Sample records for death infectious diseases

  1. Infectious Diseases

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    NBC Learn

    2010-10-07

    With the threat of a warmer, wetter world and a larger global population, scientists are researching how climate change may impact the spread of infectious diseases,ťsuch as cholera and dengue fever, and how outbreaks may be prevented.ť "Changing Planet" is produced in partnership with the National Science Foundation.

  2. [Infectious pulmonary diseases].

    PubMed

    Hager, T; Reis, H; Theegarten, D

    2014-11-01

    Infectious pulmonary diseases and pneumonias are important causes of death within the group of infectious diseases in Germany. Most cases are triggered by bacteria. The morphology of the inflammation is often determined by the agent involved but several histopathological types of reaction are possible. Histology alone is only rarely able to identify the causal agent; therefore additional microbiological diagnostics are necessary in most cases. Clinically cases are classified as community acquired and nosocomial pneumonia, pneumonia under immunosuppression and mycobacterial infections. Histologically, alveolar and interstitial as well as lobar and focal pneumonia can be differentiated. PMID:25319227

  3. Parallelization: Infectious Disease

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Aaron Weeden

    Epidemiology is the study of infectious disease. Infectious diseases are said to be "contagious" among people if they are transmittable from one person to another. Epidemiologists can use models to assist them in predicting the behavior of infectious diseases. This module will develop a simple agent-based infectious disease model, develop a parallel algorithm based on the model, provide a coded implementation for the algorithm, and explore the scaling of the coded implementation on high performance cluster resources.

  4. Infectious Disease in Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Guzman; Jurado; Kron

    1995-06-01

    The republic of Ecuador, which has a population of 10 million, is one of the smallest of the Andean countries in South America. Although it covers only an area of 110,000 square miles, it yields an extraordinary diversity of infectious diseases. Public health problems reflect socioeconomic realities and uniquely diverse climates, cultures, and geography. Equador extends from the Galapagos Islands 600 miles to the west, to inhabited Andean highlands with altitudes over 15,000 feet, and to both the coastal and Amazonian rain forests. Health statistics in Ecuador are widely variable by western standards. Life expectancy is 64-68 years, and infant mortality rates are up to 60 per 1000. The physical and geographic barriers to health care facilities are highly variable in different provinces. This was evidenced dramatically by recent death rates from cholera in 1991-92, which ranged from 0% in Guayaquil to over 50% in isolated highland villages or in the Oriente (eastern provinces). Major cities, provincial borders, and selected topographic features are illustrated in the accompanying map of Ecuador (Fig. 1.) This review reports data on some of the major infectious diseases existent in Ecuador. Emphasis is on the viral, bacterial, protozoal, or helminthic diseases, which are uncommon elsewhere in the world, but which are prevalent, or especially important to public health officials in Ecuador. Table 1 lists reportable disease categories in Ecuador, 1986-1993. Recognition of the diversity of infectious agents endemic to Ecuador may prove useful for diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of infectious diseases in international travelers. PMID:9815368

  5. Fight against infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Soda, K; Kamakura, M; Kitamura, K

    1996-08-01

    During early Meiji era in Japan, there were frequent epidemics of fatal acute communicable diseases such as cholera, dysentery and smallpox, and preventive measures and preparations for acute infectious diseases were urgently needed. Together with improvement of scientific preparations, the Communicable Disease Prevention Law was promulgated in 1897. Then gradually until 1940's, the focus of preventive measures have been shifted from acute infectious diseases to chronic ones, particularly tuberculosis. After the World War II, except the short period of social confusion, major legally-defined communicable diseases had been decreasing rapidly mainly due to the use of antibiotics and improvement of environmental sanitation. At the same time, the introduction of preventive vaccination marked a new era for the prevention of infectious diseases and was largely responsible for the remarkable decrease of infant mortality in Japan. Recently the concept of defense by vaccination against infectious diseases has evolved from group-oriented to individual-oriented, so that the Preventive Vaccination Law was drastically revised in 1994. Currently, effective counter-measures against newly emerged infectious diseases, as viral hepatitis, institution-acquired infection, viral hemorrhagic fever etc., have been implemented. For the future, improvement of infections disease surveillance, vaccine development and expansion of vaccination coverage along with monitoring side-effects, preventive health education on AIDS/STDs, addressing the special needs of foreigners living in Japan and international collaboration for disease control abroad are all vital to the success of protection of the public's health from infectious diseases in Japan. PMID:8800275

  6. Overview of Infectious Diseases

    MedlinePLUS

    ... worms Last Updated 5/5/2015 Source Immunizations ? Infectious Diseases: An Informed Parent's Guide (Copyright © 2006 American Academy of Pediatrics) The information contained on this Web site should ...

  7. Why infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Bartlett, John G

    2014-09-15

    Infectious diseases is a broad discipline that is almost unique in contemporary medicine with its ability to cure and prevent disease, to identify specific disease causes (microbes), and to deal with diverse, sometimes massive outbreaks. The value of the infectious disease practitioner is now magnified by the crisis of antibiotic resistance, the expanding consequences of international travel, the introduction of completely new pathogen diagnostics, and healthcare reform with emphasis on infection prevention and cost in dollars and lives. Infectious disease careers have great personal rewards to the practitioner based on these observations. It is unfortunate that we have been so effective in our work, but relatively ineffective in convincing the healthcare system of this value. PMID:25151484

  8. Controlling Infectious Diseases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, Wm. Lane; Fidler, David P.

    1997-01-01

    Advocates establishing programs to educate the public about the growing threat of communicable diseases and to promote effective strategies. Utilizes recent successes and failures to formulate those strategies. Profiles three recent infectious disease outbreaks that illustrate some of the current problems. Identifies four ways that lawyers can…

  9. Seasonal infectious disease epidemiology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nicholas C. Grassly; Christophe Fraser

    2006-01-01

    formally examined. This paper examines the causes and consequences of seasonality, and in so doing derives several new results concerning vaccination strategy and the interpretation of disease outbreak data. It begins with a brief review of published scientific studies in support of different causes of seasonality in infectious diseases of humans, identifying four principal mechanisms and their association with different

  10. Dynamics of infectious diseases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rock, Kat; Brand, Sam; Moir, Jo; Keeling, Matt J.

    2014-02-01

    Modern infectious disease epidemiology has a strong history of using mathematics both for prediction and to gain a deeper understanding. However the study of infectious diseases is a highly interdisciplinary subject requiring insights from multiple disciplines, in particular a biological knowledge of the pathogen, a statistical description of the available data and a mathematical framework for prediction. Here we begin with the basic building blocks of infectious disease epidemiology—the SIS and SIR type models—before considering the progress that has been made over the recent decades and the challenges that lie ahead. Throughout we focus on the understanding that can be developed from relatively simple models, although accurate prediction will inevitably require far greater complexity beyond the scope of this review. In particular, we focus on three critical aspects of infectious disease models that we feel fundamentally shape their dynamics: heterogeneously structured populations, stochasticity and spatial structure. Throughout we relate the mathematical models and their results to a variety of real-world problems.

  11. Immunology Infectious disease

    E-print Network

    Schüler, Axel

    asthma we hope to enlighten the exact mecha- nisms of induction of pathogenicity. Infection with A yeastKeywords Immunology Infectious disease Asthma risk factor » Dr. Uwe Müller The yeast-like organism Cryptococ- cus neoformans is an opportunistic pathogen for immunocompromised patients. Infection

  12. Web Sites about Infectious Disease Web Sites about Infectious Disease

    E-print Network

    de Lijser, Peter

    Web Sites about Infectious Disease Web Sites about Infectious Disease Stanford Center for Tuberculosis Research-Site Links http://molepi.stanford.edu/tblinks.html Virology on the World Wide Web http://www.idsociety.org/ file:///C|/Program%20Files/Adobe/Adobe%20Dreamweav...nks/Web%20Sites%20about%20Infectious%20Disease

  13. Vaccines and infectious disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark A. Fletcher; Pierre Saliou

    \\u000a The exponential growth in vaccine research over the last decade, in which many infectious diseases now appear to be amenable\\u000a to prevention through immunization, is built upon three factors: first, a richer understanding of the immune response (in\\u000a particular, cellular immunity), second, a greater finesse in understanding the molecular biology of pathogenicity, and third,\\u000a an expanding use of genetic engineering

  14. Immunoserology of infectious diseases.

    PubMed Central

    James, K

    1990-01-01

    The immune response to microorganisms not only participates in the elimination of unwanted organisms from the body, but also assists in diagnosis of infectious diseases. The nonspecific immune response is the first line of defense, assisting the body until the specific immune response can be mobilized to provide protective mechanisms. The specific immune response involves humoral or cell-mediated immunity or both, dependent on the nature of the organism and its site of sequestration. A variety of test systems have been developed to identify the causative organisms of infectious diseases. Test systems used in immunoserology have classically included methods of detecting antigen-antibody reactions which range from complement fixation to immunoassay methods. Relevant test systems for detecting antigens and antibodies are described. With numerous test systems available to detect antigens and antibodies, there can be confusion regarding selection of the appropriate system for each application. Methods for detecting antibody to verify immunity differ from immunologic methods to diagnose disease. Techniques to detect soluble antigens present in active infectious states may appear similar to those used to detect antibody, but their differences should be appreciated. PMID:2187592

  15. Prioritising Infectious Disease Mapping

    PubMed Central

    Pigott, David M.; Howes, Rosalind E.; Wiebe, Antoinette; Battle, Katherine E.; Golding, Nick; Gething, Peter W.; Dowell, Scott F.; Farag, Tamer H.; Garcia, Andres J.; Kimball, Ann M.; Krause, L. Kendall; Smith, Craig H.; Brooker, Simon J.; Kyu, Hmwe H.; Vos, Theo; Murray, Christopher J. L.; Moyes, Catherine L.; Hay, Simon I.

    2015-01-01

    Background Increasing volumes of data and computational capacity afford unprecedented opportunities to scale up infectious disease (ID) mapping for public health uses. Whilst a large number of IDs show global spatial variation, comprehensive knowledge of these geographic patterns is poor. Here we use an objective method to prioritise mapping efforts to begin to address the large deficit in global disease maps currently available. Methodology/Principal Findings Automation of ID mapping requires bespoke methodological adjustments tailored to the epidemiological characteristics of different types of diseases. Diseases were therefore grouped into 33 clusters based upon taxonomic divisions and shared epidemiological characteristics. Disability-adjusted life years, derived from the Global Burden of Disease 2013 study, were used as a globally consistent metric of disease burden. A review of global health stakeholders, existing literature and national health priorities was undertaken to assess relative interest in the diseases. The clusters were ranked by combining both metrics, which identified 44 diseases of main concern within 15 principle clusters. Whilst malaria, HIV and tuberculosis were the highest priority due to their considerable burden, the high priority clusters were dominated by neglected tropical diseases and vector-borne parasites. Conclusions/Significance A quantitative, easily-updated and flexible framework for prioritising diseases is presented here. The study identifies a possible future strategy for those diseases where significant knowledge gaps remain, as well as recognising those where global mapping programs have already made significant progress. For many conditions, potential shared epidemiological information has yet to be exploited. PMID:26061527

  16. Bedbugs and Infectious Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Blanc, Véronique; Del Giudice, Pascal; Levy-Bencheton, Anna; Chosidow, Olivier; Marty, Pierre; Brouqui, Philippe

    2011-01-01

    Bedbugs are brown and flat hematophagous insects. The 2 cosmopolite species, Cimex lectularius and Cimex hemipterus, feed on humans and/or domestic animals, and recent outbreaks have been reported in occidental countries. Site assessment for bedbug eradication is complex but can be assured, despite emerging insecticide resistance, by hiring a pest-control manager. The common dermatological presentation of bites is an itchy maculopapular wheal. Urticarial reactions and anaphylaxis can also occur. Bedbugs are suspected of transmitting infectious agents, but no report has yet demonstrated that they are infectious disease vectors. We describe 45 candidate pathogens potentially transmitted by bedbugs, according to their vectorial capacity, in the wild, and vectorial competence, in the laboratory. Because of increasing demands for information about effective control tactics and public health risks of bedbugs, continued research is needed to identify new pathogens in wild Cimex species (spp) and insecticide resistance. PMID:21288844

  17. Infectious causes of sudden infant death syndrome.

    PubMed

    Alfelali, Mohammad; Khandaker, Gulam

    2014-12-01

    Investigators have long suspected the role of infection in sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). Evidence of infectious associations with SIDS is accentuated through the presence of markers of infection and inflammation on autopsy of SIDS infants and isolates of some bacteria and viruses. Several observational studies have looked into the relation between seasonality and incidence of SIDS, which often showed a winter peak. These all may suggest an infectious aetiology of SIDS. In this review we have summarised the current literature on infectious aetiologies of SIDS by looking at viral, bacterial, genetic and environmental factors which are believed to be associated with SIDS. PMID:25441371

  18. Ecology of Infectious Diseases

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    With a dramatic image of a bustling city superimposed over a peaceful forest, the National Science Foundation's homepage on the ecology of infectious diseases is quite intriguing. After clicking on the image, visitors will be treated to an overview of this special report that asks: "Is our interaction with the environment somehow responsible for the increases in incidence of these diseases?" The report is divided into five sections, each exploring a different facet of the National Science Foundation's work on this problem. The sections include "Medical Mystery Solved" and "Lyme Disease on the Rise". Each of these sections includes helpful graphics, well-written text, and links to additional sites. Overall, the site will be most useful for science educators and members of the public health community.

  19. Infectious bursal disease (Gumboro disease).

    PubMed

    van den Berg, T P; Eterradossi, N; Toquin, D; Meulemans, G

    2000-08-01

    Infectious bursal disease (IBD) (Gumboro disease) has been described throughout the world, and the socio-economic significance of the disease is considerable world-wide. Various forms of the disease have been described, but typing remains unclear, since antigenic and pathotypic criteria are used indiscriminately, and the true incidence of different types is difficult to determine. Moreover, the infection, when not fatal, leads to a degree of immunosuppression which is often difficult to measure. Finally, the control measures used are subject to variations, and seldom follow a specific or standardised plan. In the context of expanding international trade, the authors provide an overview of existing knowledge on the subject to enhance available information on the epidemiology of IBD, the identification of reliable viral markers for diagnosis, and the implementation of specific control measures to ensure a global and co-ordinated approach to the disease. PMID:10935278

  20. BORDER INFECTIOUS DISEASES SURVEILLANCE PROJECT

    EPA Science Inventory

    In 1997, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the Mexican Secretariat of Health, and border health officials began the development of the Border Infectious Disease Surveillance (BIDS) project, a surveillance system for infectious diseases along the U.S.-Mexico border. ...

  1. Infectious diseases: A global human resource challenge

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Allan Ronald

    2008-01-01

    Globally in 2007, infections were the proximate cause of death for about 15 million persons, and early mortality and disability from infections were responsible for more than one third of the disability-adjusted life years [1]. Although most of these outcomes could be prevented through known public health interventions and better access to competent primary care, the prepared infectious disease (ID)

  2. ETHICS AND INFECTIOUS DISEASE 1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael J. Selgelid

    2005-01-01

    ABSTRACTBioethics apparently suffers from a misdistribution of research resources analogous to the ‘10\\/90’ divide in medical research. Though infectious disease should be recognized as a topic of primary importance for bioethics, the general topic of infectious disease has received relatively little attention from the discipline of bioethics in comparison with things like abortion, euthanasia, genetics, cloning, stem cell research, and

  3. Infectious Diseases in Day Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sleator, Esther K.

    Discussed in this publication are infectious illnesses for which children attending day care appear to be at special risk. Also covered are the common cold, some infectious disease problems receiving media attention, and some other annoying but not serious diseases, such as head lice, pinworms, and contagious skin conditions. Causes,…

  4. Global Warming and Infectious Disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Atul A. Khasnis; Mary D. Nettleman

    2005-01-01

    Global warming has serious implications for all aspects of human life, including infectious diseases. The effect of global warming depends on the complex interaction between the human host population and the causative infectious agent. From the human standpoint, changes in the environment may trigger human migration, causing disease patterns to shift. Crop failures and famine may reduce host resistance to

  5. Conflict and Emerging Infectious Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Legros, Dominique; Formenty, Pierre; Connolly, Maire A.

    2007-01-01

    Detection and control of emerging infectious diseases in conflict situations are major challenges due to multiple risk factors known to enhance emergence and transmission of infectious diseases. These include inadequate surveillance and response systems, destroyed infrastructure, collapsed health systems and disruption of disease control programs, and infection control practices even more inadequate than those in resource-poor settings, as well as ongoing insecurity and poor coordination among humanitarian agencies. This article outlines factors that potentiate emergence and transmission of infectious diseases in conflict situations and highlights several priority actions for their containment and control. PMID:18217543

  6. What Is a Pediatric Infectious Diseases Specialist?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Text Size Email Print Share What is a Pediatric Infectious Diseases Specialist? Article Body If your child has a ... the teen years. What Kind of Training Do Pediatric Infectious Diseases Specialists Have? Pediatric infectious diseases specialists are medical ...

  7. on Infectious & Reportable Diseases HEALTH & SAFETY UNIT MAY 2009

    E-print Network

    POLICY on Infectious & Reportable Diseases HEALTH & SAFETY UNIT MAY 2009 #12;Policy on Infectious.............................................................................. 3 4.1 Infectious Diseases ................................................................................... 3 4.2. Notifiable Infectious Diseases

  8. January 1855 Infectious disease

    E-print Network

    Irwin, Darren

    'll follow this process throughout the book. Humans are a visual species, with brains evolved to process of teenage deaths Teenagers die from many causes,but some causes are more lethal than others.Table 2.1-1 lists causes of death of American teenagers between the ages of 15 and 19 in 1999, and the number

  9. Preventing Infectious Disease in Sports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howe, Warren B.

    2003-01-01

    Preventing infectious disease in sports is fundamental to maintaining team effectiveness and helping athletes avoid the adverse effects of illness. Good hygiene, immunization, minimal exposure to specific diseases, and certain prophylactic measures are essential. Teammates, coaches, trainers, officials, healthcare providers, and community public…

  10. The Mathematics of Infectious Diseases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Herbert W. Hethcote

    Many models for the spread of infectious diseases in populations have been analyzed math- ematically and applied to specific diseases. Threshold theorems involving the basic repro- duction number R0, the contact number ?, and the replacement number R are reviewed for the classic SIR epidemic and endemic models. Similar results with new expressions for R0 are obtained for MSEIR and

  11. Deforestation and avian infectious diseases

    PubMed Central

    Sehgal, R. N. M.

    2010-01-01

    In this time of unprecedented global change, infectious diseases will impact humans and wildlife in novel and unknown ways. Climate change, the introduction of invasive species, urbanization, agricultural practices and the loss of biodiversity have all been implicated in increasing the spread of infectious pathogens. In many regards, deforestation supersedes these other global events in terms of its immediate potential global effects in both tropical and temperate regions. The effects of deforestation on the spread of pathogens in birds are largely unknown. Birds harbor many of the same types of pathogens as humans and in addition can spread infectious agents to humans and other wildlife. It is thought that avifauna have gone extinct due to infectious diseases and many are presently threatened, especially endemic island birds. It is clear that habitat degradation can pose a direct threat to many bird species but it is uncertain how these alterations will affect disease transmission and susceptibility to disease. The migration and dispersal of birds can also change with habitat degradation, and thus expose populations to novel pathogens. Some recent work has shown that the results of landscape transformation can have confounding effects on avian malaria, other haemosporidian parasites and viruses. Now with advances in many technologies, including mathematical and computer modeling, genomics and satellite tracking, scientists have tools to further research the disease ecology of deforestation. This research will be imperative to help predict and prevent outbreaks that could affect avifauna, humans and other wildlife worldwide. PMID:20190120

  12. Deforestation and avian infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Sehgal, R N M

    2010-03-15

    In this time of unprecedented global change, infectious diseases will impact humans and wildlife in novel and unknown ways. Climate change, the introduction of invasive species, urbanization, agricultural practices and the loss of biodiversity have all been implicated in increasing the spread of infectious pathogens. In many regards, deforestation supersedes these other global events in terms of its immediate potential global effects in both tropical and temperate regions. The effects of deforestation on the spread of pathogens in birds are largely unknown. Birds harbor many of the same types of pathogens as humans and in addition can spread infectious agents to humans and other wildlife. It is thought that avifauna have gone extinct due to infectious diseases and many are presently threatened, especially endemic island birds. It is clear that habitat degradation can pose a direct threat to many bird species but it is uncertain how these alterations will affect disease transmission and susceptibility to disease. The migration and dispersal of birds can also change with habitat degradation, and thus expose populations to novel pathogens. Some recent work has shown that the results of landscape transformation can have confounding effects on avian malaria, other haemosporidian parasites and viruses. Now with advances in many technologies, including mathematical and computer modeling, genomics and satellite tracking, scientists have tools to further research the disease ecology of deforestation. This research will be imperative to help predict and prevent outbreaks that could affect avifauna, humans and other wildlife worldwide. PMID:20190120

  13. Global Spread of Infectious Diseases

    E-print Network

    S. Hsu; A. Zee

    2003-06-25

    We develop simple models for the global spread of infectious diseases, emphasizing human mobility via air travel and the variation of public health infrastructure from region to region. We derive formulas relating the total and peak number of infections in two countries to the rate of travel between them and their respective epidemiological parameters.

  14. Adventures in Infectious Diseases

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher-Hoch, Susan [University of Texas School of Public Health

    2011-11-01

    Dr. Susan Fisher-Hoch, Virologist and Epidemiologist, will discuss her research and travels associated with viral hemorrhagic fevers. From the Ebola outbreak in Reston, Virginia to outbreaks of Crimean Congo Hemorrhagic Fever in South Africa, Senegal, and Saudi Arabia, Dr. Fisher-Hoch has studied and tracked the pathophysiology of these viral diseases. These studies have led her from the Center for Disease Control in the United States, to Lyon, France where she was instrumental in designing, constructing, and rendering operational a laboratory capable of containing some of the world's most dangerous diseases.

  15. Emerging infectious plant diseases

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Healthy plants are essential to the survival of humans and animals on earth. Despite the value of plants, however, threats to plant health are generally considered secondary in importance to those of humans and animals. Although the most extensively studied pathogens are those causing disease on s...

  16. Bloodborne Infectious Diseases Exposure Control Plan

    E-print Network

    Berdichevsky, Victor

    Bloodborne Infectious Diseases Exposure Control Plan Pursuant to the requirements of the MIOSHA Bloodborne Infectious Diseases Standard (R 325.70001 through R 325.700018) Wayne State University Office

  17. Review article Epidemiological surveillance of infectious diseases

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Review article Epidemiological surveillance of infectious diseases in France Barbara DUFOUR for infectious animal diseases are the Direction générale de l'alimentation, the Agence française de sécurité according to a classification based on published criteria. In the case of human infectious diseases

  18. Bayesian Analysis for Emerging Infectious Diseases

    E-print Network

    Sidorov, Nikita

    Bayesian Analysis for Emerging Infectious Diseases C. Jewel, T. Kypraios, P. Neal & G. Roberts of Mathematics, The University of Manchester #12;Bayesian Analysis for Emerging Infectious Diseases. C. Jewell Infectious diseases both within human and animal polulations often pose serious health and socio- economic

  19. Infectious disease emergencies: role of the infectious disease specialist.

    PubMed

    Norrby, S Ragnar

    2005-04-01

    The importance of infections for public health has become obvious during the last decades. Examples are emerging infections such as HIV/AIDS and severe acute respiratory syndrome, deliberate release of microorganisms, such as the anthrax episode in the USA, the increasing problems with organisms resistant to antimicrobial treatment, such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, and the threat of a new influenza pandemic with a case fatality rate similar to that in the 1918 outbreak. An effective response to infectious disease emergencies requires careful planning and establishment of resources in advance. The medical specialties involved are clinical microbiology, clinical infectious diseases and epidemiology. Clinical microbiology should include bacteriology, virology, and parasitology; the technical developments during the last 15 years have clearly erased most of the methodological differences between these branches of microbiology. New techniques such as new generations of Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR), rapid methods for nucleic acid sequence analyses and microarrays have enabled more rapid identification of organisms and provide powerful tools in the epidemiological analysis of an outbreak. The infectious disease specialists are necessary for rapid and adequate clinical diagnoses, optimal use of antimicrobial agents and provision of facilities for containment of patients who may spread the infections. The need for isolation units became acute when many countries prepared themselves for a possible severe acute respiratory syndrome outbreak in Europe. With few exceptions, Europe still lacks epidemiological field forces, and it has been embarrassing to be obliged to call upon the Centers for Disease Control for European outbreaks. Hopefully, this will be corrected with the creation of the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC). PMID:15816100

  20. Chemoprophylaxis of Tropical Infectious Diseases

    PubMed Central

    McBride, William J. H.

    2010-01-01

    Travelers to tropical countries are at risk for a variety of infectious diseases. In some cases effective vaccinations are available, but for other infections chemoprophylaxis can be offered. Malaria prevention has become increasingly complex as Plasmodium species become resistant to available drugs. In certain high risk settings, antibiotics can be used to prevent leptospirosis, scrub typhus and other infections. Post-exposure prophylaxis is appropriate for selected virulent infections. In this article the evidence for chemoprophylaxis will be reviewed.

  1. [Genomic medicine and infectious diseases].

    PubMed

    Fellay, Jacques

    2014-05-01

    Relentless progress in our knowledge of the nature and functional consequences of human genetic variation allows for a better understanding of the protracted battle between pathogens and their human hosts. Multiple polymorphisms have been identified that impact our response to infections or to anti-infective drugs, and some of them are already used in the clinic. However, to make personalized medicine a reality in infectious diseases, a sustained effort is needed not only in research but also in genomic education. PMID:24800771

  2. Emerging Infectious Diseases in Mongolia

    PubMed Central

    Altantsetseg, Togoo; Oyungerel, Ravdan

    2003-01-01

    Since 1990, Mongolia’s health system has been in transition. Impressive gains have been accomplished through a national immunization program, which was instituted in 1991. Nevertheless, the country continues to confront four major chronic infections: hepatitis B and C, brucellosis, tuberculosis, and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). As of 2001, only two cases of HIV infections had been detected in Mongolia, but concern grows that the rate will increase along with the rising rates of STDs and increase in tourism. Other infectious diseases of importance in Mongolia include echinococcus, plague, tularemia, anthrax, foot-and-mouth, and rabies. PMID:14720388

  3. Infectious Diseases Subdue Serengeti Lions

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Cheryl Dybas (Freelance; )

    2009-01-01

    Infectious diseases stalk wildlife in the Serengeti, and climate change may be an accessory. Lions face serious threats to their future, some head-on, others lurking in the grasses, unseen until it's almost too late. From growing numbers of people living along the Serengeti perimeter to the effects of infectious diseases and climate change, the king of beasts (Panthera leo) leads an uneasy life. For example, lions are subject to simultaneous outbreaks of canine distemper virus (CDV) and babesiosis. CDV, a disease that results in encephalitis and pneumonia, is transmitted by domestic dogs; babesiosis is carried by a tick-borne blood parasite called Babesia. If extreme weather events become more frequent as a result of global climate change, disease may become a major threat to animal populations that have been historically stable. Diseases once thought to have limited impacts, such as babesiosis, should be watched closely. Environmental conditions may tip the scales and result in significantly greater impacts, even in wide open places like the Serengeti.

  4. Post-infectious disease syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Bannister, B. A.

    1988-01-01

    Many post-infectious syndromes have been recognized in the last 50 years, some following viral infections and others closely related to bacterial disease. The occurrence of prolonged fatigue following an apparent viral illness of varying severity is also well documented. The lack of a recognizable precipitating cause and the tendency for epidemic fatigue to occur among hospital staff led many to believe that the illness may be psychogenic in origin. However, there is serological evidence that some cases may follow enterovirus infections or occasionally delayed convalescence from infectious mononucleosis. Much interesting work is currently in progress relating fatigue to persisting immunological abnormalities, and the development of molecular immunology makes this a most exciting field of research. This paper reviews the evidence for and against a definitive post-viral fatigue syndrome and examines the results of research carried out in the last 50 years. PMID:3074289

  5. Emerging Infectious Diseases and Amphibian Population Declines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter Daszak; Lee Berger; Andrew A. Cunningham; Alex D. Hyatt; D. Earl Green; Rick Speare

    1999-01-01

    We review recent research on the pathology, ecology, and biogeography of two emerging infectious wildlife diseases, chytridiomycosis and ranaviral disease, in the context of host-parasite population biology. We examine the role of these diseases in the global decline of amphibian populations and propose hypotheses for the origins and impact of these panzootics. Finally, we discuss emerging infectious diseases as a

  6. Interleukin-12 in infectious diseases.

    PubMed Central

    Romani, L; Puccetti, P; Bistoni, F

    1997-01-01

    Interleukin-12 (IL-12) is a potent immunoregulatory cytokine that is crucially involved in a wide range of infectious diseases. In several experimental models of bacterial, parasitic, viral, and fungal infection, endogenous IL-12 is required for early control of infection and for generation and perhaps maintenance of acquired protective immunity, directed by T helper type 1 (Th1) cells and mediated by phagocytes. Although the relative roles of IL-12 and gamma interferon in Th1-cell priming may be to a significant extent pathogen dependent, common to most infections is that IL-12 regulates the magnitude of the gamma interferon response at the initiation of infection, thus potentiating natural resistance, favoring Th1-cell development; and inhibiting Th2 responses. Treatment of animals with IL-12, either alone or as a vaccine adjuvant, has been shown to prevent disease by many of the same infectious agents, by stimulating innate resistance or promoting specific reactivity. Although IL-12 may enhance protective memory responses in vaccination or in combination with antimicrobial chemotherapy, it is yet unclear whether exogenous IL-12 can alter established responses in humans. Continued investigation into the possible application of IL-12 therapy to human infections is warranted by the role of the cytokine in inflammation, immunopathology, and autoimmunity. PMID:9336665

  7. Prenatal or early postnatal events predict infectious deaths in young adulthood in rural Africa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sophie E Moore; Timothy J Cole; Andrew C Collinson; Ian A McGregord; Andrew M Prenticea

    1999-01-01

    Background Research over the past decade has suggested that prenatal and early postnatal nutrition influence the risk of developing chronic degenerative diseases up to 60 years later. We now present evidence that risk of death from infectious diseases in young adulthood is similarly programmed by early life events. Methods In three rural Gambian villages, affected by a marked annual seasonality

  8. Infectious Diseases and the Immune System

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    ARNEL DELA CRUZ

    2012-06-28

    The lesson is design to explain the basic functions of the human immune system, including specific and nonspecific immune response, vaccines, and antibiotics. Primarily, it focuses on infectious diseases and how the immune system defend the body against infectious diseases. The lesson uses the 5E model as an approach for students to become engage, analytical and inquisitive in learning about infectious diseases and the immune system.

  9. Informatics for Infectious Disease Research and Control

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vitali Sintchenko

    \\u000a The goal of infectious disease informatics is to optimize the clinical and public health management of infectious diseases\\u000a through improvements in the development and use of antimicrobials, the design of more effective vaccines, the identification\\u000a of biomarkers for life-threatening infections, a better understanding of host-pathogen interactions, and biosurveillance and\\u000a clinical decision support. Infectious disease informatics can lead to more targeted

  10. Infectious diseases and daycare and preschool education

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maria M. M. Nesti; Moisés Goldbaum

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To describe the increased risk of acquiring infectious diseases associated with out-of-home childcare and the effectiveness of measures for the control and prevention of diseases transmission at daycare and preschool education centers. Sources: A review of literature in the MEDLINE, LILACS and Cochrane Library databases, found using the descriptors daycare, infection, infection control and infectious diseases and focusing on

  11. Genetic Contributions to Infectious Disease Risk Infectious disease in cattle production

    E-print Network

    Genetic Contributions to Infectious Disease Risk Infectious disease in cattle production remains&M University have begun to consolidate our expertise in ruminant health and production, genomics, and genetic To identify genetic polymorphisms associated with infectious diseases of cattle of importance to animal

  12. 77 FR 76296 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-27

    ...Allergy and Infectious Diseases Council: Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Subcommittee...Allergy and Infectious Diseases Council: Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Subcommittee...Allergy and Infectious Diseases Council: Microbiology and Infectious Diseases...

  13. 76 FR 77241 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-12

    ...Allergy and Infectious Diseases Council, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Subcommittee...Allergy and Infectious Diseases Council, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Subcommittee...Allergy and Infectious Diseases Council, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases...

  14. 78 FR 79703 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-31

    ...Allergy and Infectious Diseases Council; Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Subcommittee...Allergy and Infectious Diseases Council; Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Subcommittee...Allergy and Infectious Diseases Council; Microbiology and Infectious Diseases...

  15. The changing spectrum of neonatal infectious disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L R W Plano; LRW Plano

    2010-01-01

    To understand the changing spectrum of neonatal infectious disease, one must first be familiar with the history, the variety of organisms and the progression of change of neonatal infections over the years. As progressively more immature neonates are surviving, the spectrum of infectious disease has changed in response to current medical practice responsible for this success and to selective pressures

  16. Infectious diseases - new and ancient threats to world health.

    SciTech Connect

    Olshansky, S. J.; Carnes, B.; Rogers, R. G.; Smith, L.; Center for Mechanistic Biology and Biotechnology

    1997-07-01

    When smallpox was eradicated from the globe in the late 1970s, many health experts assumed that infectious and parasitic diseases (IPDs) could at long last be conquered. Death rates from infectious and parasitic diseases had declined during the late 19th century and throughout the 20th century thanks to better public health and sanitation as well as medical advances made possible by economic development. During this period, scientists discovered the germ theory of disease, identified the epidemiology and natural history of many infectious diseases, and created a host of potent antibiotic drugs that helped save millions of lives. Medical researchers learned to identify and cultivate viruses, which led to vaccines for increasing numbers of diseases.

  17. 76 FR 27070 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases;

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-10

    ...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

  18. Stress and infectious disease in humans

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sheldon Cohen; Gail M. Williamson

    1991-01-01

    This article reviews research on the role of stress in infectious disease as measured either by illness behaviors (symptoms and use of health services) or by verified pathology. Substantial evidence was found for an association between stress and increased illness behavior, and less convincing but provocative evidence was found for a similar association between stress and infectious pathology. Introverts, isolates,

  19. Emerging and Re-Emerging Infectious Diseases

    MedlinePLUS

    ... more information on enabling JavaScript. Emerging Infectious Diseases/Pathogens Skip Content Marketing Share this: Main Content Area ... Divisions supporting such research. NIAID Biodefense Research Priority Pathogens List of NIAID Category A-C pathogens Additional ...

  20. Infectious Diseases and Immunizations. Matrix No. 15.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sever, John L.

    This paper summarizes the major advances achieved by research in the fields of infectious diseases and immunizations during the 1970s, and delineates directions for future research in these fields. (Author/MP)

  1. Cocirculation of infectious diseases on networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Joel C.

    2013-06-01

    We consider multiple diseases spreading in a static configuration model network. We make standard assumptions that infection transmits from neighbor to neighbor at a disease-specific rate and infected individuals recover at a disease-specific rate. Infection by one disease confers immediate and permanent immunity to infection by any disease. Under these assumptions, we find a simple, low-dimensional ordinary differential equations model which captures the global dynamics of the infection. The dynamics depend strongly on initial conditions. Although we motivate this Rapid Communication with infectious disease, the model may be adapted to the spread of other infectious agents such as competing political beliefs, or adoption of new technologies if these are influenced by contacts. As an example, we demonstrate how to model an infectious disease which can be prevented by a behavior change.

  2. Continuing challenge of infectious diseases in India.

    PubMed

    John, T Jacob; Dandona, Lalit; Sharma, Vinod P; Kakkar, Manish

    2011-01-15

    In India, the range and burden of infectious diseases are enormous. The administrative responsibilities of the health system are shared between the central (federal) and state governments. Control of diseases and outbreaks is the responsibility of the central Ministry of Health, which lacks a formal public health department for this purpose. Tuberculosis, malaria, filariasis, visceral leishmaniasis, leprosy, HIV infection, and childhood cluster of vaccine-preventable diseases are given priority for control through centrally managed vertical programmes. Control of HIV infection and leprosy, but not of tuberculosis, seems to be on track. Early success of malaria control was not sustained, and visceral leishmaniasis prevalence has increased. Inadequate containment of the vector has resulted in recurrent outbreaks of dengue fever and re-emergence of Chikungunya virus disease and typhus fever. Other infectious diseases caused by faecally transmitted pathogens (enteric fevers, cholera, hepatitis A and E viruses) and zoonoses (rabies, leptospirosis, anthrax) are not in the process of being systematically controlled. Big gaps in the surveillance and response system for infectious diseases need to be addressed. Replication of the model of vertical single-disease control for all infectious diseases will not be efficient or viable. India needs to rethink and revise its health policy to broaden the agenda of disease control. A comprehensive review and redesign of the health system is needed urgently to ensure equity and quality in health care. We recommend the creation of a functional public health infrastructure that is shared between central and state governments, with professional leadership and a formally trained public health cadre of personnel who manage an integrated control mechanism of diseases in districts that includes infectious and non-infectious diseases, and injuries. PMID:21227500

  3. 75 FR 76475 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-08

    ...Allergy and Infectious Diseases Council; Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Subcommittee...Allergy and Infectious Diseases Council; Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Subcommittee...Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases...

  4. Infectious Bursal Disease in New Brunswick

    PubMed Central

    Ide, P. R.; Stevenson, R. G.

    1973-01-01

    A flock of four week old chickens experienced a disease of sudden onset in which the only symptoms were those of depression shortly before death, and in which the predominant histological lesion was necrosis of lymphocytes in the bursa of Fabricius. A virus, designated strain Sk-1, was isolated from pooled bursal tissue of affected birds and was serologically identified as a strain of the infectious bursal agent. This virus was chloroform resistant, did not hemagglutinate guinea pig or chicken erythrocytes and did not produce a cytopathic effect in chick embryo tissue cultures. Equivocal results were obtained in filtration studies but the agent was less than 100nm in diameter. Four week old chicks inoculated with strain Sk-1 developed microscopic lesions in the bursa of Fabricius which were similar to those seen in the original field specimens. Inoculated chick embryos exhibited characteristic macroscopic lesions and necrosis of vascular tissue was a common histological change. A limited serological survey of local poultry flocks indicated that infection by this agent had occurred in four of the ten flocks examined. ImagesFig. 2.Fig. 3.Fig. 4.Fig. 5.Fig. 6.Fig. 7.Fig. 8.Fig. 9.Fig. 10.Fig. 11. PMID:4356315

  5. Epidemic! The World of Infectious Disease - Exhibit

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This Web site, created to complement the museum's Epidemic! exhibit, provides an in-depth look at the world of infectious disease. It includes information on how environmental changes can affect the spread of disease, the three major groups of microbes and how disease is spread, and the factors that determine whether an outbreak will become an epidemic or a pandemic. There is a list, organized by topic and specific disease, of more than 250 Web sites and a glossary.

  6. Infectious Diseases and Immunity Ph.D. Program UC Berkeley

    E-print Network

    Sjölander, Kimmen

    Infectious Diseases and Immunity Ph.D. Program UC Berkeley Ph.D. Degree Program The Graduate Group in Infectious Diseases and Immunity provides the opportunity for the study of the biology of infectious agents of infectious diseases. The degree program is unique in emphasizing integrated, multidisciplinary training

  7. Biodiversity loss and infectious diseases: chapter 5

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lafferty, Kevin D.

    2014-01-01

    When conservation biologists think about infectious diseases, their thoughts are mostly negative. Infectious diseases have been associated with the extinction and endangerment of some species, though this is rare, and other factors like habitat loss and poorly regulated harvest still are the overwhelming drivers of endangerment. Parasites are pervasive and play important roles as natural enemies on par with top predators, from regulating population abundances to maintaining species diversity. Sometimes, parasites themselves can be endangered. However, it seems unlikely that humans will miss extinct parasites. Parasites are often sensitive to habitat loss and degradation, making them positive indicators of ecosystem “health”. Conservation biologists need to carefully consider infectious diseases when planning conservation actions. This can include minimizing the movement of domestic and invasive species, vaccination, and culling.

  8. Structure of Infectious Bursal Disease Virus

    PubMed Central

    Hirai, K.; Shimakura, S.

    1974-01-01

    Infectious bursal disease virus of chickens was purified, and its structure was examined by the negative-staining technique in the electron microscope. The buoyant density of infectious bursal disease virus in CsCl was found to be 1.34 g/cm3. The morphological details suggest that the capsid of the virion consists of a single layer of 32 capsomeres arranged in 5:3:2 symmetry. The virion measured about 55 nm in diameter and had no envelope. Images PMID:4138194

  9. Emerging infectious diseases and animal social systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Charles L. Nunn; Peter H. Thrall; Kelly Stewart; Alexander H. Harcourt

    2008-01-01

    Emerging infectious diseases threaten a wide diversity of animals, and important questions remain concerning disease emergence\\u000a in socially structured populations. We developed a spatially explicit simulation model to investigate whether—and under what\\u000a conditions—disease-related mortality can impact rates of pathogen spread in populations of polygynous groups. Specifically,\\u000a we investigated whether pathogen-mediated dispersal (PMD) can occur when females disperse after the resident

  10. Infectious Disease Specialist: What Is an Infectious Disease Specialist?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... medical professionals? When do I need an ID specialist? Many common infections can be treated by your ... diseases. Back to Top How was my ID specialist trained? Your ID Physician has 9-10 years ...

  11. Infectious Disease Risk Associated with Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pierson, Duane L.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation opens with views of the shuttle in various stages of preparation for launch, a few moments after launch prior to external fuel tank separation, a few pictures of the earth,and several pictures of astronomical interest. The presentation reviews the factors effecting the risks of infectious disease during space flight, such as the crew, water, food, air, surfaces and payloads and the factors that increase disease risk, the factors affecting the risk of infectious disease during spaceflight, and the environmental factors affecting immunity, such as stress. One factor in space infectious disease is latent viral reactivation, such as herpes. There are comparisons of the incidence of viral reactivation in space, and in other analogous situations (such as bed rest, or isolation). There is discussion of shingles, and the pain and results of treatment. There is a further discussion of the changes in microbial pathogen characteristics, using salmonella as an example of the increased virulence of microbes during spaceflight. A factor involved in the risk of infectious disease is stress.

  12. Global trends in emerging infectious diseases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kate E. Jones; Nikkita G. Patel; Marc A. Levy; Adam Storeygard; Deborah Balk; John L. Gittleman; Peter Daszak

    2008-01-01

    Emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) are a significant burden on global economies and public health. Their emergence is thought to be driven largely by socio-economic, environmental and ecological factors, but no comparative study has explicitly analysed these linkages to understand global temporal and spatial patterns of EIDs. Here we analyse a database of 335 EID `events' (origins of EIDs) between 1940

  13. Infectious Diseases: Education, Prevention, and Nursing Diagnoses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Barbara Stover Gingerich

    1998-01-01

    The infectious disease process has been studied since the times of Louis Pasteur and Jonas Salk. Three key components comprise any infection: the agent, the spread, and the incubator (host). When considering these three components, it is recognized that the causative agents have remained relatively consistent through the years and include bacterium, spirochetes, virus, fungi, chlamydiae, parasite, ricketsettia, protozoans, and

  14. Rediscovering Biology - Unit 5: Emerging Infectious Diseases

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Annenberg Media Learner.org

    This page is the jumping-off point for an educational unit on emerging infectious diseases. There are links to a course outline and classroom activity worksheets, a 30-minute video, an online textbook chapter, a collection of relevant images and animations that supplement the chapter, transcripts of interviews with five experts featured in the video, and a glossary and bibliography. The video and textbook chapter cover two main phenomena of emerging diseases - evolution of antibiotic resistance, and mutation of disease organisms due to novel environmental pressures. There are detailed explanations of microbial evolution by mutation and acquisition of new genetic material, as well as case studies of infectious diseases spread by animals. The course outline provides a structure for incorporating the video, the textbook chapter, and five classroom activities into a 2.5hr session appropriate for high school or undergraduate students.

  15. 78 FR 3011 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-15

    ...personal privacy. Name of Committee: Microbiology, Infectious Diseases and AIDS Initial Review Group; Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research...Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases...

  16. 76 FR 55074 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-06

    ...personal privacy. Name of Committee: Microbiology, Infectious Diseases and AIDS Initial Review Group, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research...Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases...

  17. 75 FR 26760 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-12

    ...personal privacy. Name of Committee: Microbiology, Infectious Diseases and AIDS Initial Review Group; Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research...Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases...

  18. 75 FR 81631 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-28

    ...personal privacy. Name of Committee: Microbiology, Infectious Diseases and AIDS Initial Review Group. Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research...Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases...

  19. 75 FR 49502 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-13

    ...personal privacy. Name of Committee: Microbiology, Infectious Diseases and AIDS Initial Review Group; Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research...Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases...

  20. 77 FR 29676 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-18

    ...personal privacy. Name of Committee: Microbiology, Infectious Diseases and AIDS Initial Review Group; Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research...Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases...

  1. Infectious Disease Modeling of Social Contagion in Networks

    E-print Network

    Hill, Alison Lynn

    Many behavioral phenomena have been found to spread interpersonally through social networks, in a manner similar to infectious diseases. An important difference between social contagion and traditional infectious diseases, ...

  2. Infectious diseases and global warming: Tracking disease incidence rates globally

    SciTech Connect

    Low, N.C. [Low and Associates Actuary, Cerritos, CA (United States)

    1995-09-01

    Given the increasing importance of impact of global warming on public health, there is no global database system to monitor infectious disease and disease in general, and to which global data of climate change and environmental factors, such as temperature, greenhouse gases, and human activities, e.g., coastal development, deforestation, can be calibrated, investigated and correlated. The author proposes the diseases incidence rates be adopted as the basic global measure of morbidity of infectious diseases. The importance of a correctly chosen measure of morbidity of disease is presented. The importance of choosing disease incidence rates as the measure of morbidity and the mathematical foundation of which are discussed. The author further proposes the establishment of a global database system to track the incidence rates of infectious diseases. Only such a global system can be used to calibrate and correlate other globally tracked climatic, greenhouse gases and environmental data. The infrastructure and data sources for building such a global database is discussed.

  3. Vaccination against infectious diseases: what is promising?

    PubMed

    Doerr, Hans Wilhelm; Berger, Annemarie

    2014-12-01

    Vaccination has proven to be one of the best weapons protecting the mankind against infectious diseases. Along with the huge progress in microbiology, numerous highly efficacious and safe vaccines have been produced by conventional technology (cultivation), by the use of molecular biology (genetic modification), or by synthetic chemistry. Sterilising prevention is achieved by the stimulation of antibody production, while the stimulation of cell-mediated immune responses may prevent the outbreak of disease in consequence of an acute or reactivated infection. From several examples, two rules are deduced to evaluate the perspectives of future vaccine developments: They are promising, if (1) the natural infectious disease induces immunity or (2) passive immunisation (transfer of antibodies, adoptive transfer of lymphocytes) is successful in preventing infection. PMID:25064610

  4. Spread of infectious disease through clustered populations

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Joel C.

    2009-01-01

    Networks of person-to-person contacts form the substrate along which infectious diseases spread. Most network-based studies of this spread focus on the impact of variations in degree (the number of contacts an individual has). However, other effects such as clustering, variations in infectiousness or susceptibility, or variations in closeness of contacts may play a significant role. We develop analytic techniques to predict how these effects alter the growth rate, probability and size of epidemics, and validate the predictions with a realistic social network. We find that (for a given degree distribution and average transmissibility) clustering is the dominant factor controlling the growth rate, heterogeneity in infectiousness is the dominant factor controlling the probability of an epidemic and heterogeneity in susceptibility is the dominant factor controlling the size of an epidemic. Edge weights (measuring closeness or duration of contacts) have impact only if correlations exist between different edges. Combined, these effects can play a minor role in reinforcing one another, with the impact of clustering the largest when the population is maximally heterogeneous or if the closer contacts are also strongly clustered. Our most significant contribution is a systematic way to address clustering in infectious disease models, and our results have a number of implications for the design of interventions. PMID:19324673

  5. Infectious Disease Hospitalizations Among Infants in the United States

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Krista L. Yorita; Robert C. Holman; James J. Sejvar; Claudia A. Steiner; Lawrence B. Schonberger

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. This study describes the burden and epidemiologic features of infectious disease hospitalizations among infants in the United States. METHODS. Hospitalizations with an infectious disease listed as a primary diagnosis for infants (1 year of age) in the United States during 2003 were examined by using the Kids' Inpatient Database. National estimates of infectious disease hospitalizations, hospitalization rates, and various

  6. Emerging infectious diseases of plants: pathogen pollution, climate change

    E-print Network

    Schweik, Charles M.

    Emerging infectious diseases of plants: pathogen pollution, climate change and agrotechnology, Boston, MA 02115, USA Emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) pose threats to conservation and public health for the surveillance and control of plant EIDs. Emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) are caused by pathogens that: (i

  7. Statistical studies of infectious disease incidence Niels G. Becker

    E-print Network

    Britton, Tom

    Statistical studies of infectious disease incidence Niels G. Becker La Trobe University, Bundoora] Summary. Methods for the analysis of data on the incidence of an infectious disease are reviewed±acquired immune de®ciency syndrome epidemic. Infectious disease data seem particularly suited to analysis

  8. Assistant or Associate Professor Division of Infectious Diseases

    E-print Network

    Quake, Stephen R.

    Assistant or Associate Professor Division of Infectious Diseases Department of Medicine The Department of Medicine/Division of Infectious Diseases and Geographic Medicine at Stanford University of Infectious Diseases will be considered, including those with clinical and bench-based research programs

  9. Mathematical Techniques in the Evolutionary Epidemiology of Infectious Diseases

    E-print Network

    Linder, Tamás

    1 Mathematical Techniques in the Evolutionary Epidemiology of Infectious Diseases Troy Day The epidemiology of infectious diseases is a vibrant and growing area of research. Mathematics has come to play of infectious disease stems, in part, from the high levels of genetic variation that are often generated through

  10. Real-Time Event Extraction Infectious Disease Outbreaks

    E-print Network

    Real-Time Event Extraction for Infectious Disease Outbreaks Ralph Grishman grishman of information on infectious disease outbreaks. A web crawler is used to retrieve current news stories of information on infectious disease outbreaks, linked back to the reports from which they are derived

  11. Hidden Cluster Detection for Infectious Disease Control and Quarantine Management

    E-print Network

    Fong, Chi Chiu "Simon"

    Hidden Cluster Detection for Infectious Disease Control and Quarantine Management Yain-Whar Si, Kan {fstasp,ma46511,robertb,ccfong}@umac.mo Abstract. Infectious diseases that are caused by pathogenic in this paper. Key words: Infectious Disease, Cluster Detection, Contact Tracing, SARS, Health Care Information

  12. Management of Chronic Infectious Diseases in School Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois State Board of Education, Springfield.

    This document contains guidelines for developing policies and procedures related to chronic infectious diseases, as recommended by the Illinois Task Force on School Management of Infectious Disease. It is designed to help school personnel understand how infectious diseases can be transmitted, and to assist school districts in the development and…

  13. Using biological networks to improve our understanding of infectious diseases

    PubMed Central

    Mulder, Nicola J.; Akinola, Richard O.; Mazandu, Gaston K.; Rapanoel, Holifidy

    2014-01-01

    Infectious diseases are the leading cause of death, particularly in developing countries. Although many drugs are available for treating the most common infectious diseases, in many cases the mechanism of action of these drugs or even their targets in the pathogen remain unknown. In addition, the key factors or processes in pathogens that facilitate infection and disease progression are often not well understood. Since proteins do not work in isolation, understanding biological systems requires a better understanding of the interconnectivity between proteins in different pathways and processes, which includes both physical and other functional interactions. Such biological networks can be generated within organisms or between organisms sharing a common environment using experimental data and computational predictions. Though different data sources provide different levels of accuracy, confidence in interactions can be measured using interaction scores. Connections between interacting proteins in biological networks can be represented as graphs and edges, and thus studied using existing algorithms and tools from graph theory. There are many different applications of biological networks, and here we discuss three such applications, specifically applied to the infectious disease tuberculosis, with its causative agent Mycobacterium tuberculosis and host, Homo sapiens. The applications include the use of the networks for function prediction, comparison of networks for evolutionary studies, and the generation and use of host–pathogen interaction networks. PMID:25379138

  14. Using biological networks to improve our understanding of infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Mulder, Nicola J; Akinola, Richard O; Mazandu, Gaston K; Rapanoel, Holifidy

    2014-08-01

    Infectious diseases are the leading cause of death, particularly in developing countries. Although many drugs are available for treating the most common infectious diseases, in many cases the mechanism of action of these drugs or even their targets in the pathogen remain unknown. In addition, the key factors or processes in pathogens that facilitate infection and disease progression are often not well understood. Since proteins do not work in isolation, understanding biological systems requires a better understanding of the interconnectivity between proteins in different pathways and processes, which includes both physical and other functional interactions. Such biological networks can be generated within organisms or between organisms sharing a common environment using experimental data and computational predictions. Though different data sources provide different levels of accuracy, confidence in interactions can be measured using interaction scores. Connections between interacting proteins in biological networks can be represented as graphs and edges, and thus studied using existing algorithms and tools from graph theory. There are many different applications of biological networks, and here we discuss three such applications, specifically applied to the infectious disease tuberculosis, with its causative agent Mycobacterium tuberculosis and host, Homo sapiens. The applications include the use of the networks for function prediction, comparison of networks for evolutionary studies, and the generation and use of host-pathogen interaction networks. PMID:25379138

  15. Biomarker detection of global infectious diseases based on magnetic particles.

    PubMed

    Carinelli, Soledad; Martí, Mercč; Alegret, Salvador; Pividori, María Isabel

    2015-09-25

    Infectious diseases affect the daily lives of millions of people all around the world, and are responsible for hundreds of thousands of deaths, mostly in the developing world. Although most of these major infectious diseases are treatable, the early identification of individuals requiring treatment remains a major issue. The incidence of these diseases would be reduced if rapid diagnostic tests were widely available at the community and primary care level in low-resource settings. Strong research efforts are thus being focused on replacing standard clinical diagnostic methods, such as the invasive detection techniques (biopsy or endoscopy) or expensive diagnostic and monitoring methods, by affordable and sensitive tests based on novel biomarkers. The development of new methods that are needed includes solid-phase separation techniques. In this context, the integration of magnetic particles within bioassays and biosensing devices is very promising since they greatly improve the performance of a biological reaction. The diagnosis of clinical samples with magnetic particles can be easily achieved without pre-enrichment, purification or pretreatment steps often required for standard methods, simplifying the analytical procedures. The biomarkers can be specifically isolated and preconcentrated from complex biological matrixes by magnetic actuation, increasing specificity and the sensitivity of the assay. This review addresses these promising features of the magnetic particles for the detection of biomarkers in emerging technologies related with infectious diseases affecting global health, such as malaria, influenza, dengue, tuberculosis or HIV. PMID:25917978

  16. Infectious diseases and global warming: Tracking disease incidence rates globally

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1995-01-01

    Given the increasing importance of impact of global warming on public health, there is no global database system to monitor infectious disease and disease in general, and to which global data of climate change and environmental factors, such as temperature, greenhouse gases, and human activities, e.g., coastal development, deforestation, can be calibrated, investigated and correlated. The author proposes the diseases

  17. Platelet satellitism in infectious disease?

    PubMed Central

    Laskaj, Renata; Sikiric, Dubravka; Skerk, Visnja

    2015-01-01

    Background Platelet satellitism is a phenomenon of unknown etiology of aggregating platelets around polymorphonuclear neutrophils and other blood cells which causes pseudothrombocytopenia, visible by microscopic examination of blood smears. It has been observed so far in about a hundred cases in the world. Case subject and methods Our case involves a 73-year-old female patient with a urinary infection. Biochemical serum analysis (CRP, glucose, AST, ALT, ALP, GGT, bilirubin, sodium, potassium, chloride, urea, creatinine) and blood cell count were performed with standard methods on autoanalyzers. Serum protein fractions were examined by electrophoresis and urinalysis with standard methods on autoanalyzer together with microscopic examination of urine sediment. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate, blood culture and urine culture tests were performed with standard methods. Results Due to typical pathological values for bacterial urinary infection, the patient was admitted to the hospital. Blood smear examination revealed phenomenon, which has persisted for three weeks after the disease has been cured. Blood smears with EDTA as an anticoagulant had platelet satellitism whereas the phenomenon was not observed in tubes with different anticoagulants (Na, Li-heparin) and capillary blood. Discussion We hypothesize that satellitism was induced by some immunological mechanism through formation of antibodies which have mediated platelets binding to neutrophil membranes and vice versa. Unfortunately we were unable to determine the putative trigger for this phenomenon. To our knowledge this is the second case of platelet satellitism ever described in Croatia. PMID:26110042

  18. [Acute infectious diseases in occupied Japan].

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Seiji; Sugita, Satoru; Moriyama, Takako; Marui, Eiji

    2007-06-01

    Japan's health statistics system, considered among the best in the world today, continually complies and organizes information about various infectious diseases. However, systematic surveillance was not conducted by the Ministry of Health and Welfare between World War II and the postwar period, creating a gap in health data. In contrast, the GHQ/SCAP/PHW. which was closely involved in health and medical reform during the Occupation, thoroughly investigated the health conditions of the Japanese people during this period. This article describes the trends in acute infectious diseases in Occupied Japan by using statistical records listed in the appendices of the "Weekly Bulletin", an official document of the GHQ/SCAP that is currently kept in the National Diet Library Modern Japanese Political History Materials Room. PMID:18175437

  19. National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Created over fifty years ago, the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NAID) "conducts and supports basic and applied research to better understand, treat, and ultimately prevent infectious, immunologic, and allergic diseases." In recent years, the scope of the institute's research activities has expanded to include emerging issues such as the possibility of bioterrorism and West Nile virus. The site contains a wealth of information on the activities of NAID, such as the most recent publications, organizational hierarchy, and funding opportunities for researchers and scholars. The newsroom area is quite thorough, as visitors have access to the database of news releases dating back to 1995 and access to SciBites, which features brief summaries of articles about NAID-funded research, updated weekly. The site is notable for its extensive special section on the growing battery of research on biodefense strategies.

  20. Peripheral Nervous System Manifestations of Infectious Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Brizzi, Kate T.

    2014-01-01

    Infectious causes of peripheral nervous system (PNS) disease are underrecognized but potentially treatable. Heightened awareness educed by advanced understanding of the presentations and management of these infections can aid diagnosis and facilitate treatment. In this review, we discuss the clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and treatment of common bacterial, viral, and parasitic infections that affect the PNS. We additionally detail PNS side effects of some frequently used antimicrobial agents. PMID:25360209

  1. In ovo Vaccine Against Infectious Bursal Disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Moura; V. Vakharia; M. Liu; H. Song

    2007-01-01

    A recombinant attenuated vaccine against infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) was administered in ovo to 18-day-old embryos. The vaccine was genetically tailored to protect from challenges in the field against classic and variant strains of IBDV. The vaccine virus contains neutralizing epitopes from both classic (D78) and variant strain (GLS), and abrogates expression of the nonstructural protein, VP5 of IBDV.

  2. Sex Differences in Pediatric Infectious Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Muenchhoff, Maximilian; Goulder, Philip J. R.

    2014-01-01

    The success of the immune response is finely balanced between, on the one hand, the need to engage vigorously with, and clear, certain pathogens; and, on the other, the requirement to minimize immunopathology and autoimmunity. Distinct immune strategies to achieve this balance have evolved in females and males and also in infancy through to adulthood. Sex differences in outcome from a range of infectious diseases can be identified from as early as fetal life, such as in congenital cytomegalovirus infection. The impact of sex hormones on the T-helper 1/T-helper 2 cytokine balance has been proposed to explain the higher severity of most infectious diseases in males. In the minority where greater morbidity and mortality is observed in females, this is hypothesized to arise because of greater immunopathology and/or autoimmunity. However, a number of unexplained exceptions to this rule are described. Studies that have actually measured the sex differences in children in the immune responses to infectious diseases and that would further test these hypotheses, are relatively scarce. PMID:24966192

  3. Capacity building in pediatric transplant infectious diseases: an international perspective.

    PubMed

    Danziger-Isakov, Lara; Evans, Helen M; Green, Michael; McCulloch, Mignon; Michaels, Marian G; Posfay-Barbe, Klara M; Verma, Anita; Allen, Upton

    2014-12-01

    Transplant infectious diseases is a rapidly emerging subspecialty within pediatric infectious diseases reflecting the increasing volumes and complexity of this patient population. Incorporating transplant infectious diseases into the transplant process would provide an opportunity to improve clinical outcome and advocacy as well as expand research. The relationship between transplant physicians and infectious diseases (ID) specialists is one of partnership, collaboration, and mutual continuing professional education. The ID CARE Committee of the International Pediatric Transplant Association (IPTA) views the development and integration of transplant infectious diseases into pediatric transplant care as an international priority. PMID:25212948

  4. Potential Infectious Etiology of Behçet's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Galeone, Massimiliano; Colucci, Roberta; D'Erme, Angelo Massimiliano; Moretti, Silvia; Lotti, Torello

    2012-01-01

    Behçet's disease is a multisystem inflammatory disorder characterized by recurrent oral aphthous ulcers, genital ulcers, uveitis, and skin lesions. The cause of Behçet's disease remains unknown, but epidemiologic findings suggest that an autoimmune process is triggered by an environmental agent in a genetically predisposed individual. An infectious agent could operate through molecular mimicry, and subsequently the disease could be perpetuated by an abnormal immune response to an autoantigen in the absence of ongoing infection. Potentia bacterial are Saccharomyces cerevisiae, mycobacteria, Borrelia burgdorferi, Helicobacter pylori, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Mycoplasma fermentans, but the most commonly investigated microorganism is Streptococcus sanguinis. The relationship between streptococcal infections and Behçet's disease is suggested by clinical observations that an unhygienic oral condition is frequently noted in the oral cavity of Behçet's disease patients. Several viral agents, including herpes simplex virus-1, hepatitis C virus, parvovirus B19, cytomegalovirus, Epstein-Barr virus and varicella zoster virus, may also have some role. PMID:22254152

  5. Infectious etiopathogenesis of Crohn’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Carričre, Jessica; Darfeuille-Michaud, Arlette; Nguyen, Hang Thi Thu

    2014-01-01

    Important advances during the last decade have been made in understanding the complex etiopathogenesis of Crohn’s disease (CD). While many gaps in our knowledge still exist, it has been suggested that the etiology of CD is multifactorial including genetic, environmental and infectious factors. The most widely accepted theory states that CD is caused by an aggressive immune response to infectious agents in genetically predisposed individuals. The rise of genome-wide association studies allowed the identification of loci and genetic variants in several components of host innate and adaptive immune responses to microorganisms in the gut, highlighting an implication of intestinal microbiota in CD etiology. Moreover, numerous independent studies reported a dysbiosis, i.e., a modification of intestinal microbiota composition, with an imbalance between the abundance of beneficial and harmful bacteria. Although microorganisms including viruses, yeasts, fungi and bacteria have been postulated as potential CD pathogens, based on epidemiological, clinicopathological, genetic and experimental evidence, their precise role in this disease is not clearly defined. This review summarizes the current knowledge of the infectious agents associated with an increased risk of developing CD. Therapeutic approaches to modulate the intestinal dysbiosis and to target the putative CD-associated pathogens, as well as their potential mechanisms of action are also discussed. PMID:25232246

  6. Global climate change and infectious diseases

    SciTech Connect

    Shope, R. (Yale Univ. School of Medicine, New Haven, CT (United States))

    1991-12-01

    The effects of global climate change on infectious diseases are hypothetical until more is known about the degree of change in temperature and humidity that will occur. Diseases most likely to increase in their distribution and severity have three-factor (agent, vector, and human being) and four-factor (plus vertebrate reservoir host) ecology. Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus mosquitoes may move northward and have more rapid metamorphosis with global warming. These mosquitoes transmit dengue virus, and Aedes aegypti transmits yellow fever virus. The faster metamorphosis and a shorter extrinsic incubation of dengue and yellow fever viruses could lead to epidemics in North America. Vibrio cholera is harbored persistently in the estuaries of the U.S. Gulf Coast. Over the past 200 years, cholera has become pandemic seven times with spread from Asia to Europe, Africa, and North America. Global warming may lead to changes in water ecology that could enhance similar spread of cholera in North America. Some other infectious diseases such as LaCrosse encephalitis and Lyme disease are caused by agents closely dependent on the integrity of their environment. These diseases may become less prominent with global warming because of anticipated modification of their habitats. Ecological studies will help as to understand more fully the possible consequences of global warming. New and more effective methods for control of vectors will be needed. 12 refs., 1 tab.

  7. Infectious diseases: Surveillance, genetic modification and simulation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Koh, H.-L.; Teh, S.Y.; De Angelis, D. L.; Jiang, J.

    2011-01-01

    Infectious diseases such as influenza and dengue have the potential of becoming a worldwide pandemic that may exert immense pressures on existing medical infrastructures. Careful surveillance of these diseases, supported by consistent model simulations, provides a means for tracking the disease evolution. The integrated surveillance and simulation program is essential in devising effective early warning systems and in implementing efficient emergency preparedness and control measures. This paper presents a summary of simulation analysis on influenza A (H1N1) 2009 in Malaysia. This simulation analysis provides insightful lessons regarding how disease surveillance and simulation should be performed in the future. This paper briefly discusses the controversy over the experimental field release of genetically modified (GM) Aedes aegypti mosquito in Malaysia. Model simulations indicate that the proposed release of GM mosquitoes is neither a viable nor a sustainable control strategy. ?? 2011 WIT Press.

  8. Global Transport Networks and Infectious Disease Spread

    PubMed Central

    Tatem, A.J.; Rogers, D.J.; Hay, S.I.

    2011-01-01

    Air, sea and land transport networks continue to expand in reach, speed of travel and volume of passengers and goods carried. Pathogens and their vectors can now move further, faster and in greater numbers than ever before. Three important consequences of global transport network expansion are infectious disease pandemics, vector invasion events and vector-borne pathogen importation. This review briefly examines some of the important historical examples of these disease and vector movements, such as the global influenza pandemics, the devastating Anopheles gambiae invasion of Brazil and the recent increases in imported Plasmodium falciparum malaria cases. We then outline potential approaches for future studies of disease movement, focussing on vector invasion and vector-borne disease importation. Such approaches allow us to explore the potential implications of international air travel, shipping routes and other methods of transport on global pathogen and vector traffic. PMID:16647974

  9. 72 FR 65580 - Board of Scientific Counselors, Coordinating Center for Infectious Diseases: Notice of Charter...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2007-11-21

    ...SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention...Center for Infectious Diseases: Notice of Charter...Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention...Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and...

  10. 61 FR 49920 - Draft Public Health Service (PHS) Guideline on Infectious Disease Issues in Xenotransplantation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    1996-09-23

    ...potential infectious disease and public health risks. Diseases of animals can...1) Infectious disease physician with...and infectious diseases (particularly...or late-onset diseases such as prion- mediated disease. 3.5....

  11. Subclinical infectious bursal disease in commercial broiler flocks in Saskatchewan.

    PubMed Central

    Armstrong, L D; Tabel, H; Riddell, C

    1981-01-01

    Five commercial broiler flocks, not vaccinated for infectious bursal disease virus, derived from infectious bursal disease virus-vaccinated breeder flocks were surveyed for evidence of bursal damage and infectious bursal disease virus infection. They were compared with two groups of birds raised in isolation. Serum samples from one day old chicks contained maternal anti-infectious bursal disease virus antibodies which declined to undetectable levels by four weeks of age. Serum antibody levels remained undetectable in both control groups and one commercial flock, whereas four of the five commercial flocks had actively produced anti-infectious bursal disease virus antibodies by slaughter age. The weight of bursae from infectious bursal disease virus-positive flocks declined as compared to controls after four weeks of age. The decline in weight correlated with the appearance of histopathological lesions. Infectious bursal disease virus antigen was demonstrated in selected infected bursae and infectious bursal disease bursae and infectious bursal disease virus was isolated from some of these damaged bursae. Clinical infectious bursal disease was not observed in any of the commercial flocks. The importance of subclinical bursal damage and immunosuppression is discussed. Images Fig. 6. Fig. 7. Fig. 8. PMID:6268263

  12. Review Article: Current status of vaccines against infectious bursal disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hermann Müller; Egbert Mundt; Nicolas Eterradossi; M. Rafiqul Islam

    2012-01-01

    Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) is the aetiological agent of the acute and highly contagious infectious bursal disease (IBD) or “Gumboro disease”. IBD is one of the economically most important diseases that affects commercially produced chickens worldwide. Along with strict hygiene management of poultry farms, vaccination programs with inactivated and live attenuated viruses have been used to prevent IBD. Live

  13. Emerging infectious diseases: a 10-year perspective from the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases.

    PubMed

    Fauci, Anthony S; Touchette, Nancy A; Folkers, Gregory K

    2005-04-01

    Although optimists once imagined that serious infectious disease threats would by now be conquered, newly emerging (e.g., severe acute respiratory syndrome [SARS]), reemerging (e.g., West Nile virus), and even deliberately disseminated infectious diseases (e.g., anthrax bioterrorism) continue to appear throughout the world. Over the past decade, the global effort to identify and characterize infectious agents, decipher the underlying pathways by which they cause disease, and develop preventive measures and treatments for many of the world's most dangerous pathogens has resulted in considerable progress. Intramural and extramural investigators supported by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) have contributed substantially to this effort. This overview highlights selected NIAID-sponsored research advances over the past decade, with a focus on progress in combating HIV/AIDS, malaria, tuberculosis, influenza, SARS, West Nile virus, and potential bioterror agents. Many basic research discoveries have been translated into novel diagnostics, antiviral and antimicrobial compounds, and vaccines, often with extraordinary speed. PMID:15829188

  14. Mathematical modeling of infectious disease dynamics.

    PubMed

    Siettos, Constantinos I; Russo, Lucia

    2013-05-15

    Over the last years, an intensive worldwide effort is speeding up the developments in the establishment of a global surveillance network for combating pandemics of emergent and re-emergent infectious diseases. Scientists from different fields extending from medicine and molecular biology to computer science and applied mathematics have teamed up for rapid assessment of potentially urgent situations. Toward this aim mathematical modeling plays an important role in efforts that focus on predicting, assessing, and controlling potential outbreaks. To better understand and model the contagious dynamics the impact of numerous variables ranging from the micro host-pathogen level to host-to-host interactions, as well as prevailing ecological, social, economic, and demographic factors across the globe have to be analyzed and thoroughly studied. Here, we present and discuss the main approaches that are used for the surveillance and modeling of infectious disease dynamics. We present the basic concepts underpinning their implementation and practice and for each category we give an annotated list of representative works. PMID:23552814

  15. Mathematical modeling of infectious disease dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Siettos, Constantinos I.; Russo, Lucia

    2013-01-01

    Over the last years, an intensive worldwide effort is speeding up the developments in the establishment of a global surveillance network for combating pandemics of emergent and re-emergent infectious diseases. Scientists from different fields extending from medicine and molecular biology to computer science and applied mathematics have teamed up for rapid assessment of potentially urgent situations. Toward this aim mathematical modeling plays an important role in efforts that focus on predicting, assessing, and controlling potential outbreaks. To better understand and model the contagious dynamics the impact of numerous variables ranging from the micro host–pathogen level to host-to-host interactions, as well as prevailing ecological, social, economic, and demographic factors across the globe have to be analyzed and thoroughly studied. Here, we present and discuss the main approaches that are used for the surveillance and modeling of infectious disease dynamics. We present the basic concepts underpinning their implementation and practice and for each category we give an annotated list of representative works. PMID:23552814

  16. [Psychiatric aspects of infectious diseases -- a literature review].

    PubMed

    Gazdag, Gabor; Szabo, Zsuzsa; Szlavik, Janos

    2014-12-01

    It is essential for the psychiatrist working in the consultation-liaison field or with comorbid patients to be familiar with the psychiatric aspects of central nervous infectious diseases or infectious diseases with psychiatric symptoms. Authors have reviewed the most important psychiatric aspects of common infectious diseases. Essential knowledge for setting up a diagnosis and starting appropriate treatment has been summarized. The most important interactions of infectological and psychiatric treatments have also been discussed. PMID:25577481

  17. [Associated vaccination of poultry against infectious bronchitis, Newcastle disease and infectious bursitis].

    PubMed

    Cholakova, R

    1985-01-01

    The effectiveness of immunity was studied following a mixed vaccination with live vaccines against infectious bronchitis (strains H120 and H52), Newcastle disease (strain La Sota), and infectious bursitis (strain Th75Vn82). The three vaccines were applied simultaneously via the drinking water, through the spray method, and nasally. Experiments were carried out with a total of 31,466 birds: broilers, growing layers, broiler parents--all without preliminary treatment with biopreparations. Immunity against Newcastle disease was followed up through the hemagglutination-inhibition test and challenging with a virulent virus; against infectious bursitis--through immunodiffusion in agar gel after Ouchterlony; and against infectious bronchitis--through virus-neutralization with strain Beaudette. The birds were treated with mixed vaccines in the following combinations: infectious bronchitis--Newcastle disease; infectious bursitis--Gumboro; infectious bronchitis, Newcastle disease, Gumboro. The simultaneous application of live vaccines against infectious bronchitis, Newcastle disease, and infectious bursitis was shown to be well tolerated with no harmful aftereffects whatever. The immunity built up with the simultaneous use of the three vaccines was not inferior in effectiveness to that conferred with the use of two vaccines or only one of them. PMID:3002010

  18. A two-component model for counts of infectious diseases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Leonhard Held; Mathias Hofmann; Michael Hohle; Volker Schmid

    2005-01-01

    We propose a stochastic model for the analysis of time series of disease counts as col- lected in typical surveillance systems on notifiable infectious diseases. The model is based on a Poisson or negative binomial observation model with two components: A parameter- driven component relates the disease incidence to latent parameters describing endemic seasonal patterns, which are typical for infectious

  19. Global Climate and Infectious Disease: The Cholera Paradigm

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rita R. Colwell

    1996-01-01

    Historically, infectious diseases have had a profound effect on human populations, including their evolution and cultural development. Despite significant advances in medical science, infectious diseases continue to impact human populations in many parts of the world. Emerging diseases are considered to be those infections that either are newly appearing in the population or are rapidly increasing in incidence or expanding

  20. Ills in the pipeline: emerging infectious diseases and wildlife

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sleeman, Jonathan; Gillin, Colin

    2012-01-01

    In the recent film Contagion, a medical thriller released in fall 2011, the fictitious MEV-1 virus—passed from bat to pig to humans—spreads across the globe as easily as the common cold, killing millions of humans and causing mass hysteria as medical researchers race to find a cure. Though it's Hollywood hyperbole, the film holds a kernel of truth: Researchers believe that the close proximity of Malaysian hog farms to forested areas—the natural habitat for fruit bats—allowed the previously unknown Nipah virus to spill from bats into pigs and subsequently into people, resulting in more than 100 human deaths (Epstein et al. 2006). There is no doubt that in recent times we have seen an unprecedented number of emerging infectious diseases, defined by the Institute for Medicine as new, reemerging, or drug-resistant infections whose incidence has increased or whose incidence threatens to increase in the near future. Many of these have a wildlife origin (Taylor et al. 2001). While this jump may be due, in part, to increased vigilance and reporting, there is a general consensus that current global conditions are creating a situation that is very favorable to the transmission of microbes that cause diseases. (For reviews, see Daszak et al. 2001 and Keesing et al. 2010). Likewise, it's increasingly important that wildlife professionals become aware of how and why new infectious diseases spread and what, if anything, can be done to minimize impacts on wildlife.

  1. The role of infectious disease in marine communities: chapter 5

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lafferty, Kevin D.; Harvell, C. Drew

    2014-01-01

    Marine ecologists recognize that infectious diseases play and important role in ocean ecosystems. This role may have increased in some host taxa over time (Ward and Lafferty 2004). We begin this chapter by introducing infectious agents and their relationships with their hosts in marine systems. We then put infectious disease agents with their hosts in marine systems. We then put infectious disease agents in the perspective of marine biodiversity and discuss the various factors that affect parasites. Specifically, we introduce some basin epidemiological concepts, including the effects of stress and free-living diversity on parasites. Following this, we give brief consideration to communities of parasites within their hosts, particularly as these can lead to general insights into community ecology. We also give examples of how infectious diseases affect host populations, scaling up to marine communities. Finally, we present examples of marine infectious disease that impair conservation and fisheries.

  2. Recent trends in infectious diseases for travellers.

    PubMed

    Green, A D; Roberts, K I

    2000-11-01

    In the early 1970s medicine was considered to have conquered infectious diseases. The following three decades have shown this optimism to be misplaced, with both traditional infections increasing in prevalence and novel diseases appearing. Many of these diseases have become major problems in developing countries, and coupled with the exponential growth in international traffic now pose a significant risk to the traveller. The threat to the package tourist differs greatly from that to the businessman, soldier or backpacker. The latter groups may have little control over their food and water supplies and be exposed to vector-borne and zoonotic infections normally restricted to remote locations. However the package holidaymaker may be involved in mass outbreaks of food poisoning with novel pathogens or acquire unusual infections from close proximity to other tourists. All groups may be susceptible to diseases transmitted during travel, and these may be more common than is presently recognised. The common factor is that all such infections may be transported around the world within their incubation period, and that any disease can now present to any doctor. Today more than ever before it is incumbent on any practitioner to ask not only 'where have you been?' but also 'what were you doing there?' PMID:11220023

  3. How We Defend Ourselves Against Infectious Diseases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wills, Christopher

    2000-01-01

    I have spent years investigating how we have survived as a species in spite of the fact that we are prey to a terrifying assortment of bacterial, viral, fungal and animal pathogens. This struggle between us and our pathogens is conducted in subtle and complex ways, and a similar struggle is also going on between millions of other host animals and plants and their respective pathogens throughout the living world. To understand these processes, it is necessary to look at the selective forces acting on our own species and also to ask more sweeping questions: what is the true evolutionary role of disease in the natural world? Are diseases, in spite of the suffering and misery they cause, entirely a negative influence? Our principal defense against infectious diseases is the immune system. This system, next to our brains, is the most complex product of evolution that we know. It protects us against wide variety of pathogens. A prescient cartoon from the 1820s- drawn decades before Pasteur developed his germ theory of disease and well before John Snow stopped an outbreak of typhoid fever in London by removing the handle of the public water pump in Broad Street depicts creatures that supposedly inhabited the filthy waters of the River Thames. Although a fantasy, the cartoon vividly anticipates those subsequent scientific discoveries as well as the simple fact that many varied, living pathogenic organisms cause diseases.

  4. BEYOND immunization: travelers' infectious diseases. 1--Diarrhea.

    PubMed

    El-Bahnasawy, Mamdouh; Morsy, Tosson A

    2015-04-01

    Travelers' diarrhea is the most common illness in persons traveling from resource-rich to resource-poor regions of the world. The fear of developing diarrhea while traveling is common among travelers to any part of the developing world. This concern is realistic; 40 to 60% of travelers to these countries may develop diarrhea. Diarrheal diseases represent one of the five leading causes of death worldwide. Morbidity and mortality are significant even in the United States where diarrhea is more often than not a "nuisance disease" in the normally healthy individual. PMID:26012216

  5. Computational Modeling in Support of Global Eradication of Infectious Diseases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eckhoff, Philip A.; Gates, William H., III; Myhrvold, Nathan P.; Wood, Lowell

    2014-07-01

    The past century has seen tremendous advances in global health, with broad reductions in the worldwide burden of infectious disease. Science has fundamentally advanced our understanding of disease etiology and medicine has provided remarkable capabilities to diagnose many syndromes and to target the causative pathogen. The advent and proliferation of antibiotics has dramatically lowered the impact of infections that were once near certain death sentences. Vaccination has provided a route to protect each new birth cohort from pathogens which once killed a substantial fraction of each generation, and in some countries, vaccination coverage has been raised to sufficiently high levels to fully interrupt transmission of major pathogens. There were 7 million deaths among children under 5 years of age in 2010, substantially down from decades past, and even more so in terms of deaths per capita per year of populations at risk. However, the annual rate globally is 1,070 per 100,000, while in developed countries the rate is only 137 per 100,000 (IHME GBD, 2010). Therefore, bringing global rates down to rates already achieved in developed countries represents the huge gains currently available via means such as vaccination and access to modern health care...

  6. Global capacity for emerging infectious disease detection

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Emily H.; Brewer, Timothy F.; Madoff, Lawrence C.; Pollack, Marjorie P.; Sonricker, Amy L.; Keller, Mikaela; Freifeld, Clark C.; Blench, Michael; Mawudeku, Abla; Brownstein, John S.

    2010-01-01

    The increasing number of emerging infectious disease events that have spread internationally, such as severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and the 2009 pandemic A/H1N1, highlight the need for improvements in global outbreak surveillance. It is expected that the proliferation of Internet-based reports has resulted in greater communication and improved surveillance and reporting frameworks, especially with the revision of the World Health Organization's (WHO) International Health Regulations (IHR 2005), which went into force in 2007. However, there has been no global quantitative assessment of whether and how outbreak detection and communication processes have actually changed over time. In this study, we analyzed the entire WHO public record of Disease Outbreak News reports from 1996 to 2009 to characterize spatial-temporal trends in the timeliness of outbreak discovery and public communication about the outbreak relative to the estimated outbreak start date. Cox proportional hazards regression analyses show that overall, the timeliness of outbreak discovery improved by 7.3% [hazard ratio (HR) = 1.073, 95% CI (1.038; 1.110)] per year, and public communication improved by 6.2% [HR = 1.062, 95% CI (1.028; 1.096)] per year. However, the degree of improvement varied by geographic region; the only WHO region with statistically significant (? = 0.05) improvement in outbreak discovery was the Western Pacific region [HR = 1.102 per year, 95% CI (1.008; 1.205)], whereas the Eastern Mediterranean [HR = 1.201 per year, 95% CI (1.066; 1.353)] and Western Pacific regions [HR = 1.119 per year, 95% CI (1.025; 1.221)] showed improvement in public communication. These findings provide quantitative historical assessment of timeliness in infectious disease detection and public reporting of outbreaks. PMID:21115835

  7. Infectious Disease Proteome Biomarkers: Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, Charles L.

    2011-12-31

    Research for the DOE Infectious Disease Proteome Biomarkers focused on Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) and Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus (VEEV). RVFV and VEEV are Category A and B pathogens respectively. Among the priority threats, RVFV and VEEV rank high in their potential for being weaponized and introduced to the United States, spreading quickly, and having a large health and economic impact. In addition, they both have live attenuated vaccine, which allows work to be performed at BSL-2. While the molecular biology of RVFV and VEEV are increasingly well-characterized, little is known about its host-pathogen interactions. Our research is aimed at determining critical alterations in host signaling pathways to identify therapeutics targeted against the host.

  8. 75 FR 993 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-07

    ...National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases...Partnerships in Biodefense Food and Waterborne Diseases...National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases...National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases...Partnerships in Biodefense Food and Waterborne...

  9. Vitamin A supplementation in infectious diseases: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed Central

    Glasziou, P P; Mackerras, D E

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To study the effect of vitamin A supplementation on morbidity and mortality from infectious disease. DESIGN--A meta-analysis aimed at identifying and combining mortality and morbidity data from all randomised controlled trials of vitamin A. RESULTS--Of 20 controlled trials identified, 12 trials were randomised trials and provided "intention to treat" data: six community trials in developing countries, three in children admitted to hospital with measles, and three in very low birth weight infants. Combined results for community studies suggest a reduction of 30% (95% confidence interval 21% to 38%; two tailed p < 0.0000001) in all cause mortality. Analysis of cause specific mortality showed a reduction in deaths from diarrhoeal disease (in community studies) by 39% (24% to 50%; two tailed p < 0.00001); from respiratory disease (in measles studies) by 70% (15% to 90%; two tailed p = 0.02); and from other causes of death (in community studies) by 34% (15% to 48%; two tailed p = 0.001). Reductions in morbidity were consistent with the findings for mortality, but fewer data were available. CONCLUSIONS--Adequate supply of vitamin A, either through supplementation or adequate diet, has a major role in preventing morbidity and mortality in children in developing countries. In developed countries vitamin A may also have a role in those with life threatening infections such as measles and those who may have a relative deficiency, such as premature infants. PMID:8461682

  10. Proactive strategies to avoid infectious disease

    PubMed Central

    Stevenson, Richard J.; Case, Trevor I.; Oaten, Megan J.

    2011-01-01

    Infectious disease exerts a large selective pressure on all organisms. One response to this has been for animals to evolve energetically costly immune systems to counter infection, while another—the focus of this theme issue—has been the evolution of proactive strategies primarily to avoid infection. These strategies can be grouped into three types, all of which demonstrate varying levels of interaction with the immune system. The first concerns maternal strategies that function to promote the immunocompetence of their offspring. The second type of strategy influences mate selection, guiding the selection of a healthy mate and one who differs maximally from the self in their complement of antigen-coding genes. The third strategy involves two classes of behaviour. One relates to the capacity of the organisms to learn associations between cues indicative of pathogen threat and immune responses. The other relates to prevention and even treatment of infection through behaviours such as avoidance, grooming, quarantine, medicine and care of the sick. In humans, disease avoidance is based upon cognition and especially the emotion of disgust. Human disease avoidance is not without its costs. There is a propensity to reject healthy individuals who just appear sick—stigmatization—and the system may malfunction, resulting in various forms of psychopathology. Pathogen threat also appears to have been a highly significant and unrecognized force in shaping human culture so as to minimize infection threats. This cultural shaping process—moralization—can be co-opted to promote human health. PMID:22042913

  11. Department of Immunology and Infectious Diseases Baseline Statistics

    E-print Network

    Maxwell, Bruce D.

    Department of Immunology and Infectious Diseases Baseline Statistics October 29, 2013 Number Comparisons for the Discipline of Immunology & Infectious Disease Montana State University National Tenure and subfield. Arlington, VA (NSF 13-301). December 2012. (Immunology subfield) 89.9% 80.6% 82.1% 0.0% 10.0% 20

  12. PH 412 Syllabus 2014 Infectious Disease Epidemiology and Prevention

    E-print Network

    Contractor, Anis

    investigations because they provide a unique opportunity to apply many principles of public health practice in the epidemiology and prevention of infectious disease with a focus on selected pathogens of public health the epidemiology and prevention efforts of selected infectious diseases in terms of public and global health Texts

  13. Impact of Climate Variability on Infectious Disease in West Africa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Madeleine C. Thomson; Stephen J. Connor; Neil Ward; David Molyneux

    2004-01-01

    The importance of infectious disease as a determinant (as well as an outcome) of poverty has recently become a prominent argument for international and national investment in the control of infectious disease, as can be seen in the recently articulated United Nations (UN) Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). Climate variability and land use change have an enormous impact on health in

  14. Bacteriophage therapy: a revitalized therapy against bacterial infectious diseases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shigenobu Matsuzaki; Mohammad Rashel; Jumpei Uchiyama; Shingo Sakurai; Takako Ujihara; Masayuki Kuroda; Masahiko Ikeuchi; Toshikazu Tani; Mikiya Fujieda; Hiroshi Wakiguchi; Shosuke Imai

    2005-01-01

    Bacteriophage (phage) therapy involves using phages or their products as bioagents for the treatment or prophylaxis of bacterial infectious diseases. Much evidence in support of the effectiveness of phage therapy against bacterial infectious diseases has accumulated since 1980 from animal model studies conducted in Western countries. Reports indicate that appropriate administration of living phages can be used to treat lethal

  15. Modeling social response to the spread of an infectious disease

    E-print Network

    Evans, Jane A. (Jane Amanda)

    2012-01-01

    With the globalization of culture and economic trade, it is increasingly important not only to detect outbreaks of infectious disease early, but also to anticipate the social response to the disease. In this thesis, we use ...

  16. A Systematic Review of Methodology: Time Series Regression Analysis for Environmental Factors and Infectious Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Imai, Chisato; Hashizume, Masahiro

    2015-01-01

    Background: Time series analysis is suitable for investigations of relatively direct and short-term effects of exposures on outcomes. In environmental epidemiology studies, this method has been one of the standard approaches to assess impacts of environmental factors on acute non-infectious diseases (e.g. cardiovascular deaths), with conventionally generalized linear or additive models (GLM and GAM). However, the same analysis practices are often observed with infectious diseases despite of the substantial differences from non-infectious diseases that may result in analytical challenges. Methods: Following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines, systematic review was conducted to elucidate important issues in assessing the associations between environmental factors and infectious diseases using time series analysis with GLM and GAM. Published studies on the associations between weather factors and malaria, cholera, dengue, and influenza were targeted. Findings: Our review raised issues regarding the estimation of susceptible population and exposure lag times, the adequacy of seasonal adjustments, the presence of strong autocorrelations, and the lack of a smaller observation time unit of outcomes (i.e. daily data). These concerns may be attributable to features specific to infectious diseases, such as transmission among individuals and complicated causal mechanisms. Conclusion: The consequence of not taking adequate measures to address these issues is distortion of the appropriate risk quantifications of exposures factors. Future studies should pay careful attention to details and examine alternative models or methods that improve studies using time series regression analysis for environmental determinants of infectious diseases. PMID:25859149

  17. Immunology and Infectious Disease: recommended sequence of required courses www.immunology.psu.edu Immunology and Infectious Disease

    E-print Network

    Omiecinski, Curtis

    Immunology and Infectious Disease: recommended sequence of required courses www.immunology.psu.edu Immunology and Infectious Disease Dr. James Endres Howell (814) 867­0194 immunology@psu.edu Year 1 VB SC 050S Microbiology Laboratory MICRB 410(3) Principles of Immunology* B M B 402(3) General Biochemistry Choose

  18. Aerobiology and Its Role in the Transmission of Infectious Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Fernstrom, Aaron; Goldblatt, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Aerobiology plays a fundamental role in the transmission of infectious diseases. As infectious disease and infection control practitioners continue employing contemporary techniques (e.g., computational fluid dynamics to study particle flow, polymerase chain reaction methodologies to quantify particle concentrations in various settings, and epidemiology to track the spread of disease), the central variables affecting the airborne transmission of pathogens are becoming better known. This paper reviews many of these aerobiological variables (e.g., particle size, particle type, the duration that particles can remain airborne, the distance that particles can travel, and meteorological and environmental factors), as well as the common origins of these infectious particles. We then review several real-world settings with known difficulties controlling the airborne transmission of infectious particles (e.g., office buildings, healthcare facilities, and commercial airplanes), while detailing the respective measures each of these industries is undertaking in its effort to ameliorate the transmission of airborne infectious diseases. PMID:23365758

  19. A method for screening climate change-sensitive infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yunjing; Rao, Yuhan; Wu, Xiaoxu; Zhao, Hainan; Chen, Jin

    2015-01-01

    Climate change is a significant and emerging threat to human health, especially where infectious diseases are involved. Because of the complex interactions between climate variables and infectious disease components (i.e., pathogen, host and transmission environment), systematically and quantitatively screening for infectious diseases that are sensitive to climate change is still a challenge. To address this challenge, we propose a new statistical indicator, Relative Sensitivity, to identify the difference between the sensitivity of the infectious disease to climate variables for two different climate statuses (i.e., historical climate and present climate) in non-exposure and exposure groups. The case study in Anhui Province, China has demonstrated the effectiveness of this Relative Sensitivity indicator. The application results indicate significant sensitivity of many epidemic infectious diseases to climate change in the form of changing climatic variables, such as temperature, precipitation and absolute humidity. As novel evidence, this research shows that absolute humidity has a critical influence on many observed infectious diseases in Anhui Province, including dysentery, hand, foot and mouth disease, hepatitis A, hemorrhagic fever, typhoid fever, malaria, meningitis, influenza and schistosomiasis. Moreover, some infectious diseases are more sensitive to climate change in rural areas than in urban areas. This insight provides guidance for future health inputs that consider spatial variability in response to climate change. PMID:25594780

  20. A Method for Screening Climate Change-Sensitive Infectious Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yunjing; Rao, Yuhan; Wu, Xiaoxu; Zhao, Hainan; Chen, Jin

    2015-01-01

    Climate change is a significant and emerging threat to human health, especially where infectious diseases are involved. Because of the complex interactions between climate variables and infectious disease components (i.e., pathogen, host and transmission environment), systematically and quantitatively screening for infectious diseases that are sensitive to climate change is still a challenge. To address this challenge, we propose a new statistical indicator, Relative Sensitivity, to identify the difference between the sensitivity of the infectious disease to climate variables for two different climate statuses (i.e., historical climate and present climate) in non-exposure and exposure groups. The case study in Anhui Province, China has demonstrated the effectiveness of this Relative Sensitivity indicator. The application results indicate significant sensitivity of many epidemic infectious diseases to climate change in the form of changing climatic variables, such as temperature, precipitation and absolute humidity. As novel evidence, this research shows that absolute humidity has a critical influence on many observed infectious diseases in Anhui Province, including dysentery, hand, foot and mouth disease, hepatitis A, hemorrhagic fever, typhoid fever, malaria, meningitis, influenza and schistosomiasis. Moreover, some infectious diseases are more sensitive to climate change in rural areas than in urban areas. This insight provides guidance for future health inputs that consider spatial variability in response to climate change. PMID:25594780

  1. 78 FR 23572 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

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    2013-04-19

    ...Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel...HIV-associated Infections in Pediatric & Maternal Populations...Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research,...

  2. 76 FR 53688 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

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    ...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

  3. 77 FR 50139 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

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  4. 78 FR 63999 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

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    ...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

  5. 76 FR 72959 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings.

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    ...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...of Copmmittee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

  6. 75 FR 18510 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

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    ...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

  7. 76 FR 4927 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

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  12. 76 FR 63933 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

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    ...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

  13. 78 FR 62640 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

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  14. 76 FR 18230 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

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  15. 78 FR 59707 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

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  17. 76 FR 54240 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

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    ...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

  18. 75 FR 7488 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

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    ...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

  19. 76 FR 63311 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Notice of Closed Meetings

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    ...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

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    ...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

  1. 75 FR 53321 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

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    ...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

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    ...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

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    ...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

  4. 77 FR 11140 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

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    ...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

  5. 75 FR 13561 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Meetings

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    ...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Meetings...given of meetings of the National Advisory Allergy and Infectious Diseases Council. The...Name of Committee: National Advisory Allergy and Infectious Diseases Council....

  6. 78 FR 38998 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

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    ...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

  7. 76 FR 79199 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

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    ...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

  8. 76 FR 66731 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

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    2011-10-27

    ...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

  9. 78 FR 26792 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

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    ...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

  10. 78 FR 36203 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

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  11. 75 FR 28260 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

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    ...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

  12. 75 FR 48978 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Meetings

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    ...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Meetings...given of meetings of the National Advisory Allergy and Infectious Diseases Council. The...Name of Committee: National Advisory Allergy and Infectious Diseases Council....

  13. 75 FR 57972 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

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    ...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...conducted by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, including consideration...Intramural Research, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, NIH,...

  14. 77 FR 53206 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

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    ...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

  15. 76 FR 58024 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

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  16. 77 FR 14028 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

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    ...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

  17. 77 FR 68136 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

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    ...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

  18. 76 FR 75552 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

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    ...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

  19. 78 FR 39300 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

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    2013-07-01

    ...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

  20. 77 FR 14816 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Notice of Closed Meetings

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    ...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

  1. 75 FR 69451 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

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    ...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

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    ...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

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    ...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

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    ...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

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    ...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

  6. 75 FR 30046 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

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    2010-05-28

    ...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

  7. 78 FR 33428 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

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    ...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Meetings...given of meetings of the National Advisory Allergy and Infectious Diseases Council. The...Name of Committee: National Advisory Allergy and Infectious Diseases Council;...

  11. 77 FR 48165 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

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  12. 76 FR 52670 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

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  18. 78 FR 71628 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

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  19. 75 FR 59276 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

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  1. 76 FR 21754 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

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  2. 76 FR 17928 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

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  3. 77 FR 58851 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

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  4. 76 FR 35224 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

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  5. 77 FR 297 - National Institute of Allergy And Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

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    2012-12-05

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  7. 77 FR 13133 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

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    2012-03-05

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  8. 77 FR 69639 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

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  9. 75 FR 16816 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

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  11. 75 FR 18215 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

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    ...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...conducted by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, including consideration...Intramural Research, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, NIH,...

  12. 77 FR 10541 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

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    ...National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings...National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel, Preclinical...National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel,...

  14. SymposiumClinical Research Priority Program University of Zurich "Viral Infectious Diseases"

    E-print Network

    Zürich, Universität

    SymposiumClinical Research Priority Program ­ University of Zurich "Viral Infectious Diseases ­ Chair: Huldrych Günthard, MD. Division of Infectious Diseases and Hospital Epidemiology, University: Nicolas Müller, MD. Division of Infectious Diseases and Hospital Epidemiology, UniversityHospital Zurich

  15. 77 FR 1939 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-12

    ...National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings...National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel; Strategies...Women and Infants Against Infectious Diseases (R01) Date: February...

  16. 76 FR 58522 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-21

    ...National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings...National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel, NIAID...Committee: Microbiology, Infectious Diseases and AIDS Initial Review...

  17. 76 FR 12745 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

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    2011-03-08

    ...National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings...National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel; NIAID...National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel;...

  18. 75 FR 156 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-04

    ...of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel...of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel, The Infant Microbiome and Immune Maturation...Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research, National...

  19. 78 FR 6126 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

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  20. 77 FR 298 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

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  1. 77 FR 56660 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

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    ...personal privacy. Name of Committee: Microbiology, Infectious Diseases and AIDS Initial Review Group,Microbiology and Infectious Diseases B Subcommittee...Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases...

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  8. 76 FR 28443 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

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    ...nih.gov. Name of Committee: Microbiology, Infectious Diseases and AIDS Initial Review Group, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research...Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases...

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  10. 75 FR 28029 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

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    ...personal privacy. Name of Committee: Microbiology, Infectious Diseases and AIDS Initial Review Group; Microbiology and Infectious Diseases B Subcommittee...Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases...

  11. 78 FR 27976 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

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    ...nih.gov. Name of Committee: Microbiology, Infectious Diseases and AIDS Initial Review Group; Microbiology and Infectious Diseases B Subcommittee...Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases...

  12. 76 FR 1443 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

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    2011-01-10

    ...Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting...Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel, Immune Responses to Bacterial Antigens. Date: January...Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research, National...

  13. Imaging combined autoimmune and infectious disease microarrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ewart, Tom; Raha, Sandeep; Kus, Dorothy; Tarnopolsky, Mark

    2006-09-01

    Bacterial and viral pathogens are implicated in many severe autoimmune diseases, acting through such mechanisms as molecular mimicry, and superantigen activation of T-cells. For example, Helicobacter pylori, well known cause of stomach ulcers and cancers, is also identified in ischaemic heart disease (mimicry of heat shock protein 65), autoimmune pancreatitis, systemic sclerosis, autoimmune thyroiditis (HLA DRB1*0301 allele susceptibility), and Crohn's disease. Successful antibiotic eradication of H.pylori often accompanies their remission. Yet current diagnostic devices, and test-limiting cost containment, impede recognition of the linkage, delaying both diagnosis and therapeutic intervention until the chronic debilitating stage. We designed a 15 minute low cost 39 antigen microarray assay, combining autoimmune, viral and bacterial antigens1. This enables point-of-care serodiagnosis and cost-effective narrowly targeted concurrent antibiotic and monoclonal anti-T-cell and anti-cytokine immunotherapy. Arrays of 26 pathogen and 13 autoimmune antigens with IgG and IgM dilution series were printed in triplicate on epoxysilane covalent binding slides with Teflon well masks. Sera diluted 1:20 were incubated 10 minutes, washed off, anti-IgG-Cy3 (green) and anti-IgM-Dy647 (red) were incubated for 5 minutes, washed off and the slide was read in an ArrayWoRx(e) scanning CCD imager (Applied Precision, Issaquah, WA). As a preliminary model for the combined infectious disease-autoimmune diagnostic microarray we surveyed 98 unidentified, outdated sera that were discarded after Hepatitis B antibody testing. In these, significant IgG or IgM autoantibody levels were found: dsDNA 5, ssDNA 11, Ro 2, RNP 7, SSB 4, gliadin 2, thyroglobulin 13 cases. Since control sera showed no autoantibodies, the high frequency of anti-DNA and anti-thyroglobulin antibodies found in infected sera lend increased support for linkage of infection to subsequent autoimmune disease. Expansion of the antigen set with synthetic peptide sequences should reveal the shared bacterial/human epitopes involved.

  14. Emerging and Reemerging Infectious Diseases: A Global Problem

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Stephen Morse (Mailman School of Public Health of Columbia University; )

    2004-05-01

    The issue-focused interview reflects on how infectious diseases, such as SARS and AIDS, are a more serious global problem than in the past because: urban populations are growing, thereby increasing opportunities for person-to-person transmittal of these diseases, people are more prone to be in contact with animals that may pass on zoonotic diseases, and public health services may not be equipped to deal with some infectious outbreaks.

  15. Factors that make an infectious disease outbreak controllable

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christophe Fraser; Steven Riley; Roy M. Anderson; Neil M. Ferguson

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study is to identify general properties of emerging infectious agents that determine the likely success of two simple public health measures in controlling outbreaks, namely (i) isolating symptomatic individuals and (ii) tracing and quarantining their con- tacts. Because these measures depend on the recognition of specific disease symptoms, we investigate the relative timing of infectious- ness

  16. International Conference on Emerging Infectious Diseases: Select Presentations

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The National Center for Infectious Diseases has made available the audio (and in some cases, video) portion of more than 20 online presentations of selected sessions from the International Conference on Emerging Infectious Diseases, held July 16-19, 2000 in Atlanta, Georgia. Presentations are organized in chronological order of the conference but may also be searched by presenter. Some presentations may be downloaded in Microsoft PowerPoint. For researchers interested in the field of Emerging Infectious Diseases, this resource represents an exceptionally helpful application of Internet technology.

  17. [Preoperative evaluation and perioperative prevention of infectious diseases].

    PubMed

    Moriyama, Kiyoshi

    2010-09-01

    Preoperative evaluation of infectious diseases in patients for elective and non-elective surgery is important for the anesthesiologists not only to rule out the patient's state of illness, but also to prevent transmission of infectious diseases in healthcare settings. To prevent transmission of infectious diseases in healthcare settings, Center for Disease Control published guidelines that consist of standard precaution and transmission-based precautions. In the face of exposure to known infectious diseases, certain post exposure prophylaxis has been established, especially against exposure to human immunodeficiency virus and hepatitis B virus. There are also growing interests in perioperative prevention of surgical site infection, since World Health Organization has published surgical safety checklist with the slogan "Safe surgery saves life". Anesthesiologists need to have knowledge on the prevention of surgical site infection especially on antibiotic prophylaxis, because it starts in the operating room. PMID:20857671

  18. Thursday, March 21, 2013 I. Epidemiological Models of Infectious disease

    E-print Network

    Saleska, Scott

    of population size (e.g. for sexually transmitted disease)Adjustment for small pop: cN/(b+N) What is a contact3/21/2013 1 Ecol 380 Thursday, March 21, 2013 I. Epidemiological Models of Infectious disease A. Questions about disease that models can address B. How to Build a model of disease? ­ the SIR model C. Some

  19. Infectious diseases associated with complement deficiencies.

    PubMed Central

    Figueroa, J E; Densen, P

    1991-01-01

    The complement system consists of both plasma and membrane proteins. The former influence the inflammatory response, immune modulation, and host defense. The latter are complement receptors, which mediate the cellular effects of complement activation, and regulatory proteins, which protect host cells from complement-mediated injury. Complement activation occurs via either the classical or the alternative pathway, which converge at the level of C3 and share a sequence of terminal components. Four aspects of the complement cascade are critical to its function and regulation: (i) activation of the classical pathway, (ii) activation of the alternative pathway, (iii) C3 convertase formation and C3 deposition, and (iv) membrane attack complex assembly and insertion. In general, mechanisms evolved by pathogenic microbes to resist the effects of complement are targeted to these four steps. Because individual complement proteins subserve unique functional activities and are activated in a sequential manner, complement deficiency states are associated with predictable defects in complement-dependent functions. These deficiency states can be grouped by which of the above four mechanisms they disrupt. They are distinguished by unique epidemiologic, clinical, and microbiologic features and are most prevalent in patients with certain rheumatologic and infectious diseases. Ethnic background and the incidence of infection are important cofactors determining this prevalence. Although complement undoubtedly plays a role in host defense against many microbial pathogens, it appears most important in protection against encapsulated bacteria, especially Neisseria meningitidis but also Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and, to a lesser extent, Neisseria gonorrhoeae. The availability of effective polysaccharide vaccines and antibiotics provides an immunologic and chemotherapeutic rationale for preventing and treating infection in patients with these deficiencies. PMID:1889047

  20. Occupational infectious disease exposures in EMS personnel.

    PubMed

    Reed, E; Daya, M R; Jui, J; Grellman, K; Gerber, L; Loveless, M O

    1993-01-01

    Reports of occupationally transmitted hepatitis B virus (HBV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prompted the Portland Bureau of Fire Rescue and Emergency Services (PFB) to institute a comprehensive program for handling and tracking on-the-job infectious disease exposures. Data were collected for a 2-year period beginning January 1, 1988, and ending December 31, 1989, utilizing verbal and written exposure reports, prehospital care reports, and PFB statistical information. Two hundred and fifty-six (256) exposures were categorized. The overall incidence of reported exposure was 4.4/1,000 emergency medical service (EMS) calls. Of these exposures, 14 (5.5%) were needle sticks, 15 (5.9%) were eye splashes, 8 (3.1%) were mucous membrane exposures, 38 (14.8%) were exposure to nonintact skin, 120 (46.9%) were exposures to intact skin, and 61 (23.8%) involved respiratory exposure only. The incidence of exposure of nonintact skin or mucous membranes to blood or body fluids and needle sticks was 1.3/1,000 EMS calls. Forty-eight individuals (64% of those incurring needle sticks, or exposure of non-intact skin or mucous membranes to blood or body fluids) were treated and followed for signs of infection. Of this group, 11 individuals (26%) previously vaccinated against hepatitis B demonstrated inadequate HBsAb titers at the time of exposure. Requests for HIV and HBV information on source patients were made for needle sticks or exposure of nonintact skin or mucous membranes to blood or high-risk body fluids. Information on the source patient's HIV status was obtained for 57% of these requests.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8445190

  1. DIVISION OF INFECTIOUS DISEASES AND GEOGRAPHIC MEDICINE DEPARTMENT OF MEDICINE

    E-print Network

    Kay, Mark A.

    DIVISION OF INFECTIOUS DISEASES AND GEOGRAPHIC MEDICINE DEPARTMENT OF MEDICINE 300 PASTEUR DRIVE, S board exam that allows them to prescribe and practice medicine. Within career in Internal medicine/Pediatrics working with an underserved population. She

  2. DIVISION OF INFECTIOUS DISEASES AND GEOGRAPHIC MEDICINE DEPARTMENT OF MEDICINE

    E-print Network

    Kay, Mark A.

    DIVISION OF INFECTIOUS DISEASES AND GEOGRAPHIC MEDICINE DEPARTMENT OF MEDICINE 300 PASTEUR DRIVE, S board exam that allows them to prescribe and practice medicine. Within in internal medicine but upon coming to Stanford in 1991, began a long

  3. Newcastle disease virus as a vaccine vector for infectious laryngotracheitis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Effective, safe, and incapable of reverting to virulence are characteristics desirable for infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV) vaccines. Recombinant Newcastle disease virus (NDV) expressing foreign antigens of avian and mammalian pathogens have been demonstrated to elicit protective immunity....

  4. Urban Water Infrastructure, Policy, and Infectious Diseases Principal Investigators

    E-print Network

    Illinois at Chicago, University of

    Urban Water Infrastructure, Policy, and Infectious Diseases Principal Investigators: Samuel Dorevitch, Associate Professor, Environmental & Occupational Health Sciences Charlotte Joslin, Associate Professor, Ophthalmology Rachael Jones, Assistant Professor, Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences

  5. Global burden, distribution, and interventions for infectious diseases of poverty.

    PubMed

    Bhutta, Zulfiqar A; Sommerfeld, Johannes; Lassi, Zohra S; Salam, Rehana A; Das, Jai K

    2014-01-01

    Infectious diseases of poverty (IDoP) disproportionately affect the poorest population in the world and contribute to a cycle of poverty as a result of decreased productivity ensuing from long-term illness, disability, and social stigma. In 2010, the global deaths from HIV/AIDS have increased to 1.5 million and malaria mortality rose to 1.17 million. Mortality from neglected tropical diseases rose to 152,000, while tuberculosis killed 1.2 million people that same year. Substantial regional variations exist in the distribution of these diseases as they are primarily concentrated in rural areas of Sub-Saharan Africa, Asia, and Latin America, with geographic overlap and high levels of co-infection. Evidence-based interventions exist to prevent and control these diseases, however, the coverage still remains low with an emerging challenge of antimicrobial resistance. Therefore, community-based delivery platforms are increasingly being advocated to ensure sustainability and combat co-infections. Because of the high morbidity and mortality burden of these diseases, especially in resource-poor settings, it is imperative to conduct a systematic review to identify strategies to prevent and control these diseases. Therefore, we attempted to evaluate the effectiveness of one of these strategies, that is community-based delivery for the prevention and treatment of IDoP. In this paper, we describe the burden, epidemiology, and potential interventions for IDoP. In subsequent papers of this series, we describe the analytical framework and the methodology used to guide the systematic reviews, and report the findings and interpretations of our analyses of the impact of community-based strategies on individual IDoPs. PMID:25110585

  6. Global burden, distribution, and interventions for infectious diseases of poverty

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Infectious diseases of poverty (IDoP) disproportionately affect the poorest population in the world and contribute to a cycle of poverty as a result of decreased productivity ensuing from long-term illness, disability, and social stigma. In 2010, the global deaths from HIV/AIDS have increased to 1.5 million and malaria mortality rose to 1.17 million. Mortality from neglected tropical diseases rose to 152,000, while tuberculosis killed 1.2 million people that same year. Substantial regional variations exist in the distribution of these diseases as they are primarily concentrated in rural areas of Sub-Saharan Africa, Asia, and Latin America, with geographic overlap and high levels of co-infection. Evidence-based interventions exist to prevent and control these diseases, however, the coverage still remains low with an emerging challenge of antimicrobial resistance. Therefore, community-based delivery platforms are increasingly being advocated to ensure sustainability and combat co-infections. Because of the high morbidity and mortality burden of these diseases, especially in resource-poor settings, it is imperative to conduct a systematic review to identify strategies to prevent and control these diseases. Therefore, we attempted to evaluate the effectiveness of one of these strategies, that is community-based delivery for the prevention and treatment of IDoP. In this paper, we describe the burden, epidemiology, and potential interventions for IDoP. In subsequent papers of this series, we describe the analytical framework and the methodology used to guide the systematic reviews, and report the findings and interpretations of our analyses of the impact of community-based strategies on individual IDoPs. PMID:25110585

  7. Mapping Climate Change Vulnerabilities to Infectious Diseases in Europe

    PubMed Central

    Suk, Jonathan E.; Estevez, Virginia; Ebi, Kristie L.; Lindgren, Elisabet

    2011-01-01

    Background: The incidence, outbreak frequency, and distribution of many infectious diseases are generally expected to change as a consequence of climate change, yet there is limited regional information available to guide decision making. Objective: We surveyed government officials designated as Competent Bodies for Scientific Advice concerning infectious diseases to examine the degree to which they are concerned about potential effects of climate change on infectious diseases, as well as their perceptions of institutional capacities in their respective countries. Methods: In 2007 and 2009/2010, national infectious disease experts from 30 European Economic Area countries were surveyed about recent and projected infectious disease patterns in relation to climate change in their countries and the national capacity to cope with them. Results: A large majority of respondents agreed that climate change would affect vector-borne (86% of country representatives), food-borne (70%), water-borne (68%), and rodent-borne (68%) diseases in their countries. In addition, most indicated that institutional improvements are needed for ongoing surveillance programs (83%), collaboration with the veterinary sector (69%), management of animal disease outbreaks (66%), national monitoring and control of climate-sensitive infectious diseases (64%), health services during an infectious disease outbreak (61%), and diagnostic support during an epidemic (54%). Conclusions: Expert responses were generally consistent with the peer-reviewed literature regarding the relationship between climate change and vector- and water-borne diseases, but were less so for food-borne diseases. Shortcomings in institutional capacity to manage climate change vulnerability, identified in this assessment, should be addressed in impact, vulnerability, and adaptation assessments. PMID:22113877

  8. Infectious Diseases Under the Influence of Changing Environmental Factors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Franz J. Conraths; Thomas C. Mettenleiter

    \\u000a Changing environmental conditions are not only the result of the direct impact of climate change, but represent also the consequences\\u000a of migration, urbanisation and the globalisation of trade and human mobility. In consequence, changes in the occurrence of\\u000a infectious diseases in humans and animals ensue. Several infectious diseases which were hitherto considered “exotic” in Europe\\u000a have largely lost this feature

  9. 72 FR 7659 - Board of Scientific Counselors, National Center for Infectious Diseases (NCID): Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2007-02-16

    ...SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention...Center for Infectious Diseases (NCID): Meeting In...the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention...Vaccine Preventable Disease Surveillance Respiratory...and Other Infectious Diseases Food-Borne...

  10. 65 FR 24968 - Board of Scientific Counselors, National Center for Infectious Diseases: Addendum

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2000-04-28

    ...SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention...Center for Infectious Diseases: Addendum Addendum...regarding a list of diseases for which individuals...of such communicable disease from foreign countries...Center for Infectious Diseases (NCID). Times...

  11. 68 FR 17654 - Board of Scientific Counselors, National Center for Infectious Diseases: Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2003-04-10

    ...SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention...Center for Infectious Diseases: Meeting In accordance...Emerging Infectious Diseases Journal 6. Updates a. Pneumococcal Disease c. Hepatitis 7. Infections and Chronic Diseases 8. Board...

  12. A clinical survey of common avian infectious diseases in China.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Qing-Ye; Wang, Su-Chun; Li, Jin-Ping; Liu, Dong; Liu, Shuo; Jiang, Wen-Ming; Chen, Ji-Ming

    2014-06-01

    Multiple common avian infectious diseases (CAIDs), namely, avian infectious diseases excluding highly pathogenic avian influenza and Newcastle disease, such as avian salmonellosis and coccidiosis, cause huge economic loss in poultry production and are of great significance in public health. However, they are usually not covered in the systems for reporting of animal diseases. Consequently, the distribution of CAIDs is not clear in many countries. Here, we report a clinical survey of CAIDs in China based on clinical diagnosis of eight veterinary clinics in 2011 and 2012. This survey provided the distribution data of viral, bacterial, and parasitic CAIDs in different types of avian flocks, seasons, and regions, data that are of great value in the research, prevention, and control of poultry diseases. This survey suggested that avian colibacillosis, infectious serositis in ducks caused by Riemerella anatipestifer, avian salmonellosis, fowl cholera, avian mycoplasmosis, avian aspergillosis, coccidiosis, low pathogenic avian influenza, infectious bronchitis, infectious bursal disease, and infectious laryngotracheitis are likely to be prevalent in the poultry in China. PMID:25055636

  13. Structural Genomics and Drug Discovery for Infectious Diseases

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, W.F.

    2010-09-03

    The application of structural genomics methods and approaches to proteins from organisms causing infectious diseases is making available the three dimensional structures of many proteins that are potential drug targets and laying the groundwork for structure aided drug discovery efforts. There are a number of structural genomics projects with a focus on pathogens that have been initiated worldwide. The Center for Structural Genomics of Infectious Diseases (CSGID) was recently established to apply state-of-the-art high throughput structural biology technologies to the characterization of proteins from the National Institute for Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) category A-C pathogens and organisms causing emerging, or re-emerging infectious diseases. The target selection process emphasizes potential biomedical benefits. Selected proteins include known drug targets and their homologs, essential enzymes, virulence factors and vaccine candidates. The Center also provides a structure determination service for the infectious disease scientific community. The ultimate goal is to generate a library of structures that are available to the scientific community and can serve as a starting point for further research and structure aided drug discovery for infectious diseases. To achieve this goal, the CSGID will determine protein crystal structures of 400 proteins and protein-ligand complexes using proven, rapid, highly integrated, and cost-effective methods for such determination, primarily by X-ray crystallography. High throughput crystallographic structure determination is greatly aided by frequent, convenient access to high-performance beamlines at third-generation synchrotron X-ray sources.

  14. Role of Connexin/Pannexin containing channels in infectious diseases

    PubMed Central

    Eugenin, Eliseo A.

    2014-01-01

    In recent years it has become evident that gap junctions and hemichannels, in concert with extracellular ATP and purinergic receptors, play key roles in several physiological processes and pathological conditions. However, only recently has their importance in infectious diseases been explored, likely because early reports indicated that connexin containing channels were completely inactivated under inflammatory conditions, and therefore no further research was performed. However, recent evidence indicates that several infectious agents take advantage of these communication systems to enhance inflammation and apoptosis, as well as to participate in the infectious cycle of several pathogens. In the current review, we will discuss the role of these channels/receptors in the pathogenesis of several infectious diseases and the possibilities of generating novel therapeutic approaches to reduce or prevent these diseases. PMID:24486013

  15. SPATIAL DYNAMICS OF LAND COVER AND INFECTIOUS DISEASE RISK

    EPA Science Inventory

    Climate changes may allow for vector-transmitted tropical diseases to spread into temperate areas. Areas of low ecological diversity are at higher risk of infectious disease transmission due to decreased zooprophylaxis, the diversion of disease carrying insects from humans to ...

  16. Effects of Mannan Oligosaccharides on Antibody Response to Infectious Bronchitis, Infectious Bursal Disease and Newcastle Disease in Chickens

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. M. Shafey; S. Al-Mufarej; M. I. Shalaby; A. J. Jarelnabi

    2001-01-01

    Shafey, T.M., Al-Mufarej, S., Shalaby, M.I. and Jarelnabi, A.J. 2001. Effects of mannan oligosaccharides on antibody response to infectious bronchitis, infectious bursal disease and Newcastle disease in chickens. J. Appl. Anim. Res., 19: 117–127.The effects of feeding a mannan oligosaccharide (Bio-Mos) from 0 to 3g\\/kg diet on 1 to 35 day serum total protein, albumin and globulin and on antibody

  17. After 2015: infectious diseases in a new era of health and development

    PubMed Central

    Dye, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Running over timescales that span decades or centuries, the epidemiological transition provides the central narrative of global health. In this transition, a reduction in mortality is followed by a reduction in fertility, creating larger, older populations in which the main causes of illness and death are no longer acute infections of children but chronic diseases of adults. Since the year 2000, the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) have provided a framework for accelerating the decline of infectious diseases, backed by a massive injection of foreign investment to low-income countries. Despite the successes of the MDGs era, the inhabitants of low-income countries still suffer an enormous burden of disease owing to diarrhoea, pneumonia, HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, malaria and other pathogens. Adding to the predictable burden of endemic disease, the threat of pandemics is ever-present and global. With a view to the future, this review spotlights five aspects of the fight against infection beyond 2015, when the MDGs will be replaced by a new set of goals for poverty reduction and sustainable development. These aspects are: exploiting the biological links between infectious and non-infectious diseases; controlling infections among the new urban majority; enhancing the response to international health threats; expanding childhood immunization programmes to prevent acute and chronic diseases in adults; and working towards universal health coverage. By scanning the wider horizon now, infectious disease specialists have the chance to shape the post-2015 era of health and development. PMID:24821913

  18. Modeling rapidly disseminating infectious disease during mass gatherings

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    We discuss models for rapidly disseminating infectious diseases during mass gatherings (MGs), using influenza as a case study. Recent innovations in modeling and forecasting influenza transmission dynamics at local, regional, and global scales have made influenza a particularly attractive model scenario for MG. We discuss the behavioral, medical, and population factors for modeling MG disease transmission, review existing model formulations, and highlight key data and modeling gaps related to modeling MG disease transmission. We argue that the proposed improvements will help integrate infectious-disease models in MG health contingency plans in the near future, echoing modeling efforts that have helped shape influenza pandemic preparedness plans in recent years. PMID:23217051

  19. Infectious diseases affect marine fisheries and aquaculture economics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lafferty, Kevin D.; Harvell, C. Drew; Conrad, Jon M.; Friedman, Carolyn S.; Kent, Michael L.; Kuris, Armand M.; Powell, Eric N.; Rondeau, Daniel; Saksida, Sonja M.

    2015-01-01

    Seafood is a growing part of the economy, but its economic value is diminished by marine diseases. Infectious diseases are common in the ocean, and here we tabulate 67 examples that can reduce commercial species' growth and survivorship or decrease seafood quality. These impacts seem most problematic in the stressful and crowded conditions of aquaculture, which increasingly dominates seafood production as wild fishery production plateaus. For instance, marine diseases of farmed oysters, shrimp, abalone, and various fishes, particularly Atlantic salmon, cost billions of dollars each year. In comparison, it is often difficult to accurately estimate disease impacts on wild populations, especially those of pelagic and subtidal species. Farmed species often receive infectious diseases from wild species and can, in turn, export infectious agents to wild species. However, the impact of disease export on wild fisheries is controversial because there are few quantitative data demonstrating that wild species near farms suffer more from infectious diseases than those in other areas. The movement of exotic infectious agents to new areas continues to be the greatest concern.

  20. Infectious Diseases Affect Marine Fisheries and Aquaculture Economics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lafferty, Kevin D.; Harvell, C. Drew; Conrad, Jon M.; Friedman, Carolyn S.; Kent, Michael L.; Kuris, Armand M.; Powell, Eric N.; Rondeau, Daniel; Saksida, Sonja M.

    2015-01-01

    Seafood is a growing part of the economy, but its economic value is diminished by marine diseases. Infectious diseases are common in the ocean, and here we tabulate 67 examples that can reduce commercial species' growth and survivorship or decrease seafood quality. These impacts seem most problematic in the stressful and crowded conditions of aquaculture, which increasingly dominates seafood production as wild fishery production plateaus. For instance, marine diseases of farmed oysters, shrimp, abalone, and various fishes, particularly Atlantic salmon, cost billions of dollars each year. In comparison, it is often difficult to accurately estimate disease impacts on wild populations, especially those of pelagic and subtidal species. Farmed species often receive infectious diseases from wild species and can, in turn, export infectious agents to wild species. However, the impact of disease export on wild fisheries is controversial because there are few quantitative data demonstrating that wild species near farms suffer more from infectious diseases than those in other areas. The movement of exotic infectious agents to new areas continues to be the greatest concern.

  1. Ventilation assessment of an infectious disease ward housing TB patients

    SciTech Connect

    Crandall, M.S.; Hughes, R.T.

    1996-05-01

    The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) assisted the National Center for Infectious Diseases and the National Center for Prevention Services, Centers for Disease Control (CDC), in their investigation of nosocomial transmission of tuberculosis (TB) at a Veterans Administration Medical Center. NIOSH was asked to determine whether ventilation requirements expected of TB patient isolation facilities were being met. In the Infectious Disease ward (513), 24 staff were given a tuberculin skin test (TST) in the summer of 1991. Eleven (46%) were positive then, and 13 were negative. Ten of the 13 testing negative in 1991 were retested within a year, and 5 (50%) converted to a positive TST. NIOSH investigators made ventilation measurements on Ward 5B, an infectious diseases ward housing patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), two of them with infectious TB, to determine the status of the systems serving the area. Airflow measurements showed that in all the single-patient rooms, exhaust airflow was essentially zero. The average supply airflow varied above and below the designed value. These rooms were all positively pressurized, which would be recommended for the isolation of infectious patients. Based on the measurements made during this evaluation, it was recommended that a separate isolation facility be constructed in the hospital to house infectious patients. Interim corrective measures for the systems in place were also recommended.

  2. 66 FR 19173 - Board of Scientific Counselors, National Center for Infectious Diseases: Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2001-04-13

    ...HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention...Center for Infectious Diseases: Meeting In accordance...92-463), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention...Center for Infectious Diseases (NCID). Times and...

  3. 69 FR 20630 - Board of Scientific Counselors, National Center for Infectious Diseases

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2004-04-16

    ...HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention...Center for Infectious Diseases In accordance with section...92-463), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention...Center for Infectious Diseases (NCID). Times and...

  4. 65 FR 67750 - Board of Scientific Counselors, National Center for Infectious Diseases: Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2000-11-13

    ...HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention...Center for Infectious Diseases: Meeting In accordance...92-463), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention...Center for Infectious Diseases (NCID). Times and...

  5. 69 FR 62707 - Board of Scientific Counselors, National Center for Infectious Disease

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2004-10-27

    ...HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Board...National Center for Infectious Disease In accordance with section...92-463), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC...National Center for Infectious Diseases (NCID). Times and...

  6. 70 FR 72436 - Board of Scientific Counselors, National Center for Infectious Diseases: Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2005-12-05

    ...HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention...Center for Infectious Diseases: Meeting In accordance...92-463), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention...Center for Infectious Diseases (NCID). Times and...

  7. 67 FR 69532 - Board of Scientific Counselors, National Center for Infectious Diseases: Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2002-11-18

    ...HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention...Center for Infectious Diseases: Meeting In accordance...92-463), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention...Center for Infectious Diseases (NCID). Time and...

  8. 76 FR 72416 - Board of Scientific Counselors, Office of Infectious Diseases: Notice of Charter Renewal

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-23

    ...HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Board of...Counselors, Office of Infectious Diseases: Notice of Charter Renewal This...Counselors, Office of Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control...

  9. 78 FR 69682 - Board of Scientific Counselors, Office of Infectious Diseases: Notice of Charter Renewal

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-20

    ...HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Board of...Counselors, Office of Infectious Diseases: Notice of Charter Renewal This...Counselors, Office of Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control...

  10. A PubMed-Wide Associational Study of Infectious Diseases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vitali Sintchenko; Stephen Anthony; Xuan-Hieu Phan; Frank Lin; Enrico W. Coiera; Igor Mokrousov

    2010-01-01

    BackgroundComputational discovery is playing an ever-greater role in supporting the processes of knowledge synthesis. A significant proportion of the more than 18 million manuscripts indexed in the PubMed database describe infectious disease syndromes and various infectious agents. This study is the first attempt to integrate online repositories of text-based publications and microbial genome databases in order to explore the dynamics

  11. Perspectives of public health laboratories in emerging infectious diseases

    PubMed Central

    Chua, Kaw Bing; Gubler, Duane J

    2013-01-01

    The world has experienced an increased incidence and transboundary spread of emerging infectious diseases over the last four decades. We divided emerging infectious diseases into four categories, with subcategories in categories 1 and 4. The categorization was based on the nature and characteristics of pathogens or infectious agents causing the emerging infections, which are directly related to the mechanisms and patterns of infectious disease emergence. The factors or combinations of factors contributing to the emergence of these pathogens vary within each category. We also classified public health laboratories into three types based on function, namely, research, reference and analytical diagnostic laboratories, with the last category being subclassified into primary (community-based) public health and clinical (medical) analytical diagnostic laboratories. The frontline/leading and/or supportive roles to be adopted by each type of public health laboratory for optimal performance to establish the correct etiological agents causing the diseases or outbreaks vary with respect to each category of emerging infectious diseases. We emphasize the need, especially for an outbreak investigation, to establish a harmonized and coordinated national public health laboratory system that integrates different categories of public health laboratories within a country and that is closely linked to the national public health delivery system and regional and international high-end laboratories. PMID:26038473

  12. Acute infectious bursal disease in poultry: A review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thierry P. Van Den Berg

    2000-01-01

    This review is focused on the acute form of infectious bursal disease (IBD) caused by very virulent IBD virus (vvIBDV). First described in Europe about 10 years ago, this new form of the disease has rapidly spread all over the world, causing dramatic losses; after a decade, it still represents a considerable threat to the poultry industry. Emergence of the

  13. Techniques for Preventing the Spread of Infectious Diseases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento.

    Specific procedures are outlined for prevention of the spread of infectious diseases with techniques of handwashing, diapering, and handling of known disease carriers. Protocols for classroom cleanliness list essential steps and key points and precautions for maintaining a hygienic environment. This section includes a list of protocols for food…

  14. Epitheliocystis, a new infectious disease of the bluegill ( Lepomis macrochirus )

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. L. Hoffman; C. E. Dunbar; K. Wolf; L. O. Zwillenberg

    1969-01-01

    A new infectious, benign and chronic disease, histopathologically distinct from the viral disease lymphocystis, has been found in the bluegill. The symptoms are much enlarged cells in skin and gill epithelium, filled with basophilic granules. By electron microscopy these granules were shown to be organisms with the morphological characteristics ofBedsonia (Miyagawanella). During an attempt to isolate the agent in the

  15. Patterns in the effects of infectious diseases on population growth

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O. Diekmann; M. Kretzschmar

    1991-01-01

    An infectious disease may reduce or even stop the exponential growth of a population. We consider two very simple models for microparasitic and macroparasitic diseases, respectively, and study how the effect depends on a contact parameter K. The results are presented as bifurcation diagrams involving several threshold values of ?. The precise form of the bifurcation diagram depends critically on

  16. Incidence and Impact of Selected Infectious Diseases in Childhood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vital and Health Statistics, 1991

    1991-01-01

    This report provides estimates of the lifetime and annual incidence of certain infectious diseases of children in various demographic groups. Data on the social and health care impact of the diseases in terms of limited activity, days spent in bed, school days lost, contacts with physicians, hospitalizations, surgery, and use of medication are…

  17. 67 FR 18911 - Board of Scientific Counselors, National Center for Infectious Diseases: Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2002-04-17

    ...SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention...Center for Infectious Diseases: Meeting In accordance...the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention...Center for Infectious Diseases (NCID). Times...Nile b. Waterborne Disease c. Malaria d. CDC Global Infectious Diseases Strategy 3....

  18. Infectious diseases in the Arabian Peninsula and Egypt.

    PubMed

    Shibl, A; Senok, A; Memish, Z

    2012-11-01

    Infectious diseases are important causes of morbidity and mortality globally. Epidemiologically, differences in the patterns of infectious diseases and antimicrobial resistance exist across diverse geographical regions. In this review on infectious diseases in the Arabian Peninsula and Egypt, the epidemiology of tuberculosis, malaria and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections will be addressed. The challenges of the hepatitis C epidemic in Egypt and the epidemiology of this infection across the region will be reviewed. In recent years, we have seen dengue endemicity become established, with major outbreaks in parts of the region. Emerging data also indicate that, across the region, there is an increasing burden of antibiotic resistance, with endemicity in healthcare settings and dissemination into the community. New challenges include the emergence of the Alkhurma haemorrhagic fever virus in Saudi Arabia. The annual Hajj pilgrimage in Saudi Arabia serves as a model for the control of infectious disease in mass gatherings. As most of these countries constantly experience a uniquely dynamic population influx in the form of expatriate workers, tourists, or pilgrims, concerted regional and international collaboration to address these public health concerns in a region that lies at the crossroads for the global spread of infectious pathogens is imperative. PMID:23066725

  19. Infectious diseases subspecialty: declining demand challenges and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Chandrasekar, Pranatharthi; Havlichek, Daniel; Johnson, Leonard B

    2014-12-01

    Recent match results from the National Resident Matching Program for the subspecialty of infectious diseases show an ongoing decline in the number of fellowship positions filled, and, more important, in the number of applicants, particularly from the pool of international medical graduates. The main reasons for this declining application rate are unclear; in the absence of hard data, we present our viewpoint on this issue. Difficulties in securing visas for permanent residency in the United States, perception of a limited job market, and the explosive growth in the number of hospitalist positions may be important contributing factors. Infectious Diseases Society of America members need to focus on medical students and medical residents in their formative years. We present potential solutions to this problem of declining interest in the field of infectious diseases. PMID:25148890

  20. Combating infectious diseases of poverty: a year on

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The Infectious Diseases of Poverty journal, launched a year ago, is a platform to engage outside the traditional disciplinary boundaries, and disseminate high quality science towards the improvement of health. This paper reviews the milestone achievements during its first year of operation. The journal has filled an important niche, addressing some of the main priorities in the Global Report for Research on Infectious Diseases of Poverty. Highlights include the publication of three thematic issues on health systems, surveillance and response systems, as well as co-infection and syndemics. The thematic issues have foregrounded the importance and innovation that can be achieved through transdisciplinary research. The journal has been indexed by PubMed since April 2013, with the publication of a total of 38 articles. Finally, the journal is delivering to wider range readers both in developing and developed countries with sustained efforts with a focus on relevant and strategic information towards elimination of infectious diseases of poverty. PMID:24246007

  1. Climate variability and outbreaks of infectious diseases in Europe.

    PubMed

    Morand, Serge; Owers, Katharine A; Waret-Szkuta, Agnes; McIntyre, K Marie; Baylis, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    Several studies provide evidence of a link between vector-borne disease outbreaks and El Nińo driven climate anomalies. Less investigated are the effects of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO). Here, we test its impact on outbreak occurrences of 13 infectious diseases over Europe during the last fifty years, controlling for potential bias due to increased surveillance and detection. NAO variation statistically influenced the outbreak occurrence of eleven of the infectious diseases. Seven diseases were associated with winter NAO positive phases in northern Europe, and therefore with above-average temperatures and precipitation. Two diseases were associated with the summer or spring NAO negative phases in northern Europe, and therefore with below-average temperatures and precipitation. Two diseases were associated with summer positive or negative NAO phases in southern Mediterranean countries. These findings suggest that there is potential for developing early warning systems, based on climatic variation information, for improved outbreak control and management. PMID:23639950

  2. Climate variability and outbreaks of infectious diseases in Europe

    PubMed Central

    Morand, Serge; Owers, Katharine A.; Waret-Szkuta, Agnes; McIntyre, K. Marie; Baylis, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    Several studies provide evidence of a link between vector-borne disease outbreaks and El Nińo driven climate anomalies. Less investigated are the effects of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO). Here, we test its impact on outbreak occurrences of 13 infectious diseases over Europe during the last fifty years, controlling for potential bias due to increased surveillance and detection. NAO variation statistically influenced the outbreak occurrence of eleven of the infectious diseases. Seven diseases were associated with winter NAO positive phases in northern Europe, and therefore with above-average temperatures and precipitation. Two diseases were associated with the summer or spring NAO negative phases in northern Europe, and therefore with below-average temperatures and precipitation. Two diseases were associated with summer positive or negative NAO phases in southern Mediterranean countries. These findings suggest that there is potential for developing early warning systems, based on climatic variation information, for improved outbreak control and management. PMID:23639950

  3. 75 FR 10488 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-08

    ...Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel; ``Modeling...Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel; Regulatory T cells in Autoimmune and Inflammatory Diseases. Date: April 30, 2010....

  4. 75 FR 4091 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-26

    ...Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice...Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...Partnerships in Biodefense Food and Waterborne Diseases. Date...Assistance Program Nos. 93.855, Allergy, Immunology, and...

  5. Interacting nutritional and infectious etiologies of Keshan disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Orville A. Levander; Melinda A. Beck

    1997-01-01

    In 1979, Chinese scientists reported that selenium had been linked to Keshan disease, an endemic juvenile cardiomyopathy found\\u000a in China. However, certain epidemiological features of the disease could not be explained solely on the basis of inadequate\\u000a selenium nutrition. Fluctuations in the seasonal incidence of the disease suggested involvement of an infectious agent. Indeed,\\u000a a coxsackievirus B4 isolated from a

  6. Spontaneous Generation of Infectious Prion Disease in Transgenic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Castilla, Joaquín; Pintado, Belén; Gutiérrez-Adan, Alfonso; Andréoletti, Olivier; Aguilar-Calvo, Patricia; Arroba, Ana-Isabel; Parra-Arrondo, Beatriz; Ferrer, Isidro; Manzanares, Jorge; Espinosa, Juan-Carlos

    2013-01-01

    We generated transgenic mice expressing bovine cellular prion protein (PrPC) with a leucine substitution at codon 113 (113L). This protein is homologous to human protein with mutation 102L, and its genetic link with Gerstmann–Sträussler–Scheinker syndrome has been established. This mutation in bovine PrPC causes a fully penetrant, lethal, spongiform encephalopathy. This genetic disease was transmitted by intracerebral inoculation of brain homogenate from ill mice expressing mutant bovine PrP to mice expressing wild-type bovine PrP, which indicated de novo generation of infectious prions. Our findings demonstrate that a single amino acid change in the PrPC sequence can induce spontaneous generation of an infectious prion disease that differs from all others identified in hosts expressing the same PrPC sequence. These observations support the view that a variety of infectious prion strains might spontaneously emerge in hosts displaying random genetic PrPC mutations. PMID:24274622

  7. A Cellular Automaton Framework for Infectious Disease Spread Simulation

    PubMed Central

    Pfeifer, Bernhard; Kugler, Karl; Tejada, Maria M; Baumgartner, Christian; Seger, Michael; Osl, Melanie; Netzer, Michael; Handler, Michael; Dander, Andreas; Wurz, Manfred; Graber, Armin; Tilg, Bernhard

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, a cellular automaton framework for processing the spatiotemporal spread of infectious diseases is presented. The developed environment simulates and visualizes how infectious diseases might spread, and hence provides a powerful instrument for health care organizations to generate disease prevention and contingency plans. In this study, the outbreak of an avian flu like virus was modeled in the state of Tyrol, and various scenarios such as quarantine, effect of different medications on viral spread and changes of social behavior were simulated. The proposed framework is implemented using the programming language Java. The set up of the simulation environment requires specification of the disease parameters and the geographical information using a population density colored map, enriched with demographic data. The results of the numerical simulations and the analysis of the computed parameters will be used to get a deeper understanding of how the disease spreading mechanisms work, and how to protect the population from contracting the disease. Strategies for optimization of medical treatment and vaccination regimens will also be investigated using our cellular automaton framework. In this study, six different scenarios were simulated. It showed that geographical barriers may help to slow down the spread of an infectious disease, however, when an aggressive and deadly communicable disease spreads, only quarantine and controlled medical treatment are able to stop the outbreak, if at all. PMID:19415136

  8. Managing an Infectious Disease Outbreak in a School. Lessons Learned from School Crises and Emergencies. Volume 2, Issue 3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Education, 2007

    2007-01-01

    "Lessons Learned" is a series of publications that are a brief recounting of actual school emergencies and crises. This "Lessons Learned" issue focuses on an infectious disease incident, which resulted in the death of a student, closure of area schools and the operation of an on-site school vaccine clinic. The report highlights the critical need…

  9. Marek's Disease Virus As a Vectored Vaccine for Infectious Laryngotracheitis and Marek's Disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We replaced the MEQ gene from a bacterial artificial chromosome clone of Marek’s disease virus with gJ and gB genes from infectious laryngotracheitis virus. We will compare the efficacy of these vectored vaccines with commercial vaccines for Marek’s disease and infectious laryngotracheitis....

  10. Analysis of hospital records in four African countries, 1975-1990, with emphasis on infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Petit, P L; van Ginneken, J K

    1995-08-01

    Detailed standardized annual reports are analysed for 17 rural hospitals in four African countries, with admission figures of 1.2 million patients (excluding deliveries) and more than 67,000 deaths over a period of 16 years. The countries involved are Zambia, Tanzania, Kenya and Ghana. Figures on admission, causes of death and clinical case fatality rates are presented per country and per 4-year calendar period for the most important infectious diseases. The number of admissions increased substantially in 3 of the 4 countries (50-77%) between 1976 and 1990, but admission rates (per 1,000 population per year) by much less (6-25%), indicating that a large part of the increase in the volume of services was due to population growth. The number of infectious disease admissions in Ghana, however, decreased by 12% and even more in terms of admission rates (by 42%). About 75% of all admissions in children below 15 years of age were due to infections and infection related diseases; for adults this figure was 31%. Malaria is the single most important infectious disease both in terms of admissions and as a cause of death; it has increased substantially in three of the four countries. Bacterial infections, in particular pneumonia, gastroenteritis, meningitis and tuberculosis, are also important diseases in terms of admissions and deaths. On the whole they have remained at more or less the same level in 1975-1990 in terms of both admissions and deaths. Immunizable diseases and measles, once important as causes of admissions and deaths, have declined in all countries. Case fatality rates vary substantially by type of disease. They are very high for tetanus (36.7-68.8%) and meningitis (14.7-43%), and low for malaria (0.6-4.6%). However, they vary considerably in the four countries included in the study and are usually lower in children than in adults. A need for detailed studies with good "standardized" hospital records is emphasized. Representative data are needed from all hospitals in a given catchment area, with defined diagnoses for diseases and details regarding age and sex. This kind of information is highly desirable for planning and operation of curative and preventive medical care in developing countries. PMID:7636917

  11. Antibodies in infectious diseases: polyclonals, monoclonals and niche biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Berry, Jody D; Gaudet, Ryan G

    2011-09-01

    Antibody preparations have a long history of providing protection from infectious diseases. Although antibodies remain the only natural host-derived defense mechanism capable of completely preventing infection, as products, they compete against inexpensive therapeutics such as antibiotics, small molecule inhibitors and active vaccines. The continued discovery in the monoclonal antibody (mAb) field of leads with broadened cross neutralization of viruses and demonstrable synergy of antibody with antibiotics for bacterial diseases, clearly show that innovation remains. The commercial success of mAbs in chronic disease has not been paralleled in infectious diseases for several reasons. Infectious disease immunotherapeutics are limited in scope as endemic diseases necessitate active vaccine development. Also, the complexity of these small markets draws the interest of niche companies rather than big pharmaceutical corporations. Lastly, the cost of goods for mAb therapeutics is inherently high for infectious agents due to the need for antibody cocktails, which better mimic polyclonal immunoglobulin preparations and prevent antigenic escape. In cases where vaccine or convalescent populations are available, current polyclonal hyperimmune immunoglobulin preparations (pIgG), with modern and highly efficient purification technology and standardized assays for potency, can make economic sense. Recent innovations to broaden the potency of mAb therapies, while reducing cost of production, are discussed herein. On the basis of centuries of effective use of Ab treatments, and with growing immunocompromised populations, the question is not whether antibodies have a bright future for infectious agents, but rather what formats are cost effective and generate safe and efficacious treatments to satisfy regulatory approval. PMID:21473942

  12. Molecular pathogenesis lessons from the world of infectious diseases research.

    PubMed

    Musser, James M; DeLeo, Frank R

    2015-06-01

    This Guest Editorial introduces this month's special Infectious Disease Theme Issue, a series of reviews focusing on the molecular pathogenic processes of four representative pathogens, including two bacteria (brucellae and Staphylococcus aureus), a virus (influenza), and a parasite (Trypanosoma cruzi). PMID:25906759

  13. Endemic models for the spread of infectious diseases with arbitrarily ...

    E-print Network

    SIAM (#1) 1035 1999 Jan 20 12:53:14

    2000-09-19

    The main body of the paper is devoted to analyzing the fundamental properties ...... the fact that the solutions of the system in section 2.2 can be recast as solutions of .... R. M. Anderson and R. M. May (1991), Infectious Diseases of Humans, Oxford ... 101–106. O. Diekmann and S. A. Van Gils (1989), Invariant manifolds for ...

  14. FYI: Services to Poor Families; Controlling Infectious Diseases; Parent Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Children Today, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Discusses services and resources available for families, parents, and child care providers. Describes a National Resource Center for Children in Poverty; a guide for controlling infectious diseases among young children in day care; a directory of parent support groups; and reports of a link between household pesticides and childhood leukemia. (BB)

  15. Genetics and Genomics of Infectious Diseases Malaria and TB

    E-print Network

    Brierley, Andrew

    Genetics and Genomics of Infectious Diseases Malaria and TB One Day Seminar: 14th June 2013 erythrocytes: a flexible and genetically tractable human malaria model 11.00 - 11-30: Coffee 11.30 - 12.00: Julian Rayner Group Leader, Malaria Programme , Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute New approaches to scaling

  16. Western blot detection of infectious bursal disease virus infection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. R. F. G. Pereira; C. E. P. F. Travassos; A. Huguenim; A. C. C. Guimarăes; A. G. Silva; M. A. A. M. Guimarăes

    1998-01-01

    In order to evaluate the use of a Western blot methodology for the diagnosis of infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) infection, chick- ens were experimentally infected with IBDV strains and tested for the presence of viral antigens and antibodies by a blocking Western blot test (bWB). The viral proteins obtained from the bursa of Fabricius (BF) were transferred to a

  17. Mobile infectious disease references: from the bedside to the beach.

    PubMed

    Burdette, Steven D; Trotman, Robin; Cmar, John

    2012-07-01

    Point-of-care access to current medical information is easily available to the practitioner through the use of smartphones, iPads, and other personal digital assistants. There are numerous mobile applications (apps) that provide easy-to-use and often well-referenced medical guidance for the infectious diseases practitioner. We reviewed 6 commonly utilized mobile apps available for handheld devices: the Emergency Medicine Residents' Association's (EMRA's) Antibiotic Guide, Epocrates Deluxe, Johns Hopkins Antibiotic Guide, Sanford Guide, the Medscape mobile app, and the Infectious Diseases Compendium. We evaluated several basic infectious diseases topics (including but not limited to endocarditis, vancomycin, and Acinetobacter infection) and attempted to objectively score them for metrics that would help the provider determine which mobile app would be most useful for his or her practice. The Johns Hopkins Antibiotic Guide and the Sanford Guide had the highest cumulative scores, whereas EMRA scored the lowest. We found that no single app will meet all of the needs of an infectious diseases physician. Each app delivers content in a unique way and would meet divergent needs for all practitioners, from the experienced clinician to the trainee. The ability to rapidly access trusted medical knowledge at the point of care can help all healthcare providers better treat their patients' infections. PMID:22679027

  18. Count data control charts for the surveillance of infectious diseases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael H

    We present work on a new control chart for the change point detection in time series of counts - data, which typically arise in the routine surveillance of infectious diseases. The in-control mean in this statistical process control (SPC) setting is assumed to be time-varying and of generalized linear model (GLM) nature with intercept and seasonal components. Seasonality and count

  19. Social networks and infectious disease: The Colorado Springs study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. S. Klovdahl; J. J. Potterat; D. E. Woodhouse; J. B. Muth; S. Q. Muth; W. W. Darrow

    1994-01-01

    The social network paradigm provides a set of concepts and methods useful for studying the structure of a population through which infectious agents transmitted during close personal contact spread, and an opportunity to develop improved disease control programs. The research discussed was a first attempt to use a social network approach to better understand factors affecting the transmission of a

  20. Vitamin A supplementation in infectious diseases: a meta-analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P P Glasziou; Mackerras Dem

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To study the effect of vitamin A supplementation on morbidity and mortality from infectious disease. DESIGN--A meta-analysis aimed at identifying and combining mortality and morbidity data from all randomised controlled trials of vitamin A. RESULTS--Of 20 controlled trials identified, 12 trials were randomised trials and provided \\

  1. Modified phages: Novel antimicrobial agents to combat infectious diseases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zahra Moradpour; Abdollah Ghasemian

    2011-01-01

    Researchers increasingly believe that microbial, molecular and synthetic biology techniques along with genetic engineering will facilitate the treatment of persistent infectious diseases. However, such therapy has been plagued by the emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria, resulting in significant obstacles to treatment. Phage therapy is one promising alternative to antibiotics, especially now that recent modifications to ubiquitous phages have made them more

  2. Drug-Recommendation System for Patients with Infectious Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Shimada, Kazuyuki; Takada, Hidekatsu; Mitsuyama, Satoshi; Ban, Hideyuki; Matsuo, Hitoshi; Otake, Hitoshi; Kunishima, Hiroyuki; Kanemitsu, Keiji; Kaku, Mitsuo

    2005-01-01

    We developed a decision support system that helps doctors select appropriate first-line drugs. The system classifies patients’ abilities to protect themselves from infectious diseases as a risk level for infection. In an evaluation of the prototype system, the risk level it determined correlated with the decisions of specialists. The system is very effective and convenient for doctors to use. PMID:16779399

  3. Drug-recommendation system for patients with infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Shimada, Kazuyuki; Takada, Hidekatsu; Mitsuyama, Satoshi; Ban, Hideyuki; Matsuo, Hitoshi; Otake, Hitoshi; Kunishima, Hiroyuki; Kanemitsu, Keiji; Kaku, Mitsuo

    2005-01-01

    We developed a decision support system that helps doctors select appropriate first-line drugs. The system classifies patients' abilities to protect themselves from infectious diseases as a risk level for infection. In an evaluation of the prototype system, the risk level it determined correlated with the decisions of specialists. The system is very effective and convenient for doctors to use. PMID:16779399

  4. Management of Chronic Infectious Diseases in School Children. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois State Board of Education, Springfield.

    This manual contains current guidelines for Illinois school personnel to follow when working with children who have infectious diseases. The first chapter focuses on school district development of policies and procedures and program implementation. The next chapter provides information on characteristics, mode of transmission, prevention, and…

  5. APPLICATION FOR PRE-VETERINARY & VETERINARY SCHOLARSHIPS IMMUNOLOGY & INFECTIOUS DISEASES

    E-print Network

    Lawrence, Rick L.

    APPLICATION FOR PRE-VETERINARY & VETERINARY SCHOLARSHIPS IMMUNOLOGY & INFECTIOUS DISEASES MONTANA the appropriate statement(s) for your situation: I am an MSU undergraduate student applying for a pre-veterinary scholarship. I am a former MSU student currently attending veterinary school. I am an MSU undergraduate

  6. APPLICATION FOR PRE-VETERINARY & VETERINARY SCHOLARSHIPS IMMUNOLOGY & INFECTIOUS DISEASES

    E-print Network

    Lawrence, Rick L.

    APPLICATION FOR PRE-VETERINARY & VETERINARY SCHOLARSHIPS IMMUNOLOGY & INFECTIOUS DISEASES MONTANA statement(s) for your situation: I am an MSU undergraduate student applying for a pre-veterinary scholarship. I am a former MSU student currently attending veterinary school. I am an MSU undergraduate and have

  7. Environmental Change, Global Warming and Infectious Diseases in Northern Australia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bart J. Currie

    2001-01-01

    We are increasing our clinical surveillance for new and increasing infectious diseases that may relate to environmental changes occurring in the short term and global warming over the longer term. It is predicted that with global warming the tropical north of Australia will become both hotter and wetter. This is likely to expand the receptive area within Australia for mosquito-borne

  8. Ultraviolet radiation, resistance to infectious diseases, and vaccination responses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Annemarie Sleijffers; Johan Garssen; Henk Van Loveren

    2002-01-01

    Exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation, as in sunlight, can modulate immune responses in animals and humans. This immunomodulation can lead to positive health effects especially with respect to certain autoimmune diseases and allergies. However, UV-induced immunomodulation has also been shown to be deleterious. Experimental animal studies have revealed that UV exposure can impair resistance to many infectious agents, such as

  9. Evolutionary analysis of the dynamics of viral infectious disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Oliver G. Pybus; Andrew Rambaut

    2009-01-01

    Many organisms that cause infectious diseases, particularly RNA viruses, mutate so rapidly that their evolutionary and ecological behaviours are inextricably linked. Consequently, aspects of the transmission and epidemiology of these pathogens are imprinted on the genetic diversity of their genomes. Large-scale empirical analyses of the evolutionary dynamics of important pathogens are now feasible owing to the increasing availability of pathogen

  10. Estimating the probability of an extinction or major outbreak for an environmentally transmitted infectious disease.

    PubMed

    Lahodny, G E; Gautam, R; Ivanek, R

    2015-07-01

    Indirect transmission through the environment, pathogen shedding by infectious hosts, replication of free-living pathogens within the environment, and environmental decontamination are suspected to play important roles in the spread and control of environmentally transmitted infectious diseases. To account for these factors, the classic Susceptible-Infectious-Recovered-Susceptible epidemic model is modified to include a compartment representing the amount of free-living pathogen within the environment. The model accounts for host demography, direct and indirect transmission, replication of free-living pathogens in the environment, and removal of free-living pathogens by natural death or environmental decontamination. Based on the assumptions of the deterministic model, a continuous-time Markov chain model is developed. An estimate for the probability of disease extinction or a major outbreak is obtained by approximating the Markov chain with a multitype branching process. Numerical simulations illustrate important differences between the deterministic and stochastic counterparts, relevant for outbreak prevention, that depend on indirect transmission, pathogen shedding by infectious hosts, replication of free-living pathogens, and environmental decontamination. The probability of a major outbreak is computed for salmonellosis in a herd of dairy cattle as well as cholera in a human population. An explicit expression for the probability of disease extinction or a major outbreak in terms of the model parameters is obtained for systems with no direct transmission or replication of free-living pathogens. PMID:25198247

  11. Integrated Microfluidic Bioprocessors for Infectious Disease Detection

    E-print Network

    Thaitrong, Numrin

    2010-01-01

    causing acute respiratory tract infection by single- tubeacute respiratory disease (ARD), 80% of which are attributed to viral infection [acute otitis media [3]. The most deadly case of respiratory infection

  12. A Branching Model for the Spread of Infectious Animal Diseases in Varying

    E-print Network

    Meester, Ronald

    A Branching Model for the Spread of Infectious Animal Diseases in Varying Environments Pieter with a stochastic model, describing out- breaks of infectious diseases that have potentially great animal or hu- man of infectious diseases of animals (e.g. classical swine fever (CSF), foot and mouth disease (FMD) and Avian

  13. Structured information exchange on infectious diseases for prisoners.

    PubMed

    Flühmann, Paul; Wassmer, Max; Schwendimann, René

    2012-07-01

    Infectious diseases such as HIV/AIDS, hepatitis C, and sexually transmitted diseases are more prevalent in prisoners than in the general population. In Western European prisons, inmates have HIV infection rates 25 times higher and hepatitis C infection rates 40 times higher than their national averages. To inform prisoners about the dangers of these diseases, a structured information exchange was developed. In a pre-/post- design with repeated measurement, 21 male prisoners' knowledge of infectious diseases was analyzed. A significant improvement of knowledge (p < .0001) was observed. One striking finding was that knowledge of hepatitis C was clearly lower than that of HIV and that prisoners enrolled in drug substitution programs were significantly better informed about hepatitis C than the other participating prisoners. PMID:22569902

  14. Climate Change and the Geographic Distribution of Infectious Diseases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joshua Rosenthal

    2009-01-01

    Our ability to predict the effects of climate change on the spread of infectious diseases is in its infancy. Numerous, and\\u000a in some cases conflicting, predictions have been developed, principally based on models of biological processes or mapping\\u000a of current and historical disease statistics. Current debates on whether climate change, relative to socioeconomic determinants,\\u000a will be a major influence on

  15. Travel and migration associated infectious diseases morbidity in Europe, 2008

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vanessa Field; Philippe Gautret; Patricia Schlagenhauf; Gerd-Dieter Burchard; Eric Caumes; Mogens Jensenius; Francesco Castelli; Effrossyni Gkrania-Klotsas; Leisa Weld; Rogelio Lopez-Velez; Peter de Vries; Frank von Sonnenburg; Louis Loutan; Philippe Parola

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Europeans represent the majority of international travellers and clinicians encountering returned patients have an essential role in recognizing, and communicating travel-associated public health risks. METHODS: To investigate the morbidity of travel associated infectious diseases in European travellers, we analysed diagnoses with demographic, clinical and travel-related predictors of disease, in 6957 ill returned travellers who presented in 2008 to EuroTravNet

  16. The Clinic on Dynamical Approaches to Infectious Disease Data (DAIDD) is part of the International Clinics on Infectious Disease Dynamics and Data (ICI3D) Program and is supported by the National Institute of General

    E-print Network

    Jarrett, Thomas H.

    The Clinic on Dynamical Approaches to Infectious Disease Data (DAIDD) is part of the International Clinics on Infectious Disease Dynamics and Data (ICI3D on Dynamical Approaches to Infectious Disease Data December 15-19, 2014 Gainesville, FL

  17. Infectious diseases of fishes in the Salish Sea

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hershberger, Paul; Rhodes, Linda; Kurath, Gael; Winton, James

    2013-01-01

    As in marine regions throughout other areas of the world, fishes in the Salish Sea serve as hosts for many pathogens, including nematodes, trematodes, protozoans, protists, bacteria, viruses, and crustaceans. Here, we review some of the better-documented infectious diseases that likely contribute to significant losses among free-ranging fishes in the Salish Sea and discuss the environmental and ecological factors that may affect the population-level impacts of disease. Demonstration of these diseases and their impacts to critical and endangered resources provides justification to expand pathogen surveillance efforts and to incorporate disease forecasting and mitigation tools into ecosystem restoration efforts.

  18. New and emerging pathogens in canine infectious respiratory disease.

    PubMed

    Priestnall, S L; Mitchell, J A; Walker, C A; Erles, K; Brownlie, J

    2014-03-01

    Canine infectious respiratory disease is a common, worldwide disease syndrome of multifactorial etiology. This review presents a summary of 6 viruses (canine respiratory coronavirus, canine pneumovirus, canine influenza virus, pantropic canine coronavirus, canine bocavirus, and canine hepacivirus) and 2 bacteria (Streptococcus zooepidemicus and Mycoplasma cynos) that have been associated with respiratory disease in dogs. For some pathogens a causal role is clear, whereas for others, ongoing research aims to uncover their pathogenesis and contribution to this complex syndrome. Etiology, clinical disease, pathogenesis, and epidemiology are described for each pathogen, with an emphasis on recent discoveries or novel findings. PMID:24232191

  19. (Meta)population dynamics of infectious diseases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bryan Grenfell; John Harwood

    1997-01-01

    The metapopulation concept provides a very powerful tool for analysing the persistence of spatially-disaggregated populations, in terms of a balance between local extinction and colonization. Exactly the same approach has been developed by epidemiologists, in order to understand patterns of diseases persistence. There is great scope for further cross-fertilization between areas. Recent work on the spatitemporal dynamics of measles illustrates

  20. Infectious Disease and the Public Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crosson, James E.

    The paper examines policy options for schools regarding appropriate services for children with highly communicable, potentially life threatening diseases such as Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) and Herpes. Briefly considered are the school's legal responsibility, implied risk and inability, and actual risk and its control. General…

  1. 75 FR 1119 - Agency Information Collection (Survey of Appropriate and Timely Diagnosis of Infectious Diseases...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-08

    ...Infectious Diseases (Leishmaniasis), VA Form 10-0476. b. Survey of Appropriate and Timely Diagnosis of Infectious Diseases (Malaria), VA Form 10-0476a. OMB Control Number: 2900-New (VA Form 10-0476). Type of Review: New collection....

  2. 78 FR 37557 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-21

    ...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Resource Related Research Projects for AIDS, Allergy, Immunology and Transplantation...

  3. 76 FR 4122 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-24

    ...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...and funding cycle. Name of Committee: Allergy, Immunology, and Transplantation...

  4. 76 FR 27069 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-10

    ...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Resource Related Research Projects for AIDS, Allergy, Immunology and Transplantation...

  5. 77 FR 59940 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-01

    ...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...personal privacy. Name of Committee: Allergy, Immunology, and Transplantation Research...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

  6. 78 FR 31952 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-28

    ...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...personal privacy. Name of Committee: Allergy, Immunology, and Transplantation Research...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

  7. 77 FR 43604 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID); Notice of Workshop

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-25

    ...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID); Notice...Workshop SUMMARY: The National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), a...the National Institutes of Health; the Food and Drug Administration (FDA);...

  8. 75 FR 8975 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-26

    ...of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice...Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel, Consortium of Food Allergy Research (CoFAR) and CoFAR...

  9. 77 FR 64816 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-23

    ...unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: Microbiology, Infectious Diseases and AIDS Initial Review Group; Acquired...Immunology, and Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research, National Institutes...

  10. 78 FR 68857 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-15

    ...unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: Microbiology, Infectious Diseases and AIDS Initial Review Group; Acquired...Immunology, and Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research, National Institutes...

  11. 76 FR 65204 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-20

    ...unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: Microbiology, Infectious Diseases and AIDS Initial Review Group, Acquired...Immunology, and Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research, National Institutes...

  12. 75 FR 62546 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-12

    ...unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: Microbiology, Infectious Diseases and AIDS Initial Review Group, Acquired...Immunology, and Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research, National Institutes...

  13. Mobile phone-based infectious disease surveillance system, Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Robertson, Colin; Sawford, Kate; Daniel, Samson L A; Nelson, Trisalyn A; Stephen, Craig

    2010-10-01

    Because many infectious diseases are emerging in animals in low-income and middle-income countries, surveillance of animal health in these areas may be needed for forecasting disease risks to humans. We present an overview of a mobile phone-based frontline surveillance system developed and implemented in Sri Lanka. Field veterinarians reported animal health information by using mobile phones. Submissions increased steadily over 9 months, with ?4,000 interactions between field veterinarians and reports on the animal population received by the system. Development of human resources and increased communication between local stakeholders (groups and persons whose actions are affected by emerging infectious diseases and animal health) were instrumental for successful implementation. The primary lesson learned was that mobile phone-based surveillance of animal populations is acceptable and feasible in lower-resource settings. However, any system implementation plan must consider the time needed to garner support for novel surveillance methods among users and stakeholders. PMID:20875276

  14. Insights into infectious disease in the era of Hippocrates.

    PubMed

    Pappas, Georgios; Kiriaze, Ismene J; Falagas, Matthew E

    2008-07-01

    Hippocrates is traditionally considered the father of modern medicine, still influencing, 25 centuries after his time, various aspects of medical practice and ethics. His collected works include various references to infectious diseases that range from general observations on the nature of infection, hygiene, epidemiology, and the immune response, to detailed descriptions of syndromes such as tuberculous spondylitis, malaria, and tetanus. We sought to evaluate the extent to which this historical information has influenced the modern relevant literature. Associating disease to the disequilibrium of body fluids may seem an ancient and outdated notion nowadays, but many of the clinical descriptions presented in the Corpus Hippocraticum (Hippocratic Collection) are still the archetypes of the natural history of certain infectious diseases and their collective interplay with the environment, climate, and society. For this reason, modern clinicians and researchers continue to be attracted to these 'lessons' from the past - lessons that remain extremely valuable. PMID:18178502

  15. Mobile Phone–based Infectious Disease Surveillance System, Sri Lanka

    PubMed Central

    Sawford, Kate; Daniel, Samson L.A.; Nelson, Trisalyn A.; Stephen, Craig

    2010-01-01

    Because many infectious diseases are emerging in animals in low-income and middle-income countries, surveillance of animal health in these areas may be needed for forecasting disease risks to humans. We present an overview of a mobile phone–based frontline surveillance system developed and implemented in Sri Lanka. Field veterinarians reported animal health information by using mobile phones. Submissions increased steadily over 9 months, with ?4,000 interactions between field veterinarians and reports on the animal population received by the system. Development of human resources and increased communication between local stakeholders (groups and persons whose actions are affected by emerging infectious diseases and animal health) were instrumental for successful implementation. The primary lesson learned was that mobile phone–based surveillance of animal populations is acceptable and feasible in lower-resource settings. However, any system implementation plan must consider the time needed to garner support for novel surveillance methods among users and stakeholders. PMID:20875276

  16. Operation United assistance: infectious disease threats to deployed military personnel.

    PubMed

    Murray, Clinton K; Yun, Heather C; Markelz, Ana Elizabeth; Okulicz, Jason F; Vento, Todd J; Burgess, Timothy H; Cardile, Anthony P; Miller, R Scott

    2015-06-01

    As part of the international response to control the recent Ebola outbreak in West Africa, the Department of Defense has deployed military personnel to train Liberians to manage the disease and build treatment units and a hospital for health care volunteers. These steps have assisted in providing a robust medical system and augment Ebola diagnostic capability within the affected nations. In order to prepare for the deployment of U.S. military personnel, the infectious disease risks of the regions must be determined. This evaluation allows for the establishment of appropriate force health protection posture for personnel while deployed, as well as management plans for illnesses presenting after redeployment. Our objective was to detail the epidemiology and infectious disease risks for military personnel in West Africa, particularly for Liberia, along with lessons learned from prior deployments. PMID:26032379

  17. 38 CFR 4.88b - Schedule of ratings-infectious diseases, immune disorders and nutritional deficiencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...ratings-infectious diseases, immune disorders and nutritional deficiencies...Ratings Infectious Diseases, Immune Disorders and Nutritional Deficiencies...ratings—infectious diseases, immune disorders and nutritional deficiencies...necrosis under the appropriate system 6301Visceral...

  18. 38 CFR 4.88b - Schedule of ratings-infectious diseases, immune disorders and nutritional deficiencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...ratings-infectious diseases, immune disorders and nutritional deficiencies...Ratings Infectious Diseases, Immune Disorders and Nutritional Deficiencies...ratings—infectious diseases, immune disorders and nutritional deficiencies...necrosis under the appropriate system 6301Visceral...

  19. 38 CFR 4.88b - Schedule of ratings-infectious diseases, immune disorders and nutritional deficiencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...ratings-infectious diseases, immune disorders and nutritional deficiencies...Ratings Infectious Diseases, Immune Disorders and Nutritional Deficiencies...ratings—infectious diseases, immune disorders and nutritional deficiencies...necrosis under the appropriate system 6301Visceral...

  20. 38 CFR 4.88b - Schedule of ratings-infectious diseases, immune disorders and nutritional deficiencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...ratings-infectious diseases, immune disorders and nutritional deficiencies...Ratings Infectious Diseases, Immune Disorders and Nutritional Deficiencies...ratings—infectious diseases, immune disorders and nutritional deficiencies...necrosis under the appropriate system 6301Visceral...

  1. 38 CFR 4.88b - Schedule of ratings-infectious diseases, immune disorders and nutritional deficiencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...ratings-infectious diseases, immune disorders and nutritional deficiencies...Ratings Infectious Diseases, Immune Disorders and Nutritional Deficiencies...ratings—infectious diseases, immune disorders and nutritional deficiencies...necrosis under the appropriate system 6301Visceral...

  2. An integrated assessment framework for climate change and infectious diseases.

    PubMed Central

    Chan, N Y; Ebi, K L; Smith, F; Wilson, T F; Smith, A E

    1999-01-01

    Many potential human health effects have been hypothesized to result either directly or indirectly from global climate change. Changes in the prevalence and spread of infectious diseases are some of the most widely cited potential effects of climate change, and could have significant consequences for human health as well as economic and societal impacts. These changes in disease incidence would be mediated through biologic, ecologic, sociologic, and epidemiologic processes that interact with each other and which may themselves be influenced by climate change. Although hypothesized infectious disease effects have been widely discussed, there have not yet been thorough quantitative studies addressing the many processes at work. In part this is because of the complexity of the many indirect and feedback interactions or mechanisms that bear on all aspects of the climate issue. It also results from the difficulty of including the multitude of always-changing determinants of these diseases. This paper proposes a framework for an integrated assessment of the impacts of climate change on infectious diseases. The framework allows identification of potentially important indirect interactions or mechanisms, identification of important research gaps, and a means of integrating targeted research from a variety of disciplines into an enhanced understanding of the whole system. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:10210687

  3. A two-component model for counts of infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Held, Leonhard; Hofmann, Mathias; Höhle, Michael; Schmid, Volker

    2006-07-01

    We propose a stochastic model for the analysis of time series of disease counts as collected in typical surveillance systems on notifiable infectious diseases. The model is based on a Poisson or negative binomial observation model with two components: a parameter-driven component relates the disease incidence to latent parameters describing endemic seasonal patterns, which are typical for infectious disease surveillance data. An observation-driven or epidemic component is modeled with an autoregression on the number of cases at the previous time points. The autoregressive parameter is allowed to change over time according to a Bayesian changepoint model with unknown number of changepoints. Parameter estimates are obtained through the Bayesian model averaging using Markov chain Monte Carlo techniques. We illustrate our approach through analysis of simulated data and real notification data obtained from the German infectious disease surveillance system, administered by the Robert Koch Institute in Berlin. Software to fit the proposed model can be obtained from http://www.statistik.lmu.de/ approximately mhofmann/twins. PMID:16407470

  4. Infectious agents associated with respiratory disease in pheasants.

    PubMed

    Welchman, D de B; Bradbury, J M; Cavanagh, D; Aebischer, N J

    2002-05-25

    In a case-control study of the infectious agents associated with natural outbreaks of respiratory disease in pheasants, 28 batches of birds from sites affected by disease and eight batches of birds from unaffected sites were examined by six veterinary laboratories in England, Wales and Scotland, and tested for mycoplasmas, other bacteria and viruses. Sinusitis was the commonest sign of disease and was associated with Mycoplasma gallisepticum as detected by PCR in the trachea (P < 0.05) and conjunctiva (P < 0.01). Sinusitis was also associated with pasteurella cultured from the sinus (P < 0.05), antibody to avian pneumovirus (APV) (P < 0.01) and avian coronaviruses as detected by reverse-transcriptase PCR (P < 0.05); there was no association between disease and APV as detected by PCR. Avian coronaviruses were the most common infectious agents detected. They were genetically close to infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) but differed in their gene sequence from all the serotypes of IBV previously identified in domestic fowl, and serological tests with six known IBV types showed little cross reactivity. Mycoplasma species other than M gallisepticum were cultured in 18 batches of pheasants but, with the exception of Mycoplasma gallinaceum, were not associated with disease. PMID:12054135

  5. Transmission of Infectious Diseases En Route to Habitat Hotspots

    PubMed Central

    Benavides, Julio; Walsh, Peter D.; Meyers, Lauren Ancel; Raymond, Michel; Caillaud, Damien

    2012-01-01

    Background The spread of infectious diseases in wildlife populations is influenced by patterns of between-host contacts. Habitat “hotspots” - places attracting a large numbers of individuals or social groups - can significantly alter contact patterns and, hence, disease propagation. Research on the importance of habitat hotspots in wildlife epidemiology has primarily focused on how inter-individual contacts occurring at the hotspot itself increase disease transmission. However, in territorial animals, epidemiologically important contacts may primarily occur as animals cross through territories of conspecifics en route to habitat hotspots. So far, the phenomenon has received little attention. Here, we investigate the importance of these contacts in the case where infectious individuals keep visiting the hotspots and in the case where these individuals are not able to travel to the hotspot any more. Methodology and Principal Findings We developed a simulation epidemiological model to investigate both cases in a scenario when transmission at the hotspot does not occur. We find that (i) hotspots still exacerbate epidemics, (ii) when infectious individuals do not travel to the hotspot, the most vulnerable individuals are those residing at intermediate distances from the hotspot rather than nearby, and (iii) the epidemiological vulnerability of a population is the highest when the number of hotspots is intermediate. Conclusions and Significance By altering animal movements in their vicinity, habitat hotspots can thus strongly increase the spread of infectious diseases, even when disease transmission does not occur at the hotspot itself. Interestingly, when animals only visit the nearest hotspot, creating additional artificial hotspots, rather than reducing their number, may be an efficient disease control measure. PMID:22363606

  6. The landscape genetics of infectious disease emergence and spread

    PubMed Central

    Biek, Roman; Real, Leslie A.

    2011-01-01

    The spread of parasites is inherently a spatial process often embedded in physically complex landscapes. It is therefore not surprising that infectious disease researchers are increasingly taking a landscape genetics perspective to elucidate mechanisms underlying basic ecological processes driving infectious disease dynamics and to understand the linkage between spatially-dependent population processes and the geographic distribution of genetic variation within both hosts and parasites. The increasing availability of genetic information on hosts and parasites when coupled to their ecological interactions can lead to insights for predicting patterns of disease emergence, spread, and control. Here, we review research progress in this area based on four different motivations for the application of landscape genetics approaches: (1) assessing the spatial organization of genetic variation in parasites as a function of environmental variability, (2) using host population genetic structure as a means to parameterize ecological dynamics that indirectly influence parasite populations, e.g. gene flow and movement pathways across heterogeneous landscapes and the concurrent transport of infectious agents, (3) elucidating the temporal and spatial scales of disease processes, and (4) reconstructing and understanding infectious disease invasion. Throughout this review, we emphasise that landscape genetic principles are relevant to infection dynamics across a range of scales from within host dynamics to global geographic patterns and that they can also be applied to unconventional “landscapes” such as heterogeneous contact networks underlying the spread of human and livestock diseases. We conclude by discussing some general considerations and problems for inferring epidemiological processes from genetic data and try to identify possible future directions and applications for this rapidly expanding field. PMID:20618897

  7. [Gumboro disease (infectious bursitis) in Madagascar].

    PubMed

    Rajaonarison, J J; Rakotonindrina, S; Rakotondramary, E K; Razafimanjary, S

    1994-01-01

    Four Gumboro disease (IBD) outbreaks were identified between February and June 1993 in the Antananarivo area (Madagascar) exhibiting the largest commercial poultry production activity. Affected birds were 3 to 5 weeks old, the mortality rate ranged from 5.70 to 27.4%. Typical symptoms and gross lesions were observed, necrotic degeneration of bursal follicles was also detected. By means of agar-immunodiffusion test, IBD viral antigen was demonstrated. Since the IBD has never been recorded in the country before, the probability of an external origin through the importation of day-old chicks is high. PMID:7991892

  8. Nanotechnology for diagnosis and treatment of infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Qasim, Muhammad; Lim, Dong-Jin; Park, Hansoo; Na, Dokyun

    2014-10-01

    The emergence of co-infections and the evolution of drug-resistant pathogens limit the utility of current therapies against infections, and developing countries in particular are facing a great challenge in combating infectious disease. Moreover, any failure to control the spread of infectious diseases would also represent a threat to developed countries. Recent developments in nanotechnology allow us to address this issue at two levels: diagnostics and treatment. Prevention of the spread of infectious pathogens requires rapid and accurate identification of the infectious agents for proper treatment. Recently developed fluorescent nanoparticles are so sensitive that even a single nanoparticle is capable of emitting a strong enough signal to be captured, thus enabling early identification of infections. Proper and effective treatment not only saves the patient, but also prevents the spread of the pathogens. Specific nanoparticle vehicles developed to encapsulate therapeutic agents and deliver them to a target site represent a promising strategy to boost immune responses for vaccination and boost the efficacy of drugs for treatment. Here, we describe a variety of nanotechnologies for use in applications such as immune response modulation, drug delivery, diagnostics, and treatment, which are especially needed in developing countries. PMID:25942798

  9. RESEARCH ARTICLE Open Access Simulation of an SEIR infectious disease model on

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    RESEARCH ARTICLE Open Access Simulation of an SEIR infectious disease model on the dynamic contact,3 , Wouter Van den Broeck4 and Philippe Vanhems2,3 Abstract Background: The spread of infectious diseases The pattern of contacts between individuals is a crucial determinant for the spread of infectious diseases

  10. Network-based models of transmission of infectious diseases: a brief overview

    E-print Network

    Just, Winfried

    Network-based models of transmission of infectious diseases: a brief overview Winfried Just Hannah but mathematically rigorous de- scription of the network-based models of transmission of infectious diseases of our modeling is that we investigate the spread of one given infectious disease. We ignore demographics

  11. COBRE Center for Zoonotic and Emerging Infectious Diseases 2014 Request for Pilot Grant Proposals

    E-print Network

    Maxwell, Bruce D.

    COBRE Center for Zoonotic and Emerging Infectious Diseases 2014 Request for Pilot Grant Proposals Overview The COBRE Center for Zoonotic and Emerging Infectious Diseases is soliciting proposals for Pilot/or translational research relevant to zoonotic and/or emerging infectious diseases, and there must be a clear

  12. Abstract --Highly infectious diseases such as SARS (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome), Avian Influenza (Bird Flu),

    E-print Network

    Si, Yain Whar "Lawrence"

    Abstract -- Highly infectious diseases such as SARS (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome), Avian to the global population. Detection and pre- vention of infectious diseases is notoriously complex and prob of cases and transmission routes in a rapid manner is crucial in pre- venting the infectious disease from

  13. Clinical Infectious Diseases (in press) NOT FOR DIFFUSION Inserm, Unit 897, Bordeaux, France 1/22

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Clinical Infectious Diseases (in press) NOT FOR DIFFUSION © Inserm, Unit 897, Bordeaux, France 1 Treichville, Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire 4 Centre for Infectious Disease Research in Zambia, Lusaka, Zambia 5, 33076 inserm-00409524,version1-10Aug2009 Author manuscript, published in "Clinical Infectious Diseases

  14. On the role of reinfection in the transmission of infectious diseases

    E-print Network

    Schinazi, Rinaldo

    On the role of reinfection in the transmission of infectious diseases Rinaldo B. Schinazi LATP, infectious diseases, tuberculosis, spatial stochastic model 1. Introduction. Tuberculosis is usually acquired of the two types of reinfection in the spread of an infectious disease such as TB. We introduce a spatial

  15. Modeling spatial spread of infectious diseases with a fixed latent period in a spatially continuous domain

    E-print Network

    Linder, Tamás

    Modeling spatial spread of infectious diseases with a fixed latent period in a spatially continuous, March 2009 Abstract In this paper, with the assumptions that an infectious disease in a population has the dynamics of infectious diseases in population level. Most continuous time models are in the form

  16. Revised February 1, 2012 Page 1 Protocol on Infectious Disease Notification

    E-print Network

    Dexter, Scott

    Revised February 1, 2012 Page 1 Protocol on Infectious Disease Notification From time to time, CUNY students or employees may contract an infectious disease that can be spread through casual contact follow this protocol. If a student or an employee is in doubt whether an infectious disease is covered

  17. Simulation of an SEIR infectious disease model on the dynamic contact network of conference attendees

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Simulation of an SEIR infectious disease model on the dynamic contact network of conference.1186/1741-7015-9-87 #12;Abstract Background The spread of infectious diseases crucially depends on the pattern of contacts computational models of infectious diseases transmission (14-23). Though some of the properties of contact

  18. Bayesian Modeling of Space-Time Properties of Infectious Disease in a College Student Population

    E-print Network

    Carin, Lawrence

    Bayesian Modeling of Space-Time Properties of Infectious Disease in a College Student Population 1Z statistical model is developed for analysis of the time-evolving properties of infectious disease of the model results. Keywords: Infectious disease, Bayesian, semi-Markov I. INTRODUCTION There has been

  19. Key Node Selection for Containing Infectious Disease Spread Using Particle Swarm Optimization

    E-print Network

    Wong, Limsoon

    Key Node Selection for Containing Infectious Disease Spread Using Particle Swarm Optimization Xiuju infectious diseases have grown into global health threats due to high human mobility. It is important to have intervention plans for containing the spread of such infectious diseases. Among various intervention strategies

  20. Commentary: How useful is 'burden of disease' to set public health priorities for infectious diseases?

    PubMed

    Berkelman, Ruth; LeDuc, James

    2015-08-01

    For many infectious diseases, a low burden of disease does not equate to reduced potential public health importance. Many zoonotic infectious diseases have the potential for human-to-human transmission with potentially devastating consequences as currently seen with Ebola. Policymakers should not be lulled into thinking that the best use of resources is to allocate them only to the most obvious current problems. PMID:25925086

  1. 20 CFR 718.303 - Death from a respirable disease.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Death from a respirable disease. 718.303...DETERMINING COAL MINERS' TOTAL DISABILITY OR DEATH DUE TO PNEUMOCONIOSIS Presumptions Applicable...Eligibility Determinations § 718.303 Death from a respirable disease....

  2. 20 CFR 718.303 - Death from a respirable disease.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Death from a respirable disease. 718.303...DETERMINING COAL MINERS' TOTAL DISABILITY OR DEATH DUE TO PNEUMOCONIOSIS Presumptions Applicable...Eligibility Determinations § 718.303 Death from a respirable disease....

  3. 20 CFR 718.303 - Death from a respirable disease.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Death from a respirable disease. 718.303...DETERMINING COAL MINERS' TOTAL DISABILITY OR DEATH DUE TO PNEUMOCONIOSIS Presumptions Applicable...Eligibility Determinations § 718.303 Death from a respirable disease....

  4. 20 CFR 718.303 - Death from a respirable disease.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Death from a respirable disease. 718.303...DETERMINING COAL MINERS' TOTAL DISABILITY OR DEATH DUE TO PNEUMOCONIOSIS Presumptions Applicable...Eligibility Determinations § 718.303 Death from a respirable disease....

  5. Infectious Disease Management through Point-of-Care Personalized Medicine Molecular Diagnostic Technologies

    PubMed Central

    Bissonnette, Luc; Bergeron, Michel G.

    2012-01-01

    Infectious disease management essentially consists in identifying the microbial cause(s) of an infection, initiating if necessary antimicrobial therapy against microbes, and controlling host reactions to infection. In clinical microbiology, the turnaround time of the diagnostic cycle (>24 hours) often leads to unnecessary suffering and deaths; approaches to relieve this burden include rapid diagnostic procedures and more efficient transmission or interpretation of molecular microbiology results. Although rapid nucleic acid-based diagnostic testing has demonstrated that it can impact on the transmission of hospital-acquired infections, we believe that such life-saving procedures should be performed closer to the patient, in dedicated 24/7 laboratories of healthcare institutions, or ideally at point of care. While personalized medicine generally aims at interrogating the genomic information of a patient, drug metabolism polymorphisms, for example, to guide drug choice and dosage, personalized medicine concepts are applicable in infectious diseases for the (rapid) identification of a disease-causing microbe and determination of its antimicrobial resistance profile, to guide an appropriate antimicrobial treatment for the proper management of the patient. The implementation of point-of-care testing for infectious diseases will require acceptance by medical authorities, new technological and communication platforms, as well as reimbursement practices such that time- and life-saving procedures become available to the largest number of patients. PMID:25562799

  6. Screening for infectious diseases at international airports: the Frankfurt model.

    PubMed

    Gaber, Walter; Goetsch, Udo; Diel, Roland; Doerr, Hans W; Gottschalk, René

    2009-07-01

    Historically, ships brought infectious diseases to the continents of the world, but in this modern era, infectious diseases and pandemics are primarily spread through aviation as a mode of travel. This is a significant issue in the realm of infection control because of the increased potential for the rapid worldwide transmission and spread of disease. Although the transmission of infectious diseases to airline passengers inside an aircraft is a rare occurrence, it is essential to implement entry and exit screening procedures at airports within the context of the International Health Regulations (IHR) in order to slow down the spread of infection, especially during the early phases of a pandemic event. Currently, there are no standardized procedures for health screening at airports, thus allowing individual regional authorities to determine what they deem to be appropriate screening measures for implementation. In this paper, we will discuss a new pragmatic approach for entry and exit screening procedures at international airports, propose a new classification system for contacts within the aircraft, and discuss changing the fixed enforcement of standardized community mitigation measures to the implementation of measures that correspond to specific characteristics of individual pathogenic agents. The proposed catalog of screening measures is aimed at attaining the goals of the IHR, which states that the measures should be reasonable while avoiding inconvenience or harm to passengers and should not be any more disruptive to the smooth handling of passenger traffic than is necessary. PMID:19601499

  7. Guidelines to implement medical examiner/coroner-based surveillance for fatal infectious diseases and bioterrorism ("Med-X").

    PubMed

    Nolte, Kurt B; Fischer, Marc; Reagan, Sarah; Lynfield, Ruth

    2010-12-01

    Medical examiners and coroners investigate deaths that are sudden, unexplained, and violent. Oftentimes these deaths are a consequence of infections, many of which have public health consequences. Additionally, because deaths from bioterrorism are homicides, they fall under the jurisdiction of medical examiners and coroners. Surveillance for infectious disease-related deaths can enhance the opportunities to recognize these deaths. Beginning in 2000, the New Mexico Office of the Medical Investigator developed and tested a medical examiner surveillance model for bioterrorism and infectious disease mortality ("Med-X") using a set of symptoms to determine which cases should receive an autopsy and a set of pathology-based syndromes for early reporting of cases to public health authorities. This model demonstrated that many of the symptoms had a high predictive value for infections and were useful criteria for autopsy performance. The causative organism was identified for 81% of infections of which 58% were notifiable conditions by public health standards. Uniform criteria for performing autopsies and reporting cases to public health authorities enhance surveillance for notifiable infectious diseases and increase the probability of recognizing fatalities related to bioterrorism. We have developed guidelines for medical examiners, coroners and their public health partners to use in implementing Med-X surveillance in their jurisdictions. These guidelines encompass definitions of symptoms and syndromes, specimen collection and storage procedures, laboratory diagnostic approaches, and processes for case flow, case reporting, and data collection. We also suggest resources for autopsy biosafety information and funding. PMID:20683243

  8. Bats, emerging infectious diseases, and the rabies paradigm revisited

    PubMed Central

    Kuzmin, Ivan V.; Bozick, Brooke; Guagliardo, Sarah A.; Kunkel, Rebekah; Shak, Joshua R.; Tong, Suxiang; Rupprecht, Charles E

    2011-01-01

    The significance of bats as sources of emerging infectious diseases has been increasingly appreciated, and new data have been accumulated rapidly during recent years. For some emerging pathogens the bat origin has been confirmed (such as lyssaviruses, henipaviruses, coronaviruses), for other it has been suggested (filoviruses). Several recently identified viruses remain to be ‘orphan’ but have a potential for further emergence (such as Tioman, Menangle, and Pulau viruses). In the present review we summarize information on major bat-associated emerging infections and discuss specific characteristics of bats as carriers of pathogens (from evolutionary, ecological, and immunological positions). We also discuss drivers and forces of an infectious disease emergence and describe various existing and potential approaches for control and prevention of such infections at individual, populational, and societal levels. PMID:24149032

  9. Spread of Infectious Diseases with a Latent Period

    E-print Network

    Mizuno, Kanako

    2015-01-01

    Infectious diseases spread through human networks. Susceptible-Infected-Removed (SIR) model is one of the epidemic models to describe infection dynamics on a complex network connecting individuals. In the metapopulation SIR model, each node represents a population (group) which has many individuals. In this paper, we propose a modified metapopulation SIR model in which a latent period is taken into account. We call it SIIR model. We divide the infection period into two stages: an infected stage, which is the same as the previous model, and a seriously ill stage, in which individuals are infected and cannot move to the other populations. The two infectious stages in our modified metapopulation SIR model produce a discontinuous final size distribution. Individuals in the infected stage spread the disease like individuals in the seriously ill stage and never recover directly, which makes an effective recovery rate smaller than the given recovery rate.

  10. Research and Development of New Vaccines Against Infectious Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Kieny, Marie Paule; Excler, Jean-Louis; Girard, Marc

    2004-01-01

    Infectious diseases are responsible for approximately 25% of global mortality, especially in children aged younger than 5 years. Much of the burden of infectious diseases could be alleviated if appropriate mechanisms could be put in place to ensure access for all children to basic vaccines, regardless of geographical location or economic status. In addition, new safe and effective vaccines should be developed for a variety of infections against which no effective preventive intervention measure is either available or practical. The public, private, and philanthropic sectors need to join forces to ensure that these new or improved vaccines are fully developed and become accessible to the populations in need as quickly as possible. PMID:15514230

  11. Hospital preparedness to bioterrorism and other infectious disease emergencies.

    PubMed

    Ippolito, G; Puro, V; Heptonstall, J

    2006-10-01

    In the last 2 decades, successive outbreaks caused by new, newly recognised and resurgent pathogens, and the risk that high-consequence pathogens might be used as bioterrorism agents amply demonstrated the need to enhance capacity in clinical and public health management of highly infectious diseases. In this article we review these recent and current threats to public health, whether naturally occurring or caused by accidental or intentional release. Moreover, we discuss some components of hospital preparedness for, and response to, infectious disease of the emergencies in developed countries. The issues of clinical awareness and education, initial investigation and management, surge capacity, communication, and caring for staff and others affected by the emergency are discussed. We also emphasise the importance of improving the everyday practice of infection control by healthcare professionals. PMID:16964581

  12. Cyclodextrin complexes for treatment improvement in infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Imperiale, Julieta C; Sosnik, Alejandro D

    2015-05-01

    Infectious diseases are a heterogeneous group of maladies that represent a serious burden to healthcare systems worldwide. Most of the available antimicrobial drugs display poor biopharmaceutical properties that compromise their effectiveness. Cyclodextrins (CDs) are cyclic oligosaccharides of glucopyranose formed by a variable number of repeating units that combine a hydrophilic surface with a hydrophobic cavity. The production of drug/CD complexes has become one of the most extensively investigated technology approaches to improve the stability, solubility, dissolution rate and bioavailability of drugs. The present work overviews the applications of CDs for the formulation of anti-infective agents along with the most relevant administration routes. Finally, an update on the complexes with CDs available on the market to treat infectious diseases is presented. PMID:26008196

  13. Validity of International Health Regulations in Reporting Emerging Infectious Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Heymann, David L.; Giesecke, Johan; Weinberg, Julius

    2012-01-01

    Understanding which emerging infectious diseases are of international public health concern is vital. The International Health Regulations include a decision instrument to help countries determine which public health events are of international concern and require reporting to the World Health Organization (WHO) on the basis of seriousness, unusualness, international spread and trade, or need for travel restrictions. This study examined the validity of the International Health Regulations decision instrument in reporting emerging infectious disease to WHO by calculating its sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive value. It found a sensitivity of 95.6%, a specificity of 38%, and a positive predictive value of 35.5%. These findings are acceptable if the notification volume to WHO remains low. Validity could be improved by setting more prescriptive criteria of seriousness and unusualness and training persons responsible for notification. However, the criteria should be balanced with the need for the instrument to adapt to future unknown threats. PMID:22710200

  14. The Guinea Pig as a Model of Infectious Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Padilla-Carlin, Danielle J; McMurray, David N; Hickey, Anthony J

    2008-01-01

    The words ‘guinea pig’ are synonymous with scientific experimentation, but much less is known about this species than many other laboratory animals. This animal model has been used for approximately 200 y and was the first to be used in the study of infectious diseases such as tuberculosis and diphtheria. Today the guinea pig is used as a model for a number of infectious bacterial diseases, including pulmonary, sexually transmitted, ocular and aural, gastrointestinal, and other infections that threaten the lives of humans. Most studies on the immune response to these diseases, with potential therapies and vaccines, have been conducted in animal models (for example, mouse) that may have less similarity to humans because of the large number of immunologic reagents available for these other species. This review presents some of the diseases for which the guinea pig is regarded as the premier model to study infections because of its similarity to humans with regard to symptoms and immune response. Furthermore, for diseases in which guinea pigs share parallel pathogenesis of disease with humans, they are potentially the best animal model for designing treatments and vaccines. Future studies of immune regulation of these diseases, novel therapies, and preventative measures require the development of new immunologic reagents designed specifically for the guinea pig. PMID:18724774

  15. Host nutrition and infectious disease: an ecological view

    E-print Network

    Smith, Val H.; Jones II, Tyrees P.; Smith, Marilyn S.

    2005-06-01

    of many of these essen- tial biochemical molecules within a host’s system may be strongly related to its diet, so the host’s consumption of REVIEWS REVIEWS REVIEWS Host nutrition and infectious disease: an ecological view Val H Smith1, Tyrees P Jones.../mg host Figure 2. Common mammalian pathogens. (a) Immature schizont of the malaria parasite Plasmodium vivax; (b) the African sleeping sickness parasite Trypanosoma brucei; (c) Clostridium perfringens, the bacterial pathogen responsible for gas gangrene...

  16. A Comparative Analysis of Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers and Polychlorinated Biphenyls in Southern Sea Otters that Died of Infectious Diseases and Noninfectious Causes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kurunthachalam Kannan; Emily Perrotta; Nancy J. Thomas; Kenneth M. Aldous

    2007-01-01

    Southern sea otters (Enhydra lutris nereis) from the California coast continue to exhibit a slower population regrowth rate than the population in Alaska. Infectious\\u000a diseases have been identified as a frequent cause of death. Infectious diseases caused by varied pathogens including bacteria,\\u000a fungi, and parasites were suggestive of compromised immunological health of mature animals in this population. To test the

  17. Design and Evaluation of a Bacterial Clinical Infectious Diseases Ontology

    PubMed Central

    Gordon, Claire L.; Pouch, Stephanie; Cowell, Lindsay G.; Boland, Mary Regina; Platt, Heather L.; Goldfain, Albert; Weng, Chunhua

    2013-01-01

    With antimicrobial resistance increasing worldwide, there is a great need to use automated antimicrobial decision support systems (ADSSs) to lower antimicrobial resistance rates by promoting appropriate antimicrobial use. However, they are infrequently used mostly because of their poor interoperability with different health information technologies. Ontologies can augment portable ADSSs by providing an explicit knowledge representation for biomedical entities and their relationships, helping to standardize and integrate heterogeneous data resources. We developed a bacterial clinical infectious diseases ontology (BCIDO) using Protégé-OWL. BCIDO defines a controlled terminology for clinical infectious diseases along with domain knowledge commonly used in hospital settings for clinical infectious disease treatment decision-making. BCIDO has 599 classes and 2355 object properties. Terms were imported from or mapped to Systematized Nomenclature of Medicine, Unified Medical Language System, RxNorm and National Center for Bitechnology Information Organismal Classification where possible. Domain expert evaluation using the “laddering” technique, ontology visualization, and clinical notes and scenarios, confirmed the correctness and potential usefulness of BCIDO. PMID:24551353

  18. Biodegradable polymeric microsphere-based vaccines and their applications in infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chi-Ying; Lin, Shih-Jie; Yang, Yi-Chen; Wang, Der-Yuan; Cheng, Hwei-Fang; Yeh, Ming-Kung

    2015-01-01

    Vaccination, which provides effective, safe infectious disease protection, is among the most important recent public health and immunological achievements. However, infectious disease remains the leading cause of death in developing countries because several vaccines require repeated administrations and children are often incompletely immunized. Microsphere-based systems, providing controlled release delivery, can obviate the need for repeat immunizations. Here, we review the function of sustained and pulsatile release of biodegradable polymeric microspheres in parenteral and mucosal single-dose vaccine administration. We also review the active-targeting function of polymeric particles. With their shield and co-delivery functions, polymeric particles are applied to develop single-dose and mucosally administered vaccines as well as to improve subunit vaccines. Because polymeric particles are easily surface-modified, they have been recently used in vaccine development for cancers and many infectious diseases without effective vaccines (e.g., human immunodeficiency virus infection). These polymeric particle functions yield important vaccine carriers and multiple benefits. PMID:25839217

  19. VARIANCE IN SYSTEM DYNAMICS AND AGENT BASED MODELLING USING THE SIR MODEL OF INFECTIOUS DISEASE

    E-print Network

    Aickelin, Uwe

    VARIANCE IN SYSTEM DYNAMICS AND AGENT BASED MODELLING USING THE SIR MODEL OF INFECTIOUS DISEASE Based Modelling based on previously published empirical data. INTRODUCTION Models of infectious diseases (Susceptible, Infectious, and Recovered) model is more effective at capturing the natural variation within SIR

  20. Merging Economics and Epidemiology to Improve the Prediction and Management of Infectious Disease

    E-print Network

    Smith, Kate

    , and the sixteenth century Columbian exchange--which brought smallpox and typhus to the Americas, and syphilisMerging Economics and Epidemiology to Improve the Prediction and Management of Infectious Disease the spread of infectious disease, assume that contacts between susceptible and infectious individuals depend

  1. Iron and its relation to immunity and infectious disease.

    PubMed

    Oppenheimer, S J

    2001-02-01

    The continuing unresolved debate over the interaction of iron and infection indicates a need for quantitative review of clinical morbidity outcomes. Iron deficiency is associated with reversible abnormalities of immune function, but it is difficult to demonstrate the severity and relevance of these in observational studies. Iron treatment has been associated with acute exacerbations of infection, in particular, malaria. Oral iron has been associated with increased rates of clinical malaria (5 of 9 studies) and increased morbidity from other infectious disease (4 of 8 studies). In most instances, therapeutic doses of oral iron were used. No studies in malarial regions showed benefits. Knowledge of local prevalence of causes of anemia including iron deficiency, seasonal malarial endemicity, protective hemoglobinopathies and age-specific immunity is essential in planning interventions. A balance must be struck in dose of oral iron and the timing of intervention with respect to age and malaria transmission. Antimalarial intervention is important. No studies of oral iron supplementation clearly show deleterious effects in nonmalarious areas. Milk fortification reduced morbidity due to respiratory disease in two very early studies in nonmalarious regions, but this was not confirmed in three later fortification studies, and better morbidity rates could be achieved by breast-feeding alone. One study in a nonmalarious area of Indonesia showed reduced infectious outcome after oral iron supplementation of anemic schoolchildren. No systematic studies report oral iron supplementation and infectious morbidity in breast-fed infants in nonmalarious regions. PMID:11160594

  2. Eradicating and eliminating infectious diseases: past, present and future.

    PubMed

    Narain, Jai P

    2011-01-01

    During the past 60 years, a number of infectious diseases have been targeted for eradication or elimination, with mixed results. While smallpox is the only one successfully eradicated so far, campaigns on yaws and malaria brought about a dramatic reduction in the incidence in the beginning of the campaign but ultimately could not achieve the desired goal. There is again a renewed interest in disease eradication. The World Health assembly in May 2010 passed a resolution calling for eradication of measles by 2015; the target of polio eradication still remains elusive. In view of these developments, it is appropriate time to revisit the concept of disease eradication and elimination, the achievements and failures of past eradication programmes and reasons thereof, and possibly apply these lessons while planning for the future activities. This paper based on the Dr. A.L.Saha Memorial Oration describes various infectious diseases that have been targeted for eradication or elimination since 1950s, the potential direct and indirect benefits from disease eradication, and the issues and opportunities for the future. PMID:21941041

  3. Modelling power-law spread of infectious diseases

    E-print Network

    Meyer, Sebastian

    2013-01-01

    Short-time human travel behaviour can be well described by a power law with respect to distance. We incorporate this information in space-time models for infectious disease surveillance data to better capture the dynamics of disease spread. Two previously established model classes are extended, which both decompose disease risk additively into endemic and epidemic components: a space-time point process model for individual point-referenced data, and a multivariate time series model for aggregated count data. In both frameworks, the power-law spread is embedded into the epidemic component and its decay parameter is estimated simultaneously with all other unknown parameters using (penalised) likelihood inference. The performance of the new approach is investigated by a re-analysis of individual cases of invasive meningococcal disease in Germany (2002-2008), and count data on influenza in 140 administrative districts of Southern Germany (2001-2008). In both applications, the power-law formulations substantially ...

  4. Current status of vaccines against infectious bursal disease.

    PubMed

    Müller, Hermann; Mundt, Egbert; Eterradossi, Nicolas; Islam, M Rafiqul

    2012-01-01

    Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) is the aetiological agent of the acute and highly contagious infectious bursal disease (IBD) or "Gumboro disease". IBD is one of the economically most important diseases that affects commercially produced chickens worldwide. Along with strict hygiene management of poultry farms, vaccination programmes with inactivated and live attenuated viruses have been used to prevent IBD. Live vaccines show a different degree of attenuation; many of them may cause bursal atrophy and thus immunosuppression with poor immune response to vaccination against other pathogens and an increase in vulnerability to various types of infections as possible consequences. Depending on their intrinsic characteristics or on the vaccination procedures, some of the vaccines may not induce full protection against the very virulent IBDV strains and antigenic variants observed in the last three decades. As chickens are most susceptible to IBDV in their first weeks of life, active immunity to the virus has to be induced early after hatching. However, maternally derived IBDV-specific antibodies may interfere with early vaccination with live vaccines. Thus new technologies and second-generation vaccines including rationally designed and subunit vaccines have been developed. Recently, live viral vector vaccines have been licensed in several countries and are reaching the market. Here, the current status of IBD vaccines is discussed. PMID:22515532

  5. The pathogen- and incidence-based DALY approach: an appropriate [corrected] methodology for estimating the burden of infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Mangen, Marie-Josée J; Plass, Dietrich; Havelaar, Arie H; Gibbons, Cheryl L; Cassini, Alessandro; Mühlberger, Nikolai; van Lier, Alies; Haagsma, Juanita A; Brooke, R John; Lai, Taavi; de Waure, Chiara; Kramarz, Piotr; Kretzschmar, Mirjam E E

    2013-01-01

    In 2009, the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control initiated the 'Burden of Communicable Diseases in Europe (BCoDE)' project to generate evidence-based and comparable burden-of-disease estimates of infectious diseases in Europe. The burden-of-disease metric used was the Disability-Adjusted Life Year (DALY), composed of years of life lost due to premature death (YLL) and due to disability (YLD). To better represent infectious diseases, a pathogen-based approach was used linking incident cases to sequelae through outcome trees. Health outcomes were included if an evidence-based causal relationship between infection and outcome was established. Life expectancy and disability weights were taken from the Global Burden of Disease Study and alternative studies. Disease progression parameters were based on literature. Country-specific incidence was based on surveillance data corrected for underestimation. Non-typhoidal Salmonella spp. and Campylobacter spp. were used for illustration. Using the incidence- and pathogen-based DALY approach the total burden for Salmonella spp. and Campylobacter spp. was estimated at 730 DALYs and at 1,780 DALYs per year in the Netherlands (average of 2005-2007). Sequelae accounted for 56% and 82% of the total burden of Salmonella spp. and Campylobacter spp., respectively. The incidence- and pathogen-based DALY methodology allows in the case of infectious diseases a more comprehensive calculation of the disease burden as subsequent sequelae are fully taken into account. Not considering subsequent sequelae would strongly underestimate the burden of infectious diseases. Estimates can be used to support prioritisation and comparison of infectious diseases and other health conditions, both within a country and between countries. PMID:24278167

  6. Proliferation and apoptosis in infection with infectious bursal disease virus: a flow cytometric study.

    PubMed

    Ojeda, F; Skardova, I; Guarda, M I; Ulloa, J; Folch, H

    1997-01-01

    Programmed cell death, or apoptosis, is involved in the normal physiology of many immunocompetent organs, including lymphocytes of the bursa of Fabricius in chickens. Involvement of apoptosis has also been described in some viral diseases such as AIDS. The purpose of this work was to study the potential role of apoptosis in the pathogenesis of Gumboro disease in the bursa of Fabricius. Our results show that 1-3 days after infection of young chickens with infectious bursal disease virus, the number of apoptotic cells increases and cellularity and proliferation decrease. Because of the dynamic nature of bursal lymphocyte populations and the involvement of apoptosis in lymphocyte cell physiology, the increased level of cells undergoing apoptosis may be due to an impairment in the withdrawal of apoptotic cells. A concomitant increase in macrophages in infected bursae and a dramatic decrease in cellularity suggest that an increase in apoptosis may be an important cause of cell depletion. PMID:9201393

  7. Dynamic models of infectious diseases as regulators of population sizes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jaime Mena-Lorcat; Herbert W. Hethcote

    1992-01-01

    Five SIRS epidemiological models for populations of varying size are considered. The incidences of infection are given by mass action terms involving the number of infectives and either the number of susceptibles or the fraction of the population which is susceptible. When the population dynamics are immigration and deaths, thresholds are found which determine whether the disease dies out or

  8. The Royal Society Inquiry into Infectious Diseases in Livestock

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2002-01-01

    At the conclusion of 2001, The Royal Society Inquiry into Infectious Diseases in Livestock began their investigation into the devastating outbreak of foot and mouth disease that occurred earlier that year in Britain. This report, released in July 2002, outlines some of the ways that future transmission of the disease and subsequent epidemics may be prevented and more effectively controlled. The report was prepared by a committee comprised of scientists, veterinarians, farmers, and other concerned parties who made site visits to areas affected by the outbreak, along with compiling an extensive oral account of the epidemic. Along with the entire 140-page report, there are an 8-page summary of the committee's ten key findings, various progress reports issued before the final report, and the oral and written testimony collected by different members of the committee. On the whole, this is an engaging inquiry into one of the most well publicized epidemiological outbreaks of recent times.

  9. Evaluation of Border Entry Screening for Infectious Diseases in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Antăo, Catarina; Hall, Robert

    2015-01-01

    In response to the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) pandemic of 2003 and the influenza pandemic of 2009, many countries instituted border measures as a means of stopping or slowing the spread of disease. The measures, usually consisting of a combination of border entry/exit screening, quarantine, isolation, and communications, were resource intensive, and modeling and observational studies indicate that border screening is not effective at detecting infectious persons. Moreover, border screening has high opportunity costs, financially and in terms of the use of scarce public health staff resources during a time of high need. We discuss the border-screening experiences with SARS and influenza and propose an approach to decision-making for future pandemics. We conclude that outbreak-associated communications for travelers at border entry points, together with effective communication with clinicians and more effective disease control measures in the community, may be a more effective approach to the international control of communicable diseases. PMID:25625224

  10. The Role of Macrophage Polarization in Infectious and Inflammatory Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Labonte, Adam C.; Tosello-Trampont, Annie-Carole; Hahn, Young S.

    2014-01-01

    Macrophages, found in circulating blood as well as integrated into several tissues and organs throughout the body, represent an important first line of defense against disease and a necessary component of healthy tissue homeostasis. Additionally, macrophages that arise from the differentiation of monocytes recruited from the blood to inflamed tissues play a central role in regulating local inflammation. Studies of macrophage activation in the last decade or so have revealed that these cells adopt a staggering range of phenotypes that are finely tuned responses to a variety of different stimuli, and that the resulting subsets of activated macrophages play critical roles in both progression and resolution of disease. This review summarizes the current understanding of the contributions of differentially polarized macrophages to various infectious and inflammatory diseases and the ongoing effort to develop novel therapies that target this key aspect of macrophage biology. PMID:24625576

  11. Expanded infectious diseases screening program for Hispanic transplant candidates.

    PubMed

    Fitzpatrick, M A; Caicedo, J C; Stosor, V; Ison, M G

    2010-08-01

    Most guidelines for pre-transplant screening recommend enhanced screening among patients with potential exposure to such pathogens as Strongyloides stercoralis and Trypanosoma cruzi, the cause of Chagas disease. The incidence of these diseases in the Hispanic immigrant population has not been extensively studied. Transplant candidates who were evaluated by our program's Hispanic Transplant Program were referred for expanded infectious disease screening including Mycobacterium tuberculosis, S. stercoralis, Leishmania, and T. cruzi. Between December 2006 and December 2008, 83 patients were screened. Most were from Mexico but we also screened patients from Ecuador, Puerto Rico, and Peru. Most patients lived in urban locations before moving to the United States. Latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) was found in 20%, and 6.7% had serologic evidence of S. stercoralis infection. These patients underwent treatment of latent infection without difficulty. To date, 14 patients have undergone living-donor kidney transplantation. Two of these patients had positive Leishmania titers and are being followed clinically, 1 was treated for S. stercoralis, and 2 were treated for LTBI pre-transplant. All have done well without evidence of screened pathogens an average of 348 days (range 65-766 days) post transplant. Expanded screening identifies endemic infections in the Hispanic immigrant population that can be treated before transplant, thereby minimizing post-transplant infectious complications. PMID:20534036

  12. Epidemiology and Management of Infectious Diseases in International Adoptees

    PubMed Central

    Murray, Thomas S.; Groth, M. Elizabeth; Weitzman, Carol; Cappello, Michael

    2005-01-01

    International adoptees represent a group of children with unique health care needs. Data from published studies, along with the recent experience of the Yale International Adoption Clinic, suggest that the risk of serious infections in adoptees is low, although infections associated with institutionalization still occur commonly. Interpretation of these data must be undertaken with caution, however, since many, if not most, international adoptees are not evaluated in specialty clinics. Thus, prospective studies designed to minimize selection and referral bias are needed in order to accurately define the risk of infectious and noninfectious diseases in all international adoptees. PMID:16020687

  13. Infectious diseases in cinema: virus hunters and killer microbes.

    PubMed

    Pappas, Georgios; Seitaridis, Savvas; Akritidis, Nikolaos; Tsianos, Epaminondas

    2003-10-01

    The world of infectious diseases has been rarely presented in the cinema with accuracy. Apart from random biographies of scientists and retellings of stories about great epidemics from the past, most films focus on the dangers presented by outbreaks of unknown agents that originate from acts of bioterrorism, from laboratory accidents, or even from space. We review these films and underline the possible effect that they have on the public's perception of infection--a perception that, when misguided, could prove to be problematic in times of epidemics. PMID:13130406

  14. Sex Bias in Infectious Disease Epidemiology: Patterns and Processes

    PubMed Central

    Guerra-Silveira, Felipe; Abad-Franch, Fernando

    2013-01-01

    Background Infectious disease incidence is often male-biased. Two main hypotheses have been proposed to explain this observation. The physiological hypothesis (PH) emphasizes differences in sex hormones and genetic architecture, while the behavioral hypothesis (BH) stresses gender-related differences in exposure. Surprisingly, the population-level predictions of these hypotheses are yet to be thoroughly tested in humans. Methods and Findings For ten major pathogens, we tested PH and BH predictions about incidence and exposure-prevalence patterns. Compulsory-notification records (Brazil, 2006–2009) were used to estimate age-stratified ?:? incidence rate ratios for the general population and across selected sociological contrasts. Exposure-prevalence odds ratios were derived from 82 published surveys. We estimated summary effect-size measures using random-effects models; our analyses encompass ?0.5 million cases of disease or exposure. We found that, after puberty, disease incidence is male-biased in cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis, schistosomiasis, pulmonary tuberculosis, leptospirosis, meningococcal meningitis, and hepatitis A. Severe dengue is female-biased, and no clear pattern is evident for typhoid fever. In leprosy, milder tuberculoid forms are female-biased, whereas more severe lepromatous forms are male-biased. For most diseases, male bias emerges also during infancy, when behavior is unbiased but sex steroid levels transiently rise. Behavioral factors likely modulate male–female differences in some diseases (the leishmaniases, tuberculosis, leptospirosis, or schistosomiasis) and age classes; however, average exposure-prevalence is significantly sex-biased only for Schistosoma and Leptospira. Conclusions Our results closely match some key PH predictions and contradict some crucial BH predictions, suggesting that gender-specific behavior plays an overall secondary role in generating sex bias. Physiological differences, including the crosstalk between sex hormones and immune effectors, thus emerge as the main candidate drivers of gender differences in infectious disease susceptibility. PMID:23638062

  15. [Emerging infectious diseases: the example of the Indian Ocean chikungunya outbreak (2005-2006)].

    PubMed

    Flahault, Antoine

    2007-01-01

    Factors known to trigger the emergence or re-emergence of infectious diseases include globalisation, population growth, migration, international trade, urbanisation, forest destruction, climate change, loss of biodiversity, poverty, famine and war. Epidemics not only lead to disastrous loss of human life but may also have catastrophic economic, political and social consequences. Outbreaks may rapidly jeopardize industry, trade or tourism in countries that are unprepared. Dengue is currently spreading throughout the tropics, while another arbovirus, chikungunya, infected 30 to 75% of the population in some parts of the Indian Ocean region between 2005 and 2006. Chikungunya is now spreading through India, where more than a million people have so far been infected. This viral disease can cause lasting disability, and the first deaths were recently reported in La Réunion and Mayotte. All countries are at risk from emerging or re-emerging diseases, but the consequences are far worse in poor countries. Microbial pathogens and wild mammals, birds and arthropods do not respect man-made borders. There is still time to act against this threat of emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases, through prevention, anticipation, monitoring and research. PMID:17645111

  16. The infectious diseases impact statement: a mechanism for addressing emerging diseases.

    PubMed

    McSweegan, E

    1996-01-01

    The use of an Infectious Diseases Impact Statement (IDIS) is proposed for predictive assessments of local changes in infectious diseases arising from human-engineered activities. IDIS is intended to be analogous to an Environmental Impact Statement. The drafting of an IDIS for specific activities, particularly in developing nations, would provide a formal mechanism for examining potential changes in local health conditions, including infected and susceptible populations, diseases likely to fluctuate in response to development, existing control measures, and vectors likely to be affected by human activities. The resulting survey data could provide a rational basis and direction for development, surveillance, and prevention measures. An IDIS process that balances environmental alterations, local human health, and economic growth could substantially alter the nature of international development efforts and infectious disease outbreaks. PMID:8903209

  17. Cause of death in Wilson disease.

    PubMed

    Walshe, John M

    2007-11-15

    Before 1948, all patients with Wilson disease died shortly after diagnosis. In 1948, BAL (dimercaprol) was introduced as a possible effective treatment, to be followed by penicillamine (1955), zinc salts (1961), trientine (1969), liver transplantation (1982), and tetrathiomolybdate (1984). Despite this wide range of therapeutic options, patients still die. This article examines the cause of death in 67 patients (33 men, 34 women) out of a series of 300 seen between 1948 and 2000. Patients were classified according to their presentation as neurological, 32 patients, hepatic 11, mixed hepatic/neurological 10, hemolytic, 6, and "sibling biopsy " 8. Diagnostic failure was the principal cause of death but there were multiple other causes of which the principal was poor compliance and the development of malignant disease after 10 years of follow-up. The development of new symptoms should alert the physician to the possibility of a new pathology. PMID:17712859

  18. Genetic Resistance of Egyptian Chickens to Infectious Bursal Disease and Newcastle Disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. K. Hassan; M. A. Afify; M. M. Aly

    2004-01-01

    Genetic resistance of native Egyptian breeds to very virulent infectious bursal disease virus (vvIBDV) and Newcastle disease virus (NDV) was investigated in two experiments. In the first experiment, birds from four breeds (Gimmizah, Sina, Dandrawi and Mandarah) were challenged with vvIBDV. The Mandarah chickens had the lowest mortalities (10%) compared to the Gimmizah, Sina and Dandrawi chickens (55%, 35% and

  19. Immunomodulatory Properties of HLA-G in Infectious Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Amiot, Laurence; Vu, Nicolas; Samson, Michel

    2014-01-01

    HLA-G is a nonclassical major histocompatibility complex molecule first described at the maternal-fetal interface, on extravillous cytotrophoblasts. Its expression is restricted to some tissues in normal conditions but increases strongly in pathological conditions. The expression of this molecule has been studied in detail in cancers and is now also beginning to be described in infectious diseases. The relevance of studies on HLA-G expression lies in the well known inhibitory effect of this molecule on all cell types involved in innate and adaptive immunity, favoring escape from immune control. In this review, we summarize the features of HLA-G expression by type of infections (i.e, bacterial, viral, or parasitic) detailing the state of knowledge for each pathogenic agent. The polymorphism, the interference of viral proteins with HLA-G intracellular trafficking, and various cytokines have been described to modulate HLA-G expression during infections. We also discuss the cellular source of HLA-G, according to the type of infection and the potential role of HLA-G. New therapeutic approaches based on synthetic HLA-G-derived proteins or antibodies are emerging in mouse models of cancer or transplantation, and these new therapeutic tools may eventually prove useful for the treatment of infectious diseases. PMID:24839609

  20. Recent Advances of Vaccine Adjuvants for Infectious Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Minh Trang

    2015-01-01

    Vaccines are the most effective and cost-efficient method for preventing diseases caused by infectious pathogens. Despite the great success of vaccines, development of safe and strong vaccines is still required for emerging new pathogens, re-emerging old pathogens, and in order to improve the inadequate protection conferred by existing vaccines. One of the most important strategies for the development of effective new vaccines is the selection and usage of a suitable adjuvant. Immunologic adjuvants are essential for enhancing vaccine potency by improvement of the humoral and/or cell-mediated immune response to vaccine antigens. Thus, formulation of vaccines with appropriate adjuvants is an attractive approach towards eliciting protective and long-lasting immunity in humans. However, only a limited number of adjuvants is licensed for human vaccines due to concerns about safety and toxicity. We summarize current knowledge about the potential benefits of adjuvants, the characteristics of adjuvants and the mechanisms of adjuvants in human vaccines. Adjuvants have diverse modes of action and should be selected for use on the basis of the type of immune response that is desired for a particular vaccine. Better understanding of current adjuvants will help exploring new adjuvant formulations and facilitate rational design of vaccines against infectious diseases. PMID:25922593

  1. Biosecurity measures in 48 isolation facilities managing highly infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Puro, Vincenzo; Fusco, Francesco M; Schilling, Stefan; Thomson, Gail; De Iaco, Giuseppina; Brouqui, Philippe; Maltezou, Helena C; Bannister, Barbara; Gottschalk, René; Brodt, Hans-Rheinhard; Ippolito, Giuseppe

    2012-06-01

    Biosecurity measures are traditionally applied to laboratories, but they may also be usefully applied in highly specialized clinical settings, such as the isolation facilities for the management of patients with highly infectious diseases (eg, viral hemorrhagic fevers, SARS, smallpox, potentially severe pandemic flu, and MDR- and XDR-tuberculosis). In 2009 the European Network for Highly Infectious Diseases conducted a survey in 48 isolation facilities in 16 European countries to determine biosecurity measures for access control to the facility. Security personnel are present in 39 facilities (81%). In 35 facilities (73%), entrance to the isolation area is restricted; control methods include electronic keys, a PIN system, closed-circuit TV, and guards at the doors. In 25 facilities (52%), identification and registration of all staff entering and exiting the isolation area are required. Access control is used in most surveyed centers, but specific lacks exist in some facilities. Further data are needed to assess other biosecurity aspects, such as the security measures during the transportation of potentially contaminated materials and measures to address the risk of an "insider attack." PMID:22571373

  2. Identifying risk factors of avian infectious diseases at household level in Poyang Lake region, China.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Qian; Zhou, Jieting; Jiang, Zhiben; Xu, Bing

    2014-09-01

    Poultry kept in backyard farms are susceptible to acquiring and spreading infectious diseases because of free ranging and poor biosecurity measures. Since some of these diseases are zoonoses, this is also a significant health concern to breeders and their families. Backyard farms are common in rural regions of China. However, there is lack of knowledge of backyard poultry in the country. To obtain first-hand information of backyard poultry and identify risk factors of avian infectious diseases, a cross-sectional study was carried out at household level in rural regions around Poyang Lake. A door-to-door survey was conducted to collect data on husbandry practices, trading practices of backyard farmers, and surrounding environments of backyard farms. Farms were categorized into cases and controls based on their history of poultry death. Data were collected for 137 farms, and the association with occurrence of poultry death event was explored by chi-square tests. Results showed that vaccination implementation was a protective factor (odds ratio OR=0.40, 95% confidence interval CI: 0.20-0.80, p=0.01), while contact with other backyard flocks increased risk (OR=1.72, 95% CI: 0.79-3.74, p=0.16). A concept of "farm connectivity" characterized by the density of particular land-use types in the vicinity of the farm was proposed to characterize the degree of contact between poultry in one household farm and those in other household farms. It was found that housing density in a 20-m buffer zone of the farmhouse was most significantly associated with poultry death occurrence (OR=1.08, 95% CI: 1.02-1.17, p=0.03), and was in agreement with observation of villagers. Binary logistic regression was applied to evaluate the relationship between poultry death event and density of land-use types in all buffer zones. When integrated with vaccination implementation for poultry, prediction accuracy of poultry death event reached 72.0%. Results combining questionnaire survey with geographical approaches indicated that occurrence of poultry death event among backyard farms within a village was heavily impacted by farm connectivity. This study provides new insight for the study and help to develop more targeted prevention and countermeasure in a typical rural environment of China. PMID:24861426

  3. Sliding mode control of outbreaks of emerging infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Yanni; Xu, Xiaxia; Tang, Sanyi

    2012-10-01

    This paper proposes and analyzes a mathematical model of an infectious disease system with a piecewise control function concerning threshold policy for disease management strategy. The proposed models extend the classic models by including a piecewise incidence rate to represent control or precautionary measures being triggered once the number of infected individuals exceeds a threshold level. The long-term behaviour of the proposed non-smooth system under this strategy consists of the so-called sliding motion-a very rapid switching between application and interruption of the control action. Model solutions ultimately approach either one of two endemic states for two structures or the sliding equilibrium on the switching surface, depending on the threshold level. Our findings suggest that proper combinations of threshold densities and control intensities based on threshold policy can either preclude outbreaks or lead the number of infected to a previously chosen level. PMID:22836868

  4. Immunization Delivered by Lentiviral Vectors for Cancer and Infectious Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Biliang; Tai, April; Wang, Pin

    2011-01-01

    Summary The increasing level of understanding of the lentivirus biology has been instrumental in shaping the design strategy of creating therapeutic lentiviral delivery vectors. As a result, lentiviral vectors have become one of the most powerful gene transfer vehicles. They are widely used for therapeutic purposes as well as in studies of basic biology, due to their unique characteristics. Lentiviral vectors have been successfully employed to mediate durable and efficient antigen expression and presentation in dendritic cells both in vitro and in vivo, leading to the activation of cellular immunity and humoral responses. This capability makes the lentiviral vector an ideal choice for immunizations that target a wide range of cancers and infectious diseases. Further advances into optimizing the vector system and understanding the relationship between the immune system and diseases pathogenesis will only augment the potential benefits and utility of lentiviral vaccines for human health. PMID:21198664

  5. Global Environmental Data for Mapping Infectious Disease Distribution

    PubMed Central

    Hay, S.I.; Tatem, A.J.; Graham, A.J.; Goetz, S.J.; Rogers, D.J.

    2011-01-01

    This contribution documents the satellite data archives, data processing methods and temporal Fourier analysis (TFA) techniques used to create the remotely sensed datasets on the DVD distributed with this volume. The aim is to provide a detailed reference guide to the genesis of the data, rather than a standard review. These remotely sensed data cover the entire globe at either 1 × 1 or 8 × 8 km spatial resolution. We briefly evaluate the relationships between the 1 × 1 and 8 × 8 km global TFA products to explore their inter-compatibility. The 8 × 8 km TFA surfaces are used in the mapping procedures detailed in the subsequent disease mapping reviews, since the 1 × 1 km products have been validated less widely. Details are also provided on additional, current and planned sensors that should be able to provide continuity with these environmental variable surfaces, as well as other sources of global data that may be used for mapping infectious disease. PMID:16647967

  6. Infectious Disease Modeling of Social Contagion in Networks

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Alison L.; Rand, David G.; Nowak, Martin A.; Christakis, Nicholas A.

    2010-01-01

    Many behavioral phenomena have been found to spread interpersonally through social networks, in a manner similar to infectious diseases. An important difference between social contagion and traditional infectious diseases, however, is that behavioral phenomena can be acquired by non-social mechanisms as well as through social transmission. We introduce a novel theoretical framework for studying these phenomena (the SISa model) by adapting a classic disease model to include the possibility for ‘automatic’ (or ‘spontaneous’) non-social infection. We provide an example of the use of this framework by examining the spread of obesity in the Framingham Heart Study Network. The interaction assumptions of the model are validated using longitudinal network transmission data. We find that the current rate of becoming obese is 2 per year and increases by 0.5 percentage points for each obese social contact. The rate of recovering from obesity is 4 per year, and does not depend on the number of non-obese contacts. The model predicts a long-term obesity prevalence of approximately 42, and can be used to evaluate the effect of different interventions on steady-state obesity. Model predictions quantitatively reproduce the actual historical time course for the prevalence of obesity. We find that since the 1970s, the rate of recovery from obesity has remained relatively constant, while the rates of both spontaneous infection and transmission have steadily increased over time. This suggests that the obesity epidemic may be driven by increasing rates of becoming obese, both spontaneously and transmissively, rather than by decreasing rates of losing weight. A key feature of the SISa model is its ability to characterize the relative importance of social transmission by quantitatively comparing rates of spontaneous versus contagious infection. It provides a theoretical framework for studying the interpersonal spread of any state that may also arise spontaneously, such as emotions, behaviors, health states, ideas or diseases with reservoirs. PMID:21079667

  7. Towards one health disease surveillance: the Southern African Centre for Infectious Disease Surveillance approach.

    PubMed

    Karimuribo, Esron D; Sayalel, Kuya; Beda, Eric; Short, Nick; Wambura, Philemon; Mboera, Leonard G; Kusiluka, Lughano J M; Rweyemamu, Mark M

    2012-01-01

    Africa has the highest burden of infectious diseases in the world and yet the least capacity for its risk management. It has therefore become increasingly important to search for 'fit-for- purpose' approaches to infectious disease surveillance and thereby targeted disease control. The fact that the majority of human infectious diseases are originally of animal origin means we have to consider One Health (OH) approaches which require inter-sectoral collaboration for custom-made infectious disease surveillance in the endemic settings of Africa. A baseline survey was conducted to assess the current status and performance of human and animal health surveillance systems and subsequently a strategy towards OH surveillance system was developed. The strategy focused on assessing the combination of participatory epidemiological approaches and the deployment of mobile technologies to enhance the effectiveness of disease alerts and surveillance at the point of occurrence, which often lies in remote areas. We selected three study sites, namely the Ngorongoro, Kagera River basin and Zambezi River basin ecosystems. We have piloted and introduced the next-generation Android mobile phones running the EpiCollect application developed by Imperial College to aid geo-spatial and clinical data capture and transmission of this data from the field to the remote Information Technology (IT) servers at the research hubs for storage, analysis, feedback and reporting. We expect that the combination of participatory epidemiology and technology will significantly improve OH disease surveillance in southern Africa. PMID:23327374

  8. 76 FR 24031 - Board of Scientific Counselors, Office of Infectious Diseases (BSC, OID)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-29

    ...HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Board of Scientific...Counselors, Office of Infectious Diseases (BSC, OID) In accordance with...L. 92-463), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)...

  9. 78 FR 21370 - Board of Scientific Counselors, Office of Infectious Diseases (BSC, OID)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-10

    ...HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Board of Scientific...Counselors, Office of Infectious Diseases (BSC, OID) In accordance with...L. 92-463), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention...

  10. 77 FR 67651 - Board of Scientific Counselors, Office of Infectious Diseases (BSC, OID)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-13

    ...HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Board of Scientific...Counselors, Office of Infectious Diseases (BSC, OID) In accordance with...L. 92-463), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention...

  11. 78 FR 17411 - Board of Scientific Counselors, Office of Infectious Diseases (BSC, OID)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-21

    ...HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Board of Scientific...Counselors, Office of Infectious Diseases (BSC, OID) In accordance with...L. 92-463), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention...

  12. 77 FR 21778 - Board of Scientific Counselors, Office of Infectious Diseases (BSC, OID)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-11

    ...HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Board of Scientific...Counselors, Office of Infectious Diseases (BSC, OID) In accordance with...L. 92-463), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention...

  13. 78 FR 69683 - Board of Scientific Counselors, Office of Infectious Diseases (BSC, OID)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-20

    ...HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Board of Scientific...Counselors, Office of Infectious Diseases (BSC, OID) In accordance with...L. 92-463), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention...

  14. 76 FR 63926 - Board of Scientific Counselors, Office of Infectious Diseases (BSC, OID)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-14

    ...HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Board of Scientific...Counselors, Office of Infectious Diseases (BSC, OID) In accordance with...L. 92-463), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention...

  15. 78 FR 11651 - Board of Scientific Counselors, Office of Infectious Diseases (BSC, OID)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-19

    ...HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Board of Scientific...Counselors, Office of Infectious Diseases (BSC, OID) In accordance with...L. 92-463), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention...

  16. 75 FR 22607 - Board of Scientific Counselors, Coordinating Center for Infectious Diseases (CCID)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-29

    ...HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Board of Scientific...Counselors, Coordinating Center for Infectious Diseases (CCID) In accordance with section 10...Pub. L. 92-463), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC),...

  17. Applications of gold nanoparticles in the detection and identification of infectious diseases and biothreats.

    PubMed

    Lin, Meihua; Pei, Hao; Yang, Fan; Fan, Chunhai; Zuo, Xiaolei

    2013-07-01

    The situation of infectious diseases and biothreats all over the world remains serious. The effective identification of such diseases plays a very important role. In recent years, gold nanoparticles have been widely used in biosensor design to improve the performance for the detection of infectious diseases and biothreats. Here, recent advances of gold-nanoparticle-based biosensors in this field are summarized. PMID:23977699

  18. ore than half of all the infectious diseases that affect humans are

    E-print Network

    Napp, Nils

    ESSAY M ore than half of all the infectious diseases that affect humans are zoonoses research explored the ecol- ogy of infectious disease in a changing world: specifically, in a world subject--pathogens naturally transmitted from animals. Because a substantial proportion of these diseases originate in wildlife

  19. 78 FR 63996 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-25

    ...Special Emphasis Panel; Preclinical Development Services...Special Emphasis Panel; Preclinical Innovation Program...and Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research, National...

  20. Eradication versus control: the economics of global infectious disease policies.

    PubMed Central

    Barrett, Scott

    2004-01-01

    A disease is controlled if, by means of a public policy, the circulation of an infectious agent is restricted below the level that would be sustained by individuals acting independently to control the disease. A disease is eliminated if it is controlled sufficiently to prevent an epidemic from occurring in a given geographical area. Control and elimination are achieved locally, but a disease can only be eradicated if it is eliminated everywhere. Eradication is plainly a more demanding goal, but it has two advantages over control. First, the economics of eradication can be very favourable when eradication not only reduces infections but also avoids the need for vaccinations in future. Indeed, when eradication is feasible, it will either pay to control it to a fairly low level or to eradicate it. This suggests that, from an economics perspective, diseases that are eliminated in high-income countries are prime candidates for future eradication efforts. Second, the incentives for countries to participate in an eradication initiative can be strong; indeed they can be even stronger than an international control programme. Moreover, high-income countries typically benefit so much that they will be willing to finance elimination in developing countries. Full financing of an eradication effort by nation-states is not always guaranteed, but it can be facilitated by a variety of means. Hence, from the perspective of economics and international relations, eradication has a number of advantages over control. The implications for smallpox and polio eradication programmes are discussed. PMID:15628206

  1. Dynamics and management of infectious disease in colonizing populations.

    PubMed

    Bar-David, Shirli; Lloyd-Smith, James O; Getz, Wayne M

    2006-05-01

    The introduction of chronic, infectious diseases by colonizing populations (invasive or reintroduced) is a serious hazard in conservation biology, threatening the original host and other spillover species. Most research on spatial invasion of diseases has pertained to established host populations, either at steady state or fluctuating through time. Within a colonizing population, however, the spread of disease may be influenced by the expansion process of the population itself. Here we explore the simultaneous expansion of a colonizing population and a chronic, nonlethal disease introduced with it, describing basic patterns in homogeneous and structured landscapes and discussing implications for disease management. We describe expected outcomes of such introductions for three qualitatively distinct cases, depending on the relative velocities at which the population and epidemic expand. (1) If transmissibility is low the disease cannot be sustained, although it may first expand its range somewhat around the point of introduction. (2) If transmissibility is moderate but the wave-front velocity for the population, vp, is higher than that for the disease, vd, the disease wave front lags behind that of the population. (3) A highly transmissible disease, with vd > vp, will invade sufficiently rapidly to track the spread of the host. To test these elementary theoretical predictions, we simulated disease outbreaks in a spatially structured host population occupying a real landscape. We used a spatially explicit, individual-based model of Persian fallow deer (Dama mesopotamica) reintroduced in northern Israel, considering a hypothetical introduction of bovine tuberculosis. Basic patterns of disease expansion in this realistic setting were similar to our conceptual predictions for homogeneous landscapes. Landscape heterogeneity, however, induced the establishment of population activity centers and disease foci within them, leading to jagged wave fronts and causing local variation in the relative velocities at which the population and epidemic expanded. Based on predictions from simple theory and simulations of managed outbreaks, we suggest that the relative velocities at which the population and epidemic expand have important implications for the impact of different management strategies. Recognizing which of our three general cases best describes a particular outbreak will aid in planning an efficient strategy to contain the disease. PMID:16761600

  2. Large-scale spatial population databases in infectious disease research

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Modelling studies on the spatial distribution and spread of infectious diseases are becoming increasingly detailed and sophisticated, with global risk mapping and epidemic modelling studies now popular. Yet, in deriving populations at risk of disease estimates, these spatial models must rely on existing global and regional datasets on population distribution, which are often based on outdated and coarse resolution data. Moreover, a variety of different methods have been used to model population distribution at large spatial scales. In this review we describe the main global gridded population datasets that are freely available for health researchers and compare their construction methods, and highlight the uncertainties inherent in these population datasets. We review their application in past studies on disease risk and dynamics, and discuss how the choice of dataset can affect results. Moreover, we highlight how the lack of contemporary, detailed and reliable data on human population distribution in low income countries is proving a barrier to obtaining accurate large-scale estimates of population at risk and constructing reliable models of disease spread, and suggest research directions required to further reduce these barriers. PMID:22433126

  3. Infectious disease transmission and contact networks in wildlife and livestock.

    PubMed

    Craft, Meggan E

    2015-05-26

    The use of social and contact networks to answer basic and applied questions about infectious disease transmission in wildlife and livestock is receiving increased attention. Through social network analysis, we understand that wild animal and livestock populations, including farmed fish and poultry, often have a heterogeneous contact structure owing to social structure or trade networks. Network modelling is a flexible tool used to capture the heterogeneous contacts of a population in order to test hypotheses about the mechanisms of disease transmission, simulate and predict disease spread, and test disease control strategies. This review highlights how to use animal contact data, including social networks, for network modelling, and emphasizes that researchers should have a pathogen of interest in mind before collecting or using contact data. This paper describes the rising popularity of network approaches for understanding transmission dynamics in wild animal and livestock populations; discusses the common mismatch between contact networks as measured in animal behaviour and relevant parasites to match those networks; and highlights knowledge gaps in how to collect and analyse contact data. Opportunities for the future include increased attention to experiments, pathogen genetic markers and novel computational tools. PMID:25870393

  4. The Global Threat of New and Reemerging Infectious Diseases

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Brower, Jennifer, 1967-.

    Authored by Jennifer Brower and Peter Chalk, working on behalf of the RAND Corporation, this 140-page online book explores an in-depth analysis of the security implications posed by the dissemination of various infectious diseases. Throughout the work, the authors draw on two case studies, namely the HIV/ AIDS epidemic in South Africa and the public health response system within the United States. The book itself is available as six separate chapters, including an appendix and bibliography. For those looking for a brief synopsis of the work, a nine-page summary is also available. The authors conclude their work by presenting several recommendations that may address various existing shortcomings, including increased coordination between public health authorities at all levels of government, integration of the private sector into overall public health efforts, and a large-scale education and information campaign.

  5. Antibody-based therapies for emerging infectious diseases.

    PubMed Central

    Casadevall, A.

    1996-01-01

    In the 19th century, it was discovered that immune sera were useful in treating infectious diseases. Serum therapy was largely abandoned in the 1940s because of the toxicity associated with the administration of heterologous sera and the introduction of effective antimicrobial chemotherapy. Recent advances in the technology of monoclonal antibody production provide the means to generate human antibody reagents and reintroduce antibody therapies, while avoiding the toxicities associated with serum therapy. Because of the versatility of antibodies, antibody-based therapies could, in theory, be developed against any existing pathogen. The advantages of antibody-based therapies include versatility, low toxicity, pathogen specificity, enhancement of immune function, and favorable pharmacokinetics; the disadvantages include high cost, limited usefulness against mixed infections, and the need for early and precise microbiologic diagnosis. The potential of antibodies as antiinfective agents has not been fully tapped. Antibody-based therapies constitute a potentially useful option against newly emergent pathogens. PMID:8903230

  6. Nutritional therapy and infectious diseases: a two-edged sword.

    PubMed

    Donabedian, Haig

    2006-01-01

    The benefits and risks of nutritional therapies in the prevention and management of infectious diseases in the developed world are reviewed. There is strong evidence that early enteral feeding of patients prevents infections in a variety of traumatic and surgical illnesses. There is, however, little support for similar early feeding in medical illnesses. Parenteral nutrition increases the risk of infection when compared to enteral feeding or delayed nutrition. The use of gastric feedings appears to be as safe and effective as small bowel feedings. Dietary supplementation with glutamine appears to lower the risk of post-surgical infections and the ingestion of cranberry products has value in preventing urinary tract infections in women. PMID:16952310

  7. Structural and growth characteristics of infectious bursal disease virus.

    PubMed Central

    Nick, H; Cursiefen, D; Becht, H

    1976-01-01

    The infectious bursal disease virus is not enveloped and has a diameter of 60 nm and a density of about 1.32 g/ml. It contains two pieces of single-stranded RNA with molecular weights close to 2 X 10(6). The capsid is made up of four major polypeptides with molecular weights of 110,000, 50,000, 35,000, and 25,000. The virus replicates in chicken embryo fibroblasts rather than in epitheloid cells. After an eclipse period of 4 h, virus production reaches a maximum about 12 h later. The virus has no structural or biological similarities with defined avian reoviruses, and it cannot be classified in one of the established taxonomic groups. Images PMID:176463

  8. Genetic characterisation of infectious bursal disease virus isolates in Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Jenberie, Shiferaw; Lynch, Stacey E.; Kebede, Fekadu; Christley, Robert M.; Gelaye, Esayas; Negussie, Haileleul; Asmare, Kassahun; Ayelet, Gelagay

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the investigation was to characterise infectious bursal disease viruses (IBDV) circulating in commercial and breeding poultry farms in Ethiopia between 2009 and 2011. The nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequence for VP2 hypervariable region of ten IBDVs were determined by RT-PCR, sequenced and compared to well characterised IBDV isolates worldwide. IBDV genetic material was amplified directly from bursa or cell passaged material. Phylogenetically, Ethiopian IBDVs represented two genetic lineages: very virulent (vv) IBDVs or variants of the classical attenuated vaccine strain (D78). The nucleotide identity between Ethiopian vvIBDVs ranged between 0% and 2.6%. Ethiopian vvIBDVs are clustered phylogenetically with the African IBDV genetic lineage, independent of the Asian/European lineage. This report demonstrates the circulation of vvIBDV in commercial and breeding poultry farms in Ethiopia. PMID:24145155

  9. Immunopathogenesis of infectious disease: injury and death from friendly fire

    E-print Network

    Cai, Long

    with emergence of drug-resistant strains of pathogens. Effective vaccines have been successfully developed pathogens necessitates the engineering and produc- tion of a large number of vaccines that are effective against only a narrow range of strains. Nevertheless, progress is being made on new vaccines

  10. Proliferation and maturation of human bone marrow cells in infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Dörmer, P; Hültner, L; Mergenthaler, H G

    1990-02-01

    In 6 patients with various types of infectious disease an extended study of proliferation and maturation of erythropoiesis and granulocytopoiesis was performed. By means of quantitative 14C-autoradiography DNA synthesis time and labeling index were determined in every morphologically defined cell compartment of both lineages. With these parameters and the relative frequency of cells in the various compartments cell cycle times, relative cell production rates and maturation indices were determined. A general labeling index reduction and prolongation of DNA synthesis time was observed which was statistically significant in the majority of compartments. As a consequence, cell cycle times were prolonged throughout, the deviation from normal increasing with advancing maturation in both lineages. Relative cell production was normal in myelocytes, but elevated in myeloblasts and promyelocytes. On the other hand, proerythroblasts and basophilic erythroblasts showed normal relative cell production rates, while a significantly reduced value was found in polychromatic erythroblasts. The maturation index in both lineages was reduced by roughly 50%. Since cell cycle times were generally prolonged, the most significant deviations from normal being present in the latest proliferative compartments, the low maturation indices are discussed in the light of ineffective erythro- and granulocytopoiesis. Premature cell death in the bone marrow is suggested to be a significant factor in particular cases of infectious disease. PMID:2315208

  11. Current and Emerging Biomarkers of Cell Death in Human Disease

    PubMed Central

    Li, Kongning; Wu, Deng; Chen, Xi; Zhang, Ting; Zhang, Lu; Yi, Ying; Miao, Zhengqiang; Jin, Nana; Bi, Xiaoman; Wang, Hongwei; Wang, Dong

    2014-01-01

    Cell death is a critical biological process, serving many important functions within multicellular organisms. Aberrations in cell death can contribute to the pathology of human diseases. Significant progress made in the research area enormously speeds up our understanding of the biochemical and molecular mechanisms of cell death. According to the distinct morphological and biochemical characteristics, cell death can be triggered by extrinsic or intrinsic apoptosis, regulated necrosis, autophagic cell death, and mitotic catastrophe. Nevertheless, the realization that all of these efforts seek to pursue an effective treatment and cure for the disease has spurred a significant interest in the development of promising biomarkers of cell death to early diagnose disease and accurately predict disease progression and outcome. In this review, we summarize recent knowledge about cell death, survey current and emerging biomarkers of cell death, and discuss the relationship with human diseases. PMID:24949464

  12. Media impact switching surface during an infectious disease outbreak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Yanni; Tang, Sanyi; Wu, Jianhong

    2015-01-01

    There are many challenges to quantifying and evaluating the media impact on the control of emerging infectious diseases. We modeled such media impacts using a piecewise smooth function depending on both the case number and its rate of change. The proposed model was then converted into a switching system, with the switching surface determined by a functional relationship between susceptible populations and different subgroups of infectives. By parameterizing the proposed model with the 2009 A/H1N1 influenza outbreak data in the Shaanxi province of China, we observed that media impact switched off almost as the epidemic peaked. Our analysis implies that media coverage significantly delayed the epidemic's peak and decreased the severity of the outbreak. Moreover, media impacts are not always effective in lowering the disease transmission during the entire outbreak, but switch on and off in a highly nonlinear fashion with the greatest effect during the early stage of the outbreak. The finding draws the attention to the important role of informing the public about `the rate of change of case numbers' rather than `the absolute number of cases' to alter behavioral changes, through a self-adaptive media impact switching on and off, for better control of disease transmission.

  13. Technology innovation for infectious diseases in the developing world

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Enabling innovation and access to health technologies remains a key strategy in combating infectious diseases in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). However, a gulf between paying markets and the endemicity of such diseases has contributed to the dearth of R&D in meeting these public health needs. While the pharmaceutical industry views emerging economies as potential new markets, most of the world’s poorest bottom billion now reside in middle-income countries--a fact that has complicated tiered access arrangements. However, product development partnerships--particularly those involving academic institutions and small firms--find commercial opportunities in pursuing even neglected diseases; and a growing pharmaceutical sector in BRICS countries offers hope for an indigenous base of innovation. Such innovation will be shaped by 1) access to building blocks of knowledge; 2) strategic use of intellectual property and innovative financing to meet public health goals; 3) collaborative norms of open innovation; and 4) alternative business models, some with a double bottom line. Facing such resource constraints, LMICs are poised to develop a new, more resource-effective model of innovation that holds exciting promise in meeting the needs of global health. PMID:23849080

  14. An Emerging Infectious Disease Triggering Large-Scale Hyperpredation

    PubMed Central

    Moleón, Marcos; Almaraz, Pablo; Sánchez-Zapata, José A.

    2008-01-01

    Hyperpredation refers to an enhanced predation pressure on a secondary prey due to either an increase in the abundance of a predator population or a sudden drop in the abundance of the main prey. This scarcely documented mechanism has been previously studied in scenarios in which the introduction of a feral prey caused overexploitation of native prey. Here we provide evidence of a previously unreported link between Emergent Infectious Diseases (EIDs) and hyperpredation on a predator-prey community. We show how a viral outbreak caused the population collapse of a host prey at a large spatial scale, which subsequently promoted higher-than-normal predation intensity on a second prey from shared predators. Thus, the disease left a population dynamic fingerprint both in the primary host prey, through direct mortality from the disease, and indirectly in the secondary prey, through hyperpredation. This resulted in synchronized prey population dynamics at a large spatio-temporal scale. We therefore provide evidence for a novel mechanism by which EIDs can disrupt a predator-prey interaction from the individual behavior to the population dynamics. This mechanism can pose a further threat to biodiversity through the human-aided disruption of ecological interactions at large spatial and temporal scales. PMID:18523587

  15. Technology innovation for infectious diseases in the developing world.

    PubMed

    So, Anthony D; Ruiz-Esparza, Quentin

    2012-01-01

    Enabling innovation and access to health technologies remains a key strategy in combating infectious diseases in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). However, a gulf between paying markets and the endemicity of such diseases has contributed to the dearth of R&D in meeting these public health needs. While the pharmaceutical industry views emerging economies as potential new markets, most of the world's poorest bottom billion now reside in middle-income countries--a fact that has complicated tiered access arrangements. However, product development partnerships--particularly those involving academic institutions and small firms--find commercial opportunities in pursuing even neglected diseases; and a growing pharmaceutical sector in BRICS countries offers hope for an indigenous base of innovation. Such innovation will be shaped by 1) access to building blocks of knowledge; 2) strategic use of intellectual property and innovative financing to meet public health goals; 3) collaborative norms of open innovation; and 4) alternative business models, some with a double bottom line. Facing such resource constraints, LMICs are poised to develop a new, more resource-effective model of innovation that holds exciting promise in meeting the needs of global health. PMID:23849080

  16. Media impact switching surface during an infectious disease outbreak

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Yanni; Tang, Sanyi; Wu, Jianhong

    2015-01-01

    There are many challenges to quantifying and evaluating the media impact on the control of emerging infectious diseases. We modeled such media impacts using a piecewise smooth function depending on both the case number and its rate of change. The proposed model was then converted into a switching system, with the switching surface determined by a functional relationship between susceptible populations and different subgroups of infectives. By parameterizing the proposed model with the 2009 A/H1N1 influenza outbreak data in the Shaanxi province of China, we observed that media impact switched off almost as the epidemic peaked. Our analysis implies that media coverage significantly delayed the epidemic's peak and decreased the severity of the outbreak. Moreover, media impacts are not always effective in lowering the disease transmission during the entire outbreak, but switch on and off in a highly nonlinear fashion with the greatest effect during the early stage of the outbreak. The finding draws the attention to the important role of informing the public about ‘the rate of change of case numbers' rather than ‘the absolute number of cases' to alter behavioral changes, through a self-adaptive media impact switching on and off, for better control of disease transmission. PMID:25592757

  17. Possible impact of rising sea levels on vector-borne infectious diseases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ranjan Ramasamy; Sinnathamby N Surendran

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Vector-borne infectious diseases are a significant cause of human and animal mortality and morbidity. Modeling studies predict that changes in climate that accompany global warming will alter the transmission risk of many vector-borne infectious diseases in different parts of the world. Global warming will also raise sea levels, which will lead to an increase in saline and brackish water

  18. Results of a National Survey of Infectious Diseases Specialists regarding Influenza Vaccination Programs for Healthcare Workers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Edward Septimus; Charles Helms

    2010-01-01

    A minority of infectious diseases consultants currently work in healthcare institutions requiring influenza vaccination for healthcare workers, and in approximately half of these institutions, the health- care workers who refuse vaccination do not face substantial con- sequences for their refusal. Although true mandatory policies are not common, a majority of infectious diseases consultants support such policies. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol

  19. Estimating seasonal drivers in childhood infectious diseases with continuous time and discrete-time models

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel P. Word; George H. Abbott; Derek Cummings; Carl D. Laird

    2010-01-01

    Many important factors affect the spread of childhood infectious disease. To better understand the fundamental drivers of infectious disease spread, several researchers have estimated seasonal transmission coefficients in discrete-time models. In this paper, we build upon this previous work and also develop a framework for efficient estimation using continuous differential equation models. We introduce nonlinear programming formulations to efficiently estimate

  20. Social networks and the spread of infectious diseases: The AIDS example

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alden S. Klovdahl

    1985-01-01

    Conceptualizing a population as a set of individuals linked together to form a large social network provides a fruitful perspective for better understanding the spread of some infectious diseases. Data related to AIDS (the acquired immune deficiency syndrome) were used to illustrate the potential usefulness of a network approach in evaluating the infectious agent hypothesis when studying a disease or

  1. Risk assessment for airborne infectious diseases in aircraft cabins Jitendra K. Guptaa

    E-print Network

    Chen, Qingyan "Yan"

    Risk assessment for airborne infectious diseases in aircraft cabins Jitendra K. Guptaa Ph.D., Chao.-H., and Chen, Q. 2012. "Risk assessment for airborne infectious diseases in aircraft cabins," Indoor Air, 22 Author: Dr. Qingyan Chen- yanchen@purdue.edu Abstract Passengers in an aircraft cabin can have

  2. Publication of European Union Research on Infectious Diseases (1991–2001): A Bibliometric Evaluation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. M. Ramos; F. Gutiérrez; M. Masía; A. Martín-Hidalgo

    2004-01-01

    The study presented here analyzed the contents of 36 international infectious diseases journals from 1991 to 2001 to determine the number of reports prepared by authors in the European Union and to compare the per country scientific productivity. Articles included in the study were identified using the PubMed website. The number of publications in infectious disease journals produced by authors

  3. Risk Analysis For Invasive Species And Emerging Infectious Diseases: Concepts And Applications

    E-print Network

    Risk Analysis For Invasive Species And Emerging Infectious Diseases: Concepts And Applications JOHN ABSTRACT.--Management and control of biological invasions and emerging infectious diseases are leading the dynamics of feral nutria (Myocastor coypus) in East Anglia, UK, and infection by bovine tuberculosis

  4. Ability of online drug databases to assist in clinical decision-making with infectious disease therapies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hyla H Polen; Antonia Zapantis; Kevin A Clauson; Jennifer Jebrock; Mark Paris

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Infectious disease (ID) is a dynamic field with new guidelines being adopted at a rapid rate. Clinical decision support tools (CDSTs) have proven beneficial in selecting treatment options to improve outcomes. However, there is a dearth of information on the abilities of CDSTs, such as drug information databases. This study evaluated online drug information databases when answering infectious disease-specific

  5. Autoimmune and infectious skin diseases that target desmogleins

    PubMed Central

    AMAGAI, Masayuki

    2010-01-01

    Desmosomes are intercellular adhesive junctions of epithelial cells that contain two major transmembrane components, the desmogleins (Dsg) and desmocollins (Dsc), which are cadherin-type cell–cell adhesion molecules and are anchored to intermediate filaments of keratin through interactions with plakoglobin and desmoplakin. Desmosomes play an important role in maintaining the proper structure and barrier function of the epidermis and mucous epithelia. Four Dsg isoforms have been identified to date, Dsg1–Dsg4, and are involved in several skin and heart diseases. Dsg1 and Dsg3 are the two major Dsg isoforms in the skin and mucous membranes, and are targeted by IgG autoantibodies in pemphigus, an autoimmune disease of the skin and mucous membranes. Dsg1 is also targeted by exfoliative toxin (ET) released by Staphylococcus aureus in the infectious skin diseases bullous impetigo and staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome (SSSS). ET is a unique serine protease that shows lock and key specificity to Dsg1. Dsg2 is expressed in all tissues possessing desmosomes, including simple epithelia and myocardia, and mutations in this gene are responsible for arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy/dysplasia. Dsg4 plays an important adhesive role mainly in hair follicles, and Dsg4 mutations cause abnormal hair development. Recently, an active disease model for pemphigus was generated by a unique approach using autoantigen-deficient mice that do not acquire tolerance against the defective autoantigen. Adoptive transfer of Dsg3?/? lymphocytes into mice expressing Dsg3 induces stable anti-Dsg3 IgG production with development of the pemphigus phenotype. This mouse model is a valuable tool with which to investigate immunological mechanisms of harmful IgG autoantibody production in pemphigus. Further investigation of desmoglein molecules will continue to provide insight into the unsolved pathophysiological mechanisms of diseases and aid in the development of novel therapeutic strategies with minimal side effects. PMID:20467217

  6. The Chemotherapy of Infectious Diseases caused by Protozoa and Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Hörlein, H.

    1936-01-01

    The possibility of combating infectious diseases with chemotherapeutically active substances depends to a large extent on the structure of the pathogenic organism. Apart from the cure of contagious pleuro-pneumonia in horses with neosalvarsan, we have, as yet, no chemotherapeutic substance which is active in virus diseases. The position is scarcely better when we turn to bacterial infections due to cocci and bacilli. These two types of infective organisms occupy the lowest level in the scale of micro-organisms. On the other hand, the spirochćtes, which also belong to the bacteria group, and, still more so, those causal organisms belonging to the protozoa, represent relatively highly differentiated species, and the more highly developed a pathogenic organism is, the more points for attack it appears to offer to the action of chemotherapeutic substances. It is, therefore, not to be wondered at that the best results with chemotherapeutically active substances have been obtained in spirochćtal diseases (syphilis, relapsing fever, frambśsia, etc.), and above all, in protozoal diseases. There is scarcely a protozoal disease of man which cannot be cured nowadays by early treatment with the appropriate synthetic drug. (Sleeping sickness, malaria, amśbic dysentery, leishmaniasis.) Epizootics resembling human diseases, as for example, trypanoses, are also relatively easily dealt with by the same drugs as have been found of value in the treatment of disease in man. On the other hand, there has been a lack of success, up to the present, in the treatment of those diseases of animals which are not generally related to the tropical diseases of man. The most important of these epizootics are the piroplasmoses, which are caused by babesić and theilerić and which are found, not only in tropical and subtropical regions, but also in temperate zones. In this paper the discovery of a new remedy against piroplasmosis will be reported (acaprin). Further, advice will be given of a new class of substances, which have an actual chemotherapeutic action in streptococcal infections (prontosil, prontosil S), so that one can hope to be able in the future also to attack bacterial infections due to cocci chemotherapeutically. PMID:19990605

  7. LETTER The importance of who infects whom: the evolution of diversity in host resistance to infectious disease

    E-print Network

    White, Andrew

    to infectious disease Mike Boots,1 * Andy White,2 Alex Best1 and Roger Bowers3 Abstract Variation for resistance to infectious disease is ubiquitous and critical to host and parasite evolution and to disease impact, spread their fitness. Given this ubiquitous risk of infectious disease, hosts have evolved a wide range of defence

  8. Glomerular Disease in Patients with Infectious Processes Developing Antineutrophil Cytoplasmic Antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Konstantinov, Konstantin N.; Emil, Suzanne N.; Barry, Marc; Kellie, Susan; Tzamaloukas, Antonios H.

    2013-01-01

    To identify differences in treatment and outcome of various types of glomerulonephritis developing in the course of infections triggering antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA) formation, we analyzed published reports of 50 patients. Immunosuppressives were added to antibiotics in 22 of 23 patients with pauci-immune glomerulonephritis. Improvement was noted in 85% of 20 patients with information on outcomes. Death rate was 13%. Corticosteroids were added to antibiotics in about 50% of 19 patients with postinfectious glomerulonephritis. Improvement rate was 74%, and death rate was 26%. Two patients with mixed histological features were analyzed under both pauci-immune and post-infectious glomerulonephritis categories. In 9 patients with other renal histology, treatment consisted of antibiotics alone (7 patients), antibiotics plus immunosuppressives (1 patient), or immunosuppressives alone (1 patient). Improvement rate was 67%, permanent renal failure rate was 22%, and death rate was 11%. One patient with antiglomerular basement disease glomerulonephritis required maintenance hemodialysis. Glomerulonephritis developing in patients who became ANCA-positive during the course of an infection is associated with significant mortality. The histological type of the glomerulonephritis guides the choice of treatment. Pauci-immune glomerulonephritis is usually treated with addition of immunosuppressives to antibiotics. PMID:24959541

  9. PREVALENCE OF INFECTIOUS DISEASES IN LOCAL AND FAYOUMI BREEDS OF RURAL POULTRY (GALLUS DOMESTICUS)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    MUHAMMAD YASSER MUSTAFA; SYED SHAHID ALI

    2005-01-01

    A field study was conducted to investigate the prevalence of the various poultry diseases in domestic rural fowl in Distt. Sheikhupura. The disease prevalence was found high (57%) in Fayoumi than local breed i.e., Desi hens (43%). The overall prevalence of various diseases was, Newcastle (40.33%), E.coli (5%), Infectious bronchitis (2.66%) chromic respiratory disease (7%) Infectious coryza (8.33%) and Salmonellosis

  10. Use of time-series analysis in infectious disease surveillance.

    PubMed Central

    Allard, R.

    1998-01-01

    This article reviews the practical aspects of the use of ARIMA (autoregressive, integrated, moving average) modelling of time series as applied to the surveillance of reportable infectious diseases, with special reference to the widely available SSS1 package, produced by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The main steps required by ARIMA modelling are the selection of the time series, transformations of the series, model selection, parameter estimation, forecasting, and updating of the forecasts. The difficulties most likely to be encountered at each step are described and possible solutions are offered. Examples of successful and unsuccessful modelling are presented and discussed. Other methods, such as INAR modelling or Markov chain analysis, which can be applied to situations where ARIMA modelling fails are also dealt with, but they are less practical. ARIMA modelling can be carried out by adequately trained nonspecialists working for local agencies. Its usefulness resides mostly in providing an estimate of the variability to be expected among future observations. This knowledge is helpful in deciding whether or not an unusual situation, possibly an outbreak, is developing. PMID:9803583

  11. Preparedness for emerging infectious diseases: pathways from anticipation to action.

    PubMed

    Brookes, V J; Hernández-Jover, M; Black, P F; Ward, M P

    2015-07-01

    Emerging and re-emerging infectious disease (EID) events can have devastating human, animal and environmental health impacts. The emergence of EIDs has been associated with interconnected economic, social and environmental changes. Understanding these changes is crucial for EID preparedness and subsequent prevention and control of EID events. The aim of this review is to describe tools currently available for identification, prioritization and investigation of EIDs impacting human and animal health, and how these might be integrated into a systematic approach for directing EID preparedness. Environmental scanning, foresight programmes, horizon scanning and surveillance are used to collect and assess information for rapidly responding to EIDs and to anticipate drivers of emergence for mitigating future EID impacts. Prioritization of EIDs - using transparent and repeatable methods - based on disease impacts and the importance of those impacts to decision-makers can then be used for more efficient resource allocation for prevention and control. Risk assessment and simulation modelling methods assess the likelihood of EIDs occurring, define impact and identify mitigation strategies. Each of these tools has a role to play individually; however, we propose integration of these tools into a framework that enhances the development of tactical and strategic plans for emerging risk preparedness. PMID:25500338

  12. Immune responses of wild birds to emerging infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Staley, M; Bonneaud, C

    2015-05-01

    Over the past several decades, outbreaks of emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) in wild birds have attracted worldwide media attention, either because of their extreme virulence or because of alarming spillovers into agricultural animals or humans. The pathogens involved have been found to infect a variety of bird hosts ranging from relatively few species (e.g. Trichomonas gallinae) to hundreds of species (e.g. West Nile Virus). Here we review and contrast the immune responses that wild birds are able to mount against these novel pathogens. We discuss the extent to which these responses are associated with reduced clinical symptoms, pathogen load and mortality, or conversely, how they can be linked to worsened pathology and reduced survival. We then investigate how immune responses to EIDs can evolve over time in response to pathogen-driven selection using the illustrative case study of the epizootic outbreak of Mycoplasma gallisepticum in wild North American house finches (Haemorhous mexicanus). We highlight the need for future work to take advantage of the substantial inter- and intraspecific variation in disease progression and outcome following infections with EID to elucidate the extent to which immune responses confer increased resistance through pathogen clearance or may instead heighten pathogenesis. PMID:25847450

  13. A statistical method for forecasting demographic time series counts, with application to HIV/AIDS and other infectious disease mortality in southern Thailand.

    PubMed

    Lim, Apiradee; Choonpradub, Chamnein

    2007-11-01

    This study investigated regional and temporal patterns of death reported from infectious diseases (including HIV/AIDS) in 14 provinces of southern Thailand over the period 1999-2004, using data obtained from the Thailand Bureau of Policy and Strategy, Ministry of Public Health. Causes of deaths were identified using the International Classification of Diseases 10th revision (ICD-10), and mortality incidence rates were then calculated using populations obtained from the 2000 population census. Poisson and negative binomial lagged observation-driven regression models for mortality incidence were fitted to the data separately for HIV/ AIDS and other infectious diseases. Overall, the hospital mortality rates started to increase sharply in 2003 - 2004. The in-hospital mortality for HIV/AIDS showed peaks in urban districts and decreased from north to south with mortality for males approximately double that of females. For other infectious diseases, an upward trend in hospital mortality age 40 and over started in 2003-2004, particularly among persons reported as dying from septicemia, while showing a slightly increasing trend for other infectious diseases. Identifying the real cause of hospital deaths recorded as septicemia would substantially improve hospital mortality data quality. PMID:18613544

  14. 76 FR 63308 - Data and Data Needs To Advance Risk Assessment for Emerging Infectious Diseases Relevant to Blood...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-12

    ...Assessment for Emerging Infectious Diseases Relevant to Blood and Blood Products; Public Workshop AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration...Assessment for Emerging Infectious Diseases Relevant to Blood and Blood Products.'' The purpose of the public...

  15. Merging economics and epidemiology to improve the prediction and management of infectious disease.

    PubMed

    Perrings, Charles; Castillo-Chavez, Carlos; Chowell, Gerardo; Daszak, Peter; Fenichel, Eli P; Finnoff, David; Horan, Richard D; Kilpatrick, A Marm; Kinzig, Ann P; Kuminoff, Nicolai V; Levin, Simon; Morin, Benjamin; Smith, Katherine F; Springborn, Michael

    2014-12-01

    Mathematical epidemiology, one of the oldest and richest areas in mathematical biology, has significantly enhanced our understanding of how pathogens emerge, evolve, and spread. Classical epidemiological models, the standard for predicting and managing the spread of infectious disease, assume that contacts between susceptible and infectious individuals depend on their relative frequency in the population. The behavioral factors that underpin contact rates are not generally addressed. There is, however, an emerging a class of models that addresses the feedbacks between infectious disease dynamics and the behavioral decisions driving host contact. Referred to as "economic epidemiology" or "epidemiological economics," the approach explores the determinants of decisions about the number and type of contacts made by individuals, using insights and methods from economics. We show how the approach has the potential both to improve predictions of the course of infectious disease, and to support development of novel approaches to infectious disease management. PMID:25233829

  16. 27th Annual Meeting of the European Society for Paediatric Infectious Diseases.

    PubMed

    Ulloa-Gutierrez, Rolando; Hernández-de Mezerville, Marcela

    2009-10-01

    The annual meeting of the European Society for Paediatric Infectious Diseases (ESPID) was recently held in Brussels, Belgium, and gathered world experts in pediatric infectious diseases, vaccinology, epidemiology, microbiology and public health, among others. Among nonvaccine related topics that were discussed, emphasis was given to the continuous surveillance of the most common pathogens causing noninvasive and invasive infectious diseases, other organisms that cause disease, and nosocomial outbreaks by resistant organisms. However, despite the availability of newer antimicrobial therapies for fighting infections in childhood, effective common-sense preventive measures such as hand hygiene can impact positively on the decrease of incidence, and spread of drug- and multidrug-resistant organisms. PMID:19803701

  17. Enhanced Surveillance for Detection and Management of Infectious Diseases: Regional Collaboration in the Middle East

    PubMed Central

    Leventhal, Alex; Ramlawi, Assad; Belbiesi, Adel; Sheikh, Sami; Haddadin, Akhtam; Husseini, Sari; Abdeen, Ziad; Cohen, Dani

    2013-01-01

    Formed before international negotiations of the revised International Health Regulations (IHR), the Middle East Consortium for Infectious Disease Surveillance (MECIDS) is a regional collaboration aimed at facilitating implementation of the revised IHR and, more broadly, improving the detection and control of infectious disease outbreaks among neighboring countries in an area of continuous dispute. Initially focused on enhancing foodborne disease surveillance, MECIDS has expanded the scope of its work to also include avian and pandemic influenza and other emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases. Here, we describe the history and governance of MECIDS, highlighting key achievements over the consortium's seven-year history, and discuss the future of MECIDS. PMID:23362413

  18. Measuring contact patterns with wearable sensors: methods, data characteristics and applications to data-driven simulations of infectious diseases

    E-print Network

    Barrat, Alain

    to data-driven simulations of infectious diseases A. Barrat1,2,3,§ , C. Cattuto3 , A.E. Tozzi4 , P to inform models of infectious diseases transmission. We moreover discuss several limitations of the data and future avenues for data collection and modeling efforts in the field of infectious diseases. #12

  19. Vector-mediated antibody gene transfer for infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Schnepp, Bruce C; Johnson, Philip R

    2015-01-01

    This chapter discusses the emerging field of vector-mediated antibody gene transfer as an alternative vaccine for infectious disease, with a specific focus on HIV. However, this methodology need not be confined to HIV-1; the general strategy of vector-mediated antibody gene transfer can be applied to other difficult vaccine targets like hepatitis C virus, malaria, respiratory syncytial virus, and tuberculosis. This approach is an improvement over classical passive immunization strategies that administer antibody proteins to the host to provide protection from infection. With vector-mediated gene transfer, the antibody gene is delivered to the host, via a recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) vector; this in turn results in long-term endogenous antibody expression from the injected muscle that confers protective immunity. Vector-mediated antibody gene transfer can rapidly move existing, potent broadly cross-neutralizing HIV-1-specific antibodies into the clinic. The gene transfer products demonstrate a potency and breadth identical to the original product. This strategy eliminates the need for immunogen design and interaction with the adaptive immune system to generate protection, a strategy that so far has shown limited promise. PMID:25757620

  20. Validation of Laboratory-Developed Molecular Assays for Infectious Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Burd, Eileen M.

    2010-01-01

    Summary: Molecular technology has changed the way that clinical laboratories diagnose and manage many infectious diseases. Excellent sensitivity, specificity, and speed have made molecular assays an attractive alternative to culture or enzyme immunoassay methods. Many molecular assays are commercially available and FDA approved. Others, especially those that test for less common analytes, are often laboratory developed. Laboratories also often modify FDA-approved assays to include different extraction systems or additional specimen types. The Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments (CLIA) federal regulatory standards require clinical laboratories to establish and document their own performance specifications for laboratory-developed tests to ensure accurate and precise results prior to implementation of the test. The performance characteristics that must be established include accuracy, precision, reportable range, reference interval, analytical sensitivity, and analytical specificity. Clinical laboratories are challenged to understand the requirements and determine the types of experiments and analyses necessary to meet the requirements. A variety of protocols and guidelines are available in various texts and documents. Many of the guidelines are general and more appropriate for assays in chemistry sections of the laboratory but are applied in principle to molecular assays. This review presents information that laboratories may consider in their efforts to meet regulatory requirements. PMID:20610823

  1. Infectious disease physicians rate microbiology services and practices.

    PubMed Central

    Baron, E J; Francis, D; Peddecord, K M

    1996-01-01

    Recent years have seen increasing emphasis on cost containment and quality improvement in clinical laboratory activities. Modifying those activities to enhance clinical relevance is one strategy that should be satisfying to both laboratory scientists and administrators. This guest commentary describes one approach to quality improvement--the use of user surveys to identify areas for improvement. As an initial attempt to define such areas in clinical diagnostic microbiology, infectious disease specialists, targeted for their particular interest and expertise in microbiology laboratory results, were polled and their responses were analyzed. Some of these data have been presented previously (E. J. Baron, D. P. Francis, and K. M. Peddecord, abstr. C-170, p. 520, in Abstracts of the 94th General Meeting of the American Society for Microbiology, 1994; K. M. Peddecord, E. J. Baron, D. P. Francis, and A. S. Benenson, abstr. C-172, p. 520, in Abstracts of the 94th General Meeting of the American Society for Microbiology, 1994; K. M. Peddecord, E. J. Baron, D. P. Francis, and J. A. Drew, Am. J. Clin. Pathol. 105:58-64, 1996). The discussion includes our recommendations for the use of these survey responses, and their limitations, as stimuli to initiate reexamination of certain microbiology laboratory practices in the interest of developing more cost-effective and clinically relevant protocols. PMID:8904401

  2. Role of Sphingomyelinase in Infectious Diseases Caused by Bacillus cereus

    PubMed Central

    Oda, Masataka; Hashimoto, Manabu; Takahashi, Masaya; Ohmae, Yuka; Seike, Soshi; Kato, Ryoko; Fujita, Aoi; Tsuge, Hideaki; Nagahama, Masahiro; Ochi, Sadayuki; Sasahara, Teppei; Hayashi, Shunji; Hirai, Yoshikazu; Sakurai, Jun

    2012-01-01

    Bacillus cereus (B. cereus) is a pathogen in opportunistic infections. Here we show that Bacillus cereus sphingomyelinase (Bc-SMase) is a virulence factor for septicemia. Clinical isolates produced large amounts of Bc-SMase, grew in vivo, and caused death among mice, but ATCC strains isolated from soil did not. A transformant of the ATCC strain carrying a recombinant plasmid containing the Bc-SMase gene grew in vivo, but that with the gene for E53A, which has little enzymatic activity, did not. Administration of an anti-Bc-SMase antibody and immunization against Bc-SMase prevented death caused by the clinical isolates, showing that Bc-SMase plays an important role in the diseases caused by B. cereus. Treatment of mouse macrophages with Bc-SMase resulted in a reduction in the generation of H2O2 and phagocytosis of macrophages induced by peptidoglycan (PGN), but no effect on the release of TNF-? and little release of LDH under our experimental conditions. Confocal laser microscopy showed that the treatment of mouse macrophages with Bc-SMase resulted in the formation of ceramide-rich domains. A photobleaching analysis suggested that the cells treated with Bc-SMase exhibited a reduction in membrane fluidity. The results suggest that Bc-SMase is essential for the hydrolysis of SM in membranes, leading to a reduction in phagocytosis. PMID:22701599

  3. Infectious diseases in the aftermath of monsoon flooding in Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Baqir, Maryam; Sobani, Zain A; Bhamani, Amyn; Bham, Nida Shahab; Abid, Sidra; Farook, Javeria; Beg, M Asim

    2012-01-01

    Pakistan is ranked 9th in terms of flood-affected countries worldwide. In the summer of 2010, the northern province of Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa received more than 312 mm of rain in a 56 hour period. This resulted in over 1 600 deaths across the region. In addition, over 14 million people were directly affected by this record-breaking deluge. Flood affected regions serve as ideal breeding grounds for pathogens, leading to the spread of diseases. The poor standards of hygiene in camps set up for individuals displaced by the floods also contribute to this. It is essential that those involved in relief efforts are aware of the epidemiology of diseases that have historically seen a sudden upsurge after natural disasters. Keeping this in mind, we conducted a simple review of literature. An extensive literature search was conducted using the PubMed data base and online search engines. Articles published in the last 20 years were considered along with some historical articles where a background was required. Seven major diseases were identified to increase substantially in the aftermath of natural disasters. They were then classified into acute and sub-acute settings. Diarrhea, skin & eye infections and leptospirosis were identified in the acute setting while malaria, leishmaniasis, respiratory infections and hepatitis were identified in the sub-acute setting. PMID:23569839

  4. Inhibitors of metabolism rescue cell death in Huntington's disease models

    E-print Network

    Stockwell, Brent R.

    Inhibitors of metabolism rescue cell death in Huntington's disease models Hemant Varma*, Richard found that inhibitors of mitochondrial function or glycolysis rescued cell death in this cell culture and in in vivo HD models. These inhibitors prevented cell death by activating prosurvival ERK and AKT signaling

  5. Infectious Diseases and Vaccinology M.P.H. Program School of Public Health, UC Berkeley

    E-print Network

    Sjölander, Kimmen

    students to be leaders in public health practice settings nationally and globally. Graduates fromInfectious Diseases and Vaccinology M.P.H. Program School of Public Health, UC Berkeley M.P.H. Degree Program The Masters in Public Health Degree (M.P.H.) in the area of concentration of Infectious

  6. Infectious disease rates in the U.S. Navy, 1980 to 1995.

    PubMed

    Gunderson, E K; Garland, C; Hourani, L L

    2001-06-01

    The effect of increasing numbers of women in the U.S. Navy, particularly those aboard Navy ships, on infectious disease risk is unknown. This study examines gender and other demographic differences among all U.S. Navy enlisted personnel in first hospitalizations for infectious diseases from 1980 through 1989 and identifies trends in incidence rates during the extended period from 1980 to 1995. All data were obtained from official personnel and medical records. First hospitalization rates were computed using the Epidemiological Interactive System. Varicella and other viruses and chlamydiae accounted for more than 20,000 hospitalizations among Navy enlisted personnel in the 1980s. In 7 of the 12 categories of common infectious diseases, women's rates were higher than those for men, particularly for viral meningitis, herpes simplex, syphilis, gonococcal disease, and candidiasis. An excess of certain common infectious diseases among women and nonwhite ethnic groups emphasizes the need for continuing education and surveillance in these populations. PMID:11413735

  7. Effects of Extreme Precipitation to the Distribution of Infectious Diseases in Taiwan, 1994–2008

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Mu-Jean; Lin, Chuan-Yao; Wu, Yi-Ting; Wu, Pei-Chih; Lung, Shih-Chun; Su, Huey-Jen

    2012-01-01

    The incidence of extreme precipitation has increased with the exacerbation of worldwide climate disruption. We hypothesize an association between precipitation and the distribution patterns that would affect the endemic burden of 8 infectious diseases in Taiwan, including water- and vector-borne infectious diseases. A database integrating daily precipitation and temperature, along with the infectious disease case registry for all 352 townships in the main island of Taiwan was analysed for the period from 1994 to 2008. Four precipitation levels, <130 mm, 130–200 mm, 200–350 mm and >350 mm, were categorized to represent quantitative differences, and their associations with each specific disease was investigated using the Generalized Additive Mixed Model and afterwards mapped on to the Geographical Information System. Daily precipitation levels were significantly correlated with all 8 mandatory-notified infectious diseases in Taiwan. For water-borne infections, extreme torrential precipitation (>350 mm/day) was found to result in the highest relative risk for bacillary dysentery and enterovirus infections when compared to ordinary rain (<130 mm/day). Yet, for vector-borne diseases, the relative risk of dengue fever and Japanese encephalitis increased with greater precipitation only up to 350 mm. Differential lag effects following precipitation were statistically associated with increased risk for contracting individual infectious diseases. This study’s findings can help health resource sector management better allocate medical resources and be better prepared to deal with infectious disease outbreaks following future extreme precipitation events. PMID:22737206

  8. Effects of extreme precipitation to the distribution of infectious diseases in Taiwan, 1994-2008.

    PubMed

    Chen, Mu-Jean; Lin, Chuan-Yao; Wu, Yi-Ting; Wu, Pei-Chih; Lung, Shih-Chun; Su, Huey-Jen

    2012-01-01

    The incidence of extreme precipitation has increased with the exacerbation of worldwide climate disruption. We hypothesize an association between precipitation and the distribution patterns that would affect the endemic burden of 8 infectious diseases in Taiwan, including water- and vector-borne infectious diseases. A database integrating daily precipitation and temperature, along with the infectious disease case registry for all 352 townships in the main island of Taiwan was analysed for the period from 1994 to 2008. Four precipitation levels, <130 mm, 130-200 mm, 200-350 mm and >350 mm, were categorized to represent quantitative differences, and their associations with each specific disease was investigated using the Generalized Additive Mixed Model and afterwards mapped on to the Geographical Information System. Daily precipitation levels were significantly correlated with all 8 mandatory-notified infectious diseases in Taiwan. For water-borne infections, extreme torrential precipitation (>350 mm/day) was found to result in the highest relative risk for bacillary dysentery and enterovirus infections when compared to ordinary rain (<130 mm/day). Yet, for vector-borne diseases, the relative risk of dengue fever and Japanese encephalitis increased with greater precipitation only up to 350 mm. Differential lag effects following precipitation were statistically associated with increased risk for contracting individual infectious diseases. This study's findings can help health resource sector management better allocate medical resources and be better prepared to deal with infectious disease outbreaks following future extreme precipitation events. PMID:22737206

  9. A comparative analysis of polybrominated diphenyl ethers and polychlorinated biphenyls in southern sea otters that died of infectious diseases and noninfectious causes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kannan, K.; Perrota, E.; Thomas, N.J.; Aldous, D.M.

    2007-01-01

    Southern sea otters (Enhydra lutris nereis) from the California coast continue to exhibit a slower population regrowth rate than the population in Alaska. Infectious diseases have been identified as a frequent cause of death. Infectious diseases caused by varied pathogens including bacteria, fungi, and parasites were suggestive of compromised immunological health of mature animals in this population. To test the hypothesis that elevated exposure to immunotoxic contaminants such as polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) contribute to disease susceptibility via immunosuppression, we determined concentrations of PBDEs and PCBs in livers of 80 adult female sea otters that died of infectious diseases, noninfectious causes, or emaciation. Concentrations of PBDEs and PCBs in sea otter livers varied widely (10a??26,800 ng/g and 81a??210,000 ng/g, lipid weight, respectively). Concentrations of PBDEs in sea otters were some of the highest values reported for marine mammals so far. Although PCB concentrations in sea otters have declined during 1992a??2002, the mean concentration was at the threshold at which adverse health effects are elicited. Concentrations of PBDEs and PCBs were significantly correlated, suggesting co-exposure of these contaminants in sea otters. No significant association was found between the concentrations of PBDEs and the health status of sea otters. Concentrations of PCBs were significantly higher in otters in the infectious disease category than in the noninfectious category, suggesting an association between elevated PCB concentrations and infectious diseases in Southern sea otters.

  10. Bartonellosis: one health perspectives for an emerging infectious disease.

    PubMed

    Breitschwerdt, Edward Bealmear

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, an increasing number of Bartonella species have been identified as zoonotic pathogens, transmitted by animal bites, scratches, arthropods and even by needle sticks. Considering the diversity of newly discovered Bartonella species and subspecies and the large number and ecologically diverse animal reservoir hosts and the evolving spectrum of arthropod vectors that can transmit these bacteria among animals and humans, the clinical and diagnostic challenges posed by Bartonella transmission in nature are presumably much more complex than is currently appreciated by diagnosticians, vector biologists, ecologists, physicians, or veterinarians. Historically the term "bartonellosis" was attributed to infections with Bartonella bacilliformis, transmitted by sandflies in the Peruvian Andes. Currently, however, bartonellosis now includes infections caused by any Bartonella sp. anywhere in the world. Potentially, because Bartonella spp. can infect erythrocytes, endothelial cells, pericytes, CD34(+) progenitor cells, and various macrophage-type cells, including microglial cells, dendritic cells, and circulating monocytes in vitro, the clinical and pathological manifestations of bartonellosis appear to be very diverse in both sick animals and human patients. Because 75% of emerging infectious diseases are zoonoses, many of which are vector-transmitted by an arthropod, a One Health approach to bartonellosis and other zoonotic infections is needed to properly address animal health, public health, and environmental factors that influence the distribution and transmission of these bacteria. The One Health concept encourages a spirit of cooperation among animal, environmental, and human health professionals and promotes developing integrated solutions for complex problems that impact the health of animals, humans, and the planet. Importantly, substantial research is needed to define the medical importance of this genus as a cause of animal and human illnesses. PMID:24936029

  11. Land-Use Change and Emerging Infectious Disease on an Island Continent

    PubMed Central

    McFarlane, Rosemary A.; Sleigh, Adrian C.; McMichael, Anthony J.

    2013-01-01

    A more rigorous and nuanced understanding of land-use change (LUC) as a driver of emerging infectious disease (EID) is required. Here we examine post hunter-gatherer LUC as a driver of infectious disease in one biogeographical region with a compressed and documented history—continental Australia. We do this by examining land-use and native vegetation change (LUCC) associations with infectious disease emergence identified through a systematic (1973–2010) and historical (1788–1973) review of infectious disease literature of humans and animals. We find that 22% (20) of the systematically reviewed EIDs are associated with LUCC, most frequently where natural landscapes have been removed or replaced with agriculture, plantations, livestock or urban development. Historical clustering of vector-borne, zoonotic and environmental disease emergence also follows major periods of extensive land clearing. These advanced stages of LUCC are accompanied by changes in the distribution and density of hosts and vectors, at varying scales and chronology. This review of infectious disease emergence in one continent provides valuable insight into the association between accelerated global LUC and concurrent accelerated infectious disease emergence. PMID:23812027

  12. 71 FR 11661 - Support, Training and Capacity Building for Infectious Disease Surveillance Networks in Affected...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2006-03-08

    ...Capacity Building for Infectious Disease Surveillance Networks in Affected Countries in Southeast...This is a project to enhance the surveillance, epidemiological investigation and...Government to help establish early warning surveillance systems and laboratory...

  13. 75 FR 48978 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-12

    ...and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel; T-Cell Immunology. Date: September 16, 2010. Time: 12:30 p.m. to 4...Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.855, Allergy, Immunology, and Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology...

  14. 76 FR 71349 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-17

    ...nih.gov. Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel, Functional Genomics Research Program. Date: December 20, 2011. Time: 11 a.m. to 5 p.m. Agenda: To review and evaluate contract...

  15. 75 FR 7486 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-19

    ...personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel, System Biology Approaches to HIV Infection. Date: March 18, 2010. Time: 8 a.m. to 2 p.m. Agenda: To review and...

  16. Using satellite images of environmental changes to predict infectious disease outbreaks.

    PubMed

    Ford, Timothy E; Colwell, Rita R; Rose, Joan B; Morse, Stephen S; Rogers, David J; Yates, Terry L

    2009-09-01

    Recent events clearly illustrate a continued vulnerability of large populations to infectious diseases, which is related to our changing human-constructed and natural environments. A single person with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in 2007 provided a wake-up call to the United States and global public health infrastructure, as the health professionals and the public realized that today's ease of airline travel can potentially expose hundreds of persons to an untreatable disease associated with an infectious agent. Ease of travel, population increase, population displacement, pollution, agricultural activity, changing socioeconomic structures, and international conflicts worldwide have each contributed to infectious disease events. Today, however, nothing is larger in scale, has more potential for long-term effects, and is more uncertain than the effects of climate change on infectious disease outbreaks, epidemics, and pandemics. We discuss advances in our ability to predict these events and, in particular, the critical role that satellite imaging could play in mounting an effective response. PMID:19788799

  17. 77 FR 52041 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-28

    ...niaid.nih.gov. (Catalogue of Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.855, Allergy, Immunology, and Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research, National Institutes of Health, HHS)...

  18. PERSPECTIVES Keeping the herds healthy and alert: implications of predator control for infectious disease

    E-print Network

    Holt, Robert D.

    for infectious disease Craig Packer1 , Robert D. Holt2 *, Peter J. Hudson3 , Kevin D. Lafferty4 and Andrew P Epidemiology, Department of Biological and Molecular Sciences, University of Stirling, Scotland, FK9 4LA, UK 4

  19. Chinese Social Media Reaction to Information about 42 Notifiable Infectious Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Fung, Isaac Chun-Hai; Ying, Yuchen; Schaible, Braydon James; Yu, Cynthia Mengxi; Tse, Zion Tsz Ho; Fu, King-Wa

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to identify what information triggered social media users’ responses regarding infectious diseases. Chinese microblogs in 2012 regarding 42 infectious diseases were obtained through a keyword search in the Weiboscope database. Qualitative content analysis was performed for the posts pertinent to each keyword of the day of the year with the highest daily count. Similar posts were grouped and coded. We identified five categories of information that increased microblog traffic pertaining to infectious diseases: news of an outbreak or a case; health education / information; alternative health information / Traditional Chinese Medicine; commercial advertisement / entertainment; and social issues. News unrelated to the specified infectious diseases also led to elevated microblog traffic. Our study showcases the diverse contexts from which increased social media traffic occur. Our results will facilitate better health communication as causes underlying increased social media traffic are revealed. PMID:25946020

  20. 75 FR 4094 - National Institute of Allergy And Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-26

    ...Edward W. Schroder, PhD, Chief, Microbiology Review Branch, Scientific Review Program...Edward W. Schroder, PhD, Chief, Microbiology Review Branch, Scientific Review Program...Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases...

  1. 75 FR 54895 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-09

    ...National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel; Reagent Resource Support Program for AIDS Vaccine Development. Date: October 12, 2010. Time: 11 a.m. to 1 p.m. Agenda: To review and evaluate contract...

  2. 77 FR 6810 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-09

    ...Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel; Integrated Preclinical/Clinical AIDS Vaccine Development Program (IPCAVD). Date: March 1-2, 2012. Time: 8 a.m. to 5 p.m. Agenda: To review and...

  3. 75 FR 76474 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-08

    ...Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel. A Tolerance Approach to Xenotransplantation. Date: January 20, 2011. Time: 12 p.m. to 3 p.m. Agenda: To review and evaluate grant...

  4. 75 FR 9906 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-04

    ...of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel, Immunobiology of Xenotransplantation. Date: March 22-23, 2010. Time: 8 a.m. to 6 p.m. Agenda: To review and evaluate grant...

  5. Indirect transmission and the effect of seasonal pathogen inactivation on infectious disease periodicity

    E-print Network

    Robinson, Marguerite; Stilianakis, Nikolaos I

    2013-01-01

    The annual occurrence of many infectious diseases remains a constant burden to public health systems. The seasonal patterns in respiratory disease incidence observed in temperate regions have been attributed to the impact of environmental conditions on pathogen survival. A model describing the transmission of an infectious disease by means of a pathogenic state capable of surviving in an environmental reservoir outside of its host organism is presented in this paper. The ratio of pathogen lifespan to the duration of the infectious disease state is found to be a critical parameter in determining disease dynamics. The introduction of a seasonally forced pathogen inactivation rate identifies a time delay between peak pathogen survival and peak disease incidence. The delay is dependent on specific disease parameters and, for influenza, decreases with increasing reproduction number. The observed seasonal oscillations are found to have a period identical to that of the seasonally forced inactivation rate and which ...

  6. [Climate changes and emerging diseases. What new infectious diseases and health problem can be expected?].

    PubMed

    Stark, K; Niedrig, M; Biederbick, W; Merkert, H; Hacker, J

    2009-07-01

    Increasing temperatures, but also other climatic factors, will have an impact on human health. Apart from the direct consequences of extreme weather conditions (e.g., heat-related fatalities), indirect health consequences in the long-term are also of great importance. In addition to a likely increase in allergic diseases and additional complications in the course of cardiovascular and respiratory diseases, infectious diseases are of particular interest. In Germany, endemic pathogens, such as hantavirus (with its reservoir in small rodents), tick-borne pathogens (Borrelia burgdorferi, tick-borne encephalitis virus), and certain food- and water-borne pathogens, are of concern. Mild winters favor rodent populations and may result in hantavirus epidemics in the subsequent summer period. Statistical analyses show a significant association between temperature and campylobacter incidence in Germany. An outbreak of rodent-borne leptospirosis among strawberry harvesters enhanced by heavy rainfalls illustrates how weather conditions may influence disease occurrence. Pathogens that are non-endemic in Germany but are imported by humans, vectors, and reservoir animals pose an additional risk to the population. Increasing temperatures improve the conditions for establishment of new vectors and for autochthonous transmission of some pathogens (e.g., chikungunya, dengue, West Nile virus, malaria, or leishmaniasis). Climatic and ecologic conditions in Germany currently do not favor autochthonous outbreaks for most of these pathogens. However, if temperatures increase, as expected, such outbreaks will become more likely. Germany should enhance its research in public health activities in the field of climate change and infectious diseases. PMID:19536444

  7. Route prediction model of infectious diseases for 2018 Winter Olympics in Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Eungyeong; Lee, Seok; Byun, Young Tae; Kim, Jae Hun; Lee, Hyuk-jae; Lee, Taikjin

    2014-03-01

    There are many types of respiratory infectious diseases caused by germs, virus, mycetes and parasites. Researchers recently have tried to develop mathematical models to predict the epidemic of infectious diseases. However, with the development of ground transportation system in modern society, the spread of infectious diseases became faster and more complicated in terms of the speed and the pathways. The route of infectious diseases during Vancouver Olympics was predicted based on the Susceptible-Infectious-Recovered (SIR) model. In this model only the air traffic as an essential factor for the intercity migration of infectious diseases was involved. Here, we propose a multi-city transmission model to predict the infection route during 2018 Winter Olympics in Korea based on the pre-existing SIR model. Various types of transportation system such as a train, a car, a bus, and an airplane for the interpersonal contact in both inter- and intra-city are considered. Simulation is performed with assumptions and scenarios based on realistic factors including demographic, transportation and diseases data in Korea. Finally, we analyze an economic profit and loss caused by the variation of the number of tourists during the Olympics.

  8. Deciphering the rules of programmed cell death to improve therapy of cancer and other diseases

    PubMed Central

    Strasser, Andreas; Cory, Suzanne; Adams, Jerry M

    2011-01-01

    Apoptosis, the major form of programmed cell death in metazoan organisms, plays critical roles in normal development, tissue homeostasis and immunity, and its disturbed regulation contributes to many pathological states, including cancer, autoimmunity, infection and degenerative disorders. In vertebrates, it can be triggered either by engagement of ‘death receptors' of the tumour necrosis factor receptor family on the cell surface or by diverse intracellular signals that act upon the Bcl-2 protein family, which controls the integrity of the mitochondrial outer membrane through the complex interactions of family members. Both pathways lead to cellular demolition by dedicated proteases termed caspases. This review discusses the groundbreaking experiments from many laboratories that have clarified cell death regulation and galvanised efforts to translate this knowledge into novel therapeutic strategies for the treatment of malignant and perhaps certain autoimmune and infectious diseases. PMID:21863020

  9. Infectious Disease Physician Assessment of Hospital Preparedness for Ebola Virus Disease.

    PubMed

    Polgreen, Philip M; Santibanez, Scott; Koonin, Lisa M; Rupp, Mark E; Beekmann, Susan E; Del Rio, Carlos

    2015-09-01

    Background. ?The first case of Ebola diagnosed in the United States and subsequent cases among 2 healthcare workers caring for that patient highlighted the importance of hospital preparedness in caring for Ebola patients. Methods. ?From October 21, 2014 to November 11, 2014, infectious disease physicians who are part of the Emerging Infections Network (EIN) were surveyed about current Ebola preparedness at their institutions. Results. ?Of 1566 EIN physician members, 869 (55.5%) responded to this survey. Almost all institutions represented in this survey showed a substantial degree of preparation for the management of patients with suspected and confirmed Ebola virus disease. Despite concerns regarding shortages of personal protective equipment, approximately two thirds of all respondents reported that their facilities had sufficient and ready availability of hoods, full body coveralls, and fluid-resistant or impermeable aprons. The majority of respondents indicated preference for transfer of Ebola patients to specialized treatment centers rather than caring for them locally. In general, we found that larger hospitals and teaching hospitals reported higher levels of preparedness. Conclusions. ?Prior to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's plan for a tiered approach that identified specific roles for frontline, assessment, and designated treatment facilities, our query of infectious disease physicians suggested that healthcare facilities across the United States were making preparations for screening, diagnosis, and treatment of Ebola patients. Nevertheless, respondents from some hospitals indicated that they were relatively unprepared. PMID:26180836

  10. Infectious Disease Physician Assessment of Hospital Preparedness for Ebola Virus Disease

    PubMed Central

    Polgreen, Philip M.; Santibanez, Scott; Koonin, Lisa M.; Rupp, Mark E.; Beekmann, Susan E.; del Rio, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Background.?The first case of Ebola diagnosed in the United States and subsequent cases among 2 healthcare workers caring for that patient highlighted the importance of hospital preparedness in caring for Ebola patients. Methods.?From October 21, 2014 to November 11, 2014, infectious disease physicians who are part of the Emerging Infections Network (EIN) were surveyed about current Ebola preparedness at their institutions. Results.?Of 1566 EIN physician members, 869 (55.5%) responded to this survey. Almost all institutions represented in this survey showed a substantial degree of preparation for the management of patients with suspected and confirmed Ebola virus disease. Despite concerns regarding shortages of personal protective equipment, approximately two thirds of all respondents reported that their facilities had sufficient and ready availability of hoods, full body coveralls, and fluid-resistant or impermeable aprons. The majority of respondents indicated preference for transfer of Ebola patients to specialized treatment centers rather than caring for them locally. In general, we found that larger hospitals and teaching hospitals reported higher levels of preparedness. Conclusions.?Prior to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's plan for a tiered approach that identified specific roles for frontline, assessment, and designated treatment facilities, our query of infectious disease physicians suggested that healthcare facilities across the United States were making preparations for screening, diagnosis, and treatment of Ebola patients. Nevertheless, respondents from some hospitals indicated that they were relatively unprepared. PMID:26180836

  11. Susceptibility of chicken mesenchymal stem cells to infectious bursal disease virus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mahesh Khatri; Jagdev M. Sharma

    2009-01-01

    Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) is the causative agent of one of the most important viral diseases affecting the poultry industry worldwide. The virus causes an acute, highly contagious and immunosuppressive disease in chickens. Previous studies have demonstrated that in addition to B cells, macrophages can support the replication of IBDV. Since mesenchymal stem cells in bone marrow regulate the

  12. National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) National Institutes of Health (NIH)

    E-print Network

    Baker, Chris I.

    -specific deletion of tolerance for autoimmune diseases. He/she will become the lead investigator in the NIAID collaborative research and development agreements (CRADAs) to develop new autoimmune disease analytic tests in monitoring immune responses during inflammatory, infectious, or autoimmune diseases, as well as determining

  13. Avian adenovirus CELO recombinants expressing VP2 of infectious bursal disease virus induce protection against bursal disease in chickens

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Achille Francois; Christophe Chevalier; Bernard Delmas; Nicolas Eterradossi; Didier Toquin; Gaëlle Rivallan; Patrick Langlois

    2004-01-01

    To develop a CELO virus vector that can induce protection against infectious bursal disease, CELO viruses expressing the host-protective antigen VP2 of infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) were constructed. In the engineered recombinants, the VP2 gene (the 441-first codons of the IBDA polyprotein) was placed under the control of the CMV promoter. Two positions in the CELO genome were chosen

  14. Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis on the Association between Outpatient Statins Use and Infectious Disease-Related Mortality

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Yu; Wen, Xiaozhong; Peng, Jing; Lu, Yi; Guo, Zhongmin; Lu, Jiahai

    2012-01-01

    Background To update and refine systematic literature review on the association between outpatient statins use and mortality in patients with infectious disease. Materials and Methods We searched articles published before September 31, 2012, on the association between statins and infectious disease-related mortality through electronic databases. Eligible articles were analyzed in Review Manager 5.1. We conducted stratification analysis by study design, infection types, clinical outcomes and study locations. Results The pooled odds ratio (OR) for death (statins use vs. no use) across the 41 included studies was 0.71 (95% confidence interval: 0.64, 0.78). The corresponding pooled ORs were 0.58 (0.38, 0.90), 0.66 (0.57, 0.75), 0.71 (0.57, 0.89) and 0.83 (0.67, 1.04) for the case-control study, retrospective cohort studies, prospective cohort studies and RCTs; 0.40 (0.20, 0.78), 0.61 (0.41, 0.90), 0.69 (0.62, 0.78) and 0.86 (0.68, 1.09) for bacteremia, sepsis, pneumonia and other infections; 0.62 (0.534, 0.72), 0.68 (0.53, 0.89), 0.71 (0.61, 0.83) and 0.86 (0.70, 1.07) for 30-day, 90-day, in-hospital and long-term (>1 year) mortality, respectively. Conclusions Outpatient statins use is associated with a lower risk of death in patients with infectious disease in observational studies, but in a less extent in clinical trials. This association also varies considerably by infection types and clinical outcomes. PMID:23284711

  15. [Infectious factor diseases in domestic small animals (carnivorous and herbivorous fur animals, wool and meat rabbits].

    PubMed

    Löliger, H C; Matthes, S

    1989-11-01

    Infectious factorial diseases of domesticated small animals are infection dependent diseases, whose pathogenesis is finally activated by additional, secondary factors, that influence the multiplying and spreading of latent and clinical symptomless infective agents present in the animals. These factorial diseases are not autonomous infectious processes, but only special types and courses of diseases by secondary activated infective agents. Secondary factors may be of exogenous origin (housing, climate, feeding, managing) or may arise by endogenic processes (immunity, resistance disregulations a.o.). In fur bearing animals and rabbits infectious factorial diseases arise by activation of latent, symptomless infections of mucosal membranes in the nose and oral cavity, in the intestinal tract, in the descending urinary tract and on the external skin. The majority of infection activating secondary factors go back on wrong housing conditions, extreme climate, malnutrition and simultaneous infections, but also animal specific situations and immunosuppression may influence the activation of latent infections. - Typical factorial diseases in fur bearing animals and rabbits are: the infectious coryza (Pasteurella multocida, Bordetella bronchiseptica) in rabbits, the Coli-dysentery and the enterotoxemia in rabbits and herbivorous fur animals, the ascending infections of urinary tract, particular in young male minks, and the different types of microbial dermatitis in all small animals. - In the prevention and control of infectious factorial diseases the improvement of housing and living conditions as well as feeding the animals with species conforming and nonobjectionable food are most important and essential measures. PMID:2686619

  16. The interconnected and cross-border nature of risks posed by infectious diseases

    PubMed Central

    Suk, Jonathan E.; Van Cangh, Thomas; Beauté, Julien; Bartels, Cornelius; Tsolova, Svetla; Pharris, Anastasia; Ciotti, Massimo; Semenza, Jan C.

    2014-01-01

    Infectious diseases can constitute public health emergencies of international concern when a pathogen arises, acquires new characteristics, or is deliberately released, leading to the potential for loss of human lives as well as societal disruption. A wide range of risk drivers are now known to lead to and/or exacerbate the emergence and spread of infectious disease, including global trade and travel, the overuse of antibiotics, intensive agriculture, climate change, high population densities, and inadequate infrastructures, such as water treatment facilities. Where multiple risk drivers interact, the potential impact of a disease outbreak is amplified. The varying temporal and geographic frequency with which infectious disease events occur adds yet another layer of complexity to the issue. Mitigating the emergence and spread of infectious disease necessitates mapping and prioritising the interdependencies between public health and other sectors. Conversely, during an international public health emergency, significant disruption occurs not only to healthcare systems but also to a potentially wide range of sectors, including trade, tourism, energy, civil protection, transport, agriculture, and so on. At the same time, dealing with a disease outbreak may require a range of critical sectors for support. There is a need to move beyond narrow models of risk to better account for the interdependencies between health and other sectors so as to be able to better mitigate and respond to the risks posed by emerging infectious disease. PMID:25308818

  17. The interconnected and cross-border nature of risks posed by infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Suk, Jonathan E; Van Cangh, Thomas; Beauté, Julien; Bartels, Cornelius; Tsolova, Svetla; Pharris, Anastasia; Ciotti, Massimo; Semenza, Jan C

    2014-01-01

    Infectious diseases can constitute public health emergencies of international concern when a pathogen arises, acquires new characteristics, or is deliberately released, leading to the potential for loss of human lives as well as societal disruption. A wide range of risk drivers are now known to lead to and/or exacerbate the emergence and spread of infectious disease, including global trade and travel, the overuse of antibiotics, intensive agriculture, climate change, high population densities, and inadequate infrastructures, such as water treatment facilities. Where multiple risk drivers interact, the potential impact of a disease outbreak is amplified. The varying temporal and geographic frequency with which infectious disease events occur adds yet another layer of complexity to the issue. Mitigating the emergence and spread of infectious disease necessitates mapping and prioritising the interdependencies between public health and other sectors. Conversely, during an international public health emergency, significant disruption occurs not only to healthcare systems but also to a potentially wide range of sectors, including trade, tourism, energy, civil protection, transport, agriculture, and so on. At the same time, dealing with a disease outbreak may require a range of critical sectors for support. There is a need to move beyond narrow models of risk to better account for the interdependencies between health and other sectors so as to be able to better mitigate and respond to the risks posed by emerging infectious disease. PMID:25308818

  18. Generalized Markov Models of Infectious Disease Spread: A Novel Framework for Developing Dynamic Health Policies

    PubMed Central

    Yaesoubi, Reza; Cohen, Ted

    2011-01-01

    We propose a class of mathematical models for the transmission of infectious diseases in large populations. This class of models, which generalizes the existing discrete-time Markov chain models of infectious diseases, is compatible with efficient dynamic optimization techniques to assist real-time selection and modification of public health interventions in response to evolving epidemiological situations and changing availability of information and medical resources. While retaining the strength of existing classes of mathematical models in their ability to represent the within-host natural history of disease and between-host transmission dynamics, the proposed models possess two advantages over previous models: (1) these models can be used to generate optimal dynamic health policies for controlling spreads of infectious diseases, and (2) these models are able to approximate the spread of the disease in relatively large populations with a limited state space size and computation time. PMID:21966083

  19. European Monitoring Systems and Data for Assessing Environmental and Climate Impacts on Human Infectious Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Nichols, Gordon L.; Andersson, Yvonne; Lindgren, Elisabet; Devaux, Isabelle; Semenza, Jan C.

    2014-01-01

    Surveillance is critical to understanding the epidemiology and control of infectious diseases. The growing concern over climate and other drivers that may increase infectious disease threats to future generations has stimulated a review of the surveillance systems and environmental data sources that might be used to assess future health impacts from climate change in Europe. We present an overview of organizations, agencies and institutions that are responsible for infectious disease surveillance in Europe. We describe the surveillance systems, tracking tools, communication channels, information exchange and outputs in light of environmental and climatic drivers of infectious diseases. We discuss environmental and climatic data sets that lend themselves to epidemiological analysis. Many of the environmental data sets have a relatively uniform quality across EU Member States because they are based on satellite measurements or EU funded FP6 or FP7 projects with full EU coverage. Case-reporting systems for surveillance of infectious diseases should include clear and consistent case definitions and reporting formats that are geo-located at an appropriate resolution. This will allow linkage to environmental, social and climatic sources that will enable risk assessments, future threat evaluations, outbreak management and interventions to reduce disease burden. PMID:24722542

  20. European monitoring systems and data for assessing environmental and climate impacts on human infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Nichols, Gordon L; Andersson, Yvonne; Lindgren, Elisabet; Devaux, Isabelle; Semenza, Jan C

    2014-04-01

    Surveillance is critical to understanding the epidemiology and control of infectious diseases. The growing concern over climate and other drivers that may increase infectious disease threats to future generations has stimulated a review of the surveillance systems and environmental data sources that might be used to assess future health impacts from climate change in Europe. We present an overview of organizations, agencies and institutions that are responsible for infectious disease surveillance in Europe. We describe the surveillance systems, tracking tools, communication channels, information exchange and outputs in light of environmental and climatic drivers of infectious diseases. We discuss environmental and climatic data sets that lend themselves to epidemiological analysis. Many of the environmental data sets have a relatively uniform quality across EU Member States because they are based on satellite measurements or EU funded FP6 or FP7 projects with full EU coverage. Case-reporting systems for surveillance of infectious diseases should include clear and consistent case definitions and reporting formats that are geo-located at an appropriate resolution. This will allow linkage to environmental, social and climatic sources that will enable risk assessments, future threat evaluations, outbreak management and interventions to reduce disease burden. PMID:24722542