoptosis in order to yield a greater number of hemocytes in which to house itself. Large numbers of P. marinus cells in some infected oysters were eliminated via apoptosis in the stomach epithelia, disabling the spread of infectious particles through seawater. The oysters infected with H. nelsoni also had reduced numbers of apoptotic hemocytes, while part of the vesicular connective tissue cells were apoptotic. H. nelsoni plasmodia were eliminated via apoptosis in some oysters. Apoptosis may enhance progression and prevent transmission of infectious oyster diseases. PMID:14598992

Sunila, Inke; LaBanca, Jill

2003-09-24

383

Compensation for work-related hematologic, liver, and infectious diseases.  

PubMed

Occupational diseases may be defined only medically or scientifically, and even then, their definition is not simple. However, compensable occupational diseases involve the additional layer of legal systems and social welfare policies as well. Their multifaceted nature makes determining the work-relatedness of these diseases more complex. Korea has established standards for the recognition of occupational diseases in Schedule 5 of the Enforcement Decree of the Labor Standards Act, and specific criteria for the recognition of occupational diseases are listed in Schedule 3 of the Enforcement Decree of the Industrial Accident Compensation Insurance Act. The new list of compensable occupational diseases comprises 13 articles as an open-ended system. The newly added articles pertain to lymphohematopoietic (Article 5) and infectious diseases (Article 9), as well as diseases of other target organs. Furthermore, the article on liver diseases (Article 8) has been partially revised. The new act has been changed to clarify the meaning as it has been presented in recent research. It is necessary to achieve agreement among concerned parties, including experts from the legal, medical, and social domains to resolve the issues of work-relatedness, causation, notion of aggravation, and so on for preparing a list and a process that are more reasonable. PMID:25006327

Kim, Jung-Won; Kang, Dong-Mug

2014-06-01

384

Proliferation and apoptosis in infection with infectious bursal disease virus: a flow cytometric study.  

PubMed

Programmed cell death, or apoptosis, is involved in the normal physiology of many immunocompetent organs, including lymphocytes of the bursa of Fabricius in chickens. Involvement of apoptosis has also been described in some viral diseases such as AIDS. The purpose of this work was to study the potential role of apoptosis in the pathogenesis of Gumboro disease in the bursa of Fabricius. Our results show that 1-3 days after infection of young chickens with infectious bursal disease virus, the number of apoptotic cells increases and cellularity and proliferation decrease. Because of the dynamic nature of bursal lymphocyte populations and the involvement of apoptosis in lymphocyte cell physiology, the increased level of cells undergoing apoptosis may be due to an impairment in the withdrawal of apoptotic cells. A concomitant increase in macrophages in infected bursae and a dramatic decrease in cellularity suggest that an increase in apoptosis may be an important cause of cell depletion. PMID:9201393

Ojeda, F; Skardova, I; Guarda, M I; Ulloa, J; Folch, H

1997-01-01

385

Applications of luminescent systems to infectious disease methodology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The characterization of a clinical sample by a simple, fast, accurate, automatable analytical measurement is important in the management of infectious disease. Luminescence assays offer methods rich with options for these measurements. The instrumentation is common to each assay, and the investment is reasonable. Three general procedures were developed to varying degrees of completeness which measure bacterial levels by measuring their ATP, FMN and iron porphyrins. Bacteriuria detection and antibiograms can be determined within half a day. The characterization of the sample for its soluble ATP, FMN or prophyrins was also performed.

Picciolo, G. L.; Chappelle, E. W.; Deming, J. W.; Mcgarry, M. A.; Nibley, D. A.; Okrend, H.; Thomas, R. R.

1976-01-01

386

Predicting and controlling infectious disease epidemics using temporal networks  

PubMed Central

Infectious diseases can be considered to spread over social networks of people or animals. Mainly owing to the development of data recording and analysis techniques, an increasing amount of social contact data with time stamps has been collected in the last decade. Such temporal data capture the dynamics of social networks on a timescale relevant to epidemic spreading and can potentially lead to better ways to analyze, forecast, and prevent epidemics. However, they also call for extended analysis tools for network epidemiology, which has, to date, mostly viewed networks as static entities. We review recent results of network epidemiology for such temporal network data and discuss future developments. PMID:23513178

Holme, Petter

2013-01-01

387

Epidemiology and Management of Infectious Diseases in International Adoptees  

PubMed Central

International adoptees represent a group of children with unique health care needs. Data from published studies, along with the recent experience of the Yale International Adoption Clinic, suggest that the risk of serious infections in adoptees is low, although infections associated with institutionalization still occur commonly. Interpretation of these data must be undertaken with caution, however, since many, if not most, international adoptees are not evaluated in specialty clinics. Thus, prospective studies designed to minimize selection and referral bias are needed in order to accurately define the risk of infectious and noninfectious diseases in all international adoptees. PMID:16020687

Murray, Thomas S.; Groth, M. Elizabeth; Weitzman, Carol; Cappello, Michael

2005-01-01

388

Nonzero solutions of nonlinear integral equations modeling infectious disease  

SciTech Connect

Sufficient conditions to insure the existence of periodic solutions to the nonlinear integral equation, x(t) = ..integral../sup t//sub t-tau/f(s,x(s))ds, are given in terms of simple product and product integral inequalities. The equation can be interpreted as a model for the spread of infectious diseases (e.g., gonorrhea or any of the rhinovirus viruses) if x(t) is the proportion of infectives at time t and f(t,x(t)) is the proportion of new infectives per unit time.

Williams, L.R. (Indiana Univ., South Bend); Leggett, R.W.

1982-01-01

389

Principles and application of antibody libraries for infectious diseases.  

PubMed

Antibodies have been used efficiently for the treatment and diagnosis of many diseases. Recombinant antibody technology allows the generation of fully human antibodies. Phage display is the gold standard for the production of human antibodies in vitro. To generate monoclonal antibodies by phage display, the generation of antibody libraries is crucial. Antibody libraries are classified according to the source where the antibody gene sequences were obtained. The most useful library for infectious diseases is the immunized library. Immunized libraries would allow better and selective enrichment of antibodies against disease antigens. The antibodies generated from these libraries can be translated for both diagnostic and therapeutic applications. This review focuses on the generation of immunized antibody libraries and the potential applications of the antibodies derived from these libraries. PMID:25214212

Lim, Bee Nar; Tye, Gee Jun; Choong, Yee Siew; Ong, Eugene Boon Beng; Ismail, Asma; Lim, Theam Soon

2014-12-01

390

Public apprehension of emerging infectious diseases: are changes afoot?  

PubMed

Using social representations theory this paper casts light on the pattern of content that characterises the public response to emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases (EID). The pattern is: distancing the disease from the self/ one's in-groups; blame of particular entities for the disease's origin and/or spread; and stigmatisation of those who have contracted it and/or who are represented as having intensified its spread. This pattern is not unique to EID but extends to many risks, making EID fruitful events for understanding public apprehension of potential dangers. This process may be driven by worry, fear and anxiety since when levels of these are low, as has arguably been the case with the 2009/10 "Swine Flu" pandemic, the pattern transforms. The distancing-blame-stigma pattern may also be transformed by growing reflexivity, a feature of late modern societies, as well as material features of the epidemic and "EID fatigue". PMID:21936260

Joffe, Helene

2011-07-01

391

Prospective analysis of infectious disease surveillance data using syndromic information.  

PubMed

In this paper, we describe a Bayesian hierarchical Poisson model for the prospective analysis of data for infectious diseases. The proposed model consists of two components. The first component describes the behavior of disease during nonepidemic periods and the second component represents the increase in disease counts due to the presence of an epidemic. A novelty of our model formulation is that the parameters describing the spread of epidemics are allowed to vary in both space and time. We also show how syndromic information can be incorporated into the model to provide a better description of the data and more accurate one-step-ahead forecasts. These real-time forecasts can be used to identify high-risk areas for outbreaks and, consequently, to develop efficient targeted surveillance. We apply the methodology to weekly emergency room discharges for acute bronchitis in South Carolina. PMID:24659490

Corberán-Vallet, Ana; Lawson, Andrew B

2014-12-01

392

Evaluation of Border Entry Screening for Infectious Diseases in Humans  

PubMed Central

In response to the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) pandemic of 2003 and the influenza pandemic of 2009, many countries instituted border measures as a means of stopping or slowing the spread of disease. The measures, usually consisting of a combination of border entry/exit screening, quarantine, isolation, and communications, were resource intensive, and modeling and observational studies indicate that border screening is not effective at detecting infectious persons. Moreover, border screening has high opportunity costs, financially and in terms of the use of scarce public health staff resources during a time of high need. We discuss the border-screening experiences with SARS and influenza and propose an approach to decision-making for future pandemics. We conclude that outbreak-associated communications for travelers at border entry points, together with effective communication with clinicians and more effective disease control measures in the community, may be a more effective approach to the international control of communicable diseases. PMID:25625224

Antăo, Catarina; Hall, Robert

2015-01-01

393

The Royal Society Inquiry into Infectious Diseases in Livestock  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

At the conclusion of 2001, The Royal Society Inquiry into Infectious Diseases in Livestock began their investigation into the devastating outbreak of foot and mouth disease that occurred earlier that year in Britain. This report, released in July 2002, outlines some of the ways that future transmission of the disease and subsequent epidemics may be prevented and more effectively controlled. The report was prepared by a committee comprised of scientists, veterinarians, farmers, and other concerned parties who made site visits to areas affected by the outbreak, along with compiling an extensive oral account of the epidemic. Along with the entire 140-page report, there are an 8-page summary of the committee's ten key findings, various progress reports issued before the final report, and the oral and written testimony collected by different members of the committee. On the whole, this is an engaging inquiry into one of the most well publicized epidemiological outbreaks of recent times.

2002-01-01

394

The role of macrophage polarization in infectious and inflammatory diseases.  

PubMed

Macrophages, found in circulating blood as well as integrated into several tissues and organs throughout the body, represent an important first line of defense against disease and a necessary component of healthy tissue homeostasis. Additionally, macrophages that arise from the differentiation of monocytes recruited from the blood to inflamed tissues play a central role in regulating local inflammation. Studies of macrophage activation in the last decade or so have revealed that these cells adopt a staggering range of phenotypes that are finely tuned responses to a variety of different stimuli, and that the resulting subsets of activated macrophages play critical roles in both progression and resolution of disease. This review summarizes the current understanding of the contributions of differentially polarized macrophages to various infectious and inflammatory diseases and the ongoing effort to develop novel therapies that target this key aspect of macrophage biology. PMID:24625576

Labonte, Adam C; Tosello-Trampont, Annie-Carole; Hahn, Young S

2014-04-01

395

Mortality due to intestinal infectious diseases in Latin America and the Caribbean, 1965-1990.  

PubMed

Life expectancy has increased in Latin America and the nonLatin Caribbean (LA/CA) from 51.8-66.6 years and 56.4-72.4 years between 1950-1955 and 1985-1990 respectively. Reduction in mortality due to infectious and parasitic diseases had the most significant effect on this rise in life expectancy. Indeed since the actual number of intestinal infection related deaths did fall while the populations grew considerably, there was a true reduced risk of death from these infections. Improved nutrition, potable water and waste disposal availability, immunizations, and safer food handling directly impacted on this reduction while the downward trend of the birth rate, increased literacy (especially among women), and mass media indirectly prompted the decline. Nevertheless these improvements have not yet reached the levels of the US and Canada during 1965-1970 (.07/1000) and have not been equitably divided among the different population groups. Indeed the technology existed 2 decades earlier to achieve zero deaths from diarrhea, yet deaths rates in LA/CA continued to range from .17-9.83/1000 during 1985-1990. Costa Rica and Chile experienced more of a decline in mortality from intestinal infections than most other countries. For example, the number of deaths fell about 90% for about the entire population and 93% and 95% respectively for children 5 years old. Even though there was a 95% reduction in the number of deaths for 5 year old children in Chile, the 64% reduction in Mexico resulted in more lives saved (355 vs. 529). Further data analysis showed that the death rate for 5 old children was the most valid indicator to analyze changes in mortality from intestinal infections. Over the 25 year period the countries with the least reduction in death rates from diarrhea included Guatemala, Honduras, and Nicaragua. PMID:1931515

1991-01-01

396

Sex Bias in Infectious Disease Epidemiology: Patterns and Processes  

PubMed Central

Background Infectious disease incidence is often male-biased. Two main hypotheses have been proposed to explain this observation. The physiological hypothesis (PH) emphasizes differences in sex hormones and genetic architecture, while the behavioral hypothesis (BH) stresses gender-related differences in exposure. Surprisingly, the population-level predictions of these hypotheses are yet to be thoroughly tested in humans. Methods and Findings For ten major pathogens, we tested PH and BH predictions about incidence and exposure-prevalence patterns. Compulsory-notification records (Brazil, 2006–2009) were used to estimate age-stratified ?:? incidence rate ratios for the general population and across selected sociological contrasts. Exposure-prevalence odds ratios were derived from 82 published surveys. We estimated summary effect-size measures using random-effects models; our analyses encompass ?0.5 million cases of disease or exposure. We found that, after puberty, disease incidence is male-biased in cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis, schistosomiasis, pulmonary tuberculosis, leptospirosis, meningococcal meningitis, and hepatitis A. Severe dengue is female-biased, and no clear pattern is evident for typhoid fever. In leprosy, milder tuberculoid forms are female-biased, whereas more severe lepromatous forms are male-biased. For most diseases, male bias emerges also during infancy, when behavior is unbiased but sex steroid levels transiently rise. Behavioral factors likely modulate male–female differences in some diseases (the leishmaniases, tuberculosis, leptospirosis, or schistosomiasis) and age classes; however, average exposure-prevalence is significantly sex-biased only for Schistosoma and Leptospira. Conclusions Our results closely match some key PH predictions and contradict some crucial BH predictions, suggesting that gender-specific behavior plays an overall secondary role in generating sex bias. Physiological differences, including the crosstalk between sex hormones and immune effectors, thus emerge as the main candidate drivers of gender differences in infectious disease susceptibility. PMID:23638062

Guerra-Silveira, Felipe; Abad-Franch, Fernando

2013-01-01

397

Global analysis for spread of infectious diseases via transportation networks.  

PubMed

We formulate an epidemic model for the spread of an infectious disease along with population dispersal over an arbitrary number of distinct regions. Structuring the population by the time elapsed since the start of travel, we describe the infectious disease dynamics during transportation as well as in the regions. As a result, we obtain a system of delay differential equations. We define the basic reproduction number [Formula: see text] as the spectral radius of a next generation matrix. For multi-regional systems with strongly connected transportation networks, we prove that if [Formula: see text] then the disease will be eradicated from each region, while if [Formula: see text] there is a globally asymptotically stable equilibrium, which is endemic in every region. If the transportation network is not strongly connected, then the model analysis shows that numerous endemic patterns can exist by admitting a globally asymptotically stable equilibrium, which may be disease free in some regions while endemic in other regions. We provide a procedure to detect the disease free and the endemic regions according to the network topology and local reproduction numbers. The main ingredients of the mathematical proofs are the inductive applications of the theory of asymptotically autonomous semiflows and cooperative dynamical systems. We visualise stability boundaries of equilibria in a parameter plane to illustrate the influence of the transportation network on the disease dynamics. For a system consisting of two regions, we find that due to spatial heterogeneity characterised by different local reproduction numbers, [Formula: see text] may depend non-monotonically on the dispersal rates, thus travel restrictions are not always beneficial. PMID:24948128

Nakata, Yukihiko; Röst, Gergely

2015-05-01

398

Creating a global dialogue on infectious disease surveillance: connecting organizations for regional disease surveillance (CORDS).  

PubMed

Connecting Organizations for Regional Disease Surveillance (CORDS) is an international non-governmental organization focused on information exchange between disease surveillance networks in different areas of the world. By linking regional disease surveillance networks, CORDS builds a trust-based social fabric of experts who share best practices, surveillance tools and strategies, training courses, and innovations. CORDS exemplifies the shifting patterns of international collaboration needed to prevent, detect, and counter all types of biological dangers - not just naturally occurring infectious diseases, but also terrorist threats. Representing a network-of-networks approach, the mission of CORDS is to link regional disease surveillance networks to improve global capacity to respond to infectious diseases. CORDS is an informal governance cooperative with six founding regional disease surveillance networks, with plans to expand; it works in complement and cooperatively with the World Health Organization (WHO), the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE), and the Food and Animal Organization of the United Nations (FAO). As described in detail elsewhere in this special issue of Emerging Health Threats, each regional network is an alliance of a small number of neighboring countries working across national borders to tackle emerging infectious diseases that require unified regional efforts. Here we describe the history, culture and commitment of CORDS; and the novel and necessary role that CORDS serves in the existing international infectious disease surveillance framework. PMID:23362412

Gresham, Louise S; Smolinski, Mark S; Suphanchaimat, Rapeepong; Kimball, Ann Marie; Wibulpolprasert, Suwit

2013-01-01

399

The infectious diseases impact statement: a mechanism for addressing emerging diseases.  

PubMed

The use of an Infectious Diseases Impact Statement (IDIS) is proposed for predictive assessments of local changes in infectious diseases arising from human-engineered activities. IDIS is intended to be analogous to an Environmental Impact Statement. The drafting of an IDIS for specific activities, particularly in developing nations, would provide a formal mechanism for examining potential changes in local health conditions, including infected and susceptible populations, diseases likely to fluctuate in response to development, existing control measures, and vectors likely to be affected by human activities. The resulting survey data could provide a rational basis and direction for development, surveillance, and prevention measures. An IDIS process that balances environmental alterations, local human health, and economic growth could substantially alter the nature of international development efforts and infectious disease outbreaks. PMID:8903209

McSweegan, E

1996-01-01

400

Risk Factors for Infectious Diseases in Backyard Poultry Farms in the Poyang Lake Area, China  

PubMed Central

Emergence and transmission of infectious diseases have an enormous impact on the poultry industry and present a serious threat to the health of humans and wild birds. Noncommercial poultry operations, such as backyard poultry facilities in China, are potential sources of virus exchange between commercial poultry and wild birds. It is particularly critical in wetland areas where backyard poultry have close contact with commercial poultry and migratory birds, therefore increasing the risk of contracting infectious diseases. To evaluate the transmission risks, a cross-sectional study was undertaken in the Poyang Lake area, China, involving 309 residents in the backyard poultry farms in three counties (Region A, B, and C) of Jiangxi Province. We examined the backyard poultry population, poultry species, presence of poultry deaths from infectious diseases, food sources, and biosecurity practices. Region B ranked highest for biosecurity while region C ranked lowest. The risks of infectious diseases were assessed by adjusted odds ratio based on multivariate logistic regression analysis. Potential risk factors in the three regions of the study site were compared. In Region A, significant factor was contact of poultry with wild birds (OR: 6.573, 95% CI: 2.148–20.115, P=0.001). In Region B, the most significant factor was contact of poultry with neighboring backyard waterfowls (OR: 3.967, 95% CI: 1.555–10.122, P=0.004). In Region C, significant factors were poultry purchase from local live bird markets (OR: 3.740, 95% CI: 1.243–11.255, P=0.019), and contact of poultry with wild birds (OR: 3.379, 95% CI: 1.058–10.791, P=0.040). In summary, backyard poultry was significantly affected by neighboring commercial poultry and close contact with wild birds. The results are expected to improve our understanding of the transmission risks of infectious diseases in a typical backyard poultry environment in rural China, and address the need to improve local farming practices and take preventive measures. PMID:23840680

Wang, Yong; Jiang, Zhiben; Jin, Zhenyu; Tan, Hua; Xu, Bing

2013-01-01

401

Biosecurity Measures in 48 Isolation Facilities Managing Highly Infectious Diseases  

PubMed Central

Biosecurity measures are traditionally applied to laboratories, but they may also be usefully applied in highly specialized clinical settings, such as the isolation facilities for the management of patients with highly infectious diseases (eg, viral hemorrhagic fevers, SARS, smallpox, potentially severe pandemic flu, and MDR- and XDR-tuberculosis). In 2009 the European Network for Highly Infectious Diseases conducted a survey in 48 isolation facilities in 16 European countries to determine biosecurity measures for access control to the facility. Security personnel are present in 39 facilities (81%). In 35 facilities (73%), entrance to the isolation area is restricted; control methods include electronic keys, a PIN system, closed-circuit TV, and guards at the doors. In 25 facilities (52%), identification and registration of all staff entering and exiting the isolation area are required. Access control is used in most surveyed centers, but specific lacks exist in some facilities. Further data are needed to assess other biosecurity aspects, such as the security measures during the transportation of potentially contaminated materials and measures to address the risk of an “insider attack.” PMID:22571373

Puro, Vincenzo; Schilling, Stefan; Thomson, Gail; De Iaco, Giuseppina; Brouqui, Philippe; Maltezou, Helena C.; Bannister, Barbara; Gottschalk, René; Brodt, Hans-Rheinhard; Ippolito, Giuseppe

2012-01-01

402

Immunomodulatory Properties of HLA-G in Infectious Diseases  

PubMed Central

HLA-G is a nonclassical major histocompatibility complex molecule first described at the maternal-fetal interface, on extravillous cytotrophoblasts. Its expression is restricted to some tissues in normal conditions but increases strongly in pathological conditions. The expression of this molecule has been studied in detail in cancers and is now also beginning to be described in infectious diseases. The relevance of studies on HLA-G expression lies in the well known inhibitory effect of this molecule on all cell types involved in innate and adaptive immunity, favoring escape from immune control. In this review, we summarize the features of HLA-G expression by type of infections (i.e, bacterial, viral, or parasitic) detailing the state of knowledge for each pathogenic agent. The polymorphism, the interference of viral proteins with HLA-G intracellular trafficking, and various cytokines have been described to modulate HLA-G expression during infections. We also discuss the cellular source of HLA-G, according to the type of infection and the potential role of HLA-G. New therapeutic approaches based on synthetic HLA-G-derived proteins or antibodies are emerging in mouse models of cancer or transplantation, and these new therapeutic tools may eventually prove useful for the treatment of infectious diseases. PMID:24839609

Amiot, Laurence; Vu, Nicolas; Samson, Michel

2014-01-01

403

[Sir Arthur Conan Doyle, Sherlock Holmes and infectious diseases].  

PubMed

Besides a pleasant author of best sellers, Sir Arthur Conan Doyle was a medical doctor, writing excellent short stories about the exercise of his profession in England. However, even he mentions The British Medical Journal and The Lancet in the Sherlock Holmes's stories, when in the plot introduces infectious diseases, Conan Doyle ignores important discoveries in the field of tetanus. Anyway, the appearing of infectious diseases in the adventures of the detective are rare: one mention of tetanus, another of leprosy and- the most analyzed in medical literature a case of murder by inoculation of bacteria, probably the agent of melioidosis. Also he makes his hero discovers the toxic actions of a medusa and a transplant of solid organ. Little for a physician and less for an author who also wrote science fiction: it seems that the history of the great medical discoveries at the end of nineteenth century and beginning of the twentieth has passed by his side.., and he just couldn't see it. PMID:21186510

Ledermann D, Walter

2010-10-01

404

Human genetics of infectious diseases: between proof of principle and paradigm  

PubMed Central

The observation that only a fraction of individuals infected by infectious agents develop clinical disease raises fundamental questions about the actual pathogenesis of infectious diseases. Epidemiological and experimental evidence is accumulating to suggest that human genetics plays a major role in this process. As we discuss here, human predisposition to infectious diseases seems to cover a continuous spectrum from monogenic to polygenic inheritance. Although many studies have provided proof of principle that infectious diseases may result from various types of inborn errors of immunity, the genetic determinism of most infectious diseases in most patients remains unclear. However, in the future, studies in human genetics are likely to establish a new paradigm for infectious diseases. PMID:19729848

Alcaďs, Alexandre; Abel, Laurent; Casanova, Jean-Laurent

2009-01-01

405

Identifying risk factors of avian infectious diseases at household level in Poyang Lake region, China.  

PubMed

Poultry kept in backyard farms are susceptible to acquiring and spreading infectious diseases because of free ranging and poor biosecurity measures. Since some of these diseases are zoonoses, this is also a significant health concern to breeders and their families. Backyard farms are common in rural regions of China. However, there is lack of knowledge of backyard poultry in the country. To obtain first-hand information of backyard poultry and identify risk factors of avian infectious diseases, a cross-sectional study was carried out at household level in rural regions around Poyang Lake. A door-to-door survey was conducted to collect data on husbandry practices, trading practices of backyard farmers, and surrounding environments of backyard farms. Farms were categorized into cases and controls based on their history of poultry death. Data were collected for 137 farms, and the association with occurrence of poultry death event was explored by chi-square tests. Results showed that vaccination implementation was a protective factor (odds ratio OR=0.40, 95% confidence interval CI: 0.20-0.80, p=0.01), while contact with other backyard flocks increased risk (OR=1.72, 95% CI: 0.79-3.74, p=0.16). A concept of "farm connectivity" characterized by the density of particular land-use types in the vicinity of the farm was proposed to characterize the degree of contact between poultry in one household farm and those in other household farms. It was found that housing density in a 20-m buffer zone of the farmhouse was most significantly associated with poultry death occurrence (OR=1.08, 95% CI: 1.02-1.17, p=0.03), and was in agreement with observation of villagers. Binary logistic regression was applied to evaluate the relationship between poultry death event and density of land-use types in all buffer zones. When integrated with vaccination implementation for poultry, prediction accuracy of poultry death event reached 72.0%. Results combining questionnaire survey with geographical approaches indicated that occurrence of poultry death event among backyard farms within a village was heavily impacted by farm connectivity. This study provides new insight for the study and help to develop more targeted prevention and countermeasure in a typical rural environment of China. PMID:24861426

Jiang, Qian; Zhou, Jieting; Jiang, Zhiben; Xu, Bing

2014-09-01

406

Global Environmental Data for Mapping Infectious Disease Distribution  

PubMed Central

This contribution documents the satellite data archives, data processing methods and temporal Fourier analysis (TFA) techniques used to create the remotely sensed datasets on the DVD distributed with this volume. The aim is to provide a detailed reference guide to the genesis of the data, rather than a standard review. These remotely sensed data cover the entire globe at either 1 × 1 or 8 × 8 km spatial resolution. We briefly evaluate the relationships between the 1 × 1 and 8 × 8 km global TFA products to explore their inter-compatibility. The 8 × 8 km TFA surfaces are used in the mapping procedures detailed in the subsequent disease mapping reviews, since the 1 × 1 km products have been validated less widely. Details are also provided on additional, current and planned sensors that should be able to provide continuity with these environmental variable surfaces, as well as other sources of global data that may be used for mapping infectious disease. PMID:16647967

Hay, S.I.; Tatem, A.J.; Graham, A.J.; Goetz, S.J.; Rogers, D.J.

2011-01-01

407

Mapping infectious disease landscapes: unmanned aerial vehicles and epidemiology.  

PubMed

The potential applications of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), or drones, have generated intense interest across many fields. UAVs offer the potential to collect detailed spatial information in real time at relatively low cost and are being used increasingly in conservation and ecological research. Within infectious disease epidemiology and public health research, UAVs can provide spatially and temporally accurate data critical to understanding the linkages between disease transmission and environmental factors. Using UAVs avoids many of the limitations associated with satellite data (e.g., long repeat times, cloud contamination, low spatial resolution). However, the practicalities of using UAVs for field research limit their use to specific applications and settings. UAVs fill a niche but do not replace existing remote-sensing methods. PMID:25443854

Fornace, Kimberly M; Drakeley, Chris J; William, Timothy; Espino, Fe; Cox, Jonathan

2014-11-01

408

Biological warfare training: infectious disease outbreak differentiation criteria.  

PubMed

The threat of biological terrorism and warfare may increase as the availability of weaponizable agents increases, the relative production costs of these agents decrease, and, most importantly, there exist terrorist groups willing to use them. Therefore, an important consideration during the current period of heightened surveillance for emerging infectious diseases is the ability to differentiate between natural and intentional outbreaks. Certain attributes of a disease outbreak, although perhaps not pathognomonic for a biological attack when considered singly, may combine to provide convincing evidence of intentional causation. These potentially differentiating criteria include proportion of combatants at risk, temporal patterns of illness onset, number of cases, clinical presentation, strain/variant, economic impact, geographic location, morbidity/mortality, antimicrobial resistance patterns, seasonal distribution, zoonotic potential, residual infectivity/toxicity, prevention/therapeutic potential, route of exposure, weather/climate conditions, incubation period, and concurrence with belligerent activities of potential adversaries. PMID:9575761

Noah, D L; Sobel, A L; Ostroff, S M; Kildew, J A

1998-04-01

409

Biological warfare training. Infectious disease outbreak differentiation criteria.  

PubMed

The threat of biological terrorism and warfare may increase as the availability of weaponizable agents increase, the relative production costs of these agents decrease, and, most importantly, there exist terrorist groups willing to use them. Therefore, an important consideration during the current emphasis of heightened surveillance for emerging infectious diseases is the capability to differentiate between natural and intentional outbreaks. Certain attributes of a disease outbreak, while perhaps not pathognomic for a biological attack when considered singly, may in combination with other attributes provide convincing evidence for intentional causation. These potentially differentiating criteria include proportion of combatants at risk, temporal patterns of illness onset, number of cases, clinical presentation, strain/variant, economic impact, geographic location, morbidity/mortality, antimicrobial resistance patterns, seasonal distribution, zoonotic potential, residual infectivity/toxicity, prevention/therapeutic potential, route of exposure, weather/climate conditions, incubation period, and concurrence with belligerent activities of potential adversaries. PMID:10681967

Noah, D L; Sobel, A L; Ostroff, S M; Kildew, J A

1999-01-01

410

Infectious Diseases Are Analogous With Cancer. Hypothesis And Implications  

PubMed Central

We propose to disclose first degree analogous features between cancer and infectious diseases and to find out whether these similarities are superficial and negligible, due to the use of the same bodily pathways by the two categories of disease or if they represent significantly parallel characteristics. We have found several primary analogous features, predominantly regarding pathways of spread, but to some extent also concerning the interaction with the immune system. Some of the implications to our hypothesis are probably available in the recent literature, at the experimental or clinical levels. For example endostatin, an angiogenic inhibitor has been used to prevent promotion of metastasis in cancer and to reduce granulomas formation in schistosomiasis. An ECFR antagonist employed to restrain bronchial vessels proliferation in pseudomonas infection, has also been used for the treatment of lung cancer. PMID:22408684

Benharroch, Daniel; Osyntsov, Lidia

2012-01-01

411

Cause of death in Wilson disease.  

PubMed

Before 1948, all patients with Wilson disease died shortly after diagnosis. In 1948, BAL (dimercaprol) was introduced as a possible effective treatment, to be followed by penicillamine (1955), zinc salts (1961), trientine (1969), liver transplantation (1982), and tetrathiomolybdate (1984). Despite this wide range of therapeutic options, patients still die. This article examines the cause of death in 67 patients (33 men, 34 women) out of a series of 300 seen between 1948 and 2000. Patients were classified according to their presentation as neurological, 32 patients, hepatic 11, mixed hepatic/neurological 10, hemolytic, 6, and "sibling biopsy " 8. Diagnostic failure was the principal cause of death but there were multiple other causes of which the principal was poor compliance and the development of malignant disease after 10 years of follow-up. The development of new symptoms should alert the physician to the possibility of a new pathology. PMID:17712859

Walshe, John M

2007-11-15

412

Prevalence of infectious diseases in ring-necked pheasant flocks in Poland.  

PubMed

The health status of ring-necked pheasants in view of the prevalence of infectious diseases was estimated in Polish pheasantries in the years 1997-2000. Anatomicopathological, microbiological and serological examinations were carried out on birds derived from 26 pheasantries, including birds randomly selected from 18 flocks and sick or dead birds sent from 8 pheasantries. Antibodies specific to the following viruses were detected in serum blood samples: HE, AE, AP, REO, AI, Adeno group 1, MD, ND, as well as Mycoplasma gallisepticum specific antibodies. However, in none of the examined flocks was the presence of antibodies against reticuloendoteliosis virus found. Marble spleen disease and salmonellosis proved to be the most frequent cause of death during the growing period. PMID:14510048

Wieliczko, A; Tomanek, B; Kuczkowski, M

2003-01-01

413

The economic and ecologic impact of infectious diseases specialists in hospitals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: infectious diseases specialists in our country have been playing an important role in hospital antibiotic prescription, but there is no evaluation of cost-effectiveness of having infectious diseases specialists in hospitals. Objectives: determine the impact of several antibiotic prescription policies imposed by an infec- tious diseases specialist in a third level clinic in Medellin, according to nosocomial infection rates, nosocomial

J. C. Catańo; JUAN CARLOS CATAŃOMEDELLÍN

414

LETTER Does habitat disturbance increase infectious disease risk for Hillary Young,1,2  

E-print Network

. Studies have described this phenomenon for Lyme disease (e.g. Allan et al. 2003; Ostfeld 2011), West NileLETTER Does habitat disturbance increase infectious disease risk for primates? Hillary Young,1 that ecosystem conservation protects human and wildlife populations against infectious disease. We tested

Nunn, Charles

415

Modeling spatial spread of infectious diseases with a fixed latent period in a spatially continuous domain  

E-print Network

Modeling spatial spread of infectious diseases with a fixed latent period in a spatially continuous, March 2009 Abstract In this paper, with the assumptions that an infectious disease in a population has, the simulations on the PDE model also suggest that the spread speed of the disease indeed coincides with c. We

Linder, Tamás

416

THE POTENTIAL IMPACT OF CLIMATE CHANGE ON INFECTIOUS DISEASES OF ARCTIC FAUNA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Climate change is already affecting Arctic species including infectious disease agents and greater changes are expected. Some infectious diseases are already increasing but future changes are difficult to predict because of the complexity of host - agent - environment relationships. However mechanisms related to climate change that will influence disease patterns are understood. Warmer temperatures will benefit free living bacteria

Michael J. Bradley; Susan J. Kutz; Emily Jenkins; Todd M. O'Hara

2005-01-01

417

78 FR 63996 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Special Emphasis Panel; Preclinical Development Services...Special Emphasis Panel; Preclinical Innovation Program...and Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research, National...

2013-10-25

418

78 FR 69683 - Board of Scientific Counselors, Office of Infectious Diseases (BSC, OID)  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Board of Scientific...Counselors, Office of Infectious Diseases (BSC, OID) In accordance with...L. 92-463), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention...

2013-11-20

419

76 FR 24031 - Board of Scientific Counselors, Office of Infectious Diseases (BSC, OID)  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Board of Scientific...Counselors, Office of Infectious Diseases (BSC, OID) In accordance with...L. 92-463), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)...

2011-04-29

420

77 FR 67651 - Board of Scientific Counselors, Office of Infectious Diseases (BSC, OID)  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Board of Scientific...Counselors, Office of Infectious Diseases (BSC, OID) In accordance with...L. 92-463), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention...

2012-11-13

421

78 FR 17411 - Board of Scientific Counselors, Office of Infectious Diseases (BSC, OID)  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Board of Scientific...Counselors, Office of Infectious Diseases (BSC, OID) In accordance with...L. 92-463), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention...

2013-03-21

422

76 FR 63926 - Board of Scientific Counselors, Office of Infectious Diseases (BSC, OID)  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Board of Scientific...Counselors, Office of Infectious Diseases (BSC, OID) In accordance with...L. 92-463), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention...

2011-10-14

423

77 FR 21778 - Board of Scientific Counselors, Office of Infectious Diseases (BSC, OID)  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Board of Scientific...Counselors, Office of Infectious Diseases (BSC, OID) In accordance with...L. 92-463), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention...

2012-04-11

424

78 FR 11651 - Board of Scientific Counselors, Office of Infectious Diseases (BSC, OID)  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Board of Scientific...Counselors, Office of Infectious Diseases (BSC, OID) In accordance with...L. 92-463), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention...

2013-02-19

425

75 FR 22607 - Board of Scientific Counselors, Coordinating Center for Infectious Diseases (CCID)  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Board of Scientific...Counselors, Coordinating Center for Infectious Diseases (CCID) In accordance with section 10...Pub. L. 92-463), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC),...

2010-04-29

426

CDC Vital Signs: Preventable Deaths from Heart Disease and Stroke  

MedlinePLUS

... gov . Vital Signs Share Compartir Preventable Deaths from Heart Disease & Stroke Improving care can save more lives ... all ages. Issue Details Problem Many deaths from heart disease and stroke can be prevented. What do ...

427

Infection control in the management of highly pathogenic infectious diseases: consensus of the European Network of Infectious Disease.  

PubMed

The European Network for Infectious Diseases (EUNID) is a network of clinicians, public health epidemiologists, microbiologists, infection control, and critical-care doctors from the European member states, who are experienced in the management of patients with highly infectious diseases. We aim to develop a consensus recommendation for infection control during clinical management and invasive procedures in such patients. After an extensive literature review, draft recommendations were amended jointly by 27 partners from 15 European countries. Recommendations include repetitive training of staff to ascertain infection control, systematic use of cough and respiratory etiquette at admission to the emergency department, fluid sampling in the isolation room, and analyses in biosafety level 3/4 laboratories, and preference for point-of-care bedside laboratory tests. Children should be cared for by paediatricians and intensive-care patients should be cared for by critical-care doctors in high-level isolation units (HLIU). Invasive procedures should be avoided if unnecessary or done in the HLIU, as should chest radiography, ultrasonography, and renal dialysis. Procedures that require transport of patients out of the HLIU should be done during designated sessions or hours in secure transport. Picture archiving and communication systems should be used. Post-mortem examination should be avoided; biopsy or blood collection is preferred. PMID:19393960

Brouqui, Philippe; Puro, Vincenzo; Fusco, Francesco M; Bannister, Barbara; Schilling, Stephan; Follin, Per; Gottschalk, René; Hemmer, Robert; Maltezou, Helena C; Ott, Kristi; Peleman, Renaat; Perronne, Christian; Sheehan, Gerard; Siikamäki, Heli; Skinhoj, Peter; Ippolito, Giuseppe

2009-05-01

428

Common and emerging infectious diseases in the animal shelter.  

PubMed

The beneficial role that animal shelters play is unquestionable. An estimated 3 to 4 million animals are cared for or placed in homes each year, and most shelters promote public health and support responsible pet ownership. It is, nonetheless, inevitable that shelters are prime examples of anthropogenic biological instability: even well-run shelters often house transient, displaced, and mixed populations of animals. Many of these animals have received minimal to no prior health care, and some have a history of scavenging or predation to survive. Overcrowding and poor shelter conditions further magnify these inherent risks to create individual, intraspecies, and interspecies stress and provide an environment conducive to exposure to numerous potentially collaborative pathogens. All of these factors can contribute to the evolution and emergence of new pathogens or to alterations in virulence of endemic pathogens. While it is not possible to effectively anticipate the timing or the pathogen type in emergence events, their sites of origin are less enigmatic, and pathologists and diagnosticians who work with sheltered animal populations have recognized several such events in the past decade. This article first considers the contribution of the shelter environment to canine and feline disease. This is followed by summaries of recent research on the pathogenesis of common shelter pathogens, as well as research that has led to the discovery of novel or emerging diseases and the methods that are used for their diagnosis and discovery. For the infectious agents that commonly affect sheltered dogs and cats, including canine distemper virus, canine influenza virus, Streptococcus spp, parvoviruses, feline herpesvirus, feline caliciviruses, and feline infectious peritonitis virus, we present familiar as well as newly recognized lesions associated with infection. Preliminary studies on recently discovered viruses like canine circovirus, canine bocavirus, and feline norovirus indicate that these pathogens can cause or contribute to canine and feline disease. PMID:24265288

Pesavento, P A; Murphy, B G

2014-03-01

429

[Infectious diseases among Brazilian preschool children attending daycare centers].  

PubMed

The scope of this article is to analyze the prevalence and factors associated with the development of infectious diseases that affect children in daycare centers, namely respiratory infections, diarrheal disease and parasitic infections. Bibliographic research was conducted in the MEDLINE, LILACS and SciELO databases, and observational studies were included. 129 studies were identified, of which 21 were considered relevant to this study, namely two longitudinal and 19 cross-sectional studies. The systematization of the reviewed studies highlighted: i) the presence of intestinal parasites was the main outcome analyzed, followed by respiratory infections; ii) only one study investigated the occurrence of diarrheal disease; iii) the Giardia lamblia was the most prevalent parasitosis; iv) the variables that were most often associated with the development of intestinal parasitosis were child age, family income and maternal education; v) the attendance at daycare centers was a risk factor for intestinal parasites and respiratory infections. Respiratory and parasitic infections are major problems in institutionalized children in daycare centers. The reduction of such diseases involves a complex web of socio-economic, sanitation and daycare center infrastructure aspects. PMID:24863828

Pedraza, Dixis Figueroa; Queiroz, Daiane de; Sales, Márcia Cristina

2014-02-01

430

Point-of-care nucleic acid testing for infectious diseases  

PubMed Central

Nucleic acid testing for infectious diseases at the point of care is beginning to enter clinical practice in developed and developing countries; especially for applications requiring fast turnaround times, and in settings where a centralized laboratory approach faces limitations. Current systems for clinical diagnostic applications are mainly PCR-based, can only be used in hospitals, and are still relatively complex and expensive. Integrating sample preparation with nucleic acid amplification and detection in a cost-effective, robust, and user-friendly format remains challenging. This review describes recent technical advances that might be able to address these limitations, with a focus on isothermal nucleic acid amplification methods. It briefly discusses selected applications related to the diagnosis and management of tuberculosis, HIV, and perinatal and nosocomial infections. PMID:21377748

Niemz, Angelika; Ferguson, Tanya M.; Boyle, David S.

2013-01-01

431

The Global Threat of New and Reemerging Infectious Diseases  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Authored by Jennifer Brower and Peter Chalk, working on behalf of the RAND Corporation, this 140-page online book explores an in-depth analysis of the security implications posed by the dissemination of various infectious diseases. Throughout the work, the authors draw on two case studies, namely the HIV/ AIDS epidemic in South Africa and the public health response system within the United States. The book itself is available as six separate chapters, including an appendix and bibliography. For those looking for a brief synopsis of the work, a nine-page summary is also available. The authors conclude their work by presenting several recommendations that may address various existing shortcomings, including increased coordination between public health authorities at all levels of government, integration of the private sector into overall public health efforts, and a large-scale education and information campaign.

Brower, Jennifer, 1967-.

432

Structural and growth characteristics of infectious bursal disease virus.  

PubMed Central

The infectious bursal disease virus is not enveloped and has a diameter of 60 nm and a density of about 1.32 g/ml. It contains two pieces of single-stranded RNA with molecular weights close to 2 X 10(6). The capsid is made up of four major polypeptides with molecular weights of 110,000, 50,000, 35,000, and 25,000. The virus replicates in chicken embryo fibroblasts rather than in epitheloid cells. After an eclipse period of 4 h, virus production reaches a maximum about 12 h later. The virus has no structural or biological similarities with defined avian reoviruses, and it cannot be classified in one of the established taxonomic groups. Images PMID:176463

Nick, H; Cursiefen, D; Becht, H

1976-01-01

433

Tropical American plants in the treatment of infectious diseases.  

PubMed

The increasingly diverse U.S. immigrant populations and the growing use of medicinal herbs create a need for health care professionals to expand their knowledge in this area. This is a review of tropical plants, Annona Muricata, Artemisia absinthium, Cinchona officinalis, Illicium verum, Momordica charantia, Opuntia streptacantha, Schinus terebinthifolius, and Tabebuia avellanedae (impetiginosa), commonly used by Latino and Haitian populations for the treatment of infectious disease. All the eight plants discussed here have one or more of the following: antibacterial, antiviral, antifungal, or antiparasitic properties. All of these plants are primarily known and used in the tropical region, but they are also readily available for purchase in the United States, specifically in the ethnic markets. This review discusses their traditional uses, chemical constituents, proven scientific evidence, and toxicities. PMID:22436096

Dvorkin-Camiel, Lana; Whelan, Julia S

2008-01-01

434

GSK3? and the control of infectious bacterial diseases  

PubMed Central

Glycogen synthesis kinase 3? (GSK3?) has been shown to be a critical mediator of the intensity and direction of the innate immune system responding to bacterial stimuli. This review will focus on: (i) the central role of GSK3? in the regulation of pathogen-induced inflammatory responses through the regulation of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine production. (ii) The extensive ongoing efforts to exploit GSK3? for its therapeutic potential in the control of infectious diseases. (iii) The increasing evidence that specific pathogens target GSK3?-related pathways for immune evasion. A better understanding of complex bacterial–GSK3? interactions is likely to lead to more effective anti-inflammatory interventions and novel targets to circumvent pathogen colonization and survival. PMID:24618402

Wang, Huizhi H.; Lamont, Richard J.; Kumar, Akhilesh; Scott, David A.

2014-01-01

435

Genetic characterisation of infectious bursal disease virus isolates in Ethiopia  

PubMed Central

The objective of the investigation was to characterise infectious bursal disease viruses (IBDV) circulating in commercial and breeding poultry farms in Ethiopia between 2009 and 2011. The nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequence for VP2 hypervariable region of ten IBDVs were determined by RT-PCR, sequenced and compared to well characterised IBDV isolates worldwide. IBDV genetic material was amplified directly from bursa or cell passaged material. Phylogenetically, Ethiopian IBDVs represented two genetic lineages: very virulent (vv) IBDVs or variants of the classical attenuated vaccine strain (D78). The nucleotide identity between Ethiopian vvIBDVs ranged between 0% and 2.6%. Ethiopian vvIBDVs are clustered phylogenetically with the African IBDV genetic lineage, independent of the Asian/European lineage. This report demonstrates the circulation of vvIBDV in commercial and breeding poultry farms in Ethiopia. PMID:24145155

Jenberie, Shiferaw; Lynch, Stacey E.; Kebede, Fekadu; Christley, Robert M.; Gelaye, Esayas; Negussie, Haileleul; Asmare, Kassahun; Ayelet, Gelagay

2014-01-01

436

Reconceptualizing major depressive disorder as an infectious disease  

PubMed Central

In this article, I argue for a reconceptualization of major depressive disorder (major depression) as an infectious disease. I suggest that major depression may result from a parasitic, bacterial, or viral infection and present examples that illustrate possible pathways by which these microorganisms could contribute to the etiology of major depression. I also argue that the reconceptualization of the human body as an ecosystem for these microorganisms and the human genome as a host for non-human exogenous sequences may greatly amplify the opportunity to discover genetic links to the illness. Deliberately speculative, this article is intended to stimulate novel research approaches and expand the circle of researchers taking aim at this vexing illness. PMID:25364500

2014-01-01

437

Research on an infectious disease transmission by flocking birds.  

PubMed

The swarm intelligence is becoming a hot topic. The flocking of birds is a natural phenomenon, which is formed and organized without central or external controls for some benefits (e.g., reduction of energy consummation). However, the flocking also has some negative effects on the human, as the infectious disease H7N9 will easily be transmited from the denser flocking birds to the human. Zombie-city model has been proposed to help analyzing and modeling the flocking birds and the artificial society. This paper focuses on the H7N9 virus transmission in the flocking birds and from the flocking birds to the human. And some interesting results have been shown: (1) only some simple rules could result in an emergence such as the flocking; (2) the minimum distance between birds could affect H7N9 virus transmission in the flocking birds and even affect the virus transmissions from the flocking birds to the human. PMID:23864820

Tang, Mingsheng; Mao, Xinjun; Guessoum, Zahia

2013-01-01

438

Research on an Infectious Disease Transmission by Flocking Birds  

PubMed Central

The swarm intelligence is becoming a hot topic. The flocking of birds is a natural phenomenon, which is formed and organized without central or external controls for some benefits (e.g., reduction of energy consummation). However, the flocking also has some negative effects on the human, as the infectious disease H7N9 will easily be transmited from the denser flocking birds to the human. Zombie-city model has been proposed to help analyzing and modeling the flocking birds and the artificial society. This paper focuses on the H7N9 virus transmission in the flocking birds and from the flocking birds to the human. And some interesting results have been shown: (1) only some simple rules could result in an emergence such as the flocking; (2) the minimum distance between birds could affect H7N9 virus transmission in the flocking birds and even affect the virus transmissions from the flocking birds to the human. PMID:23864820

Mao, Xinjun; Guessoum, Zahia

2013-01-01

439

[A type analysis of the statutory infectious diseases in the Republican period].  

PubMed

In the current academic circle, there are different opinions about the types of the statutory infectious diseases in the Republican period, including the nine-, ten-, eleven- and thirteen-type hypotheses being the most popular. They are different not only on the diseases types, but also about the time of its announcement. This article argues that there were eight kinds of statutory infectious diseases in 1916, i.e. cholera, dysentery, typhoid, smallpox, diphtheria, scarlatina,plague, and typhus; nine in 1928, with cerebrospinal meningitis being added; ten in 1944, with relapsing fever being added; after that, there were no changes. The appointed infectious diseases were initially relapsing fever and malaria; when the relapsing fever became the statutory one, then the appointed ones were the malaria and kala-azar. The establishment of the statutory and the appointed infectious diseases signified that the government of the Republican period had intervened in the administration of infectious diseases. PMID:19127845

Zhang, Tai-shan

2007-10-01

440

Media impact switching surface during an infectious disease outbreak  

PubMed Central

There are many challenges to quantifying and evaluating the media impact on the control of emerging infectious diseases. We modeled such media impacts using a piecewise smooth function depending on both the case number and its rate of change. The proposed model was then converted into a switching system, with the switching surface determined by a functional relationship between susceptible populations and different subgroups of infectives. By parameterizing the proposed model with the 2009 A/H1N1 influenza outbreak data in the Shaanxi province of China, we observed that media impact switched off almost as the epidemic peaked. Our analysis implies that media coverage significantly delayed the epidemic's peak and decreased the severity of the outbreak. Moreover, media impacts are not always effective in lowering the disease transmission during the entire outbreak, but switch on and off in a highly nonlinear fashion with the greatest effect during the early stage of the outbreak. The finding draws the attention to the important role of informing the public about ‘the rate of change of case numbers' rather than ‘the absolute number of cases' to alter behavioral changes, through a self-adaptive media impact switching on and off, for better control of disease transmission. PMID:25592757

Xiao, Yanni; Tang, Sanyi; Wu, Jianhong

2015-01-01

441

Technology innovation for infectious diseases in the developing world  

PubMed Central

Enabling innovation and access to health technologies remains a key strategy in combating infectious diseases in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). However, a gulf between paying markets and the endemicity of such diseases has contributed to the dearth of R&D in meeting these public health needs. While the pharmaceutical industry views emerging economies as potential new markets, most of the world’s poorest bottom billion now reside in middle-income countries--a fact that has complicated tiered access arrangements. However, product development partnerships--particularly those involving academic institutions and small firms--find commercial opportunities in pursuing even neglected diseases; and a growing pharmaceutical sector in BRICS countries offers hope for an indigenous base of innovation. Such innovation will be shaped by 1) access to building blocks of knowledge; 2) strategic use of intellectual property and innovative financing to meet public health goals; 3) collaborative norms of open innovation; and 4) alternative business models, some with a double bottom line. Facing such resource constraints, LMICs are poised to develop a new, more resource-effective model of innovation that holds exciting promise in meeting the needs of global health. PMID:23849080

2012-01-01

442

Th17 Cells in Autoimmune and Infectious Diseases  

PubMed Central

The view of CD4 T-cell-mediated immunity as a balance between distinct lineages of Th1 and Th2 cells has changed dramatically. Identification of the IL-17 family of cytokines and of the fact that IL-23 mediates the expansion of IL-17-producing T cells uncovered a new subset of Th cells designated Th17 cells, which have emerged as a third independent T-cell subset that may play an essential role in protection against certain extracellular pathogens. Moreover, Th17 cells have been extensively analyzed because of their strong association with inflammatory disorders and autoimmune diseases. Also, they appear to be critical for controlling these disorders. Similar to Th1 and Th2 cells, Th17 cells require specific cytokines and transcription factors for their differentiation. Th17 cells have been characterized as one of the major pathogenic Th cell populations underlying the development of many autoimmune diseases, and they are enhanced and stabilized by IL-23. The characteristics of Th17 cells, cytokines, and their sources, as well as their role in infectious and autoimmune diseases, are discussed in this review. PMID:25152827

Zambrano-Zaragoza, José Francisco; Romo-Martínez, Enrique Jhonatan; Durán-Avelar, Ma. de Jesús; García-Magallanes, Noemí; Vibanco-Pérez, Norberto

2014-01-01

443

Technology innovation for infectious diseases in the developing world.  

PubMed

Enabling innovation and access to health technologies remains a key strategy in combating infectious diseases in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). However, a gulf between paying markets and the endemicity of such diseases has contributed to the dearth of R&D in meeting these public health needs. While the pharmaceutical industry views emerging economies as potential new markets, most of the world's poorest bottom billion now reside in middle-income countries--a fact that has complicated tiered access arrangements. However, product development partnerships--particularly those involving academic institutions and small firms--find commercial opportunities in pursuing even neglected diseases; and a growing pharmaceutical sector in BRICS countries offers hope for an indigenous base of innovation. Such innovation will be shaped by 1) access to building blocks of knowledge; 2) strategic use of intellectual property and innovative financing to meet public health goals; 3) collaborative norms of open innovation; and 4) alternative business models, some with a double bottom line. Facing such resource constraints, LMICs are poised to develop a new, more resource-effective model of innovation that holds exciting promise in meeting the needs of global health. PMID:23849080

So, Anthony D; Ruiz-Esparza, Quentin

2012-01-01

444

An Emerging Infectious Disease Triggering Large-Scale Hyperpredation  

PubMed Central

Hyperpredation refers to an enhanced predation pressure on a secondary prey due to either an increase in the abundance of a predator population or a sudden drop in the abundance of the main prey. This scarcely documented mechanism has been previously studied in scenarios in which the introduction of a feral prey caused overexploitation of native prey. Here we provide evidence of a previously unreported link between Emergent Infectious Diseases (EIDs) and hyperpredation on a predator-prey community. We show how a viral outbreak caused the population collapse of a host prey at a large spatial scale, which subsequently promoted higher-than-normal predation intensity on a second prey from shared predators. Thus, the disease left a population dynamic fingerprint both in the primary host prey, through direct mortality from the disease, and indirectly in the secondary prey, through hyperpredation. This resulted in synchronized prey population dynamics at a large spatio-temporal scale. We therefore provide evidence for a novel mechanism by which EIDs can disrupt a predator-prey interaction from the individual behavior to the population dynamics. This mechanism can pose a further threat to biodiversity through the human-aided disruption of ecological interactions at large spatial and temporal scales. PMID:18523587

Moleón, Marcos; Almaraz, Pablo; Sánchez-Zapata, José A.

2008-01-01

445

Multiplex infectious disease microarrays: STAT serology on a drop of blood  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

New and resurgent viral and antibiotic-resistant bacterial diseases are being encountered worldwide. The US CDC now ranks hospital acquired infections among the top 10 leading causes of death in the US, costing $20 billion annually. Such nosocomial infections presently affect 5% - 10% of hospitalized patients leading to 2 million cases and 99,000 deaths annually. Until now, assays available to mount comprehensive surveillance of infectious disease exposure by biosecurity agencies and hospital infection control units have been too slow and too costly. In earlier clinical studies we have reported proteomic microarrays combining 13 autoimmune and 26 viral and bacterial pathogens that revealed correlations between autoimmune diseases and antecedent infections. In this work we have expanded the array to 40 viruses and bacteria and investigated a suspected role of human endogenous retroviruses in autoimmune neuropathies. Using scanning laser imaging, and fluorescence color multiplexing, serum IgG and IgM responses are measured concurrently on the same array, for 14 arrays (patient samples) per microscope slide in 15 minutes. Other advantages include internal calibration, 10 ?L sample size, increased laboratory efficiency, and potential factor of 100 cost reduction.

Ewart, Tom; Tarnopolsky, Mark; Baker, Steve; Raha, Sandeep; Wong, Yuen-Yee; Ciebiera, Kathy

2009-06-01

446

Infectious diseases as a Canadian subspecialty, with projections to the year 2000.  

PubMed

Infectious diseases is a relatively new subspecialty in Canada. During the past decade, however, important advances have been made. These include the formation of the Canadian Infectious Diseases Society and the development of the first Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons examinations in the subspecialty of infectious diseases. The majority of Canadians training for practice in the field of infectious diseases are now enrolled in programs in Canada. Despite predictions in the United States of an excess of physicians who specialize in infectious diseases, such a situation has not occurred in Canada. More physicians with training in infectious diseases will be required in Canada in the next decade to fill positions in patient care, microbiology (for individuals with both clinical and laboratory training), research, epidemiology and infection control, programs related to human immunodeficiency virus infections, geographic and international medicine, the pharmaceutical industry, and education and administration. In Canada, the extent to which infectious diseases physicians are involved in these areas varies from that in the United States. This review suggests a continued need for physicians with appropriate training in infectious diseases. PMID:2237131

Ronald, A R; Nicolle, L E; Goldsand, G; MacDonald, N

1990-01-01

447

Report of the Committee on Infectious Diseases. Twenty-first Edition, 1988.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book is a comprehensive textbook of infectious diseases. It is organized in five parts: (1) active and passive immunization; (2) recommendations for care of children in special circumstances; (3) summaries of infectious diseases; (4) antimicrobial prophylaxis; and (5) antimicrobials. There are six appendices: (1) federal vaccine injury…

American Academy of Pediatrics, Elk Grove Village, IL.

448

A Branching Model for the Spread of Infectious Animal Diseases in Varying  

E-print Network

A Branching Model for the Spread of Infectious Animal Diseases in Varying Environments Pieter with a stochastic model, describing out- breaks of infectious diseases that have potentially great animal or hu- man. With this branching process, we estimate the probability of extinction and the expected number of infected individuals

Meester, Ronald

449

Social and environmental risk factors in the emergence of infectious diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fifty years ago, the age-old scourge of infectious disease was receding in the developed world in response to improved public health measures, while the advent of antibiotics, better vaccines, insecticides and improved surveillance held the promise of eradicating residual problems. By the late twentieth century, however, an increase in the emergence and re-emergence of infectious diseases was evident in many

Robin A Weiss; Anthony J McMichael

2004-01-01

450

Biodiversity loss and emerging infectious disease: An example from the rodent-borne hemorrhagic fevers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between biodiversity loss and emerging infectious diseases is studied in this paper using as examples the rodent-borne hemorrhagic fevers (those caused by hantaviruses and arenaviruses). Both biodiversity loss and infectious disease have taken on importance in the last two decades and both are related to human disturbance of natural systems. Intuitively, one might expect the most diverse natural

James N. Mills

2006-01-01

451

7Winter 2011 Introduced infectious diseases pose a significant threat to wildlife  

E-print Network

7Winter 2011 Introduced infectious diseases pose a significant threat to wildlife populations Diego, CA 92182 (STK) Wildlife Science International, Inc., P.O. Box 386, Nederland, CO 80466 (RRR _________________________________________________________________________________________ Introduced infectious diseases pose a tremendous threat to wildlife. This threat increases as animal

Kelley, Scott

452

DISEASE IN HUMAN EVOLUTION: THE RE-EMERGENCE OF INFECTIOUS DISEASE IN THE THIRD EPIDEMIOLOGICAL TRANSITION  

Microsoft Academic Search

For millions of years, humans and their ancestors suffered from diseases -- both the kind caused by infectious pathogens (e.g., bacteria, viruses, parasites) and the kind caused by our own bodies as they age and degenerate. Over this long period, humans constantly created new ways of living and eating, and actual physical or genetic changes evolved to minimize the effects

George J. Armelagos; Kathleen C. Barnes; James Lin

453

The Chemotherapy of Infectious Diseases caused by Protozoa and Bacteria  

PubMed Central

The possibility of combating infectious diseases with chemotherapeutically active substances depends to a large extent on the structure of the pathogenic organism. Apart from the cure of contagious pleuro-pneumonia in horses with neosalvarsan, we have, as yet, no chemotherapeutic substance which is active in virus diseases. The position is scarcely better when we turn to bacterial infections due to cocci and bacilli. These two types of infective organisms occupy the lowest level in the scale of micro-organisms. On the other hand, the spirochćtes, which also belong to the bacteria group, and, still more so, those causal organisms belonging to the protozoa, represent relatively highly differentiated species, and the more highly developed a pathogenic organism is, the more points for attack it appears to offer to the action of chemotherapeutic substances. It is, therefore, not to be wondered at that the best results with chemotherapeutically active substances have been obtained in spirochćtal diseases (syphilis, relapsing fever, frambśsia, etc.), and above all, in protozoal diseases. There is scarcely a protozoal disease of man which cannot be cured nowadays by early treatment with the appropriate synthetic drug. (Sleeping sickness, malaria, amśbic dysentery, leishmaniasis.) Epizootics resembling human diseases, as for example, trypanoses, are also relatively easily dealt with by the same drugs as have been found of value in the treatment of disease in man. On the other hand, there has been a lack of success, up to the present, in the treatment of those diseases of animals which are not generally related to the tropical diseases of man. The most important of these epizootics are the piroplasmoses, which are caused by babesić and theilerić and which are found, not only in tropical and subtropical regions, but also in temperate zones. In this paper the discovery of a new remedy against piroplasmosis will be reported (acaprin). Further, advice will be given of a new class of substances, which have an actual chemotherapeutic action in streptococcal infections (prontosil, prontosil S), so that one can hope to be able in the future also to attack bacterial infections due to cocci chemotherapeutically. PMID:19990605

Hörlein, H.

1936-01-01

454

Current and Emerging Biomarkers of Cell Death in Human Disease  

PubMed Central

Cell death is a critical biological process, serving many important functions within multicellular organisms. Aberrations in cell death can contribute to the pathology of human diseases. Significant progress made in the research area enormously speeds up our understanding of the biochemical and molecular mechanisms of cell death. According to the distinct morphological and biochemical characteristics, cell death can be triggered by extrinsic or intrinsic apoptosis, regulated necrosis, autophagic cell death, and mitotic catastrophe. Nevertheless, the realization that all of these efforts seek to pursue an effective treatment and cure for the disease has spurred a significant interest in the development of promising biomarkers of cell death to early diagnose disease and accurately predict disease progression and outcome. In this review, we summarize recent knowledge about cell death, survey current and emerging biomarkers of cell death, and discuss the relationship with human diseases. PMID:24949464

Li, Kongning; Wu, Deng; Chen, Xi; Zhang, Ting; Zhang, Lu; Yi, Ying; Miao, Zhengqiang; Jin, Nana; Bi, Xiaoman; Wang, Hongwei; Wang, Dong

2014-01-01

455

[Molecular epidemiology of infectious diseases: analytical methods and results interpretation].  

PubMed

Molecular typing and fingerprinting of microbial pathogens represent an essential tool for the epidemiological surveillance, outbreak detection and control of infectious diseases. Indeed, epidemiological investigation without genotyping data may not provide comprehensive information to allow the most appropriate interventions; despite this consideration, some barriers still hamper the routine application and interpretation of molecular typing data. In this paper, the most important methods currently used for characterization of pathogenic microorganisms for microbial source tracking and for the identification of clonal relationships among different isolates, are described according to their principles, advantages and limitations. Criteria for their evaluation and guidelines for the correct interpretation of results are also proposed. Molecular typing methods can be grouped into four categories based on different methodological principles, which include the characterization of restriction sites in genomic or plasmid DNA; the amplification of specific genetic targets; the restriction enzyme digestion and the subsequent amplification; sequence analysis. Although the development and the extensive use of molecular typing systems have greatly improved the understanding of the infectious diseases epidemiology, the rapid diversification, partial evaluation and lack of comparative data on the methods have raised significant questions about the selection of the most appropriate typing method, as well as difficulties for the lack of consensus about the interpretation of the results and nomenclature used for interpretation. Several criteria should be considered in order to evaluate the intrinsic performance and practical advantages of a typing system. However none of the available genotyping methods fully meets all these requirements. Therefore, the combined use of different approaches may lead to a more precise characterization and discrimination of isolates than a single method, especially if used in a hierarchical manner. The interpretation of the molecular results differs according to the typing system's characteristics: for example in the restriction fragments-based analysis, the divergences or the similarity percentages among the profiles are evaluated, whilst the differences in terms of number and intensity of bands are analyzed in the amplification-based approaches. Moreover, a correct interpretation of molecular results significantly depends by other critical factors, such as the comprehension of the typing system and data quality, the microbial diversity, and the epidemiological context in which the method is used. The analysis of PFGE data, considered as the "gold standard", is based on the differences of the number and position of bands patterns, although recent recommendations are now available from the Centers for Diseases Control and Prevention (CDC) for a more accurate interpretation, which also include the evaluation of the gel quality, the genetic diversity of the microorganism, the time and geographical scale of an epidemic event. Future advances in the molecular typing technologies indeed will provide rapid methodological improvements, such as a greater degree of automation, better resolution, higher throughput, and a greater availability of dedicated bioinformatics tools. These factors will all contribute to an increasing application of genotyping methods to better understand the epidemiology of infectious diseases, and to implement, along with the strengthened international and interdisciplinary partnerships, more effective control and prevention strategies for Public Health improvements. PMID:24452182

Sammarco, M L; Ripabelli, G; Tamburro, M

2014-01-01

456

The Global Mammal Parasite Database: An Online Resource for Infectious Disease Records  

E-print Network

- rus, and vector-borne diseases such as malaria and yellow fever. More re- cently, infectious disease epidemics have become a major conservation concern, with outbreaks of Ebola hemorrhagic fever and anthrax

Nunn, Charles

457

75 FR 10488 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel; Regulatory T cells in Autoimmune and Inflammatory Diseases. Date: April 30, 2010. Time: 11 a.m. to 3 p.m. Agenda: To review and evaluate...

2010-03-08

458

Land-use change and infectious disease in West Africa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Land-use change has been associated with changes in the dynamics of infectious disease in West Africa. Here we describe the complex interactions of land-use change with three diseases (both vector- and non-vector-borne) of considerable public health significance in this region, namely, malaria and irrigation; epidemic meningitis and land degradation; onchocerciasis and deforestation. We highlight the confounding effect of climate variability, which acts as a driver of both land-use change and human health. We conclude, as have others, that the scale of observation always matters, and complex and dynamic feedbacks among social-ecological systems are not easily teased apart. We suggest that in order to establish the causal chain of interactions between land-use change and human health outcomes two approaches are necessary. The first is to have a thorough understanding of the aetiology of disease and the specific mechanisms by which land-use and climate variability affect the transmission of pathogens. This is achieved by focused, detailed studies encompassing a wide range of potential drivers, which are inevitably small scale and often cover short time periods. The second consists of large-scale studies of statistical associations between transmission indices or health outcomes and environmental variables stratified by known ecological or socio-economic confounders, and sufficient in size to overcome local biases in results. Such research activities need to be designed to inform each other if we are to develop predictive models for monitoring these diseases and to develop integrated programs for human health and sustainable land use.

Thomson, M. C.; Ericksen, P. J.; Mohamed, A. Ben; Connor, S. J.

459

Multiscale mobility networks and the spatial spreading of infectious diseases.  

PubMed

Among the realistic ingredients to be considered in the computational modeling of infectious diseases, human mobility represents a crucial challenge both on the theoretical side and in view of the limited availability of empirical data. To study the interplay between short-scale commuting flows and long-range airline traffic in shaping the spatiotemporal pattern of a global epidemic we (i) analyze mobility data from 29 countries around the world and find a gravity model able to provide a global description of commuting patterns up to 300 kms and (ii) integrate in a worldwide-structured metapopulation epidemic model a timescale-separation technique for evaluating the force of infection due to multiscale mobility processes in the disease dynamics. Commuting flows are found, on average, to be one order of magnitude larger than airline flows. However, their introduction into the worldwide model shows that the large-scale pattern of the simulated epidemic exhibits only small variations with respect to the baseline case where only airline traffic is considered. The presence of short-range mobility increases, however, the synchronization of subpopulations in close proximity and affects the epidemic behavior at the periphery of the airline transportation infrastructure. The present approach outlines the possibility for the definition of layered computational approaches where different modeling assumptions and granularities can be used consistently in a unifying multiscale framework. PMID:20018697

Balcan, Duygu; Colizza, Vittoria; Gonçalves, Bruno; Hu, Hao; Ramasco, José J; Vespignani, Alessandro

2009-12-22

460

Multiscale mobility networks and the spatial spreading of infectious diseases  

PubMed Central

Among the realistic ingredients to be considered in the computational modeling of infectious diseases, human mobility represents a crucial challenge both on the theoretical side and in view of the limited availability of empirical data. To study the interplay between short-scale commuting flows and long-range airline traffic in shaping the spatiotemporal pattern of a global epidemic we (i) analyze mobility data from 29 countries around the world and find a gravity model able to provide a global description of commuting patterns up to 300 kms and (ii) integrate in a worldwide-structured metapopulation epidemic model a timescale-separation technique for evaluating the force of infection due to multiscale mobility processes in the disease dynamics. Commuting flows are found, on average, to be one order of magnitude larger than airline flows. However, their introduction into the worldwide model shows that the large-scale pattern of the simulated epidemic exhibits only small variations with respect to the baseline case where only airline traffic is considered. The presence of short-range mobility increases, however, the synchronization of subpopulations in close proximity and affects the epidemic behavior at the periphery of the airline transportation infrastructure. The present approach outlines the possibility for the definition of layered computational approaches where different modeling assumptions and granularities can be used consistently in a unifying multiscale framework. PMID:20018697

Balcan, Duygu; Colizza, Vittoria; Gonçalves, Bruno; Hu, Hao; Ramasco, José J.; Vespignani, Alessandro

2009-01-01

461

Translational research in infectious disease: current paradigms and challenges ahead  

PubMed Central

In recent years, the biomedical community has witnessed a rapid scientific and technological evolution following the development and refinement of high-throughput methodologies. Concurrently and consequentially, the scientific perspective has changed from the reductionist approach of meticulously analyzing the fine details of a single component of biology, to the “holistic” approach of broadmindedly examining the globally interacting elements of biological systems. The emergence of this new way of thinking has brought about a scientific revolution in which genomics, proteomics, metabolomics and other “omics” have become the predominant tools by which large amounts of data are amassed, analyzed and applied to complex questions of biology that were previously unsolvable. This enormous transformation of basic science research and the ensuing plethora of promising data, especially in the realm of human health and disease, have unfortunately not been followed by a parallel increase in the clinical application of this information. On the contrary, the number of new potential drugs in development has been steadily decreasing, suggesting the existence of roadblocks that prevent the translation of promising research into medically relevant therapeutic or diagnostic application. In this paper we will review, in a non-inclusive fashion, several recent scientific advancements in the field of translational research, with a specific focus on how they relate to infectious disease. We will also present a current picture of the limitations and challenges that exist for translational research, as well as ways that have been proposed by the National Institutes of Health to improve the state of this field. PMID:22633095

Fontana, Judith M.; Alexander, Elizabeth; Salvatore, Mirella

2012-01-01

462

Gold nanoparticles based colorimetric nanodiagnostics for cancer and infectious diseases  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Traditional in vitro diagnostics requires specialized laboratories and costly instrumentation, both for the amplification of nucleic acid targets (usually achieved by PCR) and for the assay readout, often based on fluorescence. We are developing hybrid nanomaterials-based sensors for the rapid and low-cost diagnosis of various disease biomarkers, for applications in portable platforms for diagnostics at the point-of-care. To this aim, we exploited the size and distancedependent optical properties of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) to achieve colorimetric detection. Moreover, in order to avoid the complexity of thermal cycles associated to traditional PCR, the design of our systems includes signal amplification schemes, achieved by the use of enzymes (nucleases, helicase) or DNAzymes. Focused on instrument-free and sensitive detection, we carefully combined the intrinsic sensitivity by multivalency of functionalized AuNPs with isothermal and non-stringent enzyme-aided reaction conditions, controlled AuNPs aggregates, universal reporters and magnetic microparticles, the latter used both as a substrate and as a means for the colorimetric detection. We obtained simple and robust assays for the sensitive (pM range or better) naked-eye detection of cancer or infectious diseases (HPV, HCV) biomarkers, requiring no instrumentation except for a simple heating plate. Finally, we are also developing non-medical applications of these bio-nanosensors, such as in the development of on-field rapid tests for the detection of pollutants and other food and water contaminants.

Valentini, Paola; Persano, Stefano; Cecere, Paola; Sabella, Stefania; Pompa, Pier Paolo

2014-03-01

463

[Kenya Research Station and viral infectious disease research].  

PubMed

The Institute of Tropical Medicine, Kenya Research Station, Nagasaki University was established by a fund of the Ministry of Education (MEXT) in 2005. Currently, the station has been on ''The Clinical and Epidemiological Research Program of Tropical Medicine and Emerging Infectious Diseases-Establishment of Education and Research System between Africa and Japan- ''. The project has been supported by about 20 Japanese staff and 85 Kenyan staff, and in the research station, 10 research teams have worked on their researches for the prevention of tropical medicine and emerging diseases collaborating with other researches and The JICA Grassroots Technical Cooperation Project has also started in 2012. In April 2010, Nagasaki University, Africa Station has been established along with Kenya Research Station, and it made possible for other faculties to join research in Kenya. School of Dentistry has started oral health survey in Mbita, while School of Fishery, School of Engineering and School of Health Science have a plan of a joint project targeting areas by Lake Victoria. Our aim is to develop a foundation which enables all researchers from different fields to carry out their research for improvement health and living standards of the locals. PMID:24769581

Ichinose, Yoshio

2013-01-01

464

Milk of nonhuman origin and infectious diseases in humans.  

PubMed

Milk and milk products from domestic animals, which are potential infectious hazards, are made more so by modern milk production, because milk from thousands of animals is often pooled prior to bottling or before manufacturing derivative products. Thus, contaminated milk from 1 animal can result in a widespread problem. Pasteurization largely eliminates this hazard. Most disease transmission caused by contamination of the milk supply has been eliminated by hygienic production measures and pasteurization. However, contamination may occur after pasteurization, and no process works perfectly all of the time. Despite scientific opinion that pasteurized products are safer than raw ones--and are equally nutritious--segments of the population regard raw milk products as more nutritious and better tasting than pasteurized milk products. Thus, low levels of raw milk consumption persist in the United States and other developed nations. Occasional milk-associated disease outbreaks caused by raw milk consumption or by breakdowns in the proper production of pasteurized products still occur. PMID:16886155

Leedom, John M

2006-09-01

465

Caspase Functions in Cell Death and Disease  

PubMed Central

Caspases are a family of endoproteases that provide critical links in cell regulatory networks controlling inflammation and cell death. The activation of these enzymes is tightly controlled by their production as inactive zymogens that gain catalytic activity following signaling events promoting their aggregation into dimers or macromolecular complexes. Activation of apoptotic caspases results in inactivation or activation of substrates, and the generation of a cascade of signaling events permitting the controlled demolition of cellular components. Activation of inflammatory caspases results in the production of active proinflammatory cytokines and the promotion of innate immune responses to various internal and external insults. Dysregulation of caspases underlies human diseases including cancer and inflammatory disorders, and major efforts to design better therapies for these diseases seek to understand how these enzymes work and how they can be controlled. PMID:23545416

McIlwain, David R.; Berger, Thorsten; Mak, Tak W.

2013-01-01

466

Emerging infectious diseases of wildlife: role in amphibian population declines and global implications  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We review recent research on the pathology, ecology, and biogeography of two emerging infectious wildlife diseases, chytridiomycosis and ranaviral disease, in the context of host-parasite population biology. We examine the role of these diseases in the global decline of amphibian populations and propose hypotheses for the origins and impact of these panzootics. Finally, we discuss emerging infectious diseases as a global threat to wildlife populations.

Daszak, P.; Berger, L.; Cunningham, A.A.; Hyatt, A.D.; Green, D.E.; Speare, R.

1999-01-01

467

Infectious diseases investment decision evaluation algorithm: a quantitative algorithm for prioritization of naturally occurring infectious disease threats to the U.S. military.  

PubMed

Identification of the most significant infectious disease threats to deployed U.S. military forces is important for developing and maintaining an appropriate countermeasure research and development portfolio. We describe a quantitative algorithmic method (the Infectious Diseases Investment Decision Evaluation Algorithm) that uses Armed Forces Medical Intelligence Center information to determine which naturally occurring pathogens pose the most substantial threat to U.S. deployed forces in the absence of specific mitigating countermeasures. The Infectious Diseases Investment Decision Evaluation Algorithm scores the relative importance of various diseases by taking into account both their severity and the likelihood of infection on a country-by-country basis. In such an analysis, the top three endemic disease threats to U.S. deployed forces are malaria, bacteria-caused diarrhea, and dengue fever. PMID:18333494

Burnette, W Neal; Hoke, Charles H; Scovill, John; Clark, Kathryn; Abrams, Jerry; Kitchen, Lynn W; Hanson, Kevin; Palys, Thomas J; Vaughn, David W

2008-02-01

468

Ethical Dilemmas in Protecting Individual Rights Versus Public Protection in the Case of Infectious Diseases  

PubMed Central

Infectious diseases—including emerging and re-emerging diseases such as Ebola and tuberculosis—continue to be important causes of morbidity and mortality in the globalizing, contemporary world. This article discusses the ethical issues associated with protecting the rights of individuals versus the protection of the health of populations in the case of infectious diseases. The discussion uses the traditional medical ethics approach together with the public health approach presented by Faden and Shebaya.3 Infectious diseases such as Ebola hemorrhagic fever, Nipah virus and HIV/AIDS (together with tuberculosis) will be used to illustrate particular points in the discussion. PMID:24847171

Phua, Kai-Lit

2013-01-01

469

Ethical dilemmas in protecting individual rights versus public protection in the case of infectious diseases.  

PubMed

Infectious diseases-including emerging and re-emerging diseases such as Ebola and tuberculosis-continue to be important causes of morbidity and mortality in the globalizing, contemporary world. This article discusses the ethical issues associated with protecting the rights of individuals versus the protection of the health of populations in the case of infectious diseases. The discussion uses the traditional medical ethics approach together with the public health approach presented by Faden and Shebaya.3 Infectious diseases such as Ebola hemorrhagic fever, Nipah virus and HIV/AIDS (together with tuberculosis) will be used to illustrate particular points in the discussion. PMID:24847171

Phua, Kai-Lit

2013-01-01

470

76 FR 63308 - Data and Data Needs To Advance Risk Assessment for Emerging Infectious Diseases Relevant to Blood...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Assessment for Emerging Infectious Diseases Relevant to Blood and Blood Products; Public Workshop AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration...Assessment for Emerging Infectious Diseases Relevant to Blood and Blood Products.'' The purpose of the public...

2011-10-12

471

Comparative Pathogenomics of Bacteria Causing Infectious Diseases in Fish  

PubMed Central

Fish living in the wild as well as reared in the aquaculture facilities are susceptible to infectious diseases caused by a phylogenetically diverse collection of bacterial pathogens. Control and treatment options using vaccines and drugs are either inadequate, inefficient, or impracticable. The classical approach in studying fish bacterial pathogens has been looking at individual or few virulence factors. Recently, genome sequencing of a number of bacterial fish pathogens has tremendously increased our understanding of the biology, host adaptation, and virulence factors of these important pathogens. This paper attempts to compile the scattered literature on genome sequence information of fish pathogenic bacteria published and available to date. The genome sequencing has uncovered several complex adaptive evolutionary strategies mediated by horizontal gene transfer, insertion sequence elements, mutations and prophage sequences operating in fish pathogens, and how their genomes evolved from generalist environmental strains to highly virulent obligatory pathogens. In addition, the comparative genomics has allowed the identification of unique pathogen-specific gene clusters. The paper focuses on the comparative analysis of the virulogenomes of important fish bacterial pathogens, and the genes involved in their evolutionary adaptation to different ecological niches. The paper also proposes some new directions on finding novel vaccine and chemotherapeutic targets in the genomes of bacterial pathogens of fish. PMID:22675651

Sudheesh, Ponnerassery S.; Al-Ghabshi, Aliya; Al-Mazrooei, Nashwa; Al-Habsi, Saoud

2012-01-01

472

Evolutionary dynamics of infectious diseases in finite populations.  

PubMed

In infectious disease epidemiology the basic reproductive ratio, R0, is defined as the average number of new infections caused by a single infected individual in a fully susceptible population. Many models describing competition for hosts between non-interacting pathogen strains in an infinite population lead to the conclusion that selection favors invasion of new strains if and only if they have higher R0 values than the resident. Here we demonstrate that this picture fails in finite populations. Using a simple stochastic SIS model, we show that in general there is no analogous optimization principle. We find that successive invasions may in some cases lead to strains that infect a smaller fraction of the host population, and that mutually invasible pathogen strains exist. In the limit of weak selection we demonstrate that an optimization principle does exist, although it differs from R0 maximization. For strains with very large R0, we derive an expression for this local fitness function and use it to establish a lower bound for the error caused by neglecting stochastic effects. Furthermore, we apply this weak selection limit to investigate the selection dynamics in the presence of a trade-off between the virulence and the transmission rate of a pathogen. PMID:25016046

Humplik, Jan; Hill, Alison L; Nowak, Martin A

2014-11-01

473

Validation of Laboratory-Developed Molecular Assays for Infectious Diseases  

PubMed Central

Summary: Molecular technology has changed the way that clinical laboratories diagnose and manage many infectious diseases. Excellent sensitivity, specificity, and speed have made molecular assays an attractive alternative to culture or enzyme immunoassay methods. Many molecular assays are commercially available and FDA approved. Others, especially those that test for less common analytes, are often laboratory developed. Laboratories also often modify FDA-approved assays to include different extraction systems or additional specimen types. The Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments (CLIA) federal regulatory standards require clinical laboratories to establish and document their own performance specifications for laboratory-developed tests to ensure accurate and precise results prior to implementation of the test. The performance characteristics that must be established include accuracy, precision, reportable range, reference interval, analytical sensitivity, and analytical specificity. Clinical laboratories are challenged to understand the requirements and determine the types of experiments and analyses necessary to meet the requirements. A variety of protocols and guidelines are available in various texts and documents. Many of the guidelines are general and more appropriate for assays in chemistry sections of the laboratory but are applied in principle to molecular assays. This review presents information that laboratories may consider in their efforts to meet regulatory requirements. PMID:20610823

Burd, Eileen M.

2010-01-01

474

Infectious disease monitoring of the endangered Hawaiian monk seal.  

PubMed

As part of conservation efforts between 1997 and 2001, more than 25% (332 animals) of the endangered Hawaiian monk seal (Monachus schauinslandi) population was sampled in the northwestern Hawaiian Islands. Serum samples were tested for antibodies to viruses, bacteria, and parasites known to cause morbidity and mortality in other marine mammal species. Antibodies were found to phocine herpesvirus-1 by using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, but seropositive results were not confirmed by virus neutralization test. Antibodies to Leptospira bratislava, L. hardjo, L. icterohaemorrhagiae, and L. pomona were detected in seals from several sites with the microagglutination test. Antibodies to Brucella spp. were detected using 10 conventional serologic tests, but because of inconsistencies in test results and laboratories used, and the lack of validation by culture, the Brucella serology should be interpreted with caution. Antibodies to B. canis were not detected by card test. Chlamydophila abortus antibodies were detected by complement fixation (CF) test, and prevalence increased significantly as a function of age; the low sensitivity and specificity associated with the CF make interpretation of results difficult. Antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii and Dirofilaria immitis were rarely found. There was no serologic evidence of exposure to four morbilliviruses, influenza A virus, canine adenovirus, caliciviruses, or other selected viruses. Continuous surveillance provides a means to detect the introduction or emergence of these or other infectious diseases, but it is dependent on the development or improvement of diagnostic tools. Continued and improved surveillance are both needed as part of future conservation efforts of Hawaiian monk seals. PMID:17495307

Aguirre, A Alonso; Keefe, Thomas J; Reif, John S; Kashinsky, Lizabeth; Yochem, Pamela K; Saliki, Jeremiah T; Stott, Jeffrey L; Goldstein, Tracey; Dubey, J P; Braun, Robert; Antonelis, George

2007-04-01

475

Influence of an Infectious Diseases Specialist on ICU Multidisciplinary Rounds  

PubMed Central

Objective. To ascertain the influence of a physician infectious diseases specialist (IDS) on antibiotic use in a medical/surgical intensive care unit. Method. Over a 5-month period, the antibiotic regimens ordered by the ICU multidisciplinary team were studied. The days of antibiotic therapy (DOT) when management decisions included an IDS were compared to DOT in the absence of an IDS. The associated treatment expense was calculated. Results. Prior to multidisciplinary rounds (MDRs), 79-80% of the patients were receiving one or more antibiotic. IDS participation occurred in 61 multidisciplinary rounding sessions. There were 384 patients who before MDRs had orders for 669 days of antimicrobial therapy (DOT). After MDRs, the antimicrobial DOT were reduced to 511 with a concomitant cost saving of $3772. There were 51 MDR sessions that occurred in the absence of the IDS. There were 352 patients who before MDRs had orders for 593 DOT. After MDRs, the DOT were reduced to 572 with a cost savings of $727. The results were normalized by number of patients evaluated with statistically greater reductions when MDRs included the IDS. In addition, the number of rounding sessions with a reduction in DOT was greater with the participation of the IDS. Conclusion. The addition of an IDS to multidisciplinary ICU patient rounds resulted in a reduction in antibiotic DOT and attendant drug expense. PMID:24860663

Gilbert, David N.

2014-01-01

476

Influence of an infectious diseases specialist on ICU multidisciplinary rounds.  

PubMed

Objective. To ascertain the influence of a physician infectious diseases specialist (IDS) on antibiotic use in a medical/surgical intensive care unit. Method. Over a 5-month period, the antibiotic regimens ordered by the ICU multidisciplinary team were studied. The days of antibiotic therapy (DOT) when management decisions included an IDS were compared to DOT in the absence of an IDS. The associated treatment expense was calculated. Results. Prior to multidisciplinary rounds (MDRs), 79-80% of the patients were receiving one or more antibiotic. IDS participation occurred in 61 multidisciplinary rounding sessions. There were 384 patients who before MDRs had orders for 669 days of antimicrobial therapy (DOT). After MDRs, the antimicrobial DOT were reduced to 511 with a concomitant cost saving of $3772. There were 51 MDR sessions that occurred in the absence of the IDS. There were 352 patients who before MDRs had orders for 593 DOT. After MDRs, the DOT were reduced to 572 with a cost savings of $727. The results were normalized by number of patients evaluated with statistically greater reductions when MDRs included the IDS. In addition, the number of rounding sessions with a reduction in DOT was greater with the participation of the IDS. Conclusion. The addition of an IDS to multidisciplinary ICU patient rounds resulted in a reduction in antibiotic DOT and attendant drug expense. PMID:24860663

Gilbert, David N

2014-01-01

477

Infectious diseases in the aftermath of monsoon flooding in Pakistan  

PubMed Central

Pakistan is ranked 9th in terms of flood-affected countries worldwide. In the summer of 2010, the northern province of Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa received more than 312 mm of rain in a 56 hour period. This resulted in over 1 600 deaths across the region. In addition, over 14 million people were directly affected by this record-breaking deluge. Flood affected regions serve as ideal breeding grounds for pathogens, leading to the spread of diseases. The poor standards of hygiene in camps set up for individuals displaced by the floods also contribute to this. It is essential that those involved in relief efforts are aware of the epidemiology of diseases that have historically seen a sudden upsurge after natural disasters. Keeping this in mind, we conducted a simple review of literature. An extensive literature search was conducted using the PubMed data base and online search engines. Articles published in the last 20 years were considered along with some historical articles where a background was required. Seven major diseases were identified to increase substantially in the aftermath of natural disasters. They were then classified into acute and sub-acute settings. Diarrhea, skin & eye infections and leptospirosis were identified in the acute setting while malaria, leishmaniasis, respiratory infections and hepatitis were identified in the sub-acute setting. PMID:23569839

Baqir, Maryam; Sobani, Zain A; Bhamani, Amyn; Bham, Nida Shahab; Abid, Sidra; Farook, Javeria; Beg, M Asim

2012-01-01

478

Infectious Disease Outbreaks in Competitive SportsA Review of the Literature  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent outbreaks of infectious diseases in athletes in competitive sports have stimulated considerable interest. The environments in which these athletes compete, practice, receive therapy for injuries, and travel, both domestically and internationally, provide varied opportunities for the transmission of infectious organisms. The purpose of this medical literature review is to identify the agents most commonly reported in the medical literature

Sean D. Turbeville; Linda D. Cowan; Ronald A. Greenfield

2006-01-01

479

Human genomic association studies: a primer for the infectious diseases specialist.  

PubMed

Medical science is undergoing a genomic revolution. In coming years, insights from human genomic research will increasingly influence all aspects of infectious diseases, ranging from fundamental laboratory research and clinical care to epidemiology and global health. Infectious disease specialists unfamiliar with genomic methods and computational techniques may shy away from publications that involve human genomics analyses. In this article, we discuss selected aspects of study design and statistical analysis in this area, emphasizing important pitfalls that may compromise the validity of some studies. Our goal is to provide the infectious diseases specialist with information that will aid in the critical evaluation of publications that include human genomic analyses. PMID:17492588

Motsinger, Alison A; Haas, David W; Hulgan, Todd; Ritchie, Marylyn D

2007-06-15

480

Indole Alkaloids from Marine Sources as Potential Leads against Infectious Diseases  

PubMed Central

Indole alkaloids comprise a large and complex class of natural products found in a variety of marine sources. Infectious diseases remain a major threat to public health, and in the absence of long-term protective vaccines, the control of these infectious diseases is based on a small number of chemotherapeutic agents. Furthermore, the emerging resistance against these drugs makes it urgently necessary to discover and develop new, safe and, effective anti-infective agents. In this regard, the aim of this review is to highlight indole alkaloids from marine sources which have been shown to demonstrate activity against infectious diseases. PMID:24995289

França, Paulo H. B.; Barbosa, Daniel P.; da Silva, Daniel L.; Ribeiro, Ęurica A. N.; Santana, Antônio E. G.; Santos, Bárbara V. O.; Barbosa-Filho, José M.; Quintans, Jullyana S. S.; Barreto, Rosana S. S.; Quintans-Júnior, Lucindo J.; de Araújo-Júnior, Joăo X.

2014-01-01