Science.gov

Sample records for death infectious diseases

  1. Infectious Diseases

    MedlinePLUS

    Infectious diseases kill more people worldwide than any other single cause. Infectious diseases are caused by germs. Germs are tiny living ... live NIH: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases

  2. Unexplained Death due to Possible Infectious Diseases in Infants—United States, 2006

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Christopher A.; Holman, Robert C.; Callinan, Laura S.; Zaki, Sherif R.; Blau, Dianna M.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To quantify and examine factors related to unexplained death due to possible infectious causes (UDPIC) in infants and to analyze the associations between these factors in unexplained deaths and infants with fatal and nonfatal outcomes. Study design Infant deaths meeting the International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision code inclusion and exclusion criteria for UDPIC were selected from the 2006 US Linked Birth and Infant Death data set. Two control groups of surviving and nonsurviving infants were selected and compared with the infants with UDPIC using a case-control study design with multivariate logistic regression models stratified by birth weight category. Comparisons with infants with identified infectious causes of death were also made. Results During 2006, 3570 infant deaths (12.5% of all US infant deaths) were categorized as a UDPIC. The highest rates for these unexplained infants deaths were found in blacks and American Indians/Alaska Natives. Infants of black mothers were more likely to experience UDPIC. Birth weight was a significant effect modifier in these models. Conclusions Many factors may contribute to an infant’s death being classified as a UDPIC, including race and marital status. Other factors, such as Hispanic ethnicity and maternal age, also may play a role. Infant characteristics, such as birth weight, may be related to factors that influence the decision not to conduct a postmortem examination in infant death cases. Additional research is needed to determine the true extent of infectious disease and its relationship to UDPIC in infants. PMID:22835880

  3. Ethics and infectious disease.

    PubMed

    Selgelid, Michael J

    2005-06-01

    Bioethics apparently suffers from a misdistribution of research resources analogous to the '10/90' divide in medical research. Though infectious disease should be recognized as a topic of primary importance for bioethics, the general topic of infectious disease has received relatively little attention from the discipline of bioethics in comparison with things like abortion, euthanasia, genetics, cloning, stem cell research, and so on. The fact that the historical and potential future consequences of infectious diseases are almost unrivalled is one reason that the topic of infectious disease warrants more attention from bioethicists. The 'Black Death' eliminated one third of the European population during the 14th Century; the 1989 flu killed between 20 and 100 million people; and, in the 20th Century smallpox killed perhaps three times more people than all the wars of that period. In the contemporary world, epidemics (AIDS, multi-drug resistant turberculosis, and newly emerging infectious diseases such as SARS) continue to have dramatic consequences. A second reason why the topic of infectious disease deserves further attention is that it raises difficult ethical questions of its own. While infected individuals can threaten the health of other individuals and society as a whole, for example, public health care measures such as surveillance, isolation, and quarantine can require the infringement of widely accepted basic human rights and liberties. An important and difficult ethical question asks how to strike a balance between the utilitarian aim of promoting public health, on the one hand, and libertarian aims of protecting privacy and freedom of movement, on the other, in contexts involving diseases that are--to varying degrees--contagious, deadly, or otherwise dangerous. Third, since their burden is most heavily shouldered by the poor (in developing countries), infectious diseases involve issues of justice--which should be a central concern of ethics. I conclude by providing sociological and historical explanations of why the topic of infectious disease has not already received more attention from bioethicists. PMID:16167406

  4. Malnutrition as an underlying cause of childhood deaths associated with infectious diseases in developing countries.

    PubMed Central

    Rice, A. L.; Sacco, L.; Hyder, A.; Black, R. E.

    2000-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Recent estimates suggest that malnutrition (measured as poor anthropometric status) is associated with about 50% of all deaths among children. Although the association between malnutrition and all-cause mortality is well documented, the malnutrition-related risk of death associated with specific diseases is less well described. We reviewed published literature to examine the evidence for a relation between malnutrition and child mortality from diarrhoea, acute respiratory illness, malaria and measles, conditions that account for over 50% of deaths in children worldwide. METHODS: MEDLINE was searched for suitable review articles and original reports of community-based and hospital-based studies. Findings from cohort studies and case-control studies were reviewed and summarized. RESULTS: The strongest and most consistent relation between malnutrition and an increased risk of death was observed for diarrhoea and acute respiratory infection. The evidence, although limited, also suggests a potentially increased risk for death from malaria. A less consistent association was observed between nutritional status and death from measles. Although some hospital-based studies and case-control studies reported an increased risk of mortality from measles, few community-based studies reported any association. DISCUSSION: The risk of malnutrition-related mortality seems to vary for different diseases. These findings have important implications for the evaluation of nutritional intervention programmes and child survival programmes being implemented in settings with different disease profiles. PMID:11100616

  5. Vaccine strategies for infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Clerici, M; Piconi, S; Trabattoni, D

    1999-02-01

    Infectious diseases are the major cause of death worldwide; in developing countries such diseases are responsible for nearly half the burden of premature death and disability. Therefore, the need for the development of new vaccine strategies aimed at preventing or limiting disease is extremely urgent. Important successes have been achieved against some infectious diseases that were once endemic or, even, epidemic (e.g., polio, smallpox, diptheria). Advances in our knowledge of the pathogenesis and immune correlates of protections are needed to develop novel vaccinal approaches to diseases such as hepatitis C, AIDS and malaria. In this review we will analyse the biological problems associated with the prevention of development and/or improvement of vaccine strategies for infectious diseases, focusing on the difficulties facing the creation of new effective vaccines for HIV infection and malaria. PMID:15992065

  6. Modeling Infectious Diseases

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Linked to Dengue Epidemics Now Trending: Mining Historical Data on Infectious Diseases Computing Diseases from Computing Life Forecasting Flu Solving the Sleeping Sickness 'Mystery' Social Studies: Profile of Stephen Eubank Related Links Up to top ...

  7. Controlling Infectious Diseases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, Wm. Lane; Fidler, David P.

    1997-01-01

    Advocates establishing programs to educate the public about the growing threat of communicable diseases and to promote effective strategies. Utilizes recent successes and failures to formulate those strategies. Profiles three recent infectious disease outbreaks that illustrate some of the current problems. Identifies four ways that lawyers can…

  8. Dynamics of infectious diseases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rock, Kat; Brand, Sam; Moir, Jo; Keeling, Matt J.

    2014-02-01

    Modern infectious disease epidemiology has a strong history of using mathematics both for prediction and to gain a deeper understanding. However the study of infectious diseases is a highly interdisciplinary subject requiring insights from multiple disciplines, in particular a biological knowledge of the pathogen, a statistical description of the available data and a mathematical framework for prediction. Here we begin with the basic building blocks of infectious disease epidemiology—the SIS and SIR type models—before considering the progress that has been made over the recent decades and the challenges that lie ahead. Throughout we focus on the understanding that can be developed from relatively simple models, although accurate prediction will inevitably require far greater complexity beyond the scope of this review. In particular, we focus on three critical aspects of infectious disease models that we feel fundamentally shape their dynamics: heterogeneously structured populations, stochasticity and spatial structure. Throughout we relate the mathematical models and their results to a variety of real-world problems.

  9. Immunoserology of infectious diseases.

    PubMed Central

    James, K

    1990-01-01

    The immune response to microorganisms not only participates in the elimination of unwanted organisms from the body, but also assists in diagnosis of infectious diseases. The nonspecific immune response is the first line of defense, assisting the body until the specific immune response can be mobilized to provide protective mechanisms. The specific immune response involves humoral or cell-mediated immunity or both, dependent on the nature of the organism and its site of sequestration. A variety of test systems have been developed to identify the causative organisms of infectious diseases. Test systems used in immunoserology have classically included methods of detecting antigen-antibody reactions which range from complement fixation to immunoassay methods. Relevant test systems for detecting antigens and antibodies are described. With numerous test systems available to detect antigens and antibodies, there can be confusion regarding selection of the appropriate system for each application. Methods for detecting antibody to verify immunity differ from immunologic methods to diagnose disease. Techniques to detect soluble antigens present in active infectious states may appear similar to those used to detect antibody, but their differences should be appreciated. PMID:2187592

  10. Prioritising Infectious Disease Mapping

    PubMed Central

    Pigott, David M.; Howes, Rosalind E.; Wiebe, Antoinette; Battle, Katherine E.; Golding, Nick; Gething, Peter W.; Dowell, Scott F.; Farag, Tamer H.; Garcia, Andres J.; Kimball, Ann M.; Krause, L. Kendall; Smith, Craig H.; Brooker, Simon J.; Kyu, Hmwe H.; Vos, Theo; Murray, Christopher J. L.; Moyes, Catherine L.; Hay, Simon I.

    2015-01-01

    Background Increasing volumes of data and computational capacity afford unprecedented opportunities to scale up infectious disease (ID) mapping for public health uses. Whilst a large number of IDs show global spatial variation, comprehensive knowledge of these geographic patterns is poor. Here we use an objective method to prioritise mapping efforts to begin to address the large deficit in global disease maps currently available. Methodology/Principal Findings Automation of ID mapping requires bespoke methodological adjustments tailored to the epidemiological characteristics of different types of diseases. Diseases were therefore grouped into 33 clusters based upon taxonomic divisions and shared epidemiological characteristics. Disability-adjusted life years, derived from the Global Burden of Disease 2013 study, were used as a globally consistent metric of disease burden. A review of global health stakeholders, existing literature and national health priorities was undertaken to assess relative interest in the diseases. The clusters were ranked by combining both metrics, which identified 44 diseases of main concern within 15 principle clusters. Whilst malaria, HIV and tuberculosis were the highest priority due to their considerable burden, the high priority clusters were dominated by neglected tropical diseases and vector-borne parasites. Conclusions/Significance A quantitative, easily-updated and flexible framework for prioritising diseases is presented here. The study identifies a possible future strategy for those diseases where significant knowledge gaps remain, as well as recognising those where global mapping programs have already made significant progress. For many conditions, potential shared epidemiological information has yet to be exploited. PMID:26061527

  11. Mathematical Models and Infectious Disease

    E-print Network

    Bowman,John C.

    Mathematical Models and Infectious Disease Dynamics Mark Lewis Mathematical models can be used to understand what fac- tors govern infectious disease outbreaks including HIV/AIDS, West Nile virus, and even the bubonic plague! The purpose of the model is to take facts about the disease as inputs and to make

  12. BORDER INFECTIOUS DISEASES SURVEILLANCE PROJECT

    EPA Science Inventory

    In 1997, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the Mexican Secretariat of Health, and border health officials began the development of the Border Infectious Disease Surveillance (BIDS) project, a surveillance system for infectious diseases along the U.S.-Mexico border. ...

  13. Global mapping of infectious disease

    PubMed Central

    Hay, Simon I.; Battle, Katherine E.; Pigott, David M.; Smith, David L.; Moyes, Catherine L.; Bhatt, Samir; Brownstein, John S.; Collier, Nigel; Myers, Monica F.; George, Dylan B.; Gething, Peter W.

    2013-01-01

    The primary aim of this review was to evaluate the state of knowledge of the geographical distribution of all infectious diseases of clinical significance to humans. A systematic review was conducted to enumerate cartographic progress, with respect to the data available for mapping and the methods currently applied. The results helped define the minimum information requirements for mapping infectious disease occurrence, and a quantitative framework for assessing the mapping opportunities for all infectious diseases. This revealed that of 355 infectious diseases identified, 174 (49%) have a strong rationale for mapping and of these only 7 (4%) had been comprehensively mapped. A variety of ambitions, such as the quantification of the global burden of infectious disease, international biosurveillance, assessing the likelihood of infectious disease outbreaks and exploring the propensity for infectious disease evolution and emergence, are limited by these omissions. An overview of the factors hindering progress in disease cartography is provided. It is argued that rapid improvement in the landscape of infectious diseases mapping can be made by embracing non-conventional data sources, automation of geo-positioning and mapping procedures enabled by machine learning and information technology, respectively, in addition to harnessing labour of the volunteer ‘cognitive surplus’ through crowdsourcing. PMID:23382431

  14. Infectious Diseases in Day Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sleator, Esther K.

    Discussed in this publication are infectious illnesses for which children attending day care appear to be at special risk. Also covered are the common cold, some infectious disease problems receiving media attention, and some other annoying but not serious diseases, such as head lice, pinworms, and contagious skin conditions. Causes,…

  15. 76 FR 39041 - Infectious Diseases

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-05

    ...-596, 84 STAT. 1590 (29 U.S.C. 653, 655, 657), Secretary of Labor's Order No. 4-2010 (75 FR 55355 (Sept... Occupational Safety and Health Administration 29 CFR Part 1910 RIN 1218-AC46 Infectious Diseases AGENCY... exposure to infectious diseases. OSHA plans to use the information gathered at these meetings to...

  16. Conflict and Emerging Infectious Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Legros, Dominique; Formenty, Pierre; Connolly, Maire A.

    2007-01-01

    Detection and control of emerging infectious diseases in conflict situations are major challenges due to multiple risk factors known to enhance emergence and transmission of infectious diseases. These include inadequate surveillance and response systems, destroyed infrastructure, collapsed health systems and disruption of disease control programs, and infection control practices even more inadequate than those in resource-poor settings, as well as ongoing insecurity and poor coordination among humanitarian agencies. This article outlines factors that potentiate emergence and transmission of infectious diseases in conflict situations and highlights several priority actions for their containment and control. PMID:18217543

  17. Trends in infectious disease mortality rates, Spain, 1980-2011.

    PubMed

    López-Cuadrado, Teresa; Llácer, Alicia; Palmera-Suárez, Rocio; Gómez-Barroso, Diana; Savulescu, Camelia; González-Yuste, Paloma; Fernández-Cuenca, Rafael

    2014-05-01

    Using mortality data from National Institute of Statistics in Spain, we analyzed trends of infectious disease mortality rates in Spain during 1980-2011 to provide information on surveillance and control of infectious diseases. During the study period, 628,673 infectious disease-related deaths occurred, the annual change in the mortality rate was -1.6%, and the average infectious disease mortality rate was 48.5 deaths/100,000 population. Although the beginning of HIV/AIDS epidemic led to an increased mortality rate, a decreased rate was observed by the end of the twentieth century. By codes from the International Classification of Diseases, 9th revision, the most frequent underlying cause of death was pneumonia. Emergence and reemergence of infectious diseases continue to be public health problems despite reduced mortality rates produced by various interventions. Therefore, surveillance and control systems should be reinforced with a goal of providing reliable data for useful decision making. PMID:24750997

  18. Facts about Infectious Diseases (ID)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... been made to eradicate or control many infectious diseases, humankind remains vulnerable to a wide array of new and resurgent organisms. Obstacles in Infection Treatment New, potentially dangerous bacteria, viruses, fungi and parasites ...

  19. Infectious Disease, Endangerment, and Extinction

    PubMed Central

    MacPhee, Ross D. E.; Greenwood, Alex D.

    2013-01-01

    Infectious disease, especially virulent infectious disease, is commonly regarded as a cause of fluctuation or decline in biological populations. However, it is not generally considered as a primary factor in causing the actual endangerment or extinction of species. We review here the known historical examples in which disease has, or has been assumed to have had, a major deleterious impact on animal species, including extinction, and highlight some recent cases in which disease is the chief suspect in causing the outright endangerment of particular species. We conclude that the role of disease in historical extinctions at the population or species level may have been underestimated. Recent methodological breakthroughs may lead to a better understanding of the past and present roles of infectious disease in influencing population fitness and other parameters. PMID:23401844

  20. [Common pediatric infectious diseases following natural disasters].

    PubMed

    Yao, Kai-Hu

    2013-06-01

    Natural disasters may lead to the outbreaks of infectious diseases because they increase the risk factors for infectious diseases. This paper reviews the risk factors for infectious diseases after natural disasters, especially earthquake, and the infectious diseases following disasters reported in recent years. The infectious diseases after earthquake include diarrhea, cholera, viral hepatitis, upper respiratory tract infection, tuberculosis, measles, leptospirosis, dengue fever, tetanus, and gas gangrene, as well as some rare infections. Children are vulnerable to infectious diseases, so pediatricians should pay more attention to the research on relationship between infectious diseases and natural disasters. PMID:23791057

  1. Extreme weather events and infectious disease outbreaks.

    PubMed

    McMichael, Anthony J

    2015-01-01

    Human-driven climatic changes will fundamentally influence patterns of human health, including infectious disease clusters and epidemics following extreme weather events. Extreme weather events are projected to increase further with the advance of human-driven climate change. Both recent and historical experiences indicate that infectious disease outbreaks very often follow extreme weather events, as microbes, vectors and reservoir animal hosts exploit the disrupted social and environmental conditions of extreme weather events. This review article examines infectious disease risks associated with extreme weather events; it draws on recent experiences including Hurricane Katrina in 2005 and the 2010 Pakistan mega-floods, and historical examples from previous centuries of epidemics and 'pestilence' associated with extreme weather disasters and climatic changes. A fuller understanding of climatic change, the precursors and triggers of extreme weather events and health consequences is needed in order to anticipate and respond to the infectious disease risks associated with human-driven climate change. Post-event risks to human health can be constrained, nonetheless, by reducing background rates of persistent infection, preparatory action such as coordinated disease surveillance and vaccination coverage, and strengthened disaster response. In the face of changing climate and weather conditions, it is critically important to think in ecological terms about the determinants of health, disease and death in human populations. PMID:26168924

  2. Preventing Infectious Disease in Sports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howe, Warren B.

    2003-01-01

    Preventing infectious disease in sports is fundamental to maintaining team effectiveness and helping athletes avoid the adverse effects of illness. Good hygiene, immunization, minimal exposure to specific diseases, and certain prophylactic measures are essential. Teammates, coaches, trainers, officials, healthcare providers, and community public…

  3. Deforestation and avian infectious diseases

    PubMed Central

    Sehgal, R. N. M.

    2010-01-01

    In this time of unprecedented global change, infectious diseases will impact humans and wildlife in novel and unknown ways. Climate change, the introduction of invasive species, urbanization, agricultural practices and the loss of biodiversity have all been implicated in increasing the spread of infectious pathogens. In many regards, deforestation supersedes these other global events in terms of its immediate potential global effects in both tropical and temperate regions. The effects of deforestation on the spread of pathogens in birds are largely unknown. Birds harbor many of the same types of pathogens as humans and in addition can spread infectious agents to humans and other wildlife. It is thought that avifauna have gone extinct due to infectious diseases and many are presently threatened, especially endemic island birds. It is clear that habitat degradation can pose a direct threat to many bird species but it is uncertain how these alterations will affect disease transmission and susceptibility to disease. The migration and dispersal of birds can also change with habitat degradation, and thus expose populations to novel pathogens. Some recent work has shown that the results of landscape transformation can have confounding effects on avian malaria, other haemosporidian parasites and viruses. Now with advances in many technologies, including mathematical and computer modeling, genomics and satellite tracking, scientists have tools to further research the disease ecology of deforestation. This research will be imperative to help predict and prevent outbreaks that could affect avifauna, humans and other wildlife worldwide. PMID:20190120

  4. Adventures in Infectious Diseases

    ScienceCinema

    Fisher-Hoch, Susan [University of Texas School of Public Health

    2014-06-25

    Dr. Susan Fisher-Hoch, Virologist and Epidemiologist, will discuss her research and travels associated with viral hemorrhagic fevers. From the Ebola outbreak in Reston, Virginia to outbreaks of Crimean Congo Hemorrhagic Fever in South Africa, Senegal, and Saudi Arabia, Dr. Fisher-Hoch has studied and tracked the pathophysiology of these viral diseases. These studies have led her from the Center for Disease Control in the United States, to Lyon, France where she was instrumental in designing, constructing, and rendering operational a laboratory capable of containing some of the world's most dangerous diseases.

  5. Adventures in Infectious Diseases

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher-Hoch, Susan

    2011-11-01

    Dr. Susan Fisher-Hoch, Virologist and Epidemiologist, will discuss her research and travels associated with viral hemorrhagic fevers. From the Ebola outbreak in Reston, Virginia to outbreaks of Crimean Congo Hemorrhagic Fever in South Africa, Senegal, and Saudi Arabia, Dr. Fisher-Hoch has studied and tracked the pathophysiology of these viral diseases. These studies have led her from the Center for Disease Control in the United States, to Lyon, France where she was instrumental in designing, constructing, and rendering operational a laboratory capable of containing some of the world's most dangerous diseases.

  6. 75 FR 24835 - Infectious Diseases

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-06

    ...comment through this RFI on any other strategies that might be applied within healthcare...occupationally-acquired infectious diseases and the strategies that are currently being used to mitigate...serotype in health care personnel at a military hospital in Texas, 2007. J Infect...

  7. Overview of Infectious Diseases

    MedlinePLUS

    ... to realize that not all germs (bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites) cause disease. In fact, a host ... we will become infected with harmful bacteria and fungi. The normal balance of bacteria can be upset ...

  8. Emerging and Re-Emerging Infectious Diseases

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Share this: Main Content Area Emerging Infectious Diseases/Pathogens Research Introduction and Goals Despite remarkable advances in ... supporting such research. NIAID Category A-C Priority Pathogens and Additional Emerging Infectious Diseases/Pathogens List of ...

  9. Emerging infectious diseases in Mongolia.

    PubMed

    Ebright, John R; Altantsetseg, Togoo; Oyungerel, Ravdan

    2003-12-01

    Since 1990, Mongolia's health system has been in transition. Impressive gains have been accomplished through a national immunization program, which was instituted in 1991. Nevertheless, the country continues to confront four major chronic infections: hepatitis B and C, brucellosis, tuberculosis, and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). As of 2001, only two cases of HIV infections had been detected in Mongolia, but concern grows that the rate will increase along with the rising rates of STDs and increase in tourism. Other infectious diseases of importance in Mongolia include echinococcosis, plague, tularemia, anthrax, foot-and-mouth, and rabies. PMID:14720388

  10. Infectious Diseases and Vaccine Sciences: Strategic Directions

    PubMed Central

    Luby, Stephen P.; Brooks, W. Abdullah; Zaman, K.; Hossain, Shahed; Ahmed, Tahmeed

    2008-01-01

    Despite substantial progress, infectious diseases remain important causes of ill-health and premature deaths in Bangladesh. Bangladesh has experienced a >90% reduction in the incidence of deaths due to childhood diarrhoea over the last 25 years. Further reductions can be achieved through the introduction of effective vaccines against rotavirus and improvements in home hygiene, quality of drinking-water, and clinical case management, including appropriate use of oral rehydration solution and zinc. Pneumonia is now the leading cause of childhood deaths in Bangladesh, and the pneumonia-specific child mortality is largely unchanged over the last 25 years. Reductions in mortality due to pneumonia can be achieved through the introduction of protein conjugate vaccines against Haemophilus influenza type b and Streptococcus pneumoniae, improvements in case management, including efforts to prevent delays in providing appropriate treatment, and the wider use of zinc. Tuberculosis is responsible for an estimated 70,000 deaths each year in Bangladesh. Although services for directly-observed therapy have expanded markedly, improved case finding and involvement of private practitioners will be important to reduce the burden of disease. PMID:18831226

  11. [Infectious diseases--new horizons].

    PubMed

    Spirer, Zvi; Barzilai, Asher

    2012-08-01

    During the last decade we have witnessed important developments in the field of infectious diseases. These developments have in a large part been made possible due to our entry into the genomic period. The main areas of progress include diagnosis, understanding of the pathophysiology, genetics, anti-microbial therapy and the prevention of disease by new vaccines. The diagnosis of infection using Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR), contributes today to the early identification of a pathogen, long before the culture and serology. In the future, we will be able to utilize molecular methodologies based on the unique response of the host to a specific infection--the genetic signature. This method will enable very early identification of the pathogen, institution of optimal treatment, and will prevent the excessive use of antibiotics. Another area that has developed in recent years is the genetics of infectious diseases. Accumulated data shows that changes in the genome, polymorphism, result in different reactions by people to different infections. As a result of these changes some people are resistant to certain infections whilst others are especially sensitive to other infections. Introduction of this knowledge into clinical practice will enable more rational medical management with an emphasis on personalized medicine. After a long period without the development of new antibiotics, there are now signs of conceptual and practical breakthroughs in the development of antibiotic agents whose activity is based on new principles and directed against sites different from those of existing antibiotics. These advances are predominantly due to progress in the field of genomics. Similarly, in the development of future vaccines, more and more vaccines will be developed using genomic methods, enabling the creation of vaccines against diseases that we have not yet succeeded to eradicate. Genomic methods will enable the design of vaccines tailored to the specific genomic structure of the host--personal vaccines. All these four aspects of progress in the field of infectious diseases are not science fiction, and it can be stated with confidence that the future is already here. PMID:23350296

  12. An Interdisciplinary Perspective: Infectious Diseases and History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turco, Jenifer; Byrd, Melanie

    2001-01-01

    Introduces the course "Infectious Diseases and History" which is designed for freshman and sophomore students. Aims to teach about infectious diseases, develop skills of using libraries and computer resources, and develop oral and written communication skills. Focuses on tuberculosis as an example of an instructional approach and explains its…

  13. 77 FR 76296 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-27

    ...Allergy and Infectious Diseases Council: Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Subcommittee...Allergy and Infectious Diseases Council: Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Subcommittee...Allergy and Infectious Diseases Council: Microbiology and Infectious Diseases...

  14. 76 FR 77241 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-12

    ...Allergy and Infectious Diseases Council, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Subcommittee...Allergy and Infectious Diseases Council, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Subcommittee...Allergy and Infectious Diseases Council, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases...

  15. 78 FR 79703 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-31

    ...Allergy and Infectious Diseases Council; Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Subcommittee...Allergy and Infectious Diseases Council; Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Subcommittee...Allergy and Infectious Diseases Council; Microbiology and Infectious Diseases...

  16. Eradication of infectious diseases in heterogeneous populations

    SciTech Connect

    Travis, C.C.; Lenhart, S.M.

    1987-04-01

    A model is presented of infectious disease in heterogeneous populations, which allows for variable intra- to intergroup contact ratios. The authors give necessary and sufficient conditions for disease eradication by means of vaccination. Smallpox is used as an illustrative example.

  17. Infectious diseases - new and ancient threats to world health.

    SciTech Connect

    Olshansky, S. J.; Carnes, B.; Rogers, R. G.; Smith, L.; Center for Mechanistic Biology and Biotechnology

    1997-07-01

    When smallpox was eradicated from the globe in the late 1970s, many health experts assumed that infectious and parasitic diseases (IPDs) could at long last be conquered. Death rates from infectious and parasitic diseases had declined during the late 19th century and throughout the 20th century thanks to better public health and sanitation as well as medical advances made possible by economic development. During this period, scientists discovered the germ theory of disease, identified the epidemiology and natural history of many infectious diseases, and created a host of potent antibiotic drugs that helped save millions of lives. Medical researchers learned to identify and cultivate viruses, which led to vaccines for increasing numbers of diseases.

  18. Emerging infectious diseases and amphibian population declines.

    PubMed Central

    Daszak, P.; Berger, L.; Cunningham, A. A.; Hyatt, A. D.; Green, D. E.; Speare, R.

    1999-01-01

    We review recent research on the pathology, ecology, and biogeography of two emerging infectious wildlife diseases, chytridiomycosis and ranaviral disease, in the context of host-parasite population biology. We examine the role of these diseases in the global decline of amphibian populations and propose hypotheses for the origins and impact of these panzootics. Finally, we discuss emerging infectious diseases as a global threat to wildlife populations. PMID:10603206

  19. 76 FR 27070 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases;

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-10

    ...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

  20. Global biogeography of human infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Murray, Kris A; Preston, Nicholas; Allen, Toph; Zambrana-Torrelio, Carlos; Hosseini, Parviez R; Daszak, Peter

    2015-10-13

    The distributions of most infectious agents causing disease in humans are poorly resolved or unknown. However, poorly known and unknown agents contribute to the global burden of disease and will underlie many future disease risks. Existing patterns of infectious disease co-occurrence could thus play a critical role in resolving or anticipating current and future disease threats. We analyzed the global occurrence patterns of 187 human infectious diseases across 225 countries and seven epidemiological classes (human-specific, zoonotic, vector-borne, non-vector-borne, bacterial, viral, and parasitic) to show that human infectious diseases exhibit distinct spatial grouping patterns at a global scale. We demonstrate, using outbreaks of Ebola virus as a test case, that this spatial structuring provides an untapped source of prior information that could be used to tighten the focus of a range of health-related research and management activities at early stages or in data-poor settings, including disease surveillance, outbreak responses, or optimizing pathogen discovery. In examining the correlates of these spatial patterns, among a range of geographic, epidemiological, environmental, and social factors, mammalian biodiversity was the strongest predictor of infectious disease co-occurrence overall and for six of the seven disease classes examined, giving rise to a striking congruence between global pathogeographic and "Wallacean" zoogeographic patterns. This clear biogeographic signal suggests that infectious disease assemblages remain fundamentally constrained in their distributions by ecological barriers to dispersal or establishment, despite the homogenizing forces of globalization. Pathogeography thus provides an overarching context in which other factors promoting infectious disease emergence and spread are set. PMID:26417098

  1. Macaque models of human infectious disease.

    PubMed

    Gardner, Murray B; Luciw, Paul A

    2008-01-01

    Macaques have served as models for more than 70 human infectious diseases of diverse etiologies, including a multitude of agents-bacteria, viruses, fungi, parasites, prions. The remarkable diversity of human infectious diseases that have been modeled in the macaque includes global, childhood, and tropical diseases as well as newly emergent, sexually transmitted, oncogenic, degenerative neurologic, potential bioterrorism, and miscellaneous other diseases. Historically, macaques played a major role in establishing the etiology of yellow fever, polio, and prion diseases. With rare exceptions (Chagas disease, bartonellosis), all of the infectious diseases in this review are of Old World origin. Perhaps most surprising is the large number of tropical (16), newly emergent (7), and bioterrorism diseases (9) that have been modeled in macaques. Many of these human diseases (e.g., AIDS, hepatitis E, bartonellosis) are a consequence of zoonotic infection. However, infectious agents of certain diseases, including measles and tuberculosis, can sometimes go both ways, and thus several human pathogens are threats to nonhuman primates including macaques. Through experimental studies in macaques, researchers have gained insight into pathogenic mechanisms and novel treatment and vaccine approaches for many human infectious diseases, most notably acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), which is caused by infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Other infectious agents for which macaques have been a uniquely valuable resource for biomedical research, and particularly vaccinology, include influenza virus, paramyxoviruses, flaviviruses, arenaviruses, hepatitis E virus, papillomavirus, smallpox virus, Mycobacteria, Bacillus anthracis, Helicobacter pylori, Yersinia pestis, and Plasmodium species. This review summarizes the extensive past and present research on macaque models of human infectious disease. PMID:18323583

  2. Global biogeography of human infectious diseases

    PubMed Central

    Murray, Kris A.; Preston, Nicholas; Allen, Toph; Zambrana-Torrelio, Carlos; Hosseini, Parviez R.; Daszak, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The distributions of most infectious agents causing disease in humans are poorly resolved or unknown. However, poorly known and unknown agents contribute to the global burden of disease and will underlie many future disease risks. Existing patterns of infectious disease co-occurrence could thus play a critical role in resolving or anticipating current and future disease threats. We analyzed the global occurrence patterns of 187 human infectious diseases across 225 countries and seven epidemiological classes (human-specific, zoonotic, vector-borne, non–vector-borne, bacterial, viral, and parasitic) to show that human infectious diseases exhibit distinct spatial grouping patterns at a global scale. We demonstrate, using outbreaks of Ebola virus as a test case, that this spatial structuring provides an untapped source of prior information that could be used to tighten the focus of a range of health-related research and management activities at early stages or in data-poor settings, including disease surveillance, outbreak responses, or optimizing pathogen discovery. In examining the correlates of these spatial patterns, among a range of geographic, epidemiological, environmental, and social factors, mammalian biodiversity was the strongest predictor of infectious disease co-occurrence overall and for six of the seven disease classes examined, giving rise to a striking congruence between global pathogeographic and “Wallacean” zoogeographic patterns. This clear biogeographic signal suggests that infectious disease assemblages remain fundamentally constrained in their distributions by ecological barriers to dispersal or establishment, despite the homogenizing forces of globalization. Pathogeography thus provides an overarching context in which other factors promoting infectious disease emergence and spread are set. PMID:26417098

  3. Coping with Stress during Infectious Disease Outbreaks

    MedlinePLUS

    · Coping With Stress During Infectious Disease Outbreaks What You Should Know When you hear, read, or watch news about an outbreak ... you may feel anxious and show signs of stress—even when the outbreak affects people far from ...

  4. Selected emerging infectious diseases of ornamental fish.

    PubMed

    McDermott, Colin; Palmeiro, Brian

    2013-05-01

    Several emerging infectious diseases have serious implications for the trade and husbandry of ornamental fish. Although many of these diseases have been well studied and described in certain species, there are still many diseases that are not well understood. The following discussion focuses on select important emerging infectious diseases that affect ornamental fish in the aquarium and aquaculture industries: goldfish herpesvirus, koi herpesvirus, Ranavirus, Megalocytivirus, Betanodavirus, Francisella, Cryptobia iubilans, and Exophiala. When possible, the known species affected, clinical signs, diagnosis, treatment, disinfection, and prevention modalities for each disease are discussed. PMID:23642862

  5. Contagious rhythm: infectious diseases of 20th century musicians.

    PubMed

    Sartin, Jeffrey S

    2010-07-01

    Infectious diseases have led to illness and death for many famous musicians, from the classical period to the rock 'n' roll era. By the 20th century, as public health improved and orchestral composers began living more settled lives, infections among American and European musicians became less prominent. By mid-century, however, seminal jazz musicians famously pursued lifestyles characterized by drug and alcohol abuse. Among the consequences of this risky lifestyle were tuberculosis, syphilis, and chronic viral hepatitis. More contemporary rock musicians have experienced an epidemic of hepatitis C infection and HIV/AIDS related to intravenous drug use and promiscuity. Musical innovation is thus often accompanied by diseases of neglect and overindulgence, particularly infectious illnesses, although risky behavior and associated infectious illnesses tend to decrease as the style matures. PMID:20660936

  6. Contagious Rhythm: Infectious Diseases of 20th Century Musicians

    PubMed Central

    Sartin, Jeffrey S.

    2010-01-01

    Infectious diseases have led to illness and death for many famous musicians, from the classical period to the rock ’n’ roll era. By the 20th century, as public health improved and orchestral composers began living more settled lives, infections among American and European musicians became less prominent. By mid-century, however, seminal jazz musicians famously pursued lifestyles characterized by drug and alcohol abuse. Among the consequences of this risky lifestyle were tuberculosis, syphilis, and chronic viral hepatitis. More contemporary rock musicians have experienced an epidemic of hepatitis C infection and HIV/AIDS related to intravenous drug use and promiscuity. Musical innovation is thus often accompanied by diseases of neglect and overindulgence, particularly infectious illnesses, although risky behavior and associated infectious illnesses tend to decrease as the style matures. PMID:20660936

  7. Rabbit Models for Studying Human Infectious Diseases.

    PubMed

    Peng, Xuwen; Knouse, John A; Hernon, Krista M

    2015-01-01

    Using an appropriate animal model is crucial for mimicking human disease conditions, and various facets including genetics, anatomy, and pathophysiology should be considered before selecting a model. Rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) are well known for their wide use in production of antibodies, eye research, atherosclerosis and other cardiovascular diseases. However, a systematic description of the rabbit as primary experimental models for the study of various human infectious diseases is unavailable. This review focuses on the human infectious diseases for which rabbits are considered a classic or highly appropriate model, including AIDS (caused by HIV1), adult T-cell leukemia-lymphoma (human T-lymphotropic virus type 1), papilloma or carcinoma (human papillomavirus) , herpetic stromal keratitis (herpes simplex virus type 1), tuberculosis (Mycobacterium tuberculosis), and syphilis (Treponema pallidum). In addition, particular aspects of the husbandry and care of rabbits used in studies of human infectious diseases are described. PMID:26678367

  8. 78 FR 58322 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-23

    ... personal privacy. Name of Committee: Microbiology, Infectious Diseases and AIDS Initial Review Group, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases B Subcommittee, Microbiology & Infectious Diseases B Subcommittee (MID-B...: Microbiology, Infectious Diseases and AIDS Initial Review Group, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases...

  9. 75 FR 76475 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-08

    ...Allergy and Infectious Diseases Council; Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Subcommittee...Allergy and Infectious Diseases Council; Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Subcommittee...Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases...

  10. Evolution of Infectious Disease 11:216:405 Evolution of Infectious Disease

    E-print Network

    Liu, Alice Y.C.

    Evolution of Infectious Disease 11:216:405 page 1 Evolution of Infectious Disease Dr. Siobain Duffy duffy@aesop.rutgers.edu Course Description: Evolution underlies every aspect of biology, but many people have an impression that evolution is restricted to the study of fossils revealing how large organisms

  11. Infectious diseases -- new and ancient threats to world health.

    PubMed

    Olshansky, S J; Carnes, B; Rogers, R G; Smith, L

    1997-07-01

    Infectious and parasitic diseases remain a leading cause of death and disability in developing countries and are re-emerging as a serious health problem in developed countries. Outbreaks of Ebola, dengue hemorrhagic fever, cholera, and bubonic plague have occurred in low-income countries and multidrug-resistant organisms have surfaced throughout the world. Since 1973, over 28 new disease-causing microbes have been identified. This issue of "Population Bulletin" analyzes the impact of factors such as population growth, urbanization, migration, poverty, travel, agricultural practices, climate changes, natural disasters, and medical technology on the resurgence of infectious and parasitic diseases as well as the influence of diseases such as AIDS on population dynamics and socioeconomic development. Most of these diseases could be prevented, cured, or eradicated with known public health measures. National governments can help reduce poverty, step up immunization programs, and lessen the chances of introducing new diseases. Nongovernmental organizations can disseminate preventive knowledge and monitor disease outbreaks. The medical profession can strengthen infection control precautions and institute surveillance of the use of antibiotics and other antimicrobial agents. Since the geographic isolation that used to contain disease outbreaks has been replaced by permeable international borders, the campaign against infectious and parasitic diseases must be global. PMID:12292663

  12. Banting Memorial Lecture 2010^. Type 2 diabetes as an 'infectious' disease: is this the Black Death of the 21st century?

    PubMed

    Matthews, D R; Matthews, P C

    2011-01-01

    We are currently facing a global pandemic of obesity and Type 2 diabetes. In some settings, the population prevalence of Type 2 diabetes is 50%, and half of those affected will die from diabetes-related complications. Eight centuries ago, an epidemic of bubonic plague swept across Europe, killing at least half of its victims. We here draw comparisons between these two pandemics, proposing close analogies between the 'Black Death' of the 14th century and the modern-day equivalent of Type 2 diabetes. Both diseases can be considered in terms of an aetiological agent, a reservoir, a vector and a predisposing toxic environment; populations can be considered as highly susceptible to the transmissable agents of Type 2 diabetes in the setting of calorie excess, inadequate food labelling, poorly regulated advertising and sedentary lifestyles. As for tackling a pandemic of a contagious microbial pathogen, we believe that breaking the cycle of transmission in the diabetes epidemic must be underpinned by political will and prompt, decisive legislation backed by the medical community. Far from fearing that such measures edge us towards a 'nanny state', we believe individuals should expect a responsible government to safeguard them from the toxic milieu that puts them at risk of obesity and its complications, and that communities and populations have the right to have their health protected. PMID:21166840

  13. Biodiversity loss and infectious diseases: chapter 5

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lafferty, Kevin D.

    2014-01-01

    When conservation biologists think about infectious diseases, their thoughts are mostly negative. Infectious diseases have been associated with the extinction and endangerment of some species, though this is rare, and other factors like habitat loss and poorly regulated harvest still are the overwhelming drivers of endangerment. Parasites are pervasive and play important roles as natural enemies on par with top predators, from regulating population abundances to maintaining species diversity. Sometimes, parasites themselves can be endangered. However, it seems unlikely that humans will miss extinct parasites. Parasites are often sensitive to habitat loss and degradation, making them positive indicators of ecosystem “health”. Conservation biologists need to carefully consider infectious diseases when planning conservation actions. This can include minimizing the movement of domestic and invasive species, vaccination, and culling.

  14. Protein Microarrays and Biomarkers of Infectious Disease

    PubMed Central

    Natesan, Mohan; Ulrich, Robert G.

    2010-01-01

    Protein microarrays are powerful tools that are widely used in systems biology research. For infectious diseases, proteome microarrays assembled from proteins of pathogens will play an increasingly important role in discovery of diagnostic markers, vaccines, and therapeutics. Distinct formats of protein microarrays have been developed for different applications, including abundance-based and function-based methods. Depending on the application, design issues should be considered, such as the need for multiplexing and label or label free detection methods. New developments, challenges, and future demands in infectious disease research will impact the application of protein microarrays for discovery and validation of biomarkers. PMID:21614200

  15. [Corticosteroids in the treatment of infectious diseases].

    PubMed

    Kronig, I; Schibler, M; Rougemont, M; Emonet, S

    2013-04-24

    The addition of a corticosteroid has become a common practice for the treatment of some infectious diseases, such as meningitis, septic shock, moderate to severe Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia. The belief that steroids may have a beneficial effect in the early stage of pro-inflammatory infections explains the renewed interest for these treatments. This review of recent literature helps determine the use of steroids in the treatment of infectious diseases as formal guidance, questionable or rather contraindicated. When there is a clear scientific indication for the use of corticosteroids regardless of the current infection, the latter is never a formal contraindication. PMID:23697079

  16. [Current infectious disease care in Spain].

    PubMed

    Almirante, Benito; Colmenero, Juan Dios; Fortún, Jesús; Oteo, José Antonio; Santamaría, Juan Mari; Sola, Julio

    2008-12-01

    Despite the specialist activity of Infectious Diseases not being officially recognised, the majority of the hospitals in the autonomous communities of Spain are equipped with structures, with significant heterogeneity among them, to be able to offer high quality care in these diseases. The main characteristics of and Infectious Diseases Department is its important healthcare activity, more than in other officially recognised medical specialities, and also its important interrelationship with other services in the hospital which is clearly horizontal healthcare. Furthermore, the aforementioned infectious disease care units have developed important activities in the arena of community and public health and, in collaboration with health authorities, contribute to the rational use of antimicrobials and the relationship with Primary Care. The future of specialists in infectious diseases, when they are officially recognised, will be the creation of clinical management units in every health institution with the objective of coordinating all the specialised health care, both in the hospital environment and in its health area of influence. PMID:19195465

  17. Infectious Disease Risk Associated with Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pierson, Duane L.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation opens with views of the shuttle in various stages of preparation for launch, a few moments after launch prior to external fuel tank separation, a few pictures of the earth,and several pictures of astronomical interest. The presentation reviews the factors effecting the risks of infectious disease during space flight, such as the crew, water, food, air, surfaces and payloads and the factors that increase disease risk, the factors affecting the risk of infectious disease during spaceflight, and the environmental factors affecting immunity, such as stress. One factor in space infectious disease is latent viral reactivation, such as herpes. There are comparisons of the incidence of viral reactivation in space, and in other analogous situations (such as bed rest, or isolation). There is discussion of shingles, and the pain and results of treatment. There is a further discussion of the changes in microbial pathogen characteristics, using salmonella as an example of the increased virulence of microbes during spaceflight. A factor involved in the risk of infectious disease is stress.

  18. National Infectious Diseases Surveillance data of South Korea.

    PubMed

    Park, Sunhee; Cho, Eunhee

    2014-01-01

    The Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (KCDC) operate infectious disease surveillance systems to monitor national disease incidence. Since 1954, Korea has collected data on various infectious diseases in accordance with the Infectious Disease Control and Prevention Act. All physicians (including those working in Oriental medicine) who diagnose a patient with an infectious disease or conduct a postmortem examination of an infectious disease case are obliged to report the disease to the system. These reported data are incorporated into the database of the National Infectious Disease Surveillance System, which has been providing web-based real-time surveillance data on infectious diseases since 2001. In addition, the KCDC analyzes reported data and publishes the Infectious Disease Surveillance Yearbook annually. PMID:25420951

  19. Infectious diseases of Pacific salmon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    1954-01-01

    A variety of bacteria has been found responsible for outbreaks of disease in salmon in sea water. The most important of these is a species of Vibrio. Tuberculosis has been found in adult chinook salmon and the evidence indicates that the disease was contracted at sea.

  20. Microbial Pathogenesis: Mechanisms of Infectious Disease

    PubMed Central

    Carruthers, Vern B.; Cotter, Peggy A.; Kumamoto, Carol A.

    2009-01-01

    The FASEB Summer Research Conference on Microbial Pathogenesis: Mechanisms of Infectious Disease was held in Colorado, USA in July 2007. The central theme was the interplay between pathogenic microbes and their mammalian hosts. Here, we review the presented research that highlights this theme, including studies of both short-term and long-term interactions between microbes and their hosts. PMID:18005739

  1. Rapid Analysis of Pharmacology for Infectious Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Hopkins, Andrew L; Bickerton, G. Richard; Carruthers, Ian M; Boyer, Stephen K; Rubin, Harvey; Overington, John P

    2011-01-01

    Pandemic, epidemic and endemic infectious diseases are united by a common problem: how do we rapidly and cost-effectively identify potential pharmacological interventions to treat infections? Given the large number of emerging and neglected infectious diseases and the fact that they disproportionately afflict the poorest members of the global society, new ways of thinking are required to develop high productivity discovery systems that can be applied to a large number of pathogens. The growing availability of parasite genome data provides the basis for developing methods to prioritize, a priori potential drug targets and analyze the pharmacological landscape of an infectious disease. Thus the overall objective of infectious disease informatics is to enable the rapid generation of plausible, novel medical hypotheses of test-able pharmacological experiments, by uncovering undiscovered relationships in the wealth of biomedical literature and databases that were collected for other purposes. In particular our goal is to identify potential drug targets present in a pathogen genome and prioritize which pharmacological experiments are most likely to discover drug-like lead compounds rapidly against a pathogen (i.e. which specific compounds and drug targets should be screened, in which assays and where they can be sourced). An integral part of the challenge is the development and integration of methods to predict druggability, essentiality, synthetic lethality and polypharmocology in pathogen genomes, while simultaneously integrating the inevitable issues of chemical tractability and the potential for acquired drug resistance from the start. PMID:21401504

  2. Future Infectious Disease Threats to Europe

    PubMed Central

    Suk, Jonathan E.

    2011-01-01

    We examined how different drivers of infectious disease could interact to threaten control efforts in Europe. We considered projected trends through 2020 for 3 broad groups of drivers: globalization and environmental change, social and demographic change, and health system capacity. Eight plausible infectious disease threats with the potential to be significantly more problematic than they are today were identified through an expert consultation: extensively drug-resistant bacteria, vector-borne diseases, sexually transmitted infections, food-borne infections, a resurgence of vaccine-preventable diseases, health care–associated infections, multidrug-resistant tuberculosis, and pandemic influenza. Preemptive measures to be taken by the public health community to counteract these threats were identified. PMID:21940915

  3. Augmenting Spatio-Textual Search With an Infectious Disease Ontology

    E-print Network

    Samet, Hanan

    Augmenting Spatio-Textual Search With an Infectious Disease Ontology Michael D. Lieberman Jagan and classifies infectious disease incidence reports by type and geographic location, to aid analysis by domain experts. It identi- fies references to infectious diseases by using a disease ontology. The system

  4. Diseases of Dairy Animals: Infectious Diseases: Johne's Disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Johne's disease is a chronic, debilitating intestinal disorder in cattle, sheep and wild ruminants, characterized by diarrhea, weight loss and death. Animals usually become infected when they are young by ingesting feces or milk containing the causative bacteria. However, clinical signs of disease...

  5. Emerging infectious diseases: a cause for concern.

    PubMed

    Berns, D S; Rager, B

    2000-12-01

    As the twenty-first century begins it becomes increasingly apparent that the twentieth century, which opened with the promise of the eradication of most infectious diseases, closed with the specter of the reemergence of many deadly infectious diseases that have a rapidly increasing incidence and geographic range. Equally if not more alarming is the appearance of new infectious diseases that have become major sources of morbidity and mortality. Among recent examples are HIV/AIDS, hantavirus pulmonary syndrome, Lyme disease, hemolytic uremic syndrome (caused by a strain of Escherichia coli), Rift Valley fever, Dengue hemorrhagic fever, malaria, cryptosporidiosis, and schistosomiasis. The reasons for this situation are easily identified in some cases as associated with treatment modalities (permissive use of antibiotics), the industrial use of antibiotics, demographic changes, societal behavior patterns, changes in ecology, global warming, the inability to deliver minimal health care and the neglect of well-established public health priorities. In addition is the emergence of diseases of another type. We have begun to characterize the potential microbial etiology of what has historically been referred to as chronic diseases. PMID:11344776

  6. 75 FR 81631 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-28

    ...personal privacy. Name of Committee: Microbiology, Infectious Diseases and AIDS Initial Review Group. Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research...Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases...

  7. 76 FR 55074 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-06

    ...personal privacy. Name of Committee: Microbiology, Infectious Diseases and AIDS Initial Review Group, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research...Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases...

  8. 75 FR 49502 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-13

    ...personal privacy. Name of Committee: Microbiology, Infectious Diseases and AIDS Initial Review Group; Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research...Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases...

  9. 78 FR 3011 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-15

    ...personal privacy. Name of Committee: Microbiology, Infectious Diseases and AIDS Initial Review Group; Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research...Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases...

  10. 75 FR 26760 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-12

    ...personal privacy. Name of Committee: Microbiology, Infectious Diseases and AIDS Initial Review Group; Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research...Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases...

  11. 77 FR 29676 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-18

    ...personal privacy. Name of Committee: Microbiology, Infectious Diseases and AIDS Initial Review Group; Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research...Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases...

  12. Infectious Disease Modeling of Social Contagion in Networks

    E-print Network

    Hill, Alison Lynn

    Many behavioral phenomena have been found to spread interpersonally through social networks, in a manner similar to infectious diseases. An important difference between social contagion and traditional infectious diseases, ...

  13. Infectious Disease Stigmas: Maladaptive in Modern Society

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Rachel A.; Hughes, David

    2014-01-01

    At multiple times in human history people have asked if there are good stigmas. Is there some useful function stigmas serve in the context of our evolutionary history; is stigma adaptive? This essay discusses stigmas as a group-selection strategy and the human context in which stigmas likely appeared. The next section explores how human patterns have changed in modern society and the consequences for infectious disease (ID) stigmas in the modern age. The concluding section suggests that while social-living species may be particularly apt to create and communicate ID stigmas and enact ID-related stigmatization, such stigma-related processes no longer function to protect human communities. Stigmas do not increase the ability of modern societies to survive infectious diseases, but in fact may be important drivers of problematic disease dynamics and act as catalysts for failures in protecting public health. PMID:25477728

  14. Vaccination against infectious diseases: what is promising?

    PubMed

    Doerr, Hans Wilhelm; Berger, Annemarie

    2014-12-01

    Vaccination has proven to be one of the best weapons protecting the mankind against infectious diseases. Along with the huge progress in microbiology, numerous highly efficacious and safe vaccines have been produced by conventional technology (cultivation), by the use of molecular biology (genetic modification), or by synthetic chemistry. Sterilising prevention is achieved by the stimulation of antibody production, while the stimulation of cell-mediated immune responses may prevent the outbreak of disease in consequence of an acute or reactivated infection. From several examples, two rules are deduced to evaluate the perspectives of future vaccine developments: They are promising, if (1) the natural infectious disease induces immunity or (2) passive immunisation (transfer of antibodies, adoptive transfer of lymphocytes) is successful in preventing infection. PMID:25064610

  15. Travel and the emergence of infectious diseases.

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, M. E.

    1995-01-01

    Travel is a potent force in the emergence of disease. Migration of humans has been the pathway for disseminating infectious diseases throughout recorded history and will continue to shape the emergence, frequency, and spread of infections in geographic areas and populations. The current volume, speed, and reach of travel are unprecedented. The consequences of travel extend beyond the traveler to the population visited and the ecosystem. When they travel, humans carry their genetic makeup, immunologic sequelae of past infections, cultural preferences, customs, and behavioral patterns. Microbes, animals, and other biologic life also accompany them. Today's massive movement of humans and materials sets the stage for mixing diverse genetic pools at rates and in combinations previously unknown. Concomitant changes in the environment, climate, technology, land use, human behavior, and demographics converge to favor the emergence of infectious diseases caused by a broad range of organisms in humans, as well as in plants and animals. PMID:8903157

  16. Epidemiological monitoring for emerging infectious diseases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greene, Marjorie

    2010-04-01

    The Homeland Security News Wire has been reporting on new ways to fight epidemics using digital tools such as iPhone, social networks, Wikipedia, and other Internet sites. Instant two-way communication now gives consumers the ability to complement official reports on emerging infectious diseases from health authorities. However, there is increasing concern that these communications networks could open the door to mass panic from unreliable or false reports. There is thus an urgent need to ensure that epidemiological monitoring for emerging infectious diseases gives health authorities the capability to identify, analyze, and report disease outbreaks in as timely and efficient a manner as possible. One of the dilemmas in the global dissemination of information on infectious diseases is the possibility that information overload will create inefficiencies as the volume of Internet-based surveillance information increases. What is needed is a filtering mechanism that will retrieve relevant information for further analysis by epidemiologists, laboratories, and other health organizations so they are not overwhelmed with irrelevant information and will be able to respond quickly. This paper introduces a self-organizing ontology that could be used as a filtering mechanism to increase relevance and allow rapid analysis of disease outbreaks as they evolve in real time.

  17. [The concept of infectious diseases pathogenesis].

    PubMed

    Ucha?kin, V F; Shamsheva, O V

    2013-01-01

    In this article a concept of infectious disease pathogenesis as consisted with clinical symptoms is provided. The course of disease, immediate and long-term consequences depend on the mode of entry. If the infection comes via oropharynx, airway, gastrointestinal tract or via skin, the immune system provides adequate immune response. This leads to typical symptoms, cyclical clinic progression and usually to the recovery with the formation of full sterile immunity. In case of parenteral way of infection, which includes perinatal way, there is no full mode of entry, the disease takes chronic course involving visceral organs because of different mechanisms of affinity and new tropic organ involving. For the full sanogenesis germ or its mediators should persist in the primary focus of infection. It is suggested, that HIV, HCV, hepatitis B virus, tetanus, rabies and other infectious diseases with inner organs involvement, as well as all slow infections, should be treated as infectious diseases with the parental way of infection, proceeding with affinity changings, which lead to the appearance of new tropic sites in visceral organs. The theory of the mode of entry, affinity, appearance of tropic sites in visceral organs should form the basis of modern infectology. PMID:24741949

  18. Infectious diseases and global warming: Tracking disease incidence rates globally

    SciTech Connect

    Low, N.C.

    1995-09-01

    Given the increasing importance of impact of global warming on public health, there is no global database system to monitor infectious disease and disease in general, and to which global data of climate change and environmental factors, such as temperature, greenhouse gases, and human activities, e.g., coastal development, deforestation, can be calibrated, investigated and correlated. The author proposes the diseases incidence rates be adopted as the basic global measure of morbidity of infectious diseases. The importance of a correctly chosen measure of morbidity of disease is presented. The importance of choosing disease incidence rates as the measure of morbidity and the mathematical foundation of which are discussed. The author further proposes the establishment of a global database system to track the incidence rates of infectious diseases. Only such a global system can be used to calibrate and correlate other globally tracked climatic, greenhouse gases and environmental data. The infrastructure and data sources for building such a global database is discussed.

  19. Protein crystallography and infectious diseases.

    PubMed Central

    Verlinde, C. L.; Merritt, E. A.; Van den Akker, F.; Kim, H.; Feil, I.; Delboni, L. F.; Mande, S. C.; Sarfaty, S.; Petra, P. H.; Hol, W. G.

    1994-01-01

    The current rapid growth in the number of known 3-dimensional protein structures is producing a database of structures that is increasingly useful as a starting point for the development of new medically relevant molecules such as drugs, therapeutic proteins, and vaccines. This development is beautifully illustrated in the recent book, Protein structure: New approaches to disease and therapy (Perutz, 1992). There is a great and growing promise for the design of molecules for the treatment or prevention of a wide variety of diseases, an endeavor made possible by the insights derived from the structure and function of crucial proteins from pathogenic organisms and from man. We present here 2 illustrations of structure-based drug design. The first is the prospect of developing antitrypanosomal drugs based on crystallographic, ligand-binding, and molecular modeling studies of glycolytic glycosomal enzymes from Trypanosomatidae. These unicellular organisms are responsible for several tropical diseases, including African and American trypanosomiases, as well as various forms of leishmaniasis. Because the target enzymes are also present in the human host, this project is a pioneering study in selective design. The second illustrative case is the prospect of designing anti-cholera drugs based on detailed analysis of the structure of cholera toxin and the closely related Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin. Such potential drugs can be targeted either at inhibiting the toxin's receptor binding site or at blocking the toxin's intracellular catalytic activity. Study of the Vibrio cholerae and E. coli toxins serves at the same time as an example of a general approach to structure-based vaccine design. These toxins exhibit a remarkable ability to stimulate the mucosal immune system, and early results have suggested that this property can be maintained by engineered fusion proteins based on the native toxin structure. The challenge is thus to incorporate selected epitopes from foreign pathogens into the native framework of the toxin such that crucial features of both the epitope and the toxin are maintained. That is, the modified toxin must continue to evoke a strong mucosal immune response, and this response must be directed against an epitope conformation characteristic of the original pathogen. PMID:7849584

  20. The Challenge of Infectious Diseases to the Biomedical Paradigm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foladori, Guillermo

    2005-01-01

    The resurgence of infectious diseases and the emergence of infectious diseases raise questions on how to cope with the situation. The germ or clinical approach is the hegemonic biomedical paradigm. In this article, the author argues that the spread of infectious diseases has posted a challenge to the biomedical paradigm and shows how lock-in…

  1. 76 FR 27070 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases;

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-10

    ... SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of... privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel... Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel, NIAID Peer...

  2. Management of Chronic Infectious Diseases in School Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois State Board of Education, Springfield.

    This document contains guidelines for developing policies and procedures related to chronic infectious diseases, as recommended by the Illinois Task Force on School Management of Infectious Disease. It is designed to help school personnel understand how infectious diseases can be transmitted, and to assist school districts in the development and…

  3. Social inequalities and emerging infectious diseases.

    PubMed Central

    Farmer, P.

    1996-01-01

    Although many who study emerging infections subscribe to social-production-of-disease theories, few have examined the contribution of social inequalities to disease emergence. Yet such inequalities have powerfully sculpted not only the distribution of infectious diseases, but also the course of disease in those affected. Outbreaks of Ebola, AIDS, and tuberculosis suggest that models of disease emergence need to be dynamic, systemic, and critical. Such models--which strive to incorporate change and complexity, and are global yet alive to local variation--are critical of facile claims of causality, particularly those that scant the pathogenic roles of social inequalities. Critical perspectives on emerging infections ask how large-scale social forces influence unequally positioned individuals in increasingly interconnected populations; a critical epistemology of emerging infectious diseases asks what features of disease emergence are obscured by dominant analytic frameworks. Research questions stemming from such a reexamination of disease emergence would demand close collaboration between basic scientists, clinicians, and the social scientists and epidemiologists who adopt such perspectives. PMID:8969243

  4. Using biological networks to improve our understanding of infectious diseases

    PubMed Central

    Mulder, Nicola J.; Akinola, Richard O.; Mazandu, Gaston K.; Rapanoel, Holifidy

    2014-01-01

    Infectious diseases are the leading cause of death, particularly in developing countries. Although many drugs are available for treating the most common infectious diseases, in many cases the mechanism of action of these drugs or even their targets in the pathogen remain unknown. In addition, the key factors or processes in pathogens that facilitate infection and disease progression are often not well understood. Since proteins do not work in isolation, understanding biological systems requires a better understanding of the interconnectivity between proteins in different pathways and processes, which includes both physical and other functional interactions. Such biological networks can be generated within organisms or between organisms sharing a common environment using experimental data and computational predictions. Though different data sources provide different levels of accuracy, confidence in interactions can be measured using interaction scores. Connections between interacting proteins in biological networks can be represented as graphs and edges, and thus studied using existing algorithms and tools from graph theory. There are many different applications of biological networks, and here we discuss three such applications, specifically applied to the infectious disease tuberculosis, with its causative agent Mycobacterium tuberculosis and host, Homo sapiens. The applications include the use of the networks for function prediction, comparison of networks for evolutionary studies, and the generation and use of host–pathogen interaction networks. PMID:25379138

  5. Platelet satellitism in infectious disease?

    PubMed Central

    Laskaj, Renata; Sikiric, Dubravka; Skerk, Visnja

    2015-01-01

    Background Platelet satellitism is a phenomenon of unknown etiology of aggregating platelets around polymorphonuclear neutrophils and other blood cells which causes pseudothrombocytopenia, visible by microscopic examination of blood smears. It has been observed so far in about a hundred cases in the world. Case subject and methods Our case involves a 73-year-old female patient with a urinary infection. Biochemical serum analysis (CRP, glucose, AST, ALT, ALP, GGT, bilirubin, sodium, potassium, chloride, urea, creatinine) and blood cell count were performed with standard methods on autoanalyzers. Serum protein fractions were examined by electrophoresis and urinalysis with standard methods on autoanalyzer together with microscopic examination of urine sediment. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate, blood culture and urine culture tests were performed with standard methods. Results Due to typical pathological values for bacterial urinary infection, the patient was admitted to the hospital. Blood smear examination revealed phenomenon, which has persisted for three weeks after the disease has been cured. Blood smears with EDTA as an anticoagulant had platelet satellitism whereas the phenomenon was not observed in tubes with different anticoagulants (Na, Li-heparin) and capillary blood. Discussion We hypothesize that satellitism was induced by some immunological mechanism through formation of antibodies which have mediated platelets binding to neutrophil membranes and vice versa. Unfortunately we were unable to determine the putative trigger for this phenomenon. To our knowledge this is the second case of platelet satellitism ever described in Croatia. PMID:26110042

  6. Concluding perspectives of sequelae and long-term consequences of infectious diseases - what's next?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Infectious diseases are a major cause of morbidity and mortality, representing the second leading cause of death worldwide and the third leading cause of death in the United States. Moreover, infections caused by different pathogenic agents, including food-borne pathogens, can lead to serious post-...

  7. Peripheral Nervous System Manifestations of Infectious Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Brizzi, Kate T.

    2014-01-01

    Infectious causes of peripheral nervous system (PNS) disease are underrecognized but potentially treatable. Heightened awareness educed by advanced understanding of the presentations and management of these infections can aid diagnosis and facilitate treatment. In this review, we discuss the clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and treatment of common bacterial, viral, and parasitic infections that affect the PNS. We additionally detail PNS side effects of some frequently used antimicrobial agents. PMID:25360209

  8. Modeling Infectious Diseases through Contact Networks Todd Graham1,2, Claire Seibold1, Rebecca Driessen2, and Dr. Hannah Callender1

    E-print Network

    Just, Winfried

    Modeling Infectious Diseases through Contact Networks Todd Graham1,2, Claire Seibold1, Rebecca of Biology, University of Portland Introduction to Infectious Disease Modeling The Power of Simulation Discussion on Control Measures Contact Networks Infectious diseases are the second leading cause of death

  9. Infectious etiopathogenesis of Crohn’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Carrière, Jessica; Darfeuille-Michaud, Arlette; Nguyen, Hang Thi Thu

    2014-01-01

    Important advances during the last decade have been made in understanding the complex etiopathogenesis of Crohn’s disease (CD). While many gaps in our knowledge still exist, it has been suggested that the etiology of CD is multifactorial including genetic, environmental and infectious factors. The most widely accepted theory states that CD is caused by an aggressive immune response to infectious agents in genetically predisposed individuals. The rise of genome-wide association studies allowed the identification of loci and genetic variants in several components of host innate and adaptive immune responses to microorganisms in the gut, highlighting an implication of intestinal microbiota in CD etiology. Moreover, numerous independent studies reported a dysbiosis, i.e., a modification of intestinal microbiota composition, with an imbalance between the abundance of beneficial and harmful bacteria. Although microorganisms including viruses, yeasts, fungi and bacteria have been postulated as potential CD pathogens, based on epidemiological, clinicopathological, genetic and experimental evidence, their precise role in this disease is not clearly defined. This review summarizes the current knowledge of the infectious agents associated with an increased risk of developing CD. Therapeutic approaches to modulate the intestinal dysbiosis and to target the putative CD-associated pathogens, as well as their potential mechanisms of action are also discussed. PMID:25232246

  10. Global climate change and infectious diseases

    SciTech Connect

    Shope, R. )

    1991-12-01

    The effects of global climate change on infectious diseases are hypothetical until more is known about the degree of change in temperature and humidity that will occur. Diseases most likely to increase in their distribution and severity have three-factor (agent, vector, and human being) and four-factor (plus vertebrate reservoir host) ecology. Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus mosquitoes may move northward and have more rapid metamorphosis with global warming. These mosquitoes transmit dengue virus, and Aedes aegypti transmits yellow fever virus. The faster metamorphosis and a shorter extrinsic incubation of dengue and yellow fever viruses could lead to epidemics in North America. Vibrio cholera is harbored persistently in the estuaries of the U.S. Gulf Coast. Over the past 200 years, cholera has become pandemic seven times with spread from Asia to Europe, Africa, and North America. Global warming may lead to changes in water ecology that could enhance similar spread of cholera in North America. Some other infectious diseases such as LaCrosse encephalitis and Lyme disease are caused by agents closely dependent on the integrity of their environment. These diseases may become less prominent with global warming because of anticipated modification of their habitats. Ecological studies will help as to understand more fully the possible consequences of global warming. New and more effective methods for control of vectors will be needed. 12 refs., 1 tab.

  11. Global climate change and infectious diseases.

    PubMed Central

    Shope, R

    1991-01-01

    The effects of global climate change on infectious diseases are hypothetical until more is known about the degree of change in temperature and humidity that will occur. Diseases most likely to increase in their distribution and severity have three-factor (agent, vector, and human being) and four-factor (plus vertebrate reservoir host) ecology. Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus mosquitoes may move northward and have more rapid metamorphosis with global warming. These mosquitoes transmit dengue virus, and Aedes aegypti transmits yellow fever virus. The faster metamorphosis and a shorter extrinsic incubation of dengue and yellow fever viruses could lead to epidemics in North America. Vibrio cholerae is harbored persistently in the estuaries of the U.S. Gulf Coast. Over the past 200 years, cholera has become pandemic seven times with spread from Asia to Europe, Africa, and North America. Global warming may lead to changes in water ecology that could enhance similar spread of cholera in North America. Some other infectious diseases such as LaCrosse encephalitis and Lyme disease are caused by agents closely dependent on the integrity of their environment. These diseases may become less prominent with global warming because of anticipated modification of their habitats. Ecological studies will help us to understand more fully the possible consequences of global warming. New and more effective methods for control of vectors will be needed. PMID:1820262

  12. Global climate change and infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Shope, R

    1991-12-01

    The effects of global climate change on infectious diseases are hypothetical until more is known about the degree of change in temperature and humidity that will occur. Diseases most likely to increase in their distribution and severity have three-factor (agent, vector, and human being) and four-factor (plus vertebrate reservoir host) ecology. Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus mosquitoes may move northward and have more rapid metamorphosis with global warming. These mosquitoes transmit dengue virus, and Aedes aegypti transmits yellow fever virus. The faster metamorphosis and a shorter extrinsic incubation of dengue and yellow fever viruses could lead to epidemics in North America. Vibrio cholerae is harbored persistently in the estuaries of the U.S. Gulf Coast. Over the past 200 years, cholera has become pandemic seven times with spread from Asia to Europe, Africa, and North America. Global warming may lead to changes in water ecology that could enhance similar spread of cholera in North America. Some other infectious diseases such as LaCrosse encephalitis and Lyme disease are caused by agents closely dependent on the integrity of their environment. These diseases may become less prominent with global warming because of anticipated modification of their habitats. Ecological studies will help us to understand more fully the possible consequences of global warming. New and more effective methods for control of vectors will be needed. PMID:1820262

  13. Early adversity, immunity and infectious disease.

    PubMed

    Avitsur, Ronit; Levy, Sigal; Goren, Naama; Grinshpahet, Rachel

    2015-01-01

    Complex interactions between biological, behavioral and environmental factors are involved in mediating individual differences in health and disease. In this review, we present evidence suggesting that increased vulnerability to infectious disease may be at least, in part, due to long-lasting effects of early life psychosocial adversities. Studies have shown that maternal psychosocial stress during pregnancy is associated with long lasting changes in immune function and disease resistance in the offspring. Studies further indicated that harsh environmental conditions during the neonatal period may also cause lasting changes in host response to infectious disease. Although the mechanisms involved in these effects have not been fully examined, several potential mediators have been described, including changes in the development of the offspring hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, alterations in epigenetic pathways, stress-related maternal health risk behavior and infection during pregnancy. Although there are ample literature indicating that perinatal psychosocial stress increases vulnerability to disease, other reports suggest that mild predictable stressors may benefit the organism and allow better coping with future stressors. Thus, understanding the possible consequences of perinatal adversities and the mechanisms that are involved in immune regulation is important for increasing awareness to the potential outcomes of early negative life events and providing insight into potential therapies to combat infection in vulnerable individuals. PMID:25721541

  14. [These infectious diseases imported with food].

    PubMed

    Buisson, Y; Marié, J L; Davoust, B

    2008-10-01

    People are sometimes frightened by food scares and foodstuffs are increasingly suspected of containing dangerous substances or infectious agents, as a result of the unprecedented development of the industry and food trade in the world. Rightly or wrongly, imported food is held responsible for the greatest risks. Importing an infectious disease along with food can be a source of danger, involving multiple agents, mainly bacterial (Salmonella, Campylobacter, Verotoxin producing Escherichia coli, Listeria...), but also parasitic (Toxoplasma gondii, Cyclospora cayetanensis, Trichinella spp...), and viral (Norovirus, hepatitis A virus), as well as non conventional communicable agents and mycotoxins. Prevention of food risks means enforcing international regulations on the part of the 149 member states of the WTO, increasing vigilance with regard to illegal imports of food, systematically investigating collective food-borne outbreaks, and finally implementing controls according to the hazard analysis and critical control point (HACCP) method. PMID:18956818

  15. Global Transport Networks and Infectious Disease Spread

    PubMed Central

    Tatem, A.J.; Rogers, D.J.; Hay, S.I.

    2011-01-01

    Air, sea and land transport networks continue to expand in reach, speed of travel and volume of passengers and goods carried. Pathogens and their vectors can now move further, faster and in greater numbers than ever before. Three important consequences of global transport network expansion are infectious disease pandemics, vector invasion events and vector-borne pathogen importation. This review briefly examines some of the important historical examples of these disease and vector movements, such as the global influenza pandemics, the devastating Anopheles gambiae invasion of Brazil and the recent increases in imported Plasmodium falciparum malaria cases. We then outline potential approaches for future studies of disease movement, focussing on vector invasion and vector-borne disease importation. Such approaches allow us to explore the potential implications of international air travel, shipping routes and other methods of transport on global pathogen and vector traffic. PMID:16647974

  16. Infectious diseases: Surveillance, genetic modification and simulation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Koh, H.-L.; Teh, S.Y.; De Angelis, D. L.; Jiang, J.

    2011-01-01

    Infectious diseases such as influenza and dengue have the potential of becoming a worldwide pandemic that may exert immense pressures on existing medical infrastructures. Careful surveillance of these diseases, supported by consistent model simulations, provides a means for tracking the disease evolution. The integrated surveillance and simulation program is essential in devising effective early warning systems and in implementing efficient emergency preparedness and control measures. This paper presents a summary of simulation analysis on influenza A (H1N1) 2009 in Malaysia. This simulation analysis provides insightful lessons regarding how disease surveillance and simulation should be performed in the future. This paper briefly discusses the controversy over the experimental field release of genetically modified (GM) Aedes aegypti mosquito in Malaysia. Model simulations indicate that the proposed release of GM mosquitoes is neither a viable nor a sustainable control strategy. ?? 2011 WIT Press.

  17. Why infectious disease research needs community ecology.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Pieter T J; de Roode, Jacobus C; Fenton, Andy

    2015-09-01

    Infectious diseases often emerge from interactions among multiple species and across nested levels of biological organization. Threats as diverse as Ebola virus, human malaria, and bat white-nose syndrome illustrate the need for a mechanistic understanding of the ecological interactions underlying emerging infections. We describe how recent advances in community ecology can be adopted to address contemporary challenges in disease research. These analytical tools can identify the factors governing complex assemblages of multiple hosts, parasites, and vectors, and reveal how processes link across scales from individual hosts to regions. They can also determine the drivers of heterogeneities among individuals, species, and regions to aid targeting of control strategies. We provide examples where these principles have enhanced disease management and illustrate how they can be further extended. PMID:26339035

  18. Timeliness of notification in infectious disease cases.

    PubMed Central

    Domínguez, A; Coll, J J; Fuentes, M; Salleras, L

    1992-01-01

    Records of notification in cases of eight infectious diseases in the "Servei Territorial de Salut Publica" of the Province of Barcelona, Spain, between 1982 and 1986 were reviewed. Time from onset of symptoms to notification, time from notification to completion of data collection, and time from onset to completion of the case investigation were analyzed. For the period from onset to notification, the shortest mean was registered for meningococcal infection (6.31 days) and the longest was for pulmonary tuberculosis (54.79 days). For time from notification to complete investigation, the shortest value was for pulmonary tuberculosis (12.20 days) and the longest for rickettsioses (35.79 days). Time from onset to completion of data collection was 22.87 days for meningococcal infection and 72.34 days for tuberculosis of other organs (probably because of the long period of time that elapses between the onset of the first symptoms and notification). It would appear that both physicians and the general population must be educated so that lay-men can identify early signs and symptoms of disease and physicians can realize that statutory notification of infectious diseases is strongly linked to community health care. PMID:1641446

  19. Human-Wildlife Contact and Emerging Infectious Diseases

    E-print Network

    Muehlenbein, Michael

    . In this chapter, I use a series of case studies involving SARS, HIV, Nipah virus, Lyme disease, malaria, and EbolaChapter 4 Human-Wildlife Contact and Emerging Infectious Diseases Michael P. Muehlenbein Abstract diseases. 4.1 Emerging Infectious Diseases The patterns of morbidity and mortality in human populations

  20. The changing pattern of infectious disease.

    PubMed Central

    Ikwueke, K

    1984-01-01

    Several factors contribute towards a decrease in the prevalence of infectious disease in a population. These include active control measures, active immunisation, and improvement in the socioeconomic state of the population. There appears, however, to be a progressive increase in the resistance of a population in relation to the length of time the population has been exposed to an agent. This increasing resistance is currently thought to be an expression of natural selection but transmission of actively acquired immunity cannot be ruled out and in the light of current evidence remains a highly probable contributory factor. PMID:6437550

  1. Harnessing evolutionary biology to combat infectious disease

    PubMed Central

    Little, Tom J.; Allen, Judith E.; Babayan, Simon A.; Matthews, Keith R.; Colegrave, Nick

    2013-01-01

    Pathogens exhibit remarkable abilities to flout therapeutic intervention. This outcome is driven by evolution, either as a direct response to intervention (e.g. the evolution of antibiotic resistance), or through long-term coevolution generating host or parasite traits that interact with therapy in undesirable or unpredicted ways. To make progress, the concepts and techniques of evolutionary biology must be deeply integrated with traditional approaches to immunology and pathogen biology. An interdisciplinary approach can inform control strategies, or even patient treatment, positioning us to meet the current and future challenges of controlling infectious diseases. PMID:22310693

  2. Microbiology and Epidemiology of Infectious Spinal Disease

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Se-Jin; Youm, Jin-Young; Kim, Hyun-Woo; Ha, Ho-Gyun; Yi, Jin-Seok

    2014-01-01

    Objective Infectious spinal disease is regarded as an infection by a specific organism that affects the vertebral body, intervertebral disc and adjacent perivertebral soft tissue. Its incidence seems to be increasing as a result of larger proportion of the older patients with chronic debilitating disease, the rise of intravenous drug abuser, and the increase in spinal procedure and surgery. In Korea, studies assessing infectious spinal disease are rare and have not been addressed in recent times. The objectives of this study are to describe the epidemiology of all kind of spinal infectious disease and their clinical and microbiological characteristics as well as to assess the diagnostic methodology and the parameters related to the outcomes. Methods A retrospective study was performed in all infectious spinal disease cases presenting from January 2005 to April 2010 to three tertiary teaching hospitals within a city of 1.5 million in Korea. Patient demographics, risk factors, clinical features, and outcomes were assessed. Risk factors entailed the presence of diabetes, chronic renal failure, liver cirrhosis, immunosuppressants, remote infection, underlying malignancy and previous spinal surgery or procedure. We comparatively analyzed the results between the groups of pyogenic and tuberculous spinal infection. SPSS version 14 statistical software was used to perform the analyses of the data. The threshold for statistical significance was established at p<0.05. Results Ninety-two cases fulfilled the inclusion criteria and were reviewed. Overall, patients of tuberculous spinal infection (TSI) and pyogenic spinal infection (PSI) entailed 20 (21.7%) and 72 (78.3%) cases, respectively. A previous spinal surgery or procedure was the most commonly noted risk factor (39.1%), followed by diabetes (15.2%). The occurrence of both pyogenic and tuberculous spondylitis was predominant in the lumbar spine. Discs are more easily invaded in PSI. At initial presentation, white cell blood count and C-reactive protein levels were higher in PSI compared to TSI (p<0.05). Etiological agents were identified in 53.3%, and the most effective method for identification of etiological agents was tissue culture (50.0%). Staphyococcus aureus was the most commonly isolated infective agent associated with pyogenic spondylitis, followed by E. coli. Surgical treatment was performed in 31.5% of pyogenic spondylitis and in 35.0% of tuberculous spondylitis cases. Conclusion Many previous studies in Korea usually reported that tuberculous spondylitis is the predominant infection. However, in our study, the number of pyogenic infection was 3 times greater than that of tuberculous spinal disease. Etiological agents were identified in a half of all infectious spinal disease. For better outcomes, we should try to identify the causative microorganism before antibiotic therapy and make every effort to improve the result of culture and biopsy. PMID:25289121

  3. Mathematical modeling of infectious disease dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Siettos, Constantinos I.; Russo, Lucia

    2013-01-01

    Over the last years, an intensive worldwide effort is speeding up the developments in the establishment of a global surveillance network for combating pandemics of emergent and re-emergent infectious diseases. Scientists from different fields extending from medicine and molecular biology to computer science and applied mathematics have teamed up for rapid assessment of potentially urgent situations. Toward this aim mathematical modeling plays an important role in efforts that focus on predicting, assessing, and controlling potential outbreaks. To better understand and model the contagious dynamics the impact of numerous variables ranging from the micro host–pathogen level to host-to-host interactions, as well as prevailing ecological, social, economic, and demographic factors across the globe have to be analyzed and thoroughly studied. Here, we present and discuss the main approaches that are used for the surveillance and modeling of infectious disease dynamics. We present the basic concepts underpinning their implementation and practice and for each category we give an annotated list of representative works. PMID:23552814

  4. Rapid infectious diseases diagnostics using Smartphones.

    PubMed

    Bates, Matthew; Zumla, Alimuddin

    2015-09-01

    The "Smartphone" is an almost universal possession in high-income populations, and is rapidly becoming so in lower-income regions, particularly among urban populations, and serves social networking and a quest for information and knowledge. The field of infectious disease diagnostics is at a potential watershed moment, with the essential building blocks for the development of diagnostic assays being ever more available and affordable, which is leading to creative innovative approaches to developing much-needed accurate and simple point-of-care (POC) diagnostic tools for high disease burden, low-income settings. We review the importance and implications of a paper published in Science Translational Medicine on the development of a smartphone-powered and -controlled multiplex immunological assay that tests for HIV and syphilis simultaneously. This is reviewed in the context of other prototype smartphone-enabled/assisted diagnostic devices, and how such developments might shape the future of the POC diagnostics field. PMID:26488011

  5. Simulating City-level Airborne Infectious Diseases

    E-print Network

    Shan, Mei; Yifan, Zhu; Zhenghu, Zu; Tao, Zheng; Boukhanovsky, A V; Sloot, P M A

    2012-01-01

    With the exponential growth in the world population and the constant increase in human mobility, the danger of outbreaks of epidemics is rising. Especially in high density urban areas such as public transport and transfer points, where people come in close proximity of each other, we observe a dramatic increase in the transmission of airborne viruses and related pathogens. It is essential to have a good understanding of the `transmission highways' in such areas, in order to prevent or to predict the spreading of infectious diseases. The approach we take is to combine as much information as is possible, from all relevant sources and integrate this in a simulation environment that allows for scenario testing and decision support. In this paper we lay out a novel approach to study Urban Airborne Disease spreading by combining traffic information, with geo-spatial data, infection dynamics and spreading characteristics.

  6. Rapid infectious diseases diagnostics using Smartphones

    PubMed Central

    Bates, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    The “Smartphone” is an almost universal possession in high-income populations, and is rapidly becoming so in lower-income regions, particularly among urban populations, and serves social networking and a quest for information and knowledge. The field of infectious disease diagnostics is at a potential watershed moment, with the essential building blocks for the development of diagnostic assays being ever more available and affordable, which is leading to creative innovative approaches to developing much-needed accurate and simple point-of-care (POC) diagnostic tools for high disease burden, low-income settings. We review the importance and implications of a paper published in Science Translational Medicine on the development of a smartphone-powered and -controlled multiplex immunological assay that tests for HIV and syphilis simultaneously. This is reviewed in the context of other prototype smartphone-enabled/assisted diagnostic devices, and how such developments might shape the future of the POC diagnostics field. PMID:26488011

  7. Tropical Environments, Human Activities, and the Transmission of Infectious Diseases

    E-print Network

    Gottgens, Hans

    , respiratory illnesses, and sexually transmitted diseases are also dis- cussed. Attention is paid to howTropical Environments, Human Activities, and the Transmission of Infectious Diseases LISA host-pathogen interactions; tropical diseases; chol- era; lymphatic filariasis; dracunculiasis ABSTRACT

  8. Infectious Diseases Associated with Environmental Exposures or Conditions

    EPA Science Inventory

    This indicator describes the occurrence of 12 infectious diseases as reported to the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) for varying periods between 1995 and 2009. The spread and appearance of these infectious diseases may change in relation to chang...

  9. Computational Modeling in Support of Global Eradication of Infectious Diseases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eckhoff, Philip A.; Gates, William H., III; Myhrvold, Nathan P.; Wood, Lowell

    2014-07-01

    The past century has seen tremendous advances in global health, with broad reductions in the worldwide burden of infectious disease. Science has fundamentally advanced our understanding of disease etiology and medicine has provided remarkable capabilities to diagnose many syndromes and to target the causative pathogen. The advent and proliferation of antibiotics has dramatically lowered the impact of infections that were once near certain death sentences. Vaccination has provided a route to protect each new birth cohort from pathogens which once killed a substantial fraction of each generation, and in some countries, vaccination coverage has been raised to sufficiently high levels to fully interrupt transmission of major pathogens. There were 7 million deaths among children under 5 years of age in 2010, substantially down from decades past, and even more so in terms of deaths per capita per year of populations at risk. However, the annual rate globally is 1,070 per 100,000, while in developed countries the rate is only 137 per 100,000 (IHME GBD, 2010). Therefore, bringing global rates down to rates already achieved in developed countries represents the huge gains currently available via means such as vaccination and access to modern health care...

  10. Infectious Disease Proteome Biomarkers: Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, Charles L.

    2011-12-31

    Research for the DOE Infectious Disease Proteome Biomarkers focused on Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) and Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus (VEEV). RVFV and VEEV are Category A and B pathogens respectively. Among the priority threats, RVFV and VEEV rank high in their potential for being weaponized and introduced to the United States, spreading quickly, and having a large health and economic impact. In addition, they both have live attenuated vaccine, which allows work to be performed at BSL-2. While the molecular biology of RVFV and VEEV are increasingly well-characterized, little is known about its host-pathogen interactions. Our research is aimed at determining critical alterations in host signaling pathways to identify therapeutics targeted against the host.

  11. Noninvasive biophotonic imaging for studies of infectious disease

    PubMed Central

    Andreu, Nuria; Zelmer, Andrea; Wiles, Siouxsie

    2011-01-01

    According to World Health Organization estimates, infectious organisms are responsible for approximately one in four deaths worldwide. Animal models play an essential role in the development of vaccines and therapeutic agents but large numbers of animals are required to obtain quantitative microbiological data by tissue sampling. Biophotonic imaging (BPI) is a highly sensitive, nontoxic technique based on the detection of visible light, produced by luciferase-catalysed reactions (bioluminescence) or by excitation of fluorescent molecules, using sensitive photon detectors. The development of bioluminescent/fluorescent microorganisms therefore allows the real-time noninvasive detection of microorganisms within intact living animals. Multiple imaging of the same animal throughout an experiment allows disease progression to be followed with extreme accuracy, reducing the number of animals required to yield statistically meaningful data. In the study of infectious disease, the use of BPI is becoming widespread due to the novel insights it can provide into established models, as well as the impact of the technique on two of the guiding principles of using animals in research, namely reduction and refinement. Here, we review the technology of BPI, from the instrumentation through to the generation of a photonic signal, and illustrate how the technique is shedding light on infection dynamics in vivo. PMID:20955395

  12. Infectious Disease: Connecting Innate Immunity to Biocidal Polymers

    PubMed Central

    Gabriel, Gregory J.; Som, Abhigyan; Madkour, Ahmad E.; Eren, Tarik; Tew, Gregory N.

    2007-01-01

    Infectious disease is a critically important global healthcare issue. In the U.S. alone there are 2 million new cases of hospital-acquired infections annually leading to 90,000 deaths and 5 billion dollars of added healthcare costs. Couple these numbers with the appearance of new antibiotic resistant bacterial strains and the increasing occurrences of community-type outbreaks, and clearly this is an important problem. Our review attempts to bridge the research areas of natural host defense peptides (HDPs), a component of the innate immune system, and biocidal cationic polymers. Recently discovered peptidomimetics and other synthetic mimics of HDPs, that can be short oligomers as well as polymeric macromolecules, provide a unique link between these two areas. An emerging class of these mimics are the facially amphiphilic polymers that aim to emulate the physicochemical properties of HDPs but take advantage of the synthetic ease of polymers. These mimics have been designed with antimicrobial activity and, importantly, selectivity that rivals natural HDPs. In addition to providing some perspective on HDPs, selective mimics, and biocidal polymers, focus is given to the arsenal of biophysical techniques available to study their mode of action and interactions with phospholipid membranes. The issue of lipid type is highlighted and the important role of negative curvature lipids is illustrated. Finally, materials applications (for instance, in the development of permanently antibacterial surfaces) are discussed as this is an important part of controlling the spread of infectious disease. PMID:18160969

  13. Factors in the emergence of infectious diseases.

    PubMed Central

    Morse, S. S.

    1995-01-01

    "Emerging" infectious diseases can be defined as infections that have newly appeared in a population or have existed but are rapidly increasing in incidence or geographic range. Among recent examples are HIV/AIDS, hantavirus pulmonary syndrome, Lyme disease, and hemolytic uremic syndrome (a foodborne infection caused by certain strains of Escherichia coli). Specific factors precipitating disease emergence can be identified in virtually all cases. These include ecological, environmental, or demographic factors that place people at increased contact with a previously unfamiliar microbe or its natural host or promote dissemination. These factors are increasing in prevalence; this increase, together with the ongoing evolution of viral and microbial variants and selection for drug resistance, suggests that infections will continue to emerge and probably increase and emphasizes the urgent need for effective surveillance and control. Dr. David Satcher's article and this overview inaugurate Perspectives, a regular section in this journal intended to present and develop unifying concepts and strategies for considering emerging infections and their underlying factors. The editors welcome, as contributions to the Perspectives section, overviews, syntheses, and case studies that shed light on how and why infections emerge, and how they may be anticipated and prevented. PMID:8903148

  14. Information Supply Chain System for Managing Rare Infectious Diseases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gopalakrishna-Remani, Venugopal

    2012-01-01

    Timely identification and reporting of rare infectious diseases has important economic, social and health implications. In this study, we investigate how different stakeholders in the existing reporting system influence the timeliness in identification and reporting of rare infectious diseases. Building on the vision of the information supply…

  15. Computer-Assisted Detection of Infectious Lung Diseases: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Bagci, Ulas; Bray, Mike; Caban, Jesus; Yao, Jianhua; Mollura, Daniel J.

    2011-01-01

    Respiratory tract infections are a leading cause of death and disability worldwide. Although radiology serves as a primary diagnostic method for assessing respiratory tract infections, visual analysis of chest radiographs and computed tomography (CT) scans is restricted by low specificity for causal infectious organisms and a limited capacity to assess severity and predict patient outcomes. These limitations suggest that computer-assisted detection (CAD) could make a valuable contribution to the management of respiratory tract infections by assisting in the early recognition of pulmonary parenchymal lesions, providing quantitative measures of disease severity and assessing the response to therapy. In this paper, we review the most common radiographic and CT features of respiratory tract infections, discuss the challenges of defining and measuring these disorders with CAD, and propose some strategies to address these challenges. PMID:21723090

  16. Computer-assisted detection of infectious lung diseases: a review.

    PubMed

    Ba?c?, Ula?; Bray, Mike; Caban, Jesus; Yao, Jianhua; Mollura, Daniel J

    2012-01-01

    Respiratory tract infections are a leading cause of death and disability worldwide. Although radiology serves as a primary diagnostic method for assessing respiratory tract infections, visual analysis of chest radiographs and computed tomography (CT) scans is restricted by low specificity for causal infectious organisms and a limited capacity to assess severity and predict patient outcomes. These limitations suggest that computer-assisted detection (CAD) could make a valuable contribution to the management of respiratory tract infections by assisting in the early recognition of pulmonary parenchymal lesions, providing quantitative measures of disease severity and assessing the response to therapy. In this paper, we review the most common radiographic and CT features of respiratory tract infections, discuss the challenges of defining and measuring these disorders with CAD, and propose some strategies to address these challenges. PMID:21723090

  17. Immune responses to infectious diseases in bivalves.

    PubMed

    Allam, Bassem; Raftos, David

    2015-10-01

    Many species of bivalve mollusks (phylum Mollusca, class Bivalvia) are important in fisheries and aquaculture, whilst others are critical to ecosystem structure and function. These crucial roles mean that considerable attention has been paid to the immune responses of bivalves such as oysters, clams and mussels against infectious diseases that can threaten the viability of entire populations. As with many invertebrates, bivalves have a comprehensive repertoire of immune cells, genes and proteins. Hemocytes represent the backbone of the bivalve immune system. However, it is clear that mucosal tissues at the interface with the environment also play a critical role in host defense. Bivalve immune cells express a range of pattern recognition receptors and are highly responsive to the recognition of microbe-associated molecular patterns. Their responses to infection include chemotaxis, phagolysosomal activity, encapsulation, complex intracellular signaling and transcriptional activity, apoptosis, and the induction of anti-viral states. Bivalves also express a range of inducible extracellular recognition and effector proteins, such as lectins, peptidoglycan-recognition proteins, thioester bearing proteins, lipopolysaccharide and ?1,3-glucan-binding proteins, fibrinogen-related proteins (FREPs) and antimicrobial proteins. The identification of FREPs and other highly diversified gene families in bivalves leaves open the possibility that some of their responses to infection may involve a high degree of pathogen specificity and immune priming. The current review article provides a comprehensive, but not exhaustive, description of these factors and how they are regulated by infectious agents. It concludes that one of the remaining challenges is to use new "omics" technologies to understand how this diverse array of factors is integrated and controlled during infection. PMID:26003824

  18. Modeling social response to the spread of an infectious disease

    E-print Network

    Evans, Jane A. (Jane Amanda)

    2012-01-01

    With the globalization of culture and economic trade, it is increasingly important not only to detect outbreaks of infectious disease early, but also to anticipate the social response to the disease. In this thesis, we use ...

  19. Immunology and Infectious Disease: recommended sequence of required courses www.immunology.psu.edu Immunology and Infectious Disease

    E-print Network

    Omiecinski, Curtis

    Immunology and Infectious Disease: recommended sequence of required courses www.immunology.psu.edu Immunology and Infectious Disease Dr. James Endres Howell (814) 867­0194 immunology@psu.edu Year 1 VB SC 050S Microbiology Laboratory MICRB 410(3) Principles of Immunology* B M B 402(3) General Biochemistry Choose

  20. Endemic tickborne infectious diseases in Louisiana and the Gulf South.

    PubMed

    Diaz, James H

    2009-01-01

    Most emerging infectious diseases today, such as West Nile virus and sudden acute respiratory distress syndrome (SARS), arise from zoonotic reservoirs and many are transmitted by arthropod vectors. Ticks are among the most competent and versatile arthropod vectors of infectious diseases because ticks of all ages and both sexes remain infectious for generations without having to reacquire infections from reservoir hosts. Today, ticks transmit the most common arthropod-borne infectious disease in the United States (US), Lyme disease (LD); and the most lethal arthropod-borne infectious disease in the US, Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF). Both LD and RMSF are endemic in Louisiana and the Gulf South. Ticks have also become frequent vectors of emerging zoonotic diseases in the Gulf South, including southern tick-associated rash illness (STARI), transmitted by the lone star tick, and Maculatum disease, transmitted by the Gulf Coast tick. Recent environmental changes and human lifestyle choices now place humans and ticks together outdoors in the Gulf South for longer periods in welcoming ecosystems for breeding, blood-feeding, and infectious disease transmission. An increasing incidence of emerging and re-emerging, endemic infectious diseases transmitted by existing and unanticipated tick vectors may be expected. PMID:20108827

  1. Aerobiology and Its Role in the Transmission of Infectious Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Fernstrom, Aaron; Goldblatt, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Aerobiology plays a fundamental role in the transmission of infectious diseases. As infectious disease and infection control practitioners continue employing contemporary techniques (e.g., computational fluid dynamics to study particle flow, polymerase chain reaction methodologies to quantify particle concentrations in various settings, and epidemiology to track the spread of disease), the central variables affecting the airborne transmission of pathogens are becoming better known. This paper reviews many of these aerobiological variables (e.g., particle size, particle type, the duration that particles can remain airborne, the distance that particles can travel, and meteorological and environmental factors), as well as the common origins of these infectious particles. We then review several real-world settings with known difficulties controlling the airborne transmission of infectious particles (e.g., office buildings, healthcare facilities, and commercial airplanes), while detailing the respective measures each of these industries is undertaking in its effort to ameliorate the transmission of airborne infectious diseases. PMID:23365758

  2. A Method for Screening Climate Change-Sensitive Infectious Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yunjing; Rao, Yuhan; Wu, Xiaoxu; Zhao, Hainan; Chen, Jin

    2015-01-01

    Climate change is a significant and emerging threat to human health, especially where infectious diseases are involved. Because of the complex interactions between climate variables and infectious disease components (i.e., pathogen, host and transmission environment), systematically and quantitatively screening for infectious diseases that are sensitive to climate change is still a challenge. To address this challenge, we propose a new statistical indicator, Relative Sensitivity, to identify the difference between the sensitivity of the infectious disease to climate variables for two different climate statuses (i.e., historical climate and present climate) in non-exposure and exposure groups. The case study in Anhui Province, China has demonstrated the effectiveness of this Relative Sensitivity indicator. The application results indicate significant sensitivity of many epidemic infectious diseases to climate change in the form of changing climatic variables, such as temperature, precipitation and absolute humidity. As novel evidence, this research shows that absolute humidity has a critical influence on many observed infectious diseases in Anhui Province, including dysentery, hand, foot and mouth disease, hepatitis A, hemorrhagic fever, typhoid fever, malaria, meningitis, influenza and schistosomiasis. Moreover, some infectious diseases are more sensitive to climate change in rural areas than in urban areas. This insight provides guidance for future health inputs that consider spatial variability in response to climate change. PMID:25594780

  3. 77 FR 298 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-04

    ...nih.gov. Name of Committee: Microbiology, Infectious Diseases and AIDS Initial Review Group; Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research...Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases...

  4. 75 FR 3472 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-21

    ...personal privacy. Name of Committee: Microbiology, Infectious Diseases and AIDS Initial Review Group; Microbiology and Infectious Diseases B Subcommittee...Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases...

  5. 76 FR 28997 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-19

    ...personal privacy. Name of Committee: Microbiology, Infectious Diseases and AIDS Initial Review Group,Microbiology and Infectious Diseases B Subcommittee...Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases...

  6. 78 FR 27976 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-13

    ...nih.gov. Name of Committee: Microbiology, Infectious Diseases and AIDS Initial Review Group; Microbiology and Infectious Diseases B Subcommittee...Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases...

  7. 77 FR 28398 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-14

    ...personal privacy. Name of Committee: Microbiology, Infectious Diseases and AIDS Initial Review Group, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases B Subcommittee...Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases...

  8. 77 FR 2736 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-19

    ...personal privacy. Name of Committee: Microbiology, Infectious Diseases and AIDS Initial Review Group; Microbiology and Infectious Diseases B Subcommittee...Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases...

  9. 78 FR 58322 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-23

    ...unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: Microbiology, Infectious Diseases and AIDS Initial Review Group, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases B Subcommittee, Microbiology & Infectious Diseases B Subcommittee (MID-B)...

  10. 76 FR 28443 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-17

    ...nih.gov. Name of Committee: Microbiology, Infectious Diseases and AIDS Initial Review Group, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research...Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases...

  11. 78 FR 6126 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-29

    ...personal privacy. Name of Committee: Microbiology, Infectious Diseases and AIDS Initial Review Group, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases B Subcommittee...Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases...

  12. 77 FR 56660 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-13

    ...personal privacy. Name of Committee: Microbiology, Infectious Diseases and AIDS Initial Review Group; Microbiology and Infectious Diseases B Subcommittee...nih.gov. Name of Committee: Microbiology, Infectious Diseases and AIDS...

  13. 76 FR 2128 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-12

    ...personal privacy. Name of Committee: Microbiology, Infectious Diseases and AIDS Initial Review Group. Microbiology and Infectious Diseases B Subcommittee...Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases...

  14. 78 FR 28858 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-16

    ...nih.gov. Name of Committee: Microbiology, Infectious Diseases and AIDS Initial Review Group; Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research...Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases...

  15. 75 FR 28029 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-19

    ...personal privacy. Name of Committee: Microbiology, Infectious Diseases and AIDS Initial Review Group; Microbiology and Infectious Diseases B Subcommittee...Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases...

  16. 75 FR 156 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-04

    ...of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel...of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel, The Infant Microbiome and Immune Maturation...Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research, National...

  17. 78 FR 11897 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-20

    ...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

  18. 78 FR 26792 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-08

    ...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

  19. 76 FR 18230 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-01

    ...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

  20. 76 FR 63933 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-14

    ...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

  1. 77 FR 52338 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-29

    ...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

  2. 78 FR 76847 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-19

    ...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

  3. 78 FR 33428 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-04

    ...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

  4. 76 FR 63311 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-12

    ...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

  5. 76 FR 67749 - National Institute of Allergy And Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-02

    ...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy And Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

  6. 75 FR 994 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-07

    ...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

  7. 76 FR 71349 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-17

    ...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

  8. 76 FR 66731 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-27

    ...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

  9. 78 FR 41939 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-12

    ...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

  10. 77 FR 69639 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-20

    ...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

  11. 77 FR 14816 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-13

    ...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

  12. 76 FR 75552 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-02

    ...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

  13. 78 FR 71628 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-29

    ...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

  14. 78 FR 108 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-02

    ...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

  15. 76 FR 21754 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-18

    ...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

  16. 75 FR 30046 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-28

    ...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

  17. 77 FR 48165 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-13

    ...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

  18. 77 FR 4051 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-26

    ...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

  19. 77 FR 72364 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-05

    ...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

  20. 75 FR 18215 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-09

    ...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...conducted by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, including consideration...Intramural Research, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, NIH,...

  1. 76 FR 4927 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-27

    ...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

  2. 77 FR 297 - National Institute of Allergy And Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-04

    ...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy And Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

  3. 76 FR 17928 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-31

    ...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

  4. 77 FR 50139 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-20

    ...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

  5. 78 FR 75928 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-13

    ...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

  6. 77 FR 13133 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-05

    ...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

  7. 78 FR 36203 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-17

    ...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

  8. 78 FR 62640 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-22

    ...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

  9. 75 FR 19408 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-14

    ...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

  10. 76 FR 54240 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-31

    ...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

  11. 78 FR 29373 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-20

    ...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

  12. 76 FR 58024 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-19

    ...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

  13. 78 FR 52778 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-26

    ...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

  14. 78 FR 39300 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-01

    ...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

  15. 76 FR 72959 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-28

    ...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...of Copmmittee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

  16. 76 FR 53688 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-29

    ...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

  17. 76 FR 51996 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-19

    ...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

  18. 75 FR 53321 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-31

    ...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

  19. 75 FR 69451 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-12

    ...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

  20. 75 FR 54895 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-09

    ...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

  1. 78 FR 38998 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-28

    ...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

  2. 77 FR 52041 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-28

    ...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

  3. 78 FR 59707 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-27

    ...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

  4. 78 FR 63999 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-25

    ...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

  5. 75 FR 18510 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-12

    ...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

  6. 75 FR 48978 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-12

    ...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Meetings...given of meetings of the National Advisory Allergy and Infectious Diseases Council. The...Name of Committee: National Advisory Allergy and Infectious Diseases Council....

  7. 75 FR 54891 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-09

    ...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

  8. 78 FR 75357 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-11

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis... Infectious Diseases Research, National Institutes of Health, HHS). Dated: December 4, 2013. David...

  9. 75 FR 54896 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-09

    ...Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel, Partnerships...Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel, Nonhuman...Histocompatibility Complex Gene Discovery and Typing. Date...Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research, National...

  10. 28 CFR 549.15 - Infectious disease training and preventive measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Infectious disease training and preventive measures. 549...MANAGEMENT MEDICAL SERVICES Infectious Disease Management § 549.15 Infectious disease training and preventive measures....

  11. 28 CFR 549.15 - Infectious disease training and preventive measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Infectious disease training and preventive measures. 549...MANAGEMENT MEDICAL SERVICES Infectious Disease Management § 549.15 Infectious disease training and preventive measures....

  12. 28 CFR 549.15 - Infectious disease training and preventive measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Infectious disease training and preventive measures. 549...MANAGEMENT MEDICAL SERVICES Infectious Disease Management § 549.15 Infectious disease training and preventive measures....

  13. 28 CFR 549.15 - Infectious disease training and preventive measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Infectious disease training and preventive measures. 549...MANAGEMENT MEDICAL SERVICES Infectious Disease Management § 549.15 Infectious disease training and preventive measures....

  14. 28 CFR 549.15 - Infectious disease training and preventive measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Infectious disease training and preventive measures. 549...MANAGEMENT MEDICAL SERVICES Infectious Disease Management § 549.15 Infectious disease training and preventive measures....

  15. Imaging combined autoimmune and infectious disease microarrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ewart, Tom; Raha, Sandeep; Kus, Dorothy; Tarnopolsky, Mark

    2006-09-01

    Bacterial and viral pathogens are implicated in many severe autoimmune diseases, acting through such mechanisms as molecular mimicry, and superantigen activation of T-cells. For example, Helicobacter pylori, well known cause of stomach ulcers and cancers, is also identified in ischaemic heart disease (mimicry of heat shock protein 65), autoimmune pancreatitis, systemic sclerosis, autoimmune thyroiditis (HLA DRB1*0301 allele susceptibility), and Crohn's disease. Successful antibiotic eradication of H.pylori often accompanies their remission. Yet current diagnostic devices, and test-limiting cost containment, impede recognition of the linkage, delaying both diagnosis and therapeutic intervention until the chronic debilitating stage. We designed a 15 minute low cost 39 antigen microarray assay, combining autoimmune, viral and bacterial antigens1. This enables point-of-care serodiagnosis and cost-effective narrowly targeted concurrent antibiotic and monoclonal anti-T-cell and anti-cytokine immunotherapy. Arrays of 26 pathogen and 13 autoimmune antigens with IgG and IgM dilution series were printed in triplicate on epoxysilane covalent binding slides with Teflon well masks. Sera diluted 1:20 were incubated 10 minutes, washed off, anti-IgG-Cy3 (green) and anti-IgM-Dy647 (red) were incubated for 5 minutes, washed off and the slide was read in an ArrayWoRx(e) scanning CCD imager (Applied Precision, Issaquah, WA). As a preliminary model for the combined infectious disease-autoimmune diagnostic microarray we surveyed 98 unidentified, outdated sera that were discarded after Hepatitis B antibody testing. In these, significant IgG or IgM autoantibody levels were found: dsDNA 5, ssDNA 11, Ro 2, RNP 7, SSB 4, gliadin 2, thyroglobulin 13 cases. Since control sera showed no autoantibodies, the high frequency of anti-DNA and anti-thyroglobulin antibodies found in infected sera lend increased support for linkage of infection to subsequent autoimmune disease. Expansion of the antigen set with synthetic peptide sequences should reveal the shared bacterial/human epitopes involved.

  16. Networks and the Epidemiology of Infectious Disease

    PubMed Central

    Danon, Leon; Ford, Ashley P.; House, Thomas; Jewell, Chris P.; Keeling, Matt J.; Roberts, Gareth O.; Ross, Joshua V.; Vernon, Matthew C.

    2011-01-01

    The science of networks has revolutionised research into the dynamics of interacting elements. It could be argued that epidemiology in particular has embraced the potential of network theory more than any other discipline. Here we review the growing body of research concerning the spread of infectious diseases on networks, focusing on the interplay between network theory and epidemiology. The review is split into four main sections, which examine: the types of network relevant to epidemiology; the multitude of ways these networks can be characterised; the statistical methods that can be applied to infer the epidemiological parameters on a realised network; and finally simulation and analytical methods to determine epidemic dynamics on a given network. Given the breadth of areas covered and the ever-expanding number of publications, a comprehensive review of all work is impossible. Instead, we provide a personalised overview into the areas of network epidemiology that have seen the greatest progress in recent years or have the greatest potential to provide novel insights. As such, considerable importance is placed on analytical approaches and statistical methods which are both rapidly expanding fields. Throughout this review we restrict our attention to epidemiological issues. PMID:21437001

  17. 78 FR 68857 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-15

    ... of Committee: Microbiology, Infectious Diseases and AIDS Initial Review Group; Acquired..., Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research, National Institutes of Health, HHS) Dated: November 8,...

  18. 75 FR 3472 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-21

    ... of Committee: Microbiology, Infectious Diseases and AIDS Initial Review Group; Microbiology and... Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research, National Institutes of Health, HHS)...

  19. 75 FR 28029 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-19

    ... of Committee: Microbiology, Infectious Diseases and AIDS Initial Review Group; Microbiology and... Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research, National Institutes of Health, HHS)...

  20. 76 FR 2128 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-12

    ... of Committee: Microbiology, Infectious Diseases and AIDS Initial Review Group. Microbiology and..., Allergy, Immunology, and Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases...

  1. 76 FR 10383 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-24

    ... of Committee: Microbiology, Infectious Diseases and AIDS Initial Review Group, Acquired... Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research, National Institutes of...

  2. 77 FR 29676 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-18

    ... of Committee: Microbiology, Infectious Diseases and AIDS Initial Review Group; Microbiology and..., Immunology, and Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research,...

  3. Nanocarriers in therapy of infectious and inflammatory diseases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikoba, Ufuoma; Peng, Haisheng; Li, Haichun; Miller, Cathy; Yu, Chenxu; Wang, Qun

    2015-02-01

    Nanotechnology is a growing science that has applications in various areas of medicine. The composition of nanocarriers for drug delivery is critical to guarantee high therapeutic performance when targeting specific host sites. Applications of nanotechnology are prevalent in the diagnosis and treatment of infectious and inflammatory diseases. This review summarizes recent advancements in the application of nanotechnology to the therapy of infectious and inflammatory diseases. The major focus is on the design and fabrication of various nanomaterials, characteristics and physicochemical properties of drug-loaded nanocarriers, and the use of these nanoscale drug delivery systems in treating infectious and inflammatory diseases, such as AIDS, hepatitis, tuberculosis, melanoma, and representative inflammatory diseases. Clinical trials and future perspective of the use of nanocarriers are also discussed in detail. We hope that such a review will be valuable to researchers who are exploring nanoscale drug delivery systems for the treatment of specific infectious and inflammatory diseases.

  4. Infectious diseases associated with complement deficiencies.

    PubMed Central

    Figueroa, J E; Densen, P

    1991-01-01

    The complement system consists of both plasma and membrane proteins. The former influence the inflammatory response, immune modulation, and host defense. The latter are complement receptors, which mediate the cellular effects of complement activation, and regulatory proteins, which protect host cells from complement-mediated injury. Complement activation occurs via either the classical or the alternative pathway, which converge at the level of C3 and share a sequence of terminal components. Four aspects of the complement cascade are critical to its function and regulation: (i) activation of the classical pathway, (ii) activation of the alternative pathway, (iii) C3 convertase formation and C3 deposition, and (iv) membrane attack complex assembly and insertion. In general, mechanisms evolved by pathogenic microbes to resist the effects of complement are targeted to these four steps. Because individual complement proteins subserve unique functional activities and are activated in a sequential manner, complement deficiency states are associated with predictable defects in complement-dependent functions. These deficiency states can be grouped by which of the above four mechanisms they disrupt. They are distinguished by unique epidemiologic, clinical, and microbiologic features and are most prevalent in patients with certain rheumatologic and infectious diseases. Ethnic background and the incidence of infection are important cofactors determining this prevalence. Although complement undoubtedly plays a role in host defense against many microbial pathogens, it appears most important in protection against encapsulated bacteria, especially Neisseria meningitidis but also Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and, to a lesser extent, Neisseria gonorrhoeae. The availability of effective polysaccharide vaccines and antibiotics provides an immunologic and chemotherapeutic rationale for preventing and treating infection in patients with these deficiencies. PMID:1889047

  5. Newcastle disease virus as a vaccine vector for infectious laryngotracheitis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Effective, safe, and incapable of reverting to virulence are characteristics desirable for infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV) vaccines. Recombinant Newcastle disease virus (NDV) expressing foreign antigens of avian and mammalian pathogens have been demonstrated to elicit protective immunity....

  6. Global burden, distribution, and interventions for infectious diseases of poverty

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Infectious diseases of poverty (IDoP) disproportionately affect the poorest population in the world and contribute to a cycle of poverty as a result of decreased productivity ensuing from long-term illness, disability, and social stigma. In 2010, the global deaths from HIV/AIDS have increased to 1.5 million and malaria mortality rose to 1.17 million. Mortality from neglected tropical diseases rose to 152,000, while tuberculosis killed 1.2 million people that same year. Substantial regional variations exist in the distribution of these diseases as they are primarily concentrated in rural areas of Sub-Saharan Africa, Asia, and Latin America, with geographic overlap and high levels of co-infection. Evidence-based interventions exist to prevent and control these diseases, however, the coverage still remains low with an emerging challenge of antimicrobial resistance. Therefore, community-based delivery platforms are increasingly being advocated to ensure sustainability and combat co-infections. Because of the high morbidity and mortality burden of these diseases, especially in resource-poor settings, it is imperative to conduct a systematic review to identify strategies to prevent and control these diseases. Therefore, we attempted to evaluate the effectiveness of one of these strategies, that is community-based delivery for the prevention and treatment of IDoP. In this paper, we describe the burden, epidemiology, and potential interventions for IDoP. In subsequent papers of this series, we describe the analytical framework and the methodology used to guide the systematic reviews, and report the findings and interpretations of our analyses of the impact of community-based strategies on individual IDoPs. PMID:25110585

  7. Infectious Diseases of Poverty in Children: A Tale of Two Worlds.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Caitlin; Paintsil, Elijah

    2016-02-01

    "Infectious diseases of poverty" (IDoP) describes infectious diseases that are more prevalent among poor and vulnerable populations, namely human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, tuberculosis (TB), malaria, and neglected tropical diseases (NTDs). In 2013, 190,000 children died of HIV-related causes and there were 550,000 cases and 80,000 TB deaths in children. Children under age 5 account for 78% of malaria deaths annually. NTDs remain a public health challenge in low- and middle-income countries. This article provides an overview of the major IDoP that affect children. Clinicians must be familiar with the epidemiology and clinical manifestations to ensure prompt diagnosis and treatment. PMID:26613688

  8. The burden of disease in Maputo City, Mozambique: registered and autopsied deaths in 1994.

    PubMed Central

    Dgedge, M.; Novoa, A.; Macassa, G.; Sacarlal, J.; Black, J.; Michaud, C.; Cliff, J.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To classify the causes of death in Maputo City, Mozambique, using the methods of the Global Burden of Disease study, in order to provide information for health policy-makers and to obtain a baseline for future studies in Maputo City and provincial capitals. METHODS: Data were taken from the Maputo City death register and autopsy records for 1994. FINDINGS: A total of 9011 deaths were recorded in the death register, representing a coverage of approximately 86%. Of these, 8114 deaths (92%) were classified by cause. Communicable, maternal, perinatal, and nutritional disorders accounted for 5319 deaths; noncommunicable diseases for 1834; and injuries for 961. The 10 leading causes of registered deaths were perinatal disorders (1643 deaths); malaria (928); diarrhoeal diseases (814); tuberculosis (456); lower respiratory infections (416); road-traffic accidents (371); anaemia (269); cerebrovascular diseases (269); homicide (188); and bacterial meningitis (178). CONCLUSIONS: Infectious diseases of all types, injuries, and cerebrovascular disease ranked as leading causes of death, according to both the autopsy records and the city death register. AIDS-related deaths were underreported. With HIV infection increasing rapidly, AIDS will add to the already high burden of infectious diseases and premature mortality in Maputo City. The results of the study indicate that cause of death is a useful outcome indicator for disease control programmes. PMID:11436477

  9. Structural Genomics and Drug Discovery for Infectious Diseases

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, W.F.

    2010-09-03

    The application of structural genomics methods and approaches to proteins from organisms causing infectious diseases is making available the three dimensional structures of many proteins that are potential drug targets and laying the groundwork for structure aided drug discovery efforts. There are a number of structural genomics projects with a focus on pathogens that have been initiated worldwide. The Center for Structural Genomics of Infectious Diseases (CSGID) was recently established to apply state-of-the-art high throughput structural biology technologies to the characterization of proteins from the National Institute for Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) category A-C pathogens and organisms causing emerging, or re-emerging infectious diseases. The target selection process emphasizes potential biomedical benefits. Selected proteins include known drug targets and their homologs, essential enzymes, virulence factors and vaccine candidates. The Center also provides a structure determination service for the infectious disease scientific community. The ultimate goal is to generate a library of structures that are available to the scientific community and can serve as a starting point for further research and structure aided drug discovery for infectious diseases. To achieve this goal, the CSGID will determine protein crystal structures of 400 proteins and protein-ligand complexes using proven, rapid, highly integrated, and cost-effective methods for such determination, primarily by X-ray crystallography. High throughput crystallographic structure determination is greatly aided by frequent, convenient access to high-performance beamlines at third-generation synchrotron X-ray sources.

  10. Learning lessons from operational research in infectious diseases: can the same model be used for noncommunicable diseases in developing countries?

    PubMed Central

    Bosu, William K

    2014-01-01

    About three-quarters of global deaths from noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) occur in developing countries. Nearly a third of these deaths occur before the age of 60 years. These deaths are projected to increase, fueled by such factors as urbanization, nutrition transition, lifestyle changes, and aging. Despite this burden, there is a paucity of research on NCDs, due to the higher priority given to infectious disease research. Less than 10% of research on cardiovascular diseases comes from developing countries. This paper assesses what lessons from operational research on infectious diseases could be applied to NCDs. The lessons are drawn from the priority setting for research, integration of research into programs and routine service delivery, the use of routine data, rapid-assessment survey methods, modeling, chemoprophylaxis, and the translational process of findings into policy and practice. With the lines between infectious diseases and NCDs becoming blurred, it is justifiable to integrate the programs for the two disease groups wherever possible, eg, screening for diabetes in tuberculosis. Applying these lessons will require increased political will, research capacity, ownership, use of local expertise, and research funding. PMID:25506254

  11. [Sex differences in infectious diseases and their clinical consequences].

    PubMed

    Beisel, Claudia; van Lunzen, Jan; Lohse, Ansgar W; Addo, Marylyn M; Altfeld, Marcus

    2015-09-01

    Differences between women and men range from their anatomy, their natural social behavior to their susceptibility and response to different pathologies, including infectious diseases. The underlying mechanisms of sex differences in infectious diseases are manifold, including differences in exposure to common pathogens, genetic factors that modulate immune responses against pathogens and hormonal factors that may alter susceptibility or disease progression, and responsiveness to treatment. On one hand, these mechanisms lead to higher innate and adaptive immune responses in females, which result in faster clearance of acute infections and higher antibody responses to several vaccines, on the other hand this contributes to an increased susceptibility to chronic inflammatory diseases. In this review we summarize the underlying causes of sex differences in prevalence, clinical course of disease and treatment outcome of infectious diseases. In order to develop individualized treatment concepts, a fair balance between the sexes should be maintained in basic science, preclinical and clinical studies. PMID:26360954

  12. SPATIAL DYNAMICS OF LAND COVER AND INFECTIOUS DISEASE RISK

    EPA Science Inventory

    Climate changes may allow for vector-transmitted tropical diseases to spread into temperate areas. Areas of low ecological diversity are at higher risk of infectious disease transmission due to decreased zooprophylaxis, the diversion of disease carrying insects from humans to
    ...

  13. Self-disseminating vaccines for emerging infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Aisling A; Redwood, Alec J; Jarvis, Michael A

    2016-01-01

    Modern human activity fueled by economic development is profoundly altering our relationship with microorganisms. This altered interaction with microbes is believed to be the major driving force behind the increased rate of emerging infectious diseases from animals. The spate of recent infectious disease outbreaks, including Ebola virus disease and Middle East respiratory syndrome, emphasize the need for development of new innovative tools to manage these emerging diseases. Disseminating vaccines are one such novel approach to potentially interrupt animal to human (zoonotic) transmission of these pathogens. PMID:26524478

  14. 77 FR 56660 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-13

    ... personal privacy. Name of Committee: Microbiology, Infectious Diseases and AIDS Initial Review Group; Microbiology and Infectious Diseases B Subcommittee. MID-B October 2012. Date: October 9, 2012. Time: 8 a.m. to...: Microbiology, Infectious Diseases and AIDS Initial Review Group; Microbiology and Infectious Diseases...

  15. 28 CFR 549.15 - Infectious disease training and preventive measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Infectious disease training and... INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT MEDICAL SERVICES Infectious Disease Management § 549.15 Infectious disease training and..., incorporating a question-and-answer session, about infectious diseases to all newly committed inmates,...

  16. 28 CFR 549.15 - Infectious disease training and preventive measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Infectious disease training and... INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT MEDICAL SERVICES Infectious Disease Management § 549.15 Infectious disease training and..., incorporating a question-and-answer session, about infectious diseases to all newly committed inmates,...

  17. 28 CFR 549.15 - Infectious disease training and preventive measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Infectious disease training and... INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT MEDICAL SERVICES Infectious Disease Management § 549.15 Infectious disease training and..., incorporating a question-and-answer session, about infectious diseases to all newly committed inmates,...

  18. 28 CFR 549.15 - Infectious disease training and preventive measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Infectious disease training and... INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT MEDICAL SERVICES Infectious Disease Management § 549.15 Infectious disease training and..., incorporating a question-and-answer session, about infectious diseases to all newly committed inmates,...

  19. 28 CFR 549.15 - Infectious disease training and preventive measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Infectious disease training and... INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT MEDICAL SERVICES Infectious Disease Management § 549.15 Infectious disease training and..., incorporating a question-and-answer session, about infectious diseases to all newly committed inmates,...

  20. Infectious Diseases Affect Marine Fisheries and Aquaculture Economics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lafferty, Kevin D.; Harvell, C. Drew; Conrad, Jon M.; Friedman, Carolyn S.; Kent, Michael L.; Kuris, Armand M.; Powell, Eric N.; Rondeau, Daniel; Saksida, Sonja M.

    2015-01-01

    Seafood is a growing part of the economy, but its economic value is diminished by marine diseases. Infectious diseases are common in the ocean, and here we tabulate 67 examples that can reduce commercial species' growth and survivorship or decrease seafood quality. These impacts seem most problematic in the stressful and crowded conditions of aquaculture, which increasingly dominates seafood production as wild fishery production plateaus. For instance, marine diseases of farmed oysters, shrimp, abalone, and various fishes, particularly Atlantic salmon, cost billions of dollars each year. In comparison, it is often difficult to accurately estimate disease impacts on wild populations, especially those of pelagic and subtidal species. Farmed species often receive infectious diseases from wild species and can, in turn, export infectious agents to wild species. However, the impact of disease export on wild fisheries is controversial because there are few quantitative data demonstrating that wild species near farms suffer more from infectious diseases than those in other areas. The movement of exotic infectious agents to new areas continues to be the greatest concern.

  1. Strategies to intervene on social determinants of infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Semenza, J C

    2010-07-01

    Systematic health inequalities exist in all European countries today. Individuals with lower socio-economic status suffer disproportionally from adverse health outcomes. While this is widely accepted for chronic diseases, a literature review covering the years 1999-2010 reveals that infectious diseases are also distributed unevenly throughout society, with vulnerable groups bearing a disproportionate burden. This burden is not restricted to a few 'signature infections of social determinants' such as tuberculosis or human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections, but also a wide array of other infectious diseases. Tremendous advances in public health over the last century have reduced the absolute magnitude of inequalities but relative differences remain. In order to explore the underlying reasons for such persistent inequalities in Europe, I examined interventions targeting social determinants of infectious diseases: interventions on social determinants tend to focus on chronic diseases rather than infectious diseases, and interventions for these mainly focus on HIV/AIDS or other sexually transmitted infections. Thus, there seems to be a need to intervene on inequalities in infectious diseases but ideally with a comprehensive public health approach. Three intervention strategies are discussed: population-at-risk, population, and vulnerable population approaches. Strengths and weaknesses of these options are illustrated. PMID:20630143

  2. Infectious diseases affect marine fisheries and aquaculture economics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lafferty, Kevin D.; Harvell, C. Drew; Conrad, Jon M.; Friedman, Carolyn S.; Kent, Michael L.; Kuris, Armand M.; Powell, Eric N.; Rondeau, Daniel; Saksida, Sonja M.

    2015-01-01

    Seafood is a growing part of the economy, but its economic value is diminished by marine diseases. Infectious diseases are common in the ocean, and here we tabulate 67 examples that can reduce commercial species' growth and survivorship or decrease seafood quality. These impacts seem most problematic in the stressful and crowded conditions of aquaculture, which increasingly dominates seafood production as wild fishery production plateaus. For instance, marine diseases of farmed oysters, shrimp, abalone, and various fishes, particularly Atlantic salmon, cost billions of dollars each year. In comparison, it is often difficult to accurately estimate disease impacts on wild populations, especially those of pelagic and subtidal species. Farmed species often receive infectious diseases from wild species and can, in turn, export infectious agents to wild species. However, the impact of disease export on wild fisheries is controversial because there are few quantitative data demonstrating that wild species near farms suffer more from infectious diseases than those in other areas. The movement of exotic infectious agents to new areas continues to be the greatest concern.

  3. Multinational Disease Surveillance Programs: Promoting Global Information Exchange for Infectious Diseases.

    PubMed

    Varan, Aiden K; Bruniera-Oliveira, Robson; Peter, Christopher R; Fonseca-Ford, Maureen; Waterman, Stephen H

    2015-09-01

    Cross-border surveillance for emerging diseases such as Ebola and other infectious diseases requires effective international collaboration. We surveyed representatives from 12 multinational disease surveillance programs between January 2013 and April 2014. Our survey identified programmatic similarities despite variation in health priorities, geography, and socioeconomic context, providing a contemporary perspective on infectious disease surveillance networks. PMID:26033019

  4. Infectious Diseases, Urbanization and Climate Change: Challenges in Future China.

    PubMed

    Tong, Michael Xiaoliang; Hansen, Alana; Hanson-Easey, Scott; Cameron, Scott; Xiang, Jianjun; Liu, Qiyong; Sun, Yehuan; Weinstein, Philip; Han, Gil-Soo; Williams, Craig; Bi, Peng

    2015-09-01

    China is one of the largest countries in the world with nearly 20% of the world's population. There have been significant improvements in economy, education and technology over the last three decades. Due to substantial investments from all levels of government, the public health system in China has been improved since the 2003 severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) outbreak. However, infectious diseases still remain a major population health issue and this may be exacerbated by rapid urbanization and unprecedented impacts of climate change. This commentary aims to explore China's current capacity to manage infectious diseases which impair population health. It discusses the existing disease surveillance system and underscores the critical importance of strengthening the system. It also explores how the growing migrant population, dramatic changes in the natural landscape following rapid urbanization, and changing climatic conditions can contribute to the emergence and re-emergence of infectious disease. Continuing research on infectious diseases, urbanization and climate change may inform the country's capacity to deal with emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases in the future. PMID:26371017

  5. Infectious diseases: considerations for the 21st century.

    PubMed

    Fauci, A S

    2001-03-01

    The discipline of infectious diseases will assume added prominence in the 21st century in both developed and developing nations. To an unprecedented extent, issues related to infectious diseases in the context of global health are on the agendas of world leaders, health policymakers, and philanthropies. This attention has focused both on scientific challenges such as vaccine development and on the deleterious effects of infectious diseases on economic development and political stability. Interest in global health has led to increasing levels of financial support, which, combined with recent technological advances, provide extraordinary opportunities for infectious disease research in the 21st century. The sequencing of human and microbial genomes and advances in functional genomics will underpin significant progress in many areas, including understanding human predisposition and susceptibility to disease, microbial pathogenesis, and the development new diagnostics, vaccines, and therapies. Increasingly, infectious disease research will be linked to the development of the medical infrastructure and training needed in developing countries to translate scientific advances into operational reality. PMID:11229834

  6. Infectious Diseases, Urbanization and Climate Change: Challenges in Future China

    PubMed Central

    Tong, Michael Xiaoliang; Hansen, Alana; Hanson-Easey, Scott; Cameron, Scott; Xiang, Jianjun; Liu, Qiyong; Sun, Yehuan; Weinstein, Philip; Han, Gil-Soo; Williams, Craig; Bi, Peng

    2015-01-01

    China is one of the largest countries in the world with nearly 20% of the world’s population. There have been significant improvements in economy, education and technology over the last three decades. Due to substantial investments from all levels of government, the public health system in China has been improved since the 2003 severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) outbreak. However, infectious diseases still remain a major population health issue and this may be exacerbated by rapid urbanization and unprecedented impacts of climate change. This commentary aims to explore China’s current capacity to manage infectious diseases which impair population health. It discusses the existing disease surveillance system and underscores the critical importance of strengthening the system. It also explores how the growing migrant population, dramatic changes in the natural landscape following rapid urbanization, and changing climatic conditions can contribute to the emergence and re-emergence of infectious disease. Continuing research on infectious diseases, urbanization and climate change may inform the country’s capacity to deal with emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases in the future. PMID:26371017

  7. 78 FR 69682 - Board of Scientific Counselors, Office of Infectious Diseases: Notice of Charter Renewal

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-20

    ...HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Board of...Counselors, Office of Infectious Diseases: Notice of Charter Renewal This...Counselors, Office of Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control...

  8. 76 FR 72416 - Board of Scientific Counselors, Office of Infectious Diseases: Notice of Charter Renewal

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-23

    ...HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Board of...Counselors, Office of Infectious Diseases: Notice of Charter Renewal This...Counselors, Office of Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control...

  9. 76 FR 58522 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-21

    ... Committee: Microbiology, Infectious Diseases and AIDS Initial Review Group, Microbiology and Infectious... Program Nos. 93.855, Allergy, Immunology, and Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology...

  10. Perspectives of public health laboratories in emerging infectious diseases

    PubMed Central

    Chua, Kaw Bing; Gubler, Duane J

    2013-01-01

    The world has experienced an increased incidence and transboundary spread of emerging infectious diseases over the last four decades. We divided emerging infectious diseases into four categories, with subcategories in categories 1 and 4. The categorization was based on the nature and characteristics of pathogens or infectious agents causing the emerging infections, which are directly related to the mechanisms and patterns of infectious disease emergence. The factors or combinations of factors contributing to the emergence of these pathogens vary within each category. We also classified public health laboratories into three types based on function, namely, research, reference and analytical diagnostic laboratories, with the last category being subclassified into primary (community-based) public health and clinical (medical) analytical diagnostic laboratories. The frontline/leading and/or supportive roles to be adopted by each type of public health laboratory for optimal performance to establish the correct etiological agents causing the diseases or outbreaks vary with respect to each category of emerging infectious diseases. We emphasize the need, especially for an outbreak investigation, to establish a harmonized and coordinated national public health laboratory system that integrates different categories of public health laboratories within a country and that is closely linked to the national public health delivery system and regional and international high-end laboratories. PMID:26038473

  11. Perspectives of public health laboratories in emerging infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Chua, Kaw Bing; Gubler, Duane J

    2013-06-01

    The world has experienced an increased incidence and transboundary spread of emerging infectious diseases over the last four decades. We divided emerging infectious diseases into four categories, with subcategories in categories 1 and 4. The categorization was based on the nature and characteristics of pathogens or infectious agents causing the emerging infections, which are directly related to the mechanisms and patterns of infectious disease emergence. The factors or combinations of factors contributing to the emergence of these pathogens vary within each category. We also classified public health laboratories into three types based on function, namely, research, reference and analytical diagnostic laboratories, with the last category being subclassified into primary (community-based) public health and clinical (medical) analytical diagnostic laboratories. The frontline/leading and/or supportive roles to be adopted by each type of public health laboratory for optimal performance to establish the correct etiological agents causing the diseases or outbreaks vary with respect to each category of emerging infectious diseases. We emphasize the need, especially for an outbreak investigation, to establish a harmonized and coordinated national public health laboratory system that integrates different categories of public health laboratories within a country and that is closely linked to the national public health delivery system and regional and international high-end laboratories. PMID:26038473

  12. Techniques for Preventing the Spread of Infectious Diseases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento.

    Specific procedures are outlined for prevention of the spread of infectious diseases with techniques of handwashing, diapering, and handling of known disease carriers. Protocols for classroom cleanliness list essential steps and key points and precautions for maintaining a hygienic environment. This section includes a list of protocols for food…

  13. Incidence and Impact of Selected Infectious Diseases in Childhood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vital and Health Statistics, 1991

    1991-01-01

    This report provides estimates of the lifetime and annual incidence of certain infectious diseases of children in various demographic groups. Data on the social and health care impact of the diseases in terms of limited activity, days spent in bed, school days lost, contacts with physicians, hospitalizations, surgery, and use of medication are…

  14. SECTION A Bacteria PART III Etiologic Agents of Infectious Diseases

    E-print Network

    Nizet, Victor

    SECTION A Bacteria PART III Etiologic Agents of Infectious Diseases 698 118 Streptococcus pyogenes(GroupAStreptococcus) Victor Nizet and John C. Arnold Group A streptococcus (GAS) is synonymous with Streptococcus pyogenes and disease states. Worldwide, there are estimated to be >600 million cases of GAS pharyngitis ("strep throat

  15. Infectious disease ecology: Effects of ecosystems on disease and of disease on ecosystems: A Review

    E-print Network

    Peterson, A. Townsend

    2009-11-01

    . It is this innate curiosity that drives us. ALAN BERRYMAN, Medical Lake, Washington INFECTIOUS DISEASE ECOLOGY: EFFECTS OF ECO- SYSTEMS ON DISEASE AND OF DISEASE ON ECOSYS- TEMS. Based on a conference held in Millbrook, New York, May 2005. Edited by Richard S.... Ostfeld, Felicia Keesing, and Valerie T. Eviner. Princeton (New Jersey): Princeton University Press. $99.50 (hardcover); $45.00 (paper), xiv + 506 p.; ill; index. ISBN: 97S-0-691-12484-1 (he); 978-0^91-12485-8 (pb). 2008. Infectious disease ecology is a...

  16. Therapeutic targeting of autophagy in neurodegenerative and infectious diseases

    PubMed Central

    Bento, Carla F.

    2015-01-01

    Autophagy is a conserved process that uses double-membrane vesicles to deliver cytoplasmic contents to lysosomes for degradation. Although autophagy may impact many facets of human biology and disease, in this review we focus on the ability of autophagy to protect against certain neurodegenerative and infectious diseases. Autophagy enhances the clearance of toxic, cytoplasmic, aggregate-prone proteins and infectious agents. The beneficial roles of autophagy can now be extended to supporting cell survival and regulating inflammation. Autophagic control of inflammation is one area where autophagy may have similar benefits for both infectious and neurodegenerative diseases beyond direct removal of the pathogenic agents. Preclinical data supporting the potential therapeutic utility of autophagy modulation in such conditions is accumulating. PMID:26101267

  17. Therapeutic targeting of autophagy in neurodegenerative and infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Rubinsztein, David C; Bento, Carla F; Deretic, Vojo

    2015-06-29

    Autophagy is a conserved process that uses double-membrane vesicles to deliver cytoplasmic contents to lysosomes for degradation. Although autophagy may impact many facets of human biology and disease, in this review we focus on the ability of autophagy to protect against certain neurodegenerative and infectious diseases. Autophagy enhances the clearance of toxic, cytoplasmic, aggregate-prone proteins and infectious agents. The beneficial roles of autophagy can now be extended to supporting cell survival and regulating inflammation. Autophagic control of inflammation is one area where autophagy may have similar benefits for both infectious and neurodegenerative diseases beyond direct removal of the pathogenic agents. Preclinical data supporting the potential therapeutic utility of autophagy modulation in such conditions is accumulating. PMID:26101267

  18. Passive immunity in prevention and treatment of infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Keller, M A; Stiehm, E R

    2000-10-01

    Antibodies have been used for over a century in the prevention and treatment of infectious disease. They are used most commonly for the prevention of measles, hepatitis A, hepatitis B, tetanus, varicella, rabies, and vaccinia. Although their use in the treatment of bacterial infection has largely been supplanted by antibiotics, antibodies remain a critical component of the treatment of diptheria, tetanus, and botulism. High-dose intravenous immunoglobulin can be used to treat certain viral infections in immunocompromised patients (e.g., cytomegalovirus, parvovirus B19, and enterovirus infections). Antibodies may also be of value in toxic shock syndrome, Ebola virus, and refractory staphylococcal infections. Palivizumab, the first monoclonal antibody licensed (in 1998) for an infectious disease, can prevent respiratory syncytial virus infection in high-risk infants. The development and use of additional monoclonal antibodies to key epitopes of microbial pathogens may further define protective humoral responses and lead to new approaches for the prevention and treatment of infectious diseases. PMID:11023960

  19. 75 FR 4091 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-26

    ...Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice...Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...Partnerships in Biodefense Food and Waterborne Diseases. Date...Assistance Program Nos. 93.855, Allergy, Immunology, and...

  20. 75 FR 48973 - Board of Scientific Counselors, Coordinating Center for Infectious Diseases: Notice of Charter...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-12

    ...HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Board of Scientific...Coordinating Center for Infectious Diseases: Notice of Charter Amendment This gives...Coordinating Center for Infectious Diseases, Department of Health and Human...

  1. Mortality in East African shorthorn zebu cattle under one year: predictors of infectious-disease mortality

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Infectious livestock diseases remain a major threat to attaining food security and are a source of economic and livelihood losses for people dependent on livestock for their livelihood. Knowledge of the vital infectious diseases that account for the majority of deaths is crucial in determining disease control strategies and in the allocation of limited funds available for disease control. Here we have estimated the mortality rates in zebu cattle raised in a smallholder mixed farming system during their first year of life, identified the periods of increased risk of death and the risk factors for calf mortality, and through analysis of post-mortem data, determined the aetiologies of calf mortality in this population. A longitudinal cohort study of 548 zebu cattle was conducted between 2007 and 2010. Each calf was followed during its first year of life or until lost from the study. Calves were randomly selected from 20 sub-locations and recruited within a week of birth from different farms over a 45 km radius area centered on Busia in the Western part of Kenya. The data comprised of 481.1 calf years of observation. Clinical examinations, sample collection and analysis were carried out at 5 week intervals, from birth until one year old. Cox proportional hazard models with frailty terms were used for the statistical analysis of risk factors. A standardized post-mortem examination was conducted on all animals that died during the study and appropriate samples collected. Results The all-cause mortality rate was estimated at 16.1 (13.0-19.2; 95% CI) per 100 calf years at risk. The Cox models identified high infection intensity with Theileria spp., the most lethal of which causes East Coast Fever disease, infection with Trypanosome spp., and helminth infections as measured by Strongyle spp. eggs per gram of faeces as the three important infections statistically associated with infectious disease mortality in these calves. Analysis of post-mortem data identified East Coast Fever as the main cause of death accounting for 40% of all deaths, haemonchosis 12% and heartwater disease 7%. Conclusion The findings demonstrate the impact of endemic parasitic diseases in indigenous animals expected to be well adapted against disease pressures. Additionally, agreement between results of Cox models using data from simple diagnostic procedures and results from post-mortem analysis underline the potential use such diagnostic data to reduce calf mortality. The control strategies for the identified infectious diseases have been discussed. PMID:24010500

  2. Infectious disease agents mediate interaction in food webs and ecosystems

    PubMed Central

    Selakovic, Sanja; de Ruiter, Peter C.; Heesterbeek, Hans

    2014-01-01

    Infectious agents are part of food webs and ecosystems via the relationship with their host species that, in turn, interact with both hosts and non-hosts. Through these interactions, infectious agents influence food webs in terms of structure, functioning and stability. The present literature shows a broad range of impacts of infectious agents on food webs, and by cataloguing that range, we worked towards defining the various mechanisms and their specific effects. To explore the impact, a direct approach is to study changes in food-web properties with infectious agents as separate species in the web, acting as additional nodes, with links to their host species. An indirect approach concentrates not on adding new nodes and links, but on the ways that infectious agents affect the existing links across host and non-host nodes, by influencing the ‘quality’ of consumer–resource interaction as it depends on the epidemiological state host involved. Both approaches are natural from an ecological point of view, but the indirect approach may connect more straightforwardly to commonly used tools in infectious disease dynamics. PMID:24403336

  3. Incentives for Reporting Infectious Disease Outbreaks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malani, Anup; Laxminarayan, Ramanan

    2011-01-01

    The global spread of diseases such as swine flu and SARS highlights the difficult decision governments face when presented with evidence of a local outbreak. Reporting the outbreak may bring medical assistance but is also likely to trigger trade sanctions by countries hoping to contain the disease. Suppressing the information may avoid trade…

  4. Global climate and infectious disease: The cholera paradigm

    SciTech Connect

    Colwell, R.R.

    1996-12-20

    Historically, infectious diseases have had a profound effect on human populations, including their evolution and cultural development. Despite significant advances in medical science, infectious diseases continue to impact human populations in many parts of the world. Emerging diseases are considered to be those infections that either are newly appearing in the population or are rapidly increasing in incidence or expanding in geographic range. Emergence of disease is not a simple phenomenon, mainly because infectious diseases are dynamic. Most new infections are not caused by truly new pathogens but are microorganisms (viruses, bacteria, fungi, protozoa, and helminths) that find a new way to enter a susceptible host and are newly recognized because of recently developed, sensitive techniques. Human activities drive emergence of disease and a variety of social, economic, political, climatic, technological, and environmental factors can shape the pattern of a disease and influence its emergence into populations. For example, travel affects emergence of disease, and human migrations have been the main source of epidemics throughout history. Trade caravans, religious pilgrimage, and military campaigns facilitated the spread of plague, smallpox, and cholera. Global travel is a fact of modern life and, equally so, the continued evolution of microorganisms; therefore, new infections will continue to emerge, and known infections will change in distribution, frequency, and severity. 88 refs., 1 fig.

  5. Pharyngitis - fatal infectious disease or medical error?

    PubMed

    Rorat, M; Jurek, T

    2015-01-01

    Reporting on adverse events is essential to create a culture of safety, which focuses on protecting doctors and patients from medical errors. We present a fatal case of Streptococcus C pharyngitis in a 56-year-old man. The clinical course and the results of additional diagnostics and autopsy showed that sepsis followed by multiple organ failure was the ultimate cause of death. The clinical course appeared fatal due to a chain of adverse events, including errors made by the physicians caring for the patient for 10 days. PMID:26284967

  6. Lurking in the Shadows: Emerging Rodent Infectious Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Besselsen, David G.; Franklin, Craig L.; Livingston, Robert S.; Riley, Lela K.

    2013-01-01

    Rodent parvoviruses, Helicobacter spp., murine norovirus, and several other previously unknown infectious agents have “emerged” in laboratory rodents relatively recently. These agents have been discovered serendipitously or through active investigation of atypical serology results, cell culture contamination, unexpected histopathology, or previously unrecognized clinical disease syndromes. The potential research impact of these agents is not fully known. Infected rodents have demonstrated immunomodulation, tumor suppression, clinical disease (particularly in immunodeficient rodents), and histopathology. Perturbations of organismal and cellular physiology also likely occur. These agents posed unique challenges to laboratory animal resource programs once discovered; it was necessary to develop specific diagnostic assays and an understanding of their epidemiology and transmission routes before attempting eradication, and then evaluate eradication methods for efficacy. Even then management approaches varied significantly, from apathy to total exclusion, and such inconsistency has hindered the sharing and transfer of rodents among institutions, particularly for genetically modified rodent models that may not be readily available. As additional infectious agents are discovered in laboratory rodents in coming years, much of what researchers have learned from experiences with the recently identified pathogens will be applicable. This article provides an overview of the discovery, detection, and research impact of infectious agents recently identified in laboratory rodents. We also discuss emerging syndromes for which there is a suspected infectious etiology, and the unique challenges of managing newly emerging infectious agents. PMID:18506061

  7. Biotechnology in the diagnosis of infectious diseases and vaccine development

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Molecular biological methods have become increasingly applicable to the diagnosis of infectious diseases and vaccine development. To become widely used the methods need to be easy, safe, sensitive, reproducible and eventually automated to facilitate the evaluation of large number of samples. The p...

  8. Genome Sequence of a Distinct Infectious Bursal Disease Virus.

    PubMed

    Tomás, Gonzalo; Hernández, Martín; Marandino, Ana; Hernández, Diego; Techera, Claudia; Grecco, Sofía; Panzera, Yanina; Pérez, Ruben

    2015-01-01

    Infectious bursal disease virus is a relevant avian pathogen that affects poultry production. Here, we report the full-length coding sequence of the Uruguayan strain dIBDV/UY/2014/2202, isolated from a commercial broiler flock. The strain belongs to the distinct IBDV lineage that is widely distributed in South America. PMID:26430025

  9. Infectious Diseases and Extinction Risk in Wild Mammals

    E-print Network

    Pedersen, Amy B.

    Infectious Diseases and Extinction Risk in Wild Mammals AMY B. PEDERSEN, KATE E. JONES,§ CHARLES L host extinctions. The majority of mammal species considered threatened by parasites were either likely to cause extinction risk than those transmitted by other routes. Mammal species threatened

  10. Management of Chronic Infectious Diseases in School Children. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois State Board of Education, Springfield.

    This manual contains current guidelines for Illinois school personnel to follow when working with children who have infectious diseases. The first chapter focuses on school district development of policies and procedures and program implementation. The next chapter provides information on characteristics, mode of transmission, prevention, and…

  11. Aids and Infectious Diseases (aid) Pmp 2013 Report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buonaguro, Franco M.

    2014-07-01

    The AIDS and Infectious Diseases (AID) PMP of the WFS contributed this year with a session on August 22nd to the Plenary Sessions of the International Seminars on Planetary Emergencies and Associated Meetings--46th Session: The Role of Science in the Third Millennium (Erice, 19-24 August 2013). Furthermore a workshop on August 24th was organized...

  12. FYI: Services to Poor Families; Controlling Infectious Diseases; Parent Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Children Today, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Discusses services and resources available for families, parents, and child care providers. Describes a National Resource Center for Children in Poverty; a guide for controlling infectious diseases among young children in day care; a directory of parent support groups; and reports of a link between household pesticides and childhood leukemia. (BB)

  13. Genome Sequence of a Distinct Infectious Bursal Disease Virus

    PubMed Central

    Tomás, Gonzalo; Hernández, Martín; Marandino, Ana; Hernández, Diego; Techera, Claudia; Grecco, Sofía; Panzera, Yanina

    2015-01-01

    Infectious bursal disease virus is a relevant avian pathogen that affects poultry production. Here, we report the full-length coding sequence of the Uruguayan strain dIBDV/UY/2014/2202, isolated from a commercial broiler flock. The strain belongs to the distinct IBDV lineage that is widely distributed in South America. PMID:26430025

  14. Transmission Lines The Atlas of Infectious Diseases

    E-print Network

    Jenny, Bernhard

    combines global data on wealth, water, health care and historical and modern diseases such as tuberculosis good. An important benefit of this technology, she adds, is that it can respond quickly to mutations

  15. Parents of Kids with Infectious Diseases

    MedlinePLUS

    ... by vaccine preventable diseases gathered in a small studio in New Jersey to share their stories, with ... that brings us to the hospital in the first place. All answers are recorded anonymously. Yes No ...

  16. Managing an Infectious Disease Outbreak in a School. Lessons Learned from School Crises and Emergencies. Volume 2, Issue 3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Education, 2007

    2007-01-01

    "Lessons Learned" is a series of publications that are a brief recounting of actual school emergencies and crises. This "Lessons Learned" issue focuses on an infectious disease incident, which resulted in the death of a student, closure of area schools and the operation of an on-site school vaccine clinic. The report highlights the critical need…

  17. Rapid non-invasive tests for diagnostics of infectious diseases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malamud, Daniel

    2014-06-01

    A rapid test for an infectious disease that can be used at point-of-care at a physician's office, a pharmacy, or in the field is critical for the prompt and appropriate therapeutic intervention. Ultimately by treating infections early on will decrease transmission of the pathogen. In contrast to metabolic diseases or cancer where multiple biomarkers are required, infectious disease targets (e.g. antigen, antibody, nucleic acid) are simple and specific for the pathogen causing the disease. Our laboratory has focused on three major infectious disease; HIV, Tuberculosis, and Malaria. These diseases are pandemic in much of the world thus putting natives, tourists and military personnel at risk for becoming infected, and upon returning to the U.S., transmitting these diseases to their contacts. Our devices are designed to detect antigens, antibodies or nucleic acids in blood or saliva samples in less than 30 minutes. An overview describing the current status of each of the three diagnostic platforms is presented. These microfluidic point-of-care devices will be relatively inexpensive, disposable, and user friendly.

  18. Trends in enteric disease as a cause of death in the United States, 1989-1996.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Christina A; Calderon, Rebecca L

    2003-01-01

    The authors examined rates of and trends in enteric disease as a cause of death in the United States. The National Center for Health Statistics Multiple Cause of Death databases for 1989-1996 were analyzed for International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, codes for gastroenteritis due to infectious agents and codes describing illness with other enteric pathogens. The highest rates of death related to enteric diseases were seen among people older than 75 years, followed by children under 1 year of age. Rates increased markedly over time in the 65- to 74-year age group for bacterial enteric pathogens and in the 35- to 44-year age group for viral enteric pathogens. Enteric diseases were the underlying cause of death for an average of 2,740 deaths during each year of this study, and the rate of death due to enteric-related disease is increasing. PMID:12505891

  19. Time series regression model for infectious disease and weather.

    PubMed

    Imai, Chisato; Armstrong, Ben; Chalabi, Zaid; Mangtani, Punam; Hashizume, Masahiro

    2015-10-01

    Time series regression has been developed and long used to evaluate the short-term associations of air pollution and weather with mortality or morbidity of non-infectious diseases. The application of the regression approaches from this tradition to infectious diseases, however, is less well explored and raises some new issues. We discuss and present potential solutions for five issues often arising in such analyses: changes in immune population, strong autocorrelations, a wide range of plausible lag structures and association patterns, seasonality adjustments, and large overdispersion. The potential approaches are illustrated with datasets of cholera cases and rainfall from Bangladesh and influenza and temperature in Tokyo. Though this article focuses on the application of the traditional time series regression to infectious diseases and weather factors, we also briefly introduce alternative approaches, including mathematical modeling, wavelet analysis, and autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) models. Modifications proposed to standard time series regression practice include using sums of past cases as proxies for the immune population, and using the logarithm of lagged disease counts to control autocorrelation due to true contagion, both of which are motivated from "susceptible-infectious-recovered" (SIR) models. The complexity of lag structures and association patterns can often be informed by biological mechanisms and explored by using distributed lag non-linear models. For overdispersed models, alternative distribution models such as quasi-Poisson and negative binomial should be considered. Time series regression can be used to investigate dependence of infectious diseases on weather, but may need modifying to allow for features specific to this context. PMID:26188633

  20. Vector-borne infectious diseases and influenza

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a serious viral disease of animals and humans in Africa and the Middle East that is transmitted by mosquitoes. First isolated in Kenya during an outbreak in 1930 subsequent outbreaks have had a significant impact on animal and human health and national economies, and it is...

  1. Infectious Disease and the Public Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crosson, James E.

    The paper examines policy options for schools regarding appropriate services for children with highly communicable, potentially life threatening diseases such as Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) and Herpes. Briefly considered are the school's legal responsibility, implied risk and inability, and actual risk and its control. General…

  2. The Microbiome in Infectious Disease and Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Honda, Kenya; Littman, Dan R.

    2015-01-01

    The mammalian alimentary tract harbors hundreds of species of commensal microorganisms (microbiota) that intimately interact with the host and provide it with genetic, metabolic, and immunological attributes. Recent reports have indicated that the microbiota composition and its collective genomes (microbiome) are major factors in predetermining the type and robustness of mucosal immune responses. In this review, we discuss the recent advances in our understanding of host-microbiota interactions and their effect on the health and disease susceptibility of the host. PMID:22224764

  3. Estimating Seasonal Drivers in Childhood Infectious Diseases with Continuous Time Models 

    E-print Network

    Abbott, George H.

    2010-07-14

    Many important factors affect the spread of childhood infectious disease. To understand better the fundamental drivers of infectious disease spread, several researchers have estimated seasonal transmission coefficients using discrete-time models...

  4. Impact of infectious diseases consultation on the management of S. aureus bacteraemia in children

    E-print Network

    Saunderson, R. B.; Gouliouris, Theodore; Cartwright, Edward J.; Nickerson, Emma J.; Aliyu, S. H.; O’Donnell, D. Roddy; Kelsall, Wilf; Limmathurotsakul, D.; Peacock, S. J.; Török, M. Estée

    2014-07-10

    , Järvinen A. Telephone Consultation Cannot Replace Bedside Infectious Disease Consultation in the Management of Staphylococcus aureus Bacteremia. Clinical Infectious Diseases 2013;56(4):527–35. 26. Tissot F, Calandra T, Prod’hom G, et al. Impact...

  5. 75 FR 1119 - Agency Information Collection (Survey of Appropriate and Timely Diagnosis of Infectious Diseases...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-08

    ...Infectious Diseases (Leishmaniasis), VA Form 10-0476. b. Survey of Appropriate and Timely Diagnosis of Infectious Diseases (Malaria), VA Form 10-0476a. OMB Control Number: 2900-New (VA Form 10-0476). Type of Review: New collection....

  6. 75 FR 8975 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-26

    ...301-451-3684, bgustafson@niaid.nih.gov. Name of Committee: Microbiology, Infectious Diseases and AIDS Initial Review Group, Acquired...Immunology, and Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research, National Institutes...

  7. 75 FR 62546 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-12

    ...unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: Microbiology, Infectious Diseases and AIDS Initial Review Group, Acquired...Immunology, and Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research, National Institutes...

  8. 76 FR 65204 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-20

    ...unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: Microbiology, Infectious Diseases and AIDS Initial Review Group, Acquired...Immunology, and Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research, National Institutes...

  9. 77 FR 64816 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-23

    ...unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: Microbiology, Infectious Diseases and AIDS Initial Review Group; Acquired...Immunology, and Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research, National Institutes...

  10. 78 FR 68857 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-15

    ...unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: Microbiology, Infectious Diseases and AIDS Initial Review Group; Acquired...Immunology, and Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research, National Institutes...

  11. 76 FR 4122 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-24

    ...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...and funding cycle. Name of Committee: Allergy, Immunology, and Transplantation...

  12. 78 FR 37557 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-21

    ...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Resource Related Research Projects for AIDS, Allergy, Immunology and Transplantation...

  13. 77 FR 61009 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-05

    ...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Resource Related Research Projects for AIDS, Allergy, Immunology & Transplantation....

  14. 78 FR 31952 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-28

    ...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...personal privacy. Name of Committee: Allergy, Immunology, and Transplantation Research...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

  15. 77 FR 59940 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-01

    ...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...personal privacy. Name of Committee: Allergy, Immunology, and Transplantation Research...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

  16. 76 FR 27069 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-10

    ...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Resource Related Research Projects for AIDS, Allergy, Immunology and Transplantation...

  17. 77 FR 19677 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases..., Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research, National Institutes of Health, HHS) Dated: March 26,...

  18. 77 FR 74674 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases... Infectious Diseases Research, National Institutes of Health, HHS) Dated: December 10, 2012. David...

  19. 78 FR 45541 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases... Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research, National Institutes of...

  20. 77 FR 76058 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases... Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research, National Institutes of...

  1. 78 FR 78982 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases..., Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research, National Institutes of Health, HHS) Dated: December 20,...

  2. Why We Need Crowdsourced Data in Infectious Disease Surveillance

    PubMed Central

    Chunara, Rumi; Smolinski, Mark S.; Brownstein, John S.

    2013-01-01

    In infectious disease surveillance, public health data such as environmental, hospital, or census data have been extensively explored to create robust models of disease dynamics. However, this information is also subject to its own biases, including latency, high cost, contributor biases, and imprecise resolution. Simultaneously, new technologies, including Internet and mobile phone based tools, now enable information to be garnered directly from individuals at the point of care. Here, we consider how these crowdsourced data offer the opportunity to fill gaps in and augment current epidemiological models. Challenges and methods for overcoming limitations of the data are also reviewed. As more new information sources become mature, incorporating these novel data into epidemiological frameworks will enable us to learn more about infectious disease dynamics. PMID:23689991

  3. Summary of Notifiable Infectious Diseases and Conditions - United States, 2013.

    PubMed

    Adams, Deborah; Fullerton, Kathleen; Jajosky, Ruth; Sharp, Pearl; Onweh, Diana; Schley, Alan; Anderson, Willie; Faulkner, Amanda; Kugeler, Kiersten

    2015-01-01

    The Summary of Notifiable Infectious Diseases and Condition-United States, 2013 (hereafter referred to as the summary) contains the official statistics, in tabular and graphic form, for the reported occurrence of nationally notifiable infectious diseases and conditions in the United States for 2013. Unless otherwise noted, data are final totals for 2013 reported as of June 30, 2014. These statistics are collected and compiled from reports sent by U.S. state and territory, New York City, and District of Columbia health departments to the National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System (NNDSS), which is operated by CDC in collaboration with the Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists (CSTE). This summary is available at http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/mmwr_nd/index.html. This site also includes summary publications from previous years. PMID:26492038

  4. Facing highly infectious diseases: new trends and current concepts.

    PubMed

    Brouqui, P

    2009-08-01

    A highly infectious disease (HID) that is transmissible from person to person causes life-threatening illness and presents a serious hazard in the healthcare setting and in the community that requires specific control measures. Due to environmental factors, changes in lifestyle and many other unknown factors, the emergence of such HIDs is becoming more and more likely. As has already been demonstrated during the SARS outbreak, healthcare facilities are likely to be the origin of future HID outbreaks. Preparedness planning will be essential in helping facilities manage future outbreaks of emerging or resurgent infectious diseases. Guidelines have been developed by national and international institutions. To avoid contamination of healthcare workers, the care of HID patients should follow the same infection control rules that are applied to laboratory workers exposed to similar agents. Here, the current knowledge concerning the clinical care of patients with HIDs is reviewed, and specific aspects of the management of such diseases are introduced. PMID:19486075

  5. Relating phylogenetic trees to transmission trees of infectious disease outbreaks.

    PubMed

    Ypma, Rolf J F; van Ballegooijen, W Marijn; Wallinga, Jacco

    2013-11-01

    Transmission events are the fundamental building blocks of the dynamics of any infectious disease. Much about the epidemiology of a disease can be learned when these individual transmission events are known or can be estimated. Such estimations are difficult and generally feasible only when detailed epidemiological data are available. The genealogy estimated from genetic sequences of sampled pathogens is another rich source of information on transmission history. Optimal inference of transmission events calls for the combination of genetic data and epidemiological data into one joint analysis. A key difficulty is that the transmission tree, which describes the transmission events between infected hosts, differs from the phylogenetic tree, which describes the ancestral relationships between pathogens sampled from these hosts. The trees differ both in timing of the internal nodes and in topology. These differences become more pronounced when a higher fraction of infected hosts is sampled. We show how the phylogenetic tree of sampled pathogens is related to the transmission tree of an outbreak of an infectious disease, by the within-host dynamics of pathogens. We provide a statistical framework to infer key epidemiological and mutational parameters by simultaneously estimating the phylogenetic tree and the transmission tree. We test the approach using simulations and illustrate its use on an outbreak of foot-and-mouth disease. The approach unifies existing methods in the emerging field of phylodynamics with transmission tree reconstruction methods that are used in infectious disease epidemiology. PMID:24037268

  6. Transmission of Infectious Diseases En Route to Habitat Hotspots

    PubMed Central

    Benavides, Julio; Walsh, Peter D.; Meyers, Lauren Ancel; Raymond, Michel; Caillaud, Damien

    2012-01-01

    Background The spread of infectious diseases in wildlife populations is influenced by patterns of between-host contacts. Habitat “hotspots” - places attracting a large numbers of individuals or social groups - can significantly alter contact patterns and, hence, disease propagation. Research on the importance of habitat hotspots in wildlife epidemiology has primarily focused on how inter-individual contacts occurring at the hotspot itself increase disease transmission. However, in territorial animals, epidemiologically important contacts may primarily occur as animals cross through territories of conspecifics en route to habitat hotspots. So far, the phenomenon has received little attention. Here, we investigate the importance of these contacts in the case where infectious individuals keep visiting the hotspots and in the case where these individuals are not able to travel to the hotspot any more. Methodology and Principal Findings We developed a simulation epidemiological model to investigate both cases in a scenario when transmission at the hotspot does not occur. We find that (i) hotspots still exacerbate epidemics, (ii) when infectious individuals do not travel to the hotspot, the most vulnerable individuals are those residing at intermediate distances from the hotspot rather than nearby, and (iii) the epidemiological vulnerability of a population is the highest when the number of hotspots is intermediate. Conclusions and Significance By altering animal movements in their vicinity, habitat hotspots can thus strongly increase the spread of infectious diseases, even when disease transmission does not occur at the hotspot itself. Interestingly, when animals only visit the nearest hotspot, creating additional artificial hotspots, rather than reducing their number, may be an efficient disease control measure. PMID:22363606

  7. The landscape genetics of infectious disease emergence and spread

    PubMed Central

    Biek, Roman; Real, Leslie A.

    2011-01-01

    The spread of parasites is inherently a spatial process often embedded in physically complex landscapes. It is therefore not surprising that infectious disease researchers are increasingly taking a landscape genetics perspective to elucidate mechanisms underlying basic ecological processes driving infectious disease dynamics and to understand the linkage between spatially-dependent population processes and the geographic distribution of genetic variation within both hosts and parasites. The increasing availability of genetic information on hosts and parasites when coupled to their ecological interactions can lead to insights for predicting patterns of disease emergence, spread, and control. Here, we review research progress in this area based on four different motivations for the application of landscape genetics approaches: (1) assessing the spatial organization of genetic variation in parasites as a function of environmental variability, (2) using host population genetic structure as a means to parameterize ecological dynamics that indirectly influence parasite populations, e.g. gene flow and movement pathways across heterogeneous landscapes and the concurrent transport of infectious agents, (3) elucidating the temporal and spatial scales of disease processes, and (4) reconstructing and understanding infectious disease invasion. Throughout this review, we emphasise that landscape genetic principles are relevant to infection dynamics across a range of scales from within host dynamics to global geographic patterns and that they can also be applied to unconventional “landscapes” such as heterogeneous contact networks underlying the spread of human and livestock diseases. We conclude by discussing some general considerations and problems for inferring epidemiological processes from genetic data and try to identify possible future directions and applications for this rapidly expanding field. PMID:20618897

  8. Key Node Selection for Containing Infectious Disease Spread Using Particle Swarm Optimization

    E-print Network

    Wong, Limsoon

    Key Node Selection for Containing Infectious Disease Spread Using Particle Swarm Optimization Xiuju infectious diseases have grown into global health threats due to high human mobility. It is important to have intervention plans for containing the spread of such infectious diseases. Among various intervention strategies

  9. 78 FR 28858 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-16

    ..., MD 20892, 301-496-7042, sundstromj@niaid.nih.gov . Name of Committee: Microbiology, Infectious Diseases and AIDS Initial Review Group; Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research Committee. Date: June... Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research, National Institutes of...

  10. 75 FR 1119 - Agency Information Collection (Survey of Appropriate and Timely Diagnosis of Infectious Diseases...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-08

    ... Agency Information Collection (Survey of Appropriate and Timely Diagnosis of Infectious Diseases... Timely Diagnosis of Infectious Diseases (Leishmaniasis), VA Form 10-0476. b. Survey of Appropriate and Timely Diagnosis of Infectious Diseases (Malaria), VA Form 10-0476a. OMB Control Number: 2900-New...

  11. On the role of social clusters in the transmission of infectious diseases Rinaldo B. Schinazi

    E-print Network

    Schinazi, Rinaldo

    words and phrases: infectious diseases, tuberculosis, sexually transmitted dis- eases, clusters, spatialOn the role of social clusters in the transmission of infectious diseases Rinaldo B. Schinazi for the transmission of TB and HIV. 1. Introduction. It is suspected that some infectious diseases can only spread

  12. 77 FR 298 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-04

    ..., Bethesda, MD 20892-7616, (301) 496-2550, jay.radke@nih.gov . Name of Committee: Microbiology, Infectious Diseases and AIDS Initial Review Group; Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research Committee. Date...; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research, National Institutes of Health, HHS)...

  13. 78 FR 3011 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-15

    ... personal privacy. Name of Committee: Microbiology, Infectious Diseases and AIDS Initial Review Group; Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research Committee. Date: February 5-6, 2013. Time: 8:00 a.m. to 6:00 p.m..., Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research, National Institutes of Health, HHS) Dated: January 8,...

  14. 78 FR 6126 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-29

    ... personal privacy. Name of Committee: Microbiology, Infectious Diseases and AIDS Initial Review Group, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases B Subcommittee. Date: February 20-21, 2013. Time: 8:00 a.m. to 5:00 p.m... Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research, National Institutes of Health, HHS)...

  15. 76 FR 28443 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-17

    ..., Bethesda, MD 20892, 301-435-1614, james.snyder@nih.gov . Name of Committee: Microbiology, Infectious Diseases and AIDS Initial Review Group, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research Committee. Date: June..., Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research, National Institutes of Health, HHS) Dated: May 11,...

  16. 77 FR 76296 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-27

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases.... App.), notice is hereby given of meetings of the National Advisory Allergy and Infectious Diseases... and Infectious Diseases Council. Date: February 4, 2013. Open: 10:30 a.m. to 11:40 a.m. Agenda:...

  17. 75 FR 13561 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-22

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases.... App.), notice is hereby given of meetings of the National Advisory Allergy and Infectious Diseases... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Advisory Allergy and Infectious Diseases Council. Date:...

  18. 76 FR 6626 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-07

    ... SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of....), notice is hereby given of meetings of the National Advisory Allergy and Infectious Diseases Council. The... Infectious Diseases Council; Allergy, Immunology and Transplantation Subcommittee. Date: September 19,...

  19. 78 FR 79703 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-31

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases.... App.), notice is hereby given of meetings of the National Advisory Allergy and Infectious Diseases... and Infectious Diseases Council. Date: January 27, 2014. Open: 10:30 a.m. to 11:40 a.m. Agenda:...

  20. 76 FR 77241 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-12

    ... SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of....), notice is hereby given of meetings of the National Advisory Allergy and Infectious Diseases Council. The... Infectious Diseases Council. Date: January 30, 2012. Open: 10:30 a.m. to 11:40 a.m. Agenda: Report from...

  1. 76 FR 30373 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-25

    ... SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Meeting... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis... Infectious Diseases Research, National Institutes of Health, HHS) Dated: May 18, 2011. Jennifer S....

  2. 75 FR 76475 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-08

    ... SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of....), notice is hereby given of meetings of the National Advisory Allergy and Infectious Diseases Council. The... of Committee: National Advisory Allergy and Infectious Diseases Council. Date: February 7, 2011....

  3. 75 FR 48978 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-12

    ... SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of....), notice is hereby given of meetings of the National Advisory Allergy and Infectious Diseases Council. The... of Committee: National Advisory Allergy and Infectious Diseases Council. Date: September 20,...

  4. The Seattle Structural Genomics Center for Infectious Disease (SSGCID)

    PubMed Central

    Myler, P.J.; Stacy, R.; Stewart, L.; Staker, B.L.; Van Voorhis, W.C.; Varani, G.; Buchko, G.W.

    2010-01-01

    The NIAID-funded Seattle Structural Genomics Center for Infectious Disease (SSGCID) is a consortium established to apply structural genomics approaches to potential drug targets from NIAID priority organisms for biodefense and emerging and re-emerging diseases. The mission of the SSGCID is to determine ~400 protein structures over five years ending in 2012. In order to maximize biomedical impact, ligand-based drug-lead discovery campaigns will be pursued for a small number of high-impact targets. Here we review the center’s target selection processes, which include pro-active engagement of the infectious disease research and drug therapy communities to identify drug targets, essential enzymes, virulence factors and vaccine candidates of biomedical relevance to combat infectious diseases. This is followed by a brief overview of the SSGCID structure determination pipeline and ligand screening methodology. Finally, specifics of our resources available to the scientific community are presented. Physical materials and data produced by SSGCID will be made available to the scientific community, with the aim that they will provide essential groundwork benefiting future research and drug discovery. PMID:19594426

  5. Infectious Disease Management through Point-of-Care Personalized Medicine Molecular Diagnostic Technologies

    PubMed Central

    Bissonnette, Luc; Bergeron, Michel G.

    2012-01-01

    Infectious disease management essentially consists in identifying the microbial cause(s) of an infection, initiating if necessary antimicrobial therapy against microbes, and controlling host reactions to infection. In clinical microbiology, the turnaround time of the diagnostic cycle (>24 hours) often leads to unnecessary suffering and deaths; approaches to relieve this burden include rapid diagnostic procedures and more efficient transmission or interpretation of molecular microbiology results. Although rapid nucleic acid-based diagnostic testing has demonstrated that it can impact on the transmission of hospital-acquired infections, we believe that such life-saving procedures should be performed closer to the patient, in dedicated 24/7 laboratories of healthcare institutions, or ideally at point of care. While personalized medicine generally aims at interrogating the genomic information of a patient, drug metabolism polymorphisms, for example, to guide drug choice and dosage, personalized medicine concepts are applicable in infectious diseases for the (rapid) identification of a disease-causing microbe and determination of its antimicrobial resistance profile, to guide an appropriate antimicrobial treatment for the proper management of the patient. The implementation of point-of-care testing for infectious diseases will require acceptance by medical authorities, new technological and communication platforms, as well as reimbursement practices such that time- and life-saving procedures become available to the largest number of patients. PMID:25562799

  6. Ocular syphilis: an alarming infectious eye disease

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Jie; Feng, Liguo; Li, Yumin

    2015-01-01

    Background: To describe the clinical manifestations and ancillary examination outcomes of ocular syphilis in Southeast China. Materials and methods: This is a retrospective, nonrandom case study. Demographic information, serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) test results, and findings of fundus fluorescein angiography (FFA), indocyanine green angiography (ICGA), and spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) were analyzed. Results: The study examined 21 eyes of 13 patients (average age 50.3 ± 5.9 (range 37-61) years). HIV co-infection was found in one patient. The most common manifestation was chorioretinitis (52.4%). Disc hyperfluorescence (66.7%) and persistent dark spots (91.7%) were the most common findings on FFA and ICGA, respectively. The inner segment/outer segment junction (IS/OS) loss was the most frequent manifestation (86.7%). Among the six patients with confirmed neurosyphilis, the average CSF protein level was 528.8 ± 327.1 mg/L. Visual acuity (VA) was improved in 8 of 13 eyes (61.5%) after treatment. Conclusions: The manifestations of ocular syphilis can mimic any eye disease. Chorioretinitis was the most common finding in this case series. “Leopard spots” was the characteristic manifestation on FFA. IS/OS loss was the most common finding in patients with posterior uveitis on SD-OCT. Lumbar puncture can contribute to the diagnosis of neurosyphilis. Treatment for ocular syphilis was effective in these patients. PMID:26221328

  7. HDL in infectious diseases and sepsis.

    PubMed

    Pirillo, Angela; Catapano, Alberico Luigi; Norata, Giuseppe Danilo

    2015-01-01

    During infection significant alterations in lipid metabolism and lipoprotein composition occur. Triglyceride and VLDL cholesterol levels increase, while reduced HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) and LDL cholesterol (LDL-C) levels are observed. More importantly, endotoxemia modulates HDL composition and size: phospholipids are reduced as well as apolipoprotein (apo) A-I, while serum amyloid A (SAA) and secretory phospholipase A2 (sPLA2) dramatically increase, and, although the total HDL particle number does not change, a significant decrease in the number of small- and medium-size particles is observed. Low HDL-C levels inversely correlate with the severity of septic disease and associate with an exaggerated systemic inflammatory response. HDL, as well as other plasma lipoproteins, can bind and neutralize Gram-negative bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and Gram-positive bacterial lipoteichoic acid (LTA), thus favoring the clearance of these products. HDLs are emerging also as a relevant player during parasitic infections, and a specific component of HDL, namely, apoL-1, confers innate immunity against trypanosome by favoring lysosomal swelling which kills the parasite. During virus infections, proteins associated with the modulation of cholesterol bioavailability in the lipid rafts such as ABCA1 and SR-BI have been shown to favor virus entry into the cells. Pharmacological studies support the benefit of recombinant HDL or apoA-I mimetics during bacterial infection, while apoL-1-nanobody complexes were tested for trypanosome infection. Finally, SR-BI antagonism represents a novel and forefront approach interfering with hepatitis C virus entry which is currently tested in clinical studies. From the coming years, we have to expect new and compelling observations further linking HDL to innate immunity and infections. PMID:25522999

  8. Bats, emerging infectious diseases, and the rabies paradigm revisited

    PubMed Central

    Kuzmin, Ivan V.; Bozick, Brooke; Guagliardo, Sarah A.; Kunkel, Rebekah; Shak, Joshua R.; Tong, Suxiang; Rupprecht, Charles E

    2011-01-01

    The significance of bats as sources of emerging infectious diseases has been increasingly appreciated, and new data have been accumulated rapidly during recent years. For some emerging pathogens the bat origin has been confirmed (such as lyssaviruses, henipaviruses, coronaviruses), for other it has been suggested (filoviruses). Several recently identified viruses remain to be ‘orphan’ but have a potential for further emergence (such as Tioman, Menangle, and Pulau viruses). In the present review we summarize information on major bat-associated emerging infections and discuss specific characteristics of bats as carriers of pathogens (from evolutionary, ecological, and immunological positions). We also discuss drivers and forces of an infectious disease emergence and describe various existing and potential approaches for control and prevention of such infections at individual, populational, and societal levels. PMID:24149032

  9. Early Real-time Estimation of Infectious Disease Reproduction Number

    E-print Network

    Davoudi, Bahman; Miller, Joel; Meza, Rafael; Meyers, Lauren Ancel; Earn, David J D

    2012-01-01

    When an infectious disease strikes a population, the number of newly reported cases is often the only available information that one can obtain during early stages of the outbreak. An important goal of early outbreak analysis is to obtain a reliable estimate for the basic reproduction number, $R_{0}$, from the limited information available. We present a novel method that enables us to make a reliable real-time estimate of the reproduction number at a much earlier stage compared to other available methods. Our method takes into account the possibility that a disease has a wide distribution of infectious period and that the degree distribution of the contact network is heterogeneous. We validate our analytical framework with numerical simulations.

  10. Spread of Infectious Diseases with a Latent Period

    E-print Network

    Mizuno, Kanako

    2015-01-01

    Infectious diseases spread through human networks. Susceptible-Infected-Removed (SIR) model is one of the epidemic models to describe infection dynamics on a complex network connecting individuals. In the metapopulation SIR model, each node represents a population (group) which has many individuals. In this paper, we propose a modified metapopulation SIR model in which a latent period is taken into account. We call it SIIR model. We divide the infection period into two stages: an infected stage, which is the same as the previous model, and a seriously ill stage, in which individuals are infected and cannot move to the other populations. The two infectious stages in our modified metapopulation SIR model produce a discontinuous final size distribution. Individuals in the infected stage spread the disease like individuals in the seriously ill stage and never recover directly, which makes an effective recovery rate smaller than the given recovery rate.

  11. Effects of Global Climate on Infectious Disease: the Cholera Model

    PubMed Central

    Lipp, Erin K.; Huq, Anwar; Colwell, Rita R.

    2002-01-01

    Recently, the role of the environment and climate in disease dynamics has become a subject of increasing interest to microbiologists, clinicians, epidemiologists, and ecologists. Much of the interest has been stimulated by the growing problems of antibiotic resistance among pathogens, emergence and/or reemergence of infectious diseases worldwide, the potential of bioterrorism, and the debate concerning climate change. Cholera, caused by Vibrio cholerae, lends itself to analyses of the role of climate in infectious disease, coupled to population dynamics of pathogenic microorganisms, for several reasons. First, the disease has a historical context linking it to specific seasons and biogeographical zones. In addition, the population dynamics of V. cholerae in the environment are strongly controlled by environmental factors, such as water temperature, salinity, and the presence of copepods, which are, in turn, controlled by larger-scale climate variability. In this review, the association between plankton and V. cholerae that has been documented over the last 20 years is discussed in support of the hypothesis that cholera shares properties of a vector-borne disease. In addition, a model for environmental transmission of cholera to humans in the context of climate variability is presented. The cholera model provides a template for future research on climate-sensitive diseases, allowing definition of critical parameters and offering a means of developing more sophisticated methods for prediction of disease outbreaks. PMID:12364378

  12. Infectious prion diseases in humans: cannibalism, iatrogenicity and zoonoses.

    PubMed

    Haïk, Stéphane; Brandel, Jean-Philippe

    2014-08-01

    In contrast with other neurodegenerative disorders associated to protein misfolding, human prion diseases include infectious forms (also called transmitted forms) such as kuru, iatrogenic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease and variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. The transmissible agent is thought to be solely composed of the abnormal isoform (PrP(Sc)) of the host-encoded prion protein that accumulated in the central nervous system of affected individuals. Compared to its normal counterpart, PrP(Sc) is ?-sheet enriched and aggregated and its propagation is based on an autocatalytic conversion process. Increasing evidence supports the view that conformational variations of PrP(Sc) encoded the biological properties of the various prion strains that have been isolated by transmission studies in experimental models. Infectious forms of human prion diseases played a pivotal role in the emergence of the prion concept and in the characterization of the very unconventional properties of prions. They provide a unique model to understand how prion strains are selected and propagate in humans. Here, we review and discuss how genetic factors interplay with strain properties and route of transmission to influence disease susceptibility, incubation period and phenotypic expression in the light of the kuru epidemics due to ritual endocannibalism, the various series iatrogenic diseases secondary to extractive growth hormone treatment or dura mater graft and the epidemics of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease linked to dietary exposure to the agent of bovine spongiform encephalopathy. PMID:24956437

  13. "Wrong, but useful": negotiating uncertainty in infectious disease modelling.

    PubMed

    Christley, Robert M; Mort, Maggie; Wynne, Brian; Wastling, Jonathan M; Heathwaite, A Louise; Pickup, Roger; Austin, Zoë; Latham, Sophia M

    2013-01-01

    For infectious disease dynamical models to inform policy for containment of infectious diseases the models must be able to predict; however, it is well recognised that such prediction will never be perfect. Nevertheless, the consensus is that although models are uncertain, some may yet inform effective action. This assumes that the quality of a model can be ascertained in order to evaluate sufficiently model uncertainties, and to decide whether or not, or in what ways or under what conditions, the model should be 'used'. We examined uncertainty in modelling, utilising a range of data: interviews with scientists, policy-makers and advisors, and analysis of policy documents, scientific publications and reports of major inquiries into key livestock epidemics. We show that the discourse of uncertainty in infectious disease models is multi-layered, flexible, contingent, embedded in context and plays a critical role in negotiating model credibility. We argue that usability and stability of a model is an outcome of the negotiation that occurs within the networks and discourses surrounding it. This negotiation employs a range of discursive devices that renders uncertainty in infectious disease modelling a plastic quality that is amenable to 'interpretive flexibility'. The utility of models in the face of uncertainty is a function of this flexibility, the negotiation this allows, and the contexts in which model outputs are framed and interpreted in the decision making process. We contend that rather than being based predominantly on beliefs about quality, the usefulness and authority of a model may at times be primarily based on its functional status within the broad social and political environment in which it acts. PMID:24146851

  14. Altered Antibody Profiles against Common Infectious Agents in Chronic Disease

    PubMed Central

    Burbelo, Peter D.; Ching, Kathryn H.; Morse, Caryn G.; Alevizos, Ilias; Bayat, Ahmad; Cohen, Jeffrey I.; Ali, Mir A.; Kapoor, Amit; Browne, Sarah K.; Holland, Steven M.; Kovacs, Joseph A.; Iadarola, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    Despite the important diagnostic value of evaluating antibody responses to individual human pathogens, antibody profiles against multiple infectious agents have not been used to explore health and disease mainly for technical reasons.  We hypothesized that the interplay between infection and chronic disease might be revealed by profiling antibodies against multiple agents. Here, the levels of antibodies against a panel of 13 common infectious agents were evaluated with the quantitative Luciferase Immunoprecipitation Systems (LIPS) in patients from three disease cohorts including those with pathogenic anti-interferon-? autoantibodies (IFN-? AAB), HIV and Sjögren’s syndrome (SjS) to determine if their antibody profiles differed from control subjects.  The IFN-? AAB patients compared to controls demonstrated statistically higher levels of antibodies against VZV (p=0.0003), EBV (p=0.002), CMV (p=0.003), and C. albicans (p=0.03), but lower antibody levels against poliovirus (p=0.04). Comparison of HIV patients with blood donor controls revealed that the patients had higher levels of antibodies against CMV (p=0.0008), HSV-2 (p=0.0008), EBV (p=0.001), and C. albicans (p=0.01), but showed decreased levels of antibodies against coxsackievirus B4 (p=0.0008), poliovirus (p=0.0005),   and HHV-6B (p=0.002). Lastly, SjS patients had higher levels of anti-EBV antibodies (p=0.03), but lower antibody levels against several enteroviruses including a newly identified picornavirus, HCoSV-A (p=0.004), coxsackievirus B4 (p=0.04), and poliovirus (p=0.02). For the IFN-? AAB and HIV cohorts, principal component analysis revealed unique antibody clusters that showed the potential to discriminate patients from controls.  The results suggest that antibody profiles against these and likely other common infectious agents may yield insight into the interplay between exposure to infectious agents, dysbiosis, adaptive immunity and disease activity. PMID:24312567

  15. Theodor Escherich: the first pediatric infectious diseases physician?

    PubMed

    Shulman, Stanford T; Friedmann, Herbert C; Sims, Ronald H

    2007-10-15

    The career of Theodor Escherich (1857-1911) qualifies him as the first pediatric infectious diseases physician. His landmark bacteriologic studies identified the common colon bacillus (now known as Escherichia coli), and he was very committed to pediatrics, serving as chairman of several prominent departments of pediatrics, including the Department of Pediatrics at the University of Vienna and St. Anna's Children's Hospital in Vienna, Austria, arguably Europe's most prestigious pediatric position. PMID:17879920

  16. “Wrong, but Useful”: Negotiating Uncertainty in Infectious Disease Modelling

    PubMed Central

    Christley, Robert M.; Mort, Maggie; Wynne, Brian; Wastling, Jonathan M.; Heathwaite, A. Louise; Pickup, Roger; Austin, Zoë; Latham, Sophia M.

    2013-01-01

    For infectious disease dynamical models to inform policy for containment of infectious diseases the models must be able to predict; however, it is well recognised that such prediction will never be perfect. Nevertheless, the consensus is that although models are uncertain, some may yet inform effective action. This assumes that the quality of a model can be ascertained in order to evaluate sufficiently model uncertainties, and to decide whether or not, or in what ways or under what conditions, the model should be ‘used’. We examined uncertainty in modelling, utilising a range of data: interviews with scientists, policy-makers and advisors, and analysis of policy documents, scientific publications and reports of major inquiries into key livestock epidemics. We show that the discourse of uncertainty in infectious disease models is multi-layered, flexible, contingent, embedded in context and plays a critical role in negotiating model credibility. We argue that usability and stability of a model is an outcome of the negotiation that occurs within the networks and discourses surrounding it. This negotiation employs a range of discursive devices that renders uncertainty in infectious disease modelling a plastic quality that is amenable to ‘interpretive flexibility’. The utility of models in the face of uncertainty is a function of this flexibility, the negotiation this allows, and the contexts in which model outputs are framed and interpreted in the decision making process. We contend that rather than being based predominantly on beliefs about quality, the usefulness and authority of a model may at times be primarily based on its functional status within the broad social and political environment in which it acts. PMID:24146851

  17. Crucial and diverse role of the interleukin-33/ST2 axis in infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Rostan, Octavie; Arshad, Muhammad Imran; Piquet-Pellorce, Claire; Robert-Gangneux, Florence; Gangneux, Jean-Pierre; Samson, Michel

    2015-05-01

    Interleukin-33 (IL-33) has now emerged as a cytokine with diverse and pleiotropic functions in various infectious and inflammatory diseases. IL-33 is expressed by epithelial cells, endothelial cells, fibroblasts, and hepatocytes. The target cells of IL-33 are Th2 cells, basophils, dendritic cells, mast cells, macrophages, NKT cells, and nuocytes, newly discovered natural helper cells/innate lymphoid cells bearing the ST2 receptor. IL-33 has dual functions, both as a traditional cytokine and as a nuclear factor that regulates gene transcription. IL-33 functions as an "alarmin" released following cell death, as a biomarker, and as a vaccine adjuvant, with proinflammatory and protective effects during various infections. The exacerbated or protective role of the IL-33/ST2 axis during different infections is dependent upon the organ involved, type of infectious agent, whether the infection is acute or chronic, the invasiveness of the infectious agent, the host immune compartment, and cellular and cytokine microenvironments. In this review, we focus on recent advances in the understanding of the role of the IL-33/ST2 axis in various viral, bacterial, fungal, helminth, and protozoal infectious diseases gained from animal models and studies in human patients. The functional role of IL-33 and ST2 during experimentally induced infections has been summarized by accumulating the data for IL-33- and ST2-deficient mice or for mice exogenously administered IL-33. In summary, exploring the crucial and diverse roles of the IL-33/ST2 axis during infections may help in the development of therapeutic interventions for a wide range of infectious diseases. PMID:25712928

  18. Crucial and Diverse Role of the Interleukin-33/ST2 Axis in Infectious Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Rostan, Octavie; Arshad, Muhammad Imran; Piquet-Pellorce, Claire; Robert-Gangneux, Florence; Gangneux, Jean-Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Interleukin-33 (IL-33) has now emerged as a cytokine with diverse and pleiotropic functions in various infectious and inflammatory diseases. IL-33 is expressed by epithelial cells, endothelial cells, fibroblasts, and hepatocytes. The target cells of IL-33 are Th2 cells, basophils, dendritic cells, mast cells, macrophages, NKT cells, and nuocytes, newly discovered natural helper cells/innate lymphoid cells bearing the ST2 receptor. IL-33 has dual functions, both as a traditional cytokine and as a nuclear factor that regulates gene transcription. IL-33 functions as an “alarmin” released following cell death, as a biomarker, and as a vaccine adjuvant, with proinflammatory and protective effects during various infections. The exacerbated or protective role of the IL-33/ST2 axis during different infections is dependent upon the organ involved, type of infectious agent, whether the infection is acute or chronic, the invasiveness of the infectious agent, the host immune compartment, and cellular and cytokine microenvironments. In this review, we focus on recent advances in the understanding of the role of the IL-33/ST2 axis in various viral, bacterial, fungal, helminth, and protozoal infectious diseases gained from animal models and studies in human patients. The functional role of IL-33 and ST2 during experimentally induced infections has been summarized by accumulating the data for IL-33- and ST2-deficient mice or for mice exogenously administered IL-33. In summary, exploring the crucial and diverse roles of the IL-33/ST2 axis during infections may help in the development of therapeutic interventions for a wide range of infectious diseases. PMID:25712928

  19. Infectious disease transmission and behavioural allometry in wild mammals.

    PubMed

    Han, Barbara A; Park, Andrew W; Jolles, Anna E; Altizer, Sonia

    2015-05-01

    Animals' social and movement behaviours can impact the transmission dynamics of infectious diseases, especially for pathogens transmitted through close contact between hosts or through contact with infectious stages in the environment. Estimating pathogen transmission rates and R0 from natural systems can be challenging. Because host behavioural traits that underlie the transmission process vary predictably with body size, one of the best-studied traits among animals, body size might therefore also predict variation in parasite transmission dynamics. Here, we examine how two host behaviours, social group living and the intensity of habitat use, scale allometrically using comparative data from wild primate, carnivore and ungulate species. We use these empirical relationships to parameterize classical compartment models for infectious micro- and macroparasitic diseases, and examine how the risk of pathogen invasion changes as a function of host behaviour and body size. We then test model predictions using comparative data on parasite prevalence and richness from wild mammals. We report a general pattern suggesting that smaller-bodied mammal species utilizing home ranges more intensively experience greater risk for invasion by environmentally transmitted macroparasites. Conversely, larger-bodied hosts exhibiting a high degree of social group living could be more readily invaded by directly transmitted microparasites. These trends were supported through comparison of micro- and macroparasite species richness across a large number of carnivore, primate and ungulate species, but empirical data on carnivore macroparasite prevalence showed mixed results. Collectively, our study demonstrates that combining host behavioural traits with dynamical models of infectious disease scaled against host body size can generate testable predictions for variation in parasite risk across species; a similar approach might be useful in future work focused on predicting parasite distributions in local host communities. PMID:25631200

  20. Infectious diseases of animals and plants: an interdisciplinary approach

    PubMed Central

    Wilkinson, Katy; Grant, Wyn P.; Green, Laura E.; Hunter, Stephen; Jeger, Michael J.; Lowe, Philip; Medley, Graham F.; Mills, Peter; Phillipson, Jeremy; Poppy, Guy M.; Waage, Jeff

    2011-01-01

    Animal and plant diseases pose a serious and continuing threat to food security, food safety, national economies, biodiversity and the rural environment. New challenges, including climate change, regulatory developments, changes in the geographical concentration and size of livestock holdings, and increasing trade make this an appropriate time to assess the state of knowledge about the impact that diseases have and the ways in which they are managed and controlled. In this paper, the case is explored for an interdisciplinary approach to studying the management of infectious animal and plant diseases. Reframing the key issues through incorporating both social and natural science research can provide a holistic understanding of disease and increase the policy relevance and impact of research. Finally, in setting out the papers in this Theme Issue, a picture of current and future animal and plant disease threats is presented. PMID:21624914

  1. [Thailand: resurgence of infectious diseases and epidemiologic transition].

    PubMed

    Ménard, B

    2011-10-01

    Despite progress in various facts (sanitation, education, access to health care...) that allowed a significant reduction in infectious and parasitic diseases, they persist in some poor geographical areas and populations most in need, especially in young children. An epidemiological transition (increased incidence of cancers, cardiovascular attacks...) clearly tends to replace the old public health problems, rather in urban areas and among the most advantaged social classes. Diseases (re)emerging are also serious concerns for the future: return of resistant malaria, outbreaks of severe clinic forms of dengue, explosion of VHI/TB resistant.... PMID:22235606

  2. Immunotherapy for Infectious Diseases: Past, Present, and Future.

    PubMed

    Manohar, Akshay; Ahuja, Jasmine; Crane, John K

    2015-11-01

    Passive immunotherapy for established infections, as opposed to active immunization to prevent disease, remains a tiny niche in the world of antimicrobial therapies. Many of the passive immunotherapies currently available are directed against bacterial toxins, such as botulism, or are intended for agents of bioterrorism such as anthrax, which fortunately has remained rare. The emergence of Ebola virus and multi-drug resistant pathogens, however, may breathe new life into the immunotherapy field as researchers seek non-antibiotic interventions for infectious diseases. PMID:26575462

  3. Infectious Disease Mortality Among American Indians and Alaska Natives, 1999–2009

    PubMed Central

    Cheek, James E.; Holman, Robert C.; Redd, John T.; Haberling, Dana

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We described death rates and leading causes of death caused by infectious diseases (IDs) in American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) persons. Methods. We analyzed national mortality data, adjusted for AI/AN race by linkage with Indian Health Service registration records, for all US counties and Contract Health Service Delivery Area (CHSDA) counties. The average annual 1999 to 2009 ID death rates per 100?000 persons for AI/AN persons were compared with corresponding rates for Whites. Results. The ID death rate in AI/AN populations was significantly higher than that of Whites. A reported 8429 ID deaths (rate 86.2) in CHSDA counties occurred among AI/AN persons; the rate was significantly higher than the rate in Whites (44.0; rate ratio [RR]?=?1.96; 95% confidence interval [CI]?=?1.91, 2.00). The rates for the top 10 ID underlying causes of death were significantly higher for AI/AN persons than those for Whites. Lower respiratory tract infection and septicemia were the top-ranked causes. The greatest relative rate disparity was for tuberculosis (RR?=?13.51; 95% CI?=?11.36, 15.93). Conclusions. Health equity might be furthered by expansion of interventions to reduce IDs among AI/AN communities. PMID:24754622

  4. 75 FR 81631 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-28

    ... personal privacy. Name of Committee: Microbiology, Infectious Diseases and AIDS Initial Review Group. Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research Committee. Date: February 16-17, 2011. Time: 8 a.m. to 5 p.m....855, Allergy, Immunology, and Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious...

  5. Death investigation systems and disease surveillance.

    PubMed

    McGowan, C R; Viens, A M

    2011-07-01

    Medico-legal death investigation systems have the potential to play an important role in disease surveillance. While these systems are in place to serve a public function, the degree to which they are independent of central government can vary depending on jurisdiction. How these systems use this independence may present problems for public health initiatives, as it allows death investigators to decline to participate in government-led surveillance regardless of how critical the studies may be to public health and safety. A recent illustration of this problem in the UK is examined, as well as general lessons for removing impediments to death investigation systems participating in public health research. PMID:21156100

  6. Modelling power-law spread of infectious diseases

    E-print Network

    Meyer, Sebastian

    2013-01-01

    Short-time human travel behaviour can be well described by a power law with respect to distance. We incorporate this information in space-time models for infectious disease surveillance data to better capture the dynamics of disease spread. Two previously established model classes are extended, which both decompose disease risk additively into endemic and epidemic components: a space-time point process model for individual point-referenced data, and a multivariate time series model for aggregated count data. In both frameworks, the power-law spread is embedded into the epidemic component and its decay parameter is estimated simultaneously with all other unknown parameters using (penalised) likelihood inference. The performance of the new approach is investigated by a re-analysis of individual cases of invasive meningococcal disease in Germany (2002-2008), and count data on influenza in 140 administrative districts of Southern Germany (2001-2008). In both applications, the power-law formulations substantially ...

  7. Current status of vaccines against infectious bursal disease.

    PubMed

    Müller, Hermann; Mundt, Egbert; Eterradossi, Nicolas; Islam, M Rafiqul

    2012-01-01

    Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) is the aetiological agent of the acute and highly contagious infectious bursal disease (IBD) or "Gumboro disease". IBD is one of the economically most important diseases that affects commercially produced chickens worldwide. Along with strict hygiene management of poultry farms, vaccination programmes with inactivated and live attenuated viruses have been used to prevent IBD. Live vaccines show a different degree of attenuation; many of them may cause bursal atrophy and thus immunosuppression with poor immune response to vaccination against other pathogens and an increase in vulnerability to various types of infections as possible consequences. Depending on their intrinsic characteristics or on the vaccination procedures, some of the vaccines may not induce full protection against the very virulent IBDV strains and antigenic variants observed in the last three decades. As chickens are most susceptible to IBDV in their first weeks of life, active immunity to the virus has to be induced early after hatching. However, maternally derived IBDV-specific antibodies may interfere with early vaccination with live vaccines. Thus new technologies and second-generation vaccines including rationally designed and subunit vaccines have been developed. Recently, live viral vector vaccines have been licensed in several countries and are reaching the market. Here, the current status of IBD vaccines is discussed. PMID:22515532

  8. Emerging infectious diseases in cetaceans worldwide and the possible role of environmental stressors.

    PubMed

    Van Bressem, Marie-Françoise; Raga, Juan Antonio; Di Guardo, Giovanni; Jepson, Paul D; Duignan, Padraig J; Siebert, Ursula; Barrett, Tom; Santos, Marcos César de Oliveira; Moreno, Ignacio B; Siciliano, Salvatore; Aguilar, Alex; Van Waerebeek, Koen

    2009-09-23

    We reviewed prominent emerging infectious diseases of cetaceans, examined their potential to impact populations, re-assessed zoonotic risk and evaluated the role of environmental stressors. Cetacean morbilliviruses and papillomaviruses as well as Brucella spp. and Toxoplasma gondii are thought to interfere with population abundance by inducing high mortalities, lowering reproductive success or by synergistically increasing the virulence of other diseases. Severe cases of lobomycosis and lobomycosis-like disease (LLD) may contribute to the death of some dolphins. The zoonotic hazard of marine mammal brucellosis and toxoplasmosis may have been underestimated, attributable to frequent misdiagnoses and underreporting, particularly in developing countries and remote areas where carcass handling without protective gear and human consumption of fresh cetacean products are commonplace. Environmental factors seem to play a role in the emergence and pathogenicity of morbillivirus epidemics, lobomycosis/LLD, toxoplasmosis, poxvirus-associated tattoo skin disease and, in harbour porpoises, infectious diseases of multifactorial aetiology. Inshore and estuarine cetaceans incur higher risks than pelagic cetaceans due to habitats often severely altered by anthropogenic factors such as chemical and biological contamination, direct and indirect fisheries interactions, traumatic injuries from vessel collisions and climate change. PMID:19902843

  9. Integrated management of childhood illness: an emphasis on the management of infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Benguigui, Yehuda; Stein, Fernando

    2006-04-01

    The Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (IMCI) strategy has helped strengthen the application and expand coverage of key child survival interventions aimed at preventing deaths from infectious disease, respiratory illness, and malnutrition, whether at the health services, in the community, or at home. IMCI covers the prevention, treatment, and follow-up of the leading causes of mortality, which are responsible for at least two-thirds of deaths of children younger than 5 years in the countries of the Americas. The IMCI clinical guidelines take an evidence-based, syndrome approach to case managment that supports the rational, effective, and affordable use of drugs and diagnostic tools. When clinical resources are limited, the syndrome approach is a more realistic and cost-effective way to manage patients. Careful and systematic assessment of common symptoms and well-selected clinical signs provide sufficient information to guide effective actions. PMID:16822470

  10. Infectious cause of death determination using minimally invasive autopsies in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Martínez, Miguel J; Massora, Sergio; Mandomando, Inácio; Ussene, Esperança; Jordao, Dercio; Lovane, Lucilia; Muñoz-Almagro, Carmen; Castillo, Paola; Mayor, Alfredo; Rodriguez, Cristina; Lopez-Villanueva, Miriam; Ismail, Mamudo R; Carrilho, Carla; Lorenzoni, Cesaltina; Lacerda, Marcus V G; Bassat, Quique; Menéndez, Clara; Ordi, Jaume; Vila, Jordi

    2016-01-01

    In developing countries, the knowledge of the microorganisms causing fatal infections is critical and could help designing and implementing more effective preventive interventions and treatment guidelines. We aimed to develop and validate protocols for microbiological analysis in post-mortem samples obtained during minimally invasive autopsy (MIA) procedures and to assess their performance. Thirty MIAs performed in adults at Maputo Central Hospital in Southern Mozambique were included in the analysis. Microbiological tests included a universal screening for HIV, hepatitis B and C viruses, Plasmodium falciparum, and bacterial/fungal culture. In addition, a variety of molecular microbiology assays guided by the histological results were performed in blood, cerebrospinal fluid and a variety of tissue samples including liver, lung and central nervous system. The combination of culture-based methods together with molecular microbiological assays led to the identification of 17 out of 19 (89.5%) of the infectious deaths. Microorganisms identified included Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Toxoplasma gondii, Pneumocystis jiroveci, Cryptococcus neoformans, hepatitis B virus, human herpesvirus 8, cytomegalovirus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Streptococcus dysgalactiae, Ryzopus oryzae, and Acinetobacter baumannii. The combination of classical cultures, serological tests and molecular assays performed in samples obtained through MIA allows the identification of most infectious agents causing death. PMID:26508103

  11. How urbanization affects the epidemiology of emerging infectious diseases

    PubMed Central

    Neiderud, Carl-Johan

    2015-01-01

    The world is becoming more urban every day, and the process has been ongoing since the industrial revolution in the 18th century. The United Nations now estimates that 3.9 billion people live in urban centres. The rapid influx of residents is however not universal and the developed countries are already urban, but the big rise in urban population in the next 30 years is expected to be in Asia and Africa. Urbanization leads to many challenges for global health and the epidemiology of infectious diseases. New megacities can be incubators for new epidemics, and zoonotic diseases can spread in a more rapid manner and become worldwide threats. Adequate city planning and surveillance can be powerful tools to improve the global health and decrease the burden of communicable diseases. PMID:26112265

  12. The Role of Macrophage Polarization in Infectious and Inflammatory Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Labonte, Adam C.; Tosello-Trampont, Annie-Carole; Hahn, Young S.

    2014-01-01

    Macrophages, found in circulating blood as well as integrated into several tissues and organs throughout the body, represent an important first line of defense against disease and a necessary component of healthy tissue homeostasis. Additionally, macrophages that arise from the differentiation of monocytes recruited from the blood to inflamed tissues play a central role in regulating local inflammation. Studies of macrophage activation in the last decade or so have revealed that these cells adopt a staggering range of phenotypes that are finely tuned responses to a variety of different stimuli, and that the resulting subsets of activated macrophages play critical roles in both progression and resolution of disease. This review summarizes the current understanding of the contributions of differentially polarized macrophages to various infectious and inflammatory diseases and the ongoing effort to develop novel therapies that target this key aspect of macrophage biology. PMID:24625576

  13. Evaluation of Border Entry Screening for Infectious Diseases in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Antão, Catarina; Hall, Robert

    2015-01-01

    In response to the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) pandemic of 2003 and the influenza pandemic of 2009, many countries instituted border measures as a means of stopping or slowing the spread of disease. The measures, usually consisting of a combination of border entry/exit screening, quarantine, isolation, and communications, were resource intensive, and modeling and observational studies indicate that border screening is not effective at detecting infectious persons. Moreover, border screening has high opportunity costs, financially and in terms of the use of scarce public health staff resources during a time of high need. We discuss the border-screening experiences with SARS and influenza and propose an approach to decision-making for future pandemics. We conclude that outbreak-associated communications for travelers at border entry points, together with effective communication with clinicians and more effective disease control measures in the community, may be a more effective approach to the international control of communicable diseases. PMID:25625224

  14. Drug repurposing: a better approach for infectious disease drug discovery?

    PubMed

    Law, G Lynn; Tisoncik-Go, Jennifer; Korth, Marcus J; Katze, Michael G

    2013-10-01

    The advent of publicly available databases containing system-wide phenotypic data of the host response to both drugs and pathogens, in conjunction with bioinformatics and computational methods now allows for in silico predictions of FDA-approved drugs as treatments against infection diseases. This systems biology approach captures the complexity of both the pathogen and drug host response in the form of expression patterns or molecular interaction networks without having to understand the underlying mechanisms of action. These drug repurposing techniques have been successful in identifying new drug candidates for several types of cancers and were recently used to identify potential therapeutics against influenza, the newly discovered Middle Eastern Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus and several parasitic diseases. These new approaches have the potential to significantly reduce both the time and cost for infectious diseases drug discovery. PMID:24011665

  15. Infectious disease in animal metapopulations: the importance of environmental transmission

    PubMed Central

    Park, Andrew W

    2012-01-01

    Motivated by an array of infectious diseases that threaten wildlife populations, a simple metapopulation model (subpopulations connected by animal movement) is developed, which allows for both movement-based and environmental transmission. The model demonstrates that for a range of plausible parameterizations of environmental transmission, increased movement rate of animals between discrete habitats can lead to a decrease in the overall proportion of sites that are occupied. This can limit the ability of the rescue effect to ensure locally extinct populations become recolonized and can drive metapopulations down in size so that extinction by mechanisms other than disease may become more likely. It further highlights that, in the context of environmental transmission, the environmental persistence time of pathogens and the probability of acquiring infection by environmental transmission can affect host metapopulations both qualitatively and quantitatively. Additional spillover sources of infection from alternate reservoir hosts are also included in the model and a synthesis of all three types of transmission, acting alone or in combination, is performed revealing that movement-based transmission is the only necessary condition for a decline in the proportion of occupied sites with increasing movement rate, but that the presence of other types of transmission can reverse this qualitative result. By including the previously neglected role of environmental transmission, this work contributes to the general discussion of when dispersal by wild animals is beneficial or detrimental to populations experiencing infectious disease. PMID:22957148

  16. Infectious disease, the innate immune response, and fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Meneghin, Alessia; Hogaboam, Cory M

    2007-03-01

    The unrelenting and destructive progression of most fibrotic responses in the pulmonary, cardiovascular, integumentary, and alimentary systems remains a major medical challenge for which therapies are desperately needed. The pathophysiology of fibrosis remains an enigma, but considerable research and debate surrounds the question of whether chronic inflammation is the key driver of unrestrained wound healing (i.e., the fibrotic response) in these and other organ systems. This Review describes how infectious pathogens, chronic inflammation, and unrestrained fibroproliferation are likely to be part of a dynamic, unrelenting process propelling human fibrotic diseases. PMID:17332880

  17. Applications of luminescent systems to infectious disease methodology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Picciolo, G. L.; Chappelle, E. W.; Deming, J. W.; Mcgarry, M. A.; Nibley, D. A.; Okrend, H.; Thomas, R. R.

    1976-01-01

    The characterization of a clinical sample by a simple, fast, accurate, automatable analytical measurement is important in the management of infectious disease. Luminescence assays offer methods rich with options for these measurements. The instrumentation is common to each assay, and the investment is reasonable. Three general procedures were developed to varying degrees of completeness which measure bacterial levels by measuring their ATP, FMN and iron porphyrins. Bacteriuria detection and antibiograms can be determined within half a day. The characterization of the sample for its soluble ATP, FMN or prophyrins was also performed.

  18. Creating a Global Dialogue on Infectious Disease Surveillance: Connecting Organizations for Regional Disease Surveillance (CORDS)

    PubMed Central

    Gresham, Louise S.; Smolinski, Mark S.; Suphanchaimat, Rapeepong; Kimball, Ann Marie; Wibulpolprasert, Suwit

    2013-01-01

    Connecting Organizations for Regional Disease Surveillance (CORDS) is an international non-governmental organization focused on information exchange between disease surveillance networks in different areas of the world. By linking regional disease surveillance networks, CORDS builds a trust-based social fabric of experts who share best practices, surveillance tools and strategies, training courses, and innovations. CORDS exemplifies the shifting patterns of international collaboration needed to prevent, detect, and counter all types of biological dangers – not just naturally occurring infectious diseases, but also terrorist threats. Representing a network-of-networks approach, the mission of CORDS is to link regional disease surveillance networks to improve global capacity to respond to infectious diseases. CORDS is an informal governance cooperative with six founding regional disease surveillance networks, with plans to expand; it works in complement and cooperatively with the World Health Organization (WHO), the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE), and the Food and Animal Organization of the United Nations (FAO). As described in detail elsewhere in this special issue of Emerging Health Threats, each regional network is an alliance of a small number of neighboring countries working across national borders to tackle emerging infectious diseases that require unified regional efforts. Here we describe the history, culture and commitment of CORDS; and the novel and necessary role that CORDS serves in the existing international infectious disease surveillance framework. PMID:23362412

  19. [The North African plague and Charles Nicolle's theory of infectious diseases].

    PubMed

    Ben, Néfissa Kmar; Moulin, Anne Marie

    2010-01-01

    Many infectious diseases were described in North Africa in 18th-19th centuries by European travellers. Most of them were allegedly imported by new migrant populations coming from sub-Saharan, European or Middle East countries. Plague outbreaks have been described since the Black Death as diseases of the Mediterranean harbours. Charles Nicolle and his collaborators at the Pasteur Institute were witnesses to the extinction of plague and typhus fever in Tunisia. Both could be considered as endemo-epidemic diseases propagated by ancient nomad communities for centuries. Typhus was exported to other countries; plague was imported by Mediterranean travellers but also hid in unknown wild-animal reservoirs. The role of the bite of a rat's flea was not confirmed and the pneumonic form might have prevailed in the medieval North African cities. Association between plague, typhus, flu and other causes of immune deficiencies could explain the high morbidity and mortality caused by plague in the past. The authors comment the local history of plague at the light of the evolutionary laws of infectious disease proposed by Charles Nicolle in 1930. PMID:20698363

  20. The infectious diseases impact statement: a mechanism for addressing emerging diseases.

    PubMed Central

    McSweegan, E.

    1996-01-01

    The use of an Infectious Diseases Impact Statement (IDIS) is proposed for predictive assessments of local changes in infectious diseases arising from human-engineered activities. IDIS is intended to be analogous to an Environmental Impact Statement. The drafting of an IDIS for specific activities, particularly in developing nations, would provide a formal mechanism for examining potential changes in local health conditions, including infected and susceptible populations, diseases likely to fluctuate in response to development, existing control measures, and vectors likely to be affected by human activities. The resulting survey data could provide a rational basis and direction for development, surveillance, and prevention measures. An IDIS process that balances environmental alterations, local human health, and economic growth could substantially alter the nature of international development efforts and infectious disease outbreaks. PMID:8903209

  1. Challenges in mucosal vaccines for the control of infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Azegami, Tatsuhiko; Yuki, Yoshikazu; Kiyono, Hiroshi

    2014-09-01

    The mucosal surface is the largest route through which pathogens enter the human body. To control the outbreak of mucosal infectious diseases, we must use our knowledge of the mucosal immune system to create vaccines that elicit protective mucosal and systemic immunity. Mucosal vaccines have advantages over traditional injectable vaccines in that they not only induce effective mucosal immune responses, but they also do not cause physical or psychological discomfort. Mucosal vaccines currently licensed for human use include oral vaccines against Vibrio cholerae, Salmonella typhi, poliovirus and rotavirus, and nasal vaccines against influenza virus. To further improve the existing vaccines, it will be necessary to develop novel vaccine production, storage and delivery systems through innovative strategies derived from interdisciplinary scientific research. Our accumulated knowledge of the innate and acquired arms of the mucosal immune system and the recent scientific and technical advancements in the fields of molecular biology, plant biology, bio-engineering and chemical engineering, genome biology and systems biology have created a unique research and development platform for the development of the next generation of mucosal vaccines. This review summarizes the current perspectives and future directions of mucosal vaccine development with emphasis on oral and nasal vaccines for the control of infectious diseases. PMID:24914172

  2. [Sir Arthur Conan Doyle, Sherlock Holmes and infectious diseases].

    PubMed

    Ledermann D, Walter

    2010-10-01

    Besides a pleasant author of best sellers, Sir Arthur Conan Doyle was a medical doctor, writing excellent short stories about the exercise of his profession in England. However, even he mentions The British Medical Journal and The Lancet in the Sherlock Holmes's stories, when in the plot introduces infectious diseases, Conan Doyle ignores important discoveries in the field of tetanus. Anyway, the appearing of infectious diseases in the adventures of the detective are rare: one mention of tetanus, another of leprosy and- the most analyzed in medical literature a case of murder by inoculation of bacteria, probably the agent of melioidosis. Also he makes his hero discovers the toxic actions of a medusa and a transplant of solid organ. Little for a physician and less for an author who also wrote science fiction: it seems that the history of the great medical discoveries at the end of nineteenth century and beginning of the twentieth has passed by his side.., and he just couldn't see it. PMID:21186510

  3. Biosecurity measures in 48 isolation facilities managing highly infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Puro, Vincenzo; Fusco, Francesco M; Schilling, Stefan; Thomson, Gail; De Iaco, Giuseppina; Brouqui, Philippe; Maltezou, Helena C; Bannister, Barbara; Gottschalk, René; Brodt, Hans-Rheinhard; Ippolito, Giuseppe

    2012-06-01

    Biosecurity measures are traditionally applied to laboratories, but they may also be usefully applied in highly specialized clinical settings, such as the isolation facilities for the management of patients with highly infectious diseases (eg, viral hemorrhagic fevers, SARS, smallpox, potentially severe pandemic flu, and MDR- and XDR-tuberculosis). In 2009 the European Network for Highly Infectious Diseases conducted a survey in 48 isolation facilities in 16 European countries to determine biosecurity measures for access control to the facility. Security personnel are present in 39 facilities (81%). In 35 facilities (73%), entrance to the isolation area is restricted; control methods include electronic keys, a PIN system, closed-circuit TV, and guards at the doors. In 25 facilities (52%), identification and registration of all staff entering and exiting the isolation area are required. Access control is used in most surveyed centers, but specific lacks exist in some facilities. Further data are needed to assess other biosecurity aspects, such as the security measures during the transportation of potentially contaminated materials and measures to address the risk of an "insider attack." PMID:22571373

  4. Biosecurity Measures in 48 Isolation Facilities Managing Highly Infectious Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Puro, Vincenzo; Schilling, Stefan; Thomson, Gail; De Iaco, Giuseppina; Brouqui, Philippe; Maltezou, Helena C.; Bannister, Barbara; Gottschalk, René; Brodt, Hans-Rheinhard; Ippolito, Giuseppe

    2012-01-01

    Biosecurity measures are traditionally applied to laboratories, but they may also be usefully applied in highly specialized clinical settings, such as the isolation facilities for the management of patients with highly infectious diseases (eg, viral hemorrhagic fevers, SARS, smallpox, potentially severe pandemic flu, and MDR- and XDR-tuberculosis). In 2009 the European Network for Highly Infectious Diseases conducted a survey in 48 isolation facilities in 16 European countries to determine biosecurity measures for access control to the facility. Security personnel are present in 39 facilities (81%). In 35 facilities (73%), entrance to the isolation area is restricted; control methods include electronic keys, a PIN system, closed-circuit TV, and guards at the doors. In 25 facilities (52%), identification and registration of all staff entering and exiting the isolation area are required. Access control is used in most surveyed centers, but specific lacks exist in some facilities. Further data are needed to assess other biosecurity aspects, such as the security measures during the transportation of potentially contaminated materials and measures to address the risk of an “insider attack.” PMID:22571373

  5. Mapping infectious disease landscapes: unmanned aerial vehicles and epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Fornace, Kimberly M; Drakeley, Chris J; William, Timothy; Espino, Fe; Cox, Jonathan

    2014-11-01

    The potential applications of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), or drones, have generated intense interest across many fields. UAVs offer the potential to collect detailed spatial information in real time at relatively low cost and are being used increasingly in conservation and ecological research. Within infectious disease epidemiology and public health research, UAVs can provide spatially and temporally accurate data critical to understanding the linkages between disease transmission and environmental factors. Using UAVs avoids many of the limitations associated with satellite data (e.g., long repeat times, cloud contamination, low spatial resolution). However, the practicalities of using UAVs for field research limit their use to specific applications and settings. UAVs fill a niche but do not replace existing remote-sensing methods. PMID:25443854

  6. Global Environmental Data for Mapping Infectious Disease Distribution

    PubMed Central

    Hay, S.I.; Tatem, A.J.; Graham, A.J.; Goetz, S.J.; Rogers, D.J.

    2011-01-01

    This contribution documents the satellite data archives, data processing methods and temporal Fourier analysis (TFA) techniques used to create the remotely sensed datasets on the DVD distributed with this volume. The aim is to provide a detailed reference guide to the genesis of the data, rather than a standard review. These remotely sensed data cover the entire globe at either 1 × 1 or 8 × 8 km spatial resolution. We briefly evaluate the relationships between the 1 × 1 and 8 × 8 km global TFA products to explore their inter-compatibility. The 8 × 8 km TFA surfaces are used in the mapping procedures detailed in the subsequent disease mapping reviews, since the 1 × 1 km products have been validated less widely. Details are also provided on additional, current and planned sensors that should be able to provide continuity with these environmental variable surfaces, as well as other sources of global data that may be used for mapping infectious disease. PMID:16647967

  7. Natural selection and infectious disease in human populations.

    PubMed

    Karlsson, Elinor K; Kwiatkowski, Dominic P; Sabeti, Pardis C

    2014-06-01

    The ancient biological 'arms race' between microbial pathogens and humans has shaped genetic variation in modern populations, and this has important implications for the growing field of medical genomics. As humans migrated throughout the world, populations encountered distinct pathogens, and natural selection increased the prevalence of alleles that are advantageous in the new ecosystems in both host and pathogens. This ancient history now influences human infectious disease susceptibility and microbiome homeostasis, and contributes to common diseases that show geographical disparities, such as autoimmune and metabolic disorders. Using new high-throughput technologies, analytical methods and expanding public data resources, the investigation of natural selection is leading to new insights into the function and dysfunction of human biology. PMID:24776769

  8. Infectious disease modeling of social contagion in networks.

    PubMed

    Hill, Alison L; Rand, David G; Nowak, Martin A; Christakis, Nicholas A

    2010-01-01

    Many behavioral phenomena have been found to spread interpersonally through social networks, in a manner similar to infectious diseases. An important difference between social contagion and traditional infectious diseases, however, is that behavioral phenomena can be acquired by non-social mechanisms as well as through social transmission. We introduce a novel theoretical framework for studying these phenomena (the SISa model) by adapting a classic disease model to include the possibility for 'automatic' (or 'spontaneous') non-social infection. We provide an example of the use of this framework by examining the spread of obesity in the Framingham Heart Study Network. The interaction assumptions of the model are validated using longitudinal network transmission data. We find that the current rate of becoming obese is 2 per year and increases by 0.5 percentage points for each obese social contact. The rate of recovering from obesity is 4 per year, and does not depend on the number of non-obese contacts. The model predicts a long-term obesity prevalence of approximately 42, and can be used to evaluate the effect of different interventions on steady-state obesity. Model predictions quantitatively reproduce the actual historical time course for the prevalence of obesity. We find that since the 1970s, the rate of recovery from obesity has remained relatively constant, while the rates of both spontaneous infection and transmission have steadily increased over time. This suggests that the obesity epidemic may be driven by increasing rates of becoming obese, both spontaneously and transmissively, rather than by decreasing rates of losing weight. A key feature of the SISa model is its ability to characterize the relative importance of social transmission by quantitatively comparing rates of spontaneous versus contagious infection. It provides a theoretical framework for studying the interpersonal spread of any state that may also arise spontaneously, such as emotions, behaviors, health states, ideas or diseases with reservoirs. PMID:21079667

  9. Infectious diseases in large-scale cat hoarding investigations.

    PubMed

    Polak, K C; Levy, J K; Crawford, P C; Leutenegger, C M; Moriello, K A

    2014-08-01

    Animal hoarders accumulate animals in over-crowded conditions without adequate nutrition, sanitation, and veterinary care. As a result, animals rescued from hoarding frequently have a variety of medical conditions including respiratory infections, gastrointestinal disease, parasitism, malnutrition, and other evidence of neglect. The purpose of this study was to characterize the infectious diseases carried by clinically affected cats and to determine the prevalence of retroviral infections among cats in large-scale cat hoarding investigations. Records were reviewed retrospectively from four large-scale seizures of cats from failed sanctuaries from November 2009 through March 2012. The number of cats seized in each case ranged from 387 to 697. Cats were screened for feline leukemia virus (FeLV) and feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) in all four cases and for dermatophytosis in one case. A subset of cats exhibiting signs of upper respiratory disease or diarrhea had been tested for infections by PCR and fecal flotation for treatment planning. Mycoplasma felis (78%), calicivirus (78%), and Streptococcus equi subspecies zooepidemicus (55%) were the most common respiratory infections. Feline enteric coronavirus (88%), Giardia (56%), Clostridium perfringens (49%), and Tritrichomonas foetus (39%) were most common in cats with diarrhea. The seroprevalence of FeLV and FIV were 8% and 8%, respectively. In the one case in which cats with lesions suspicious for dermatophytosis were cultured for Microsporum canis, 69/76 lesional cats were culture-positive; of these, half were believed to be truly infected and half were believed to be fomite carriers. Cats from large-scale hoarding cases had high risk for enteric and respiratory infections, retroviruses, and dermatophytosis. Case responders should be prepared for mass treatment of infectious diseases and should implement protocols to prevent transmission of feline or zoonotic infections during the emergency response and when transferring the rescued cats to other shelters or to adopters. PMID:24934262

  10. 75 FR 26266 - National Cancer Institute (NCI); National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-11

    ...Institutes of Health National Cancer Institute (NCI); National...Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID); National Institute...and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases (NIAMS); and Office of Research...From Mouse Models to Human Disease and Treatment.''...

  11. 75 FR 7283 - Board of Scientific Counselors, Coordinating Center for Infectious Diseases, (BSC, CCID)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-18

    ...HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Board of Scientific...Counselors, Coordinating Center for Infectious Diseases, (BSC, CCID) In accordance with section...Pub. L. 92-463), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC),...

  12. 78 FR 21370 - Board of Scientific Counselors, Office of Infectious Diseases (BSC, OID)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-10

    ...HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Board of Scientific...Counselors, Office of Infectious Diseases (BSC, OID) In accordance with...L. 92-463), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention...

  13. 78 FR 17411 - Board of Scientific Counselors, Office of Infectious Diseases (BSC, OID)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-21

    ...HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Board of Scientific...Counselors, Office of Infectious Diseases (BSC, OID) In accordance with...L. 92-463), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention...

  14. 76 FR 24031 - Board of Scientific Counselors, Office of Infectious Diseases (BSC, OID)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-29

    ...HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Board of Scientific...Counselors, Office of Infectious Diseases (BSC, OID) In accordance with...L. 92-463), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)...

  15. 78 FR 11651 - Board of Scientific Counselors, Office of Infectious Diseases (BSC, OID)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-19

    ...HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Board of Scientific...Counselors, Office of Infectious Diseases (BSC, OID) In accordance with...L. 92-463), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention...

  16. 77 FR 67651 - Board of Scientific Counselors, Office of Infectious Diseases (BSC, OID)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-13

    ...HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Board of Scientific...Counselors, Office of Infectious Diseases (BSC, OID) In accordance with...L. 92-463), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention...

  17. 75 FR 69687 - Board of Scientific Counselors, Office of Infectious Diseases, (BSC, OID)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-15

    ...HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Board of Scientific...Counselors, Office of Infectious Diseases, (BSC, OID) In accordance with...L. 92-463), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention...

  18. 76 FR 63926 - Board of Scientific Counselors, Office of Infectious Diseases (BSC, OID)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-14

    ...HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Board of Scientific...Counselors, Office of Infectious Diseases (BSC, OID) In accordance with...L. 92-463), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention...

  19. 77 FR 21778 - Board of Scientific Counselors, Office of Infectious Diseases (BSC, OID)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-11

    ...HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Board of Scientific...Counselors, Office of Infectious Diseases (BSC, OID) In accordance with...L. 92-463), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention...

  20. 78 FR 69683 - Board of Scientific Counselors, Office of Infectious Diseases (BSC, OID)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-20

    ...HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Board of Scientific...Counselors, Office of Infectious Diseases (BSC, OID) In accordance with...L. 92-463), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention...

  1. 75 FR 66772 - Board of Scientific Counselors, Office of Infectious Diseases (BSC, OID)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-29

    ...HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Board of Scientific...Counselors, Office of Infectious Diseases (BSC, OID) In accordance with...L. 92-463), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention...

  2. A high-resolution human contact network for infectious disease transmission

    E-print Network

    Levis, Philip

    A high-resolution human contact network for infectious disease transmission Marcel Salathéa,1 diseases in humans--and those with the highest potential for rapid pandemic spread--are usually transmitted the reconstruction of the social network relevant for infectious disease transmission. At 94% coverage, we collected

  3. LETTER Does habitat disturbance increase infectious disease risk for Hillary Young,1,2

    E-print Network

    Nunn, Charles

    . Studies have described this phenomenon for Lyme disease (e.g. Allan et al. 2003; Ostfeld 2011), West NileLETTER Does habitat disturbance increase infectious disease risk for primates? Hillary Young,1 that ecosystem conservation protects human and wildlife populations against infectious disease. We tested

  4. Abstract --Highly infectious diseases such as SARS (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome), Avian Influenza (Bird Flu),

    E-print Network

    Si, Yain Whar "Lawrence"

    Abstract -- Highly infectious diseases such as SARS (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome), Avian to the global population. Detection and pre- vention of infectious diseases is notoriously complex and prob infected with an infec- tious disease in densely populated urban areas tends to be much higher compared

  5. Global Health Monitor -A Web-based System for Detecting and Mapping Infectious Diseases

    E-print Network

    Global Health Monitor - A Web-based System for Detecting and Mapping Infectious Diseases Son Doan, an online Web-based system for detecting and mapping infectious disease outbreaks that appear in news to monitor the spread of diseases in a geo-temporal context. The background knowledge for the system

  6. 78 FR 27976 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-13

    ... . Name of Committee: Microbiology, Infectious Diseases and AIDS Initial Review Group; Microbiology and... Program Nos. 93.855, Allergy, Immunology, and Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology...

  7. 77 FR 28398 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-14

    ... of Committee: Microbiology, Infectious Diseases and AIDS Initial Review Group, Microbiology and... Assistance Program Nos. 93.855, Allergy, Immunology, and Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology...

  8. 77 FR 64816 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-23

    ... personal privacy. Name of Committee: Microbiology, Infectious Diseases and AIDS Initial Review Group... Assistance Program Nos. 93.855, Allergy, Immunology, and Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology...

  9. 78 FR 71628 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-29

    ...: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel Immunology Quality Assessment... Program Nos. 93.855, Allergy, Immunology, and Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology...

  10. 78 FR 7793 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-04

    ..., MD 20910. Contact Person: Maryam Feili-Hariri, Ph.D., Scientific Review Officer, Immunology Review..., Allergy, Immunology, and Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases...

  11. Eradication versus control: the economics of global infectious disease policies.

    PubMed Central

    Barrett, Scott

    2004-01-01

    A disease is controlled if, by means of a public policy, the circulation of an infectious agent is restricted below the level that would be sustained by individuals acting independently to control the disease. A disease is eliminated if it is controlled sufficiently to prevent an epidemic from occurring in a given geographical area. Control and elimination are achieved locally, but a disease can only be eradicated if it is eliminated everywhere. Eradication is plainly a more demanding goal, but it has two advantages over control. First, the economics of eradication can be very favourable when eradication not only reduces infections but also avoids the need for vaccinations in future. Indeed, when eradication is feasible, it will either pay to control it to a fairly low level or to eradicate it. This suggests that, from an economics perspective, diseases that are eliminated in high-income countries are prime candidates for future eradication efforts. Second, the incentives for countries to participate in an eradication initiative can be strong; indeed they can be even stronger than an international control programme. Moreover, high-income countries typically benefit so much that they will be willing to finance elimination in developing countries. Full financing of an eradication effort by nation-states is not always guaranteed, but it can be facilitated by a variety of means. Hence, from the perspective of economics and international relations, eradication has a number of advantages over control. The implications for smallpox and polio eradication programmes are discussed. PMID:15628206

  12. Spatiotemporal Infectious Disease Modeling: A BME-SIR Approach

    PubMed Central

    Angulo, Jose; Yu, Hwa-Lung; Langousis, Andrea; Kolovos, Alexander; Wang, Jinfeng; Madrid, Ana Esther; Christakos, George

    2013-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the modeling of infectious disease spread in a composite space-time domain under conditions of uncertainty. We focus on stochastic modeling that accounts for basic mechanisms of disease distribution and multi-sourced in situ uncertainties. Starting from the general formulation of population migration dynamics and the specification of transmission and recovery rates, the model studies the functional formulation of the evolution of the fractions of susceptible-infected-recovered individuals. The suggested approach is capable of: a) modeling population dynamics within and across localities, b) integrating the disease representation (i.e. susceptible-infected-recovered individuals) with observation time series at different geographical locations and other sources of information (e.g. hard and soft data, empirical relationships, secondary information), and c) generating predictions of disease spread and associated parameters in real time, while considering model and observation uncertainties. Key aspects of the proposed approach are illustrated by means of simulations (i.e. synthetic studies), and a real-world application using hand-foot-mouth disease (HFMD) data from China. PMID:24086257

  13. Parasitic Diseases as the Cause of Death of Prisoners of War during the Korean War (1950-1953)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    To determine the cause of death of prisoners of war during the Korean War (1950-1953), death certificates or medical records were analyzed. Out of 7,614 deaths, 5,013 (65.8%) were due to infectious diseases. Although dysentery and tuberculosis were the most common infectious diseases, parasitic diseases had caused 14 deaths: paragonimiasis in 5, malaria in 3, amoebiasis in 2, intestinal parasitosis in 2, ascariasis in 1, and schistosomiasis in 1. These results showed that paragonimiasis, malaria, and amoebiasis were the most fatal parasitic diseases during the early 1950s in the Korean Peninsula. Since schistosomiasis is not endemic to Korea, it is likely that the infected private soldier moved from China or Japan to Korea. PMID:25031479

  14. Research on an infectious disease transmission by flocking birds.

    PubMed

    Tang, Mingsheng; Mao, Xinjun; Guessoum, Zahia

    2013-01-01

    The swarm intelligence is becoming a hot topic. The flocking of birds is a natural phenomenon, which is formed and organized without central or external controls for some benefits (e.g., reduction of energy consummation). However, the flocking also has some negative effects on the human, as the infectious disease H7N9 will easily be transmited from the denser flocking birds to the human. Zombie-city model has been proposed to help analyzing and modeling the flocking birds and the artificial society. This paper focuses on the H7N9 virus transmission in the flocking birds and from the flocking birds to the human. And some interesting results have been shown: (1) only some simple rules could result in an emergence such as the flocking; (2) the minimum distance between birds could affect H7N9 virus transmission in the flocking birds and even affect the virus transmissions from the flocking birds to the human. PMID:23864820

  15. Resource Requirements Planning for Hospitals Treating Serious Infectious Disease Cases.

    SciTech Connect

    Vugrin, Eric D.; Verzi, Stephen Joseph; Finley, Patrick D.; Turnquist, Mark A.; Wyte-Lake, Tamar; Griffin, Ann R.; Ricci, Karen J.; Plotinsky, Rachel

    2015-02-01

    This report presents a mathematical model of the way in which a hospital uses a variety of resources, utilities and consumables to provide care to a set of in-patients, and how that hospital might adapt to provide treatment to a few patients with a serious infectious disease, like the Ebola virus. The intended purpose of the model is to support requirements planning studies, so that hospitals may be better prepared for situations that are likely to strain their available resources. The current model is a prototype designed to present the basic structural elements of a requirements planning analysis. Some simple illustrati ve experiments establish the mo del's general capabilities. With additional inve stment in model enhancement a nd calibration, this prototype could be developed into a useful planning tool for ho spital administrators and health care policy makers.

  16. Spatial methods for infectious disease outbreak investigations: systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Smith, Catherine M; Le Comber, Steven C; Fry, Hannah; Bull, Matthew; Leach, Steve; Hayward, Andrew C

    2015-10-01

    Investigations of infectious disease outbreaks are conventionally framed in terms of person, time and place. Although geographic information systems have increased the range of tools available, spatial analyses are used relatively infrequently. We conducted a systematic review of published reports of outbreak investigations worldwide to estimate the prevalence of spatial methods, describe the techniques applied and explore their utility. We identified 80 reports using spatial methods published between 1979 and 2013, ca 0.4% of the total number of published outbreaks. Environmental or waterborne infections were the most commonly investigated, and most reports were from the United Kingdom. A range of techniques were used, including simple dot maps, cluster analyses and modelling approaches. Spatial tools were usefully applied throughout investigations, from initial confirmation of the outbreak to describing and analysing cases and communicating findings. They provided valuable insights that led to public health actions, but there is scope for much wider implementation and development of new methods. PMID:26536896

  17. Edge-based compartmental modelling for infectious disease spread

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Joel C.; Slim, Anja C.; Volz, Erik M.

    2012-01-01

    The primary tool for predicting infectious disease spread and intervention effectiveness is the mass action susceptible–infected–recovered model of Kermack & McKendrick. Its usefulness derives largely from its conceptual and mathematical simplicity; however, it incorrectly assumes that all individuals have the same contact rate and partnerships are fleeting. In this study, we introduce edge-based compartmental modelling, a technique eliminating these assumptions. We derive simple ordinary differential equation models capturing social heterogeneity (heterogeneous contact rates) while explicitly considering the impact of partnership duration. We introduce a graphical interpretation allowing for easy derivation and communication of the model and focus on applying the technique under different assumptions about how contact rates are distributed and how long partnerships last. PMID:21976638

  18. Point-of-care nucleic acid testing for infectious diseases

    PubMed Central

    Niemz, Angelika; Ferguson, Tanya M.; Boyle, David S.

    2013-01-01

    Nucleic acid testing for infectious diseases at the point of care is beginning to enter clinical practice in developed and developing countries; especially for applications requiring fast turnaround times, and in settings where a centralized laboratory approach faces limitations. Current systems for clinical diagnostic applications are mainly PCR-based, can only be used in hospitals, and are still relatively complex and expensive. Integrating sample preparation with nucleic acid amplification and detection in a cost-effective, robust, and user-friendly format remains challenging. This review describes recent technical advances that might be able to address these limitations, with a focus on isothermal nucleic acid amplification methods. It briefly discusses selected applications related to the diagnosis and management of tuberculosis, HIV, and perinatal and nosocomial infections. PMID:21377748

  19. Technology innovation for infectious diseases in the developing world

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Enabling innovation and access to health technologies remains a key strategy in combating infectious diseases in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). However, a gulf between paying markets and the endemicity of such diseases has contributed to the dearth of R&D in meeting these public health needs. While the pharmaceutical industry views emerging economies as potential new markets, most of the world’s poorest bottom billion now reside in middle-income countries--a fact that has complicated tiered access arrangements. However, product development partnerships--particularly those involving academic institutions and small firms--find commercial opportunities in pursuing even neglected diseases; and a growing pharmaceutical sector in BRICS countries offers hope for an indigenous base of innovation. Such innovation will be shaped by 1) access to building blocks of knowledge; 2) strategic use of intellectual property and innovative financing to meet public health goals; 3) collaborative norms of open innovation; and 4) alternative business models, some with a double bottom line. Facing such resource constraints, LMICs are poised to develop a new, more resource-effective model of innovation that holds exciting promise in meeting the needs of global health. PMID:23849080

  20. Technology innovation for infectious diseases in the developing world.

    PubMed

    So, Anthony D; Ruiz-Esparza, Quentin

    2012-01-01

    Enabling innovation and access to health technologies remains a key strategy in combating infectious diseases in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). However, a gulf between paying markets and the endemicity of such diseases has contributed to the dearth of R&D in meeting these public health needs. While the pharmaceutical industry views emerging economies as potential new markets, most of the world's poorest bottom billion now reside in middle-income countries--a fact that has complicated tiered access arrangements. However, product development partnerships--particularly those involving academic institutions and small firms--find commercial opportunities in pursuing even neglected diseases; and a growing pharmaceutical sector in BRICS countries offers hope for an indigenous base of innovation. Such innovation will be shaped by 1) access to building blocks of knowledge; 2) strategic use of intellectual property and innovative financing to meet public health goals; 3) collaborative norms of open innovation; and 4) alternative business models, some with a double bottom line. Facing such resource constraints, LMICs are poised to develop a new, more resource-effective model of innovation that holds exciting promise in meeting the needs of global health. PMID:23849080

  1. Media impact switching surface during an infectious disease outbreak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Yanni; Tang, Sanyi; Wu, Jianhong

    2015-01-01

    There are many challenges to quantifying and evaluating the media impact on the control of emerging infectious diseases. We modeled such media impacts using a piecewise smooth function depending on both the case number and its rate of change. The proposed model was then converted into a switching system, with the switching surface determined by a functional relationship between susceptible populations and different subgroups of infectives. By parameterizing the proposed model with the 2009 A/H1N1 influenza outbreak data in the Shaanxi province of China, we observed that media impact switched off almost as the epidemic peaked. Our analysis implies that media coverage significantly delayed the epidemic's peak and decreased the severity of the outbreak. Moreover, media impacts are not always effective in lowering the disease transmission during the entire outbreak, but switch on and off in a highly nonlinear fashion with the greatest effect during the early stage of the outbreak. The finding draws the attention to the important role of informing the public about `the rate of change of case numbers' rather than `the absolute number of cases' to alter behavioral changes, through a self-adaptive media impact switching on and off, for better control of disease transmission.

  2. Cutaneous leishmaniasis: an emerging infectious disease in travelers.

    PubMed

    Ergen, Elizabeth Noble; King, Allison Hutsell; Tuli, Malika

    2015-10-01

    Leishmaniasis describes any of 3 diseases caused by protozoan parasites of the genus Leishmania, the most common of which is cutaneous leishmaniasis. The majority of cutaneous cases occur in Central and South America, the Mediterranean basin, the Middle East, and Central Asia. Most cases diagnosed among nonmilitary personnel in the United States are acquired in Mexico and Central America. Here, we present the case of an American tourist who developed localized cutaneous leishmaniasis 2 weeks after returning from Costa Rica. After undergoing several unsuccessful rounds of empiric antibiotic treatment for a presumed Staphylococcus aureus skin infection, the patient was referred to our dermatology clinic where cutaneous leishmaniasis was diagnosed by tissue biopsy. This case highlights the importance of cutaneous leishmaniasis as an emerging infectious disease that may be misdiagnosed due to its rarity and varied clinical presentation as well as the limited use of tissue biopsy in general practice. We also provide relevant background information on cutaneous leishmaniasis, a rhyming poem, and an illustration in order to promote greater awareness of this disease and assist clinicians with its diagnosis. PMID:26682298

  3. Suppressive functions of B cells in infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Shen, Ping; Fillatreau, Simon

    2015-11-01

    B lymphocytes are often essential to successfully control invading pathogens and play a primary role in the protection afforded by successful vaccines through the production of specific antibodies. However, recent studies have highlighted the complex roles of B cells in infectious diseases, showing unexpectedly that some activated B cells limited host defense towards pathogens. This B-cell function involves production of regulatory cytokines including IL-10 and IL-35 and is reminiscent of the regulatory functions of B cells initially defined in autoimmune diseases. It is now known that various types of microbes including bacteria, helminths and viruses can induce IL-10-expressing B cells with inhibitory functions, indicating that this response is a general component of anti-microbial immunity. Interestingly, IL-10-producing B cells induced in the course of some microbial infections can inhibit concurrent immune responses directed towards unrelated antigens in a bystander manner and as a consequence ameliorate the course of autoimmune or allergic diseases. This could explain how some micro-organisms might provide protection from these pathologies, as formulated in the 'hygiene hypothesis'. In this review, we discuss the regulatory functions of B cells in bacterial, parasitic and viral infections, taking into account the phenotype of the B cells implicated, the signals controlling their induction and the cell types targeted by their suppressive activities. PMID:26066008

  4. Report of the Committee on Infectious Diseases. Twenty-first Edition, 1988.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Academy of Pediatrics, Elk Grove Village, IL.

    This book is a comprehensive textbook of infectious diseases. It is organized in five parts: (1) active and passive immunization; (2) recommendations for care of children in special circumstances; (3) summaries of infectious diseases; (4) antimicrobial prophylaxis; and (5) antimicrobials. There are six appendices: (1) federal vaccine injury…

  5. Incidence of infectious diseases in infants fed follow-on formula containing synbiotics: an observational study

    PubMed Central

    Picaud, Jean-Charles; Chapalain, Véronique; Paineau, Damien; Zourabichvili, Othar; Bornet, Francis RJ; Duhamel, Jean-François

    2010-01-01

    Aim Infectious diseases in infants are a major public health issue. Synbiotic-enriched formulas (EF) are intended to mimic the beneficial effects of human milk on infectious diseases. We performed an observational study in infants switching to follow-on formula to determine the effects of synbiotic-enriched formula compared to standard formula (SF). Methods We recorded family characteristics, medical history and growth data, as well as the symptoms, severity and treatment of infectious diseases. Main outcome measures were compared after adjustments for baseline characteristics. Results Between January and June 2007, 771 healthy infants were included in the study; 35.4% experienced at least one infectious disease during the 3-month study period. The most common were upper respiratory tract (24.1%), otitis (6.6%) and gastrointestinal infectious diseases (5.0%). Infants fed synbiotic-enriched formula had fewer infectious diseases overall (EF: 31.0%; SF: 40.6%; p = 0.005) and significantly fewer gastrointestinal infectious diseases (EF: 3.5%; SF: 6.8%; p = 0.03). During follow-up, weight gain was significantly higher (p = 0.0467) in infants fed synbiotic-enriched formula (18.3 ± 8.7 g/day) versus SF (16.9 ± 7.5 g/day). Conclusions Supplementation with synbiotics may have beneficial effects on the incidence of infectious disease and growth in infants. Further studies are needed determine optimal doses and composition of synbiotics in infant formula. PMID:20560895

  6. 75 FR 1068 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Printing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of..., Immunology, and Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research,...

  7. 76 FR 25700 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Printing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of..., Immunology, and Transplantation Research; 93.856, ] Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research,...

  8. 75 FR 76478 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Printing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of... Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research, National Institutes of...

  9. 75 FR 13558 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Printing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of... Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research, National Institutes of...

  10. 75 FR 49942 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Printing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of... Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research, National Institutes of Health, HHS)...

  11. 76 FR 3919 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Printing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of... Infectious Diseases Research, National Institutes of Health, HHS) Dated: January 14, 2011. Jennifer S....

  12. 75 FR 15712 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Printing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of... Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research, National Institutes of Health, HHS)...

  13. 76 FR 75887 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Printing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of..., Allergy, Immunology, and Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases...

  14. 75 FR 48977 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Printing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of... Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research, National Institutes of...

  15. 76 FR 35224 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-16

    ...National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel, Disease Effector Mechanisms in SLE and Rheumatoid Arthritis. Date: July 13, 2011. Time: 11 a.m. to 5 p.m. Agenda: To review and evaluate grant applications....

  16. Integrated Training in Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Joseph M. Vinetz, M.D.

    E-print Network

    Gleeson, Joseph G.

    of Infectious Diseases I. Major diseases 1. Pneumonia 2. Bacterial meningitis 3. Catheter-associated bacteremia/endocarditis 4. Sepsis and septic shock 5. Osteomyelitis 6. Urinary tract infection/pyelonephritis 7. Fever

  17. [Molecular epidemiology of infectious diseases: analytical methods and results interpretation].

    PubMed

    Sammarco, M L; Ripabelli, G; Tamburro, M

    2014-01-01

    Molecular typing and fingerprinting of microbial pathogens represent an essential tool for the epidemiological surveillance, outbreak detection and control of infectious diseases. Indeed, epidemiological investigation without genotyping data may not provide comprehensive information to allow the most appropriate interventions; despite this consideration, some barriers still hamper the routine application and interpretation of molecular typing data. In this paper, the most important methods currently used for characterization of pathogenic microorganisms for microbial source tracking and for the identification of clonal relationships among different isolates, are described according to their principles, advantages and limitations. Criteria for their evaluation and guidelines for the correct interpretation of results are also proposed. Molecular typing methods can be grouped into four categories based on different methodological principles, which include the characterization of restriction sites in genomic or plasmid DNA; the amplification of specific genetic targets; the restriction enzyme digestion and the subsequent amplification; sequence analysis. Although the development and the extensive use of molecular typing systems have greatly improved the understanding of the infectious diseases epidemiology, the rapid diversification, partial evaluation and lack of comparative data on the methods have raised significant questions about the selection of the most appropriate typing method, as well as difficulties for the lack of consensus about the interpretation of the results and nomenclature used for interpretation. Several criteria should be considered in order to evaluate the intrinsic performance and practical advantages of a typing system. However none of the available genotyping methods fully meets all these requirements. Therefore, the combined use of different approaches may lead to a more precise characterization and discrimination of isolates than a single method, especially if used in a hierarchical manner. The interpretation of the molecular results differs according to the typing system's characteristics: for example in the restriction fragments-based analysis, the divergences or the similarity percentages among the profiles are evaluated, whilst the differences in terms of number and intensity of bands are analyzed in the amplification-based approaches. Moreover, a correct interpretation of molecular results significantly depends by other critical factors, such as the comprehension of the typing system and data quality, the microbial diversity, and the epidemiological context in which the method is used. The analysis of PFGE data, considered as the "gold standard", is based on the differences of the number and position of bands patterns, although recent recommendations are now available from the Centers for Diseases Control and Prevention (CDC) for a more accurate interpretation, which also include the evaluation of the gel quality, the genetic diversity of the microorganism, the time and geographical scale of an epidemic event. Future advances in the molecular typing technologies indeed will provide rapid methodological improvements, such as a greater degree of automation, better resolution, higher throughput, and a greater availability of dedicated bioinformatics tools. These factors will all contribute to an increasing application of genotyping methods to better understand the epidemiology of infectious diseases, and to implement, along with the strengthened international and interdisciplinary partnerships, more effective control and prevention strategies for Public Health improvements. PMID:24452182

  18. Land-use change and infectious disease in West Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomson, M. C.; Ericksen, P. J.; Mohamed, A. Ben; Connor, S. J.

    Land-use change has been associated with changes in the dynamics of infectious disease in West Africa. Here we describe the complex interactions of land-use change with three diseases (both vector- and non-vector-borne) of considerable public health significance in this region, namely, malaria and irrigation; epidemic meningitis and land degradation; onchocerciasis and deforestation. We highlight the confounding effect of climate variability, which acts as a driver of both land-use change and human health. We conclude, as have others, that the scale of observation always matters, and complex and dynamic feedbacks among social-ecological systems are not easily teased apart. We suggest that in order to establish the causal chain of interactions between land-use change and human health outcomes two approaches are necessary. The first is to have a thorough understanding of the aetiology of disease and the specific mechanisms by which land-use and climate variability affect the transmission of pathogens. This is achieved by focused, detailed studies encompassing a wide range of potential drivers, which are inevitably small scale and often cover short time periods. The second consists of large-scale studies of statistical associations between transmission indices or health outcomes and environmental variables stratified by known ecological or socio-economic confounders, and sufficient in size to overcome local biases in results. Such research activities need to be designed to inform each other if we are to develop predictive models for monitoring these diseases and to develop integrated programs for human health and sustainable land use.

  19. Glomerular Disease in Patients with Infectious Processes Developing Antineutrophil Cytoplasmic Antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Konstantinov, Konstantin N.; Emil, Suzanne N.; Barry, Marc; Kellie, Susan; Tzamaloukas, Antonios H.

    2013-01-01

    To identify differences in treatment and outcome of various types of glomerulonephritis developing in the course of infections triggering antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA) formation, we analyzed published reports of 50 patients. Immunosuppressives were added to antibiotics in 22 of 23 patients with pauci-immune glomerulonephritis. Improvement was noted in 85% of 20 patients with information on outcomes. Death rate was 13%. Corticosteroids were added to antibiotics in about 50% of 19 patients with postinfectious glomerulonephritis. Improvement rate was 74%, and death rate was 26%. Two patients with mixed histological features were analyzed under both pauci-immune and post-infectious glomerulonephritis categories. In 9 patients with other renal histology, treatment consisted of antibiotics alone (7 patients), antibiotics plus immunosuppressives (1 patient), or immunosuppressives alone (1 patient). Improvement rate was 67%, permanent renal failure rate was 22%, and death rate was 11%. One patient with antiglomerular basement disease glomerulonephritis required maintenance hemodialysis. Glomerulonephritis developing in patients who became ANCA-positive during the course of an infection is associated with significant mortality. The histological type of the glomerulonephritis guides the choice of treatment. Pauci-immune glomerulonephritis is usually treated with addition of immunosuppressives to antibiotics. PMID:24959541

  20. Mesoamerican nephropathy: a neglected tropical disease with an infectious etiology?

    PubMed

    Murray, Kristy O; Fischer, Rebecca S B; Chavarria, Denis; Duttmann, Christiane; Garcia, Melissa N; Gorchakov, Rodion; Hotez, Peter J; Jiron, William; Leibler, Jessica H; Lopez, Job E; Mandayam, Sreedhar; Marin, Alejandro; Sheleby, Jessica

    2015-10-01

    An outbreak of unexplained and severe kidney disease, "Mesoamerican Nephropathy," in mostly young, male sugar cane workers emerged in Central America in the late 1990's. As a result, an estimated 20,000 individuals have died, to date. Unfortunately, and with great consequence to human life, the etiology of the outbreak has yet to be identified. The sugarcane fields in Chichigalpa, Chinandega, Nicaragua, have been involved in the outbreak, and during our initial investigation, we interviewed case patients who experienced fever, nausea and vomiting, arthralgia, myalgia, headache, neck and back pain, weakness, and paresthesia at the onset of acute kidney disease. We also observed a heavy infestation of rodents, particularly of Sigmodon species, in the sugarcane fields. We hypothesize that infectious pathogens are being shed through the urine and feces of these rodents, and workers are exposed to these pathogens during the process of cultivating and harvesting sugarcane. In this paper, we will discuss the epidemic in the Chichigalpa area, potential pathogens responsible for Mesoamerican Nephropathy, and steps needed in order to diagnose, treat, and prevent future cases from occurring. PMID:26320026

  1. Gold nanoparticles based colorimetric nanodiagnostics for cancer and infectious diseases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valentini, Paola; Persano, Stefano; Cecere, Paola; Sabella, Stefania; Pompa, Pier Paolo

    2014-03-01

    Traditional in vitro diagnostics requires specialized laboratories and costly instrumentation, both for the amplification of nucleic acid targets (usually achieved by PCR) and for the assay readout, often based on fluorescence. We are developing hybrid nanomaterials-based sensors for the rapid and low-cost diagnosis of various disease biomarkers, for applications in portable platforms for diagnostics at the point-of-care. To this aim, we exploited the size and distancedependent optical properties of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) to achieve colorimetric detection. Moreover, in order to avoid the complexity of thermal cycles associated to traditional PCR, the design of our systems includes signal amplification schemes, achieved by the use of enzymes (nucleases, helicase) or DNAzymes. Focused on instrument-free and sensitive detection, we carefully combined the intrinsic sensitivity by multivalency of functionalized AuNPs with isothermal and non-stringent enzyme-aided reaction conditions, controlled AuNPs aggregates, universal reporters and magnetic microparticles, the latter used both as a substrate and as a means for the colorimetric detection. We obtained simple and robust assays for the sensitive (pM range or better) naked-eye detection of cancer or infectious diseases (HPV, HCV) biomarkers, requiring no instrumentation except for a simple heating plate. Finally, we are also developing non-medical applications of these bio-nanosensors, such as in the development of on-field rapid tests for the detection of pollutants and other food and water contaminants.

  2. Translational research in infectious disease: current paradigms and challenges ahead

    PubMed Central

    Fontana, Judith M.; Alexander, Elizabeth; Salvatore, Mirella

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, the biomedical community has witnessed a rapid scientific and technological evolution following the development and refinement of high-throughput methodologies. Concurrently and consequentially, the scientific perspective has changed from the reductionist approach of meticulously analyzing the fine details of a single component of biology, to the “holistic” approach of broadmindedly examining the globally interacting elements of biological systems. The emergence of this new way of thinking has brought about a scientific revolution in which genomics, proteomics, metabolomics and other “omics” have become the predominant tools by which large amounts of data are amassed, analyzed and applied to complex questions of biology that were previously unsolvable. This enormous transformation of basic science research and the ensuing plethora of promising data, especially in the realm of human health and disease, have unfortunately not been followed by a parallel increase in the clinical application of this information. On the contrary, the number of new potential drugs in development has been steadily decreasing, suggesting the existence of roadblocks that prevent the translation of promising research into medically relevant therapeutic or diagnostic application. In this paper we will review, in a non-inclusive fashion, several recent scientific advancements in the field of translational research, with a specific focus on how they relate to infectious disease. We will also present a current picture of the limitations and challenges that exist for translational research, as well as ways that have been proposed by the National Institutes of Health to improve the state of this field. PMID:22633095

  3. Infectious diseases in Mexico. A survey from 1995-2000.

    PubMed

    Flisser, Ana; Velasco-Villa, Andrés; Martínez-Campos, Carmen; González-Domínguez, Fernando; Briseño-García, Baltasar; García-Suárez, Rosario; Caballero-Servín, Angel; Hernández-Monroy, Irma; García-Lozano, Herlinda; Gutiérrez-Cogco, Lucina; Rodríguez-Angeles, Guadalupe; López-Martínez, Irma; Galindo-Virgen, Sonia; Vázquez-Campuzano, Roberto; Balandrano-Campos, Susana; Guzmán-Bracho, Carmen; Olivo-Díaz, Angélica; de la Rosa, Jorge; Magos, Clementina; Escobar-Gutiérrez, Alejandro; Correa, Dolores

    2002-01-01

    Data obtained at a central laboratory for emerging, re-emerging, and other infectious diseases in Mexico from 1995-2000 are presented. An outstanding increase of DEN-3 circulation was identified. Aedes aegypti, the dengue vector, is widely distributed. Leptospirosis has become the most important differential diagnosis for dengue. Identification of rabies virus variants allowed cataloging of new transmitters of rabies. Rotavirus showed a clear seasonal distribution, while different proportions of pathogenic classes of Escherichia coli under endemic and outbreak conditions were seen. Serotypes of several bacteria are reported as well as the sources of isolation and frequency of Shigella, Salmonella, and Vibrio cholerae. Rise and disappearance of cholera could be followed along the past decade. Influenza strains were identified, as were several pathogens causing sexually transmitted infections. Laboratory support was important for surveillance after Hurricane Mitch. Multidrug-resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis are emerging and primary resistance is very high. It is now mandatory to search for antibodies to Trypanosoma cruzi in blood banks. Triatoma barberi, a peridomestic bug, is the main vector of Chagas disease. Localized cutaneous leishmaniosis increased in regions having a guerrilla element in Chiapas. Modern immunodiagnostic techniques are used for control studies of cysticercosis and similar techniques were recently standardized for Trichinella spiralis detection. Low iodine values in children's urine were found in several Mexican states; therefore, use of iodized salt should be encouraged. PMID:12234523

  4. Global environmental data for mapping infectious disease distribution.

    PubMed

    Hay, S I; Tatem, A J; Graham, A J; Goetz, S J; Rogers, D J

    2006-01-01

    This contribution documents the satellite data archives, data processing methods and temporal Fourier analysis (TFA) techniques used to create the remotely sensed datasets on the DVD distributed with this volume. The aim is to provide a detailed reference guide to the genesis of the data, rather than a standard review. These remotely sensed data cover the entire globe at either 1 x 1 or 8 x 8 km spatial resolution. We briefly evaluate the relationships between the 1 x 1 and 8 x 8 km global TFA products to explore their inter-compatibility. The 8 x 8 km TFA surfaces are used in the mapping procedures detailed in the subsequent disease mapping reviews, since the 1 x 1 km products have been validated less widely. Details are also provided on additional, current and planned sensors that should be able to provide continuity with these environmental variable surfaces, as well as other sources of global data that may be used for mapping infectious disease. PMID:16647967

  5. Emerging infectious diseases of wildlife: role in amphibian population declines and global implications

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Daszak, P.; Berger, L.; Cunningham, A.A.; Hyatt, A.D.; Green, D.E.; Speare, R.

    1999-01-01

    We review recent research on the pathology, ecology, and biogeography of two emerging infectious wildlife diseases, chytridiomycosis and ranaviral disease, in the context of host-parasite population biology. We examine the role of these diseases in the global decline of amphibian populations and propose hypotheses for the origins and impact of these panzootics. Finally, we discuss emerging infectious diseases as a global threat to wildlife populations.

  6. Infectious diseases investment decision evaluation algorithm: a quantitative algorithm for prioritization of naturally occurring infectious disease threats to the U.S. military.

    PubMed

    Burnette, W Neal; Hoke, Charles H; Scovill, John; Clark, Kathryn; Abrams, Jerry; Kitchen, Lynn W; Hanson, Kevin; Palys, Thomas J; Vaughn, David W

    2008-02-01

    Identification of the most significant infectious disease threats to deployed U.S. military forces is important for developing and maintaining an appropriate countermeasure research and development portfolio. We describe a quantitative algorithmic method (the Infectious Diseases Investment Decision Evaluation Algorithm) that uses Armed Forces Medical Intelligence Center information to determine which naturally occurring pathogens pose the most substantial threat to U.S. deployed forces in the absence of specific mitigating countermeasures. The Infectious Diseases Investment Decision Evaluation Algorithm scores the relative importance of various diseases by taking into account both their severity and the likelihood of infection on a country-by-country basis. In such an analysis, the top three endemic disease threats to U.S. deployed forces are malaria, bacteria-caused diarrhea, and dengue fever. PMID:18333494

  7. Current and Emerging Biomarkers of Cell Death in Human Disease

    PubMed Central

    Li, Kongning; Wu, Deng; Chen, Xi; Zhang, Ting; Zhang, Lu; Yi, Ying; Miao, Zhengqiang; Jin, Nana; Bi, Xiaoman; Wang, Hongwei; Wang, Dong

    2014-01-01

    Cell death is a critical biological process, serving many important functions within multicellular organisms. Aberrations in cell death can contribute to the pathology of human diseases. Significant progress made in the research area enormously speeds up our understanding of the biochemical and molecular mechanisms of cell death. According to the distinct morphological and biochemical characteristics, cell death can be triggered by extrinsic or intrinsic apoptosis, regulated necrosis, autophagic cell death, and mitotic catastrophe. Nevertheless, the realization that all of these efforts seek to pursue an effective treatment and cure for the disease has spurred a significant interest in the development of promising biomarkers of cell death to early diagnose disease and accurately predict disease progression and outcome. In this review, we summarize recent knowledge about cell death, survey current and emerging biomarkers of cell death, and discuss the relationship with human diseases. PMID:24949464

  8. The Spectrum of Infectious Diseases in Kidney Transplantation: A Review of the Classification, Pathogens and Clinical Manifestations.

    PubMed

    Anastasopoulos, Nikolaos-Andreas; Duni, Anila; Peschos, Dimitrios; Agnantis, Niki; Dounousi, Evangelia

    2015-01-01

    Kidney transplantation is the treatment-of-choice for a significant number of patients with end-stage renal disease. Renal transplant recipients (RTRs) benefit from a longer life expectancy, with a better quality of life. Despite, recent accomplishments in the field of kidney transplantation, both short- and long-term, surgical and medical complications still exist. Among these complications, cardiovascular disease, carcinogenesis and infections are the most important. Infectious diseases constitute the most common complications after renal transplantation and the second most common cause of death among RTRs with a functioning graft. Theoretically, all infectious pathogens could cause disease in immunocompromised RTRs, yet among these, one could identify more important ones, such as the Enterobacteriaceae, causing urinary tract infections; pneumonia due to Pneumocystis jirovecii; Candida species which cause invasive fungal infections; herpes viruses; hepatitis viruses and parasites. Early diagnosis and effective treatment are key elements in salvaging both the allograft and the patient. However, clinical manifestations and diagnosis of such infectious diseases are not easily identified due to the altered state of immune response of the RTR. Thus, apart from possessing a deep knowledge of the etiology and the treatment options in each case, transplant physicians should also always remain alert when dealing with RTRs. PMID:26130786

  9. 76 FR 63308 - Data and Data Needs To Advance Risk Assessment for Emerging Infectious Diseases Relevant to Blood...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-12

    ...Assessment for Emerging Infectious Diseases Relevant to Blood and Blood Products; Public Workshop AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration...Assessment for Emerging Infectious Diseases Relevant to Blood and Blood Products.'' The purpose of the public...

  10. Ethical Dilemmas in Protecting Individual Rights Versus Public Protection in the Case of Infectious Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Phua, Kai-Lit

    2013-01-01

    Infectious diseases—including emerging and re-emerging diseases such as Ebola and tuberculosis—continue to be important causes of morbidity and mortality in the globalizing, contemporary world. This article discusses the ethical issues associated with protecting the rights of individuals versus the protection of the health of populations in the case of infectious diseases. The discussion uses the traditional medical ethics approach together with the public health approach presented by Faden and Shebaya.3 Infectious diseases such as Ebola hemorrhagic fever, Nipah virus and HIV/AIDS (together with tuberculosis) will be used to illustrate particular points in the discussion. PMID:24847171

  11. Caspase Functions in Cell Death and Disease

    PubMed Central

    McIlwain, David R.; Berger, Thorsten; Mak, Tak W.

    2013-01-01

    Caspases are a family of endoproteases that provide critical links in cell regulatory networks controlling inflammation and cell death. The activation of these enzymes is tightly controlled by their production as inactive zymogens that gain catalytic activity following signaling events promoting their aggregation into dimers or macromolecular complexes. Activation of apoptotic caspases results in inactivation or activation of substrates, and the generation of a cascade of signaling events permitting the controlled demolition of cellular components. Activation of inflammatory caspases results in the production of active proinflammatory cytokines and the promotion of innate immune responses to various internal and external insults. Dysregulation of caspases underlies human diseases including cancer and inflammatory disorders, and major efforts to design better therapies for these diseases seek to understand how these enzymes work and how they can be controlled. PMID:23545416

  12. Validation of Laboratory-Developed Molecular Assays for Infectious Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Burd, Eileen M.

    2010-01-01

    Summary: Molecular technology has changed the way that clinical laboratories diagnose and manage many infectious diseases. Excellent sensitivity, specificity, and speed have made molecular assays an attractive alternative to culture or enzyme immunoassay methods. Many molecular assays are commercially available and FDA approved. Others, especially those that test for less common analytes, are often laboratory developed. Laboratories also often modify FDA-approved assays to include different extraction systems or additional specimen types. The Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments (CLIA) federal regulatory standards require clinical laboratories to establish and document their own performance specifications for laboratory-developed tests to ensure accurate and precise results prior to implementation of the test. The performance characteristics that must be established include accuracy, precision, reportable range, reference interval, analytical sensitivity, and analytical specificity. Clinical laboratories are challenged to understand the requirements and determine the types of experiments and analyses necessary to meet the requirements. A variety of protocols and guidelines are available in various texts and documents. Many of the guidelines are general and more appropriate for assays in chemistry sections of the laboratory but are applied in principle to molecular assays. This review presents information that laboratories may consider in their efforts to meet regulatory requirements. PMID:20610823

  13. Global governmentality: Biosecurity in the era of infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Jappah, Jlateh Vincent; Smith, Danielle Taana

    2015-12-01

    This paper uses Foucault's concept of governmentality to examine relationships between globalisation, the threat of infectious diseases and biosecurity. It draws attention to forms of calculated practices which Foucault notes as technologies of power that aim to foster positive demographic and economic trends in societies through the apparatus of security. These practices are employed at the global level with similar ambitions; hence, we adopt the term global governmentality. We discuss the applications of global governmentality by actors in the global core through the apparatus of security and (neo)liberal economic practices. We then provide examples of resistance/contestation from actors mainly in the global periphery through discussions of viral sovereignty; access to essential medicines, including HIV drugs; and health for all as a human right. We conclude that despite the core-periphery power asymmetry and competing paradigms, these developments tend to complement and/or regulate the phenomenon termed global governmentality, which is made evident by the tremendous successes in global health. PMID:25981616

  14. Infectious disease transmission as a forensic problem: who infected whom?

    PubMed Central

    Teunis, Peter; Heijne, Janneke C. M.; Sukhrie, Faizel; van Eijkeren, Jan; Koopmans, Marion; Kretzschmar, Mirjam

    2013-01-01

    Observations on infectious diseases often consist of a sample of cases, distinguished by symptoms, and other characteristics, such as onset dates, spatial locations, genetic sequence of the pathogen and/or physiological and clinical data. Cases are often clustered, in space and time, suggesting that they are connected. By defining kernel functions for pairwise analysis of cases, a matrix of transmission probabilities can be estimated. We set up a Bayesian framework to integrate various sources of information to estimate the transmission network. The method is illustrated by analysing data from a multi-year study (2002–2007) of nosocomial outbreaks of norovirus in a large university hospital in the Netherlands. The study included 264 cases, the norovirus genotype was known in approximately 60 per cent of the patients. Combining all the available data allowed likely identification of individual transmission links between most of the cases (72%). This illustrates that the proposed method can be used to accurately reconstruct transmission networks, enhancing our understanding of outbreak dynamics and possibly leading to new insights into how to prevent outbreaks. PMID:23389896

  15. 38 CFR 4.88b - Schedule of ratings-infectious diseases, immune disorders and nutritional deficiencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...-infectious diseases, immune disorders and nutritional deficiencies. 4.88b Section 4.88b Pensions, Bonuses... Ratings Infectious Diseases, Immune Disorders and Nutritional Deficiencies § 4.88b Schedule of ratings—infectious diseases, immune disorders and nutritional deficiencies. Rating 6300Cholera, Asiatic: As...

  16. 38 CFR 4.88b - Schedule of ratings-infectious diseases, immune disorders and nutritional deficiencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...-infectious diseases, immune disorders and nutritional deficiencies. 4.88b Section 4.88b Pensions, Bonuses... Ratings Infectious Diseases, Immune Disorders and Nutritional Deficiencies § 4.88b Schedule of ratings—infectious diseases, immune disorders and nutritional deficiencies. Rating 6300Cholera, Asiatic: As...

  17. 38 CFR 4.88b - Schedule of ratings-infectious diseases, immune disorders and nutritional deficiencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...-infectious diseases, immune disorders and nutritional deficiencies. 4.88b Section 4.88b Pensions, Bonuses... Ratings Infectious Diseases, Immune Disorders and Nutritional Deficiencies § 4.88b Schedule of ratings—infectious diseases, immune disorders and nutritional deficiencies. Rating 6300Cholera, Asiatic: As...

  18. 38 CFR 4.88b - Schedule of ratings-infectious diseases, immune disorders and nutritional deficiencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...-infectious diseases, immune disorders and nutritional deficiencies. 4.88b Section 4.88b Pensions, Bonuses... Ratings Infectious Diseases, Immune Disorders and Nutritional Deficiencies § 4.88b Schedule of ratings—infectious diseases, immune disorders and nutritional deficiencies. Rating 6300Cholera, Asiatic: As...

  19. 38 CFR 4.88b - Schedule of ratings-infectious diseases, immune disorders and nutritional deficiencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...-infectious diseases, immune disorders and nutritional deficiencies. 4.88b Section 4.88b Pensions, Bonuses... Ratings Infectious Diseases, Immune Disorders and Nutritional Deficiencies § 4.88b Schedule of ratings—infectious diseases, immune disorders and nutritional deficiencies. Rating 6300Cholera, Asiatic: As...

  20. Infectious diseases in the aftermath of monsoon flooding in Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Baqir, Maryam; Sobani, Zain A; Bhamani, Amyn; Bham, Nida Shahab; Abid, Sidra; Farook, Javeria; Beg, M Asim

    2012-01-01

    Pakistan is ranked 9th in terms of flood-affected countries worldwide. In the summer of 2010, the northern province of Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa received more than 312 mm of rain in a 56 hour period. This resulted in over 1 600 deaths across the region. In addition, over 14 million people were directly affected by this record-breaking deluge. Flood affected regions serve as ideal breeding grounds for pathogens, leading to the spread of diseases. The poor standards of hygiene in camps set up for individuals displaced by the floods also contribute to this. It is essential that those involved in relief efforts are aware of the epidemiology of diseases that have historically seen a sudden upsurge after natural disasters. Keeping this in mind, we conducted a simple review of literature. An extensive literature search was conducted using the PubMed data base and online search engines. Articles published in the last 20 years were considered along with some historical articles where a background was required. Seven major diseases were identified to increase substantially in the aftermath of natural disasters. They were then classified into acute and sub-acute settings. Diarrhea, skin & eye infections and leptospirosis were identified in the acute setting while malaria, leishmaniasis, respiratory infections and hepatitis were identified in the sub-acute setting. PMID:23569839

  1. The genetic theory of infectious diseases: a brief history and selected illustrations.

    PubMed

    Casanova, Jean-Laurent; Abel, Laurent

    2013-01-01

    Until the mid-nineteenth century, life expectancy at birth averaged 20 years worldwide, owing mostly to childhood fevers. The germ theory of diseases then gradually overcame the belief that diseases were intrinsic. However, around the turn of the twentieth century, asymptomatic infection was discovered to be much more common than clinical disease. Paradoxically, this observation barely challenged the newly developed notion that infectious diseases were fundamentally extrinsic. Moreover, interindividual variability in the course of infection was typically explained by the emerging immunological (or somatic) theory of infectious diseases, best illustrated by the impact of vaccination. This powerful explanation is, however, best applicable to reactivation and secondary infections, particularly in adults; it can less easily account for interindividual variability in the course of primary infection during childhood. Population and clinical geneticists soon proposed a complementary hypothesis, a germline genetic theory of infectious diseases. Over the past century, this idea has gained some support, particularly among clinicians and geneticists, but has also encountered resistance, particularly among microbiologists and immunologists. We present here the genetic theory of infectious diseases and briefly discuss its history and the challenges encountered during its emergence in the context of the apparently competing but actually complementary microbiological and immunological theories. We also illustrate its recent achievements by highlighting inborn errors of immunity underlying eight life-threatening infectious diseases of children and young adults. Finally, we consider the far-reaching biological and clinical implications of the ongoing human genetic dissection of severe infectious diseases. PMID:23724903

  2. Infectious microbial diseases and host defense responses in Sydney rock oysters

    PubMed Central

    Raftos, David A.; Kuchel, Rhiannon; Aladaileh, Saleem; Butt, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Aquaculture has long been seen as a sustainable solution to some of the world's growing food shortages. However, experience over the past 50 years indicates that infectious diseases caused by viruses, bacteria, and eukaryotes limit the productivity of aquaculture. In extreme cases, these types of infectious agents threaten the viability of entire aquaculture industries. This article describes the threats from infectious diseases in aquaculture and then focuses on one example (QX disease in Sydney rock oysters) as a case study. QX appears to be typical of many emerging diseases in aquaculture, particularly because environmental factors seem to play a crucial role in disease outbreaks. Evidence is presented that modulation of a generic subcellular stress response pathway in oysters is responsible for both resistance and susceptibility to infectious microbes. Understanding and being able to manipulate this pathway may be the key to sustainable aquaculture. PMID:24795701

  3. 20 CFR 718.303 - Death from a respirable disease.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Death from a respirable disease. 718.303... Death from a respirable disease. (a)(1) If a deceased miner was employed for ten or more years in one or more coal mines and died from a respirable disease, there shall be a rebuttable presumption that his...

  4. 20 CFR 718.303 - Death from a respirable disease.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Death from a respirable disease. 718.303... Death from a respirable disease. (a)(1) If a deceased miner was employed for ten or more years in one or more coal mines and died from a respirable disease, there shall be a rebuttable presumption that his...

  5. 20 CFR 718.303 - Death from a respirable disease.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Death from a respirable disease. 718.303... Death from a respirable disease. (a)(1) If a deceased miner was employed for ten or more years in one or more coal mines and died from a respirable disease, there shall be a rebuttable presumption that his...

  6. 20 CFR 718.303 - Death from a respirable disease.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 false Death from a respirable disease. 718.303 Section 718.303 Employees... § 718.303 Death from a respirable disease. (a)(1) If a deceased miner...more coal mines and died from a respirable disease, there shall be a rebuttable...

  7. 20 CFR 718.303 - Death from a respirable disease.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 false Death from a respirable disease. 718.303 Section 718.303 Employees... § 718.303 Death from a respirable disease. (a)(1) If a deceased miner...more coal mines and died from a respirable disease, there shall be a rebuttable...

  8. 20 CFR 718.303 - Death from a respirable disease.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 false Death from a respirable disease. 718.303 Section 718.303 Employees... § 718.303 Death from a respirable disease. (a)(1) If a deceased miner...more coal mines and died from a respirable disease, there shall be a rebuttable...

  9. 20 CFR 718.303 - Death from a respirable disease.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 false Death from a respirable disease. 718.303 Section 718.303 Employees... § 718.303 Death from a respirable disease. (a)(1) If a deceased miner...more coal mines and died from a respirable disease, there shall be a rebuttable...

  10. Genotyping of Canadian field strains of infectious bursal disease virus.

    PubMed

    Ojkic, Davor; Martin, Emily; Swinton, Janet; Binnington, Brian; Brash, Marina

    2007-10-01

    For this retrospective study, infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) was detected in 134 bursal samples that originated from flocks with conditions such as airsacculitis, tracheitis, pneumonia, septicaemia, inclusion body hepatitis, coccidiosis, and/or a history of production problems without overt clinical symptoms. Samples were from seven Canadian provinces: Ontario, Quebec, Manitoba, British Columbia, Nova Scotia, Alberta, and Newfoundland and Labrador. Viral RNA was identified in bursae with moderate to severe and acute to chronic bursal damage. The ages of the flocks from which samples were collected ranged from 3 to 63 days. Following reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction the nucleotide sequence of the VP2 hypervariable region was determined and compared with sequences available in GenBank. The most common Canadian IBDV field strains were North-American variant viruses. Forty-four viruses were highly related (97.5% to 100.0%) to the US IBDV strain NC171. Moreover, 16 field viruses whose VP2 sequences were 99.2% to 100% identical to the South African 05SA8 IBDV strain appeared closely related to the NC171 group. Delaware E-related field viruses, 98.3% to 100.0% identical to the prototype virus, were identified in 33 samples. Thirty-four Canadian IBDVs showed the highest identity, 94.2% to 98.3%, to US IBDV strain 586. Five samples contained vaccine-related viruses, while two field strains showed the best match to Del A (United States) and IBDV strains SP_04_02 (Spain). Very virulent IBDVs were not detected in Canada. PMID:17899469

  11. A comparative analysis of polybrominated diphenyl ethers and polychlorinated biphenyls in southern sea otters that died of infectious diseases and noninfectious causes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kannan, K.; Perrota, E.; Thomas, N.J.; Aldous, D.M.

    2007-01-01

    Southern sea otters (Enhydra lutris nereis) from the California coast continue to exhibit a slower population regrowth rate than the population in Alaska. Infectious diseases have been identified as a frequent cause of death. Infectious diseases caused by varied pathogens including bacteria, fungi, and parasites were suggestive of compromised immunological health of mature animals in this population. To test the hypothesis that elevated exposure to immunotoxic contaminants such as polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) contribute to disease susceptibility via immunosuppression, we determined concentrations of PBDEs and PCBs in livers of 80 adult female sea otters that died of infectious diseases, noninfectious causes, or emaciation. Concentrations of PBDEs and PCBs in sea otter livers varied widely (10a??26,800 ng/g and 81a??210,000 ng/g, lipid weight, respectively). Concentrations of PBDEs in sea otters were some of the highest values reported for marine mammals so far. Although PCB concentrations in sea otters have declined during 1992a??2002, the mean concentration was at the threshold at which adverse health effects are elicited. Concentrations of PBDEs and PCBs were significantly correlated, suggesting co-exposure of these contaminants in sea otters. No significant association was found between the concentrations of PBDEs and the health status of sea otters. Concentrations of PCBs were significantly higher in otters in the infectious disease category than in the noninfectious category, suggesting an association between elevated PCB concentrations and infectious diseases in Southern sea otters.

  12. Land-Use Change and Emerging Infectious Disease on an Island Continent

    PubMed Central

    McFarlane, Rosemary A.; Sleigh, Adrian C.; McMichael, Anthony J.

    2013-01-01

    A more rigorous and nuanced understanding of land-use change (LUC) as a driver of emerging infectious disease (EID) is required. Here we examine post hunter-gatherer LUC as a driver of infectious disease in one biogeographical region with a compressed and documented history—continental Australia. We do this by examining land-use and native vegetation change (LUCC) associations with infectious disease emergence identified through a systematic (1973–2010) and historical (1788–1973) review of infectious disease literature of humans and animals. We find that 22% (20) of the systematically reviewed EIDs are associated with LUCC, most frequently where natural landscapes have been removed or replaced with agriculture, plantations, livestock or urban development. Historical clustering of vector-borne, zoonotic and environmental disease emergence also follows major periods of extensive land clearing. These advanced stages of LUCC are accompanied by changes in the distribution and density of hosts and vectors, at varying scales and chronology. This review of infectious disease emergence in one continent provides valuable insight into the association between accelerated global LUC and concurrent accelerated infectious disease emergence. PMID:23812027

  13. 75 FR 48978 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-12

    ...and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel; T-Cell Immunology. Date: September 16, 2010. Time: 12:30 p.m. to 4...Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.855, Allergy, Immunology, and Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology...

  14. 77 FR 10541 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-22

    ...Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel; Predictive Biodosimetry: Discovery and Development of Biomarkers for Acute and Delayed Radiation Injuries. Date: March 15-16, 2012. Time: 8 a.m. to 5 p.m. Agenda: To...

  15. 75 FR 11896 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-12

    ... Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel; B cell Immunology Partnership Program for HIV-1 Vaccine Discovery...@nih.gov . (Catalogue of Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.855, Allergy, Immunology,...

  16. Evaluating potential infectious disease threats for southern residentkiller whales, Orcinus orca: a model for endangered species

    E-print Network

    Gaydos, Joseph K.; Balcomb, Kenneth C. III; Osborne, Richard W.; Dieurauf, Leslie

    2004-01-01

    crassidens), northern right whale dolphins (Lissodelphisrights reserved. Keywords: Endangered species; Infectious diseases; Killer whale;rights reserved. doi:10.1016/j.biocon.2003.07.004 unknown. The ‘‘southern resident’’ killer whale

  17. 75 FR 28260 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-20

    ...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel, Mechanisms of Protein Homeostasis. Date: June 14, 2010. Time: 1 p.m. to 5 p.m. Agenda: To review and evaluate grant applications. Place:...

  18. Ask Dr. Sue--Updates: Infectious Diseases, SIDS, HIV/AIDS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aronson, Susan S.

    1995-01-01

    Describes new concerns about infectious diseases in childcare settings (tuberculosis, gastrointestinal infections, and lice); sleep position and SIDS; HIV/AIDS issues; and the use of sterilized sand in sand boxes. (DR)

  19. 75 FR 4094 - National Institute of Allergy And Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-26

    ...Edward W. Schroder, PhD, Chief, Microbiology Review Branch, Scientific Review Program...Edward W. Schroder, PhD, Chief, Microbiology Review Branch, Scientific Review Program...Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases...

  20. Historical Mammal Extinction on Christmas Island (Indian Ocean) Correlates with Introduced Infectious Disease

    E-print Network

    DeSalle, Rob

    Historical Mammal Extinction on Christmas Island (Indian Ocean) Correlates with Introduced on Christmas Island (Indian Ocean) Correlates with Introduced Infectious Disease. PLoS ONE 3(11): e3602. doi:10

  1. Chinese Social Media Reaction to Information about 42 Notifiable Infectious Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Fung, Isaac Chun-Hai; Ying, Yuchen; Schaible, Braydon James; Yu, Cynthia Mengxi; Tse, Zion Tsz Ho; Fu, King-Wa

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to identify what information triggered social media users’ responses regarding infectious diseases. Chinese microblogs in 2012 regarding 42 infectious diseases were obtained through a keyword search in the Weiboscope database. Qualitative content analysis was performed for the posts pertinent to each keyword of the day of the year with the highest daily count. Similar posts were grouped and coded. We identified five categories of information that increased microblog traffic pertaining to infectious diseases: news of an outbreak or a case; health education / information; alternative health information / Traditional Chinese Medicine; commercial advertisement / entertainment; and social issues. News unrelated to the specified infectious diseases also led to elevated microblog traffic. Our study showcases the diverse contexts from which increased social media traffic occur. Our results will facilitate better health communication as causes underlying increased social media traffic are revealed. PMID:25946020

  2. 75 FR 26760 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-12

    ... Immunology and Drug Discovery. Date: June 2, 2010. Time: 8 a.m. to 5 p.m. Agenda: To review and evaluate..., Allergy, Immunology, and Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases...

  3. 76 FR 69748 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-09

    ...Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel, The Infant Immune System: Implications for Vaccines and Response to Infections. Date: December 1-2, 2011. Time: 8 a.m. to 5 p.m. Agenda:...

  4. 75 FR 7488 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-19

    ...privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel, Basic Vaccine Discovery Research. Date: March 3-4, 2010. Time: 8 a.m. to 6 p.m. Agenda: To review and evaluate grant...

  5. ADVICE FOR NEWLY-ARRIVING UNIVERSITY STUDENTS ON VACCINE-PREVENTABLE INFECTIOUS DISEASES Meningitis C

    E-print Network

    Jackson, Sophie

    ADVICE FOR NEWLY-ARRIVING UNIVERSITY STUDENTS ON VACCINE-PREVENTABLE INFECTIOUS DISEASES Meningitis can be vaccinated. Students are strongly advised to have the vaccination against meningitis C before

  6. 75 FR 76474 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-08

    ... Tolerance Approach to Xenotransplantation. Date: January 20, 2011. Time: 12 p.m. to 3 p.m. Agenda: To review..., Allergy, Immunology, and Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases...

  7. 78 FR 10623 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-14

    ...personal privacy. Name of Committee: Microbiology, Infectious Diseases and AIDS Initial Review Group: Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome Research Review Committee. Date: March 21-22, 2013Time: 8:00 a.m. to 5:00 p.m....

  8. 76 FR 35224 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-16

    ...personal privacy. Name of Committee: Microbiology, Infectious Diseases and AIDS Initial Review Group, Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome Research Review Committee. Date: July 12, 2011. Time: 8:30 a.m. to 5 p.m. Agenda: To...

  9. 77 FR 36563 - National Institute of Allergy And Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-19

    ...personal privacy. Name of Committee: Microbiology, Infectious Diseases and AIDS Initial Review Group; Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome Research Review Committee. Date: July 11, 2012. Time: 8:00 a.m. to 5:00 p.m. Agenda:...

  10. 75 FR 13561 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-22

    ...kaltmr@niaid.nih.gov. Name of Committee: National Advisory Allergy and Infectious Diseases Council Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome Subcommittee. Date: May 24, 2010. Closed: 8:30 a.m. to 10:15 a.m. Agenda: To review...

  11. 76 FR 6626 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-07

    ...kaltmr@niaid.nih.gov. Name of Committee: National Advisory Allergy and Infectious Diseases Council; Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome Subcommittee. Date: September 19, 2011. Closed: 8:30 a.m. to 10:15 a.m. Agenda: To...

  12. 78 FR 40755 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-08

    ...personal privacy. Name of Committee: Microbiology, Infectious Diseases and AIDS Initial Review Group; Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome Research Review Committee; AIDS. Date: July 25-26, 2013. Time: July 25, 2013, 2:00...

  13. How infectious disease outbreaks affect community-based primary care physicians

    PubMed Central

    Jaakkimainen, R. Liisa; Bondy, Susan J.; Parkovnick, Meredith; Barnsley, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objective To compare how the infectious disease outbreaks H1N1 and severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) affected community-based GPs and FPs. Design A mailed survey sent after the H1N1 outbreak compared with the results of similar survey completed after the SARS outbreak. Setting Greater Toronto area in Ontario. Participants A total of 183 randomly selected GPs and FPs who provided office-based care. Main outcome measures The perceptions of GPs and FPs on how serious infectious disease outbreaks affected their clinical work and personal lives; their preparedness for a serious infectious disease outbreak; and the types of information they want to receive and the sources they wanted to receive information from during a serious infectious disease outbreak. The responses from this survey were compared with the responses of GPs and FPs in the greater Toronto area who completed a similar survey in 2003 after the SARS outbreak. Results After the H1N1 outbreak, GPs and FPs still had substantial concerns about the effects of serious infectious disease outbreaks on the health of their family members. Physicians made changes to various office practices in order to manage and deal with patients with serious infectious diseases. They expressed concerns about the effects of an infectious disease on the provision of health care services. Also, physicians wanted to quickly receive accurate information from the provincial government and their medical associations. Conclusion Serious community-based infectious diseases are a personal concern for GPs and FPs, and have considerable effects on their clinical practice. Further work examining the timely flow of relevant information through different health care sectors and government agencies still needs to be undertaken. PMID:25316747

  14. Route prediction model of infectious diseases for 2018 Winter Olympics in Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Eungyeong; Lee, Seok; Byun, Young Tae; Kim, Jae Hun; Lee, Hyuk-jae; Lee, Taikjin

    2014-03-01

    There are many types of respiratory infectious diseases caused by germs, virus, mycetes and parasites. Researchers recently have tried to develop mathematical models to predict the epidemic of infectious diseases. However, with the development of ground transportation system in modern society, the spread of infectious diseases became faster and more complicated in terms of the speed and the pathways. The route of infectious diseases during Vancouver Olympics was predicted based on the Susceptible-Infectious-Recovered (SIR) model. In this model only the air traffic as an essential factor for the intercity migration of infectious diseases was involved. Here, we propose a multi-city transmission model to predict the infection route during 2018 Winter Olympics in Korea based on the pre-existing SIR model. Various types of transportation system such as a train, a car, a bus, and an airplane for the interpersonal contact in both inter- and intra-city are considered. Simulation is performed with assumptions and scenarios based on realistic factors including demographic, transportation and diseases data in Korea. Finally, we analyze an economic profit and loss caused by the variation of the number of tourists during the Olympics.

  15. The role of infectious mediators and gut microbiome in the pathogenesis of celiac disease.

    PubMed

    Rostami Nejad, Mohammad; Ishaq, Sauid; Al Dulaimi, David; Zali, Mohammad Reza; Rostami, Kamran

    2015-04-01

    Celiac disease (CD) is an immune disorder that is associated with gluten sensitivity in people who are genetically predisposed. In celiac disease, food containing gluten mounts inflammatory response that results in villous atrophy in small bowel and increased permeability. This disorder is not only related to complications in the small bowel, but also has association with manifestations outside the GI tract. Small bowel mucosal immunity, exposed to infectious agents, is affected by CD; therefore, it is likely that patients with untreated celiac disease are more susceptible to infectious diseases. It is possible that sensitivity to gluten increases in patients infected with infectious diseases, and consequently infection may trigger CD in susceptible individuals. It is likely that, due to reduced immunity following the loss of intestinal villi, viral, bacterial, and parasitic infections develop faster in celiac disease patients and systemic complication occur more frequently. In addition, increased permeability, changing the microbiota following the chronic inflammation of the small intestine and abnormal immunological reactions are associated with celiac disease. PubMed, Medline, Google scholar, SID, and Magiran were searched for full text articles published between 1999 and 2014 in Persian and English. The associated keywords were used, and papers, which described particularly the impact of infectious agents on celiac disease, were selected. In this review, we have focused on the role of infectious agents and gut microbiota in the pathogenesis of celiac disease. PMID:25841946

  16. Modeling Infectious Disease in Mice: Co-Adaptation and the Role of Host-Specific IFNc Responses

    E-print Network

    Starnbach, Michael

    ]. Such host tropism or host restriction limits the usefulness of the mouse as a model for infectious disease restriction. Species-Specific Immune Evasion by Pathogens Contributes to Host Tropism For many infectious

  17. Infectious Disease Physician Assessment of Hospital Preparedness for Ebola Virus Disease.

    PubMed

    Polgreen, Philip M; Santibanez, Scott; Koonin, Lisa M; Rupp, Mark E; Beekmann, Susan E; Del Rio, Carlos

    2015-09-01

    Background. ?The first case of Ebola diagnosed in the United States and subsequent cases among 2 healthcare workers caring for that patient highlighted the importance of hospital preparedness in caring for Ebola patients. Methods. ?From October 21, 2014 to November 11, 2014, infectious disease physicians who are part of the Emerging Infections Network (EIN) were surveyed about current Ebola preparedness at their institutions. Results. ?Of 1566 EIN physician members, 869 (55.5%) responded to this survey. Almost all institutions represented in this survey showed a substantial degree of preparation for the management of patients with suspected and confirmed Ebola virus disease. Despite concerns regarding shortages of personal protective equipment, approximately two thirds of all respondents reported that their facilities had sufficient and ready availability of hoods, full body coveralls, and fluid-resistant or impermeable aprons. The majority of respondents indicated preference for transfer of Ebola patients to specialized treatment centers rather than caring for them locally. In general, we found that larger hospitals and teaching hospitals reported higher levels of preparedness. Conclusions. ?Prior to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's plan for a tiered approach that identified specific roles for frontline, assessment, and designated treatment facilities, our query of infectious disease physicians suggested that healthcare facilities across the United States were making preparations for screening, diagnosis, and treatment of Ebola patients. Nevertheless, respondents from some hospitals indicated that they were relatively unprepared. PMID:26180836

  18. Infectious Disease Physician Assessment of Hospital Preparedness for Ebola Virus Disease

    PubMed Central

    Polgreen, Philip M.; Santibanez, Scott; Koonin, Lisa M.; Rupp, Mark E.; Beekmann, Susan E.; del Rio, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Background.?The first case of Ebola diagnosed in the United States and subsequent cases among 2 healthcare workers caring for that patient highlighted the importance of hospital preparedness in caring for Ebola patients. Methods.?From October 21, 2014 to November 11, 2014, infectious disease physicians who are part of the Emerging Infections Network (EIN) were surveyed about current Ebola preparedness at their institutions. Results.?Of 1566 EIN physician members, 869 (55.5%) responded to this survey. Almost all institutions represented in this survey showed a substantial degree of preparation for the management of patients with suspected and confirmed Ebola virus disease. Despite concerns regarding shortages of personal protective equipment, approximately two thirds of all respondents reported that their facilities had sufficient and ready availability of hoods, full body coveralls, and fluid-resistant or impermeable aprons. The majority of respondents indicated preference for transfer of Ebola patients to specialized treatment centers rather than caring for them locally. In general, we found that larger hospitals and teaching hospitals reported higher levels of preparedness. Conclusions.?Prior to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's plan for a tiered approach that identified specific roles for frontline, assessment, and designated treatment facilities, our query of infectious disease physicians suggested that healthcare facilities across the United States were making preparations for screening, diagnosis, and treatment of Ebola patients. Nevertheless, respondents from some hospitals indicated that they were relatively unprepared. PMID:26180836

  19. Ecological theory to enhance infectious disease control and public health policy

    PubMed Central

    Dobson, Andrew P; McKenzie, F Ellis; Real, Leslie A; Smith, David L; Wilson, Mark L

    2009-01-01

    Through the work of international public health organizations and advancements in the biological and technological sciences, substantial progress has been made in our ability to prevent, control, locally eliminate, and in one case eradicate infectious diseases. Yet each successful control or local elimination has been met with the emergence of new pathogens, the evolution of novel strains, or different epidemiological circumstances that have limited or reversed control methods. To respond to the increasing threat of emerging infectious diseases and bioterrorism it is vital that we design and implement efficient programs that prevent and control infectious pathogen transmission. The theoretical tools of ecology and epidemiology may be the cornerstone in constructing future programs aimed at preventing and controlling infectious diseases throughout the world. PMID:19838319

  20. 77 FR 21778 - Board of Scientific Counselors, Office of Infectious Diseases (BSC, OID)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-11

    ... infrastructure, and sexually transmitted diseases. Agenda items are subject to change as priorities dictate... SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Board of Scientific Counselors, Office of Infectious Diseases (BSC, OID) In accordance with section 10(a)(2) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L....

  1. The ecology of infectious disease: Effects of host diversity and community composition

    E-print Network

    The ecology of infectious disease: Effects of host diversity and community composition on Lyme of human risk of exposure to Lyme- disease-bearing ticks. We tested the Dilution Effect model, which of vertebrate biodiversity and community com- position can reduce the incidence of Lyme disease. The inexorable

  2. 75 FR 66772 - Board of Scientific Counselors, Office of Infectious Diseases (BSC, OID)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-29

    ... SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Board of Scientific Counselors, Office of Infectious Diseases (BSC, OID) In accordance with section 10(a)(2) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), announces the following meeting of...

  3. 78 FR 17411 - Board of Scientific Counselors, Office of Infectious Diseases (BSC, OID)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-21

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Board of Scientific Counselors, Office of Infectious Diseases (BSC, OID) In accordance with section 10(a)(2) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), announces the following meeting...

  4. 77 FR 67651 - Board of Scientific Counselors, Office of Infectious Diseases (BSC, OID)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-13

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Board of Scientific Counselors, Office of Infectious Diseases (BSC, OID) In accordance with section 10(a)(2) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), announces the following meeting...

  5. 78 FR 21370 - Board of Scientific Counselors, Office of Infectious Diseases (BSC, OID)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-10

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Board of Scientific Counselors, Office of Infectious Diseases (BSC, OID) In accordance with section 10(a)(2) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), announces the following meeting...

  6. 77 FR 21778 - Board of Scientific Counselors, Office of Infectious Diseases (BSC, OID)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-11

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Board of Scientific Counselors, Office of Infectious Diseases (BSC, OID) In accordance with section 10(a)(2) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), announces the following meeting...

  7. 75 FR 22607 - Board of Scientific Counselors, Coordinating Center for Infectious Diseases (CCID)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-29

    ... SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Board of Scientific Counselors, Coordinating Center for Infectious Diseases (CCID) In accordance with section 10(a)(2) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), announces the cancellation of the...

  8. 76 FR 63926 - Board of Scientific Counselors, Office of Infectious Diseases (BSC, OID)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-14

    ... SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Board of Scientific Counselors, Office of Infectious Diseases (BSC, OID) In accordance with section 10(a)(2) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), announces the following meeting of...

  9. 75 FR 69687 - Board of Scientific Counselors, Office of Infectious Diseases, (BSC, OID)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-15

    ... SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Board of Scientific Counselors, Office of Infectious Diseases, (BSC, OID) In accordance with section 10(a)(2) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), announces the following meeting of...

  10. 76 FR 24031 - Board of Scientific Counselors, Office of Infectious Diseases (BSC, OID)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-29

    ... SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Board of Scientific Counselors, Office of Infectious Diseases (BSC, OID) In accordance with section 10(a)(2) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) announces the following meeting of...

  11. 78 FR 13678 - Board of Scientific Counselors, Office of Infectious Diseases (BSC, OID)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-28

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Board of Scientific Counselors, Office of Infectious Diseases (BSC, OID) Notice of Cancellation: A notice was published in the Federal Register on... both the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the Agency for Toxic Substances and...

  12. 78 FR 11651 - Board of Scientific Counselors, Office of Infectious Diseases (BSC, OID)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-19

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Board of Scientific Counselors, Office of Infectious Diseases (BSC, OID) In accordance with section 10(a)(2) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), announces the following meeting...

  13. 78 FR 69683 - Board of Scientific Counselors, Office of Infectious Diseases (BSC, OID)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-20

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Board of Scientific Counselors, Office of Infectious Diseases (BSC, OID) In accordance with section 10(a)(2) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), announces the following meeting...

  14. In an interconnected world: joint research priorities for the environment, agriculture and infectious disease.

    PubMed

    Brijnath, Bianca; Butler, Colin D; McMichael, Anthony J

    2014-01-01

    In 2008 the UNICEF/UNDP/World Bank/WHO Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases (TDR) commissioned ten think-tanks to work on disease-specific and thematic reference groups to identify top research priorities that would advance the research agenda on infectious diseases of poverty, thus contributing to improvements in human health. The first of the thematic reference group reports - on environment, agriculture and infectious diseases of poverty - was recently released. In this article we review, from an insider perspective, the strengths and weaknesses of this thematic reference group report and highlight key messages for policy-makers, funders and researchers. PMID:24472225

  15. How do economic crises affect migrants’ risk of infectious disease? A systematic-narrative review

    PubMed Central

    Karanikolos, Marina; Williams, Gemma; Mladovsky, Philipa; King, Lawrence; Pharris, Anastasia; Suk, Jonathan E.; Hatzakis, Angelos; McKee, Martin; Noori, Teymur; Stuckler, David

    2015-01-01

    Background: It is not well understood how economic crises affect infectious disease incidence and prevalence, particularly among vulnerable groups. Using a susceptible-infected-recovered framework, we systematically reviewed literature on the impact of the economic crises on infectious disease risks in migrants in Europe, focusing principally on HIV, TB, hepatitis and other STIs. Methods: We conducted two searches in PubMed/Medline, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, Google Scholar, websites of key organizations and grey literature to identify how economic changes affect migrant populations and infectious disease. We perform a narrative synthesis in order to map critical pathways and identify hypotheses for subsequent research. Results: The systematic review on links between economic crises and migrant health identified 653 studies through database searching; only seven met the inclusion criteria. Fourteen items were identified through further searches. The systematic review on links between economic crises and infectious disease identified 480 studies through database searching; 19 met the inclusion criteria. Eight items were identified through further searches. The reviews show that migrant populations in Europe appear disproportionately at risk of specific infectious diseases, and that economic crises and subsequent responses have tended to exacerbate such risks. Recessions lead to unemployment, impoverishment and other risk factors that can be linked to the transmissibility of disease among migrants. Austerity measures that lead to cuts in prevention and treatment programmes further exacerbate infectious disease risks among migrants. Non-governmental health service providers occasionally stepped in to cater to specific populations that include migrants. Conclusions: There is evidence that migrants are especially vulnerable to infectious disease during economic crises. Ring-fenced funding of prevention programs, including screening and treatment, is important for addressing this vulnerability. PMID:26318852

  16. The interconnected and cross-border nature of risks posed by infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Suk, Jonathan E; Van Cangh, Thomas; Beauté, Julien; Bartels, Cornelius; Tsolova, Svetla; Pharris, Anastasia; Ciotti, Massimo; Semenza, Jan C

    2014-01-01

    Infectious diseases can constitute public health emergencies of international concern when a pathogen arises, acquires new characteristics, or is deliberately released, leading to the potential for loss of human lives as well as societal disruption. A wide range of risk drivers are now known to lead to and/or exacerbate the emergence and spread of infectious disease, including global trade and travel, the overuse of antibiotics, intensive agriculture, climate change, high population densities, and inadequate infrastructures, such as water treatment facilities. Where multiple risk drivers interact, the potential impact of a disease outbreak is amplified. The varying temporal and geographic frequency with which infectious disease events occur adds yet another layer of complexity to the issue. Mitigating the emergence and spread of infectious disease necessitates mapping and prioritising the interdependencies between public health and other sectors. Conversely, during an international public health emergency, significant disruption occurs not only to healthcare systems but also to a potentially wide range of sectors, including trade, tourism, energy, civil protection, transport, agriculture, and so on. At the same time, dealing with a disease outbreak may require a range of critical sectors for support. There is a need to move beyond narrow models of risk to better account for the interdependencies between health and other sectors so as to be able to better mitigate and respond to the risks posed by emerging infectious disease. PMID:25308818

  17. Dairy calf housing systems across Europe and risk for calf infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Marcé, C; Guatteo, R; Bareille, N; Fourichon, C

    2010-09-01

    Enteric and respiratory diseases are the most frequent health disorders of calves. They are associated with mortality or lower growth rate and induce treatment costs. Enteric and respiratory pathogens can be transmitted via contacts between calves, which depend on calf housing systems and management. This study aimed at describing the main calf housing systems across Europe and at assessing the consequences of such housing facilities in terms of risk for calf infectious diseases. This was done through the use of a questionnaire distributed to experts in epidemiology and cattle farming systems in each European country. A literature review was performed on the risk factors associated with calf infectious diseases transmission and targeted in the questionnaire. Answers from 14 countries were obtained. A wide range of housing systems were described. However, four main systems could be identified and ranked in ascending order of risk for neonatal diarrhoea and respiratory infectious diseases: individual pen until weaning, individual pen for 4 weeks, individual pen for 2 weeks, and collective pen from the separation of the calf with its dam. Although the housing systems are known to play a role in disease transmission, they are currently not fully described in literature concerning risk factors for calf infectious diseases. In a given farm, the risk assessment for calf infectious diseases should consider classical risk factors such as hygiene, feeding practices and air conditioning, on top of a precise description of the housing system. PMID:22444707

  18. The interconnected and cross-border nature of risks posed by infectious diseases

    PubMed Central

    Suk, Jonathan E.; Van Cangh, Thomas; Beauté, Julien; Bartels, Cornelius; Tsolova, Svetla; Pharris, Anastasia; Ciotti, Massimo; Semenza, Jan C.

    2014-01-01

    Infectious diseases can constitute public health emergencies of international concern when a pathogen arises, acquires new characteristics, or is deliberately released, leading to the potential for loss of human lives as well as societal disruption. A wide range of risk drivers are now known to lead to and/or exacerbate the emergence and spread of infectious disease, including global trade and travel, the overuse of antibiotics, intensive agriculture, climate change, high population densities, and inadequate infrastructures, such as water treatment facilities. Where multiple risk drivers interact, the potential impact of a disease outbreak is amplified. The varying temporal and geographic frequency with which infectious disease events occur adds yet another layer of complexity to the issue. Mitigating the emergence and spread of infectious disease necessitates mapping and prioritising the interdependencies between public health and other sectors. Conversely, during an international public health emergency, significant disruption occurs not only to healthcare systems but also to a potentially wide range of sectors, including trade, tourism, energy, civil protection, transport, agriculture, and so on. At the same time, dealing with a disease outbreak may require a range of critical sectors for support. There is a need to move beyond narrow models of risk to better account for the interdependencies between health and other sectors so as to be able to better mitigate and respond to the risks posed by emerging infectious disease. PMID:25308818

  19. Emerging infectious diseases in an island ecosystem: the New Zealand perspective.

    PubMed Central

    Crump, J. A.; Murdoch, D. R.; Baker, M. G.

    2001-01-01

    Several unique features characterize infectious disease epidemiology in New Zealand. Historically, well-organized, government-run control programs have eliminated several zoonoses. More recently, however, communicable disease control has been mixed. Rates of rheumatic fever, tuberculosis, and enteric infectious are high, and rates of meningococcal disease are increasing. These diseases are over-represented in New Zealanders of Polynesian descent, who generally live in more deprived and overcrowded conditions than do those of European descent. Measles and pertussis epidemics are recurring because of inadequate vaccine coverage, despite a well-developed childhood immunization program. A progressive response to the HIV epidemic has resulted in relatively low rates of infection, particularly among injecting drug users; however, the response to other sexually transmitted infections has been poor. A key challenge for the future is to build on successful strategies and apply them to persisting and emerging infectious disease threats in a small, geographically isolated country with limited economic resources. PMID:11747690

  20. Deciphering the rules of programmed cell death to improve therapy of cancer and other diseases.

    PubMed

    Strasser, Andreas; Cory, Suzanne; Adams, Jerry M

    2011-09-14

    Apoptosis, the major form of programmed cell death in metazoan organisms, plays critical roles in normal development, tissue homeostasis and immunity, and its disturbed regulation contributes to many pathological states, including cancer, autoimmunity, infection and degenerative disorders. In vertebrates, it can be triggered either by engagement of 'death receptors' of the tumour necrosis factor receptor family on the cell surface or by diverse intracellular signals that act upon the Bcl-2 protein family, which controls the integrity of the mitochondrial outer membrane through the complex interactions of family members. Both pathways lead to cellular demolition by dedicated proteases termed caspases. This review discusses the groundbreaking experiments from many laboratories that have clarified cell death regulation and galvanised efforts to translate this knowledge into novel therapeutic strategies for the treatment of malignant and perhaps certain autoimmune and infectious diseases. PMID:21863020

  1. [Non-HIV infectious disease outpatient consultations: a 5-year study in a Swiss University Hospital].

    PubMed

    Flückiger, N; Moulin, E; Merz, L; Darling, K; Cavassini, M

    2015-04-15

    Few studies have examined the workload or clinical spectrum of non-HIV infectious diseases outpatient consultations (IDOC). This retrospective study aims to describe IDOC referrals over the past 5 years. In total, 483 patients were referred (with an increase of 63% between 2009 and 2013). Most referrals were received from primary care clinicians (45%). Median patient age was 47 years, 57% of patients were men and 17% were immunosuppressed. Of the diagnoses retained, 74% were infectious, 20% were non-infectious and 6% were of unknown aetiology. Two community outbreaks were identified (tattoo-related mycobacterial infection and Q fever). In conclusion, the infectious diseases outpatient clinic, which has expanded progressively in the past 5 years, provides a specialised service for primary health clinicians and for public health. PMID:26050301

  2. European monitoring systems and data for assessing environmental and climate impacts on human infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Nichols, Gordon L; Andersson, Yvonne; Lindgren, Elisabet; Devaux, Isabelle; Semenza, Jan C

    2014-04-01

    Surveillance is critical to understanding the epidemiology and control of infectious diseases. The growing concern over climate and other drivers that may increase infectious disease threats to future generations has stimulated a review of the surveillance systems and environmental data sources that might be used to assess future health impacts from climate change in Europe. We present an overview of organizations, agencies and institutions that are responsible for infectious disease surveillance in Europe. We describe the surveillance systems, tracking tools, communication channels, information exchange and outputs in light of environmental and climatic drivers of infectious diseases. We discuss environmental and climatic data sets that lend themselves to epidemiological analysis. Many of the environmental data sets have a relatively uniform quality across EU Member States because they are based on satellite measurements or EU funded FP6 or FP7 projects with full EU coverage. Case-reporting systems for surveillance of infectious diseases should include clear and consistent case definitions and reporting formats that are geo-located at an appropriate resolution. This will allow linkage to environmental, social and climatic sources that will enable risk assessments, future threat evaluations, outbreak management and interventions to reduce disease burden. PMID:24722542

  3. Impact of climate change on human infectious diseases: Empirical evidence and human adaptation.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiaoxu; Lu, Yongmei; Zhou, Sen; Chen, Lifan; Xu, Bing

    2016-01-01

    Climate change refers to long-term shifts in weather conditions and patterns of extreme weather events. It may lead to changes in health threat to human beings, multiplying existing health problems. This review examines the scientific evidences on the impact of climate change on human infectious diseases. It identifies research progress and gaps on how human society may respond to, adapt to, and prepare for the related changes. Based on a survey of related publications between 1990 and 2015, the terms used for literature selection reflect three aspects - the components of infectious diseases, climate variables, and selected infectious diseases. Humans' vulnerability to the potential health impacts by climate change is evident in literature. As an active agent, human beings may control the related health effects that may be effectively controlled through adopting proactive measures, including better understanding of the climate change patterns and of the compound disease-specific health effects, and effective allocation of technologies and resources to promote healthy lifestyles and public awareness. The following adaptation measures are recommended: 1) to go beyond empirical observations of the association between climate change and infectious diseases and develop more scientific explanations, 2) to improve the prediction of spatial-temporal process of climate change and the associated shifts in infectious diseases at various spatial and temporal scales, and 3) to establish locally effective early warning systems for the health effects of predicated climate change. PMID:26479830

  4. European Monitoring Systems and Data for Assessing Environmental and Climate Impacts on Human Infectious Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Nichols, Gordon L.; Andersson, Yvonne; Lindgren, Elisabet; Devaux, Isabelle; Semenza, Jan C.

    2014-01-01

    Surveillance is critical to understanding the epidemiology and control of infectious diseases. The growing concern over climate and other drivers that may increase infectious disease threats to future generations has stimulated a review of the surveillance systems and environmental data sources that might be used to assess future health impacts from climate change in Europe. We present an overview of organizations, agencies and institutions that are responsible for infectious disease surveillance in Europe. We describe the surveillance systems, tracking tools, communication channels, information exchange and outputs in light of environmental and climatic drivers of infectious diseases. We discuss environmental and climatic data sets that lend themselves to epidemiological analysis. Many of the environmental data sets have a relatively uniform quality across EU Member States because they are based on satellite measurements or EU funded FP6 or FP7 projects with full EU coverage. Case-reporting systems for surveillance of infectious diseases should include clear and consistent case definitions and reporting formats that are geo-located at an appropriate resolution. This will allow linkage to environmental, social and climatic sources that will enable risk assessments, future threat evaluations, outbreak management and interventions to reduce disease burden. PMID:24722542

  5. Strengthening epidemiologic investigation of infectious diseases in Korea: lessons from the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome outbreak

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Changhwan; Ki, Moran

    2015-01-01

    The recent outbreak of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) coronavirus infection in Korea resulted in large socioeconomic losses. This provoked the Korean government and the general public to recognize the importance of having a well-established system against infectious diseases. Although epidemiologic investigation is one of the most important aspects of prevention, it has been pointed out that much needs to be improved in Korea. We review here the current status of the Korean epidemiologic service and suggest possible supplementation measures. We examine the current national preventive infrastructure, including human resources such as Epidemic Intelligence Service officers, its governmental management, and related policies. In addition, we describe the practical application of these resources to the recent MERS outbreak and the progress in preventive measures. The spread of MERS demonstrated that the general readiness for emerging infectious diseases in Korea is considerably low. We believe that it is essential to increase society’s investment in disease prevention. Fostering public health personnel, legislating management policies, and establishing research centers for emerging infectious diseases are potential solutions. Evaluating international preventive systems, developing cooperative measures, and initiating improvements are necessary. We evaluated the Korean epidemiologic investigation system and the public preventive measures against infectious diseases in light of the recent MERS outbreak. We suggest that governmental authorities in Korea enforce preventive policies, foster the development of highly qualified personnel, and increase investment in the public health domain of infectious disease prevention. PMID:26493654

  6. Severe infectious diseases of childhood as monogenic inborn errors of immunity

    PubMed Central

    Casanova, Jean-Laurent

    2015-01-01

    This paper reviews the developments that have occurred in the field of human genetics of infectious diseases from the second half of the 20th century onward. In particular, it stresses and explains the importance of the recently described monogenic inborn errors of immunity underlying resistance or susceptibility to specific infections. The monogenic component of the genetic theory provides a plausible explanation for the occurrence of severe infectious diseases during primary infection. Over the last 20 y, increasing numbers of life-threatening infectious diseases striking otherwise healthy children, adolescents, and even young adults have been attributed to single-gene inborn errors of immunity. These studies were inspired by seminal but neglected findings in plant and animal infections. Infectious diseases typically manifest as sporadic traits because human genotypes often display incomplete penetrance (most genetically predisposed individuals remain healthy) and variable expressivity (different infections can be allelic at the same locus). Infectious diseases of childhood, once thought to be archetypal environmental diseases, actually may be among the most genetically determined conditions of mankind. This nascent and testable notion has interesting medical and biological implications. PMID:26621750

  7. Emerging infectious diseases and public health policy: insights from Cambodia, Hong Kong and Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Burgos, S; Ear, S

    2015-02-01

    Emerging infectious diseases affect the health of animal and human populations, but the impact goes beyond health as it extends to political, economic, social and environmental domains, as well as inter-state relations. Deeper understanding of these impacts aids public health authorities in their duties of protection and improvement of the health of their communities, promotion of healthy practices and research on disease, injury and threat prevention and mitigation. This empirical essay gathers insights from Cambodia, Hong Kong and Indonesia as they attempt to design and implement control and surveillance systems against avian influenza - an infectious disease. PMID:23551938

  8. [Mathematical modelling of an infectious disease in a prison setting and optimal preventative control strategies].

    PubMed

    Trujillo-Salazar, Carlos A; Toro-Zapata, Hernán D; Muñoz-Loaiza, Aníbal

    2013-01-01

    A mathematical model was constructed for modelling transmission dynamics and the evolution of an infectious disease in a prison setting, considering asymptomatic infectious people, symptomatic infectious people and isolated infectious people. The model was proposed as a nonlinear differential equation system for describing disease epidemiology. The model's stability was analysed for including a preventative control strategy which would enable finding a suitable basic reproduction number-based control protocol. A cost function related to the system of differential equations was formulated to minimise infectious populations and intervention costs; such function was minimised by using the Pontryagin maximum principle which determines optimum preventative control strategies by minimising both infectious populations and associated costs. A numerical analysis of the model was made, considering preventative control effectiveness levels and different control weighting constants. Conclusions were drawn. The basic reproduction number characterises system stability and leads to determining clear control criteria; a preventative control threshold was defined, based on the controlled basic reproduction number which enabled deducing that disease control requires uniform preventative control involving high rates of effectiveness. PMID:25124356

  9. New digital technologies for the surveillance of infectious diseases at mass gathering events.

    PubMed

    Nsoesie, E O; Kluberg, S A; Mekaru, S R; Majumder, M S; Khan, K; Hay, S I; Brownstein, J S

    2015-02-01

    Outbreaks of infectious diseases at mass gatherings can strain the health system of the host region and pose a threat to local and global health. In addition to strengthening existing surveillance systems, most host nations also use novel technologies to assess disease risk and augment traditional surveillance approaches. We review novel approaches to disease surveillance using the Internet, mobile phone applications, and wireless sensor networks. These novel approaches to disease surveillance can result in prompt detection. PMID:25636385

  10. 75 FR 26266 - National Cancer Institute (NCI); National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Printing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Cancer Institute (NCI); National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID); National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases...

  11. Practice of Epidemiology When Is Quarantine a Useful Control Strategy for Emerging Infectious Diseases?

    E-print Network

    Day, Troy

    Practice of Epidemiology When Is Quarantine a Useful Control Strategy for Emerging Infectious long nor very short. communicable diseases, emerging; disease outbreaks; epidemiologic methods; patient;163:479­485 American Journal of Epidemiology Copyright ª 2006 by the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health

  12. Safety of infectious bursal disease vaccines: assessment of an acceptability threshold.

    PubMed

    Guittet, M; Le Coq, H; Picault, J P; Eterradossi, N; Bennejean, G

    1992-01-01

    This study was undertaken to check the safety of commercially available infectious bursal disease (IBD) vaccines in terms of bursal damage, and their immunodepressive effects as evaluated by testing the birds after vaccination for their response to Newcastle disease vaccination. Further requirements are proposed to establish a suitable safety standard. PMID:1337527

  13. 78 FR 21961 - National Institute of Allergy And Infectious Diseases; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy And Infectious Diseases... Diseases Research, National Institutes of Health, HHS) Dated: April 8, 2013. David Clary, Program...

  14. 76 FR 75888 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Printing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of... Diseases Research, National Institutes of Health, HHS) Dated: November 29, 2011. Jennifer S....

  15. Exacerbation of chronic inflammatory diseases by infectious agents: Fact or fiction?

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Cheng-Ming; Kaltenboeck, Bernhard

    2010-01-01

    Chronic inflammatory diseases caused by obesity represent critical public health concerns worldwide. In these diseases such as metabolic syndrome, diabetes and atherosclerosis, adipose tissue acts as an endocrine organ that releases large quantities of inflammatory mediators into circulation. Besides classically recognized effectors on the development of obesity and resultant conditions, infection has attracted attention as an enhancer of chronic inflammatory diseases. Infectious diseases have long been associated with obesity, metabolic syndrome, diabetes and atherosclerosis. However, the infectious hypothesis for chronic inflammatory diseases has been challenged by inconclusive clinical trials. Nevertheless, the large body of evidence accumulated over decades on the association of infectious diseases with obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular disease should not be disregarded. Instead, re-formulation of hypotheses of the mechanisms by which microbes affect obesity-associated diseases may be required with an emphasis on the early events in the progression of such diseases and the multifactorial nature of pathogen-host interactions. This review focuses on pathogens that directly promote obesity and on pathogens that cause chronic infections and thereby enhance metabolic diseases in obese patients. A new perspective on the interaction between infections and obesity-related diseases may improve management of chronic inflammatory diseases that rank high among global threats to human health. PMID:21537425

  16. ERAIZDA: a model for holistic annotation of animal infectious and zoonotic diseases

    PubMed Central

    Buza, Teresia M.; Jack, Sherman W.; Kirunda, Halid; Khaitsa, Margaret L.; Lawrence, Mark L.; Pruett, Stephen; Peterson, Daniel G.

    2015-01-01

    There is an urgent need for a unified resource that integrates trans-disciplinary annotations of emerging and reemerging animal infectious and zoonotic diseases. Such data integration will provide wonderful opportunity for epidemiologists, researchers and health policy makers to make data-driven decisions designed to improve animal health. Integrating emerging and reemerging animal infectious and zoonotic disease data from a large variety of sources into a unified open-access resource provides more plausible arguments to achieve better understanding of infectious and zoonotic diseases. We have developed a model for interlinking annotations of these diseases. These diseases are of particular interest because of the threats they pose to animal health, human health and global health security. We demonstrated the application of this model using brucellosis, an infectious and zoonotic disease. Preliminary annotations were deposited into VetBioBase database (http://vetbiobase.igbb.msstate.edu). This database is associated with user-friendly tools to facilitate searching, retrieving and downloading of disease-related information. Database URL: http://vetbiobase.igbb.msstate.edu PMID:26581408

  17. Infectious Diseases and Their Outbreaks in Asia-Pacific: Biodiversity and Its Regulation Loss Matter

    PubMed Central

    Morand, Serge; Jittapalapong, Sathaporn; Suputtamongkol, Yupin; Abdullah, Mohd Tajuddin; Huan, Tan Boon

    2014-01-01

    Despite increasing control measures, numerous parasitic and infectious diseases are emerging, re-emerging or causing recurrent outbreaks particularly in Asia and the Pacific region, a hot spot of both infectious disease emergence and biodiversity at risk. We investigate how biodiversity affects the distribution of infectious diseases and their outbreaks in this region, taking into account socio-economics (population size, GDP, public health expenditure), geography (latitude and nation size), climate (precipitation, temperature) and biodiversity (bird and mammal species richness, forest cover, mammal and bird species at threat). We show, among countries, that the overall richness of infectious diseases is positively correlated with the richness of birds and mammals, but the number of zoonotic disease outbreaks is positively correlated with the number of threatened mammal and bird species and the number of vector-borne disease outbreaks is negatively correlated with forest cover. These results suggest that, among countries, biodiversity is a source of pathogens, but also that the loss of biodiversity or its regulation, as measured by forest cover or threatened species, seems to be associated with an increase in zoonotic and vector-borne disease outbreaks. PMID:24587201

  18. ERAIZDA: a model for holistic annotation of animal infectious and zoonotic diseases.

    PubMed

    Buza, Teresia M; Jack, Sherman W; Kirunda, Halid; Khaitsa, Margaret L; Lawrence, Mark L; Pruett, Stephen; Peterson, Daniel G

    2015-01-01

    There is an urgent need for a unified resource that integrates trans-disciplinary annotations of emerging and reemerging animal infectious and zoonotic diseases. Such data integration will provide wonderful opportunity for epidemiologists, researchers and health policy makers to make data-driven decisions designed to improve animal health. Integrating emerging and reemerging animal infectious and zoonotic disease data from a large variety of sources into a unified open-access resource provides more plausible arguments to achieve better understanding of infectious and zoonotic diseases. We have developed a model for interlinking annotations of these diseases. These diseases are of particular interest because of the threats they pose to animal health, human health and global health security. We demonstrated the application of this model using brucellosis, an infectious and zoonotic disease. Preliminary annotations were deposited into VetBioBase database (http://vetbiobase.igbb.msstate.edu). This database is associated with user-friendly tools to facilitate searching, retrieving and downloading of disease-related information.Database URL: http://vetbiobase.igbb.msstate.edu. PMID:26581408

  19. A Common Immunopathogenesis Mechanism for Infectious Diseases: The Protein-Homeostasis-System Hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    It was once believed that host cell injury in various infectious diseases is caused solely by pathogens themselves; however, it is now known that host immune reactions to the substances from the infectious agents and/or from the injured host cells by infectious insults are also involved. All biological phenomena in living organisms, including biochemical, physiological and pathological processes, are performed by the proteins that have various sizes and shapes, which in turn are controlled by an interacting network within the living organisms. The author proposes that this network is controlled by the protein homeostasis system (PHS), and that the immune system is one part of the PHS of the host. Each immune cell in the host may recognize and respond to substances, including pathogenic proteins (PPs) that are toxic to target cells of the host, in ways that depend on the size and property of the PPs. Every infectious disease has its own set of toxic substances, including PPs, associated with disease onset, and the PPs and the corresponding immune cells may be responsible for the inflammatory processes that develop in those infectious diseases. PMID:25844259

  20. Nonlinear Dynamics of Infectious Diseases Transfer with Possible Applications for Tubercular Infection

    E-print Network

    Krevchik, V D; Dahnovsky, Yu I; Semenov, M B; Shcherbakova, E V; Yamamoto, Kenji

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we model a nonlinear dynamics of infectious diseases transfer. Particularly, we study possible applications to tubercular infection in models with different profiles (peak values) of the population density dependence on spatial coordinates. Our approach is based on the well known method of instantons which has been used by the authors to describe kinetics of adiabatic chemical reactions as a function of the heat-bath temperature and other system parameters. In our approach, we use "social temperature" T as one of the controlling parameters. Increase of T leads to acceleration of the infectious diseases transfer. The "blockage" effect for the infectious diseases transfer has been demonstrated in the case when peak values (in the population density) are equal to one and under condition that the "social temperature" is low. Existence of such effect essentially depends from environment "activity" (social and prophylactic). Results of our modeling qualitatively meet the tuberculosis dynamic spread d...