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1

Infectious Diseases  

MedlinePLUS

Infectious diseases kill more people worldwide than any other single cause. Infectious diseases are caused by germs. Germs are tiny living ... to live NIH: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases

2

[Struggle against infectious diseases in children in the Magallanes Region: death, passion and life (Part I)].  

PubMed

Historical background of infectious diseases of children in the Region of Magallanes is reviewed, with special emphasis on their impact on infant mortality. For purposes of publication, the research is divided into two parts. In this first one, we present a brief relation of the facts that led to the death of almost all of the Spanish colonizers of the Strait of Magellan, including children (1584-1590); following, a description of the available data on infectious diseases affecting Patagonian Indians before contact with white man. Finally we describe the health situation in Punta Arenas, from the foundation of Bulnes Fort until the end of the 19th century. PMID:24522318

Vieira, Matías

2013-12-01

3

Ethics and infectious disease.  

PubMed

Bioethics apparently suffers from a misdistribution of research resources analogous to the '10/90' divide in medical research. Though infectious disease should be recognized as a topic of primary importance for bioethics, the general topic of infectious disease has received relatively little attention from the discipline of bioethics in comparison with things like abortion, euthanasia, genetics, cloning, stem cell research, and so on. The fact that the historical and potential future consequences of infectious diseases are almost unrivalled is one reason that the topic of infectious disease warrants more attention from bioethicists. The 'Black Death' eliminated one third of the European population during the 14th Century; the 1989 flu killed between 20 and 100 million people; and, in the 20th Century smallpox killed perhaps three times more people than all the wars of that period. In the contemporary world, epidemics (AIDS, multi-drug resistant turberculosis, and newly emerging infectious diseases such as SARS) continue to have dramatic consequences. A second reason why the topic of infectious disease deserves further attention is that it raises difficult ethical questions of its own. While infected individuals can threaten the health of other individuals and society as a whole, for example, public health care measures such as surveillance, isolation, and quarantine can require the infringement of widely accepted basic human rights and liberties. An important and difficult ethical question asks how to strike a balance between the utilitarian aim of promoting public health, on the one hand, and libertarian aims of protecting privacy and freedom of movement, on the other, in contexts involving diseases that are--to varying degrees--contagious, deadly, or otherwise dangerous. Third, since their burden is most heavily shouldered by the poor (in developing countries), infectious diseases involve issues of justice--which should be a central concern of ethics. I conclude by providing sociological and historical explanations of why the topic of infectious disease has not already received more attention from bioethicists. PMID:16167406

Selgelid, Michael J

2005-06-01

4

[Infectious pulmonary diseases].  

PubMed

Infectious pulmonary diseases and pneumonias are important causes of death within the group of infectious diseases in Germany. Most cases are triggered by bacteria. The morphology of the inflammation is often determined by the agent involved but several histopathological types of reaction are possible. Histology alone is only rarely able to identify the causal agent; therefore additional microbiological diagnostics are necessary in most cases. Clinically cases are classified as community acquired and nosocomial pneumonia, pneumonia under immunosuppression and mycobacterial infections. Histologically, alveolar and interstitial as well as lobar and focal pneumonia can be differentiated. PMID:25319227

Hager, T; Reis, H; Theegarten, D

2014-11-01

5

Malnutrition as an underlying cause of childhood deaths associated with infectious diseases in developing countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction Recent estimates suggest that malnutrition (measured as poor anthropometric status) is associated with about 50% of all deaths among children. Although the association between malnutrition and all-cause mortality is well documented, the malnutrition-related risk of death associated with specific diseases is less well described. We reviewed published literature to examine the evidence for a relation between malnutrition and child

Amy L. Rice; Lisa Sacco; Adnan Hyder; Robert E. Black

2000-01-01

6

Parallelization: Infectious Disease  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Epidemiology is the study of infectious disease. Infectious diseases are said to be "contagious" among people if they are transmittable from one person to another. Epidemiologists can use models to assist them in predicting the behavior of infectious diseases. This module will develop a simple agent-based infectious disease model, develop a parallel algorithm based on the model, provide a coded implementation for the algorithm, and explore the scaling of the coded implementation on high performance cluster resources.

Weeden, Aaron

7

Changing patterns of infectious disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite a century of often successful prevention and control efforts, infectious diseases remain an important global problem in public health, causing over 13 million deaths each year. Changes in society, technology and the microorganisms themselves are contributing to the emergence of new diseases, the re-emergence of diseases once controlled, and to the development of antimicrobial resistance. Two areas of special

Mitchell L. Cohen

2000-01-01

8

Airplanes and Infectious Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Air travel is associated with crowded conditions that can facilitate the transmission of airborne\\u000a infectious diseases. The risk of contracting such diseases depends on the presence of an infected\\u000a person who is shedding infectious particles and sufficient exposure of a sensitive person to achieve\\u000a an adequate dose to cause disease. Proximity to the infectious person and the length of time

Harriet A. Burge

9

Immunosenescence and infectious diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Infectious diseases are major causes, with malignancies, of morbidity and mortality in the elderly. Increased susceptibility to infections may result from underlying dysfunction of an aged immune system; moreover, inappropriate immunologic functions associated with aging can determine an insufficient response to vaccines. Impairments of cellular, humoral and innate immunity in the elderly, contributing to increased incidence of infectious diseases, are

Lia Ginaldi; Maria Francesca Loreto; Maria Pia Corsi; Marco Modesti; Massimo De Martinis

2001-01-01

10

HLA and Infectious Diseases  

PubMed Central

Summary: Following their discovery in the early 1970s, classical human leukocyte antigen (HLA) loci have been the prototypical candidates for genetic susceptibility to infectious disease. Indeed, the original hypothesis for the extreme variability observed at HLA loci (H-2 in mice) was the major selective pressure from infectious diseases. Now that both the human genome and the molecular basis of innate and acquired immunity are understood in greater detail, do the classical HLA loci still stand out as major genes that determine susceptibility to infectious disease? This review looks afresh at the evidence supporting a role for classical HLA loci in susceptibility to infectious disease, examines the limitations of data reported to date, and discusses current advances in methodology and technology that will potentially lead to greater understanding of their role in infectious diseases in the future. PMID:19366919

Blackwell, Jenefer M.; Jamieson, Sarra E.; Burgner, David

2009-01-01

11

Are all diseases infectious?  

PubMed

The complex interactions between microorganisms and human hosts include the well-known, traditional infectious diseases and the symbiotic relation we have with our normal flora. The media have brought to the public's attention many newly described infectious diseases, such as Ebola virus hemorrhagic fever, that were not part of common medical parlance a decade ago. While flooding us with interesting and often dramatic reports of so-called emerging infectious diseases, the media have largely ignored a more fundamental change in our appreciation of human-microorganism interactions: the discovery that transmissible agents may play important roles in diseases not suspected of being infectious in origin. A well-known example is ulcer disease; other examples include neurodegenerative disease, inflammatory disease, and cancer. These fascinating instances of host-pathogen interaction open new prospects for the prevention of disease through immunization. PMID:8928993

Lorber, B

1996-11-15

12

76 FR 39041 - Infectious Diseases  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Part 1910 RIN 1218-AC46 Infectious Diseases AGENCY: Occupational Safety...concerning occupational exposure to infectious diseases. OSHA plans to use the information...label it ``Attention: OSHA Infectious Diseases Stakeholder Meeting...

2011-07-05

13

Infectious Diseases Gateway  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

BioMedNet (BMN) presents the Infectious Diseases Gateway "featuring expertly selected content from the leading publications in infectious diseases." Users will find research articles, reviews, and other resources from the Elsevier family of journals and books; all freely available to any reader (free registration required). The Web site also offers related BMN news features, links to other BMN Gateways, and a special supplement to the upcoming Interscience Conference of Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy.

14

Climate and Infectious Diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Climate plays an important role in the transmission of many infectious diseases; it not only determines spatial and seasonal\\u000a distributions, but influences inter-annual variability, including epidemics, and long-term trends. This paper collates published\\u000a scientific literature on climate and 20 infectious diseases that cause considerable morbidity and mortality worldwide. It\\u000a highlights what has been done to date, identifies gaps and assesses

Louise Kelly-Hope; Madeleine C. Thomson

15

National Foundation for Infectious Diseases  

MedlinePLUS

About NFID Contact Us NFID Store Home Infectious Disease Information Infectious Disease Information Chickenpox (Varicella) Diphtheria Ebola Hepatitis A Hepatitis B Hib Disease HPV (Human Papillomavirus) Influenza (Flu) MRSA Measles Meningococcal Disease ...

16

Controlling Infectious Diseases.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Advocates establishing programs to educate the public about the growing threat of communicable diseases and to promote effective strategies. Utilizes recent successes and failures to formulate those strategies. Profiles three recent infectious disease outbreaks that illustrate some of the current problems. Identifies four ways that lawyers can…

Porter, Wm. Lane; Fidler, David P.

1997-01-01

17

Vectorborne Infectious Diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vectorborne infectious diseases play an important role worldwide. Most of these infections result from transmission of pathogens which are carried by vectors internally. Malaria, Lyme disease,West Nile virus encephalitis and yellow fever serve as examples of a long list of infections caused by transmission of the pathogen from an infected vector to humans during a blood meal by the vector.

C. Ruef

2002-01-01

18

Dynamics of infectious diseases  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Modern infectious disease epidemiology has a strong history of using mathematics both for prediction and to gain a deeper understanding. However the study of infectious diseases is a highly interdisciplinary subject requiring insights from multiple disciplines, in particular a biological knowledge of the pathogen, a statistical description of the available data and a mathematical framework for prediction. Here we begin with the basic building blocks of infectious disease epidemiology—the SIS and SIR type models—before considering the progress that has been made over the recent decades and the challenges that lie ahead. Throughout we focus on the understanding that can be developed from relatively simple models, although accurate prediction will inevitably require far greater complexity beyond the scope of this review. In particular, we focus on three critical aspects of infectious disease models that we feel fundamentally shape their dynamics: heterogeneously structured populations, stochasticity and spatial structure. Throughout we relate the mathematical models and their results to a variety of real-world problems.

Rock, Kat; Brand, Sam; Moir, Jo; Keeling, Matt J.

2014-02-01

19

Principles of Infectious Disease Epidemiology  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In this chapter, principles and concepts of modern infectious disease epidemiology Epidemiology are presented. We delineate\\u000a the role of epidemiology for public health and discuss the characteristics of infectious disease epidemiology. This chapter\\u000a also includes definitions of important terms used in infectious disease epidemiology.

Alexander Krämer; Manas Akmatov; Mirjam Kretzschmar

20

Immunoserology of infectious diseases.  

PubMed Central

The immune response to microorganisms not only participates in the elimination of unwanted organisms from the body, but also assists in diagnosis of infectious diseases. The nonspecific immune response is the first line of defense, assisting the body until the specific immune response can be mobilized to provide protective mechanisms. The specific immune response involves humoral or cell-mediated immunity or both, dependent on the nature of the organism and its site of sequestration. A variety of test systems have been developed to identify the causative organisms of infectious diseases. Test systems used in immunoserology have classically included methods of detecting antigen-antibody reactions which range from complement fixation to immunoassay methods. Relevant test systems for detecting antigens and antibodies are described. With numerous test systems available to detect antigens and antibodies, there can be confusion regarding selection of the appropriate system for each application. Methods for detecting antibody to verify immunity differ from immunologic methods to diagnose disease. Techniques to detect soluble antigens present in active infectious states may appear similar to those used to detect antibody, but their differences should be appreciated. PMID:2187592

James, K

1990-01-01

21

Web-based participatory surveillance of infectious diseases: the Influenzanet participatory surveillance experience  

E-print Network

Web-based participatory surveillance of infectious diseases: the Influenzanet participatory. Keywords: Europe, infectious disease, influenza-like illness, Internet, participatory surveillance Article Infectious diseases remain a serious medical burden all around the world, with 15 million deaths per year

Menczer, Filippo

22

Ecology of Infectious Diseases  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

With a dramatic image of a bustling city superimposed over a peaceful forest, the National Science Foundation's homepage on the ecology of infectious diseases is quite intriguing. After clicking on the image, visitors will be treated to an overview of this special report that asks: "Is our interaction with the environment somehow responsible for the increases in incidence of these diseases?" The report is divided into five sections, each exploring a different facet of the National Science Foundation's work on this problem. The sections include "Medical Mystery Solved" and "Lyme Disease on the Rise". Each of these sections includes helpful graphics, well-written text, and links to additional sites. Overall, the site will be most useful for science educators and members of the public health community.

23

Infectious Disease Specialist: What Is an Infectious Disease Specialist?  

MedlinePLUS

What is an Infectious Disease Specialist? When do I need an ID specialist? What will my visit be like? How was my ID specialist ... children. One of the best strategies for preventing infectious diseases is immunization. Ask your doctor for advice about ...

24

Global mapping of infectious disease.  

PubMed

The primary aim of this review was to evaluate the state of knowledge of the geographical distribution of all infectious diseases of clinical significance to humans. A systematic review was conducted to enumerate cartographic progress, with respect to the data available for mapping and the methods currently applied. The results helped define the minimum information requirements for mapping infectious disease occurrence, and a quantitative framework for assessing the mapping opportunities for all infectious diseases. This revealed that of 355 infectious diseases identified, 174 (49%) have a strong rationale for mapping and of these only 7 (4%) had been comprehensively mapped. A variety of ambitions, such as the quantification of the global burden of infectious disease, international biosurveillance, assessing the likelihood of infectious disease outbreaks and exploring the propensity for infectious disease evolution and emergence, are limited by these omissions. An overview of the factors hindering progress in disease cartography is provided. It is argued that rapid improvement in the landscape of infectious diseases mapping can be made by embracing non-conventional data sources, automation of geo-positioning and mapping procedures enabled by machine learning and information technology, respectively, in addition to harnessing labour of the volunteer 'cognitive surplus' through crowdsourcing. PMID:23382431

Hay, Simon I; Battle, Katherine E; Pigott, David M; Smith, David L; Moyes, Catherine L; Bhatt, Samir; Brownstein, John S; Collier, Nigel; Myers, Monica F; George, Dylan B; Gething, Peter W

2013-03-19

25

Global Warming and Infectious Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Global warming has serious implications for all aspects of human life, including infectious diseases. The effect of global warming depends on the complex interaction between the human host population and the causative infectious agent. From the human standpoint, changes in the environment may trigger human migration, causing disease patterns to shift. Crop failures and famine may reduce host resistance to

Atul A. Khasnis; Mary D. Nettleman

2005-01-01

26

FastStats: Infectious Disease  

MedlinePLUS

... State and Territorial Data NCHS Home FastStats Home Infectious Disease Data are for the U.S. Morbidity Number of ... 10 [PDF - 330 KB] More data AIDS/HIV Infectious Disease Prevalence in Los Angeles County–A Comparison to ...

27

IDBD: Infectious Disease Biomarker Database  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biomarkers enable early diagnosis, guide molecu- larly targeted therapy and monitor the activity and therapeutic responses across a variety of diseases. Despite intensified interest and research, however, the overall rate of development of novel biomarkers has been falling. Moreover, no solution is yet available that efficiently retrieves and processes biomarker information pertaining to infectious dis- eases. Infectious Disease Biomarker Database

In Seok Yang; Chunsun Ryu; Ki Joon Cho; Jin Kwang Kim; Swee Hoe Ong; Wayne P. Mitchell; Bong Su Kim; Hee-Bok Oh; Kyung Hyun Kim

2008-01-01

28

Infectious Diseases in Day Care.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discussed in this publication are infectious illnesses for which children attending day care appear to be at special risk. Also covered are the common cold, some infectious disease problems receiving media attention, and some other annoying but not serious diseases, such as head lice, pinworms, and contagious skin conditions. Causes,…

Sleator, Esther K.

29

National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Division of Microbiology and Infectious Diseases  

E-print Network

NIAID National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Division of Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Genomics Program The NIAID Division of Microbiology and Infectious Diseases (DMID) has Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases #12;Centers Biodefense Proteomics Center Genome Sequencing

Levin, Judith G.

30

Microparticles and infectious diseases.  

PubMed

Membrane shedding with microvesicle (MV) release after membrane budding due to cell stimulation is a highly conserved intercellular interplay. MV can be released by micro-organisms or by host cells in the course of infectious diseases. Host MVs are divided according to cell compartment origin in microparticles (MPs) from plasma membrane and exosomes from intracellular membranes. MPs are cell fragments resulting from plasma membrane reorganization characterized by phosphatidylserine (PhtdSer) content and parental cell antigens on membrane. The role of MPs in physiology and pathophysiology is not yet well elucidated; they are a pool of bioactive molecules able to transmit a pro-inflammatory message to neighboring or target cells. The first acknowledged function of MP was the dissemination of a procoagulant potential via PhtdSer and it is now obvious than MPs bear tissue factor (TF). Such MPs have been implicated in the coagulation disorders observed during sepsis and septic shock. MPs have been implicated in the regulation of vascular tone and cardiac dysfunction in experimental sepsis. Beside a non-specific role, pathogens such as Neisseria meningitidis and Ebola Virus can specifically activate blood coagulation after TF-bearing MPs release in the bloodstream with disseminated intravascular coagulopathy and Purpura fulminans. The role of MPs in host-pathogen interactions is also fundamental in Chagas disease, where MPs could allow immune evasion by inhibiting C3 convertase. During cerebral malaria, MPs play a complex role facilitating the activation of brain endothelium that contributes to amplify vascular obstruction by parasitized erythrocytes. Phagocytosis of HIV induced MPs expressing PhtdSer by monocytes/macrophages results in cellular infection and non-inflammatory response via up-regulation of TGF-?. PMID:22766273

Delabranche, X; Berger, A; Boisramé-Helms, J; Meziani, F

2012-08-01

31

Clinical and Translational Infectious Diseases Research  

E-print Network

Clinical and Translational Infectious Diseases Research Anita Shet, M.D. Associate Professor of Minnesota, USA Infectious Diseases Fellowship: Univ of Minnesota, USA HIV Research: Rockefeller University, USA Contemporary infectious disease research in India is currently traversing the intersection between

Udgaonkar, Jayant B.

32

Trends in Infectious Disease Mortality Rates, Spain, 1980-2011  

PubMed Central

Using mortality data from National Institute of Statistics in Spain, we analyzed trends of infectious disease mortality rates in Spain during 1980–2011 to provide information on surveillance and control of infectious diseases. During the study period, 628,673 infectious disease–related deaths occurred, the annual change in the mortality rate was ?1.6%, and the average infectious disease mortality rate was 48.5 deaths/100,000 population. Although the beginning of HIV/AIDS epidemic led to an increased mortality rate, a decreased rate was observed by the end of the twentieth century. By codes from the International Classification of Diseases, 9th revision, the most frequent underlying cause of death was pneumonia. Emergence and reemergence of infectious diseases continue to be public health problems despite reduced mortality rates produced by various interventions. Therefore, surveillance and control systems should be reinforced with a goal of providing reliable data for useful decision making. PMID:24750997

Llacer, Alicia; Palmera-Suarez, Rocio; Gomez-Barroso, Diana; Savulescu, Camelia; Gonzalez-Yuste, Paloma; Fernandez-Cuenca, Rafael

2014-01-01

33

Trends in infectious disease mortality rates, Spain, 1980-2011.  

PubMed

Using mortality data from National Institute of Statistics in Spain, we analyzed trends of infectious disease mortality rates in Spain during 1980-2011 to provide information on surveillance and control of infectious diseases. During the study period, 628,673 infectious disease-related deaths occurred, the annual change in the mortality rate was -1.6%, and the average infectious disease mortality rate was 48.5 deaths/100,000 population. Although the beginning of HIV/AIDS epidemic led to an increased mortality rate, a decreased rate was observed by the end of the twentieth century. By codes from the International Classification of Diseases, 9th revision, the most frequent underlying cause of death was pneumonia. Emergence and reemergence of infectious diseases continue to be public health problems despite reduced mortality rates produced by various interventions. Therefore, surveillance and control systems should be reinforced with a goal of providing reliable data for useful decision making. PMID:24750997

López-Cuadrado, Teresa; Llácer, Alicia; Palmera-Suárez, Rocio; Gómez-Barroso, Diana; Savulescu, Camelia; González-Yuste, Paloma; Fernández-Cuenca, Rafael

2014-05-01

34

Infectious Disease, Endangerment, and Extinction  

PubMed Central

Infectious disease, especially virulent infectious disease, is commonly regarded as a cause of fluctuation or decline in biological populations. However, it is not generally considered as a primary factor in causing the actual endangerment or extinction of species. We review here the known historical examples in which disease has, or has been assumed to have had, a major deleterious impact on animal species, including extinction, and highlight some recent cases in which disease is the chief suspect in causing the outright endangerment of particular species. We conclude that the role of disease in historical extinctions at the population or species level may have been underestimated. Recent methodological breakthroughs may lead to a better understanding of the past and present roles of infectious disease in influencing population fitness and other parameters. PMID:23401844

MacPhee, Ross D. E.; Greenwood, Alex D.

2013-01-01

35

January 1855 Infectious disease  

E-print Network

of measurements between groups and expose relationships between different variables. They are also the principal of teenage deaths Teenagers die from many causes,but some causes are more lethal than others.Table 2.1-1 lists causes of death of American teenagers between the ages of 15 and 19 in 1999, and the number

Irwin, Darren

36

The challenge of emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Infectious diseases have for centuries ranked with wars and famine as major challenges to human progress and survival. They remain among the leading causes of death and disability worldwide. Against a constant background of established infections, epidemics of new and old infectious diseases periodically emerge, greatly magnifying the global burden of infections. Studies of these emerging infections reveal the evolutionary

David M. Morens; Gregory K. Folkers; Anthony S. Fauci

2004-01-01

37

Preventing Infectious Disease in Sports.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Preventing infectious disease in sports is fundamental to maintaining team effectiveness and helping athletes avoid the adverse effects of illness. Good hygiene, immunization, minimal exposure to specific diseases, and certain prophylactic measures are essential. Teammates, coaches, trainers, officials, healthcare providers, and community public…

Howe, Warren B.

2003-01-01

38

The Mathematics of Infectious Diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many models for the spread of infectious diseases in populations have been analyzed math- ematically and applied to specific diseases. Threshold theorems involving the basic repro- duction number R0, the contact number ?, and the replacement number R are reviewed for the classic SIR epidemic and endemic models. Similar results with new expressions for R0 are obtained for MSEIR and

Herbert W. Hethcote

39

Deforestation and avian infectious diseases  

PubMed Central

In this time of unprecedented global change, infectious diseases will impact humans and wildlife in novel and unknown ways. Climate change, the introduction of invasive species, urbanization, agricultural practices and the loss of biodiversity have all been implicated in increasing the spread of infectious pathogens. In many regards, deforestation supersedes these other global events in terms of its immediate potential global effects in both tropical and temperate regions. The effects of deforestation on the spread of pathogens in birds are largely unknown. Birds harbor many of the same types of pathogens as humans and in addition can spread infectious agents to humans and other wildlife. It is thought that avifauna have gone extinct due to infectious diseases and many are presently threatened, especially endemic island birds. It is clear that habitat degradation can pose a direct threat to many bird species but it is uncertain how these alterations will affect disease transmission and susceptibility to disease. The migration and dispersal of birds can also change with habitat degradation, and thus expose populations to novel pathogens. Some recent work has shown that the results of landscape transformation can have confounding effects on avian malaria, other haemosporidian parasites and viruses. Now with advances in many technologies, including mathematical and computer modeling, genomics and satellite tracking, scientists have tools to further research the disease ecology of deforestation. This research will be imperative to help predict and prevent outbreaks that could affect avifauna, humans and other wildlife worldwide. PMID:20190120

Sehgal, R. N. M.

2010-01-01

40

Deforestation and avian infectious diseases.  

PubMed

In this time of unprecedented global change, infectious diseases will impact humans and wildlife in novel and unknown ways. Climate change, the introduction of invasive species, urbanization, agricultural practices and the loss of biodiversity have all been implicated in increasing the spread of infectious pathogens. In many regards, deforestation supersedes these other global events in terms of its immediate potential global effects in both tropical and temperate regions. The effects of deforestation on the spread of pathogens in birds are largely unknown. Birds harbor many of the same types of pathogens as humans and in addition can spread infectious agents to humans and other wildlife. It is thought that avifauna have gone extinct due to infectious diseases and many are presently threatened, especially endemic island birds. It is clear that habitat degradation can pose a direct threat to many bird species but it is uncertain how these alterations will affect disease transmission and susceptibility to disease. The migration and dispersal of birds can also change with habitat degradation, and thus expose populations to novel pathogens. Some recent work has shown that the results of landscape transformation can have confounding effects on avian malaria, other haemosporidian parasites and viruses. Now with advances in many technologies, including mathematical and computer modeling, genomics and satellite tracking, scientists have tools to further research the disease ecology of deforestation. This research will be imperative to help predict and prevent outbreaks that could affect avifauna, humans and other wildlife worldwide. PMID:20190120

Sehgal, R N M

2010-03-15

41

Adventures in Infectious Diseases  

ScienceCinema

Dr. Susan Fisher-Hoch, Virologist and Epidemiologist, will discuss her research and travels associated with viral hemorrhagic fevers. From the Ebola outbreak in Reston, Virginia to outbreaks of Crimean Congo Hemorrhagic Fever in South Africa, Senegal, and Saudi Arabia, Dr. Fisher-Hoch has studied and tracked the pathophysiology of these viral diseases. These studies have led her from the Center for Disease Control in the United States, to Lyon, France where she was instrumental in designing, constructing, and rendering operational a laboratory capable of containing some of the world's most dangerous diseases.

Fisher-Hoch, Susan [University of Texas School of Public Health

2014-06-25

42

Adventures in Infectious Diseases  

SciTech Connect

Dr. Susan Fisher-Hoch, Virologist and Epidemiologist, will discuss her research and travels associated with viral hemorrhagic fevers. From the Ebola outbreak in Reston, Virginia to outbreaks of Crimean Congo Hemorrhagic Fever in South Africa, Senegal, and Saudi Arabia, Dr. Fisher-Hoch has studied and tracked the pathophysiology of these viral diseases. These studies have led her from the Center for Disease Control in the United States, to Lyon, France where she was instrumental in designing, constructing, and rendering operational a laboratory capable of containing some of the world's most dangerous diseases.

Fisher-Hoch, Susan [University of Texas School of Public Health

2011-11-01

43

Environmental disease: environmental alteration and infectious disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Humans have changed their environment to survive and to achieve a safer and more comfortable life. For example, drinking water\\u000a and wastewater infrastructures are indispensable for civilized societies to flourish and to prevent water-borne infectious\\u000a diseases. However, excessive loading on environments might disturb microbial ecosystems, resulting in outbreaks of pathogenic\\u000a microbes and the expansion of infectious diseases. Clarifying the relationship

Nobuyasu Yamaguchi; Tomoaki Ichijo; Masao Nasu

44

Global Spread of Infectious Diseases  

E-print Network

We develop simple models for the global spread of infectious diseases, emphasizing human mobility via air travel and the variation of public health infrastructure from region to region. We derive formulas relating the total and peak number of infections in two countries to the rate of travel between them and their respective epidemiological parameters.

S. Hsu; A. Zee

2003-06-25

45

Computational Modeling and Simulation of Infectious Diseases  

E-print Network

Computational Modeling and Simulation of Infectious Diseases May 21­July 27, 2012 Receive a 10-week of Public Health Models of Infectious Disease Agent Study (MIDAS) National Center of Excellence #12;

Sibille, Etienne

46

Bloodborne Infectious Diseases Exposure Control Plan  

E-print Network

Bloodborne Infectious Diseases Exposure Control Plan Pursuant to the requirements of the MIOSHA Bloodborne Infectious Diseases Standard (R 325.70001 through R 325.700018) Wayne State University Office

Berdichevsky, Victor

47

on Infectious & Reportable Diseases HEALTH & SAFETY UNIT MAY 2009  

E-print Network

.............................................................................. 3 4.1 Infectious Diseases ................................................................................... 3 4.2. Notifiable Infectious Diseases .......................................................................................... 6 5.2 Public Health (Infectious Diseases) Regulations 1988 ............................. 6 5

48

Review article Epidemiological surveillance of infectious diseases  

E-print Network

Review article Epidemiological surveillance of infectious diseases in France Barbara DUFOUR according to a classification based on published criteria. In the case of human infectious diseases Centres nationaux de référence (CNRs). Most human infectious diseases are monitored by one or more

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

49

Bayesian Analysis for Emerging Infectious Diseases  

E-print Network

Bayesian Analysis for Emerging Infectious Diseases C. Jewel, T. Kypraios, P. Neal & G. Roberts of Mathematics, The University of Manchester #12;Bayesian Analysis for Emerging Infectious Diseases. C. Jewell Infectious diseases both within human and animal polulations often pose serious health and socio- economic

Sidorov, Nikita

50

Emerging Infectious Diseases in Mongolia  

PubMed Central

Since 1990, Mongolia’s health system has been in transition. Impressive gains have been accomplished through a national immunization program, which was instituted in 1991. Nevertheless, the country continues to confront four major chronic infections: hepatitis B and C, brucellosis, tuberculosis, and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). As of 2001, only two cases of HIV infections had been detected in Mongolia, but concern grows that the rate will increase along with the rising rates of STDs and increase in tourism. Other infectious diseases of importance in Mongolia include echinococcus, plague, tularemia, anthrax, foot-and-mouth, and rabies. PMID:14720388

Altantsetseg, Togoo; Oyungerel, Ravdan

2003-01-01

51

Infectious Diseases Subdue Serengeti Lions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Infectious diseases stalk wildlife in the Serengeti, and climate change may be an accessory. Lions face serious threats to their future, some head-on, others lurking in the grasses, unseen until it's almost too late. From growing numbers of people living along the Serengeti perimeter to the effects of infectious diseases and climate change, the king of beasts (Panthera leo) leads an uneasy life. For example, lions are subject to simultaneous outbreaks of canine distemper virus (CDV) and babesiosis. CDV, a disease that results in encephalitis and pneumonia, is transmitted by domestic dogs; babesiosis is carried by a tick-borne blood parasite called Babesia. If extreme weather events become more frequent as a result of global climate change, disease may become a major threat to animal populations that have been historically stable. Diseases once thought to have limited impacts, such as babesiosis, should be watched closely. Environmental conditions may tip the scales and result in significantly greater impacts, even in wide open places like the Serengeti.

Cheryl Dybas (Freelance;)

2009-01-01

52

Post-infectious disease syndrome.  

PubMed Central

Many post-infectious syndromes have been recognized in the last 50 years, some following viral infections and others closely related to bacterial disease. The occurrence of prolonged fatigue following an apparent viral illness of varying severity is also well documented. The lack of a recognizable precipitating cause and the tendency for epidemic fatigue to occur among hospital staff led many to believe that the illness may be psychogenic in origin. However, there is serological evidence that some cases may follow enterovirus infections or occasionally delayed convalescence from infectious mononucleosis. Much interesting work is currently in progress relating fatigue to persisting immunological abnormalities, and the development of molecular immunology makes this a most exciting field of research. This paper reviews the evidence for and against a definitive post-viral fatigue syndrome and examines the results of research carried out in the last 50 years. PMID:3074289

Bannister, B. A.

1988-01-01

53

[Blood transfusion and infectious diseases].  

PubMed

Blood transfusion is essential in current medical treatment. In the era of selling blood, around 50% of recipients seemed to be infected by hepatitis virus. After the establishment of the blood donation system and many safety measures, the risk of blood contamination has decreased markedly; however, blood products still have a risk of known and unknown pathogens. In this manuscript, we discuss the remaining problems of HBV and HIV-1. As emerging infectious diseases, we examine Trypanosoma crusi, West Nile virus, Chikungunya virus, and Dengue virus. Finally, XMRV is exemplified as a rumored virus. Gathering accurate information about pathogens and preparing for outbreaks in advance are crucial for blood safety. PMID:23947180

Hamaguchi, Isao

2013-05-01

54

Emerging Infectious Diseases and Amphibian Population Declines  

Microsoft Academic Search

We review recent research on the pathology, ecology, and biogeography of two emerging infectious wildlife diseases, chytridiomycosis and ranaviral disease, in the context of host-parasite population biology. We examine the role of these diseases in the global decline of amphibian populations and propose hypotheses for the origins and impact of these panzootics. Finally, we discuss emerging infectious diseases as a

Peter Daszak; Lee Berger; Andrew A. Cunningham; Alex D. Hyatt; D. Earl Green; Rick Speare

1999-01-01

55

Genetics of susceptibitlity to human infectious disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Before Robert Koch's work in the late nineteenth century, diseases such as tuberculosis and leprosy were widely believed to be inherited disorders. Heritability of susceptibility to several infectious diseases has been confirmed by studies in the twentieth century. Infectious diseases, old and new, continue to be an important cause of mortality worldwide. A greater understanding of disease processes is needed

Graham S. Cooke; Adrian V. S. Hill

2001-01-01

56

The return of infectious disease.  

PubMed

This article presents the history of efforts to control the spread of infectious disease from the post-antibiotic era to 1995. Since World War II, public health strategy has focused on the eradication of microbes using powerful medical weaponry. The goal was to push humanity through a ¿health transition,¿ leaving the age of infectious disease permanently behind. But recent developments have shown that this grandiose optimism was premature. As people move across international borders, unwanted microbial hitch-hikers tag along, as happened in the case of Ebola. In large cities, sex industries arise and multiple-partner sex becomes more common, prompting rapid increases in sexually transmitted disease. Moreover, the practice of sharing syringes is a ready vehicle for the transmission of microbes while unhygienic health facilities become centers for the dissemination of disease rather than its control. Black market access to antimicrobials has led to overuse or outright misuse of the drugs and the emergence of resistant bacteria and parasites. Consequently, old organisms, aided by mankind's misuse of disinfectants and drugs, may take on new and more lethal forms. Even when allegations of biological warfare are not flying, it is often difficult to obtain accurate information about outbreaks of disease, particularly in countries dependent on foreign investment or tourism or both. Unfortunately, only 6 laboratories in the world meet security and safety standards that would make them suitable sites for research on the world's deadliest microbes. National security warrants bolder steps involving focusing not only on microbes directly dangerous to humans, but also on those that could pose major threats to crops or livestock. Unfortunately, economic crises have led to budget cuts, particularly in health care, at all levels of government in the US. PMID:12349255

Garrett, L

1996-11-01

57

Infectious Diseases and the Immune System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The lesson is design to explain the basic functions of the human immune system, including specific and nonspecific immune response, vaccines, and antibiotics. Primarily, it focuses on infectious diseases and how the immune system defend the body against infectious diseases. The lesson uses the 5E model as an approach for students to become engage, analytical and inquisitive in learning about infectious diseases and the immune system.

Cruz, Arnel D.

2012-06-28

58

Evolutionary Response to Human Infectious Diseases  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Gives an overview of human history, relating cultural changes with resulting changes in population density and in ecological balance to patterns of infectious diseases in man. Discusses mechanisms of evolution of resistance. Suggests that in populations where infectious diseases can be controlled, attention should shift to degenerative diseases

Armelagos, George J.; Dewey, John R.

1970-01-01

59

Confl ict and Emerging Infectious Diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Detection and control of emerging infectious diseases in confl ict situations are major challenges due to multiple risk factors known to enhance emergence and transmission of infectious diseases. These include inadequate surveillance and response systems, destroyed infrastructure, collapsed health systems and disruption of disease control programs, and infection control practices even more inadequate than those in resource-poor settings, as well

Michelle Gayer; Dominique Legros; Pierre Formenty; Maire A. Connolly

2007-01-01

60

Infectious diseases and daycare and preschool education  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To describe the increased risk of acquiring infectious diseases associated with out-of-home childcare and the effectiveness of measures for the control and prevention of diseases transmission at daycare and preschool education centers. Sources: A review of literature in the MEDLINE, LILACS and Cochrane Library databases, found using the descriptors daycare, infection, infection control and infectious diseases and focusing on

Maria M. M. Nesti; Moisés Goldbaum

2007-01-01

61

Multifractal signatures of infectious diseases  

PubMed Central

Incidence of infection time-series data for the childhood diseases measles, chicken pox, rubella and whooping cough are described in the language of multifractals. We explore the potential of using the wavelet transform maximum modulus (WTMM) method to characterize the multiscale structure of the observed time series and of simulated data generated by the stochastic susceptible-exposed-infectious-recovered (SEIR) epidemic model. The singularity spectra of the observed time series suggest that each disease is characterized by a unique multifractal signature, which distinguishes that particular disease from the others. The wavelet scaling functions confirm that the time series of measles, rubella and whooping cough are clearly multifractal, while chicken pox has a more monofractal structure in time. The stochastic SEIR epidemic model is unable to reproduce the qualitative singularity structure of the reported incidence data: it is too smooth and does not appear to have a multifractal singularity structure. The precise reasons for the failure of the SEIR epidemic model to reproduce the correct multiscale structure of the reported incidence data remain unclear. PMID:22442094

Holdsworth, Amber M.; Kevlahan, Nicholas K.-R.; Earn, David J. D.

2012-01-01

62

Multifractal signatures of infectious diseases.  

PubMed

Incidence of infection time-series data for the childhood diseases measles, chicken pox, rubella and whooping cough are described in the language of multifractals. We explore the potential of using the wavelet transform maximum modulus (WTMM) method to characterize the multiscale structure of the observed time series and of simulated data generated by the stochastic susceptible-exposed-infectious-recovered (SEIR) epidemic model. The singularity spectra of the observed time series suggest that each disease is characterized by a unique multifractal signature, which distinguishes that particular disease from the others. The wavelet scaling functions confirm that the time series of measles, rubella and whooping cough are clearly multifractal, while chicken pox has a more monofractal structure in time. The stochastic SEIR epidemic model is unable to reproduce the qualitative singularity structure of the reported incidence data: it is too smooth and does not appear to have a multifractal singularity structure. The precise reasons for the failure of the SEIR epidemic model to reproduce the correct multiscale structure of the reported incidence data remain unclear. PMID:22442094

Holdsworth, Amber M; Kevlahan, Nicholas K-R; Earn, David J D

2012-09-01

63

Examining unmet needs in infectious disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the past 30 years, more than 30 new aetiological agents of infectious disease have been identified. Some of these are responsible for entirely novel and life-threatening disorders, such as AIDS, Ebola fever, hantavirus pulmonary syndrome and Nipah virus encephalitis. During the same period, some longstanding infectious diseases (such as tuberculosis) have became resurgent, as a result of a combination

Noel J. C Snell

2003-01-01

64

Rapid molecular theranostics in infectious diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

The increasing availability of rapid and sensitive nucleic acid testing assays for infectious diseases will revolutionize the practice of medicine by gradually reducing the need for standard culture-based microbiological methods that take at least two days. Molecular theranostics in infectious diseases is an emerging concept in which molecular biology tools are used to provide rapid and accurate diagnostic assays to

François J Picard; Michel G Bergeron

2002-01-01

65

An Interdisciplinary Perspective: Infectious Diseases and History.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduces the course "Infectious Diseases and History" which is designed for freshman and sophomore students. Aims to teach about infectious diseases, develop skills of using libraries and computer resources, and develop oral and written communication skills. Focuses on tuberculosis as an example of an instructional approach and explains its…

Turco, Jenifer; Byrd, Melanie

2001-01-01

66

Health protection: Surveillance and control of infectious diseases.  

PubMed Central

Although pneumonia and influenza are the only infectious diseases remaining among the 10 leading causes of death in this country, more than 290 million infectious illnesses occur annually--more than one for every person. These diseases have a significant impact on the population when measured in terms of increased social costs, including quality of life, decreased work productivity, and increased health care costs. During the next decade, no dramatic changes are anticipated in infectious disease trends; however, diseases may be newly recognized, epidemiologic patterns will be defined, antibiotic resistant patterns will change, and changing immigration patterns and refugee migrations may affect disease trends in the United States (e.g., tuberculosis). These factors will require the development and application of effective prevention methods, including disease surveillance, sanitation, casefinding and control, and development and use of vaccines and drugs. In addition, efforts to improve the rapidity and accuracy of diagnosis as well as the appropriateness of therapy are also important activities. PMID:6414024

1983-01-01

67

Ecology of Infectious Diseases (EID)  

NSF Publications Database

... between anthropogenic environmental change and transmission of infectious agents. To that end ... and climate change events. The coincidence of broad scale environmental changes and emergence of ...

68

Eradication of infectious diseases in heterogeneous populations  

SciTech Connect

A model is presented of infectious disease in heterogeneous populations, which allows for variable intra- to intergroup contact ratios. The authors give necessary and sufficient conditions for disease eradication by means of vaccination. Smallpox is used as an illustrative example.

Travis, C.C.; Lenhart, S.M.

1987-04-01

69

Emerging infectious diseases and amphibian population declines.  

PubMed Central

We review recent research on the pathology, ecology, and biogeography of two emerging infectious wildlife diseases, chytridiomycosis and ranaviral disease, in the context of host-parasite population biology. We examine the role of these diseases in the global decline of amphibian populations and propose hypotheses for the origins and impact of these panzootics. Finally, we discuss emerging infectious diseases as a global threat to wildlife populations. PMID:10603206

Daszak, P.; Berger, L.; Cunningham, A. A.; Hyatt, A. D.; Green, D. E.; Speare, R.

1999-01-01

70

Antimicrobial Human ?-Defensins in the Colon and Their Role in Infectious and Non-Infectious Diseases  

PubMed Central

?-defensins are small cationic antimicrobial peptides secreted by diverse cell types including colonic epithelial cells. Human ?-defensins form an essential component of the intestinal lumen in innate immunity. The defensive mechanisms of ?-defensins include binding to negatively charged microbial membranes that cause cell death and chemoattraction of immune cells. The antimicrobial activity of ?-defensin is well reported in vitro against several enteric pathogens and in non-infectious processes such as inflammatory bowel diseases, which alters ?-defensin production. However, the role of ?-defensin in vivo in its interaction with other immune components in host defense against bacteria, viruses and parasites with more complex membranes is still not well known. This review focuses on the latest findings regarding the role of ?-defensin in relevant human infectious and non-infectious diseases of the colonic mucosa. In addition, we summarize the most significant aspects of ?-defensin and its antimicrobial role in a variety of disease processes.

Cobo, Eduardo R.; Chadee, Kris

2013-01-01

71

Infectious diseases - new and ancient threats to world health.  

SciTech Connect

When smallpox was eradicated from the globe in the late 1970s, many health experts assumed that infectious and parasitic diseases (IPDs) could at long last be conquered. Death rates from infectious and parasitic diseases had declined during the late 19th century and throughout the 20th century thanks to better public health and sanitation as well as medical advances made possible by economic development. During this period, scientists discovered the germ theory of disease, identified the epidemiology and natural history of many infectious diseases, and created a host of potent antibiotic drugs that helped save millions of lives. Medical researchers learned to identify and cultivate viruses, which led to vaccines for increasing numbers of diseases.

Olshansky, S. J.; Carnes, B.; Rogers, R. G.; Smith, L.; Center for Mechanistic Biology and Biotechnology

1997-07-01

72

Occupational assessment, screening and vaccination against specified infectious diseases PROCEDURES  

E-print Network

Occupational assessment, screening and vaccination against specified infectious diseases PROCEDURES the infectious diseases specified in this policy directive. Part 1 I have read and understand the requirements of the NSW Health Occupational Assessment, Screening and Vaccination against Specified Infectious Diseases

Viglas, Anastasios

73

DIVISION OF INFECTIOUS DISEASES AND GEOGRAPHIC MEDICINE DEPARTMENT OF MEDICINE  

E-print Network

DIVISION OF INFECTIOUS DISEASES AND GEOGRAPHIC MEDICINE DEPARTMENT OF MEDICINE 300 PASTEUR DRIVE, S infectious disease clinic will be decreased considerably. We also hope to facilitate, MD, FACP, FIDSA Professor of Medicine Division of Infectious Diseases

Kay, Mark A.

74

76 FR 27070 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases;  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

2011-05-10

75

Nutritional Modulation of Resistance to Infectious Diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dietary characteristics can modulate a bird's susceptibility to infectious challenges and subtle influences due to the level of nutrients or the types of ingredients may at times be of critical importance. This review considers seven mechanisms for nutritional modulation of resistance to infectious disease in poultry. 1) Nutrition may impact the development of the immune system, both in ovo and

K. C. KLASING

1998-01-01

76

Stress and infectious disease in humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reviews research on the role of stress in infectious disease as measured either by illness behaviors (symptoms and use of health services) or by verified pathology. Substantial evidence was found for an association between stress and increased illness behavior, and less convincing but provocative evidence was found for a similar association between stress and infectious pathology. Introverts, isolates,

Sheldon Cohen; Gail M. Williamson

1991-01-01

77

Global climate change and infectious diseases.  

PubMed

Climate change is occurring as a result of warming of the earth's atmosphere due to human activity generating excess amounts of greenhouse gases. Because of its potential impact on the hydrologic cycle and severe weather events, climate change is expected to have an enormous effect on human health, including on the burden and distribution of many infectious diseases. The infectious diseases that will be most affected by climate change include those that are spread by insect vectors and by contaminated water. The burden of adverse health effects due to these infectious diseases will fall primarily on developing countries, while it is the developed countries that are primarily responsible for climate change. It is up to governments and individuals to take the lead in halting climate change, and we must increase our understanding of the ecology of infectious diseases in order to protect vulnerable populations. PMID:23022814

Shuman, E K

2011-01-01

78

Bioterrorism Preparedness for Infectious Disease (BTPID) Proposal.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Bioterrorism preparedness for infectious disease (BTPID) as part of homeland defense initiatives continues to advance. Significant opportunities exist for new research and development of bioinformatics and telecommunications solutions for BTPlD that can c...

L. P. Burgess

2007-01-01

79

Cocirculation of infectious diseases on networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We consider multiple diseases spreading in a static configuration model network. We make standard assumptions that infection transmits from neighbor to neighbor at a disease-specific rate and infected individuals recover at a disease-specific rate. Infection by one disease confers immediate and permanent immunity to infection by any disease. Under these assumptions, we find a simple, low-dimensional ordinary differential equations model which captures the global dynamics of the infection. The dynamics depend strongly on initial conditions. Although we motivate this Rapid Communication with infectious disease, the model may be adapted to the spread of other infectious agents such as competing political beliefs, or adoption of new technologies if these are influenced by contacts. As an example, we demonstrate how to model an infectious disease which can be prevented by a behavior change.

Miller, Joel C.

2013-06-01

80

Introduction The management of infectious diseases is complex,  

E-print Network

Review Introduction The management of infectious diseases is complex, especially in an intensive review the development of such models applied to infectious disease management. We use the diagnosis and treatment of infectious diseases Any diagnosis, including that of an infectious disease, is based

Lucas, Peter

81

Infectious Diseases and Extinction Risk in Wild Mammals  

E-print Network

Infectious Diseases and Extinction Risk in Wild Mammals AMY B. PEDERSEN, KATE E. JONES,§ CHARLES L by infectious disease and their parasites to better understand the role of infectious disease in contemporary by parasites were not better studied for infectious diseases than other threatened mammals and did not have

82

Substance Abuse Treatment Clinician Opinions and Infectious Disease Service Delivery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Substance abuse treatment programs are an important platform for delivery of services for infectious diseases associated with drug and alcohol use. However, important components of infectious disease care are not universally provided. Clinician training often focuses on information about infectious diseases and less attention is paid to provider opinions and attitudes that may be barriers to providing infectious diseases services.

Kathlene Tracy; Lawrence S. Brown; Steven Kritz; Donald Alderson; Jim Robinson; Edmund J. Bini; Michael Levy; Donald Calsyn; Traci Rieckmann; Bret Fuller; Pat McAuliffe; John Rotrosen

2009-01-01

83

Banting Memorial Lecture 2010^. Type 2 diabetes as an 'infectious' disease: is this the Black Death of the 21st century?  

PubMed

We are currently facing a global pandemic of obesity and Type 2 diabetes. In some settings, the population prevalence of Type 2 diabetes is 50%, and half of those affected will die from diabetes-related complications. Eight centuries ago, an epidemic of bubonic plague swept across Europe, killing at least half of its victims. We here draw comparisons between these two pandemics, proposing close analogies between the 'Black Death' of the 14th century and the modern-day equivalent of Type 2 diabetes. Both diseases can be considered in terms of an aetiological agent, a reservoir, a vector and a predisposing toxic environment; populations can be considered as highly susceptible to the transmissable agents of Type 2 diabetes in the setting of calorie excess, inadequate food labelling, poorly regulated advertising and sedentary lifestyles. As for tackling a pandemic of a contagious microbial pathogen, we believe that breaking the cycle of transmission in the diabetes epidemic must be underpinned by political will and prompt, decisive legislation backed by the medical community. Far from fearing that such measures edge us towards a 'nanny state', we believe individuals should expect a responsible government to safeguard them from the toxic milieu that puts them at risk of obesity and its complications, and that communities and populations have the right to have their health protected. PMID:21166840

Matthews, D R; Matthews, P C

2011-01-01

84

Infectious disease and amphibian population declines  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of recent papers have impli- cated pathogens and parasites in amphibian population declines. Here, we review evidence on the link between infectious disease and amphibian population declines. We conclude that available data provide the clearest link for the fungal disease amphibian chytridiomycosis, although other pathogens are also implicated. We suggest additional experimental and observa- tional data that need

Peter Daszak; Andrew A. Cunningham; Alex D. Hyatt

2003-01-01

85

Mathematical models of infectious disease transmission  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mathematical analysis and modelling is central to infectious disease epidemiology. Here, we provide an intuitive introduction to the process of disease transmission, how this stochastic process can be represented mathematically and how this mathematical representation can be used to analyse the emergent dynamics of observed epidemics. Progress in mathematical analysis and modelling is of fundamental importance to our growing understanding

Christophe Fraser; Nicholas C. Grassly

2008-01-01

86

Travel and the Emergence of Infectious Diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Travel is a potent force in the emergence of disease. Migration of humans has been the pathway for disseminating infectious diseases throughout recorded history and will continue to shape the emergence, frequency, and spread of infections in geographic areas and populations. The current volume, speed, and reach of travel are unprecedented. The consequences of travel extend beyond the traveler to

Mary E. Wilson

1996-01-01

87

Climate change and emerging infectious diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ranges of infectious diseases and vectors are changing in altitude, along with shifts in plant communities and the retreat of alpine glaciers. Additionally, extreme weather events create conditions conducive to ?clusters? of insect-, rodent- and water-borne diseases. Accelerating climate change carries profound threats for public health and society.

Paul R. Epstein

2001-01-01

88

INFECTIOUS DISEASE OUTBREAKS Avian Flu, measles, Mumps, SARs, and other infectious diseases can pose a threat to the  

E-print Network

INFECTIOUS DISEASE OUTBREAKS Avian Flu, measles, Mumps, SARs, and other infectious diseases can of infectious disease that threatens the University of South Florida, University officials will collaborate at the University. Information related to any widespread infectious disease outbreak will be available

Meyers, Steven D.

89

Does biodiversity protect humans against infectious disease?  

PubMed

Control of human infectious disease has been promoted as a valuable ecosystem service arising from the conservation of biodiversity. There are two commonly discussed mechanisms by which biodiversity loss could increase rates of infectious disease in a landscape. First, loss of competitors or predators could facilitate an increase in the abundance of competent reservoir hosts. Second, biodiversity loss could disproportionately affect non-competent, or less competent reservoir hosts, which would otherwise interfere with pathogen transmission to human populations by, for example, wasting the bites of infected vectors. A negative association between biodiversity and disease risk, sometimes called the "dilution effect hypothesis," has been supported for a few disease agents, suggests an exciting win-win outcome for the environment and society, and has become a pervasive topic in the disease ecology literature. Case studies have been assembled to argue that the dilution effect is general across disease agents. Less touted are examples in which elevated biodiversity does not affect or increases infectious disease risk for pathogens of public health concern. In order to assess the likely generality of the dilution effect, we review the association between biodiversity and public health across a broad variety of human disease agents. Overall, we hypothesize that conditions for the dilution effect are unlikely to be met for most important diseases of humans. Biodiversity probably has little net effect on most human infectious diseases but, when it does have an effect, observation and basic logic suggest that biodiversity will be more likely to increase than to decrease infectious disease risk. PMID:24933803

Wood, Chelsea L; Lafferty, Kevin D; DeLeo, Giulio; Young, Hillary S; Hudson, Peter J; Kuris, Armand M

2014-04-01

90

Biodiversity loss and infectious diseases: chapter 5  

USGS Publications Warehouse

When conservation biologists think about infectious diseases, their thoughts are mostly negative. Infectious diseases have been associated with the extinction and endangerment of some species, though this is rare, and other factors like habitat loss and poorly regulated harvest still are the overwhelming drivers of endangerment. Parasites are pervasive and play important roles as natural enemies on par with top predators, from regulating population abundances to maintaining species diversity. Sometimes, parasites themselves can be endangered. However, it seems unlikely that humans will miss extinct parasites. Parasites are often sensitive to habitat loss and degradation, making them positive indicators of ecosystem “health”. Conservation biologists need to carefully consider infectious diseases when planning conservation actions. This can include minimizing the movement of domestic and invasive species, vaccination, and culling.

Lafferty, Kevin D.

2014-01-01

91

Infectious diseases -- new and ancient threats to world health.  

PubMed

Infectious and parasitic diseases remain a leading cause of death and disability in developing countries and are re-emerging as a serious health problem in developed countries. Outbreaks of Ebola, dengue hemorrhagic fever, cholera, and bubonic plague have occurred in low-income countries and multidrug-resistant organisms have surfaced throughout the world. Since 1973, over 28 new disease-causing microbes have been identified. This issue of "Population Bulletin" analyzes the impact of factors such as population growth, urbanization, migration, poverty, travel, agricultural practices, climate changes, natural disasters, and medical technology on the resurgence of infectious and parasitic diseases as well as the influence of diseases such as AIDS on population dynamics and socioeconomic development. Most of these diseases could be prevented, cured, or eradicated with known public health measures. National governments can help reduce poverty, step up immunization programs, and lessen the chances of introducing new diseases. Nongovernmental organizations can disseminate preventive knowledge and monitor disease outbreaks. The medical profession can strengthen infection control precautions and institute surveillance of the use of antibiotics and other antimicrobial agents. Since the geographic isolation that used to contain disease outbreaks has been replaced by permeable international borders, the campaign against infectious and parasitic diseases must be global. PMID:12292663

Olshansky, S J; Carnes, B; Rogers, R G; Smith, L

1997-07-01

92

Protein Microarrays and Biomarkers of Infectious Disease  

PubMed Central

Protein microarrays are powerful tools that are widely used in systems biology research. For infectious diseases, proteome microarrays assembled from proteins of pathogens will play an increasingly important role in discovery of diagnostic markers, vaccines, and therapeutics. Distinct formats of protein microarrays have been developed for different applications, including abundance-based and function-based methods. Depending on the application, design issues should be considered, such as the need for multiplexing and label or label free detection methods. New developments, challenges, and future demands in infectious disease research will impact the application of protein microarrays for discovery and validation of biomarkers. PMID:21614200

Natesan, Mohan; Ulrich, Robert G.

2010-01-01

93

Examining unmet needs in infectious disease.  

PubMed

In the past 30 years, more than 30 new aetiological agents of infectious disease have been identified. Some of these are responsible for entirely novel and life-threatening disorders, such as AIDS, Ebola fever, hantavirus pulmonary syndrome and Nipah virus encephalitis. During the same period, some longstanding infectious diseases (such as tuberculosis) have became resurgent, as a result of a combination of complacency, increased travel and social dislocation, and also increasing drug resistance. This review looks at some of the key unmet needs in this therapeutic area and discusses strategies to address them. PMID:12546988

Snell, Noel J C

2003-01-01

94

Treatment of infectious disease: beyond antibiotics.  

PubMed

Several antibiotics have been discovered following the discovery of penicillin. These antibiotics had been helpful in treatment of infectious diseases considered dread for centuries. The advent of multiple drug resistance in microbes has posed new challenge to researchers. The scientists are now evaluating alternatives for combating infectious diseases. This review focuses on major alternatives to antibiotics on which preliminary work had been carried out. These promising anti-microbial include: phages, bacteriocins, killing factors, antibacterial activities of non-antibiotic drugs and quorum quenching. PMID:24661689

Nigam, Anshul; Gupta, Divya; Sharma, Ashwani

2014-01-01

95

[Post-infectious demyelinating diseases].  

PubMed

Post-infectious demyelinating disorders are uncommon. In the Hospital Pediatrico de la Misericordia de Santafé de Bogotá there were 14 cases in three years. The commonest age group was the new born, as is found in the literature. The infections involved in these neurological changes are probably viral, since at the time the patient is seen most symptoms have cleared up spontaneously. According to several authors, the viruses are most often found to be those of measles or mumps. Between the infection and the development of neurological symptoms there is an interval of approximately two weeks. The main clinical findings are motor changes such as hemiparesis, involvement of cranial nerves and alterations of consciousness. The aetiology is not completely clear. Firm diagnosis is made on histopathological studies which are seldom available. Usually neuroimaging techniques and cerebrospinal fluid analysis are the basis of the diagnosis. Computerized axial tomography and magnetic resonance are the most useful noninvasive techniques for assessing the involvement of the white matter, the extent and sites of the lesions. It is useful to know the classification of the demyelinating disorders so as to prescribe, the most suitable treatment and give the prognosis in each case. There is still no specific treatment for these disorders. Supportive measures, the control of epileptic crises and the prevention of complications are the main aims. This paper reviews the definition, classification, diagnosis and management of these disorders. PMID:9244627

Medina-Malo, C; Castillo, A; Castaño, S

1997-06-01

96

Spatial dynamics of airborne infectious diseases  

E-print Network

Disease outbreaks, such as those of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome in 2003 and the 2009 pandemic A(H1N1) influenza, have highlighted the potential for airborne transmission in indoor environments. Respirable pathogen-carrying droplets provide a vector for the spatial spread of infection with droplet transport determined by diffusive and convective processes. An epidemiological model describing the spatial dynamics of disease transmission is presented. The effects of an ambient airflow, as an infection control, are incorporated leading to a delay equation, with droplet density dependent on the infectious density at a previous time. It is found that small droplets ($\\sim 0.4\\ \\mu$m) generate a negligible infectious force due to the small viral load and the associated duration they require to transmit infection. In contrast, larger droplets ($\\sim 4\\ \\mu$m) can lead to an infectious wave propagating through a fully susceptible population or a secondary infection outbreak for a localised susceptible population...

Robinson, M; Drossinos, Y

2011-01-01

97

Opinion: The Pharmacometrics of Infectious Disease  

PubMed Central

The application of pharmacometric principles to the treatment of infectious diseases must address important biological issues across the diversity of pathogenic organisms. Recent applications of pharmacometric tools in this therapeutic area have had important translational impact not only in drug development but on real-world clinical practice. The fruitful fusion of preclinical and population methodologies promises increasingly personalized and mechanistic approaches. PMID:23985968

Davies, G R; Hope, W; Khoo, S

2013-01-01

98

Section of Infectious Diseases Department of Medicine  

E-print Network

Section of Infectious Diseases Department of Medicine PhD studentship in HIV Immunology Research of Medicine of Imperial College London at the St Mary's Campus. Led by Professor Robin Shattock, the main. Professor Robin Shattock (http://www1.imperial.ac.uk/medicine/people/r.shattock/ ) is the academic

99

Global trends in emerging infectious diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) are a significant burden on global economies and public health. Their emergence is thought to be driven largely by socio-economic, environmental and ecological factors, but no comparative study has explicitly analysed these linkages to understand global temporal and spatial patterns of EIDs. Here we analyse a database of 335 EID `events' (origins of EIDs) between 1940

Kate E. Jones; Nikkita G. Patel; Marc A. Levy; Adam Storeygard; Deborah Balk; John L. Gittleman; Peter Daszak

2008-01-01

100

Infectious Diseases: Education, Prevention, and Nursing Diagnoses  

Microsoft Academic Search

The infectious disease process has been studied since the times of Louis Pasteur and Jonas Salk. Three key components comprise any infection: the agent, the spread, and the incubator (host). When considering these three components, it is recognized that the causative agents have remained relatively consistent through the years and include bacterium, spirochetes, virus, fungi, chlamydiae, parasite, ricketsettia, protozoans, and

Barbara Stover Gingerich

1998-01-01

101

Microbial Pathogenesis: Mechanisms of Infectious Disease  

PubMed Central

The FASEB Summer Research Conference on Microbial Pathogenesis: Mechanisms of Infectious Disease was held in Colorado, USA in July 2007. The central theme was the interplay between pathogenic microbes and their mammalian hosts. Here, we review the presented research that highlights this theme, including studies of both short-term and long-term interactions between microbes and their hosts. PMID:18005739

Carruthers, Vern B.; Cotter, Peggy A.; Kumamoto, Carol A.

2009-01-01

102

Future Infectious Disease Threats to Europe  

PubMed Central

We examined how different drivers of infectious disease could interact to threaten control efforts in Europe. We considered projected trends through 2020 for 3 broad groups of drivers: globalization and environmental change, social and demographic change, and health system capacity. Eight plausible infectious disease threats with the potential to be significantly more problematic than they are today were identified through an expert consultation: extensively drug-resistant bacteria, vector-borne diseases, sexually transmitted infections, food-borne infections, a resurgence of vaccine-preventable diseases, health care–associated infections, multidrug-resistant tuberculosis, and pandemic influenza. Preemptive measures to be taken by the public health community to counteract these threats were identified. PMID:21940915

Suk, Jonathan E.

2011-01-01

103

Rediscovering Biology - Unit 5: Emerging Infectious Diseases  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page is the jumping-off point for an educational unit on emerging infectious diseases. There are links to a course outline and classroom activity worksheets, a 30-minute video, an online textbook chapter, a collection of relevant images and animations that supplement the chapter, transcripts of interviews with five experts featured in the video, and a glossary and bibliography. The video and textbook chapter cover two main phenomena of emerging diseases - evolution of antibiotic resistance, and mutation of disease organisms due to novel environmental pressures. There are detailed explanations of microbial evolution by mutation and acquisition of new genetic material, as well as case studies of infectious diseases spread by animals. The course outline provides a structure for incorporating the video, the textbook chapter, and five classroom activities into a 2.5hr session appropriate for high school or undergraduate students.

Learner.org, Annenberg M.

104

Emerging infectious disease: global response, global alert.  

PubMed

Despite spectacular progress in the eradication of infectious diseases, malaria and tuberculosis are making a comeback in many parts of the world. After years of decline, plague, diphtheria, dengue, meningococcal meningitis, yellow fever, and cholera have reappeared as public health threats. In the last 20 years [before 1997] more than 30 new and highly infectious diseases have been identified, including Ebola-type hemorrhagic fever, HIV/AIDs, and hepatitis C. Antibiotic resistance has also emerged during this period, and fewer new antibiotics are being produced because of high development costs and licensing. Drugs no longer offer protection or cure for many infectious diseases, and consequently more people need hospitalization with higher treatment costs. The causes of the appearance of new diseases and the resurgence of old ones include the rapid increase in international travel, the growth of mega-cities with high population densities, inadequate safe water and sanitation, food-borne diseases by the globalization of trade, and human penetration into remote animal and insect habitats. Meanwhile, resources for public health are being reduced, with the result that either the appearance of new diseases or resistance to drugs go unnoticed. A recent example is the human immunodeficiency virus, which went unrecognized until a large number of people got infected. For this very reason the 1997 World Health Day featured the theme of emerging infectious diseases and global response. Such forums are held to help countries rebuild the foundations of disease surveillance and control, while the public and private sectors may be encouraged to develop better techniques for surveillance to confront a common global threat. PMID:12348002

Nakajima, H

1997-01-01

105

Combining forces to combat infectious diseases.  

PubMed

Because the threat of infectious diseases can cause widespread fear in a community, these diseases receive much public attention. Collaborations that bring together industry, academia, regulators, and the public can lead to improved and accelerated drug development. The collaborations must be grounded in strong science and expertise in clinical trials. Development of drugs to treat infections caused by resistant bacteria, drugs to treat hepatitis C virus (HCV), and drugs to prevent HIV is taking advantage of these collaborations. PMID:25056386

Reynolds, K S

2014-08-01

106

Multilevel Analysis of Infectious Diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traditional study designs, such as individual-level studies and ecological studies, are unable to simultaneously examine the effects of individual-level and group-level factors on risk of disease. Multilevel analysis overcomes this limitation by allowing the simultaneous investigation of factors defined at multiple levels. Areas in which multilevel modeling can be applied to sexually transmitted infection (STI) research include examining how both

2005-01-01

107

Challenges of infectious diseases in the USA.  

PubMed

In the USA, infectious diseases continue to exact a substantial toll on health and health-care resources. Endemic diseases such as chronic hepatitis, HIV, and other sexually transmitted infections affect millions of individuals and widen health disparities. Additional concerns include health-care-associated and foodborne infections--both of which have been targets of broad prevention efforts, with success in some areas, yet major challenges remain. Although substantial progress in reduction of the burden of vaccine-preventable diseases has been made, continued cases and outbreaks of these diseases persist, driven by various contributing factors. Worldwide, emerging and reemerging infections continue to challenge prevention and control strategies while the growing problem of antimicrobial resistance needs urgent action. An important priority for control of infectious disease is to ensure that scientific and technological advances in molecular diagnostics and bioinformatics are well integrated into public health. Broad and diverse partnerships across governments, health care, academia, and industry, and with the public, are essential to effectively reduce the burden of infectious diseases. PMID:24996590

Khabbaz, Rima F; Moseley, Robin R; Steiner, Riley J; Levitt, Alexandra M; Bell, Beth P

2014-07-01

108

Human-Wildlife Contact and Emerging Infectious Diseases  

E-print Network

Chapter 4 Human-Wildlife Contact and Emerging Infectious Diseases Michael P. Muehlenbein Abstract diseases. 4.1 Emerging Infectious Diseases The patterns of morbidity and mortality in human populations that it was "time to close the book on infectious diseases, declare the war against pestilence won, and shift

Muehlenbein, Michael

109

Global rise in human infectious disease outbreaks.  

PubMed

To characterize the change in frequency of infectious disease outbreaks over time worldwide, we encoded and analysed a novel 33-year dataset (1980-2013) of 12,102 outbreaks of 215 human infectious diseases, comprising more than 44 million cases occuring in 219 nations. We merged these records with ecological characteristics of the causal pathogens to examine global temporal trends in the total number of outbreaks, disease richness (number of unique diseases), disease diversity (richness and outbreak evenness) and per capita cases. Bacteria, viruses, zoonotic diseases (originating in animals) and those caused by pathogens transmitted by vector hosts were responsible for the majority of outbreaks in our dataset. After controlling for disease surveillance, communications, geography and host availability, we find the total number and diversity of outbreaks, and richness of causal diseases increased significantly since 1980 (p < 0.0001). When we incorporate Internet usage into the model to control for biased reporting of outbreaks (starting 1990), the overall number of outbreaks and disease richness still increase significantly with time (p < 0.0001), but per capita cases decrease significantly ( p = 0.005). Temporal trends in outbreaks differ based on the causal pathogen's taxonomy, host requirements and transmission mode. We discuss our preliminary findings in the context of global disease emergence and surveillance. PMID:25401184

Smith, Katherine F; Goldberg, Michael; Rosenthal, Samantha; Carlson, Lynn; Chen, Jane; Chen, Cici; Ramachandran, Sohini

2014-12-01

110

[Update in infectious diseases. Part I: epidemiology].  

PubMed

A number of infectious agents has been newly detected in the last 10 years. Climatic changes and migration have been the most important factors in the emergence of new and old infections. Additionally, new methods for the detection of DNA and RNA have played an important role in the detection of agents difficult to culture. Relevant new bacterial pathogens are Bartonella henselae (cat scratch disease, bacillary angiomatosis), Tropheryma whippeli (Whipple's disease) and new Rickettsiae. Newly detected viral pathogens include Sin-nombre virus (pulmonary Hanta virus syndrome), Nipah- and Hendra virus and avian influenza. Bovine spongiform encephalopathy has been transmitted to humans causing the newly described syndrome of variant Creuzfeldt-Jakob disease. The extent of this new epidemic is not yet clear. These trends from the last years clearly indicate, that further new infections and infectious agents will be detected in the future. PMID:10935415

Salzberger, B; Franzen, C; Fätkenheuer, G

2000-06-15

111

Epidemiological monitoring for emerging infectious diseases  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Homeland Security News Wire has been reporting on new ways to fight epidemics using digital tools such as iPhone, social networks, Wikipedia, and other Internet sites. Instant two-way communication now gives consumers the ability to complement official reports on emerging infectious diseases from health authorities. However, there is increasing concern that these communications networks could open the door to mass panic from unreliable or false reports. There is thus an urgent need to ensure that epidemiological monitoring for emerging infectious diseases gives health authorities the capability to identify, analyze, and report disease outbreaks in as timely and efficient a manner as possible. One of the dilemmas in the global dissemination of information on infectious diseases is the possibility that information overload will create inefficiencies as the volume of Internet-based surveillance information increases. What is needed is a filtering mechanism that will retrieve relevant information for further analysis by epidemiologists, laboratories, and other health organizations so they are not overwhelmed with irrelevant information and will be able to respond quickly. This paper introduces a self-organizing ontology that could be used as a filtering mechanism to increase relevance and allow rapid analysis of disease outbreaks as they evolve in real time.

Greene, Marjorie

2010-04-01

112

Infectious Disease Modeling of Social Contagion in Networks  

E-print Network

Many behavioral phenomena have been found to spread interpersonally through social networks, in a manner similar to infectious diseases. An important difference between social contagion and traditional infectious diseases, ...

Hill, Alison Lynn

113

Now Trending: Mining Historical Data on Infectious Diseases  

MedlinePLUS

... Home Page Now Trending: Mining Historical Data on Infectious Diseases By Emily Carlson Posted December 2, 2013 Collecting, ... historical health data shows the incidence of 56 infectious diseases in the United States (top) and the effect ...

114

Editorial Infectious Diseases Drug Targets (in silico special issue)  

E-print Network

Editorial ­ Infectious Diseases ­ Drug Targets (in silico special issue) Alexandre G. de Brevern facilities has given new opportunities to fight against infectious diseases and to identify pertinent drug

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

115

Adaptation of glucose metabolism to fasting in young children with infectious diseases: a perspective.  

PubMed

Abstract Hypoglycemia is a frequently encountered complication in young children with infectious diseases and may result in permanent neurological damage or even death. Mortality rate in young children under 5 years of age is increased four- to six-fold when severe infectious disease is complicated by hypoglycemia. Young age, prolonged fasting and severity of disease are considered important risk factors. This perspective describes the combined results of recently conducted studies on the effect of these risk factors on glucose metabolism in children with different infectious diseases. The results of these studies have nutritional implications for the approach in clinical practice towards young children with infectious diseases and specific recommendations are made. A unique finding is the existence of infectious disease-related differences in the adaptation of glucose metabolism during fasting in young children. PMID:23813356

Zijlmans, Wilco C W R; van Kempen, Anne A M W; Serlie, Mireille J; Kager, Piet A; Sauerwein, Hans P

2014-01-01

116

76 FR 2128 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting...Committee: Microbiology, Infectious Diseases and AIDS Initial Review Group. Microbiology and Infectious Diseases B Subcommittee. Date:...

2011-01-12

117

78 FR 3011 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting...Committee: Microbiology, Infectious Diseases and AIDS Initial Review Group; Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research Committee....

2013-01-15

118

77 FR 29676 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting...Committee: Microbiology, Infectious Diseases and AIDS Initial Review Group; Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research Committee....

2012-05-18

119

76 FR 55074 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting...Committee: Microbiology, Infectious Diseases and AIDS Initial Review Group, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research Committee....

2011-09-06

120

77 FR 2736 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting...Committee: Microbiology, Infectious Diseases and AIDS Initial Review Group; Microbiology and Infectious Diseases B Subcommittee. Date:...

2012-01-19

121

75 FR 81631 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting...Committee: Microbiology, Infectious Diseases and AIDS Initial Review Group. Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research Committee....

2010-12-28

122

78 FR 58322 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings...Committee: Microbiology, Infectious Diseases and AIDS Initial Review Group, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases B Subcommittee,...

2013-09-23

123

75 FR 28029 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings...Committee: Microbiology, Infectious Diseases and AIDS Initial Review Group; Microbiology and Infectious Diseases B Subcommittee. Date:...

2010-05-19

124

Immigrant and refugee health: common infectious diseases.  

PubMed

Immigrants and refugees are at risk of infectious diseases (IDs) that are rare in the United States. Screening and treatment before entry into the United States are required for some of these diseases, whereas quarantine is mandated for others. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has published specific recommendations for the evaluation and treatment of immigrants and refugees before and after they arrive in the United States. In addition, immigrants and refugees who return to their home countries are at greater risk of IDs than other travelers. Health care professionals are required to report certain IDs to state or local health departments. PMID:25127537

Rew, Karl T; Clarke, S Lindsey; Gossa, Weyinshet; Savin, Daniel

2014-08-01

125

Social inequalities and emerging infectious diseases.  

PubMed Central

Although many who study emerging infections subscribe to social-production-of-disease theories, few have examined the contribution of social inequalities to disease emergence. Yet such inequalities have powerfully sculpted not only the distribution of infectious diseases, but also the course of disease in those affected. Outbreaks of Ebola, AIDS, and tuberculosis suggest that models of disease emergence need to be dynamic, systemic, and critical. Such models--which strive to incorporate change and complexity, and are global yet alive to local variation--are critical of facile claims of causality, particularly those that scant the pathogenic roles of social inequalities. Critical perspectives on emerging infections ask how large-scale social forces influence unequally positioned individuals in increasingly interconnected populations; a critical epistemology of emerging infectious diseases asks what features of disease emergence are obscured by dominant analytic frameworks. Research questions stemming from such a reexamination of disease emergence would demand close collaboration between basic scientists, clinicians, and the social scientists and epidemiologists who adopt such perspectives. PMID:8969243

Farmer, P.

1996-01-01

126

Hindawi Publishing Corporation Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases  

E-print Network

Hindawi Publishing Corporation Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases Volume 2011, Article ID 146765, 2 pages doi:10.1155/2011/146765 Editorial Network Perspectives on Infectious Disease on pioneering network perspectives in the field of infectious disease epidemiology, which have already yielded

Myers, Lauren Ancel

127

Integrated Research Facility National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases  

E-print Network

Ci3R Integrated Research Facility National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Center for Infection and Inflammation Im Johns Hopkins University School o Center for Infectious Disease Imaging aging Challenges in Infectious Disease: Need for Imaging Sanjay K. Jain, MD, Johns Hopkins University 09:00-09:25a

128

The Challenge of Infectious Diseases to the Biomedical Paradigm  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The resurgence of infectious diseases and the emergence of infectious diseases raise questions on how to cope with the situation. The germ or clinical approach is the hegemonic biomedical paradigm. In this article, the author argues that the spread of infectious diseases has posted a challenge to the biomedical paradigm and shows how lock-in…

Foladori, Guillermo

2005-01-01

129

Tropical Environments, Human Activities, and the Transmission of Infectious Diseases  

E-print Network

Tropical Environments, Human Activities, and the Transmission of Infectious Diseases LISA diseases than the temperate world. Much of the success of infectious diseases in that region is due to both Throughout recent history, the tropical regions of the world have been affected more severely by infectious

Gottgens, Hans

130

Assistant or Associate Professor Division of Infectious Diseases  

E-print Network

Assistant or Associate Professor Division of Infectious Diseases Department of Medicine The Department of Medicine/Division of Infectious Diseases and Geographic Medicine at Stanford University of Infectious Diseases will be considered, including those with clinical and bench-based research programs

Quake, Stephen R.

131

Department of Immunology and Infectious Diseases Baseline Statistics  

E-print Network

Department of Immunology and Infectious Diseases Baseline Statistics October 29, 2013 Number Comparisons for the Discipline of Immunology & Infectious Disease Montana State University National Tenure for the Discipline of Immunology & Infectious Disease Montana State University National Tenure-Track Faculty* Land

Maxwell, Bruce D.

132

REVIEWS AND SYNTHESES Seasonality and the dynamics of infectious diseases  

E-print Network

REVIEWS AND SYNTHESES Seasonality and the dynamics of infectious diseases Sonia Altizer,1 * Andrew availability are ubiquitous and can exert strong pressures on population dynamics. Infectious diseases provide and persistence of infectious diseases, and that population-level responses can range from simple annual cycles

133

Origins of major human infectious diseases Nathan D. Wolfe1  

E-print Network

REVIEWS Origins of major human infectious diseases Nathan D. Wolfe1 , Claire Panosian Dunavan2 & Jared Diamond3 Many of the major human infectious diseases, including some now confined to humans were the sources of our major infectious diseases, including these `new' ones? Why do so many animal

Boudouresque, Charles F.

134

Emerging infectious diseases of plants: pathogen pollution, climate change  

E-print Network

Emerging infectious diseases of plants: pathogen pollution, climate change and agrotechnology, Boston, MA 02115, USA Emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) pose threats to conservation and public health for the surveillance and control of plant EIDs. Emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) are caused by pathogens that: (i

Schweik, Charles M.

135

Mathematical Techniques in the Evolutionary Epidemiology of Infectious Diseases  

E-print Network

1 Mathematical Techniques in the Evolutionary Epidemiology of Infectious Diseases Troy Day The epidemiology of infectious diseases is a vibrant and growing area of research. Mathematics has come to play of infectious disease stems, in part, from the high levels of genetic variation that are often generated through

Linder, Tamás

136

Sleep, sleep deprivation and infectious disease: Studies in animals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Common perceptions that the desire for sleep is increased during mild infectious diseases like colds and ‘the flu’ have fostered beliefs that sleep promotes recovery from infectious disease and that lack of sleep increases susceptibility to infections. However, until recently, the relationship between infectious disease and vigilance received relatively little systematic study. At present, several model systems provide evidence that

Linda A. Toth

1995-01-01

137

National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created over fifty years ago, the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NAID) "conducts and supports basic and applied research to better understand, treat, and ultimately prevent infectious, immunologic, and allergic diseases." In recent years, the scope of the institute's research activities has expanded to include emerging issues such as the possibility of bioterrorism and West Nile virus. The site contains a wealth of information on the activities of NAID, such as the most recent publications, organizational hierarchy, and funding opportunities for researchers and scholars. The newsroom area is quite thorough, as visitors have access to the database of news releases dating back to 1995 and access to SciBites, which features brief summaries of articles about NAID-funded research, updated weekly. The site is notable for its extensive special section on the growing battery of research on biodefense strategies.

138

Peripheral nervous system manifestations of infectious diseases.  

PubMed

Infectious causes of peripheral nervous system (PNS) disease are underrecognized but potentially treatable. Heightened awareness educed by advanced understanding of the presentations and management of these infections can aid diagnosis and facilitate treatment. In this review, we discuss the clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and treatment of common bacterial, viral, and parasitic infections that affect the PNS. We additionally detail PNS side effects of some frequently used antimicrobial agents. PMID:25360209

Brizzi, Kate T; Lyons, Jennifer L

2014-10-01

139

Pediatric infectious diseases — Quo vadis 2015?  

Microsoft Academic Search

In modern medicine the discipline pediatric infectious diseases is an essential medical specialty. The challenging and complex\\u000a tasks in the next years include meticulous consolidation and careful extension of existing activities aiming at conducting\\u000a high level research, offering high standard teaching, and providing high quality patient management. This can only be accomplished\\u000a by exquisitely dedicated individuals with extraordinary communication and

David Nadal

140

Dealing with Global Infectious Disease Emergencies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The microbes that cause human infectious diseases are complex, dynamic, and constantly evolving. They reproduce rapidly, mutate\\u000a frequently, adapt with relative ease to new environments and hosts, and frequently breach the species barrier between animals\\u000a and humans. Social, economic, and environmental factors linked to a host of human populations and activities can accelerate\\u000a and amplify these natural phenomena. The ability

David L. Heymann

141

Peripheral Nervous System Manifestations of Infectious Diseases  

PubMed Central

Infectious causes of peripheral nervous system (PNS) disease are underrecognized but potentially treatable. Heightened awareness educed by advanced understanding of the presentations and management of these infections can aid diagnosis and facilitate treatment. In this review, we discuss the clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and treatment of common bacterial, viral, and parasitic infections that affect the PNS. We additionally detail PNS side effects of some frequently used antimicrobial agents.

Brizzi, Kate T.

2014-01-01

142

Emerging, evolving, and established infectious diseases and interventions.  

PubMed

Planning, implementing, and evaluating interventions against infectious diseases depend on the nature of the infectious disease; the availability of intervention measures; and logistical, economic, and political constraints. Infectious diseases and vaccine- or drug-based interventions can be loosely categorized by the degree to which the infectious disease and the intervention are well established. Pertussis, polio, and measles are three examples of long-known infectious diseases for which global vaccination has dramatically reduced the public health burden. Pertussis vaccination was introduced in the 1940s, polio vaccination in the 1950s, and measles vaccination in the 1960s, nearly eliminating these diseases in many places. PMID:25214617

Halloran, M Elizabeth; Longini, Ira M

2014-09-12

143

Pregnancy and susceptibility to infectious diseases.  

PubMed

To summarize the literature regarding susceptibility of pregnant women to infectious diseases and severity of resulting disease, we conducted a review using a PubMed search and other strategies. Studies were included if they reported information on infection risk or disease outcome in pregnant women. In all, 1454 abstracts were reviewed, and a total of 85 studies were included. Data were extracted regarding number of cases in pregnant women, rates of infection, risk factors for disease severity or complications, and maternal outcomes. The evidence indicates that pregnancy is associated with increased severity of some infectious diseases, such as influenza, malaria, hepatitis E, and herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection (risk for dissemination/hepatitis); there is also some evidence for increased severity of measles and smallpox. Disease severity seems higher with advanced pregnancy. Pregnant women may be more susceptible to acquisition of malaria, HIV infection, and listeriosis, although the evidence is limited. These results reinforce the importance of infection prevention as well as of early identification and treatment of suspected influenza, malaria, hepatitis E, and HSV disease during pregnancy. PMID:23935259

Sappenfield, Elisabeth; Jamieson, Denise J; Kourtis, Athena P

2013-01-01

144

Using biological networks to improve our understanding of infectious diseases  

PubMed Central

Infectious diseases are the leading cause of death, particularly in developing countries. Although many drugs are available for treating the most common infectious diseases, in many cases the mechanism of action of these drugs or even their targets in the pathogen remain unknown. In addition, the key factors or processes in pathogens that facilitate infection and disease progression are often not well understood. Since proteins do not work in isolation, understanding biological systems requires a better understanding of the interconnectivity between proteins in different pathways and processes, which includes both physical and other functional interactions. Such biological networks can be generated within organisms or between organisms sharing a common environment using experimental data and computational predictions. Though different data sources provide different levels of accuracy, confidence in interactions can be measured using interaction scores. Connections between interacting proteins in biological networks can be represented as graphs and edges, and thus studied using existing algorithms and tools from graph theory. There are many different applications of biological networks, and here we discuss three such applications, specifically applied to the infectious disease tuberculosis, with its causative agent Mycobacterium tuberculosis and host, Homo sapiens. The applications include the use of the networks for function prediction, comparison of networks for evolutionary studies, and the generation and use of host–pathogen interaction networks. PMID:25379138

Mulder, Nicola J.; Akinola, Richard O.; Mazandu, Gaston K.; Rapanoel, Holifidy

2014-01-01

145

Sex Differences in Pediatric Infectious Diseases  

PubMed Central

The success of the immune response is finely balanced between, on the one hand, the need to engage vigorously with, and clear, certain pathogens; and, on the other, the requirement to minimize immunopathology and autoimmunity. Distinct immune strategies to achieve this balance have evolved in females and males and also in infancy through to adulthood. Sex differences in outcome from a range of infectious diseases can be identified from as early as fetal life, such as in congenital cytomegalovirus infection. The impact of sex hormones on the T-helper 1/T-helper 2 cytokine balance has been proposed to explain the higher severity of most infectious diseases in males. In the minority where greater morbidity and mortality is observed in females, this is hypothesized to arise because of greater immunopathology and/or autoimmunity. However, a number of unexplained exceptions to this rule are described. Studies that have actually measured the sex differences in children in the immune responses to infectious diseases and that would further test these hypotheses, are relatively scarce. PMID:24966192

Muenchhoff, Maximilian; Goulder, Philip J. R.

2014-01-01

146

Burroughs Wellcome Fund Investigators in the Pathogenesis of Infectious Diseases (http://www.bwfund.org/grant-programs/infectious-diseases-0)  

E-print Network

Burroughs Wellcome Fund Investigators in the Pathogenesis of Infectious Diseases (http://www.bwfund.org/grant-programs/infectious-diseases are for five years, at a total level of $500,000. Additional information is available at http://www.bwfund.org/grant-programs/infectious- diseases-0 and through teleconferences on September 16, 2:00 pm and October 14, 2:00 pm. Potential

Benos, Panayiotis "Takis"

147

Ruminant Genetics and Infectious Disease Infectious disease in cattle production remains a significant threat to productivity, profitability, animal wel-  

E-print Network

Ruminant Genetics and Infectious Disease Infectious disease in cattle production remains threats is to use genetic selection for cattle with natural resistance to infectious disease. Resistance of immune cells and cytokines, all of which are regulated by genetic factors. Progress in our understanding

148

Healthcare workers as vectors of infectious diseases.  

PubMed

Nosocomial infections cause considerable morbidity and mortality. Healthcare workers (HCWs) may serve as vectors of many infectious diseases, many of which are not often primarily considered as healthcare-associated. The probability of pathogen transmission to patients depends on several factors, such as the characteristics of a pathogen, HCW and patient. Pathogens with high transmission potential from HCWs to patients include norovirus, respiratory infections, measles and influenza. In contrast, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and viral hepatitis are unlikely to be transferred. The prevention of HCW-associated transmission of pathogens include systematic vaccinations towards preventable diseases, continuous education, hand hygiene surveillance, active feedback and adequate staff resources. PMID:24798250

Huttunen, R; Syrjänen, J

2014-09-01

149

Capacity building in pediatric transplant infectious diseases: An international perspective.  

PubMed

Transplant infectious diseases is a rapidly emerging subspecialty within pediatric infectious diseases reflecting the increasing volumes and complexity of this patient population. Incorporating transplant infectious diseases into the transplant process would provide an opportunity to improve clinical outcome and advocacy as well as expand research. The relationship between transplant physicians and infectious diseases (ID) specialists is one of partnership, collaboration, and mutual continuing professional education. The ID CARE Committee of the International Pediatric Transplant Association (IPTA) views the development and integration of transplant infectious diseases into pediatric transplant care as an international priority. PMID:25212948

Danziger-Isakov, Lara; Evans, Helen M; Green, Michael; McCulloch, Mignon; Michaels, Marian G; Posfay-Barbe, Klara M; Verma, Anita; Allen, Upton

2014-12-01

150

Center for Infectious Diseases (CID) Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine  

E-print Network

Center for Infectious Diseases (CID) Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine Microbiology (Hotta) Pathogenesis analysis of viruses; Antiviral drugs; Vaccine development Infectious Disease and epidemiology of avian influenza Infectious Disease Control (Kawabata) Epidemiology of infectious diseases

Banbara, Mutsunori

151

Nurses' Contacts and Potential for Infectious Disease Transmission  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nurses' contacts with potentially infectious persons probably place them at higher risk than the general population for infectious diseases. During an influenza pandemic, illness among nurses might result in staff shortage. We aimed to show the value of individual data from the healthcare sector for mathematical modeling of infectious disease transmission. Using a paper diary approach, we compared nurses' daily

Helen Bernard; Richela Fischer; Rafael T. Mikolajczyk; Mirjam Kretzschmar; Manfred Wildner

2009-01-01

152

Infectious disease burden in Gujarat (2005-2011): comparison of selected infectious disease rates with India  

PubMed Central

Background India is known to be endemic to numerous infectious diseases. The infectious disease profile of India is changing due to increased human environmental interactions, urbanisation and climate change. There are also predictions of explosive growth in infectious and zoonotic diseases. The Integrated Disease Surveillance Project (IDSP) was implemented in Gujarat in 2004. Methods We analysed IDSP data on seven laboratory confirmed infectious diseases from 2005–2011 on temporal and spatial trends and compared this to the National Health Profile (NHP) data for the same period and with other literature. We chose laboratory cases data for Enteric fever, Cholera, Hepatitis, Dengue, Chikungunya, Measles and Diphtheria in the state since well designed vertical programs do not exist for these diseases. Statistical and GIS analysis was done using appropriate software. Results Our analysis shows that the existing surveillance system in the state is predominantly reporting urban cases. There are wide variations among reported cases within the state with reports of Enteric fever and Measles being less than half of the national average, while Cholera, Viral Hepatitis and Dengue being nearly double. Conclusions We found some limitations in the IDSP system with regard to the number of reporting units and cases in the background of a mixed health system with multiplicity of treatment providers and payment mechanisms. Despite these limitations, IDSP can be strengthened into a comprehensive surveillance system capable of tackling the challenge of reversing the endemicity of these diseases and preventing the emergence of others. PMID:24647088

Iyer, Veena; Azhar, Gulrez Shah; Choudhury, Nandini; Dhruwey, Vidwan Singh; Dacombe, Russell; Upadhyay, Ashish

2014-01-01

153

Global Transport Networks and Infectious Disease Spread  

PubMed Central

Air, sea and land transport networks continue to expand in reach, speed of travel and volume of passengers and goods carried. Pathogens and their vectors can now move further, faster and in greater numbers than ever before. Three important consequences of global transport network expansion are infectious disease pandemics, vector invasion events and vector-borne pathogen importation. This review briefly examines some of the important historical examples of these disease and vector movements, such as the global influenza pandemics, the devastating Anopheles gambiae invasion of Brazil and the recent increases in imported Plasmodium falciparum malaria cases. We then outline potential approaches for future studies of disease movement, focussing on vector invasion and vector-borne disease importation. Such approaches allow us to explore the potential implications of international air travel, shipping routes and other methods of transport on global pathogen and vector traffic. PMID:16647974

Tatem, A.J.; Rogers, D.J.; Hay, S.I.

2011-01-01

154

Infectious diseases: Surveillance, genetic modification and simulation  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Infectious diseases such as influenza and dengue have the potential of becoming a worldwide pandemic that may exert immense pressures on existing medical infrastructures. Careful surveillance of these diseases, supported by consistent model simulations, provides a means for tracking the disease evolution. The integrated surveillance and simulation program is essential in devising effective early warning systems and in implementing efficient emergency preparedness and control measures. This paper presents a summary of simulation analysis on influenza A (H1N1) 2009 in Malaysia. This simulation analysis provides insightful lessons regarding how disease surveillance and simulation should be performed in the future. This paper briefly discusses the controversy over the experimental field release of genetically modified (GM) Aedes aegypti mosquito in Malaysia. Model simulations indicate that the proposed release of GM mosquitoes is neither a viable nor a sustainable control strategy. ?? 2011 WIT Press.

Koh, H.-L.; Teh, S.Y.; De Angelis, D. L.; Jiang, J.

2011-01-01

155

Global infectious disease surveillance and health intelligence.  

PubMed

Current concerns about the spread of infectious diseases, especially unexpected ("emerging") infections such as pandemic influenza or severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), have renewed focus on the critical importance of global early warning and rapid response. Although considerable progress has been made, many gaps remain. A number of the gaps can be addressed through increased political will, resources for reporting, improved coordination and sharing of information, raising clinicians' awareness, and additional research to develop more rigorous triggers for action. The increasing availability of communications and information technologies worldwide offers new opportunities for reporting even in low-capacity settings. PMID:17630449

Morse, Stephen S

2007-01-01

156

The changing pattern of infectious disease.  

PubMed Central

Several factors contribute towards a decrease in the prevalence of infectious disease in a population. These include active control measures, active immunisation, and improvement in the socioeconomic state of the population. There appears, however, to be a progressive increase in the resistance of a population in relation to the length of time the population has been exposed to an agent. This increasing resistance is currently thought to be an expression of natural selection but transmission of actively acquired immunity cannot be ruled out and in the light of current evidence remains a highly probable contributory factor. PMID:6437550

Ikwueke, K

1984-01-01

157

Microbiology and Epidemiology of Infectious Spinal Disease  

PubMed Central

Objective Infectious spinal disease is regarded as an infection by a specific organism that affects the vertebral body, intervertebral disc and adjacent perivertebral soft tissue. Its incidence seems to be increasing as a result of larger proportion of the older patients with chronic debilitating disease, the rise of intravenous drug abuser, and the increase in spinal procedure and surgery. In Korea, studies assessing infectious spinal disease are rare and have not been addressed in recent times. The objectives of this study are to describe the epidemiology of all kind of spinal infectious disease and their clinical and microbiological characteristics as well as to assess the diagnostic methodology and the parameters related to the outcomes. Methods A retrospective study was performed in all infectious spinal disease cases presenting from January 2005 to April 2010 to three tertiary teaching hospitals within a city of 1.5 million in Korea. Patient demographics, risk factors, clinical features, and outcomes were assessed. Risk factors entailed the presence of diabetes, chronic renal failure, liver cirrhosis, immunosuppressants, remote infection, underlying malignancy and previous spinal surgery or procedure. We comparatively analyzed the results between the groups of pyogenic and tuberculous spinal infection. SPSS version 14 statistical software was used to perform the analyses of the data. The threshold for statistical significance was established at p<0.05. Results Ninety-two cases fulfilled the inclusion criteria and were reviewed. Overall, patients of tuberculous spinal infection (TSI) and pyogenic spinal infection (PSI) entailed 20 (21.7%) and 72 (78.3%) cases, respectively. A previous spinal surgery or procedure was the most commonly noted risk factor (39.1%), followed by diabetes (15.2%). The occurrence of both pyogenic and tuberculous spondylitis was predominant in the lumbar spine. Discs are more easily invaded in PSI. At initial presentation, white cell blood count and C-reactive protein levels were higher in PSI compared to TSI (p<0.05). Etiological agents were identified in 53.3%, and the most effective method for identification of etiological agents was tissue culture (50.0%). Staphyococcus aureus was the most commonly isolated infective agent associated with pyogenic spondylitis, followed by E. coli. Surgical treatment was performed in 31.5% of pyogenic spondylitis and in 35.0% of tuberculous spondylitis cases. Conclusion Many previous studies in Korea usually reported that tuberculous spondylitis is the predominant infection. However, in our study, the number of pyogenic infection was 3 times greater than that of tuberculous spinal disease. Etiological agents were identified in a half of all infectious spinal disease. For better outcomes, we should try to identify the causative microorganism before antibiotic therapy and make every effort to improve the result of culture and biopsy. PMID:25289121

Jeong, Se-Jin; Youm, Jin-Young; Kim, Hyun-Woo; Ha, Ho-Gyun; Yi, Jin-Seok

2014-01-01

158

Mathematical modeling of infectious disease dynamics  

PubMed Central

Over the last years, an intensive worldwide effort is speeding up the developments in the establishment of a global surveillance network for combating pandemics of emergent and re-emergent infectious diseases. Scientists from different fields extending from medicine and molecular biology to computer science and applied mathematics have teamed up for rapid assessment of potentially urgent situations. Toward this aim mathematical modeling plays an important role in efforts that focus on predicting, assessing, and controlling potential outbreaks. To better understand and model the contagious dynamics the impact of numerous variables ranging from the micro host–pathogen level to host-to-host interactions, as well as prevailing ecological, social, economic, and demographic factors across the globe have to be analyzed and thoroughly studied. Here, we present and discuss the main approaches that are used for the surveillance and modeling of infectious disease dynamics. We present the basic concepts underpinning their implementation and practice and for each category we give an annotated list of representative works. PMID:23552814

Siettos, Constantinos I.; Russo, Lucia

2013-01-01

159

Mathematical modeling of infectious disease dynamics.  

PubMed

Over the last years, an intensive worldwide effort is speeding up the developments in the establishment of a global surveillance network for combating pandemics of emergent and re-emergent infectious diseases. Scientists from different fields extending from medicine and molecular biology to computer science and applied mathematics have teamed up for rapid assessment of potentially urgent situations. Toward this aim mathematical modeling plays an important role in efforts that focus on predicting, assessing, and controlling potential outbreaks. To better understand and model the contagious dynamics the impact of numerous variables ranging from the micro host-pathogen level to host-to-host interactions, as well as prevailing ecological, social, economic, and demographic factors across the globe have to be analyzed and thoroughly studied. Here, we present and discuss the main approaches that are used for the surveillance and modeling of infectious disease dynamics. We present the basic concepts underpinning their implementation and practice and for each category we give an annotated list of representative works. PMID:23552814

Siettos, Constantinos I; Russo, Lucia

2013-05-15

160

Simulating City-level Airborne Infectious Diseases  

E-print Network

With the exponential growth in the world population and the constant increase in human mobility, the danger of outbreaks of epidemics is rising. Especially in high density urban areas such as public transport and transfer points, where people come in close proximity of each other, we observe a dramatic increase in the transmission of airborne viruses and related pathogens. It is essential to have a good understanding of the `transmission highways' in such areas, in order to prevent or to predict the spreading of infectious diseases. The approach we take is to combine as much information as is possible, from all relevant sources and integrate this in a simulation environment that allows for scenario testing and decision support. In this paper we lay out a novel approach to study Urban Airborne Disease spreading by combining traffic information, with geo-spatial data, infection dynamics and spreading characteristics.

Shan, Mei; Yifan, Zhu; Zhenghu, Zu; Tao, Zheng; Boukhanovsky, A V; Sloot, P M A

2012-01-01

161

Human louse-transmitted infectious diseases.  

PubMed

Several of the infectious diseases associated with human lice are life-threatening, including epidemic typhus, relapsing fever, and trench fever, which are caused by Rickettsia prowazekii, Borrelia recurrentis, and Bartonella quintana, respectively. Although these diseases have been known for several centuries, they remain a major public health concern in populations living in poor-hygiene conditions because of war, social disruption, severe poverty, or gaps in public health management. Poor-hygiene conditions favour a higher prevalence of body lice, which are the main vectors for these diseases. Trench fever has been reported in both developing and developed countries in populations living in poor conditions, such as homeless individuals. In contrast, outbreaks of epidemic typhus and epidemic relapsing fever have occurred in jails and refugee camps in developing countries. However, reports of a significantly high seroprevalence for epidemic typhus and epidemic relapsing fever in the homeless populations of developed countries suggest that these populations remain at high risk for outbreaks of these diseases. Additionally, experimental laboratory studies have demonstrated that the body louse can transmit other emerging or re-emerging pathogens, such as Acinetobacter baumannii and Yersinia pestis. Therefore, a strict survey of louse-borne diseases and the implementation of efficient delousing strategies in these populations should be public health priorities. PMID:22360386

Badiaga, S; Brouqui, P

2012-04-01

162

Postexposure prophylaxis for common infectious diseases.  

PubMed

Postexposure prophylaxis (PEP) is effective in preventing illness after potential or documented exposure to a variety of microbial pathogens and in reducing the risk of secondary spread of infection. Guidelines have been published by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices for proper use of PEP for bloodborne pathogens, for microorganisms transmitted by either airborne or droplet spread or through direct contact, and for infections acquired after traumatic injuries. Depending on the type of exposure, different forms of PEP are available, including vaccines, immune globulins, antibiotics, and antiviral medications. Physicians should assess a patient's potential need for PEP based on several factors, including the type of exposure, the timing and severity of illness in the source patient, the exposed person's susceptibility to infectious diseases of concern, and the relative risks and benefits of the PEP regimen in an individual situation. Immunity to certain infectious diseases can be ensured with prior infection or vaccination, and by serologic testing in patients with a negative or uncertain history. PEP should be given to persons exposed to index cases of pertussis and invasive meningococcal infection regardless of immunization history, and should be given following rabies and tetanus exposure regardless of the length of delay. In general, PEP should be given as soon as possible following a high-risk exposure. Persons exposed to bloodborne pathogens should have baseline testing for human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis B virus, and hepatitis C virus antibodies, and follow-up testing at six weeks, three months, and six months postexposure. PMID:23939603

Bader, Mazen S; McKinsey, David S

2013-07-01

163

Global capacity for emerging infectious disease detection  

PubMed Central

The increasing number of emerging infectious disease events that have spread internationally, such as severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and the 2009 pandemic A/H1N1, highlight the need for improvements in global outbreak surveillance. It is expected that the proliferation of Internet-based reports has resulted in greater communication and improved surveillance and reporting frameworks, especially with the revision of the World Health Organization's (WHO) International Health Regulations (IHR 2005), which went into force in 2007. However, there has been no global quantitative assessment of whether and how outbreak detection and communication processes have actually changed over time. In this study, we analyzed the entire WHO public record of Disease Outbreak News reports from 1996 to 2009 to characterize spatial-temporal trends in the timeliness of outbreak discovery and public communication about the outbreak relative to the estimated outbreak start date. Cox proportional hazards regression analyses show that overall, the timeliness of outbreak discovery improved by 7.3% [hazard ratio (HR) = 1.073, 95% CI (1.038; 1.110)] per year, and public communication improved by 6.2% [HR = 1.062, 95% CI (1.028; 1.096)] per year. However, the degree of improvement varied by geographic region; the only WHO region with statistically significant (? = 0.05) improvement in outbreak discovery was the Western Pacific region [HR = 1.102 per year, 95% CI (1.008; 1.205)], whereas the Eastern Mediterranean [HR = 1.201 per year, 95% CI (1.066; 1.353)] and Western Pacific regions [HR = 1.119 per year, 95% CI (1.025; 1.221)] showed improvement in public communication. These findings provide quantitative historical assessment of timeliness in infectious disease detection and public reporting of outbreaks. PMID:21115835

Chan, Emily H.; Brewer, Timothy F.; Madoff, Lawrence C.; Pollack, Marjorie P.; Sonricker, Amy L.; Keller, Mikaela; Freifeld, Clark C.; Blench, Michael; Mawudeku, Abla; Brownstein, John S.

2010-01-01

164

Global Climate and Infectious Disease: The Cholera Paradigm  

Microsoft Academic Search

Historically, infectious diseases have had a profound effect on human populations, including their evolution and cultural development. Despite significant advances in medical science, infectious diseases continue to impact human populations in many parts of the world. Emerging diseases are considered to be those infections that either are newly appearing in the population or are rapidly increasing in incidence or expanding

Rita R. Colwell

1996-01-01

165

The role of infectious disease in marine communities: chapter 5  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Marine ecologists recognize that infectious diseases play and important role in ocean ecosystems. This role may have increased in some host taxa over time (Ward and Lafferty 2004). We begin this chapter by introducing infectious agents and their relationships with their hosts in marine systems. We then put infectious disease agents with their hosts in marine systems. We then put infectious disease agents in the perspective of marine biodiversity and discuss the various factors that affect parasites. Specifically, we introduce some basin epidemiological concepts, including the effects of stress and free-living diversity on parasites. Following this, we give brief consideration to communities of parasites within their hosts, particularly as these can lead to general insights into community ecology. We also give examples of how infectious diseases affect host populations, scaling up to marine communities. Finally, we present examples of marine infectious disease that impair conservation and fisheries.

Lafferty, Kevin D.; Harvell, C. Drew

2014-01-01

166

Ills in the pipeline: emerging infectious diseases and wildlife  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In the recent film Contagion, a medical thriller released in fall 2011, the fictitious MEV-1 virus—passed from bat to pig to humans—spreads across the globe as easily as the common cold, killing millions of humans and causing mass hysteria as medical researchers race to find a cure. Though it's Hollywood hyperbole, the film holds a kernel of truth: Researchers believe that the close proximity of Malaysian hog farms to forested areas—the natural habitat for fruit bats—allowed the previously unknown Nipah virus to spill from bats into pigs and subsequently into people, resulting in more than 100 human deaths (Epstein et al. 2006). There is no doubt that in recent times we have seen an unprecedented number of emerging infectious diseases, defined by the Institute for Medicine as new, reemerging, or drug-resistant infections whose incidence has increased or whose incidence threatens to increase in the near future. Many of these have a wildlife origin (Taylor et al. 2001). While this jump may be due, in part, to increased vigilance and reporting, there is a general consensus that current global conditions are creating a situation that is very favorable to the transmission of microbes that cause diseases. (For reviews, see Daszak et al. 2001 and Keesing et al. 2010). Likewise, it's increasingly important that wildlife professionals become aware of how and why new infectious diseases spread and what, if anything, can be done to minimize impacts on wildlife.

Sleeman, Jonathan; Gillin, Colin

2012-01-01

167

"Med-X": a medical examiner surveillance model for bioterrorism and infectious disease mortality.  

PubMed

We created a model surveillance system (Med-X) designed to enable medical examiners and coroners to recognize fatal infections of public health importance and deaths due to bioterrorism. All individuals who died in New Mexico and fell under medical examiner jurisdiction between November 23, 2000, and November 22, 2002, were prospectively evaluated using sets of surveillance symptoms and autopsy-based pathologic syndromes. All infectious disease deaths were evaluated to identify the specific causative agent. Of 6104 jurisdictional cases, 250 (4.1%) met Med-X criteria, of which 141 (56.4%) had a target pathologic syndrome. Ultimately, 127 (51%) of the 250 cases were due to infections. The causative organism was identified for 103 (81%) of the infectious disease deaths, of which 60 (58.3%) were notifiable conditions in New Mexico. Flu-like symptoms, fever and respiratory symptoms, and encephalopathy or new-onset seizures had predictive values positive for fatal infections of 65%, 72%, and 50%, respectively, and are useful as autopsy performance criteria. Before the development of surveillance criteria, 37 (14.8%) of the cases ordinarily would not have been autopsied resulting in a 1% increase in autopsy workload. Med-X is an effective method of detecting infectious disease deaths among medical examiner cases. Uniform criteria for performing medical examiner autopsies and reporting cases to public health authorities enhance surveillance for notifiable infectious diseases and increase the likelihood of recognizing deaths related to bioterrorism. PMID:17437862

Nolte, Kurt B; Lathrop, Sarah L; Nashelsky, Marcus B; Nine, Jeffrey S; Gallaher, Margaret M; Umland, Edith T; McLemore, Jerri L; Reichard, R Ross; Irvine, Rebecca A; McFeeley, Patricia J; Zumwalt, Ross E

2007-05-01

168

Computational Modeling in Support of Global Eradication of Infectious Diseases  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The past century has seen tremendous advances in global health, with broad reductions in the worldwide burden of infectious disease. Science has fundamentally advanced our understanding of disease etiology and medicine has provided remarkable capabilities to diagnose many syndromes and to target the causative pathogen. The advent and proliferation of antibiotics has dramatically lowered the impact of infections that were once near certain death sentences. Vaccination has provided a route to protect each new birth cohort from pathogens which once killed a substantial fraction of each generation, and in some countries, vaccination coverage has been raised to sufficiently high levels to fully interrupt transmission of major pathogens. There were 7 million deaths among children under 5 years of age in 2010, substantially down from decades past, and even more so in terms of deaths per capita per year of populations at risk. However, the annual rate globally is 1,070 per 100,000, while in developed countries the rate is only 137 per 100,000 (IHME GBD, 2010). Therefore, bringing global rates down to rates already achieved in developed countries represents the huge gains currently available via means such as vaccination and access to modern health care...

Eckhoff, Philip A.; Gates, William H., III; Myhrvold, Nathan P.; Wood, Lowell

2014-07-01

169

Global trends in emerging infectious diseases.  

PubMed

Emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) are a significant burden on global economies and public health. Their emergence is thought to be driven largely by socio-economic, environmental and ecological factors, but no comparative study has explicitly analysed these linkages to understand global temporal and spatial patterns of EIDs. Here we analyse a database of 335 EID 'events' (origins of EIDs) between 1940 and 2004, and demonstrate non-random global patterns. EID events have risen significantly over time after controlling for reporting bias, with their peak incidence (in the 1980s) concomitant with the HIV pandemic. EID events are dominated by zoonoses (60.3% of EIDs): the majority of these (71.8%) originate in wildlife (for example, severe acute respiratory virus, Ebola virus), and are increasing significantly over time. We find that 54.3% of EID events are caused by bacteria or rickettsia, reflecting a large number of drug-resistant microbes in our database. Our results confirm that EID origins are significantly correlated with socio-economic, environmental and ecological factors, and provide a basis for identifying regions where new EIDs are most likely to originate (emerging disease 'hotspots'). They also reveal a substantial risk of wildlife zoonotic and vector-borne EIDs originating at lower latitudes where reporting effort is low. We conclude that global resources to counter disease emergence are poorly allocated, with the majority of the scientific and surveillance effort focused on countries from where the next important EID is least likely to originate. PMID:18288193

Jones, Kate E; Patel, Nikkita G; Levy, Marc A; Storeygard, Adam; Balk, Deborah; Gittleman, John L; Daszak, Peter

2008-02-21

170

Proactive strategies to avoid infectious disease  

PubMed Central

Infectious disease exerts a large selective pressure on all organisms. One response to this has been for animals to evolve energetically costly immune systems to counter infection, while another—the focus of this theme issue—has been the evolution of proactive strategies primarily to avoid infection. These strategies can be grouped into three types, all of which demonstrate varying levels of interaction with the immune system. The first concerns maternal strategies that function to promote the immunocompetence of their offspring. The second type of strategy influences mate selection, guiding the selection of a healthy mate and one who differs maximally from the self in their complement of antigen-coding genes. The third strategy involves two classes of behaviour. One relates to the capacity of the organisms to learn associations between cues indicative of pathogen threat and immune responses. The other relates to prevention and even treatment of infection through behaviours such as avoidance, grooming, quarantine, medicine and care of the sick. In humans, disease avoidance is based upon cognition and especially the emotion of disgust. Human disease avoidance is not without its costs. There is a propensity to reject healthy individuals who just appear sick—stigmatization—and the system may malfunction, resulting in various forms of psychopathology. Pathogen threat also appears to have been a highly significant and unrecognized force in shaping human culture so as to minimize infection threats. This cultural shaping process—moralization—can be co-opted to promote human health. PMID:22042913

Stevenson, Richard J.; Case, Trevor I.; Oaten, Megan J.

2011-01-01

171

The Effect of Global Warming on Infectious Diseases  

PubMed Central

Global warming has various effects on human health. The main indirect effects are on infectious diseases. Although the effects on infectious diseases will be detected worldwide, the degree and types of the effect are different, depending on the location of the respective countries and socioeconomical situations. Among infectious diseases, water- and foodborne infectious diseases and vector-borne infectious diseases are two main categories that are forecasted to be most affected. The effect on vector-borne infectious diseases such as malaria and dengue fever is mainly because of the expansion of the infested areas of vector mosquitoes and increase in the number and feeding activity of infected mosquitoes. There will be increase in the number of cases with water- and foodborne diarrhoeal diseases. Even with the strongest mitigation procedures, global warming cannot be avoided for decades. Therefore, implementation of adaptation measures to the effect of global warming is the most practical action we can take. It is generally accepted that the impacts of global warming on infectious diseases have not been apparent at this point yet in East Asia. However, these impacts will appear in one form or another if global warming continues to progress in future. Further research on the impacts of global warming on infectious diseases and on future prospects should be conducted. PMID:24159433

Kurane, Ichiro

2010-01-01

172

Infectious Diseases and Malnutrition Status in Nepal: an Overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper sheds light on infectious diseases and the status of malnutrition in Nepal, a Himalayan country located in South Asia. In spite of efforts by both Government and non-government sectors, infectious diseases are rampant in the countries constituting a major cause of morbidity and mortality, which in turn, impose a socio-economic and public health burden for the country. Intestinal

Shiba Kumar Rai; Kazuko Hirai; Ayako Abe; Yoshimi Ohno

2002-01-01

173

Information Supply Chain System for Managing Rare Infectious Diseases  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Timely identification and reporting of rare infectious diseases has important economic, social and health implications. In this study, we investigate how different stakeholders in the existing reporting system influence the timeliness in identification and reporting of rare infectious diseases. Building on the vision of the information supply…

Gopalakrishna-Remani, Venugopal

2012-01-01

174

Communicating about emerging infectious disease: The importance of research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emerging infectious diseases have taken on renewed significance in the public health sector since the 1990s. Worldwide, governments are preparing emergency plans to guide them; their plans acknowledge that communication will be vital in the event of an outbreak. However, much of the emerging infectious disease communication literature deals with one-way transmission of facts to the public by experts. Little

Bev J. Holmes

2008-01-01

175

Impact of Climate Variability on Infectious Disease in West Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

The importance of infectious disease as a determinant (as well as an outcome) of poverty has recently become a prominent argument for international and national investment in the control of infectious disease, as can be seen in the recently articulated United Nations (UN) Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). Climate variability and land use change have an enormous impact on health in

Madeleine C. Thomson; Stephen J. Connor; Neil Ward; David Molyneux

2004-01-01

176

A Human Rights Perspective on Infectious Disease Laws in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines infectious disease laws in Japan from a human rights perspective using international standards. Background In public health, frameworks and assessments integrating human rights concerns are beginning to be developed. One challenging area is infectious disease control where human rights offer and approach for addressing the rights and health of infected and vulnerable populations. Methods We examined the

Eriko SASE; Sofia GRUSKIN

177

Infectious disease, development, and climate change: a scenario analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study the effects of development and climate change on infectious diseases in Sub-Saharan Africa. Infant mortality and infectious disease are closely related, but there are better data for the former. In an international cross-section, per capita income, literacy, and absolute poverty significantly affect infant mortality. We use scenarios of these three determinants and of climate change to project the

RICHARD S.J. TOL; KRISTIE L. EBI; GARY W. YOHE

2007-01-01

178

[Infectious disease factors in swine--pathogenesis and control].  

PubMed

Infectious factorial diseases occur in all porcine age groups and are specially responsible for high mortality-rates in weaners and young feeder pigs affected by bronchopneumonia and enteritis. The pathogenesis of infectious factorial diseases is dominated by disease promoting factors of the pigs' environment as well as by false treatment with medicines and disinfectants. The control of infectious factorial diseases needs thorough examination as a basis for herd specific measures. Preventive measures should be completed in all pig herds by animal protective arrangements which are prescribed in the rules for prevention of cruelty to animals and contagious diseases. PMID:2513798

Bollwahn, W

1989-12-01

179

Modeling social response to the spread of an infectious disease  

E-print Network

With the globalization of culture and economic trade, it is increasingly important not only to detect outbreaks of infectious disease early, but also to anticipate the social response to the disease. In this thesis, we use ...

Evans, Jane A. (Jane Amanda)

2012-01-01

180

Endemic tickborne infectious diseases in Louisiana and the Gulf South.  

PubMed

Most emerging infectious diseases today, such as West Nile virus and sudden acute respiratory distress syndrome (SARS), arise from zoonotic reservoirs and many are transmitted by arthropod vectors. Ticks are among the most competent and versatile arthropod vectors of infectious diseases because ticks of all ages and both sexes remain infectious for generations without having to reacquire infections from reservoir hosts. Today, ticks transmit the most common arthropod-borne infectious disease in the United States (US), Lyme disease (LD); and the most lethal arthropod-borne infectious disease in the US, Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF). Both LD and RMSF are endemic in Louisiana and the Gulf South. Ticks have also become frequent vectors of emerging zoonotic diseases in the Gulf South, including southern tick-associated rash illness (STARI), transmitted by the lone star tick, and Maculatum disease, transmitted by the Gulf Coast tick. Recent environmental changes and human lifestyle choices now place humans and ticks together outdoors in the Gulf South for longer periods in welcoming ecosystems for breeding, blood-feeding, and infectious disease transmission. An increasing incidence of emerging and re-emerging, endemic infectious diseases transmitted by existing and unanticipated tick vectors may be expected. PMID:20108827

Diaz, James H

2009-01-01

181

A review of infectious gill disease in marine salmonid fish.  

PubMed

Infectious gill diseases of marine salmonid fish present a significant challenge in salmon-farming regions. Infectious syndromes or disease conditions affecting marine-farmed salmonids include amoebic gill disease (AGD), proliferative gill inflammation (PGI) and tenacibaculosis. Pathogens involved include parasites, such as Neoparamoeba perurans, bacteria, such as Piscichlamydia salmonis and Tenacibaculum maritimum, and viruses, such as the Atlantic salmon paramyxovirus (ASPV). The present level of understanding of these is reviewed with regard to risk factors, potential impacting factors, methods of best practice to mitigate infectious gill disease, as well as knowledge gaps and avenues for future research. PMID:21401646

Mitchell, S O; Rodger, H D

2011-06-01

182

Networks and the Epidemiology of Infectious Disease  

PubMed Central

The science of networks has revolutionised research into the dynamics of interacting elements. It could be argued that epidemiology in particular has embraced the potential of network theory more than any other discipline. Here we review the growing body of research concerning the spread of infectious diseases on networks, focusing on the interplay between network theory and epidemiology. The review is split into four main sections, which examine: the types of network relevant to epidemiology; the multitude of ways these networks can be characterised; the statistical methods that can be applied to infer the epidemiological parameters on a realised network; and finally simulation and analytical methods to determine epidemic dynamics on a given network. Given the breadth of areas covered and the ever-expanding number of publications, a comprehensive review of all work is impossible. Instead, we provide a personalised overview into the areas of network epidemiology that have seen the greatest progress in recent years or have the greatest potential to provide novel insights. As such, considerable importance is placed on analytical approaches and statistical methods which are both rapidly expanding fields. Throughout this review we restrict our attention to epidemiological issues. PMID:21437001

Danon, Leon; Ford, Ashley P.; House, Thomas; Jewell, Chris P.; Keeling, Matt J.; Roberts, Gareth O.; Ross, Joshua V.; Vernon, Matthew C.

2011-01-01

183

Imaging combined autoimmune and infectious disease microarrays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bacterial and viral pathogens are implicated in many severe autoimmune diseases, acting through such mechanisms as molecular mimicry, and superantigen activation of T-cells. For example, Helicobacter pylori, well known cause of stomach ulcers and cancers, is also identified in ischaemic heart disease (mimicry of heat shock protein 65), autoimmune pancreatitis, systemic sclerosis, autoimmune thyroiditis (HLA DRB1*0301 allele susceptibility), and Crohn's disease. Successful antibiotic eradication of H.pylori often accompanies their remission. Yet current diagnostic devices, and test-limiting cost containment, impede recognition of the linkage, delaying both diagnosis and therapeutic intervention until the chronic debilitating stage. We designed a 15 minute low cost 39 antigen microarray assay, combining autoimmune, viral and bacterial antigens1. This enables point-of-care serodiagnosis and cost-effective narrowly targeted concurrent antibiotic and monoclonal anti-T-cell and anti-cytokine immunotherapy. Arrays of 26 pathogen and 13 autoimmune antigens with IgG and IgM dilution series were printed in triplicate on epoxysilane covalent binding slides with Teflon well masks. Sera diluted 1:20 were incubated 10 minutes, washed off, anti-IgG-Cy3 (green) and anti-IgM-Dy647 (red) were incubated for 5 minutes, washed off and the slide was read in an ArrayWoRx(e) scanning CCD imager (Applied Precision, Issaquah, WA). As a preliminary model for the combined infectious disease-autoimmune diagnostic microarray we surveyed 98 unidentified, outdated sera that were discarded after Hepatitis B antibody testing. In these, significant IgG or IgM autoantibody levels were found: dsDNA 5, ssDNA 11, Ro 2, RNP 7, SSB 4, gliadin 2, thyroglobulin 13 cases. Since control sera showed no autoantibodies, the high frequency of anti-DNA and anti-thyroglobulin antibodies found in infected sera lend increased support for linkage of infection to subsequent autoimmune disease. Expansion of the antigen set with synthetic peptide sequences should reveal the shared bacterial/human epitopes involved.

Ewart, Tom; Raha, Sandeep; Kus, Dorothy; Tarnopolsky, Mark

2006-09-01

184

Globalization and Infectious Diseases in Women1  

PubMed Central

Women have an enhanced vulnerability to disease, especially if they are poor. Indeed, the health hazards of being female are widely underestimated. Economic and cultural factors can limit women's access to clinics and health workers. The World Health Organization (WHO) reports that less is spent on health care for women and girls worldwide than for men and boys. As a result, women who become mothers and caretakers of children and husbands often do so at the expense of their own health. The numbers tell the story: the latest (2003) World Health Report showed that, globally, the leading causes of death among women are HIV/AIDS, malaria, complications of pregnancy and childbirth, and tuberculosis. PMID:15550218

2004-01-01

185

76 FR 8753 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...nih.gov. Name: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

2011-02-15

186

Risk assessment for airborne infectious diseases in aircraft cabins Jitendra K. Guptaa  

E-print Network

Risk assessment for airborne infectious diseases in aircraft cabins Jitendra K. Guptaa Ph.D., Chao different risks of infection from airborne infectious diseases such as influenza, severe acute respiratory words: Infectious disease transmission, airliner cabin, influenza, deterministic approach, probabilistic

Chen, Qingyan "Yan"

187

76 FR 17928 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings...National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel; DAIDS...National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel;...

2011-03-31

188

77 FR 52338 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings...National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel; Partnerships...National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel;...

2012-08-29

189

77 FR 298 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings...National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel; NIAID...Committee: Microbiology, Infectious Diseases and AIDS Initial Review...

2012-01-04

190

78 FR 69683 - Board of Scientific Counselors, Office of Infectious Diseases (BSC, OID)  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Scientific Counselors, Office of Infectious Diseases (BSC, OID) In accordance...for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases, and the National Center...based efforts to prevent infectious diseases, and 3) immunization...

2013-11-20

191

77 FR 56660 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings...Committee: Microbiology, Infectious Diseases and AIDS Initial Review Group; Microbiology and Infectious Diseases B Subcommittee. MID-B...

2012-09-13

192

76 FR 28997 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting...Committee: Microbiology, Infectious Diseases and AIDS Initial Review Group,Microbiology and Infectious Diseases B Subcommittee. Date:...

2011-05-19

193

78 FR 40755 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings...Committee: Microbiology, Infectious Diseases and AIDS Initial Review Group...National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel;...

2013-07-08

194

75 FR 62546 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings...Committee: Microbiology, Infectious Diseases and AIDS Initial Review Group...National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel,...

2010-10-12

195

75 FR 1119 - Agency Information Collection (Survey of Appropriate and Timely Diagnosis of Infectious Diseases...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Appropriate and Timely Diagnosis of Infectious Diseases) Activity Under OMB Review...Appropriate and Timely Diagnosis of Infectious Diseases (Leishmaniasis), VA Form...Appropriate and Timely Diagnosis of Infectious Diseases (Malaria), VA Form...

2010-01-08

196

76 FR 28443 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings...National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel, Ancillary...Committee: Microbiology, Infectious Diseases and AIDS Initial Review...

2011-05-17

197

75 FR 16816 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings...National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel, External...National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel,...

2010-04-02

198

75 FR 156 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings...National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel...National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel,...

2010-01-04

199

76 FR 35224 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

2011-06-16

200

76 FR 22112 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

2011-04-20

201

78 FR 39300 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

2013-07-01

202

78 FR 27976 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

2013-05-13

203

75 FR 76475 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Meetings...given of meetings of the National Advisory Allergy and Infectious Diseases Council. The...Name of Committee: National Advisory Allergy and Infectious Diseases Council....

2010-12-08

204

78 FR 108 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

2013-01-02

205

75 FR 54891 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

2010-09-09

206

75 FR 48978 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Meetings...given of meetings of the National Advisory Allergy and Infectious Diseases Council. The...Name of Committee: National Advisory Allergy and Infectious Diseases Council....

2010-08-12

207

76 FR 54240 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

2011-08-31

208

78 FR 59707 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

2013-09-27

209

75 FR 54895 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

2010-09-09

210

76 FR 63311 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

2011-10-12

211

76 FR 79199 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

2011-12-21

212

76 FR 66731 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

2011-10-27

213

76 FR 72959 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings.  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...of Copmmittee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

2011-11-28

214

78 FR 28858 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

2013-05-16

215

77 FR 4051 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

2012-01-26

216

76 FR 58024 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

2011-09-19

217

75 FR 993 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

2010-01-07

218

75 FR 59276 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

2010-09-27

219

77 FR 76296 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Meetings...given of meetings of the National Advisory Allergy and Infectious Diseases Council. The...Name of Committee: National Advisory Allergy and Infectious Diseases Council....

2012-12-27

220

78 FR 36203 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

2013-06-17

221

76 FR 6626 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Meetings...given of meetings of the National Advisory Allergy and Infectious Diseases Council. The...Name of Committee: National Advisory Allergy and Infectious Diseases Council;...

2011-02-07

222

75 FR 18215 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...conducted by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, including consideration...Intramural Research, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, NIH,...

2010-04-09

223

75 FR 7487 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

2010-02-19

224

78 FR 29373 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

2013-05-20

225

77 FR 12604 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

2012-03-01

226

76 FR 63933 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

2011-10-14

227

75 FR 11896 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

2010-03-12

228

77 FR 53206 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

2012-08-31

229

78 FR 38998 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

2013-06-28

230

75 FR 4094 - National Institute of Allergy And Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy And Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

2010-01-26

231

77 FR 69639 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

2012-11-20

232

75 FR 18510 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

2010-04-12

233

78 FR 62640 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

2013-10-22

234

77 FR 16845 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

2012-03-22

235

76 FR 60509 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

2011-09-29

236

78 FR 76847 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

2013-12-19

237

75 FR 28260 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

2010-05-20

238

75 FR 30046 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

2010-05-28

239

77 FR 52041 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

2012-08-28

240

77 FR 59940 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasisn...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

2012-10-01

241

77 FR 297 - National Institute of Allergy And Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy And Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

2012-01-04

242

77 FR 68136 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

2012-11-15

243

76 FR 21754 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

2011-04-18

244

78 FR 26792 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

2013-05-08

245

75 FR 994 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

2010-01-07

246

78 FR 33428 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

2013-06-04

247

78 FR 52778 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

2013-08-26

248

75 FR 69451 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

2010-11-12

249

78 FR 71628 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

2013-11-29

250

75 FR 19408 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

2010-04-14

251

77 FR 58851 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...conducted by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, including consideration...Intramural Research, National Institute of Allergy, and Infectious Diseases, NIH,...

2012-09-24

252

76 FR 18230 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

2011-04-01

253

77 FR 48165 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

2012-08-13

254

77 FR 14816 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

2012-03-13

255

76 FR 51996 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

2011-08-19

256

76 FR 75552 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

2011-12-02

257

78 FR 75928 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

2013-12-13

258

75 FR 13561 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Meetings...given of meetings of the National Advisory Allergy and Infectious Diseases Council. The...Name of Committee: National Advisory Allergy and Infectious Diseases Council....

2010-03-22

259

75 FR 7488 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

2010-02-19

260

76 FR 77241 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Meetings...given of meetings of the National Advisory Allergy and Infectious Diseases Council. The...Name of Committee: National Advisory Allergy and Infectious Diseases Council....

2011-12-12

261

75 FR 41212 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

2010-07-15

262

78 FR 41939 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

2013-07-12

263

78 FR 11897 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

2013-02-20

264

75 FR 53321 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

2010-08-31

265

77 FR 13133 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

2012-03-05

266

78 FR 77473 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

2013-12-23

267

78 FR 63999 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

2013-10-25

268

77 FR 72364 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

2012-12-05

269

78 FR 79703 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Meetings...given of meetings of the National Advisory Allergy and Infectious Diseases Council. The...Name of Committee: National Advisory Allergy and Infectious Diseases Council....

2013-12-31

270

77 FR 14028 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

2012-03-08

271

76 FR 71349 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

2011-11-17

272

75 FR 57972 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...conducted by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, including consideration...Intramural Research, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, NIH,...

2010-09-23

273

75 FR 13769 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

2010-03-23

274

76 FR 45586 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...conducted by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, including consideration...Intramural Research, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, NIH,...

2011-07-29

275

76 FR 67749 - National Institute of Allergy And Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy And Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

2011-11-02

276

77 FR 50139 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

2012-08-20

277

77 FR 11140 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

2012-02-24

278

76 FR 53688 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

2011-08-29

279

76 FR 52670 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

2011-08-23

280

76 FR 4927 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

2011-01-27

281

Emerging and Reemerging Infectious Diseases: A Global Problem  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The issue-focused interview reflects on how infectious diseases, such as SARS and AIDS, are a more serious global problem than in the past because: urban populations are growing, thereby increasing opportunities for person-to-person transmittal of these diseases, people are more prone to be in contact with animals that may pass on zoonotic diseases, and public health services may not be equipped to deal with some infectious outbreaks.

Stephen Morse (Mailman School of Public Health of Columbia University;)

2004-05-01

282

Factors that make an infectious disease outbreak controllable  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study is to identify general properties of emerging infectious agents that determine the likely success of two simple public health measures in controlling outbreaks, namely (i) isolating symptomatic individuals and (ii) tracing and quarantining their con- tacts. Because these measures depend on the recognition of specific disease symptoms, we investigate the relative timing of infectious- ness

Christophe Fraser; Steven Riley; Roy M. Anderson; Neil M. Ferguson

2004-01-01

283

Genetic Distances for the Study of Infectious Disease Epidemiology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Molecular epidemiologic studies of infectious pathogens 1) generate genetic patterns from a collection of microorganisms, 2) compare the degree of similarity among these patterns, and 3) infer from these similarities infectious disease transmission patterns. The authors propose a quantitative approach using genetic distances to study the degree of similarity between patterns. Benefits of such genetic distance calculations are illustrated by

Hugh Salamon; Marcel A. Behr; Jeanne T. Rhee; Peter M. Small

284

From Pasteur to genomics: progress and challenges in infectious diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the past decade, microbiology and infectious disease research have undergone the most profound revolution since the times of Pasteur. Genomic sequencing has revealed the much-awaited blueprint of most pathogens. Screening blood for the nucleic acids of infectious agents has blunted the spread of pathogens by transfusion, the field of antiviral therapeutics has exploded and technologies for the development of

Rino Rappuoli

2004-01-01

285

International Conference on Emerging Infectious Diseases: Select Presentations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The National Center for Infectious Diseases has made available the audio (and in some cases, video) portion of more than 20 online presentations of selected sessions from the International Conference on Emerging Infectious Diseases, held July 16-19, 2000 in Atlanta, Georgia. Presentations are organized in chronological order of the conference but may also be searched by presenter. Some presentations may be downloaded in Microsoft PowerPoint. For researchers interested in the field of Emerging Infectious Diseases, this resource represents an exceptionally helpful application of Internet technology.

286

PH 412 Syllabus 2014 Infectious Disease Epidemiology and Prevention  

E-print Network

microbiology, pathophysiology, or medical treatment. Special attention will be focused on outbreak; the host responses; environmental factors; unique risk factors; outbreak investigations; surveillance infectious disease including outbreak investigation, surveillance, and risk factor assessment 3) Describe

Contractor, Anis

287

[History of the infectious disease specialty in Spain].  

PubMed

This paper includes a brief summary of the clinical history of the diagnosis and treatment of infectious diseases in Spain. Firstly, the origins of a specialty arising from the need for specialists to attend to, in a practical and modern form, the different health problems of patients affected by infectious diseases, are described. Secondly, the appearance of AIDS, at the beginning of the 1980's, prompted the creation of specific units dedicated to the care of problems associated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and the concomitant opportunistic infections arising from the immunodeficiency arising from the HIV infection. Thirdly, in the last decades and even today, nosocomial infections have appeared as an alarming problem, needing the presence of specialist physicians in this field. Finally, emigration and international travel require specialists in infectious diseases with specific expertise in international health, once more highlighting the importance of the specialty of Infectious Diseases. PMID:19195463

Aguado García, José María; Iribarren Loyarte, José Antonio; Gómez Mateos, Jesús; Gutiérrez Rodero, Félix; Segura Porta, Ferrán

2008-12-01

288

Global burden, distribution, and interventions for infectious diseases of poverty.  

PubMed

Infectious diseases of poverty (IDoP) disproportionately affect the poorest population in the world and contribute to a cycle of poverty as a result of decreased productivity ensuing from long-term illness, disability, and social stigma. In 2010, the global deaths from HIV/AIDS have increased to 1.5 million and malaria mortality rose to 1.17 million. Mortality from neglected tropical diseases rose to 152,000, while tuberculosis killed 1.2 million people that same year. Substantial regional variations exist in the distribution of these diseases as they are primarily concentrated in rural areas of Sub-Saharan Africa, Asia, and Latin America, with geographic overlap and high levels of co-infection. Evidence-based interventions exist to prevent and control these diseases, however, the coverage still remains low with an emerging challenge of antimicrobial resistance. Therefore, community-based delivery platforms are increasingly being advocated to ensure sustainability and combat co-infections. Because of the high morbidity and mortality burden of these diseases, especially in resource-poor settings, it is imperative to conduct a systematic review to identify strategies to prevent and control these diseases. Therefore, we attempted to evaluate the effectiveness of one of these strategies, that is community-based delivery for the prevention and treatment of IDoP. In this paper, we describe the burden, epidemiology, and potential interventions for IDoP. In subsequent papers of this series, we describe the analytical framework and the methodology used to guide the systematic reviews, and report the findings and interpretations of our analyses of the impact of community-based strategies on individual IDoPs. PMID:25110585

Bhutta, Zulfiqar A; Sommerfeld, Johannes; Lassi, Zohra S; Salam, Rehana A; Das, Jai K

2014-01-01

289

Structural Genomics and Drug Discovery for Infectious Diseases  

SciTech Connect

The application of structural genomics methods and approaches to proteins from organisms causing infectious diseases is making available the three dimensional structures of many proteins that are potential drug targets and laying the groundwork for structure aided drug discovery efforts. There are a number of structural genomics projects with a focus on pathogens that have been initiated worldwide. The Center for Structural Genomics of Infectious Diseases (CSGID) was recently established to apply state-of-the-art high throughput structural biology technologies to the characterization of proteins from the National Institute for Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) category A-C pathogens and organisms causing emerging, or re-emerging infectious diseases. The target selection process emphasizes potential biomedical benefits. Selected proteins include known drug targets and their homologs, essential enzymes, virulence factors and vaccine candidates. The Center also provides a structure determination service for the infectious disease scientific community. The ultimate goal is to generate a library of structures that are available to the scientific community and can serve as a starting point for further research and structure aided drug discovery for infectious diseases. To achieve this goal, the CSGID will determine protein crystal structures of 400 proteins and protein-ligand complexes using proven, rapid, highly integrated, and cost-effective methods for such determination, primarily by X-ray crystallography. High throughput crystallographic structure determination is greatly aided by frequent, convenient access to high-performance beamlines at third-generation synchrotron X-ray sources.

Anderson, W.F.

2010-09-03

290

Natural regulatory T cells in infectious disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review discusses the control exerted by natural CD4+ CD25+ regulatory T cells (natural Treg cells) during infectious processes. Natural Treg cells may limit the magnitude of effector responses, which may result in failure to adequately control infection. However, natural Treg cells also help limit collateral tissue damage caused by vigorous antimicrobial immune responses. We describe here various situations in

Barry T Rouse; Yasmine Belkaid

2005-01-01

291

Structured Information Exchange on Infectious Diseases for Prisoners  

Microsoft Academic Search

Infectious diseases such as HIV\\/AIDS, hepatitis C, and sexually transmitted diseases are more prevalent in prisoners than in the general population. In Western European prisons, inmates have HIV infection rates 25 times higher and hepatitis C infection rates 40 times higher than their national averages. To inform prisoners about the dangers of these diseases, a structured information exchange was developed.

Paul Flühmann; Max Wassmer; René Schwendimann

2012-01-01

292

Infectious causes of chronic inflammatory diseases and cancer.  

PubMed Central

Powerful diagnostic technology, plus the realization that organisms of otherwise unimpressive virulence can produce slowly progressive chronic disease with a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations and disease outcomes, has resulted in the discovery of new infectious agents and new concepts of infectious diseases. The demonstration that final outcome of infection is as much determined by the genetic background of the patient as by the genetic makeup of the infecting agent is indicating that a number of chronic diseases of unknown etiology are caused by one or more infectious agents. One well-known example is the discovery that stomach ulcers are due to Helicobacter pylori. Mycoplasmas may cause chronic lung disease in newborns and chronic asthma in adults, and Chlamydia pneumoniae, a recently identified common cause of acute respiratory infection, has been associated with atherosclerosis. A number of infectious agents that cause or contribute to neoplastic diseases in humans have been documented in the past 6 years. The association and causal role of infectious agents in chronic inflammatory diseases and cancer have major implications for public health, treatment, and prevention. PMID:9716980

Cassell, G. H.

1998-01-01

293

Foodborne Infectious Disease - The Human Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Understanding the human impact of infectious agents potentially transmitted through the food chain is required to establish intervention priorities when considering the on-farm aspects of these agents. Canadian livestock husbandry, food processing and handling systems, and food preparation and consumption are likely sufficiently similar to the U.S. that the following U.S. information applies to the Canadian situation. On the other

John M. Gay

294

Ventilation assessment of an infectious disease ward housing TB patients  

SciTech Connect

The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) assisted the National Center for Infectious Diseases and the National Center for Prevention Services, Centers for Disease Control (CDC), in their investigation of nosocomial transmission of tuberculosis (TB) at a Veterans Administration Medical Center. NIOSH was asked to determine whether ventilation requirements expected of TB patient isolation facilities were being met. In the Infectious Disease ward (513), 24 staff were given a tuberculin skin test (TST) in the summer of 1991. Eleven (46%) were positive then, and 13 were negative. Ten of the 13 testing negative in 1991 were retested within a year, and 5 (50%) converted to a positive TST. NIOSH investigators made ventilation measurements on Ward 5B, an infectious diseases ward housing patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), two of them with infectious TB, to determine the status of the systems serving the area. Airflow measurements showed that in all the single-patient rooms, exhaust airflow was essentially zero. The average supply airflow varied above and below the designed value. These rooms were all positively pressurized, which would be recommended for the isolation of infectious patients. Based on the measurements made during this evaluation, it was recommended that a separate isolation facility be constructed in the hospital to house infectious patients. Interim corrective measures for the systems in place were also recommended.

Crandall, M.S.; Hughes, R.T.

1996-05-01

295

Polycystic kidney disease: an unrecognized emerging infectious disease?  

PubMed Central

Polycystic kidney disease (PKD) is one of the most common genetic diseases in humans. We contend that it may be an emerging infectious disease and/or microbial toxicosis in a vulnerable human subpopulation. Use of a differential activation protocol for the Limulus amebocyte lysate (LAL) assay showed bacterial endotoxin and fungal (1-->3)-beta-D-glucans in cyst fluids from human kidneys with PKD. Fatty acid analysis of cyst fluid confirmed the presence of 3-hydroxy fatty acids characteristic of endotoxin. Tissue and cyst fluid from three PKD patients were examined for fungal components. Serologic tests showed Fusarium, Aspergillus, and Candida antigens. IgE, but not IgG, reactive with Fusarium and Candida were also detected in cyst fluid. Fungal DNA was detected in kidney tissue and cyst fluid from these three PKD patients, but not in healthy human kidney tissue. We examine the intertwined nature of the actions of endotoxin and fungal components, sphingolipid biology in PKD, the structure of PKD gene products, infections, and integrity of gut function to establish a mechanistic hypothesis for microbial provocation of human cystic disease. Proof of this hypothesis will require identification of the microbes and microbial components involved and multifaceted studies of PKD cell biology. PMID:9204292

Miller-Hjelle, M. A.; Hjelle, J. T.; Jones, M.; Mayberry, W. R.; Dombrink-Kurtzman, M. A.; Peterson, S. W.; Nowak, D. M.; Darras, F. S.

1997-01-01

296

After 2015: infectious diseases in a new era of health and development  

PubMed Central

Running over timescales that span decades or centuries, the epidemiological transition provides the central narrative of global health. In this transition, a reduction in mortality is followed by a reduction in fertility, creating larger, older populations in which the main causes of illness and death are no longer acute infections of children but chronic diseases of adults. Since the year 2000, the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) have provided a framework for accelerating the decline of infectious diseases, backed by a massive injection of foreign investment to low-income countries. Despite the successes of the MDGs era, the inhabitants of low-income countries still suffer an enormous burden of disease owing to diarrhoea, pneumonia, HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, malaria and other pathogens. Adding to the predictable burden of endemic disease, the threat of pandemics is ever-present and global. With a view to the future, this review spotlights five aspects of the fight against infection beyond 2015, when the MDGs will be replaced by a new set of goals for poverty reduction and sustainable development. These aspects are: exploiting the biological links between infectious and non-infectious diseases; controlling infections among the new urban majority; enhancing the response to international health threats; expanding childhood immunization programmes to prevent acute and chronic diseases in adults; and working towards universal health coverage. By scanning the wider horizon now, infectious disease specialists have the chance to shape the post-2015 era of health and development. PMID:24821913

Dye, Christopher

2014-01-01

297

Non-infectious ulcerating oral mucous membrane diseases.  

PubMed

Non-infectious ulcerative oral mucous membrane diseases are difficult to separate at first glance: they can appear as aphthous, bullous, lichenoid, drug-induced or toxic-irritative reactions. The overall considerations of history, localization of lesions, clinical and histological features, as well as direct and indirect immunofluorescence examination are required for the correct diagnosis. Some disorders start preferably at the oral mucosa, like pemphigus vulgaris and Adamantiades-Behçet disease, while others, such as cicatricial pemphigoid and habitual aphthosis generally are confined to the mucous membranes. This overview summarizes clinical and diagnostic features, differential diagnoses and current therapeutic possibilities of non-infectious inflammatory stomatopathies, which possess a specific position among skin diseases in distinction to infectious or neoplastic oral ulcers. This group of diseases includes aphthous lesions, lichen planus mucosae, lupus erythematosus, disorders with intraepidermal or subepidermal formation of blisters including pemphigus, bullous pemphigoid, erythema multiforme and variants as well as allergic or toxic contact stomatitis. PMID:19371246

Altenburg, Andreas; Krahl, Dieter; Zouboulis, Christos C

2009-03-01

298

Surveillance of Zoonotic Infectious Disease Transmitted by Small Companion Animals  

PubMed Central

The One Health paradigm for global health recognizes that most new human infectious diseases will emerge from animal reservoirs. Little consideration has been given to the known and potential zoonotic infectious diseases of small companion animals. Cats and dogs closely share the domestic environment with humans and have the potential to act as sources and sentinels of a wide spectrum of zoonotic infections. This report highlights the lack of a coordinated global surveillance scheme that monitors disease in these species and makes a case for the necessity of developing a strategy to implement such surveillance.

Breitschwerdt, Edward; Cleaveland, Sarah; Karkare, Umesh; Khanna, Chand; Kirpensteijn, Jolle; Kuiken, Thijs; Lappin, Michael R.; McQuiston, Jennifer; Mumford, Elizabeth; Myers, Tanya; Palatnik-de-Sousa, Clarisa B.; Rubin, Carol; Takashima, Gregg; Thiermann, Alex

2012-01-01

299

Emergency medicine and the public's health: emerging infectious diseases.  

PubMed

In recent years, multiple global forces have contributed to the emergence and widespread distribution of previously unknown disease entities. This article discusses Ebola virus, West Nile virus, and Hantavirus as representative emerging infectious diseases. Smallpox is discussed along with concerns about the safety of the smallpox vaccine, given the uncertain risk of bioterrorism and smallpox exposure. ED physicians must become familiar with the presentation, management, and public health impact of all of these entities, as well as understand the potential impact of other emerging infectious diseases. PMID:16982350

Saks, Mark A; Karras, David

2006-11-01

300

Travel and migration associated infectious diseases morbidity in Europe, 2008  

PubMed Central

Background Europeans represent the majority of international travellers and clinicians encountering returned patients have an essential role in recognizing, and communicating travel-associated public health risks. Methods To investigate the morbidity of travel associated infectious diseases in European travellers, we analysed diagnoses with demographic, clinical and travel-related predictors of disease, in 6957 ill returned travellers who presented in 2008 to EuroTravNet centres with a presumed travel associated condition. Results Gastro-intestinal (GI) diseases accounted for 33% of illnesses, followed by febrile systemic illnesses (20%), dermatological conditions (12%) and respiratory illnesses (8%). There were 3 deaths recorded; a sepsis caused by Escherichia coli pyelonephritis, a dengue shock syndrome and a Plasmodium falciparum malaria. GI conditions included bacterial acute diarrhea (6.9%), as well as giardiasis and amebasis (2.3%). Among febrile systemic illnesses with identified pathogens, malaria (5.4%) accounted for most cases followed by dengue (1.9%) and others including chikungunya, rickettsial diseases, leptospirosis, brucellosis, Epstein Barr virus infections, tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) and viral hepatitis. Dermatological conditions were dominated by bacterial infections, arthropod bites, cutaneous larva migrans and animal bites requiring rabies post-exposure prophylaxis and also leishmaniasis, myasis, tungiasis and one case of leprosy. Respiratory illness included 112 cases of tuberculosis including cases of multi-drug resistant or extensively drug resistant tuberculosis, 104 cases of influenza like illness, and 5 cases of Legionnaires disease. Sexually transmitted infections (STI) accounted for 0.6% of total diagnoses and included HIV infection and syphilis. A total of 165 cases of potentially vaccine preventable diseases were reported. Purpose of travel and destination specific risk factors was identified for several diagnoses such as Chagas disease in immigrant travellers from South America and P. falciparum malaria in immigrants from sub-Saharan Africa. Travel within Europe was also associated with health risks with distinctive profiles for Eastern and Western Europe. Conclusions In 2008, a broad spectrum of travel associated diseases were diagnosed at EuroTravNet core sites. Diagnoses varied according to regions visited by ill travellers. The spectrum of travel associated morbidity also shows that there is a need to dispel the misconception that travel, close to home, in Europe, is without significant health risk. PMID:21083874

2010-01-01

301

Incidence and Impact of Selected Infectious Diseases in Childhood.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report provides estimates of the lifetime and annual incidence of certain infectious diseases of children in various demographic groups. Data on the social and health care impact of the diseases in terms of limited activity, days spent in bed, school days lost, contacts with physicians, hospitalizations, surgery, and use of medication are…

Vital and Health Statistics, 1991

1991-01-01

302

Acute infectious bursal disease in poultry: A review  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review is focused on the acute form of infectious bursal disease (IBD) caused by very virulent IBD virus (vvIBDV). First described in Europe about 10 years ago, this new form of the disease has rapidly spread all over the world, causing dramatic losses; after a decade, it still represents a considerable threat to the poultry industry. Emergence of the

Thierry P. Van Den Berg

2000-01-01

303

Travel and migration associated infectious diseases morbidity in Europe, 2008  

E-print Network

the morbidity of travel associated infectious diseases in European travellers, we analysed diagnoses with demographic, clinical and travel-related predictors of disease, in 6957 ill returned travellers who presented in 2008 to EuroTravNet centres with a presumed...

Field, Vanessa; Gautret, Philippe; Schlagenhauf, Patricia; Burchard, Gerd-Dieter; Caumes, Eric; Jensenius, Mogens; Castelli, Francesco; Gkrania-Klotsas, Effrossyni; Weld, Leisa; Lopez-Velez, Rogelio; de Vries, Peter; von Sonnenburg, Frank; Loutan, Louis; Parola, Philippe; Network, the EuroTravNet

2010-11-17

304

Spatio-temporal modeling of infectious disease dynamics  

Microsoft Academic Search

A stochastic model, which is well suited to capture space–time dependence of an infectious disease, was employed in this study to describe the underlying spatial and temporal pattern of measles in Barisal Division, Bangladesh. The model has two components: an endemic component and an epidemic component; weights are used in the epidemic component for better accounting of the disease spread

Sifat Sharmin

2011-01-01

305

Spatio-temporal modeling of infectious disease dynamics  

Microsoft Academic Search

A stochastic model, which is well suited to capture space–time dependence of an infectious disease, was employed in this study to describe the underlying spatial and temporal pattern of measles in Barisal Division, Bangladesh. The model has two components: an endemic component and an epidemic component; weights are used in the epidemic component for better accounting of the disease spread

Sifat Sharmin

2012-01-01

306

Risk based culling for highly infectious diseases of livestock  

Microsoft Academic Search

The control of highly infectious diseases of livestock such as classical swine fever, foot-and-mouth disease, and avian influenza is fraught with ethical, economic, and public health dilemmas. Attempts to control outbreaks of these pathogens rely on massive culling of infected farms, and farms deemed to be at risk of infection. Conventional approaches usually involve the preventive culling of all farms

Beest te E; T. J. Hagenaars; A. Stegeman; M. P. G. Koopmans; Boven van R. M

2011-01-01

307

Transmission of Infectious Disease in the Dental Setting  

Microsoft Academic Search

Patients in the industrialized world are at low risk of acquiring nosocomial infections; nevertheless, several aspects of care in the hospital or clinic can place patients at risk from infectious disease transmission. Paramount to the prevention of disease is the strict adherence to universal precautions for all patients. Tuberculosis has again emerged as a potential epidemic capable of dramatic morbidity

JAGDEV HEIR; VINCENT B. ZICCARDI

308

Techniques for Preventing the Spread of Infectious Diseases.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Specific procedures are outlined for prevention of the spread of infectious diseases with techniques of handwashing, diapering, and handling of known disease carriers. Protocols for classroom cleanliness list essential steps and key points and precautions for maintaining a hygienic environment. This section includes a list of protocols for food…

California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento.

309

Infectious diseases subspecialty: declining demand challenges and opportunities.  

PubMed

Recent match results from the National Resident Matching Program for the subspecialty of infectious diseases show an ongoing decline in the number of fellowship positions filled, and, more important, in the number of applicants, particularly from the pool of international medical graduates. The main reasons for this declining application rate are unclear; in the absence of hard data, we present our viewpoint on this issue. Difficulties in securing visas for permanent residency in the United States, perception of a limited job market, and the explosive growth in the number of hospitalist positions may be important contributing factors. Infectious Diseases Society of America members need to focus on medical students and medical residents in their formative years. We present potential solutions to this problem of declining interest in the field of infectious diseases. PMID:25148890

Chandrasekar, Pranatharthi; Havlichek, Daniel; Johnson, Leonard B

2014-12-01

310

Passive Immunity in Prevention and Treatment of Infectious Diseases  

PubMed Central

Antibodies have been used for over a century in the prevention and treatment of infectious disease. They are used most commonly for the prevention of measles, hepatitis A, hepatitis B, tetanus, varicella, rabies, and vaccinia. Although their use in the treatment of bacterial infection has largely been supplanted by antibiotics, antibodies remain a critical component of the treatment of diptheria, tetanus, and botulism. High-dose intravenous immunoglobulin can be used to treat certain viral infections in immunocompromised patients (e.g., cytomegalovirus, parvovirus B19, and enterovirus infections). Antibodies may also be of value in toxic shock syndrome, Ebola virus, and refractory staphylococcal infections. Palivizumab, the first monoclonal antibody licensed (in 1998) for an infectious disease, can prevent respiratory syncytial virus infection in high-risk infants. The development and use of additional monoclonal antibodies to key epitopes of microbial pathogens may further define protective humoral responses and lead to new approaches for the prevention and treatment of infectious diseases. PMID:11023960

Keller, Margaret A.; Stiehm, E. Richard

2000-01-01

311

Combating infectious diseases of poverty: a year on  

PubMed Central

The Infectious Diseases of Poverty journal, launched a year ago, is a platform to engage outside the traditional disciplinary boundaries, and disseminate high quality science towards the improvement of health. This paper reviews the milestone achievements during its first year of operation. The journal has filled an important niche, addressing some of the main priorities in the Global Report for Research on Infectious Diseases of Poverty. Highlights include the publication of three thematic issues on health systems, surveillance and response systems, as well as co-infection and syndemics. The thematic issues have foregrounded the importance and innovation that can be achieved through transdisciplinary research. The journal has been indexed by PubMed since April 2013, with the publication of a total of 38 articles. Finally, the journal is delivering to wider range readers both in developing and developed countries with sustained efforts with a focus on relevant and strategic information towards elimination of infectious diseases of poverty. PMID:24246007

2013-01-01

312

Trends in Notifiable Infectious Diseases in China: Implications for Surveillance and Population Health Policy  

PubMed Central

This study aimed to analyse trends in notifiable infectious diseases in China, in their historical context. Both English and Chinese literature was searched and diseases were categorised according to the type of disease or transmission route. Temporal trends of morbidity and mortality rates were calculated for eight major infectious diseases types. Strong government commitment to public health responses and improvements in quality of life has led to the eradication or containment of a wide range of infectious diseases in China. The overall infectious diseases burden experienced a dramatic drop during 1975–1995, but since then, it reverted and maintained a gradual upward trend to date. Most notifiable diseases are contained at a low endemic level; however, local small-scale outbreaks remain common. Tuberculosis, as a bacterial infection, has re-emerged since the 1990s and has become prevalent in the country. Sexually transmitted infections are in a rapid, exponential growth phase, spreading from core groups to the general population. Together human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), they account for 39% of all death cases due to infectious diseases in China in 2008. Zoonotic infections, such as severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), rabies and influenza, pose constant threats to Chinese residents and remain the most deadly disease type among the infected individuals. Therefore, second-generation surveillance of behavioural risks or vectors associated with pathogen transmission should be scaled up. It is necessary to implement public health interventions that target HIV and relevant coinfections, address transmission associated with highly mobile populations, and reduce the risk of cross-species transmission of zoonotic pathogens. PMID:22359565

Zhang, Lei; Wilson, David P.

2012-01-01

313

Infectious Diseases - Diseases Related to Service in Gulf War, Iraq, and Afghanistan  

MedlinePLUS

... Toll Free Numbers VA » Health Care » Public Health » Military Exposures » Infectious Diseases Public Health Public Health Public Health Home Military Exposures Military Exposures Home 4 Ways to Find ...

314

Climate variability and outbreaks of infectious diseases in Europe  

PubMed Central

Several studies provide evidence of a link between vector-borne disease outbreaks and El Niño driven climate anomalies. Less investigated are the effects of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO). Here, we test its impact on outbreak occurrences of 13 infectious diseases over Europe during the last fifty years, controlling for potential bias due to increased surveillance and detection. NAO variation statistically influenced the outbreak occurrence of eleven of the infectious diseases. Seven diseases were associated with winter NAO positive phases in northern Europe, and therefore with above-average temperatures and precipitation. Two diseases were associated with the summer or spring NAO negative phases in northern Europe, and therefore with below-average temperatures and precipitation. Two diseases were associated with summer positive or negative NAO phases in southern Mediterranean countries. These findings suggest that there is potential for developing early warning systems, based on climatic variation information, for improved outbreak control and management. PMID:23639950

Morand, Serge; Owers, Katharine A.; Waret-Szkuta, Agnes; McIntyre, K. Marie; Baylis, Matthew

2013-01-01

315

Climate variability and outbreaks of infectious diseases in Europe.  

PubMed

Several studies provide evidence of a link between vector-borne disease outbreaks and El Niño driven climate anomalies. Less investigated are the effects of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO). Here, we test its impact on outbreak occurrences of 13 infectious diseases over Europe during the last fifty years, controlling for potential bias due to increased surveillance and detection. NAO variation statistically influenced the outbreak occurrence of eleven of the infectious diseases. Seven diseases were associated with winter NAO positive phases in northern Europe, and therefore with above-average temperatures and precipitation. Two diseases were associated with the summer or spring NAO negative phases in northern Europe, and therefore with below-average temperatures and precipitation. Two diseases were associated with summer positive or negative NAO phases in southern Mediterranean countries. These findings suggest that there is potential for developing early warning systems, based on climatic variation information, for improved outbreak control and management. PMID:23639950

Morand, Serge; Owers, Katharine A; Waret-Szkuta, Agnes; McIntyre, K Marie; Baylis, Matthew

2013-01-01

316

Brucellosis in India: a deceptive infectious disease.  

PubMed

Brucellosis is an important but neglected disease in India. This zoonotic disease is present in all livestock systems and increased demand for dairy products accompanied with changing and intensified farming practices has raised the concern for increased spread and intensified transmission of this infection to the human population with increased risk of disease. Brucellosis can be controlled by mass vaccination of livestock. Human brucellosis can be treated with a combination of antibiotics but is very difficult to diagnose and requires laboratory testing for confirmation. Only a few recent studies have addressed the prevalence and importance of brucellosis as a human disease problem in India. The disease may be overlooked and misdiagnosed because of the difficult diagnosis and the absence and lack of experience with laboratory testing. Alertness of medical staff is needed to recognize and diagnose the disease. Awareness of risk groups is needed to take appropriate preventive measures and to accept control measures. PMID:16456249

Smits, Henk L; Kadri, S Manzoor

2005-11-01

317

Global poverty, hunger, death, and disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to address the global dimensions of poverty, hunger, death, and disease. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The authors assemble the most recently available data on these four human scourges from reliable international sources. Findings – Reducing the higher incidence of poverty, hunger, death, and disease in sub-Saharan African countries depends critically on the extension of

Edward OBoyle; Meade OBoyle

2012-01-01

318

Incentives for Reporting Infectious Disease Outbreaks  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The global spread of diseases such as swine flu and SARS highlights the difficult decision governments face when presented with evidence of a local outbreak. Reporting the outbreak may bring medical assistance but is also likely to trigger trade sanctions by countries hoping to contain the disease. Suppressing the information may avoid trade…

Malani, Anup; Laxminarayan, Ramanan

2011-01-01

319

Emerging infectious diseases in southeast Asia: regional challenges to control.  

PubMed

Southeast Asia is a hotspot for emerging infectious diseases, including those with pandemic potential. Emerging infectious diseases have exacted heavy public health and economic tolls. Severe acute respiratory syndrome rapidly decimated the region's tourist industry. Influenza A H5N1 has had a profound effect on the poultry industry. The reasons why southeast Asia is at risk from emerging infectious diseases are complex. The region is home to dynamic systems in which biological, social, ecological, and technological processes interconnect in ways that enable microbes to exploit new ecological niches. These processes include population growth and movement, urbanisation, changes in food production, agriculture and land use, water and sanitation, and the effect of health systems through generation of drug resistance. Southeast Asia is home to about 600 million people residing in countries as diverse as Singapore, a city state with a gross domestic product (GDP) of US$37,500 per head, and Laos, until recently an overwhelmingly rural economy, with a GDP of US$890 per head. The regional challenges in control of emerging infectious diseases are formidable and range from influencing the factors that drive disease emergence, to making surveillance systems fit for purpose, and ensuring that regional governance mechanisms work effectively to improve control interventions. PMID:21269678

Coker, Richard J; Hunter, Benjamin M; Rudge, James W; Liverani, Marco; Hanvoravongchai, Piya

2011-02-12

320

Spontaneous Generation of Infectious Prion Disease in Transgenic Mice  

PubMed Central

We generated transgenic mice expressing bovine cellular prion protein (PrPC) with a leucine substitution at codon 113 (113L). This protein is homologous to human protein with mutation 102L, and its genetic link with Gerstmann–Sträussler–Scheinker syndrome has been established. This mutation in bovine PrPC causes a fully penetrant, lethal, spongiform encephalopathy. This genetic disease was transmitted by intracerebral inoculation of brain homogenate from ill mice expressing mutant bovine PrP to mice expressing wild-type bovine PrP, which indicated de novo generation of infectious prions. Our findings demonstrate that a single amino acid change in the PrPC sequence can induce spontaneous generation of an infectious prion disease that differs from all others identified in hosts expressing the same PrPC sequence. These observations support the view that a variety of infectious prion strains might spontaneously emerge in hosts displaying random genetic PrPC mutations. PMID:24274622

Castilla, Joaquin; Pintado, Belen; Gutierrez-Adan, Alfonso; Andreoletti, Olivier; Aguilar-Calvo, Patricia; Arroba, Ana-Isabel; Parra-Arrondo, Beatriz; Ferrer, Isidro; Manzanares, Jorge; Espinosa, Juan-Carlos

2013-01-01

321

75 FR 4091 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant...Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel; Partnerships in Biodefense Food and Waterborne Diseases. Date: February 9,...

2010-01-26

322

75 FR 10488 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel; ``Modeling...Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel; Regulatory T cells in Autoimmune and Inflammatory Diseases. Date: April 30, 2010....

2010-03-08

323

77 FR 21778 - Board of Scientific Counselors, Office of Infectious Diseases (BSC, OID)  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases, and the National Center for...updates from the infectious disease national centers, and focused...immunization infrastructure, and sexually transmitted diseases. Agenda items are subject...

2012-04-11

324

Global climate and infectious disease: The cholera paradigm  

SciTech Connect

Historically, infectious diseases have had a profound effect on human populations, including their evolution and cultural development. Despite significant advances in medical science, infectious diseases continue to impact human populations in many parts of the world. Emerging diseases are considered to be those infections that either are newly appearing in the population or are rapidly increasing in incidence or expanding in geographic range. Emergence of disease is not a simple phenomenon, mainly because infectious diseases are dynamic. Most new infections are not caused by truly new pathogens but are microorganisms (viruses, bacteria, fungi, protozoa, and helminths) that find a new way to enter a susceptible host and are newly recognized because of recently developed, sensitive techniques. Human activities drive emergence of disease and a variety of social, economic, political, climatic, technological, and environmental factors can shape the pattern of a disease and influence its emergence into populations. For example, travel affects emergence of disease, and human migrations have been the main source of epidemics throughout history. Trade caravans, religious pilgrimage, and military campaigns facilitated the spread of plague, smallpox, and cholera. Global travel is a fact of modern life and, equally so, the continued evolution of microorganisms; therefore, new infections will continue to emerge, and known infections will change in distribution, frequency, and severity. 88 refs., 1 fig.

Colwell, R.R. [Univ. of Maryland Biotechnology Inst., College Park, MD (United States)] [Univ. of Maryland Biotechnology Inst., College Park, MD (United States)

1996-12-20

325

Diseases and Causes of Death in European Bats: Dynamics in Disease Susceptibility and Infection Rates  

PubMed Central

Background Bats receive increasing attention in infectious disease studies, because of their well recognized status as reservoir species for various infectious agents. This is even more important, as bats with their capability of long distance dispersal and complex social structures are unique in the way microbes could be spread by these mammalian species. Nevertheless, infection studies in bats are predominantly limited to the identification of specific pathogens presenting a potential health threat to humans. But the impact of infectious agents on the individual host and their importance on bat mortality is largely unknown and has been neglected in most studies published to date. Methodology/Principal Findings Between 2002 and 2009, 486 deceased bats of 19 European species (family Vespertilionidae) were collected in different geographic regions in Germany. Most animals represented individual cases that have been incidentally found close to roosting sites or near human habitation in urban and urban-like environments. The bat carcasses were subjected to a post-mortem examination and investigated histo-pathologically, bacteriologically and virologically. Trauma and disease represented the most important causes of death in these bats. Comparative analysis of pathological findings and microbiological results show that microbial agents indeed have an impact on bats succumbing to infectious diseases, with fatal bacterial, viral and parasitic infections found in at least 12% of the bats investigated. Conclusions/Significance Our data demonstrate the importance of diseases and infectious agents as cause of death in European bat species. The clear seasonal and individual variations in disease prevalence and infection rates indicate that maternity colonies are more susceptible to infectious agents, underlining the possible important role of host physiology, immunity and roosting behavior as risk factors for infection of bats. PMID:22216354

Muhldorfer, Kristin; Speck, Stephanie; Kurth, Andreas; Lesnik, Rene; Freuling, Conrad; Muller, Thomas; Kramer-Schadt, Stephanie; Wibbelt, Gudrun

2011-01-01

326

Aids and Infectious Diseases (aid) Pmp 2013 Report  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The AIDS and Infectious Diseases (AID) PMP of the WFS contributed this year with a session on August 22nd to the Plenary Sessions of the International Seminars on Planetary Emergencies and Associated Meetings--46th Session: The Role of Science in the Third Millennium (Erice, 19-24 August 2013). Furthermore a workshop on August 24th was organized...

Buonaguro, Franco M.

2014-07-01

327

Mobile infectious disease references: from the bedside to the beach.  

PubMed

Point-of-care access to current medical information is easily available to the practitioner through the use of smartphones, iPads, and other personal digital assistants. There are numerous mobile applications (apps) that provide easy-to-use and often well-referenced medical guidance for the infectious diseases practitioner. We reviewed 6 commonly utilized mobile apps available for handheld devices: the Emergency Medicine Residents' Association's (EMRA's) Antibiotic Guide, Epocrates Deluxe, Johns Hopkins Antibiotic Guide, Sanford Guide, the Medscape mobile app, and the Infectious Diseases Compendium. We evaluated several basic infectious diseases topics (including but not limited to endocarditis, vancomycin, and Acinetobacter infection) and attempted to objectively score them for metrics that would help the provider determine which mobile app would be most useful for his or her practice. The Johns Hopkins Antibiotic Guide and the Sanford Guide had the highest cumulative scores, whereas EMRA scored the lowest. We found that no single app will meet all of the needs of an infectious diseases physician. Each app delivers content in a unique way and would meet divergent needs for all practitioners, from the experienced clinician to the trainee. The ability to rapidly access trusted medical knowledge at the point of care can help all healthcare providers better treat their patients' infections. PMID:22679027

Burdette, Steven D; Trotman, Robin; Cmar, John

2012-07-01

328

The Impact of Infectious Diseases upon Neuroendocrine Circuits  

Microsoft Academic Search

During infectious diseases, neuroendocrine and immune networks act in concert, facilitating host response. It is known that infections cause profound immune changes, but the impact upon immunoendocrine circuits has been less studied. Disorders in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis were frequently observed associated with infections, and these changes often occur in parallel to alterations in the systemic cytokine network. Explanations for

Ana Rosa Pérez; Oscar Bottasso; Wilson Savino

2009-01-01

329

Hidden Cluster Detection for Infectious Disease Control and Quarantine Management  

E-print Network

for medical experts to analyze the outbreak as the clusters of infection depicted as inter­connected graphs to encounter outbreaks. However, urban life and international travel make contain- ment difficult. Furthermore for prevention and control of highly infectious diseases. During the SARS outbreak of 2003, there were 8096

Fong, Chi Chiu "Simon"

330

Environmental Change, Global Warming and Infectious Diseases in Northern Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

We are increasing our clinical surveillance for new and increasing infectious diseases that may relate to environmental changes occurring in the short term and global warming over the longer term. It is predicted that with global warming the tropical north of Australia will become both hotter and wetter. This is likely to expand the receptive area within Australia for mosquito-borne

Bart J. Currie

2001-01-01

331

Social networks and infectious disease: The Colorado Springs study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The social network paradigm provides a set of concepts and methods useful for studying the structure of a population through which infectious agents transmitted during close personal contact spread, and an opportunity to develop improved disease control programs. The research discussed was a first attempt to use a social network approach to better understand factors affecting the transmission of a

A. S. Klovdahl; J. J. Potterat; D. E. Woodhouse; J. B. Muth; S. Q. Muth; W. W. Darrow

1994-01-01

332

Vitamin A supplementation in infectious diseases: a meta-analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE--To study the effect of vitamin A supplementation on morbidity and mortality from infectious disease. DESIGN--A meta-analysis aimed at identifying and combining mortality and morbidity data from all randomised controlled trials of vitamin A. RESULTS--Of 20 controlled trials identified, 12 trials were randomised trials and provided \\

P P Glasziou; Mackerras Dem

1993-01-01

333

Infectious diseases among animals : combining models with data  

Microsoft Academic Search

To eradicate or control the spread of infectious diseases, knowledge on the spread of the infection between (groups of) animals is necessary. Models can include such information and can subsequently be used to observe the efficacy of various control measures in fighting the infection. However, the availability of information and data to build and quantify these models is essential for

Alina Annette de Koeijer

2003-01-01

334

Augmenting Spatio-Textual Search With an Infectious Disease Ontology  

E-print Network

Augmenting Spatio-Textual Search With an Infectious Disease Ontology Michael D. Lieberman Jagan Sperling HUD Office of Policy Development & Research (PD&R) 451 7th St. SW, Room 8146 Washington, DC 20410 USA Jon.Sperling@hud.gov Abstract-- A system is described that automatically categorizes

Samet, Hanan

335

FYI: Services to Poor Families; Controlling Infectious Diseases; Parent Groups.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses services and resources available for families, parents, and child care providers. Describes a National Resource Center for Children in Poverty; a guide for controlling infectious diseases among young children in day care; a directory of parent support groups; and reports of a link between household pesticides and childhood leukemia. (BB)

Children Today, 1987

1987-01-01

336

Rapid non-invasive tests for diagnostics of infectious diseases  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A rapid test for an infectious disease that can be used at point-of-care at a physician's office, a pharmacy, or in the field is critical for the prompt and appropriate therapeutic intervention. Ultimately by treating infections early on will decrease transmission of the pathogen. In contrast to metabolic diseases or cancer where multiple biomarkers are required, infectious disease targets (e.g. antigen, antibody, nucleic acid) are simple and specific for the pathogen causing the disease. Our laboratory has focused on three major infectious disease; HIV, Tuberculosis, and Malaria. These diseases are pandemic in much of the world thus putting natives, tourists and military personnel at risk for becoming infected, and upon returning to the U.S., transmitting these diseases to their contacts. Our devices are designed to detect antigens, antibodies or nucleic acids in blood or saliva samples in less than 30 minutes. An overview describing the current status of each of the three diagnostic platforms is presented. These microfluidic point-of-care devices will be relatively inexpensive, disposable, and user friendly.

Malamud, Daniel

2014-06-01

337

(Meta)population dynamics of infectious diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

The metapopulation concept provides a very powerful tool for analysing the persistence of spatially-disaggregated populations, in terms of a balance between local extinction and colonization. Exactly the same approach has been developed by epidemiologists, in order to understand patterns of diseases persistence. There is great scope for further cross-fertilization between areas. Recent work on the spatitemporal dynamics of measles illustrates

Bryan Grenfell; John Harwood

1997-01-01

338

Parents of Kids with Infectious Diseases  

MedlinePLUS

... No Question 8 of 11: I'm a parent. Yes No Question 9 of 11: I have kids ages 9 or younger. Yes No Question 10 of 11: I have kids ages 10 or older. Yes No Question 11 of 11: Spam check: 1+2=44? Prevent Disease with Handwashing Congratulations to Laurel from Alameda, CA, for submitting the winning ...

339

Travel and migration associated infectious diseases morbidity in Europe, 2008  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Europeans represent the majority of international travellers and clinicians encountering returned patients have an essential role in recognizing, and communicating travel-associated public health risks. METHODS: To investigate the morbidity of travel associated infectious diseases in European travellers, we analysed diagnoses with demographic, clinical and travel-related predictors of disease, in 6957 ill returned travellers who presented in 2008 to EuroTravNet

Vanessa Field; Philippe Gautret; Patricia Schlagenhauf; Gerd-Dieter Burchard; Eric Caumes; Mogens Jensenius; Francesco Castelli; Effrossyni Gkrania-Klotsas; Leisa Weld; Rogelio Lopez-Velez; Peter de Vries; Frank von Sonnenburg; Louis Loutan; Philippe Parola

2010-01-01

340

Climate change and global infectious disease threats.  

PubMed

The world's climate is warming up and, while debate continues about how much change we can expect, it is becoming clear that even small changes in climate can have major effects on the spread of disease. Erwin K Jackson, a member of Greenpeace International's Climate Impacts Unit and a delegate to the 11th session of the United Nations Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (Rome, 11-15 December), reviews the scientific evidence of this new global threat to health. PMID:8538543

Jackson, E K

341

The microbiome in infectious disease and inflammation.  

PubMed

The mammalian alimentary tract harbors hundreds of species of commensal microorganisms (microbiota) that intimately interact with the host and provide it with genetic, metabolic, and immunological attributes. Recent reports have indicated that the microbiota composition and its collective genomes (microbiome) are major factors in predetermining the type and robustness of mucosal immune responses. In this review, we discuss the recent advances in our understanding of host-microbiota interactions and their effect on the health and disease susceptibility of the host. PMID:22224764

Honda, Kenya; Littman, Dan R

2012-01-01

342

Managing an Infectious Disease Outbreak in a School. Lessons Learned from School Crises and Emergencies. Volume 2, Issue 3  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Lessons Learned" is a series of publications that are a brief recounting of actual school emergencies and crises. This "Lessons Learned" issue focuses on an infectious disease incident, which resulted in the death of a student, closure of area schools and the operation of an on-site school vaccine clinic. The report highlights the critical need…

US Department of Education, 2007

2007-01-01

343

ADVICE FOR NEWLY-ARRIVING UNIVERSITY STUDENTS ON VACCINE-PREVENTABLE INFECTIOUS DISEASES Meningitis C  

E-print Network

ADVICE FOR NEWLY-ARRIVING UNIVERSITY STUDENTS ON VACCINE-PREVENTABLE INFECTIOUS DISEASES Meningitis://www.hpa.org.uk/Topics/InfectiousDiseases/InfectionsAZ/MeningococcalDisease/ Mumps and measles Mumps. Countries that have high rates of TB over 40/100,000 of the population are listed at http://www.hpa.org.uk/Topics/InfectiousDiseases

Talbot, James P.

344

R E V I E W The role of infectious diseases in biological conservation  

E-print Network

R E V I E W The role of infectious diseases in biological conservation K. F. Smith1,2Ã?, K. Acevedo of environmental changes threaten the survival of species all over the planet, infectious disease has rarely been the role of infectious diseases in biological conservation. We summarize existing knowledge of disease

Pedersen, Amy B.

345

Integrated Training in Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Joseph M. Vinetz, M.D.  

E-print Network

Integrated Training in Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Joseph M. Vinetz, M.D. UCSD Division of Infectious Diseases I. Major diseases 1. Pneumonia 2. Bacterial meningitis 3. Catheter-associated bacteremia inpatient and outpatient infectious disease clinical teams at UCSD Medical Center. The mentor

Gleeson, Joseph G.

346

Infectious diseases of fishes in the Salish Sea  

USGS Publications Warehouse

As in marine regions throughout other areas of the world, fishes in the Salish Sea serve as hosts for many pathogens, including nematodes, trematodes, protozoans, protists, bacteria, viruses, and crustaceans. Here, we review some of the better-documented infectious diseases that likely contribute to significant losses among free-ranging fishes in the Salish Sea and discuss the environmental and ecological factors that may affect the population-level impacts of disease. Demonstration of these diseases and their impacts to critical and endangered resources provides justification to expand pathogen surveillance efforts and to incorporate disease forecasting and mitigation tools into ecosystem restoration efforts.

Hershberger, Paul; Rhodes, Linda; Kurath, Gael; Winton, James

2013-01-01

347

Programmed Cell Death in Parkinson's Disease  

PubMed Central

Parkinson's disease is a debilitating disorder characterized by a progressive loss of dopaminergic neurons caused by programmed cell death. The aim of this review is to provide an up-to-date summary of the major programmed cell death pathways as they relate to PD. For a long time, programmed cell death has been synonymous with apoptosis but there now is evidence that other types of programmed cell death exist, such as autophagic cell death or programmed necrosis, and that these types of cell death are relevant to PD. The pathways and signals covered here include namely the death receptors, BCL-2 family, caspases, calpains, cdk5, p53, PARP-1, autophagy, mitophagy, mitochondrial fragmentation, and parthanatos. The review will present evidence from postmortem PD studies, toxin-induced models (especially MPTP/MPP+, 6-hydroxydopamine and rotenone), and from ?-synuclein, LRRK2, Parkin, DJ-1, and PINK1 genetic models of PD, both in vitro and in vivo. PMID:22908196

Venderova, Katerina; Park, David S.

2012-01-01

348

Airline operating realities and the global spread of infectious diseases.  

PubMed

The advent of long-haul travel in the past 10 years has considerably reduced the time of potential disease spread from one side of the world to the other. The implication for travelers is that they may unwittingly be in the prodromal phase of influenza and become symptomatic a few days after travel. Alternatively they may knowingly travel with an infectious disease by masking symptoms. This article outlines the myths that have abounded about the cabin environment being "unclean" and discusses the low likelihood of in-flight transmission with effective air-conditioning and filtration systems. The 2009 H1N1 pandemic highlighted the operational challenges of dealing with infectious disease, including the need for accurate passenger information to allow contact tracing, in contrast to futile measures such as thermal scanners. Containment attempts did not stop the rapid global spread of H1N1 influenza. PMID:20566546

Webster, Cliff H

2010-07-01

349

Mobile Phone-based Infectious Disease Surveillance System, Sri Lanka  

PubMed Central

Because many infectious diseases are emerging in animals in low-income and middle-income countries, surveillance of animal health in these areas may be needed for forecasting disease risks to humans. We present an overview of a mobile phone–based frontline surveillance system developed and implemented in Sri Lanka. Field veterinarians reported animal health information by using mobile phones. Submissions increased steadily over 9 months, with ?4,000 interactions between field veterinarians and reports on the animal population received by the system. Development of human resources and increased communication between local stakeholders (groups and persons whose actions are affected by emerging infectious diseases and animal health) were instrumental for successful implementation. The primary lesson learned was that mobile phone–based surveillance of animal populations is acceptable and feasible in lower-resource settings. However, any system implementation plan must consider the time needed to garner support for novel surveillance methods among users and stakeholders. PMID:20875276

Sawford, Kate; Daniel, Samson L.A.; Nelson, Trisalyn A.; Stephen, Craig

2010-01-01

350

Relating phylogenetic trees to transmission trees of infectious disease outbreaks.  

PubMed

Transmission events are the fundamental building blocks of the dynamics of any infectious disease. Much about the epidemiology of a disease can be learned when these individual transmission events are known or can be estimated. Such estimations are difficult and generally feasible only when detailed epidemiological data are available. The genealogy estimated from genetic sequences of sampled pathogens is another rich source of information on transmission history. Optimal inference of transmission events calls for the combination of genetic data and epidemiological data into one joint analysis. A key difficulty is that the transmission tree, which describes the transmission events between infected hosts, differs from the phylogenetic tree, which describes the ancestral relationships between pathogens sampled from these hosts. The trees differ both in timing of the internal nodes and in topology. These differences become more pronounced when a higher fraction of infected hosts is sampled. We show how the phylogenetic tree of sampled pathogens is related to the transmission tree of an outbreak of an infectious disease, by the within-host dynamics of pathogens. We provide a statistical framework to infer key epidemiological and mutational parameters by simultaneously estimating the phylogenetic tree and the transmission tree. We test the approach using simulations and illustrate its use on an outbreak of foot-and-mouth disease. The approach unifies existing methods in the emerging field of phylodynamics with transmission tree reconstruction methods that are used in infectious disease epidemiology. PMID:24037268

Ypma, Rolf J F; van Ballegooijen, W Marijn; Wallinga, Jacco

2013-11-01

351

The landscape genetics of infectious disease emergence and spread  

PubMed Central

The spread of parasites is inherently a spatial process often embedded in physically complex landscapes. It is therefore not surprising that infectious disease researchers are increasingly taking a landscape genetics perspective to elucidate mechanisms underlying basic ecological processes driving infectious disease dynamics and to understand the linkage between spatially-dependent population processes and the geographic distribution of genetic variation within both hosts and parasites. The increasing availability of genetic information on hosts and parasites when coupled to their ecological interactions can lead to insights for predicting patterns of disease emergence, spread, and control. Here, we review research progress in this area based on four different motivations for the application of landscape genetics approaches: (1) assessing the spatial organization of genetic variation in parasites as a function of environmental variability, (2) using host population genetic structure as a means to parameterize ecological dynamics that indirectly influence parasite populations, e.g. gene flow and movement pathways across heterogeneous landscapes and the concurrent transport of infectious agents, (3) elucidating the temporal and spatial scales of disease processes, and (4) reconstructing and understanding infectious disease invasion. Throughout this review, we emphasise that landscape genetic principles are relevant to infection dynamics across a range of scales from within host dynamics to global geographic patterns and that they can also be applied to unconventional “landscapes” such as heterogeneous contact networks underlying the spread of human and livestock diseases. We conclude by discussing some general considerations and problems for inferring epidemiological processes from genetic data and try to identify possible future directions and applications for this rapidly expanding field. PMID:20618897

Biek, Roman; Real, Leslie A.

2011-01-01

352

Estimating Seasonal Drivers in Childhood Infectious Diseases with Continuous Time Models  

E-print Network

Many important factors affect the spread of childhood infectious disease. To understand better the fundamental drivers of infectious disease spread, several researchers have estimated seasonal transmission coefficients using discrete-time models...

Abbott, George H.

2010-07-14

353

77 FR 61009 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Resource Related Research Projects for AIDS, Allergy, Immunology & Transplantation....

2012-10-05

354

78 FR 37557 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Resource Related Research Projects for AIDS, Allergy, Immunology and Transplantation...

2013-06-21

355

78 FR 31952 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...personal privacy. Name of Committee: Allergy, Immunology, and Transplantation Research...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

2013-05-28

356

76 FR 4122 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...and funding cycle. Name of Committee: Allergy, Immunology, and Transplantation...

2011-01-24

357

76 FR 27069 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Resource Related Research Projects for AIDS, Allergy, Immunology and Transplantation...

2011-05-10

358

77 FR 59940 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...personal privacy. Name of Committee: Allergy, Immunology, and Transplantation Research...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

2012-10-01

359

75 FR 8975 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of...of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel, Consortium of Food Allergy Research (CoFAR) and CoFAR...

2010-02-26

360

77 FR 43604 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID); Notice of Workshop  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID); Notice of Workshop SUMMARY: The National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), a component of the National...

2012-07-25

361

The Seattle Structural Genomics Center for Infectious Disease (SSGCID)  

PubMed Central

The NIAID-funded Seattle Structural Genomics Center for Infectious Disease (SSGCID) is a consortium established to apply structural genomics approaches to potential drug targets from NIAID priority organisms for biodefense and emerging and re-emerging diseases. The mission of the SSGCID is to determine ~400 protein structures over five years ending in 2012. In order to maximize biomedical impact, ligand-based drug-lead discovery campaigns will be pursued for a small number of high-impact targets. Here we review the center’s target selection processes, which include pro-active engagement of the infectious disease research and drug therapy communities to identify drug targets, essential enzymes, virulence factors and vaccine candidates of biomedical relevance to combat infectious diseases. This is followed by a brief overview of the SSGCID structure determination pipeline and ligand screening methodology. Finally, specifics of our resources available to the scientific community are presented. Physical materials and data produced by SSGCID will be made available to the scientific community, with the aim that they will provide essential groundwork benefiting future research and drug discovery. PMID:19594426

Myler, P.J.; Stacy, R.; Stewart, L.; Staker, B.L.; Van Voorhis, W.C.; Varani, G.; Buchko, G.W.

2010-01-01

362

Risk of Infectious Disease Transmission Through Use of Allografts  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a – \\u000a The number of musculoskeletal and other allografts implanted in patients continues to increase because of the desirable characteristics\\u000a of such grafts for use in plastic and reconstructive surgery. Allografts, however, can harbor pathogens and pose at least\\u000a some risk for transmission of infectious diseases to recipients.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a – \\u000a Case reports document that bacterial, viral, and prion diseases (Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease or

Robert H. Kennedy; C. Randal Mills; Paul Brown

363

76 FR 58523 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Town Hall Meeting on the Future of the...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Town Hall Meeting on the Future...for Biodefense and Emerging Infectious Diseases (RCE) Program; Notice of...National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), a component...

2011-09-21

364

Mechanisms of Cell Death in Heart Disease  

PubMed Central

The major cardiac syndromes, myocardial infarction and heart failure, are responsible for a large portion of deaths worldwide. Genetic and pharmacological manipulations indicate that cell death is an important component in the pathogenesis of both diseases. Cells die primarily by apoptosis or necrosis, and autophagy has been associated with cell death. Apoptosis has long been recognized as a highly regulated process. Recent data indicate that a significant subset of necrotic deaths is also highly programmed. In this review, we discuss the molecular mechanisms that underlie these forms of cell death and their interconnections. Because of their regulated nature, the possibility is raised that small molecules aimed at inhibiting cell death may provide novel therapies for these common and lethal heart syndromes. PMID:22596221

Konstantinidis, Klitos; Whelan, Russell S.; Kitsis, Richard N.

2012-01-01

365

Modeling spatial spread of infectious diseases with a fixed latent period in a spatially continuous domain  

E-print Network

Modeling spatial spread of infectious diseases with a fixed latent period in a spatially continuous, March 2009 Abstract In this paper, with the assumptions that an infectious disease in a population has the dynamics of infectious diseases in population level. Most continuous time models are in the form

Linder, Tamás

366

Abstract --Highly infectious diseases such as SARS (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome), Avian Influenza (Bird Flu),  

E-print Network

Abstract -- Highly infectious diseases such as SARS (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome), Avian to the global population. Detection and pre- vention of infectious diseases is notoriously complex and prob of cases and transmission routes in a rapid manner is crucial in pre- venting the infectious disease from

Si, Yain Whar "Lawrence"

367

COBRE Center for Zoonotic and Emerging Infectious Diseases 2014 Request for Pilot Grant Proposals  

E-print Network

COBRE Center for Zoonotic and Emerging Infectious Diseases 2014 Request for Pilot Grant Proposals Overview The COBRE Center for Zoonotic and Emerging Infectious Diseases is soliciting proposals for Pilot/or translational research relevant to zoonotic and/or emerging infectious diseases, and there must be a clear

Maxwell, Bruce D.

368

On the role of social clusters in the transmission of infectious diseases Rinaldo B. Schinazi  

E-print Network

On the role of social clusters in the transmission of infectious diseases Rinaldo B. Schinazi for the transmission of TB and HIV. 1. Introduction. It is suspected that some infectious diseases can only spread words and phrases: infectious diseases, tuberculosis, sexually transmitted dis- eases, clusters, spatial

Schinazi, Rinaldo

369

Course Objective 1 1a Relate key pathogens to major syndromes in infectious diseases  

E-print Network

to major syndromes in infectious diseases 2 1b To identify and explain where new of major infectious disease syndromes 4 1d Review the uses of imaging, molecular diagnostics in the management of infectious diseases as well as the role of global

Myers, Lawrence C.

370

Clinical Infectious Diseases (in press) NOT FOR DIFFUSION Inserm, Unit 897, Bordeaux, France 1/22  

E-print Network

Clinical Infectious Diseases (in press) NOT FOR DIFFUSION © Inserm, Unit 897, Bordeaux, France 1 Treichville, Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire 4 Centre for Infectious Disease Research in Zambia, Lusaka, Zambia 5, 33076 inserm-00409524,version1-10Aug2009 Author manuscript, published in "Clinical Infectious Diseases

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

371

Children's Participation in a Virtual Epidemic in the Science Classroom: Making Connections to Natural Infectious Diseases  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated students' understanding of a virtual infectious disease in relation to their understanding of natural infectious diseases. Two sixth-grade classrooms of students between the ages of 10 and 12 (46 students) took part in a participatory simulation of a virtual infectious disease, which was integrated into their science…

Neulight, Nina; Kafai, Yasmin B.; Kao, Linda; Foley, Brian; Galas, Cathleen

2007-01-01

372

Evolutionary Determinants of Genetic Variation in Susceptibility to Infectious Diseases in Humans  

E-print Network

Evolutionary Determinants of Genetic Variation in Susceptibility to Infectious Diseases in Humans, USA Abstract Although genetic variation among humans in their susceptibility to infectious diseases with 40 human infectious diseases were assessed by a survey of studies on both pedigree-based quantitative

Antonovics, Janis

373

Integrated Training in Medical Virology Sponsored by the Division of Infectious Diseases  

E-print Network

Integrated Training in Medical Virology Sponsored by the Division of Infectious Diseases Douglas. Clinical Microbiology Rounds: Three times per week, the Infectious Diseases Team meets with the director in the context of the microbiology results and patient histories. 2. Weekly Infectious Disease Rounds: Each

Gleeson, Joseph G.

374

616 SAGE-GROUSE AND WEST NILE VIRUS Emerging infectious diseases pose a serious  

E-print Network

616 SAGE-GROUSE AND WEST NILE VIRUS Emerging infectious diseases pose a serious threat to wildlife conservation (Daszak et al. 2000), yet often little is known about consequences of emerging infectious diseases for populations of sen- sitive or declining native species. Evaluating impacts of emerging infectious diseases

Naugle, Dave

375

On the role of reinfection in the transmission of infectious diseases  

E-print Network

On the role of reinfection in the transmission of infectious diseases Rinaldo B. Schinazi LATP, infectious diseases, tuberculosis, spatial stochastic model 1. Introduction. Tuberculosis is usually acquired of the two types of reinfection in the spread of an infectious disease such as TB. We introduce a spatial

Schinazi, Rinaldo

376

Taking sociology seriously: a new approach to the bioethical problems of infectious disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

After a history of neglect, bioethicists have recently turned their attention to the topic of infectious disease. In this paper we link bioethicists' earlier neglect of infectious disease to their under-appreciation of the extent to which the problem of infectious disease is related to social factors and thus to questions of justice. We argue that a social causation of illness

J. Selgelid; Mark Tausig; Michael J. Selgelid; Sree Subedi; Janardan Subedi

377

Effects of Extreme Precipitation to the Distribution of Infectious Diseases in Taiwan, 1994–2008  

Microsoft Academic Search

The incidence of extreme precipitation has increased with the exacerbation of worldwide climate disruption. We hypothesize an association between precipitation and the distribution patterns that would affect the endemic burden of 8 infectious diseases in Taiwan, including water- and vector-borne infectious diseases. A database integrating daily precipitation and temperature, along with the infectious disease case registry for all 352 townships

Mu-Jean Chen; Chuan-Yao Lin; Yi-Ting Wu; Pei-Chih Wu; Shih-Chun Lung; Huey-Jen Su

2012-01-01

378

Bats, emerging infectious diseases, and the rabies paradigm revisited  

PubMed Central

The significance of bats as sources of emerging infectious diseases has been increasingly appreciated, and new data have been accumulated rapidly during recent years. For some emerging pathogens the bat origin has been confirmed (such as lyssaviruses, henipaviruses, coronaviruses), for other it has been suggested (filoviruses). Several recently identified viruses remain to be ‘orphan’ but have a potential for further emergence (such as Tioman, Menangle, and Pulau viruses). In the present review we summarize information on major bat-associated emerging infections and discuss specific characteristics of bats as carriers of pathogens (from evolutionary, ecological, and immunological positions). We also discuss drivers and forces of an infectious disease emergence and describe various existing and potential approaches for control and prevention of such infections at individual, populational, and societal levels. PMID:24149032

Kuzmin, Ivan V.; Bozick, Brooke; Guagliardo, Sarah A.; Kunkel, Rebekah; Shak, Joshua R.; Tong, Suxiang; Rupprecht, Charles E

2011-01-01

379

"Wrong, but Useful": Negotiating Uncertainty in Infectious Disease Modelling  

PubMed Central

For infectious disease dynamical models to inform policy for containment of infectious diseases the models must be able to predict; however, it is well recognised that such prediction will never be perfect. Nevertheless, the consensus is that although models are uncertain, some may yet inform effective action. This assumes that the quality of a model can be ascertained in order to evaluate sufficiently model uncertainties, and to decide whether or not, or in what ways or under what conditions, the model should be ‘used’. We examined uncertainty in modelling, utilising a range of data: interviews with scientists, policy-makers and advisors, and analysis of policy documents, scientific publications and reports of major inquiries into key livestock epidemics. We show that the discourse of uncertainty in infectious disease models is multi-layered, flexible, contingent, embedded in context and plays a critical role in negotiating model credibility. We argue that usability and stability of a model is an outcome of the negotiation that occurs within the networks and discourses surrounding it. This negotiation employs a range of discursive devices that renders uncertainty in infectious disease modelling a plastic quality that is amenable to ‘interpretive flexibility’. The utility of models in the face of uncertainty is a function of this flexibility, the negotiation this allows, and the contexts in which model outputs are framed and interpreted in the decision making process. We contend that rather than being based predominantly on beliefs about quality, the usefulness and authority of a model may at times be primarily based on its functional status within the broad social and political environment in which it acts. PMID:24146851

Christley, Robert M.; Mort, Maggie; Wynne, Brian; Wastling, Jonathan M.; Heathwaite, A. Louise; Pickup, Roger; Austin, Zoe; Latham, Sophia M.

2013-01-01

380

Parasitic and Infectious Disease Responses to Changing Global Nutrient Cycles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Parasitic and infectious diseases (PIDs) are a significant threat to human, livestock, and wildlife health and are changing\\u000a dramatically in the face of human-induced environmental changes such as those in climate and land use. In this article we\\u000a explore the little-studied but potentially important response of PIDs to another major environmental change, that in the global\\u000a nutrient cycles. Humans have

Valerie J. McKenzie; Alan R. Townsend

2007-01-01

381

Panmicrobial Oligonucleotide Array for Diagnosis of Infectious Diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

To facilitate rapid, unbiased, differential diagnosis of infectious diseases, we designed GreeneChipPm, a panmi- crobial microarray comprising 29,455 sixty-mer oligonu- cleotide probes for vertebrate viruses, bacteria, fungi, and parasites. Methods for nucleic acid preparation, random primed PCR amplification, and labeling were optimized to allow the sensitivity required for application with nucleic acid extracted from clinical materials and cultured isolates. Analysis

Gustavo Palacios; Phenix-Lan Quan; Omar J. Jabado; Sean Conlan; David L. Hirschberg; Yang Liu; Junhui Zhai; Neil Renwick; Jeffrey Hui; Hedi Hegyi; Allen Grolla; James E. Strong; Jonathan S. Towner; Thomas W. Geisbert; Peter B. Jahrling; Cornelia Büchen-Osmond; Heinz Ellerbrok; Maria Paz Sanchez-Seco; Yves Lussier; Pierre Formenty; Stuart T. Nichol; Heinz Feldmann; Thomas Briese; W. Ian Lipkin

2007-01-01

382

Altered Antibody Profiles against Common Infectious Agents in Chronic Disease  

PubMed Central

Despite the important diagnostic value of evaluating antibody responses to individual human pathogens, antibody profiles against multiple infectious agents have not been used to explore health and disease mainly for technical reasons.  We hypothesized that the interplay between infection and chronic disease might be revealed by profiling antibodies against multiple agents. Here, the levels of antibodies against a panel of 13 common infectious agents were evaluated with the quantitative Luciferase Immunoprecipitation Systems (LIPS) in patients from three disease cohorts including those with pathogenic anti-interferon-? autoantibodies (IFN-? AAB), HIV and Sjögren’s syndrome (SjS) to determine if their antibody profiles differed from control subjects.  The IFN-? AAB patients compared to controls demonstrated statistically higher levels of antibodies against VZV (p=0.0003), EBV (p=0.002), CMV (p=0.003), and C. albicans (p=0.03), but lower antibody levels against poliovirus (p=0.04). Comparison of HIV patients with blood donor controls revealed that the patients had higher levels of antibodies against CMV (p=0.0008), HSV-2 (p=0.0008), EBV (p=0.001), and C. albicans (p=0.01), but showed decreased levels of antibodies against coxsackievirus B4 (p=0.0008), poliovirus (p=0.0005),   and HHV-6B (p=0.002). Lastly, SjS patients had higher levels of anti-EBV antibodies (p=0.03), but lower antibody levels against several enteroviruses including a newly identified picornavirus, HCoSV-A (p=0.004), coxsackievirus B4 (p=0.04), and poliovirus (p=0.02). For the IFN-? AAB and HIV cohorts, principal component analysis revealed unique antibody clusters that showed the potential to discriminate patients from controls.  The results suggest that antibody profiles against these and likely other common infectious agents may yield insight into the interplay between exposure to infectious agents, dysbiosis, adaptive immunity and disease activity. PMID:24312567

Burbelo, Peter D.; Ching, Kathryn H.; Morse, Caryn G.; Alevizos, Ilias; Bayat, Ahmad; Cohen, Jeffrey I.; Ali, Mir A.; Kapoor, Amit; Browne, Sarah K.; Holland, Steven M.; Kovacs, Joseph A.; Iadarola, Michael J.

2013-01-01

383

Characterisation of New Zealand isolates of infectious bursal disease virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary.  ?Isolates of infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) were obtained from domestic poultry in New Zealand in 1997 and 1998. An\\u000a in-vivo pathogenicity study carried out in specific pathogen free (SPF) chickens demonstrated the low virulence of one of\\u000a the virus isolates. The nucleotide sequences of the hypervariable region of the VP2 gene of two isolates were determined and\\u000a compared with

Y. F. Chai; N. H. Christensen; C. R. Wilks; J. Meers

2001-01-01

384

Pediatricians’ Attitudes About Screening Newborns for Infectious Diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 2002, the U.S. Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA) commissioned the American College of Medical Genetics\\u000a (ACMG) to recommend a uniform newborn screening (NBS) panel. The ACMG sent out a survey to stakeholders to evaluate 80 metabolic\\u000a and genetic conditions and 3 infectious diseases (Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), Toxoplasmosis (Toxo), and Cytomegalovirus\\u000a (CMV)). In March 2005, the ACMG\\/HRSA report

Hanna Schittek; Joy Koopmans; Lainie Friedman Ross

2010-01-01

385

Effects of Global Climate on Infectious Disease: the Cholera Model  

PubMed Central

Recently, the role of the environment and climate in disease dynamics has become a subject of increasing interest to microbiologists, clinicians, epidemiologists, and ecologists. Much of the interest has been stimulated by the growing problems of antibiotic resistance among pathogens, emergence and/or reemergence of infectious diseases worldwide, the potential of bioterrorism, and the debate concerning climate change. Cholera, caused by Vibrio cholerae, lends itself to analyses of the role of climate in infectious disease, coupled to population dynamics of pathogenic microorganisms, for several reasons. First, the disease has a historical context linking it to specific seasons and biogeographical zones. In addition, the population dynamics of V. cholerae in the environment are strongly controlled by environmental factors, such as water temperature, salinity, and the presence of copepods, which are, in turn, controlled by larger-scale climate variability. In this review, the association between plankton and V. cholerae that has been documented over the last 20 years is discussed in support of the hypothesis that cholera shares properties of a vector-borne disease. In addition, a model for environmental transmission of cholera to humans in the context of climate variability is presented. The cholera model provides a template for future research on climate-sensitive diseases, allowing definition of critical parameters and offering a means of developing more sophisticated methods for prediction of disease outbreaks. PMID:12364378

Lipp, Erin K.; Huq, Anwar; Colwell, Rita R.

2002-01-01

386

Infectious diseases citation patterns: mapping the literature 2008-2010  

PubMed Central

Objectives: The research identified the publication types and ages most frequently cited in the infectious diseases literature and the most commonly cited journals. Methods: From 2008–2010, 5,056 articles in 5 infectious diseases journals cited 166,650 items. Two random samples were drawn: one (n?=?1,060) from the total set of citations and one (n?=?1,060) from the citations to journal articles. For each sample citation, publication type and date, age of cited item, and inclusion of uniform resource locator (URL) were collected. For each item in the cited journal articles sample, journal title, publication date, and age of the cited article were collected. Bradford zones were used for further analysis. Results: Journal articles (91%, n?=?963) made up the bulk of cited items, followed by miscellaneous items (4.6%, n?=?49). Dates of publication for cited items ranged from 1933–2010 (mean?=?2001, mode?=?2007). Over half (50.2%, n?=?483) of cited journal articles were published within the previous 5 years. The journal article citations included 358 unique journal titles. Discussion: The citations to current and older publications in a range of disciplines, heavy citation of journals, and citation of miscellaneous and government documents revealed the depth and breadth of resources needed for the study of infectious diseases. PMID:23405047

Rethlefsen, Melissa L.; Livinski, Alicia A.

2013-01-01

387

Design and Evaluation of a Bacterial Clinical Infectious Diseases Ontology  

PubMed Central

With antimicrobial resistance increasing worldwide, there is a great need to use automated antimicrobial decision support systems (ADSSs) to lower antimicrobial resistance rates by promoting appropriate antimicrobial use. However, they are infrequently used mostly because of their poor interoperability with different health information technologies. Ontologies can augment portable ADSSs by providing an explicit knowledge representation for biomedical entities and their relationships, helping to standardize and integrate heterogeneous data resources. We developed a bacterial clinical infectious diseases ontology (BCIDO) using Protégé-OWL. BCIDO defines a controlled terminology for clinical infectious diseases along with domain knowledge commonly used in hospital settings for clinical infectious disease treatment decision-making. BCIDO has 599 classes and 2355 object properties. Terms were imported from or mapped to Systematized Nomenclature of Medicine, Unified Medical Language System, RxNorm and National Center for Bitechnology Information Organismal Classification where possible. Domain expert evaluation using the “laddering” technique, ontology visualization, and clinical notes and scenarios, confirmed the correctness and potential usefulness of BCIDO. PMID:24551353

Gordon, Claire L.; Pouch, Stephanie; Cowell, Lindsay G.; Boland, Mary Regina; Platt, Heather L.; Goldfain, Albert; Weng, Chunhua

2013-01-01

388

Guidelines to implement medical examiner/coroner-based surveillance for fatal infectious diseases and bioterrorism ("Med-X").  

PubMed

Medical examiners and coroners investigate deaths that are sudden, unexplained, and violent. Oftentimes these deaths are a consequence of infections, many of which have public health consequences. Additionally, because deaths from bioterrorism are homicides, they fall under the jurisdiction of medical examiners and coroners. Surveillance for infectious disease-related deaths can enhance the opportunities to recognize these deaths. Beginning in 2000, the New Mexico Office of the Medical Investigator developed and tested a medical examiner surveillance model for bioterrorism and infectious disease mortality ("Med-X") using a set of symptoms to determine which cases should receive an autopsy and a set of pathology-based syndromes for early reporting of cases to public health authorities. This model demonstrated that many of the symptoms had a high predictive value for infections and were useful criteria for autopsy performance. The causative organism was identified for 81% of infections of which 58% were notifiable conditions by public health standards. Uniform criteria for performing autopsies and reporting cases to public health authorities enhance surveillance for notifiable infectious diseases and increase the probability of recognizing fatalities related to bioterrorism. We have developed guidelines for medical examiners, coroners and their public health partners to use in implementing Med-X surveillance in their jurisdictions. These guidelines encompass definitions of symptoms and syndromes, specimen collection and storage procedures, laboratory diagnostic approaches, and processes for case flow, case reporting, and data collection. We also suggest resources for autopsy biosafety information and funding. PMID:20683243

Nolte, Kurt B; Fischer, Marc; Reagan, Sarah; Lynfield, Ruth

2010-12-01

389

Contact tracing to control infectious disease: when enough is enough  

PubMed Central

Contact tracing (also known as partner notification) is a primary means of controlling infectious diseases such as tuberculosis (TB), human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). However, little work has been done to determine the optimal level of investment in contact tracing. In this paper, we present a methodology for evaluating the appropriate level of investment in contact tracing. We develop and apply a simulation model of contact tracing and the spread of an infectious disease among a network of individuals in order to evaluate the cost and effectiveness of different levels of contact tracing. We show that contact tracing is likely to have diminishing returns to scale in investment: incremental investments in contact tracing yield diminishing reductions in disease prevalence. In conjunction with a cost-effectiveness threshold, we then determine the optimal amount that should be invested in contact tracing. We first assume that the only incremental disease control is contact tracing. We then extend the analysis to consider the optimal allocation of a budget between contact tracing and screening for exogenous infection, and between contact tracing and screening for endogenous infection. We discuss how a simulation model of this type, appropriately tailored, could be used as a policy tool for determining the appropriate level of investment in contact tracing for a specific disease in a specific population. We present an example application to contact tracing for chlamydia control. PMID:18074967

Brandeau, Margaret L.

2012-01-01

390

Alzheimer's Disease: The Death of the Disease.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Alzheimer's disease, a form of dementia in middle-age and older adults is becoming more evident because of growing numbers of older people and better diagnosis and detection methods. Describes the behavioral and physical symptoms of the disease as well as specific suggestions for care of patients with Alzheimer's disease, including dealing with…

McBroom, Lynn W.

1987-01-01

391

Infectious diseases of animals and plants: an interdisciplinary approach.  

PubMed

Animal and plant diseases pose a serious and continuing threat to food security, food safety, national economies, biodiversity and the rural environment. New challenges, including climate change, regulatory developments, changes in the geographical concentration and size of livestock holdings, and increasing trade make this an appropriate time to assess the state of knowledge about the impact that diseases have and the ways in which they are managed and controlled. In this paper, the case is explored for an interdisciplinary approach to studying the management of infectious animal and plant diseases. Reframing the key issues through incorporating both social and natural science research can provide a holistic understanding of disease and increase the policy relevance and impact of research. Finally, in setting out the papers in this Theme Issue, a picture of current and future animal and plant disease threats is presented. PMID:21624914

Wilkinson, Katy; Grant, Wyn P; Green, Laura E; Hunter, Stephen; Jeger, Michael J; Lowe, Philip; Medley, Graham F; Mills, Peter; Phillipson, Jeremy; Poppy, Guy M; Waage, Jeff

2011-07-12

392

Infectious diseases of animals and plants: an interdisciplinary approach  

PubMed Central

Animal and plant diseases pose a serious and continuing threat to food security, food safety, national economies, biodiversity and the rural environment. New challenges, including climate change, regulatory developments, changes in the geographical concentration and size of livestock holdings, and increasing trade make this an appropriate time to assess the state of knowledge about the impact that diseases have and the ways in which they are managed and controlled. In this paper, the case is explored for an interdisciplinary approach to studying the management of infectious animal and plant diseases. Reframing the key issues through incorporating both social and natural science research can provide a holistic understanding of disease and increase the policy relevance and impact of research. Finally, in setting out the papers in this Theme Issue, a picture of current and future animal and plant disease threats is presented. PMID:21624914

Wilkinson, Katy; Grant, Wyn P.; Green, Laura E.; Hunter, Stephen; Jeger, Michael J.; Lowe, Philip; Medley, Graham F.; Mills, Peter; Phillipson, Jeremy; Poppy, Guy M.; Waage, Jeff

2011-01-01

393

Infectious Disease Outbreaks in Competitive Sports, 2005-2010  

PubMed Central

Context Old, evolving, and new infectious agents continually threaten the participation of competitors in sports. Objective To provide an update of the medical literature on infectious disease outbreaks in sport for the last 5 years (May 2005–November 2010). Main Outcome Measure(s) A total of 21 outbreaks or clusters were identified. Results Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (n = 7, 33%; mainly community acquired) and tinea (trichophytosis: n = 6, 29%) were the most common pathogens responsible for outbreaks. Skin and soft tissue was the most common site of infection (n = 15, 71%). Conclusions The majority of outbreaks reported occurred in close-contact sports, mainly combat sports (ie, wrestling, judo) and American football. Twelve outbreaks (57%) involved high school or collegiate competitors. Common community outbreak pathogens, such as influenza virus and norovirus, have received little attention. PMID:23068588

Collins, Cathal James; O'Connell, Brian; BCh, SI MB

2012-01-01

394

Cell death in disease: from 2010 onwards  

PubMed Central

The strong interest in cell death, and the shift in emphasis from basic mechanisms to translational aspects fostered the launch last year of the new sister journal of Cell Death and Differentiation, named Cell Death and Disease, to reflect its stronger focus towards clinical applications. Here, we review that first year of activity, which reflects an enthusiastic response by the scientific community. On the basis of this, we now launch two novel initiatives, the start of a new section dedicated to cancer metabolism and the opening of a new editorial office in Shanghai. PMID:21881604

Knight, R A; Melino, G

2011-01-01

395

20 CFR 718.303 - Death from a respirable disease.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Death from a respirable disease. 718.303...DETERMINING COAL MINERS' TOTAL DISABILITY OR DEATH DUE TO PNEUMOCONIOSIS Presumptions Applicable...Eligibility Determinations § 718.303 Death from a respirable disease....

2012-04-01

396

20 CFR 718.303 - Death from a respirable disease.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Death from a respirable disease. 718.303...DETERMINING COAL MINERS' TOTAL DISABILITY OR DEATH DUE TO PNEUMOCONIOSIS Presumptions Applicable...Eligibility Determinations § 718.303 Death from a respirable disease....

2013-04-01

397

Infectious Disease Mortality Among American Indians and Alaska Natives, 1999-2009  

PubMed Central

Objectives. We described death rates and leading causes of death caused by infectious diseases (IDs) in American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) persons. Methods. We analyzed national mortality data, adjusted for AI/AN race by linkage with Indian Health Service registration records, for all US counties and Contract Health Service Delivery Area (CHSDA) counties. The average annual 1999 to 2009 ID death rates per 100?000 persons for AI/AN persons were compared with corresponding rates for Whites. Results. The ID death rate in AI/AN populations was significantly higher than that of Whites. A reported 8429 ID deaths (rate 86.2) in CHSDA counties occurred among AI/AN persons; the rate was significantly higher than the rate in Whites (44.0; rate ratio [RR]?=?1.96; 95% confidence interval [CI]?=?1.91, 2.00). The rates for the top 10 ID underlying causes of death were significantly higher for AI/AN persons than those for Whites. Lower respiratory tract infection and septicemia were the top-ranked causes. The greatest relative rate disparity was for tuberculosis (RR?=?13.51; 95% CI?=?11.36, 15.93). Conclusions. Health equity might be furthered by expansion of interventions to reduce IDs among AI/AN communities. PMID:24754622

Cheek, James E.; Holman, Robert C.; Redd, John T.; Haberling, Dana

2014-01-01

398

Climate Change and the Geographic Distribution of Infectious Diseases  

PubMed Central

Our ability to predict the effects of climate change on the spread of infectious diseases is in its infancy. Numerous, and in some cases conflicting, predictions have been developed, principally based on models of biological processes or mapping of current and historical disease statistics. Current debates on whether climate change, relative to socioeconomic determinants, will be a major influence on human disease distributions are useful to help identify research needs but are probably artificially polarized. We have at least identified many of the critical geophysical constraints, transport opportunities, biotic requirements for some disease systems, and some of the socioeconomic factors that govern the process of migration and establishment of parasites and pathogens. Furthermore, we are beginning to develop a mechanistic understanding of many of these variables at specific sites. Better predictive understanding will emerge in the coming years from analyses regarding how these variables interact with each other. PMID:20499130

2010-01-01

399

Modelling power-law spread of infectious diseases  

E-print Network

Short-time human travel behaviour can be well described by a power law with respect to distance. We incorporate this information in space-time models for infectious disease surveillance data to better capture the dynamics of disease spread. Two previously established model classes are extended, which both decompose disease risk additively into endemic and epidemic components: a space-time point process model for individual point-referenced data, and a multivariate time series model for aggregated count data. In both frameworks, the power-law spread is embedded into the epidemic component and its decay parameter is estimated simultaneously with all other unknown parameters using (penalised) likelihood inference. The performance of the new approach is investigated by a re-analysis of individual cases of invasive meningococcal disease in Germany (2002-2008), and count data on influenza in 140 administrative districts of Southern Germany (2001-2008). In both applications, the power-law formulations substantially ...

Meyer, Sebastian

2013-01-01

400

Pertussis. A reemerging and an underreported infectious disease.  

PubMed

Pertussis or whooping cough is a highly infectious, vaccine preventable disease. The incidence of the disease  has greatly been reduced since the introduction of the diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis vaccine. Pertussis resurgence has been observed in highly vaccinated populations of Western countries since 1990s. Poor vaccine quality, waning vaccine induced immunity, pathogen adaptation, and enhanced surveillance as well as advancements in diagnostic facilities are some of the reasons considered responsible for the increased reporting of pertussis cases. Pertussis may have been ignored and unnoticed due to its atypical manifestations in partially immunized population or people with waning immunity. We review the reports of pertussis resurgence from different countries and attempt to investigate reasons behind the reappearance of the disease. Pertussis is still an under reported disease and the available data from the developing countries is not a true picture of the story.  Therefore, developing countries need to improve their surveillance systems.  PMID:25316461

Syed, Muhammad A; Bana, Noureen F

2014-10-01

401

78 FR 5467 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel; ``OMICS'' Technologies for Predictive Modeling of Infectious. Date: February 25-27, 2013. Time: 8:00 a.m. to 5:00...

2013-01-25

402

Emerging Infectious Diseases: A Peer-Reviewed Journal Tracking and Analyzing Disease Trends  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The US National Center for Infectious Diseases, Center for Disease Control, offers the full text of its quarterly, peer reviewed journal Emerging Infectious Diseases at its web site. The issues are divided into three categories: Perspectives, dealing with the underlying causes of infectious disease emergence; Synopses, summaries of specific diseases; and Dispatches, "brief laboratory or epidemiologic reports with an international scope." The October-December 1996 issue contains articles on protecting against dangerous emerging pathogens, "Molecular Mechanisms of Bacterial Virulence," and Creutzfeldt-Jacob Disease in the US, among others. Issues are available in HTML, ASCII, .pdf, and PostScript format. A limited number of issues are available in Spanish, French and Chinese.

1995-01-01

403

Compensation for work-related hematologic, liver, and infectious diseases.  

PubMed

Occupational diseases may be defined only medically or scientifically, and even then, their definition is not simple. However, compensable occupational diseases involve the additional layer of legal systems and social welfare policies as well. Their multifaceted nature makes determining the work-relatedness of these diseases more complex. Korea has established standards for the recognition of occupational diseases in Schedule 5 of the Enforcement Decree of the Labor Standards Act, and specific criteria for the recognition of occupational diseases are listed in Schedule 3 of the Enforcement Decree of the Industrial Accident Compensation Insurance Act. The new list of compensable occupational diseases comprises 13 articles as an open-ended system. The newly added articles pertain to lymphohematopoietic (Article 5) and infectious diseases (Article 9), as well as diseases of other target organs. Furthermore, the article on liver diseases (Article 8) has been partially revised. The new act has been changed to clarify the meaning as it has been presented in recent research. It is necessary to achieve agreement among concerned parties, including experts from the legal, medical, and social domains to resolve the issues of work-relatedness, causation, notion of aggravation, and so on for preparing a list and a process that are more reasonable. PMID:25006327

Kim, Jung-Won; Kang, Dong-Mug

2014-06-01

404

Dynamic models of infectious diseases as regulators of population sizes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five SIRS epidemiological models for populations of varying size are considered. The incidences of infection are given by mass action terms involving the number of infectives and either the number of susceptibles or the fraction of the population which is susceptible. When the population dynamics are immigration and deaths, thresholds are found which determine whether the disease dies out or

Jaime Mena-Lorcat; Herbert W. Hethcote

1992-01-01

405

Incorporating population dynamics into household models of infectious disease transmission  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most household models of disease transmission assume static household distributions. Although this is a reasonable simplification for assessing vaccination strategies at a single point in time or over the course of an outbreak, it has considerable drawbacks for assessing long term vaccination policies or for predicting future changes in immunity. We demonstrate that household models that include births, deaths and

K. Glass; J. M. McCaw; J. McVernon

2011-01-01

406

Analysis of host- and strain-dependent cell death responses during infectious salmon anemia virus infection in vitro  

PubMed Central

Background Infectious salmon anemia virus (ISAV) is an aquatic orthomyxovirus and the causative agent of infectious salmon anemia (ISA), a disease of great importance in the Atlantic salmon farming industry. In vitro, ISAV infection causes cytophatic effect (CPE) in cell lines from Atlantic salmon, leading to rounding and finally detachment of the cells from the substratum. In this study, we investigated the mode of cell death during in vitro ISAV infection in different Atlantic salmon cell lines, using four ISAV strains causing different mortality in vivo. Results The results show that caspase 3/7 activity increased during the course of infection in ASK and SHK-1 cells, infected cells showed increased surface expression of phosphatidylserine and increased PI uptake, compared to mock infected cells; and morphological alterations of the mitochondria were observed. Expression analysis of immune relevant genes revealed no correlation between in vivo mortality and expression, but good correlation in expression of interferon genes. Conclusion Results from this study indicate that there is both strain and cell type dependent differences in the virus-host interaction during ISAV infection. This is important to bear in mind when extrapolating in vitro findings to the in vivo situation. PMID:19566966

Schi?tz, Berit L; Baekkevold, Espen S; Poulsen, Lene C; Mjaaland, Siri; Gj?en, Tor

2009-01-01

407

Epidemiology and Management of Infectious Diseases in International Adoptees  

PubMed Central

International adoptees represent a group of children with unique health care needs. Data from published studies, along with the recent experience of the Yale International Adoption Clinic, suggest that the risk of serious infections in adoptees is low, although infections associated with institutionalization still occur commonly. Interpretation of these data must be undertaken with caution, however, since many, if not most, international adoptees are not evaluated in specialty clinics. Thus, prospective studies designed to minimize selection and referral bias are needed in order to accurately define the risk of infectious and noninfectious diseases in all international adoptees. PMID:16020687

Murray, Thomas S.; Groth, M. Elizabeth; Weitzman, Carol; Cappello, Michael

2005-01-01

408

Infectious diseases in cinema: virus hunters and killer microbes.  

PubMed

The world of infectious diseases has been rarely presented in the cinema with accuracy. Apart from random biographies of scientists and retellings of stories about great epidemics from the past, most films focus on the dangers presented by outbreaks of unknown agents that originate from acts of bioterrorism, from laboratory accidents, or even from space. We review these films and underline the possible effect that they have on the public's perception of infection--a perception that, when misguided, could prove to be problematic in times of epidemics. PMID:13130406

Pappas, Georgios; Seitaridis, Savvas; Akritidis, Nikolaos; Tsianos, Epaminondas

2003-10-01

409

Infectious disease in animal metapopulations: the importance of environmental transmission  

PubMed Central

Motivated by an array of infectious diseases that threaten wildlife populations, a simple metapopulation model (subpopulations connected by animal movement) is developed, which allows for both movement-based and environmental transmission. The model demonstrates that for a range of plausible parameterizations of environmental transmission, increased movement rate of animals between discrete habitats can lead to a decrease in the overall proportion of sites that are occupied. This can limit the ability of the rescue effect to ensure locally extinct populations become recolonized and can drive metapopulations down in size so that extinction by mechanisms other than disease may become more likely. It further highlights that, in the context of environmental transmission, the environmental persistence time of pathogens and the probability of acquiring infection by environmental transmission can affect host metapopulations both qualitatively and quantitatively. Additional spillover sources of infection from alternate reservoir hosts are also included in the model and a synthesis of all three types of transmission, acting alone or in combination, is performed revealing that movement-based transmission is the only necessary condition for a decline in the proportion of occupied sites with increasing movement rate, but that the presence of other types of transmission can reverse this qualitative result. By including the previously neglected role of environmental transmission, this work contributes to the general discussion of when dispersal by wild animals is beneficial or detrimental to populations experiencing infectious disease. PMID:22957148

Park, Andrew W

2012-01-01

410

Infectious disease in animal metapopulations: the importance of environmental transmission.  

PubMed

Motivated by an array of infectious diseases that threaten wildlife populations, a simple metapopulation model (subpopulations connected by animal movement) is developed, which allows for both movement-based and environmental transmission. The model demonstrates that for a range of plausible parameterizations of environmental transmission, increased movement rate of animals between discrete habitats can lead to a decrease in the overall proportion of sites that are occupied. This can limit the ability of the rescue effect to ensure locally extinct populations become recolonized and can drive metapopulations down in size so that extinction by mechanisms other than disease may become more likely. It further highlights that, in the context of environmental transmission, the environmental persistence time of pathogens and the probability of acquiring infection by environmental transmission can affect host metapopulations both qualitatively and quantitatively. Additional spillover sources of infection from alternate reservoir hosts are also included in the model and a synthesis of all three types of transmission, acting alone or in combination, is performed revealing that movement-based transmission is the only necessary condition for a decline in the proportion of occupied sites with increasing movement rate, but that the presence of other types of transmission can reverse this qualitative result. By including the previously neglected role of environmental transmission, this work contributes to the general discussion of when dispersal by wild animals is beneficial or detrimental to populations experiencing infectious disease. PMID:22957148

Park, Andrew W

2012-07-01

411

Combating tropical infectious diseases: report of the Disease Control Priorities in Developing Countries Project.  

PubMed

Infectious diseases are responsible for >25% of the global disease toll. The new Disease Control Priorities in Developing Countries Project (DCPP) aims to decrease the burden of these diseases by producing science-based analyses from demographic, epidemiologic, disease intervention, and economic evidence for the purpose of defining disease priorities and implementing control measures. The DCPP recently reviewed selected tropical infectious diseases, examined successful control experiences, and defined unsettled patient treatment, prevention, and research issues. Disease elimination programs against American trypanosomiasis (Chagas disease), onchocerciasis, lymphatic filariasis, leprosy, trachoma, and measles are succeeding. Dengue, leishmaniasis, African trypanosomiasis, malaria, diarrheal diseases, helminthic infections, and tuberculosis have reemerged because of inadequate interventions and control strategies and the breakdown of health delivery systems. Application of technologies must be cost-effective and intensified research is essential if these and other scourges are to be controlled or eliminated in the 21st century. PMID:14999633

Hotez, Peter J; Remme, Jan H F; Buss, Paulo; Alleyne, George; Morel, Carlos; Breman, Joel G

2004-03-15

412

Principles and application of antibody libraries for infectious diseases.  

PubMed

Antibodies have been used efficiently for the treatment and diagnosis of many diseases. Recombinant antibody technology allows the generation of fully human antibodies. Phage display is the gold standard for the production of human antibodies in vitro. To generate monoclonal antibodies by phage display, the generation of antibody libraries is crucial. Antibody libraries are classified according to the source where the antibody gene sequences were obtained. The most useful library for infectious diseases is the immunized library. Immunized libraries would allow better and selective enrichment of antibodies against disease antigens. The antibodies generated from these libraries can be translated for both diagnostic and therapeutic applications. This review focuses on the generation of immunized antibody libraries and the potential applications of the antibodies derived from these libraries. PMID:25214212

Lim, Bee Nar; Tye, Gee Jun; Choong, Yee Siew; Ong, Eugene Boon Beng; Ismail, Asma; Lim, Theam Soon

2014-12-01

413

The Royal Society Inquiry into Infectious Diseases in Livestock  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

At the conclusion of 2001, The Royal Society Inquiry into Infectious Diseases in Livestock began their investigation into the devastating outbreak of foot and mouth disease that occurred earlier that year in Britain. This report, released in July 2002, outlines some of the ways that future transmission of the disease and subsequent epidemics may be prevented and more effectively controlled. The report was prepared by a committee comprised of scientists, veterinarians, farmers, and other concerned parties who made site visits to areas affected by the outbreak, along with compiling an extensive oral account of the epidemic. Along with the entire 140-page report, there are an 8-page summary of the committee's ten key findings, various progress reports issued before the final report, and the oral and written testimony collected by different members of the committee. On the whole, this is an engaging inquiry into one of the most well publicized epidemiological outbreaks of recent times.

2002-01-01

414

Drug repurposing: a better approach for infectious disease drug discovery?  

PubMed

The advent of publicly available databases containing system-wide phenotypic data of the host response to both drugs and pathogens, in conjunction with bioinformatics and computational methods now allows for in silico predictions of FDA-approved drugs as treatments against infection diseases. This systems biology approach captures the complexity of both the pathogen and drug host response in the form of expression patterns or molecular interaction networks without having to understand the underlying mechanisms of action. These drug repurposing techniques have been successful in identifying new drug candidates for several types of cancers and were recently used to identify potential therapeutics against influenza, the newly discovered Middle Eastern Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus and several parasitic diseases. These new approaches have the potential to significantly reduce both the time and cost for infectious diseases drug discovery. PMID:24011665

Law, G Lynn; Tisoncik-Go, Jennifer; Korth, Marcus J; Katze, Michael G

2013-10-01

415

Drug repurposing: a better approach for infectious disease drug discovery?  

PubMed Central

The advent of publically available databases containing system-wide phenotypic data of the host response to both drugs and pathogens, in conjunction with bioinformatics and computational methods now allows for in silico predictions of FDA-approved drugs as treatments against infection diseases. This systems biology approach captures the complexity of both the pathogen and drug host response in the form of expression patterns or molecular interaction networks without having to understand the underlying mechanisms of action. These drug repurposing techniques have been successful in identifying new drug candidates for several types of cancers and were recently use to identify potential therapeutics against influenza, the newly discovered Middle Eastern Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus and several parasitic diseases. These new approaches have the potential to significantly reduce both the time and cost for infectious diseases drug discovery. PMID:24011665

Law, G. Lynn; Tisoncik-Go, Jennifer; Korth, Marcus J.; Katze, Michael G.

2014-01-01

416

[Sir Arthur Conan Doyle, Sherlock Holmes and infectious diseases].  

PubMed

Besides a pleasant author of best sellers, Sir Arthur Conan Doyle was a medical doctor, writing excellent short stories about the exercise of his profession in England. However, even he mentions The British Medical Journal and The Lancet in the Sherlock Holmes's stories, when in the plot introduces infectious diseases, Conan Doyle ignores important discoveries in the field of tetanus. Anyway, the appearing of infectious diseases in the adventures of the detective are rare: one mention of tetanus, another of leprosy and- the most analyzed in medical literature a case of murder by inoculation of bacteria, probably the agent of melioidosis. Also he makes his hero discovers the toxic actions of a medusa and a transplant of solid organ. Little for a physician and less for an author who also wrote science fiction: it seems that the history of the great medical discoveries at the end of nineteenth century and beginning of the twentieth has passed by his side.., and he just couldn't see it. PMID:21186510

Ledermann D, Walter

2010-10-01

417

Nanotechnology and pulmonary delivery to overcome resistance in infectious diseases.  

PubMed

Used since ancient times especially for the local treatment of pulmonary diseases, lungs and airways are a versatile target route for the administration of both local and systemic drugs. Despite the existence of different platforms and devices for the pulmonary administration of drugs, only a few formulations are marketed, partly due to physiological and technological limitations. Respiratory infections represent a significant burden to health systems worldwide mainly due to intrahospital infections that more easily affect immune-compromised patients. Moreover, tuberculosis (TB) is an endemic infectious disease in many developing nations and it has resurged in the developed world associated with the human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) epidemic. Currently, medicine faces the specter of antibiotic resistance. Besides the development of new anti-infectious drugs, the development of innovative and more efficient delivery systems for drugs that went off patent appears as a promising strategy pursued by the pharmaceutical industry to improve the therapeutic outcomes and to prolong the utilities of their intellectual property portfolio. In this context, nanotechnology-based drug delivery systems (nano-DDS) emerged as a promising approach to circumvent the limitations of conventional formulations and to treat drug resistance, opening the hypothesis for new developments in this area. PMID:23932923

Andrade, Fernanda; Rafael, Diana; Videira, Mafalda; Ferreira, Domingos; Sosnik, Alejandro; Sarmento, Bruno

2013-11-01

418

Biosecurity Measures in 48 Isolation Facilities Managing Highly Infectious Diseases  

PubMed Central

Biosecurity measures are traditionally applied to laboratories, but they may also be usefully applied in highly specialized clinical settings, such as the isolation facilities for the management of patients with highly infectious diseases (eg, viral hemorrhagic fevers, SARS, smallpox, potentially severe pandemic flu, and MDR- and XDR-tuberculosis). In 2009 the European Network for Highly Infectious Diseases conducted a survey in 48 isolation facilities in 16 European countries to determine biosecurity measures for access control to the facility. Security personnel are present in 39 facilities (81%). In 35 facilities (73%), entrance to the isolation area is restricted; control methods include electronic keys, a PIN system, closed-circuit TV, and guards at the doors. In 25 facilities (52%), identification and registration of all staff entering and exiting the isolation area are required. Access control is used in most surveyed centers, but specific lacks exist in some facilities. Further data are needed to assess other biosecurity aspects, such as the security measures during the transportation of potentially contaminated materials and measures to address the risk of an “insider attack.” PMID:22571373

Puro, Vincenzo; Schilling, Stefan; Thomson, Gail; De Iaco, Giuseppina; Brouqui, Philippe; Maltezou, Helena C.; Bannister, Barbara; Gottschalk, Rene; Brodt, Hans-Rheinhard; Ippolito, Giuseppe

2012-01-01

419

Problems and perspectives of molecular epidemiology of infectious diseases.  

PubMed

Current tendencies and problems of molecular biology and its application in infectious diseases are discussed. Basic stages of the development of molecular epidemiology as a leading tool for epidemiological studies are reviewed. More than 30 years ago, molecular epidemiology was first used to study nosocomial infections. Special attention is given to the achievements of Russian scientists, especially in the discovery of Astrakhan spotted fever Rickettsia, noncultured forms of Vibrio cholerae, and the microorganism "Montezuma." Also, the development of PCR-based methods of identification and typing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis by Russian specialists and its significant role in strategies for diagnosing and treatment of tuberculosis are discussed. Now, the most important field of application of molecular biology methods is bacterial evolution, especially with regard to pathogenic microorganisms and emerging infections. Searching for the novel pathogenic agents, establishment of the infectious nature of diseases with unclear origin, and determining the precise mechanisms of pathogenicity are most intriguing issues. So, molecular biology should play a major role both in clinical and research fields. PMID:12860718

Tarasevich, I V; Shaginyan, I A; Mediannikov, O Y

2003-06-01

420

Challenges in mucosal vaccines for the control of infectious diseases.  

PubMed

The mucosal surface is the largest route through which pathogens enter the human body. To control the outbreak of mucosal infectious diseases, we must use our knowledge of the mucosal immune system to create vaccines that elicit protective mucosal and systemic immunity. Mucosal vaccines have advantages over traditional injectable vaccines in that they not only induce effective mucosal immune responses, but they also do not cause physical or psychological discomfort. Mucosal vaccines currently licensed for human use include oral vaccines against Vibrio cholerae, Salmonella typhi, poliovirus and rotavirus, and nasal vaccines against influenza virus. To further improve the existing vaccines, it will be necessary to develop novel vaccine production, storage and delivery systems through innovative strategies derived from interdisciplinary scientific research. Our accumulated knowledge of the innate and acquired arms of the mucosal immune system and the recent scientific and technical advancements in the fields of molecular biology, plant biology, bio-engineering and chemical engineering, genome biology and systems biology have created a unique research and development platform for the development of the next generation of mucosal vaccines. This review summarizes the current perspectives and future directions of mucosal vaccine development with emphasis on oral and nasal vaccines for the control of infectious diseases. PMID:24914172

Azegami, Tatsuhiko; Yuki, Yoshikazu; Kiyono, Hiroshi

2014-09-01

421

Creating a Global Dialogue on Infectious Disease Surveillance: Connecting Organizations for Regional Disease Surveillance (CORDS)  

PubMed Central

Connecting Organizations for Regional Disease Surveillance (CORDS) is an international non-governmental organization focused on information exchange between disease surveillance networks in different areas of the world. By linking regional disease surveillance networks, CORDS builds a trust-based social fabric of experts who share best practices, surveillance tools and strategies, training courses, and innovations. CORDS exemplifies the shifting patterns of international collaboration needed to prevent, detect, and counter all types of biological dangers – not just naturally occurring infectious diseases, but also terrorist threats. Representing a network-of-networks approach, the mission of CORDS is to link regional disease surveillance networks to improve global capacity to respond to infectious diseases. CORDS is an informal governance cooperative with six founding regional disease surveillance networks, with plans to expand; it works in complement and cooperatively with the World Health Organization (WHO), the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE), and the Food and Animal Organization of the United Nations (FAO). As described in detail elsewhere in this special issue of Emerging Health Threats, each regional network is an alliance of a small number of neighboring countries working across national borders to tackle emerging infectious diseases that require unified regional efforts. Here we describe the history, culture and commitment of CORDS; and the novel and necessary role that CORDS serves in the existing international infectious disease surveillance framework. PMID:23362412

Gresham, Louise S.; Smolinski, Mark S.; Suphanchaimat, Rapeepong; Kimball, Ann Marie; Wibulpolprasert, Suwit

2013-01-01

422

The population ecology of infectious diseases: pertussis in Thailand as a case study.  

PubMed

Many of the fundamental concepts in studying infectious diseases are rooted in population ecology. We describe the importance of population ecology in exploring central issues in infectious disease research including identifying the drivers and dynamics of host-pathogen interactions and pathogen persistence, and evaluating the success of public health policies. The use of ecological concepts in infectious disease research is demonstrated with simple theoretical examples in addition to an analysis of case notification data of pertussis, a childhood respiratory disease, in Thailand as a case study. We stress that further integration of these fields will have significant impacts in infectious diseases research. PMID:22717183

Blackwood, J C; Cummings, D A T; Broutin, H; Iamsirithaworn, S; Rohani, P

2012-12-01

423

The infectious diseases impact statement: a mechanism for addressing emerging diseases.  

PubMed

The use of an Infectious Diseases Impact Statement (IDIS) is proposed for predictive assessments of local changes in infectious diseases arising from human-engineered activities. IDIS is intended to be analogous to an Environmental Impact Statement. The drafting of an IDIS for specific activities, particularly in developing nations, would provide a formal mechanism for examining potential changes in local health conditions, including infected and susceptible populations, diseases likely to fluctuate in response to development, existing control measures, and vectors likely to be affected by human activities. The resulting survey data could provide a rational basis and direction for development, surveillance, and prevention measures. An IDIS process that balances environmental alterations, local human health, and economic growth could substantially alter the nature of international development efforts and infectious disease outbreaks. PMID:8903209

McSweegan, E

1996-01-01

424

[The North African plague and Charles Nicolle's theory of infectious diseases].  

PubMed

Many infectious diseases were described in North Africa in 18th-19th centuries by European travellers. Most of them were allegedly imported by new migrant populations coming from sub-Saharan, European or Middle East countries. Plague outbreaks have been described since the Black Death as diseases of the Mediterranean harbours. Charles Nicolle and his collaborators at the Pasteur Institute were witnesses to the extinction of plague and typhus fever in Tunisia. Both could be considered as endemo-epidemic diseases propagated by ancient nomad communities for centuries. Typhus was exported to other countries; plague was imported by Mediterranean travellers but also hid in unknown wild-animal reservoirs. The role of the bite of a rat's flea was not confirmed and the pneumonic form might have prevailed in the medieval North African cities. Association between plague, typhus, flu and other causes of immune deficiencies could explain the high morbidity and mortality caused by plague in the past. The authors comment the local history of plague at the light of the evolutionary laws of infectious disease proposed by Charles Nicolle in 1930. PMID:20698363

Ben, Néfissa Kmar; Moulin, Anne Marie

2010-01-01

425

Natural selection and infectious disease in human populations.  

PubMed

The ancient biological 'arms race' between microbial pathogens and humans has shaped genetic variation in modern populations, and this has important implications for the growing field of medical genomics. As humans migrated throughout the world, populations encountered distinct pathogens, and natural selection increased the prevalence of alleles that are advantageous in the new ecosystems in both host and pathogens. This ancient history now influences human infectious disease susceptibility and microbiome homeostasis, and contributes to common diseases that show geographical disparities, such as autoimmune and metabolic disorders. Using new high-throughput technologies, analytical methods and expanding public data resources, the investigation of natural selection is leading to new insights into the function and dysfunction of human biology. PMID:24776769

Karlsson, Elinor K; Kwiatkowski, Dominic P; Sabeti, Pardis C

2014-06-01

426

Immunization Delivered by Lentiviral Vectors for Cancer and Infectious Diseases  

PubMed Central

Summary The increasing level of understanding of the lentivirus biology has been instrumental in shaping the design strategy of creating therapeutic lentiviral delivery vectors. As a result, lentiviral vectors have become one of the most powerful gene transfer vehicles. They are widely used for therapeutic purposes as well as in studies of basic biology, due to their unique characteristics. Lentiviral vectors have been successfully employed to mediate durable and efficient antigen expression and presentation in dendritic cells both in vitro and in vivo, leading to the activation of cellular immunity and humoral responses. This capability makes the lentiviral vector an ideal choice for immunizations that target a wide range of cancers and infectious diseases. Further advances into optimizing the vector system and understanding the relationship between the immune system and diseases pathogenesis will only augment the potential benefits and utility of lentiviral vaccines for human health. PMID:21198664

Hu, Biliang; Tai, April; Wang, Pin

2011-01-01

427

Infectious Disease Modeling of Social Contagion in Networks  

PubMed Central

Many behavioral phenomena have been found to spread interpersonally through social networks, in a manner similar to infectious diseases. An important difference between social contagion and traditional infectious diseases, however, is that behavioral phenomena can be acquired by non-social mechanisms as well as through social transmission. We introduce a novel theoretical framework for studying these phenomena (the SISa model) by adapting a classic disease model to include the possibility for ‘automatic’ (or ‘spontaneous’) non-social infection. We provide an example of the use of this framework by examining the spread of obesity in the Framingham Heart Study Network. The interaction assumptions of the model are validated using longitudinal network transmission data. We find that the current rate of becoming obese is 2 per year and increases by 0.5 percentage points for each obese social contact. The rate of recovering from obesity is 4 per year, and does not depend on the number of non-obese contacts. The model predicts a long-term obesity prevalence of approximately 42, and can be used to evaluate the effect of different interventions on steady-state obesity. Model predictions quantitatively reproduce the actual historical time course for the prevalence of obesity. We find that since the 1970s, the rate of recovery from obesity has remained relatively constant, while the rates of both spontaneous infection and transmission have steadily increased over time. This suggests that the obesity epidemic may be driven by increasing rates of becoming obese, both spontaneously and transmissively, rather than by decreasing rates of losing weight. A key feature of the SISa model is its ability to characterize the relative importance of social transmission by quantitatively comparing rates of spontaneous versus contagious infection. It provides a theoretical framework for studying the interpersonal spread of any state that may also arise spontaneously, such as emotions, behaviors, health states, ideas or diseases with reservoirs. PMID:21079667

Hill, Alison L.; Rand, David G.; Nowak, Martin A.; Christakis, Nicholas A.

2010-01-01

428

Infectious disease modeling of social contagion in networks.  

PubMed

Many behavioral phenomena have been found to spread interpersonally through social networks, in a manner similar to infectious diseases. An important difference between social contagion and traditional infectious diseases, however, is that behavioral phenomena can be acquired by non-social mechanisms as well as through social transmission. We introduce a novel theoretical framework for studying these phenomena (the SISa model) by adapting a classic disease model to include the possibility for 'automatic' (or 'spontaneous') non-social infection. We provide an example of the use of this framework by examining the spread of obesity in the Framingham Heart Study Network. The interaction assumptions of the model are validated using longitudinal network transmission data. We find that the current rate of becoming obese is 2 per year and increases by 0.5 percentage points for each obese social contact. The rate of recovering from obesity is 4 per year, and does not depend on the number of non-obese contacts. The model predicts a long-term obesity prevalence of approximately 42, and can be used to evaluate the effect of different interventions on steady-state obesity. Model predictions quantitatively reproduce the actual historical time course for the prevalence of obesity. We find that since the 1970s, the rate of recovery from obesity has remained relatively constant, while the rates of both spontaneous infection and transmission have steadily increased over time. This suggests that the obesity epidemic may be driven by increasing rates of becoming obese, both spontaneously and transmissively, rather than by decreasing rates of losing weight. A key feature of the SISa model is its ability to characterize the relative importance of social transmission by quantitatively comparing rates of spontaneous versus contagious infection. It provides a theoretical framework for studying the interpersonal spread of any state that may also arise spontaneously, such as emotions, behaviors, health states, ideas or diseases with reservoirs. PMID:21079667

Hill, Alison L; Rand, David G; Nowak, Martin A; Christakis, Nicholas A

2010-01-01

429

Infectious diseases in large-scale cat hoarding investigations.  

PubMed

Animal hoarders accumulate animals in over-crowded conditions without adequate nutrition, sanitation, and veterinary care. As a result, animals rescued from hoarding frequently have a variety of medical conditions including respiratory infections, gastrointestinal disease, parasitism, malnutrition, and other evidence of neglect. The purpose of this study was to characterize the infectious diseases carried by clinically affected cats and to determine the prevalence of retroviral infections among cats in large-scale cat hoarding investigations. Records were reviewed retrospectively from four large-scale seizures of cats from failed sanctuaries from November 2009 through March 2012. The number of cats seized in each case ranged from 387 to 697. Cats were screened for feline leukemia virus (FeLV) and feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) in all four cases and for dermatophytosis in one case. A subset of cats exhibiting signs of upper respiratory disease or diarrhea had been tested for infections by PCR and fecal flotation for treatment planning. Mycoplasma felis (78%), calicivirus (78%), and Streptococcus equi subspecies zooepidemicus (55%) were the most common respiratory infections. Feline enteric coronavirus (88%), Giardia (56%), Clostridium perfringens (49%), and Tritrichomonas foetus (39%) were most common in cats with diarrhea. The seroprevalence of FeLV and FIV were 8% and 8%, respectively. In the one case in which cats with lesions suspicious for dermatophytosis were cultured for Microsporum canis, 69/76 lesional cats were culture-positive; of these, half were believed to be truly infected and half were believed to be fomite carriers. Cats from large-scale hoarding cases had high risk for enteric and respiratory infections, retroviruses, and dermatophytosis. Case responders should be prepared for mass treatment of infectious diseases and should implement protocols to prevent transmission of feline or zoonotic infections during the emergency response and when transferring the rescued cats to other shelters or to adopters. PMID:24934262

Polak, K C; Levy, J K; Crawford, P C; Leutenegger, C M; Moriello, K A

2014-08-01

430

Risk factors for infectious diseases in backyard poultry farms in the Poyang Lake area, China.  

PubMed

Emergence and transmission of infectious diseases have an enormous impact on the poultry industry and present a serious threat to the health of humans and wild birds. Noncommercial poultry operations, such as backyard poultry facilities in China, are potential sources of virus exchange between commercial poultry and wild birds. It is particularly critical in wetland areas where backyard poultry have close contact with commercial poultry and migratory birds, therefore increasing the risk of contracting infectious diseases. To evaluate the transmission risks, a cross-sectional study was undertaken in the Poyang Lake area, China, involving 309 residents in the backyard poultry farms in three counties (Region A, B, and C) of Jiangxi Province. We examined the backyard poultry population, poultry species, presence of poultry deaths from infectious diseases, food sources, and biosecurity practices. Region B ranked highest for biosecurity while region C ranked lowest. The risks of infectious diseases were assessed by adjusted odds ratio based on multivariate logistic regression analysis. Potential risk factors in the three regions of the study site were compared. In Region A, significant factor was contact of poultry with wild birds (OR: 6.573, 95% CI: 2.148-20.115, P=0.001). In Region B, the most significant factor was contact of poultry with neighboring backyard waterfowls (OR: 3.967, 95% CI: 1.555-10.122, P=0.004). In Region C, significant factors were poultry purchase from local live bird markets (OR: 3.740, 95% CI: 1.243-11.255, P=0.019), and contact of poultry with wild birds (OR: 3.379, 95% CI: 1.058-10.791, P=0.040). In summary, backyard poultry was significantly affected by neighboring commercial poultry and close contact with wild birds. The results are expected to improve our understanding of the transmission risks of infectious diseases in a typical backyard poultry environment in rural China, and address the need to improve local farming practices and take preventive measures. PMID:23840680

Wang, Yong; Jiang, Zhiben; Jin, Zhenyu; Tan, Hua; Xu, Bing

2013-01-01

431

Emerging Trends in International Law Concerning Global Infectious Disease Control1  

PubMed Central

International cooperation has become critical in controlling infectious diseases. In this article, I examine emerging trends in international law concerning global infectious disease control. The role of international law in horizontal and vertical governance responses to infectious disease control is conceptualized; the historical development of international law regarding infectious diseases is described; and important shifts in how states, international institutions, and nonstate organizations use international law in the context of infectious disease control today are analyzed. The growing importance of international trade law and the development of global governance mechanisms, most prominently in connection with increasing access to drugs and other medicines in unindustrialized countries, are emphasized. Traditional international legal approaches to infectious disease control—embodied in the International Health Regulations—may be moribund. PMID:12643821

2003-01-01

432

Get the News Out Loudly and Quickly: Modeling the Influence of the Media on Limiting Infectious Disease Outbreaks  

Microsoft Academic Search

During outbreaks of serious infectious diseases many individuals closely follow media reports of the outbreak and take steps, including self-isolation, to protect themselves from infection and possibly death. Self-isolation can take many forms including restricting local and long-distance travel, using face masks, and choosing to receive a vaccine. We use mathematical modeling to show that public health agencies working together

Anna Mummert; Howard Weiss

2010-01-01

433

Water-Borne Infectious Disease Outbreaks Associated with Water Scarcity and Rainfall Events  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a An important number of major infectious diseases are related to water. The greatest consequences for the human population\\u000a are the faecal-oral water-borne infectious diseases, which are transmitted by ingestion of the causal agents that are released\\u000a into water through faeces. The occurrence of outbreaks of water-borne infectious diseases could be affected by water scarcity\\u000a at different degrees depending on the

Juan Jofre; Anicet R. Blanch; Francisco Lucena

434

Identifying risk factors of avian infectious diseases at household level in Poyang Lake region, China.  

PubMed

Poultry kept in backyard farms are susceptible to acquiring and spreading infectious diseases because of free ranging and poor biosecurity measures. Since some of these diseases are zoonoses, this is also a significant health concern to breeders and their families. Backyard farms are common in rural regions of China. However, there is lack of knowledge of backyard poultry in the country. To obtain first-hand information of backyard poultry and identify risk factors of avian infectious diseases, a cross-sectional study was carried out at household level in rural regions around Poyang Lake. A door-to-door survey was conducted to collect data on husbandry practices, trading practices of backyard farmers, and surrounding environments of backyard farms. Farms were categorized into cases and controls based on their history of poultry death. Data were collected for 137 farms, and the association with occurrence of poultry death event was explored by chi-square tests. Results showed that vaccination implementation was a protective factor (odds ratio OR=0.40, 95% confidence interval CI: 0.20-0.80, p=0.01), while contact with other backyard flocks increased risk (OR=1.72, 95% CI: 0.79-3.74, p=0.16). A concept of "farm connectivity" characterized by the density of particular land-use types in the vicinity of the farm was proposed to characterize the degree of contact between poultry in one household farm and those in other household farms. It was found that housing density in a 20-m buffer zone of the farmhouse was most significantly associated with poultry death occurrence (OR=1.08, 95% CI: 1.02-1.17, p=0.03), and was in agreement with observation of villagers. Binary logistic regression was applied to evaluate the relationship between poultry death event and density of land-use types in all buffer zones. When integrated with vaccination implementation for poultry, prediction accuracy of poultry death event reached 72.0%. Results combining questionnaire survey with geographical approaches indicated that occurrence of poultry death event among backyard farms within a village was heavily impacted by farm connectivity. This study provides new insight for the study and help to develop more targeted prevention and countermeasure in a typical rural environment of China. PMID:24861426

Jiang, Qian; Zhou, Jieting; Jiang, Zhiben; Xu, Bing

2014-09-01

435

How to make predictions about future infectious disease risks  

PubMed Central

Formal, quantitative approaches are now widely used to make predictions about the likelihood of an infectious disease outbreak, how the disease will spread, and how to control it. Several well-established methodologies are available, including risk factor analysis, risk modelling and dynamic modelling. Even so, predictive modelling is very much the ‘art of the possible’, which tends to drive research effort towards some areas and away from others which may be at least as important. Building on the undoubted success of quantitative modelling of the epidemiology and control of human and animal diseases such as AIDS, influenza, foot-and-mouth disease and BSE, attention needs to be paid to developing a more holistic framework that captures the role of the underlying drivers of disease risks, from demography and behaviour to land use and climate change. At the same time, there is still considerable room for improvement in how quantitative analyses and their outputs are communicated to policy makers and other stakeholders. A starting point would be generally accepted guidelines for ‘good practice’ for the development and the use of predictive models. PMID:21624924

Woolhouse, Mark

2011-01-01

436

Spatiotemporal Infectious Disease Modeling: A BME-SIR Approach  

PubMed Central

This paper is concerned with the modeling of infectious disease spread in a composite space-time domain under conditions of uncertainty. We focus on stochastic modeling that accounts for basic mechanisms of disease distribution and multi-sourced in situ uncertainties. Starting from the general formulation of population migration dynamics and the specification of transmission and recovery rates, the model studies the functional formulation of the evolution of the fractions of susceptible-infected-recovered individuals. The suggested approach is capable of: a) modeling population dynamics within and across localities, b) integrating the disease representation (i.e. susceptible-infected-recovered individuals) with observation time series at different geographical locations and other sources of information (e.g. hard and soft data, empirical relationships, secondary information), and c) generating predictions of disease spread and associated parameters in real time, while considering model and observation uncertainties. Key aspects of the proposed approach are illustrated by means of simulations (i.e. synthetic studies), and a real-world application using hand-foot-mouth disease (HFMD) data from China. PMID:24086257

Angulo, Jose; Yu, Hwa-Lung; Langousis, Andrea; Kolovos, Alexander; Wang, Jinfeng; Madrid, Ana Esther; Christakos, George

2013-01-01

437

Prenatal exposure to PFOA and PFOS and risk of hospitalization for infectious diseases in early childhood  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectivesTo examine whether prenatal exposure to perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) or perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) is associated with the occurrence of hospitalization for infectious diseases during early childhood.

Chunyuan Fei; Joseph K. McLaughlin; Loren Lipworth; Jørn Olsen

2010-01-01

438

Applications of gold nanoparticles in the detection and identification of infectious diseases and biothreats.  

PubMed

The situation of infectious diseases and biothreats all over the world remains serious. The effective identification of such diseases plays a very important role. In recent years, gold nanoparticles have been widely used in biosensor design to improve the performance for the detection of infectious diseases and biothreats. Here, recent advances of gold-nanoparticle-based biosensors in this field are summarized. PMID:23977699

Lin, Meihua; Pei, Hao; Yang, Fan; Fan, Chunhai; Zuo, Xiaolei

2013-07-01

439

The population ecology of infectious diseases: pertussis in Thailand as a case study  

E-print Network

The population ecology of infectious diseases: pertussis in Thailand as a case study J. C in addition to an analysis of case notification data of pertussis, a childhood respiratory disease in infectious diseases research. Key words: Population ecology, spatio-temporal dynamics, persistence, pertussis

Rohani, Pej

440

Spatial Simulation Model for Infectious Viral Diseases with Focus on SARS and the Common Flu  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper focuses on simulating the infectious process on a computer. To simulate how an infectious viral disease spreads not only shows how people get sick, it can also be a powerful tool in disease prevention. You can test actions such as to isolate people that get sick and analyze if the disease spread can be circumscribed or stopped. Special

Christoph Aschwanden

2004-01-01

441

The U.S.Mexico Border Infectious Disease Surveillance Project: Establishing Binational Border Surveillance  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1997, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the Mexican Secretariat of Health, and border health officials began the development of the Border Infectious Disease Sur- veillance (BIDS) project, a surveillance system for infectious diseases along the U.S.-Mexico border. During a 3-year period, a binational team implemented an active, sentinel surveillance system for hepatitis and febrile exanthems at 13

Michelle Weinberg; Stephen Waterman; Carlos Alvarez Lucas; Veronica Carrion Falcon; Pablo Kuri Morales; Luis Anaya Lopez; Chris Peter; Alejandro Escobar Gutiérrez; Ernesto Ramirez Gonzalez; Ana Flisser; Ralph Bryan; Enrique Navarro Valle; Alfonso Rodriguez; Gerardo Alvarez Hernandez; Cecilia Rosales; Javier Arias Ortiz; Michael Landen; Hugo Vilchis; Julie Rawlings; Francisco Lopez Leal; Luis Ortega; Elaine Flagg; Roberto Tapia Conyer

442

Prevalence of infectious diseases in ring-necked pheasant flocks in Poland.  

PubMed

The health status of ring-necked pheasants in view of the prevalence of infectious diseases was estimated in Polish pheasantries in the years 1997-2000. Anatomicopathological, microbiological and serological examinations were carried out on birds derived from 26 pheasantries, including birds randomly selected from 18 flocks and sick or dead birds sent from 8 pheasantries. Antibodies specific to the following viruses were detected in serum blood samples: HE, AE, AP, REO, AI, Adeno group 1, MD, ND, as well as Mycoplasma gallisepticum specific antibodies. However, in none of the examined flocks was the presence of antibodies against reticuloendoteliosis virus found. Marble spleen disease and salmonellosis proved to be the most frequent cause of death during the growing period. PMID:14510048

Wieliczko, A; Tomanek, B; Kuczkowski, M

2003-01-01

443

Point-of-Care Microdevices for Blood Plasma Analysis in Viral Infectious Diseases.  

PubMed

Each year, outbreaks of viral infections cause illness, disability, death, and economic loss. As learned from past incidents, the detrimental impact grows exponentially without effective quarantine. Therefore, rapid on-site detection and analysis are highly desired. In addition, for high-risk areas of viral contamination, close monitoring should be provided during the potential disease incubation period. As the epidemic progresses, a response protocol needs tobe rapidly implemented and the virus evolution fully tracked. For these scenarios, point-of-care microdevices can provide sensitive, accurate, rapid and low-cost analysis for a large population, especially in handling complex patient samples, such as blood, urine and saliva. Blood plasma can be considered as a mine of information containing sources and clues of biomarkers, including nucleic acids, immunoglobulin and other proteins, as well as pathogens for clinical diagnosis. However, blood plasma is also the most complicated body fluid. For targeted plasma biomarker detection or untargeted plasma biomarker discovery, the challenges can be as difficult as identifying a needle in a haystack. A useful platform must not only pursue single performance characteristics, but also excel at multiple performance parameters, such as speed, accuracy, sensitivity, selectivity, cost, portability, reliability, and user friendliness. Throughout the decades, tremendous progress has been made in point-of-care microdevices for viral infectious diseases. In this paper, we review fully integrated lab-on-chip systems for blood analysis of viral infectious disease. PMID:24879614

Yeh, Yin-Ting; Nisic, Merisa; Yu, Xu; Xia, Yiqiu; Zheng, Si-Yang

2014-11-01

444

Large-scale spatial population databases in infectious disease research  

PubMed Central

Modelling studies on the spatial distribution and spread of infectious diseases are becoming increasingly detailed and sophisticated, with global risk mapping and epidemic modelling studies now popular. Yet, in deriving populations at risk of disease estimates, these spatial models must rely on existing global and regional datasets on population distribution, which are often based on outdated and coarse resolution data. Moreover, a variety of different methods have been used to model population distribution at large spatial scales. In this review we describe the main global gridded population datasets that are freely available for health researchers and compare their construction methods, and highlight the uncertainties inherent in these population datasets. We review their application in past studies on disease risk and dynamics, and discuss how the choice of dataset can affect results. Moreover, we highlight how the lack of contemporary, detailed and reliable data on human population distribution in low income countries is proving a barrier to obtaining accurate large-scale estimates of population at risk and constructing reliable models of disease spread, and suggest research directions required to further reduce these barriers. PMID:22433126

2012-01-01

445

Research on an infectious disease transmission by flocking birds.  

PubMed

The swarm intelligence is becoming a hot topic. The flocking of birds is a natural phenomenon, which is formed and organized without central or external controls for some benefits (e.g., reduction of energy consummation). However, the flocking also has some negative effects on the human, as the infectious disease H7N9 will easily be transmited from the denser flocking birds to the human. Zombie-city model has been proposed to help analyzing and modeling the flocking birds and the artificial society. This paper focuses on the H7N9 virus transmission in the flocking birds and from the flocking birds to the human. And some interesting results have been shown: (1) only some simple rules could result in an emergence such as the flocking; (2) the minimum distance between birds could affect H7N9 virus transmission in the flocking birds and even affect the virus transmissions from the flocking birds to the human. PMID:23864820

Tang, Mingsheng; Mao, Xinjun; Guessoum, Zahia

2013-01-01

446

[Infectious diseases and injuries of bladder and urinary tract].  

PubMed

Urinary tract infections are the most common infectious diseases in Germany. In most cases clarification does not rely on imaging techniques other than sonography and is made mostly based on clinical symptoms. Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can be used in selected cases to find the cause and detection or exclusion of complications, e.g. recurrent or atypical and complicated courses. The method of choice for clarification of urolithiasis is CT. Using low-dose techniques, detection or exclusion of urinary stones can be achieved with a high sensitivity and specificity as well as an acceptable level of radiation exposure. Native stone CT supplies additional fundamental information that can substantially influence further therapy planning. The diagnosis of ureteral injuries is clinically and radiologically not trivial and clarification is aided by urographic contrast media. The method of CT cystography has an important role in the diagnostics of urinary bladder injuries. PMID:25367313

Budjan, J; Riffel, P; Ong, M M; Bolenz, C; Schönberg, S O; Haneder, S

2014-11-01

447

Infectious diseases resources for the iPhone.  

PubMed

Modern technology has revolutionized the clinician's ability to have vast information resources available literally at one's fingertips. The advent of the smartphone--an integration of the mobile phone with an ultraportable computer, web browser, multimedia player, and camera, has given clinicians the capability to merge their information and communication resources into one compact handheld instrument. Apple's iPhone, and its sister device, the iPod touch, with a combined customer base of more than 50 million users and more than 100,000 downloadable applications, are now the leading handheld platforms for medical personnel to access personal information, medical reference, clinical data, and medically oriented "apps" on the go. The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of some of the diverse infectious diseases-oriented resources available to the iPhone/iPod touch user. PMID:20233061

Oehler, Richard L; Smith, Kevin; Toney, John F

2010-05-01

448

The Global Threat of New and Reemerging Infectious Diseases  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Authored by Jennifer Brower and Peter Chalk, working on behalf of the RAND Corporation, this 140-page online book explores an in-depth analysis of the security implications posed by the dissemination of various infectious diseases. Throughout the work, the authors draw on two case studies, namely the HIV/ AIDS epidemic in South Africa and the public health response system within the United States. The book itself is available as six separate chapters, including an appendix and bibliography. For those looking for a brief synopsis of the work, a nine-page summary is also available. The authors conclude their work by presenting several recommendations that may address various existing shortcomings, including increased coordination between public health authorities at all levels of government, integration of the private sector into overall public health efforts, and a large-scale education and information campaign.

Brower, Jennifer, 1967-.; Chalk, Peter.

449

Tropical American plants in the treatment of infectious diseases.  

PubMed

The increasingly diverse U.S. immigrant populations and the growing use of medicinal herbs create a need for health care professionals to expand their knowledge in this area. This is a review of tropical plants, Annona Muricata, Artemisia absinthium, Cinchona officinalis, Illicium verum, Momordica charantia, Opuntia streptacantha, Schinus terebinthifolius, and Tabebuia avellanedae (impetiginosa), commonly used by Latino and Haitian populations for the treatment of infectious disease. All the eight plants discussed here have one or more of the following: antibacterial, antiviral, antifungal, or antiparasitic properties. All of these plants are primarily known and used in the tropical region, but they are also readily available for purchase in the United States, specifically in the ethnic markets. This review discusses their traditional uses, chemical constituents, proven scientific evidence, and toxicities. PMID:22436096

Dvorkin-Camiel, Lana; Whelan, Julia S

2008-01-01

450

Point-of-care nucleic acid testing for infectious diseases  

PubMed Central

Nucleic acid testing for infectious diseases at the point of care is beginning to enter clinical practice in developed and developing countries; especially for applications requiring fast turnaround times, and in settings where a centralized laboratory approach faces limitations. Current systems for clinical diagnostic applications are mainly PCR-based, can only be used in hospitals, and are still relatively complex and expensive. Integrating sample preparation with nucleic acid amplification and detection in a cost-effective, robust, and user-friendly format remains challenging. This review describes recent technical advances that might be able to address these limitations, with a focus on isothermal nucleic acid amplification methods. It briefly discusses selected applications related to the diagnosis and management of tuberculosis, HIV, and perinatal and nosocomial infections. PMID:21377748

Niemz, Angelika; Ferguson, Tanya M.; Boyle, David S.

2013-01-01

451

Reconceptualizing major depressive disorder as an infectious disease  

PubMed Central

In this article, I argue for a reconceptualization of major depressive disorder (major depression) as an infectious disease. I suggest that major depression may result from a parasitic, bacterial, or viral infection and present examples that illustrate possible pathways by which these microorganisms could contribute to the etiology of major depression. I also argue that the reconceptualization of the human body as an ecosystem for these microorganisms and the human genome as a host for non-human exogenous sequences may greatly amplify the opportunity to discover genetic links to the illness. Deliberately speculative, this article is intended to stimulate novel research approaches and expand the circle of researchers taking aim at this vexing illness. PMID:25364500

2014-01-01

452

[Economic evaluation in health: applications in infectious diseases].  

PubMed

The rise in healthcare expenditures due to the incorporation of new diagnostic and therapeutic technologies and increasing life expectancy is a major concern, particularly in developing countries. The role of economic evaluation in health is to optimize the benefits of available resources. This article aims to allow readers to identify the basic characteristics and types of economic evaluation in health and understand its methods, with an emphasis on infectious diseases. We thus review the following concepts: study perspective, analytic scope, costs, and discount rate. We also focus on characteristics of cost-minimization, cost-effectiveness, cost-utility, and cost-benefit analyses, with examples. The article describes the most popular study designs for economic evaluation, discusses different models, and examines the importance of sensitivity analysis. Our final comments address the importance of adopting economic evaluations in health in Brazil. PMID:20191146

Vanni, Tazio; Luz, Paula Mendes; Ribeiro, Rodrigo Antonini; Novaes, Hillegonda Maria Dutilh; Polanczyk, Carisi A

2009-12-01

453

Parasitic diseases as the cause of death of prisoners of war during the Korean War (1950-1953).  

PubMed

To determine the cause of death of prisoners of war during the Korean War (1950-1953), death certificates or medical records were analyzed. Out of 7,614 deaths, 5,013 (65.8%) were due to infectious diseases. Although dysentery and tuberculosis were the most common infectious diseases, parasitic diseases had caused 14 deaths: paragonimiasis in 5, malaria in 3, amoebiasis in 2, intestinal parasitosis in 2, ascariasis in 1, and schistosomiasis in 1. These results showed that paragonimiasis, malaria, and amoebiasis were the most fatal parasitic diseases during the early 1950s in the Korean Peninsula. Since schistosomiasis is not endemic to Korea, it is likely that the infected private soldier moved from China or Japan to Korea. PMID:25031479

Huh, Sun

2014-06-01

454

Parasitic Diseases as the Cause of Death of Prisoners of War during the Korean War (1950-1953)  

PubMed Central

To determine the cause of death of prisoners of war during the Korean War (1950-1953), death certificates or medical records were analyzed. Out of 7,614 deaths, 5,013 (65.8%) were due to infectious diseases. Although dysentery and tuberculosis were the most common infectious diseases, parasitic diseases had caused 14 deaths: paragonimiasis in 5, malaria in 3, amoebiasis in 2, intestinal parasitosis in 2, ascariasis in 1, and schistosomiasis in 1. These results showed that paragonimiasis, malaria, and amoebiasis were the most fatal parasitic diseases during the early 1950s in the Korean Peninsula. Since schistosomiasis is not endemic to Korea, it is likely that the infected private soldier moved from China or Japan to Korea. PMID:25031479

2014-01-01

455

Infectious bursal disease virus and proventriculitis in broiler chickens.  

PubMed

Acute necrotic proventriculitis is a naturally occurring disease of broiler chickens that causes proventricular rupture during routine evisceration. Although infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) has been implicated, it has not been proven to be a direct cause of this disease. To further study the role of IBDV in proventriculitis, proventriculi and bursas were collected during both acute and chronic phases of naturally occurring proventriculitis and from chickens experimentally infected with seven different [BDV strains. All tissues were examined for IBDV by light microscopy, immunohistochemistry (IHC), and real time reverse transcriptase(RT)-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and for apoptosis by the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate nick end labeling method (TUNEL). Tissues from naturally occurring proventriculitis had bursal and proventricular lesions. Two out of four bursas had no IHC-stainable IBDV antigen or RT-PCR detectable IBDV sequences. No proventriculus had IBDV detectable by any of these methods. Bursas from chickens experimentally infected with IBDV had microscopically evident lesions, IBDV was detectable by IHC and RT-PCR, and strong IHC staining for apoptosis was present. Proventriculi from these experimentally exposed chickens had no lesions, low levels of IBDV detectable by IHC or RT-PCR, and very little IHC-stainable apoptosis. We conclude that naturally occurring proventriculitis can occur in the absence of IBDV and that the IBDV strains tested do not directly produce proventriculitis or induce increased proventricular apoptosis. PMID:14562897

Pantin-Jackwood, Mary J; Brown, Thomas P

2003-01-01

456

Th17 Cells in Autoimmune and Infectious Diseases  

PubMed Central

The view of CD4 T-cell-mediated immunity as a balance between distinct lineages of Th1 and Th2 cells has changed dramatically. Identification of the IL-17 family of cytokines and of the fact that IL-23 mediates the expansion of IL-17-producing T cells uncovered a new subset of Th cells designated Th17 cells, which have emerged as a third independent T-cell subset that may play an essential role in protection against certain extracellular pathogens. Moreover, Th17 cells have been extensively analyzed because of their strong association with inflammatory disorders and autoimmune diseases. Also, they appear to be critical for controlling these disorders. Similar to Th1 and Th2 cells, Th17 cells require specific cytokines and transcription factors for their differentiation. Th17 cells have been characterized as one of the major pathogenic Th cell populations underlying the development of many autoimmune diseases, and they are enhanced and stabilized by IL-23. The characteristics of Th17 cells, cytokines, and their sources, as well as their role in infectious and autoimmune diseases, are discussed in this review. PMID:25152827

Zambrano-Zaragoza, Jose Francisco; Romo-Martinez, Enrique Jhonatan; Duran-Avelar, Ma. de Jesus; Garcia-Magallanes, Noemi; Vibanco-Perez, Norberto

2014-01-01

457

Technology innovation for infectious diseases in the developing world.  

PubMed

Enabling innovation and access to health technologies remains a key strategy in combating infectious diseases in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). However, a gulf between paying markets and the endemicity of such diseases has contributed to the dearth of R&D in meeting these public health needs. While the pharmaceutical industry views emerging economies as potential new markets, most of the world's poorest bottom billion now reside in middle-income countries--a fact that has complicated tiered access arrangements. However, product development partnerships--particularly those involving academic institutions and small firms--find commercial opportunities in pursuing even neglected diseases; and a growing pharmaceutical sector in BRICS countries offers hope for an indigenous base of innovation. Such innovation will be shaped by 1) access to building blocks of knowledge; 2) strategic use of intellectual property and innovative financing to meet public health goals; 3) collaborative norms of open innovation; and 4) alternative business models, some with a double bottom line. Facing such resource constraints, LMICs are poised to develop a new, more resource-effective model of innovation that holds exciting promise in meeting the needs of global health. PMID:23849080

So, Anthony D; Ruiz-Esparza, Quentin

2012-01-01

458

An Emerging Infectious Disease Triggering Large-Scale Hyperpredation  

PubMed Central

Hyperpredation refers to an enhanced predation pressure on a secondary prey due to either an increase in the abundance of a predator population or a sudden drop in the abundance of the main prey. This scarcely documented mechanism has been previously studied in scenarios in which the introduction of a feral prey caused overexploitation of native prey. Here we provide evidence of a previously unreported link between Emergent Infectious Diseases (EIDs) and hyperpredation on a predator-prey community. We show how a viral outbreak caused the population collapse of a host prey at a large spatial scale, which subsequently promoted higher-than-normal predation intensity on a second prey from shared predators. Thus, the disease left a population dynamic fingerprint both in the primary host prey, through direct mortality from the disease, and indirectly in the secondary prey, through hyperpredation. This resulted in synchronized prey population dynamics at a large spatio-temporal scale. We therefore provide evidence for a novel mechanism by which EIDs can disrupt a predator-prey interaction from the individual behavior to the population dynamics. This mechanism can pose a further threat to biodiversity through the human-aided disruption of ecological interactions at large spatial and temporal scales. PMID:18523587

Moleon, Marcos; Almaraz, Pablo; Sanchez-Zapata, Jose A.

2008-01-01

459

Genetic susceptibility to infectious disease in East African Shorthorn Zebu: a genome-wide analysis of the effect of heterozygosity and exotic introgression  

PubMed Central

Background Positive multi-locus heterozygosity-fitness correlations have been observed in a number of natural populations. They have been explained by the correlation between heterozygosity and inbreeding, and the negative effect of inbreeding on fitness (inbreeding depression). Exotic introgression in a locally adapted population has also been found to reduce fitness (outbreeding depression) through the breaking-up of co-adapted genes, or the introduction of non-locally adapted gene variants. In this study we examined the inter-relationships between genome-wide heterozygosity, introgression, and death or illness as a result of infectious disease in a sample of calves from an indigenous population of East African Shorthorn Zebu (crossbred Bos taurus x Bos indicus) in western Kenya. These calves were observed from birth to one year of age as part of the Infectious Disease in East African Livestock (IDEAL) project. Some of the calves were found to be genetic hybrids, resulting from the recent introgression of European cattle breed(s) into the indigenous population. European cattle are known to be less well adapted to the infectious diseases present in East Africa. If death and illness as a result of infectious disease have a genetic basis within the population, we would expect both a negative association of these outcomes with introgression and a positive association with heterozygosity. Results In this indigenous livestock population we observed negative associations between heterozygosity and both death and illness as a result of infectious disease and a positive association between European taurine introgression and episodes of clinical illness. Conclusion We observe the effects of both inbreeding and outbreeding depression in the East African Shorthorn Zebu, and therefore find evidence of a genetic component to vulnerability to infectious disease. These results indicate that the significant burden of infectious disease in this population could, in principle, be reduced by altered breeding practices. PMID:24209611

2013-01-01

460

The Chemotherapy of Infectious Diseases caused by Protozoa and Bacteria  

PubMed Central

The possibility of combating infectious diseases with chemotherapeutically active substances depends to a large extent on the structure of the pathogenic organism. Apart from the cure of contagious pleuro-pneumonia in horses with neosalvarsan, we have, as yet, no chemotherapeutic substance which is active in virus diseases. The position is scarcely better when we turn to bacterial infections due to cocci and bacilli. These two types of infective organisms occupy the lowest level in the scale of micro-organisms. On the other hand, the spirochætes, which also belong to the bacteria group, and, still more so, those causal organisms belonging to the protozoa, represent relatively highly differentiated species, and the more highly developed a pathogenic organism is, the more points for attack it appears to offer to the action of chemotherapeutic substances. It is, therefore, not to be wondered at that the best results with chemotherapeutically active substances have been obtained in spirochætal diseases (syphilis, relapsing fever, frambœsia, etc.), and above all, in protozoal diseases. There is scarcely a protozoal disease of man which cannot be cured nowadays by early treatment with the appropriate synthetic drug. (Sleeping sickness, malaria, amœbic dysentery, leishmaniasis.) Epizootics resembling human diseases, as for example, trypanoses, are also relatively easily dealt with by the same drugs as have been found of value in the treatment of disease in man. On the other hand, there has been a lack of success, up to the present, in the treatment of those diseases of animals which are not generally related to the tropical diseases of man. The most important of these epizootics are the piroplasmoses, which are caused by babesiæ and theileriæ and which are found, not only in tropical and subtropical regions, but also in temperate zones. In this paper the discovery of a new remedy against piroplasmosis will be reported (acaprin). Further, advice will be given of a new class of substances, which have an actual chemotherapeutic action in streptococcal infections (prontosil, prontosil S), so that one can hope to be able in the future also to attack bacterial infections due to cocci chemotherapeutically. PMID:19990605

Hörlein, H.

1936-01-01

461

Male circumcision, religion, and infectious diseases: an ecologic analysis of 118 developing countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Both religious practices and male circumcision (MC) have been associated with HIV and other sexually-transmitted infectious diseases. Most studies have been limited in size and have not adequately controlled for religion, so these relationships remain unclear. METHODS: We evaluated relationships between MC prevalence, Muslim and Christian religion, and 7 infectious diseases using country-specific data among 118 developing countries. We

Paul K Drain; Daniel T Halperin; James P Hughes; Jeffrey D Klausner; Robert C Bailey

2006-01-01

462

Report of the Committee on Infectious Diseases. Twenty-first Edition, 1988.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book is a comprehensive textbook of infectious diseases. It is organized in five parts: (1) active and passive immunization; (2) recommendations for care of children in special circumstances; (3) summaries of infectious diseases; (4) antimicrobial prophylaxis; and (5) antimicrobials. There are six appendices: (1) federal vaccine injury…

American Academy of Pediatrics, Elk Grove Village, IL.

463

Social networks and the spread of infectious diseases: The AIDS example  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conceptualizing a population as a set of individuals linked together to form a large social network provides a fruitful perspective for better understanding the spread of some infectious diseases. Data related to AIDS (the acquired immune deficiency syndrome) were used to illustrate the potential usefulness of a network approach in evaluating the infectious agent hypothesis when studying a disease or

Alden S. Klovdahl

1985-01-01

464

Evaluating a New Online Course in the Epidemiology of Infectious Diseases by Studying Student Learning Styles  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

At RMIT University, students may now elect to study infectious diseases through a course called Outbreak--The Detection and Control of Infectious Disease. Outbreak was designed to simulate in an online class the effective teamwork required to bring resolution to outbreak crises and enable frameworks for future prevention. The appropriateness of…

Rogers, James W.; Cox, James R.

2008-01-01

465

Infectious Diseases as Causes of Mental Retardation and Other Concomitant Neurological Sequelae.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examination of 1,000 Finnish patients with mental retardation indicated that infectious diseases were the only cause of mental retardation in 11.1 percent and a contributory cause in a further 1.5 percent. Among the former group of 111 patients, the causative infectious disease operated prenatally in 18 percent and perinatally/postnatally in 82…

Iivanainen, Matti; Lahdevirta, Juhani

1988-01-01

466

Possible impact of rising sea levels on vector-borne infectious diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Vector-borne infectious diseases are a significant cause of human and animal mortality and morbidity. Modeling studies predict that changes in climate that accompany global warming will alter the transmission risk of many vector-borne infectious diseases in different parts of the world. Global warming will also raise sea levels, which will lead to an increase in saline and brackish water

Ranjan Ramasamy; Sinnathamby N Surendran

2011-01-01

467

Challenges to Global Surveillance and Response to Infectious Disease Outbreaks of International Importance  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents a notional scheme of global surveillance and response to infectious disease outbreaks and reviews 14 in- ternational surveillance and response programs. In combination, the scheme and the programs illustrate how, in an ideal world and in the real world, infectious disease outbreaks of public health significance could be detected and contained. No- table practices and achievements of

Penny Hitchcock; Allison Chamberlain; Megan Van Wagoner; Thomas V. Inglesby; Tara O'Toole

2007-01-01

468

Contact tracing in healthcare digital ecosystems for infectious disease control and quarantine management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Highly infectious diseases such as SARS (severe acute respiratory syndrome), Avian influenza (bird flu), small pox, and currently swine flu, to name but a few, pose a significant threat to the global population. Detection and prevention of infectious diseases is notoriously complex and problematic due to the ever increasing number of international travellers. In addition, the risk of being infected

Kan-Ion Leong; Yain-Whar Si; Robert P. Biuk-Aghai; Simon Fong

2009-01-01

469

Multiplex infectious disease microarrays: STAT serology on a drop of blood  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

New and resurgent viral and antibiotic-resistant bacterial diseases are being encountered worldwide. The US CDC now ranks hospital acquired infections among the top 10 leading causes of death in the US, costing $20 billion annually. Such nosocomial infections presently affect 5% - 10% of hospitalized patients leading to 2 million cases and 99,000 deaths annually. Until now, assays available to mount comprehensive surveillance of infectious disease exposure by biosecurity agencies and hospital infection control units have been too slow and too costly. In earlier clinical studies we have reported proteomic microarrays combining 13 autoimmune and 26 viral and bacterial pathogens that revealed correlations between autoimmune diseases and antecedent infections. In this work we have expanded the array to 40 viruses and bacteria and investigated a suspected role of human endogenous retroviruses in autoimmune neuropathies. Using scanning laser imaging, and fluorescence color multiplexing, serum IgG and IgM responses are measured concurrently on the same array, for 14 arrays (patient samples) per microscope slide in 15 minutes. Other advantages include internal calibration, 10 ?L sample size, increased laboratory efficiency, and potential factor of 100 cost reduction.

Ewart, Tom; Tarnopolsky, Mark; Baker, Steve; Raha, Sandeep; Wong, Yuen-Yee; Ciebiera, Kathy

2009-06-01

470

Calcium antagonists: a ready prescription for treating infectious diseases?  

PubMed

Emergence of new and medically resistant pathogenic microbes continues to escalate toward worldwide public health, wild habitat, and commercial crop and livestock catastrophes. Attempts at solving this problem with sophisticated modern biotechnologies, such as smart vaccines and microbicidal and microbistatic drugs that precisely target parasitic bacteria, fungi, and protozoa, remain promising without major clinical and industrial successes. However, discovery of a more immediate, broad spectrum prophylaxis beyond conventional epidemiological approaches might take no longer than the time required to fill a prescription at your neighborhood pharmacy. Findings from a growing body of research suggest calcium antagonists, long approved and marketed for various human cardiovascular and neurological indications, may produce safe, efficacious antimicrobial effects. As a general category of drugs, calcium antagonists include compounds that disrupt passage of Ca(2+) molecules across cell membranes and walls, sequestration and mobilization of free intracellular Ca(2+), and downstream binding proteins and sensors of Ca(2+)-dependent regulatory pathways important for proper cell function. Administration of calcium antagonists alone at current therapeutically relevant doses and schedules, or with synergistic compounds and additional antimicrobial medications, figures to enhance host immunoprotection by directly altering pathogen infection sequences, life cycles, homeostasis, antibiotic tolerances, and numerous other infective, survival, and reproductive processes. Short of being miracle drugs, calcium antagonists are welcome old drugs with new tricks capable of controlling some of the most virulent and pervasive global infectious diseases of plants, animals, and humans, including Chagas' disease, malaria, and tuberculosis. PMID:24059464

Clark, Kevin B; Eisenstein, Edward M; Krahl, Scott E

2013-01-01

471

Use of time-series analysis in infectious disease surveillance.  

PubMed Central

This article reviews the practical aspects of the use of ARIMA (autoregressive, integrated, moving average) modelling of time series as applied to the surveillance of reportable infectious diseases, with special reference to the widely available SSS1 package, produced by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The main steps required by ARIMA modelling are the selection of the time series, transformations of the series, model selection, parameter estimation, forecasting, and updating of the forecasts. The difficulties most likely to be encountered at each step are described and possible solutions are offered. Examples of successful and unsuccessful modelling are presented and discussed. Other methods, such as INAR modelling or Markov chain analysis, which can be applied to situations where ARIMA modelling fails are also dealt with, but they are less practical. ARIMA modelling can be carried out by adequately trained nonspecialists working for local agencies. Its usefulness resides mostly in providing an estimate of the variability to be expected among future observations. This knowledge is helpful in deciding whether or not an unusual situation, possibly an outbreak, is developing. PMID:9803583

Allard, R.

1998-01-01

472

[Kenya Research Station and viral infectious disease research].  

PubMed

The Institute of Tropical Medicine, Kenya Research Station, Nagasaki University was established by a fund of the Ministry of Education (MEXT) in 2005. Currently, the station has been on ''The Clinical and Epidemiological Research Program of Tropical Medicine and Emerging Infectious Diseases-Establishment of Education and Research System between Africa and Japan- ''. The project has been supported by about 20 Japanese staff and 85 Kenyan staff, and in the research station, 10 research teams have worked on their researches for the prevention of tropical medicine and emerging diseases collaborating with other researches and The JICA Grassroots Technical Cooperation Project has also started in 2012. In April 2010, Nagasaki University, Africa Station has been established along with Kenya Research Station, and it made possible for other faculties to join research in Kenya. School of Dentistry has started oral health survey in Mbita, while School of Fishery, School of Engineering and School of Health Science have a plan of a joint project targeting areas by Lake Victoria. Our aim is to develop a foundation which enables all researchers from different fields to carry out their research for improvement health and living standards of the locals. PMID:24769581

Ichinose, Yoshio

2013-01-01

473

Land-use change and infectious disease in West Africa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Land-use change has been associated with changes in the dynamics of infectious disease in West Africa. Here we describe the complex interactions of land-use change with three diseases (both vector- and non-vector-borne) of considerable public health significance in this region, namely, malaria and irrigation; epidemic meningitis and land degradation; onchocerciasis and deforestation. We highlight the confounding effect of climate variability, which acts as a driver of both land-use change and human health. We conclude, as have others, that the scale of observation always matters, and complex and dynamic feedbacks among social-ecological systems are not easily teased apart. We suggest that in order to establish the causal chain of interactions between land-use change and human health outcomes two approaches are necessary. The first is to have a thorough understanding of the aetiology of disease and the specific mechanisms by which land-use and climate variability affect the transmission of pathogens. This is achieved by focused, detailed studies encompassing a wide range of potential drivers, which are inevitably small scale and often cover short time periods. The second consists of large-scale studies of statistical associations between transmission indices or health outcomes and environmental variables stratified by known ecological or socio-economic confounders, and sufficient in size to overcome local biases in results. Such research activities need to be designed to inform each other if we are to develop predictive models for monitoring these diseases and to develop integrated programs for human health and sustainable land use.

Thomson, M. C.; Ericksen, P. J.; Mohamed, A. Ben; Connor, S. J.

474

Enhanced Surveillance for Detection and Management of Infectious Diseases: Regional Collaboration in the Middle East  

PubMed Central

Formed before international negotiations of the revised International Health Regulations (IHR), the Middle East Consortium for Infectious Disease Surveillance (MECIDS) is a regional collaboration aimed at facilitating implementation of the revised IHR and, more broadly, improving the detection and control of infectious disease outbreaks among neighboring countries in an area of continuous dispute. Initially focused on enhancing foodborne disease surveillance, MECIDS has expanded the scope of its work to also include avian and pandemic influenza and other emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases. Here, we describe the history and governance of MECIDS, highlighting key achievements over the consortium's seven-year history, and discuss the future of MECIDS. PMID:23362413

Leventhal, Alex; Ramlawi, Assad; Belbiesi, Adel; Sheikh, Sami; Haddadin, Akhtam; Husseini, Sari; Abdeen, Ziad; Cohen, Dani

2013-01-01

475

Modelling in infectious diseases: between haphazard and hazard.  

PubMed

Modelling of infectious diseases is difficult, if not impossible. No epidemic has ever been truly predicted, rather than being merely noticed when it was already ongoing. Modelling the future course of an epidemic is similarly tenuous, as exemplified by ominous predictions during the last influenza pandemic leading to exaggerated national responses. The continuous evolution of microorganisms, the introduction of new pathogens into the human population and the interactions of a specific pathogen with the environment, vectors, intermediate hosts, reservoir animals and other microorganisms are far too complex to be predictable. Our environment is changing at an unprecedented rate, and human-related factors, which are essential components of any epidemic prediction model, are difficult to foresee in our increasingly dynamic societies. Any epidemiological model is, by definition, an abstraction of the real world, and fundamental assumptions and simplifications are therefore required. Indicator-based surveillance methods and, more recently, Internet biosurveillance systems can detect and monitor outbreaks of infections more rapidly and accurately than ever before. As the interactions between microorganisms, humans and the environment are too numerous and unexpected to be accurately represented in a mathematical model, we argue that prediction and model-based management of epidemics in their early phase are quite unlikely to become the norm. PMID:23879334

Neuberger, A; Paul, M; Nizar, A; Raoult, D

2013-11-01

476

Validation of Laboratory-Developed Molecular Assays for Infectious Diseases  

PubMed Central

Summary: Molecular technology has changed the way that clinical laboratories diagnose and manage many infectious diseases. Excellent sensitivity, specificity, and speed have made molecular assays an attractive alternative to culture or enzyme immunoassay methods. Many molecular assays are commercially available and FDA approved. Others, especially those that test for less common analytes, are often laboratory developed. Laboratories also often modify FDA-approved assays to include different extraction systems or additional specimen types. The Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments (CLIA) federal regulatory standards require clinical laboratories to establish and document their own performance specifications for laboratory-developed tests to ensure accurate and precise results prior to implementation of the test. The performance characteristics that must be established include accuracy, precision, reportable range, reference interval, analytical sensitivity, and analytical specificity. Clinical laboratories are challenged to understand the requirements and determine the types of experiments and analyses necessary to meet the requirements. A variety of protocols and guidelines are available in various texts and documents. Many of the guidelines are general and more appropriate for assays in chemistry sections of the laboratory but are applied in principle to molecular assays. This review presents information that laboratories may consider in their efforts to meet regulatory requirements. PMID:20610823

Burd, Eileen M.

2010-01-01

477

Macrolides: A Canadian Infectious Disease Society position paper  

PubMed Central

Since the introduction of erythromycin in 1965, no new compounds from the macrolide antimicrobial class were licensed in Canada until the 1990s. Clarithromycin and azithromycin, since their introduction, have become important agents for treating a number of common and uncommon infectious diseases. They have become prime agents in the treatment of respiratory tract infections, and have revolutionized the management of both genital chlamydial infections, by the use of single-dose therapy with azithromycin, and nontuberculous mycobacterial infections, by the use of clarithromycin. The improvement of clarithromycin and azithromycin over the gastrointestinal intolerability of erythromycin has led to supplanting the use of the latter for many primary care physicians. Unfortunately, the use of these agents has also increased the likelihood for misuse and has raised concerns about a resultant increase in the rates of macrolide resistance in many important pathogens, such as Streptococcus pneumoniae. This paper reviews the pharmacology and evidence for the current indications for use of these newer agents, and provides recommendations for appropriate use. PMID:18159344

McKenna, S; Evans, GA

2001-01-01

478

Infectious diseases in a Nicaraguan refugee camp in Costa Rica.  

PubMed

Some Nicaraguans living in Costa Rica are in refugee camps. The types and rates of infectious diseases in the Pueblo Nuevo refugee camp were measured by examining medical records for 1985 and performing stool and blood testing. The incidence of infections was 320 episodes per 1000 persons per year. Respiratory infections represented 63% of all illnesses and pulmonary tuberculosis was high. Malaria was not found in blood samples and no childhood illnesses preventable by immunizations were recorded in the records. Intestinal parasites were found in 56% of the persons examined, considerably higher than the 15% prevalence noted in surveys of Costa Rica as a whole. Trichuris trichiura was found in 40% of the positive stool samples. The deficient hygienic conditions and overcrowding in the camp are responsible for the high rates of infections and the continued presence of infections many of which probably were acquired in Nicaragua. Improvement of hygienic conditions can be accomplished by involving the refugees in education, cleaning and identifying problem areas. Adequate sanitation and improved water supply, and reducing overcrowding are also recommended. PMID:2922807

Diaz, T; Achi, R

1989-01-01

479

76 FR 63308 - Data and Data Needs To Advance Risk Assessment for Emerging Infectious Diseases Relevant to Blood...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Assessment for Emerging Infectious Diseases Relevant to Blood and Blood Products; Public Workshop AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration...Assessment for Emerging Infectious Diseases Relevant to Blood and Blood Products.'' The purpose of the public...