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1

[Cell death and its role in immunopathogenesis of infectious diseases].  

PubMed

Cell death is still a matter of debate and scientific opinions have been challenged and are not uniform due to complexity of this issue. Recent research has brought some new evidence about the very subtle border between programmed cell death and necrosis. The concept of their mutual independence, broadly accepted for decades, is now significantly challenged. Lack of unified terminology led to the establishment of the Nomenclature Committee on Cell Death (NCCD) which provides recommendations for clear definition of distinct cell death programs. It also appeals for consistent application of this nomenclature in scientific literature. In this work, some keystone knowledge addressing three specific programmed cell death types - apoptosis, autophagic cell death, and pyroptosis which is recognized as a controversial cell death scenario on the border between programmed cell death and necrosis, is reviewed. These cell death scenarios are discussed in the context of pathogenesis of infectious diseases. PMID:21780024

Novosad, Jakub; Holická, Monika; Novosadová, Martina; Kr?mová, Irena; Malá, Eva; Krejsek, Jan

2011-06-01

2

Infectious Diseases  

MedlinePLUS

Infectious diseases kill more people worldwide than any other single cause. Infectious diseases are caused by germs. Germs are tiny living ... to live NIH: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases

3

Infectious Diseases  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

With the threat of a warmer, wetter world and a larger global population, scientists are researching how climate change may impact the spread of infectious diseases,Âsuch as cholera and dengue fever, and how outbreaks may be prevented. "Changing Planet" is produced in partnership with the National Science Foundation.

Learn, Nbc

2010-10-07

4

Infectious Diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Detection and identification of infectious ­microorganisms involve the use of conventional immunohistochemistry in addition\\u000a to many other techniques, including culture, serology, histochemistry, in situ hybridization, polymerase chain reaction, and\\u000a direct fluorescence antibody assays. This chapter takes into consideration all of these techniques while answering questions\\u000a about bacterial, mycobacterial viral, fungal, and protozoan testing. The best techniques and testing conditions are

Dirk M. Elston; Lawrence E. Gibson; Heinz Kutzner

5

Malnutrition as an underlying cause of childhood deaths associated with infectious diseases in developing countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction Recent estimates suggest that malnutrition (measured as poor anthropometric status) is associated with about 50% of all deaths among children. Although the association between malnutrition and all-cause mortality is well documented, the malnutrition-related risk of death associated with specific diseases is less well described. We reviewed published literature to examine the evidence for a relation between malnutrition and child

Amy L. Rice; Lisa Sacco; Adnan Hyder; Robert E. Black

2000-01-01

6

Parallelization: Infectious Disease  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Epidemiology is the study of infectious disease. Infectious diseases are said to be "contagious" among people if they are transmittable from one person to another. Epidemiologists can use models to assist them in predicting the behavior of infectious diseases. This module will develop a simple agent-based infectious disease model, develop a parallel algorithm based on the model, provide a coded implementation for the algorithm, and explore the scaling of the coded implementation on high performance cluster resources.

Weeden, Aaron

7

Immunosenescence and infectious diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Infectious diseases are major causes, with malignancies, of morbidity and mortality in the elderly. Increased susceptibility to infections may result from underlying dysfunction of an aged immune system; moreover, inappropriate immunologic functions associated with aging can determine an insufficient response to vaccines. Impairments of cellular, humoral and innate immunity in the elderly, contributing to increased incidence of infectious diseases, are

Lia Ginaldi; Maria Francesca Loreto; Maria Pia Corsi; Marco Modesti; Massimo De Martinis

2001-01-01

8

Infectious Diseases Gateway  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

BioMedNet (BMN) presents the Infectious Diseases Gateway "featuring expertly selected content from the leading publications in infectious diseases." Users will find research articles, reviews, and other resources from the Elsevier family of journals and books; all freely available to any reader (free registration required). The Web site also offers related BMN news features, links to other BMN Gateways, and a special supplement to the upcoming Interscience Conference of Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy.

9

Infectious disease in athletes.  

PubMed

While orthopedic injuries most commonly are associated with sports, infectious diseases cause significant morbidity in athletes. Exercise improves immunity at moderate intensity but impairs immune function at extremes of duration and intensity. Respiratory infections are the most common, but skin, blood borne, sexually transmitted, and even cardiac infections occur. Infectious disease outbreaks are a constant concern. Treatment of such infections resembles those used in the general population. Return to play issues and prevention of infection are especially important in athletes. PMID:21623289

Harris, Mark D

10

Seasonal infectious disease epidemiology  

Microsoft Academic Search

formally examined. This paper examines the causes and consequences of seasonality, and in so doing derives several new results concerning vaccination strategy and the interpretation of disease outbreak data. It begins with a brief review of published scientific studies in support of different causes of seasonality in infectious diseases of humans, identifying four principal mechanisms and their association with different

Nicholas C. Grassly; Christophe Fraser

2006-01-01

11

Nanomedicine and infectious diseases.  

PubMed

The First International Conference on Infectious Diseases and Nanomedicine congress facilitated the mixing of researchers in various fields of nanomedicine and infectious diseases, bringing together researchers from the fields of physics and chemistry, on the production of nanoparticles and researchers from various fields of microbiology where these nanoparticles have practical applications. The manufacture and applications of nanoparticles was one of the main themes of the congress, with much emphasis on the use of nanoparticles for the treatment of cancer. The ever increasing problems and concerns around antibiotic resistance also featured prominently in the congress. Various interesting presentations on human viruses were also presented during this congress. PMID:23566145

Bragg, Robert R; Kock, Lodewyk

2013-04-01

12

Glycosaminoglycans in infectious disease.  

PubMed

Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) are complex carbohydrates that are ubiquitously present on the cell surface and in the extracellular matrix. Interactions between GAGs and pathogens represent the first line of contact between pathogen and host cell and are crucial to a pathogen's invasive potential. Their complexity and structural diversity allow GAGs to control a wide array of biological interactions influencing many physiological and pathological processes, including adhesion, cell-to-cell communication, biochemical cascades, and the immune response. In recent years, increasing evidence indicates an extraordinary role for GAGs in the pathogenesis of viruses, bacteria and parasites. Herein, we examine the interface between GAGs and different pathogens, and address the divergent biological functions of GAGs in infectious disease. We consider approaches to use this understanding to design novel therapeutic strategies addressing new challenges in the treatment of infectious diseases. PMID:23551941

Kamhi, Eyal; Joo, Eun Ji; Dordick, Jonathan S; Linhardt, Robert J

2013-03-29

13

Infectious diseases: an ecological perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

By the middle of the 20th century, infectious diseases were no longer the major causes of mortality in developed countries. The eradication of smallpox reinforced the perception that infectious diseases could be eliminated. Improved sanitation, clean water, and better living conditions, along with vaccines and antimicrobial agents, brought many infectious diseases under control in industrialised countries, but infections continued to

Mary E Wilson

1995-01-01

14

Immunoserology of infectious diseases.  

PubMed Central

The immune response to microorganisms not only participates in the elimination of unwanted organisms from the body, but also assists in diagnosis of infectious diseases. The nonspecific immune response is the first line of defense, assisting the body until the specific immune response can be mobilized to provide protective mechanisms. The specific immune response involves humoral or cell-mediated immunity or both, dependent on the nature of the organism and its site of sequestration. A variety of test systems have been developed to identify the causative organisms of infectious diseases. Test systems used in immunoserology have classically included methods of detecting antigen-antibody reactions which range from complement fixation to immunoassay methods. Relevant test systems for detecting antigens and antibodies are described. With numerous test systems available to detect antigens and antibodies, there can be confusion regarding selection of the appropriate system for each application. Methods for detecting antibody to verify immunity differ from immunologic methods to diagnose disease. Techniques to detect soluble antigens present in active infectious states may appear similar to those used to detect antibody, but their differences should be appreciated.

James, K

1990-01-01

15

Infectious Diseases and Vaccine Sciences: Strategic Directions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite substantial progress, infectious diseases remain important causes of ill-health and premature deaths in Bangladesh. Bangladesh has experienced a >90% reduction in the incidence of deaths due to childhood diarrhoea over the last 25 years. Further reductions can be achieved through the introduction of effective vaccines against rotavirus and improvements in home hygiene, quality of drinking-water, and clinical case management,

Stephen P. Luby; W. Abdullah Brooks; K. Zaman; Shahed Hossain; Tahmeed Ahmed

2008-01-01

16

Bedbugs and Infectious Diseases  

PubMed Central

Bedbugs are brown and flat hematophagous insects. The 2 cosmopolite species, Cimex lectularius and Cimex hemipterus, feed on humans and/or domestic animals, and recent outbreaks have been reported in occidental countries. Site assessment for bedbug eradication is complex but can be assured, despite emerging insecticide resistance, by hiring a pest-control manager. The common dermatological presentation of bites is an itchy maculopapular wheal. Urticarial reactions and anaphylaxis can also occur. Bedbugs are suspected of transmitting infectious agents, but no report has yet demonstrated that they are infectious disease vectors. We describe 45 candidate pathogens potentially transmitted by bedbugs, according to their vectorial capacity, in the wild, and vectorial competence, in the laboratory. Because of increasing demands for information about effective control tactics and public health risks of bedbugs, continued research is needed to identify new pathogens in wild Cimex species (spp) and insecticide resistance.

Blanc, Veronique; Del Giudice, Pascal; Levy-Bencheton, Anna; Chosidow, Olivier; Marty, Pierre; Brouqui, Philippe

2011-01-01

17

What Is a Pediatric Infectious Diseases Specialist?  

MedlinePLUS

... Infectious Diseases Specialists Provide? Pediatric infectious diseases specialists treat a wide range of infectious and immunologic diseases such as those caused by bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites. Other pediatric infectious diseases specialists are consulted for ...

18

[Globalization and infectious diseases].  

PubMed

Globalization is a phenomenon characteristic of present times. It can be considered in various aspects: economic, environmental changes, demographic changes, as well as the development of new technologies. All these aspects of globalization have a definite influence on the emergence and spread of infectious diseases. Economic aspects ofglobalization are mainly the trade development, including food trade, which has an impact on the spread of food-borne diseases. The environmental changes caused by intensive development of industry, as a result of globalization, which in turn affects human health. The demographic changes are mainly people migration between countries and rural and urban areas, which essentially favors the global spread of many infectious diseases. While technological advances prevents the spread of infections, for example through better access to information, it may also increase the risk, for example through to create opportunities to travel into more world regions, including the endemic regions for various diseases. The phenomenon ofglobalization is also closely associated with the threat of terrorism, including bioterrorism. It forces the governments of many countries to develop effective programs to protect and fight against this threat. PMID:22390054

Mirski, Tomasz; Bartoszcze, Micha?; Bielawska-Drózd, Agata

2011-01-01

19

[Infectious diseases in Poland in 2001].  

PubMed

In 2001 surveillance system of infectious diseases in Poland remained unchanged. New cases of infectious diseases were recorded in 103 positions including intoxications. Tuberculosis and sexually transmitted infections were registered in separate systems. Influenza was the most frequently reported infectious disease with 576,449 cases, 63.9% less then in the previous year. The next most numerous were foodborne infections, which were reported in 24,393 cases, including 19,788 cases of infections caused by Salmonella sp. An increase in incidence was observed in the following diseases: viral hepatitis type A, rubella, measles and pertussis. Also the number of recorded cases of Lyme boreliosis and tickborne encephalitis were higher then in 2000. Incidence of AIDS remained within the range recorded during the last few years. In 2001 further drop in incidence of viral hepatitis type B was observed reaching the level of 6.2 per 100,000. It was the result of implemented comprehensive program of prophylactic measures, which brought incidence of this disease from the highest in Europe down to the level close to European average. Infectious diseases contributed to 0.75% of deaths. The most frequent cause of death among infectious diseases was tuberculosis and its sequels (1,061 cases). 13 cases of death due to tuberculosis occurred in people below 30 years of age. PMID:12926304

Zieli?ski, Andrzej; Czarkowski, Miros?aw P

2003-01-01

20

International adoption: infectious diseases issues.  

PubMed

Nearly 220,000 children have been adopted from other countries by American parents since 1986. Approximately 65,000 children have arrived from China and Russia, mostly in the past 6 years. Most of these children reside in orphanages before adoption, where they may experience malnutrition, environmental deprivation, neglect, and exposure to infectious diseases. After arrival to the United States, international adoptees should undergo specialized screening evaluation for infectious diseases and other conditions. Infectious conditions of special concern include hepatitis B and C, syphilis, human immunodeficiency virus infection, tuberculosis, and presence of intestinal parasites. Before the adoption occurs, the infectious disease consultant may be asked to assist the primary care provider and the adoptive family with advice about travel and review of preadoptive medical records. After the adoption, the infectious diseases consultant may be asked to assess the adequacy of the child's vaccination record from the birth country and to assist in screening, evaluation, and management of infectious diseases. PMID:15655749

Miller, Laurie C

2004-12-17

21

BORDER INFECTIOUS DISEASES SURVEILLANCE PROJECT  

EPA Science Inventory

In 1997, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the Mexican Secretariat of Health, and border health officials began the development of the Border Infectious Disease Surveillance (BIDS) project, a surveillance system for infectious diseases along the U.S.-Mexico border. ...

22

Global progress in infectious disease control.  

PubMed

There is both good news and bad news concerning infectious disease control globally. The good news is that smallpox has been eradicated, eradication of poliomyelitis and guinea worm disease is on track, and many infectious diseases are under effective control in much of the world. The advances are primarily the result of improved sanitation, effective use of vaccines, and introduction and use of specific therapies (whose impact has primarily been on mortality, rather than incidence). The bad news is that infectious diseases are still the leading cause of death world-wide, new diseases are emerging, old diseases are re-emerging, there are ominous interactions between diseases, and antibiotic resistance is emerging as a major problem. There are many promising developments for the future, including new and improved vaccines, new specific therapies, and new strategies to deal with infectious disease. However, unless eradicated, infectious diseases remain a threat and require continuous efforts to be kept under control. Given the ability of infectious agents to evolve, it is certain that the future will also hold new problems and new diseases. PMID:9682367

Hinman, A R

1998-07-01

23

Global mapping of infectious disease  

PubMed Central

The primary aim of this review was to evaluate the state of knowledge of the geographical distribution of all infectious diseases of clinical significance to humans. A systematic review was conducted to enumerate cartographic progress, with respect to the data available for mapping and the methods currently applied. The results helped define the minimum information requirements for mapping infectious disease occurrence, and a quantitative framework for assessing the mapping opportunities for all infectious diseases. This revealed that of 355 infectious diseases identified, 174 (49%) have a strong rationale for mapping and of these only 7 (4%) had been comprehensively mapped. A variety of ambitions, such as the quantification of the global burden of infectious disease, international biosurveillance, assessing the likelihood of infectious disease outbreaks and exploring the propensity for infectious disease evolution and emergence, are limited by these omissions. An overview of the factors hindering progress in disease cartography is provided. It is argued that rapid improvement in the landscape of infectious diseases mapping can be made by embracing non-conventional data sources, automation of geo-positioning and mapping procedures enabled by machine learning and information technology, respectively, in addition to harnessing labour of the volunteer ‘cognitive surplus’ through crowdsourcing.

Hay, Simon I.; Battle, Katherine E.; Pigott, David M.; Smith, David L.; Moyes, Catherine L.; Bhatt, Samir; Brownstein, John S.; Collier, Nigel; Myers, Monica F.; George, Dylan B.; Gething, Peter W.

2013-01-01

24

Infectious Diseases in Day Care.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discussed in this publication are infectious illnesses for which children attending day care appear to be at special risk. Also covered are the common cold, some infectious disease problems receiving media attention, and some other annoying but not serious diseases, such as head lice, pinworms, and contagious skin conditions. Causes,…

Sleator, Esther K.

25

FastStats: Infectious Disease  

MedlinePLUS

... Data Related Links Accessibility NCHS Home FastStats Home Infectious Disease (Data are for the U.S.) Morbidity Number of ... 10 [PDF - 330 KB] More data AIDS/HIV Infectious Disease Prevalence in Los Angeles County–A Comparison to ...

26

Infectious diseases: A global human resource challenge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Globally in 2007, infections were the proximate cause of death for about 15 million persons, and early mortality and disability from infections were responsible for more than one third of the disability-adjusted life years [1]. Although most of these outcomes could be prevented through known public health interventions and better access to competent primary care, the prepared infectious disease (ID)

Allan Ronald

2008-01-01

27

Emerging and Re-Emerging Infectious Diseases  

MedlinePLUS

... information on enabling JavaScript. Emerging and Re-emerging Infectious Diseases Skip Content Marketing Share this: Research at NIAID ... emerging infectious diseases. Understanding Emerging and Re-emerging Infectious Diseases Anthrax Antimicrobial ... Fever Ehrlichiosis ...

28

76 FR 39041 - Infectious Diseases  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), Labor. ACTION: Notice of stakeholder...SUMMARY: OSHA invites interested parties to participate...occupational exposure to infectious diseases. OSHA plans to use the information gathered...

2011-07-05

29

Infectious Disease Information System (IDIS).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Infectious Disease Information System is designed to allow the coding and storage of virtually all information pertaining to a particular infection in a patient. These data for community acquired and hospital acquired infections are obtained and recor...

S. G. Axline F. S. Rhame

1978-01-01

30

Infectious Disease, Endangerment, and Extinction  

PubMed Central

Infectious disease, especially virulent infectious disease, is commonly regarded as a cause of fluctuation or decline in biological populations. However, it is not generally considered as a primary factor in causing the actual endangerment or extinction of species. We review here the known historical examples in which disease has, or has been assumed to have had, a major deleterious impact on animal species, including extinction, and highlight some recent cases in which disease is the chief suspect in causing the outright endangerment of particular species. We conclude that the role of disease in historical extinctions at the population or species level may have been underestimated. Recent methodological breakthroughs may lead to a better understanding of the past and present roles of infectious disease in influencing population fitness and other parameters.

MacPhee, Ross D. E.; Greenwood, Alex D.

2013-01-01

31

The challenge of emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Infectious diseases have for centuries ranked with wars and famine as major challenges to human progress and survival. They remain among the leading causes of death and disability worldwide. Against a constant background of established infections, epidemics of new and old infectious diseases periodically emerge, greatly magnifying the global burden of infections. Studies of these emerging infections reveal the evolutionary

David M. Morens; Gregory K. Folkers; Anthony S. Fauci

2004-01-01

32

[Common pediatric infectious diseases following natural disasters].  

PubMed

Natural disasters may lead to the outbreaks of infectious diseases because they increase the risk factors for infectious diseases. This paper reviews the risk factors for infectious diseases after natural disasters, especially earthquake, and the infectious diseases following disasters reported in recent years. The infectious diseases after earthquake include diarrhea, cholera, viral hepatitis, upper respiratory tract infection, tuberculosis, measles, leptospirosis, dengue fever, tetanus, and gas gangrene, as well as some rare infections. Children are vulnerable to infectious diseases, so pediatricians should pay more attention to the research on relationship between infectious diseases and natural disasters. PMID:23791057

Yao, Kai-Hu

2013-06-01

33

The Mathematics of Infectious Diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many models for the spread of infectious diseases in populations have been analyzed math- ematically and applied to specific diseases. Threshold theorems involving the basic repro- duction number R0, the contact number ?, and the replacement number R are reviewed for the classic SIR epidemic and endemic models. Similar results with new expressions for R0 are obtained for MSEIR and

Herbert W. Hethcote

34

Infectious Diseases and Endogenous Fluctuations  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study an economic epidemiology model where the SIS epi- demiological dynamics is integrated into a discrete time growth model with indivisible labor. An infectious disease aects the labor force, and healthy (susceptible) workers supply labor inelastically, while the infected (infective) workers do not work. The epidemiological details of disease transmission is modeled explicitly and the global dynamics are studied.

Aditya GOENKA

2007-01-01

35

Infectious disease in the homeless.  

PubMed

Homelessness increases a person's exposure to infectious and communicable diseases. The barriers to treatment as described above are many for the physicians and other providers of health care to this population. Health Care for the Homeless would greatly welcome the help of medical subspecialists in the areas of infectious disease, dermatology, gastroenterology, and pulmonology for some of our particularly challenging patients. We look forward to continuing our collaborations with the medical community in Baltimore City as we serve its most vulnerable citizens. PMID:19186594

Ryan, Tara A

2008-01-01

36

Overview of Infectious Diseases  

MedlinePLUS

... flora); pathogens that produce disease fungi Molds and yeasts. Fungi colonize (live on or in a child) and are pathogens parasites Forms range from single cells (amoeba, protozoa) to worms Last Updated 10/1/ ...

37

Emerging Infectious Diseases: Rabies.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Rabies is a reemerging disease in China. The high incidence of rabies leads to numerous concerns: a potential carrier-dog phenomenon, undocumented transmission of rabies virus from wildlife to dogs, counterfeit vaccines, vaccine mismatching, and seroconve...

2009-01-01

38

Global warming and infectious disease.  

PubMed

Global warming has serious implications for all aspects of human life, including infectious diseases. The effect of global warming depends on the complex interaction between the human host population and the causative infectious agent. From the human standpoint, changes in the environment may trigger human migration, causing disease patterns to shift. Crop failures and famine may reduce host resistance to infections. Disease transmission may be enhanced through the scarcity and contamination of potable water sources. Importantly, significant economic and political stresses may damage the existing public health infrastructure, leaving mankind poorly prepared for unexpected epidemics. Global warming will certainly affect the abundance and distribution of disease vectors. Altitudes that are currently too cool to sustain vectors will become more conducive to them. Some vector populations may expand into new geographic areas, whereas others may disappear. Malaria, dengue, plague, and viruses causing encephalitic syndromes are among the many vector-borne diseases likely to be affected. Some models suggest that vector-borne diseases will become more common as the earth warms, although caution is needed in interpreting these predictions. Clearly, global warming will cause changes in the epidemiology of infectious diseases. The ability of mankind to react or adapt is dependent upon the magnitude and speed of the change. The outcome will also depend on our ability to recognize epidemics early, to contain them effectively, to provide appropriate treatment, and to commit resources to prevention and research. PMID:16216650

Khasnis, Atul A; Nettleman, Mary D

39

Vitamin A and infectious diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a One of the most important therapeutic applications of vitamin A is its use in reducing the morbidity and mortality of infectious\\u000a diseases. It is estimated that over 100 million preschool children and a large proportion of women of reproductive age suffer\\u000a from clinical and subclinical vitamin A deficiency worldwide [1]. A recent series of large, randomized, controlled clinical trials conducted

R. D. Semba

40

Infectious Diseases Subdue Serengeti Lions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Infectious diseases stalk wildlife in the Serengeti, and climate change may be an accessory. Lions face serious threats to their future, some head-on, others lurking in the grasses, unseen until it's almost too late. From growing numbers of people living along the Serengeti perimeter to the effects of infectious diseases and climate change, the king of beasts (Panthera leo) leads an uneasy life. For example, lions are subject to simultaneous outbreaks of canine distemper virus (CDV) and babesiosis. CDV, a disease that results in encephalitis and pneumonia, is transmitted by domestic dogs; babesiosis is carried by a tick-borne blood parasite called Babesia. If extreme weather events become more frequent as a result of global climate change, disease may become a major threat to animal populations that have been historically stable. Diseases once thought to have limited impacts, such as babesiosis, should be watched closely. Environmental conditions may tip the scales and result in significantly greater impacts, even in wide open places like the Serengeti.

Cheryl Dybas (Freelance;)

2009-01-01

41

Life course epidemiology and infectious diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

There has been a traditional view that divided epidemiology into infectious and chronic diseases. Since we now know that at least 15% of cancers worldwide are caused by infections,1 that infections frequently have a natural history lasting decades and that the same epidemiological methods can be applied to both infectious and non-infectious diseases, this view can be considered purely historical.

Andrew J Hall; Leland J Yee; Sara L Thomas

2002-01-01

42

The challenge of emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases.  

PubMed

Infectious diseases have for centuries ranked with wars and famine as major challenges to human progress and survival. They remain among the leading causes of death and disability worldwide. Against a constant background of established infections, epidemics of new and old infectious diseases periodically emerge, greatly magnifying the global burden of infections. Studies of these emerging infections reveal the evolutionary properties of pathogenic microorganisms and the dynamic relationships between microorganisms, their hosts and the environment. PMID:15241422

Morens, David M; Folkers, Gregory K; Fauci, Anthony S

2004-07-01

43

Livestock infectious diseases and zoonoses  

PubMed Central

Infectious diseases of livestock are a major threat to global animal health and welfare and their effective control is crucial for agronomic health, for safeguarding and securing national and international food supplies and for alleviating rural poverty in developing countries. Some devastating livestock diseases are endemic in many parts of the world and threats from old and new pathogens continue to emerge, with changes to global climate, agricultural practices and demography presenting conditions that are especially favourable for the spread of arthropod-borne diseases into new geographical areas. Zoonotic infections that are transmissible either directly or indirectly between animals and humans are on the increase and pose significant additional threats to human health and the current pandemic status of new influenza A (H1N1) is a topical example of the challenge presented by zoonotic viruses. In this article, we provide a brief overview of some of the issues relating to infectious diseases of livestock, which will be discussed in more detail in the papers that follow.

Tomley, Fiona M.; Shirley, Martin W.

2009-01-01

44

[Retinal manifestations of infectious diseases].  

PubMed

The retina and the choroids are richly vascularised structures and can therefore be colonised by germs via the haematogenous route in the course of a systemic infectious disease. The germs responsible for this type of infection can be fungi, viruses, bacteria and parasites. Ocular candidiasis is outstanding amongst these colonisations because of its frequency; it can manifest itself as an endophthalmitis with a slow and hidden course. The so-called ocular histoplasmosis syndrome, although it is infrequent in our setting, is an important cause of choroidal neovascularisation. The viruses that most frequently affect the retina are of the herpes type and can produce devastating symptoms in immunoincompetent patients, named acute retinal necrosis syndrome. Retinitis due to cytomegalovirus is more frequent in immunodepressed patients, as in the case of AIDS, but it must also be contemplated in patients with lymphoma and immunomodulatory treatment. The most frequent bacterial diseases that affect the retina are syphilis and tuberculosis. Disease due to cat scratches, caused by a borrelia, can produce a neuroretinitis. Toxoplasmosis is the most common of the infectious diseases caused by a parasite and gives rise to chorioretinitis. Toxocariasis, also caused by a parasite, is second in importance, giving rise to choroidal granulomas and retinal tractions. PMID:19169295

Pérez de Arcelus, M; Salinas, A; García Layana, A

2008-01-01

45

Genetics of susceptibitlity to human infectious disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Before Robert Koch's work in the late nineteenth century, diseases such as tuberculosis and leprosy were widely believed to be inherited disorders. Heritability of susceptibility to several infectious diseases has been confirmed by studies in the twentieth century. Infectious diseases, old and new, continue to be an important cause of mortality worldwide. A greater understanding of disease processes is needed

Graham S. Cooke; Adrian V. S. Hill

2001-01-01

46

Infectious Diseases and Vaccine Sciences: Strategic Directions  

PubMed Central

Despite substantial progress, infectious diseases remain important causes of ill-health and premature deaths in Bangladesh. Bangladesh has experienced a >90% reduction in the incidence of deaths due to childhood diarrhoea over the last 25 years. Further reductions can be achieved through the introduction of effective vaccines against rotavirus and improvements in home hygiene, quality of drinking-water, and clinical case management, including appropriate use of oral rehydration solution and zinc. Pneumonia is now the leading cause of childhood deaths in Bangladesh, and the pneumonia-specific child mortality is largely unchanged over the last 25 years. Reductions in mortality due to pneumonia can be achieved through the introduction of protein conjugate vaccines against Haemophilus influenza type b and Streptococcus pneumoniae, improvements in case management, including efforts to prevent delays in providing appropriate treatment, and the wider use of zinc. Tuberculosis is responsible for an estimated 70,000 deaths each year in Bangladesh. Although services for directly-observed therapy have expanded markedly, improved case finding and involvement of private practitioners will be important to reduce the burden of disease.

Luby, Stephen P.; Brooks, W. Abdullah; Zaman, K.; Hossain, Shahed; Ahmed, Tahmeed

2008-01-01

47

[Infectious diseases--new horizons].  

PubMed

During the last decade we have witnessed important developments in the field of infectious diseases. These developments have in a large part been made possible due to our entry into the genomic period. The main areas of progress include diagnosis, understanding of the pathophysiology, genetics, anti-microbial therapy and the prevention of disease by new vaccines. The diagnosis of infection using Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR), contributes today to the early identification of a pathogen, long before the culture and serology. In the future, we will be able to utilize molecular methodologies based on the unique response of the host to a specific infection--the genetic signature. This method will enable very early identification of the pathogen, institution of optimal treatment, and will prevent the excessive use of antibiotics. Another area that has developed in recent years is the genetics of infectious diseases. Accumulated data shows that changes in the genome, polymorphism, result in different reactions by people to different infections. As a result of these changes some people are resistant to certain infections whilst others are especially sensitive to other infections. Introduction of this knowledge into clinical practice will enable more rational medical management with an emphasis on personalized medicine. After a long period without the development of new antibiotics, there are now signs of conceptual and practical breakthroughs in the development of antibiotic agents whose activity is based on new principles and directed against sites different from those of existing antibiotics. These advances are predominantly due to progress in the field of genomics. Similarly, in the development of future vaccines, more and more vaccines will be developed using genomic methods, enabling the creation of vaccines against diseases that we have not yet succeeded to eradicate. Genomic methods will enable the design of vaccines tailored to the specific genomic structure of the host--personal vaccines. All these four aspects of progress in the field of infectious diseases are not science fiction, and it can be stated with confidence that the future is already here. PMID:23350296

Spirer, Zvi; Barzilai, Asher

2012-08-01

48

Informatics for Infectious Disease Research and Control  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The goal of infectious disease informatics is to optimize the clinical and public health management of infectious diseases\\u000a through improvements in the development and use of antimicrobials, the design of more effective vaccines, the identification\\u000a of biomarkers for life-threatening infections, a better understanding of host-pathogen interactions, and biosurveillance and\\u000a clinical decision support. Infectious disease informatics can lead to more targeted

Vitali Sintchenko

49

Infectious Disease Society of America (IDSA)  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

... Transcripts & Minutes (Biologics). -. Infectious Disease Society of America (IDSA). -. Presentation. Immunization Before the Next Pandemic? ... More results from www.fda.gov/biologicsbloodvaccines/newsevents/workshopsmeetingsconferences

50

Evolutionary Response to Human Infectious Diseases  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Gives an overview of human history, relating cultural changes with resulting changes in population density and in ecological balance to patterns of infectious diseases in man. Discusses mechanisms of evolution of resistance. Suggests that in populations where infectious diseases can be controlled, attention should shift to degenerative diseases

Armelagos, George J.; Dewey, John R.

1970-01-01

51

Infectious Disease Mortality Rates, Thailand, 1958-2009  

PubMed Central

To better define infectious diseases of concern in Thailand, trends in the mortality rate during 1958–2009 were analyzed by using data from public health statistics reports. From 1958 to the mid-1990s, the rate of infectious disease–associated deaths declined 5-fold (from 163.4 deaths/100,000 population in 1958 to 29.5/100,000 in 1997). This average annual reduction of 3.2 deaths/100,000 population was largely attributed to declines in deaths related to malaria, tuberculosis, pneumonia, and gastrointestinal infections. However, during 1998–2003, the mortality rate increased (peak of 70.0 deaths/100,000 population in 2003), coinciding with increases in mortality rate from AIDS, tuberculosis, and pneumonia. During 2004–2009, the rate declined to 41.0 deaths/100,000 population, coinciding with a decrease in AIDS-related deaths. The emergence of AIDS and the increase in tuberculosis- and pneumonia-related deaths in the late twentieth century emphasize the need to direct resources and efforts to the control of emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases.

McCarron, Margaret; Lertiendumrong, Jongkol; Olsen, Sonja J.; Bundhamcharoen, Kanitta

2012-01-01

52

Multifractal signatures of infectious diseases.  

PubMed

Incidence of infection time-series data for the childhood diseases measles, chicken pox, rubella and whooping cough are described in the language of multifractals. We explore the potential of using the wavelet transform maximum modulus (WTMM) method to characterize the multiscale structure of the observed time series and of simulated data generated by the stochastic susceptible-exposed-infectious-recovered (SEIR) epidemic model. The singularity spectra of the observed time series suggest that each disease is characterized by a unique multifractal signature, which distinguishes that particular disease from the others. The wavelet scaling functions confirm that the time series of measles, rubella and whooping cough are clearly multifractal, while chicken pox has a more monofractal structure in time. The stochastic SEIR epidemic model is unable to reproduce the qualitative singularity structure of the reported incidence data: it is too smooth and does not appear to have a multifractal singularity structure. The precise reasons for the failure of the SEIR epidemic model to reproduce the correct multiscale structure of the reported incidence data remain unclear. PMID:22442094

Holdsworth, Amber M; Kevlahan, Nicholas K-R; Earn, David J D

2012-03-22

53

Multifractal signatures of infectious diseases  

PubMed Central

Incidence of infection time-series data for the childhood diseases measles, chicken pox, rubella and whooping cough are described in the language of multifractals. We explore the potential of using the wavelet transform maximum modulus (WTMM) method to characterize the multiscale structure of the observed time series and of simulated data generated by the stochastic susceptible-exposed-infectious-recovered (SEIR) epidemic model. The singularity spectra of the observed time series suggest that each disease is characterized by a unique multifractal signature, which distinguishes that particular disease from the others. The wavelet scaling functions confirm that the time series of measles, rubella and whooping cough are clearly multifractal, while chicken pox has a more monofractal structure in time. The stochastic SEIR epidemic model is unable to reproduce the qualitative singularity structure of the reported incidence data: it is too smooth and does not appear to have a multifractal singularity structure. The precise reasons for the failure of the SEIR epidemic model to reproduce the correct multiscale structure of the reported incidence data remain unclear.

Holdsworth, Amber M.; Kevlahan, Nicholas K.-R.; Earn, David J. D.

2012-01-01

54

What Is an Infectious Disease Specialist?  

MedlinePLUS

What is an Infectious Disease Specialist? When do I need an ID specialist? What will my visit be like? How was my ID specialist ... children. One of the best strategies for preventing infectious diseases is immunization. Ask your doctor for advice about ...

55

An Interdisciplinary Perspective: Infectious Diseases and History.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Introduces the course "Infectious Diseases and History" which is designed for freshman and sophomore students. Aims to teach about infectious diseases, develop skills of using libraries and computer resources, and develop oral and written communication skills. Focuses on tuberculosis as an example of an instructional approach and explains its…

Turco, Jenifer; Byrd, Melanie

2001-01-01

56

Infectious diseases associated with renal homotransplantation  

PubMed Central

Infectious diseases occurred in 26 of 30 renal homotransplantation patients and contributed to eight of the 12 deaths in this series. There were 52 infections, 17 occurring before and 35 after transplantation. Infections were produced primarily by staphylococci, Pseudomonas species, and the enteric gram-negative bacilli. Staphylococcal infections occurred in 17 of 19 carriers of this organism and in only one of 11 noncarriers. Thirty-three of the 35 postoperative infections followed the intensification of immunosuppressive therapy for treatment of attempted homograft rejection. Granulocytopenia, steroid-induced diabetes, and hypogammaglobulinemia, from suppressive drug therapy, routinely preceded the onset of these complications. The infections, largely of endogenous origin, occurred when the host’s defense mechanisms were depressed.

Rifkind, David; Marchioro, Thomas L.; Waddell, William R.; Starzl, Thomas E.

2010-01-01

57

Global Health: Framework for Infectious Disease Surveillance.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In its simplest terms, public health experts define disease surveillance as the generation of 'information for action'. Infectious disease surveillance provides national and international public health authorities with information that they need to plan a...

2000-01-01

58

Infectious diseases - new and ancient threats to world health.  

SciTech Connect

When smallpox was eradicated from the globe in the late 1970s, many health experts assumed that infectious and parasitic diseases (IPDs) could at long last be conquered. Death rates from infectious and parasitic diseases had declined during the late 19th century and throughout the 20th century thanks to better public health and sanitation as well as medical advances made possible by economic development. During this period, scientists discovered the germ theory of disease, identified the epidemiology and natural history of many infectious diseases, and created a host of potent antibiotic drugs that helped save millions of lives. Medical researchers learned to identify and cultivate viruses, which led to vaccines for increasing numbers of diseases.

Olshansky, S. J.; Carnes, B.; Rogers, R. G.; Smith, L.; Center for Mechanistic Biology and Biotechnology

1997-07-01

59

76 FR 27070 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases;  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

2011-05-10

60

Stress and infectious disease in humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reviews research on the role of stress in infectious disease as measured either by illness behaviors (symptoms and use of health services) or by verified pathology. Substantial evidence was found for an association between stress and increased illness behavior, and less convincing but provocative evidence was found for a similar association between stress and infectious pathology. Introverts, isolates,

Sheldon Cohen; Gail M. Williamson

1991-01-01

61

Infectious Small Airways Diseases and Aspiration Bronchiolitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Infectious bronchiolitis, as a sole component or more frequently as a constellation of histologic findings related to diseases\\u000a of more proximal airways or alveolated parenchyma, can be caused by respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Chlamydia pneumoniae, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Hemophilus influenzae, tuberculous and nontuberculous mycobacterial organisms, and Aspergillus species. Infectious bronchiolitis and diffuse aspiration bronchiolitis (DAB) most commonly appear on

Kyung Soo Lee

62

Weather and infectious disease in cattle  

Microsoft Academic Search

The incidence and severity of many diseases of cattle, particularly the endemic enteric and respiratory diseases, appear from clinical impression or epidemiological survey to be associated with particular types of weather. Infectious diseases of cattle (excluding parasitic ones) for which there appears to be a real association between climate, weather and disease are reviewed. Effects of weather on survival and

A. J. F. Webster

1981-01-01

63

Bioterrorism Preparedness for Infectious Disease (BTPID) Proposal.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Bioterrorism preparedness for infectious disease (BTPID) as part of homeland defense initiatives continues to advance. Significant opportunities exist for new research and development of bioinformatics and telecommunications solutions for BTPlD that can c...

L. P. Burgess

2007-01-01

64

Infectious Diseases and Immunizations. Matrix No. 15.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper summarizes the major advances achieved by research in the fields of infectious diseases and immunizations during the 1970s, and delineates directions for future research in these fields. (Author/MP)

Sever, John L.

65

Global climate change and infectious diseases.  

PubMed

Climate change is occurring as a result of warming of the earth's atmosphere due to human activity generating excess amounts of greenhouse gases. Because of its potential impact on the hydrologic cycle and severe weather events, climate change is expected to have an enormous effect on human health, including on the burden and distribution of many infectious diseases. The infectious diseases that will be most affected by climate change include those that are spread by insect vectors and by contaminated water. The burden of adverse health effects due to these infectious diseases will fall primarily on developing countries, while it is the developed countries that are primarily responsible for climate change. It is up to governments and individuals to take the lead in halting climate change, and we must increase our understanding of the ecology of infectious diseases in order to protect vulnerable populations. PMID:23022814

Shuman, E K

2011-01-01

66

Macaque models of human infectious disease.  

PubMed

Macaques have served as models for more than 70 human infectious diseases of diverse etiologies, including a multitude of agents-bacteria, viruses, fungi, parasites, prions. The remarkable diversity of human infectious diseases that have been modeled in the macaque includes global, childhood, and tropical diseases as well as newly emergent, sexually transmitted, oncogenic, degenerative neurologic, potential bioterrorism, and miscellaneous other diseases. Historically, macaques played a major role in establishing the etiology of yellow fever, polio, and prion diseases. With rare exceptions (Chagas disease, bartonellosis), all of the infectious diseases in this review are of Old World origin. Perhaps most surprising is the large number of tropical (16), newly emergent (7), and bioterrorism diseases (9) that have been modeled in macaques. Many of these human diseases (e.g., AIDS, hepatitis E, bartonellosis) are a consequence of zoonotic infection. However, infectious agents of certain diseases, including measles and tuberculosis, can sometimes go both ways, and thus several human pathogens are threats to nonhuman primates including macaques. Through experimental studies in macaques, researchers have gained insight into pathogenic mechanisms and novel treatment and vaccine approaches for many human infectious diseases, most notably acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), which is caused by infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Other infectious agents for which macaques have been a uniquely valuable resource for biomedical research, and particularly vaccinology, include influenza virus, paramyxoviruses, flaviviruses, arenaviruses, hepatitis E virus, papillomavirus, smallpox virus, Mycobacteria, Bacillus anthracis, Helicobacter pylori, Yersinia pestis, and Plasmodium species. This review summarizes the extensive past and present research on macaque models of human infectious disease. PMID:18323583

Gardner, Murray B; Luciw, Paul A

2008-01-01

67

Cocirculation of infectious diseases on networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We consider multiple diseases spreading in a static configuration model network. We make standard assumptions that infection transmits from neighbor to neighbor at a disease-specific rate and infected individuals recover at a disease-specific rate. Infection by one disease confers immediate and permanent immunity to infection by any disease. Under these assumptions, we find a simple, low-dimensional ordinary differential equations model which captures the global dynamics of the infection. The dynamics depend strongly on initial conditions. Although we motivate this Rapid Communication with infectious disease, the model may be adapted to the spread of other infectious agents such as competing political beliefs, or adoption of new technologies if these are influenced by contacts. As an example, we demonstrate how to model an infectious disease which can be prevented by a behavior change.

Miller, Joel C.

2013-06-01

68

Continuing challenge of infectious diseases in India.  

PubMed

In India, the range and burden of infectious diseases are enormous. The administrative responsibilities of the health system are shared between the central (federal) and state governments. Control of diseases and outbreaks is the responsibility of the central Ministry of Health, which lacks a formal public health department for this purpose. Tuberculosis, malaria, filariasis, visceral leishmaniasis, leprosy, HIV infection, and childhood cluster of vaccine-preventable diseases are given priority for control through centrally managed vertical programmes. Control of HIV infection and leprosy, but not of tuberculosis, seems to be on track. Early success of malaria control was not sustained, and visceral leishmaniasis prevalence has increased. Inadequate containment of the vector has resulted in recurrent outbreaks of dengue fever and re-emergence of Chikungunya virus disease and typhus fever. Other infectious diseases caused by faecally transmitted pathogens (enteric fevers, cholera, hepatitis A and E viruses) and zoonoses (rabies, leptospirosis, anthrax) are not in the process of being systematically controlled. Big gaps in the surveillance and response system for infectious diseases need to be addressed. Replication of the model of vertical single-disease control for all infectious diseases will not be efficient or viable. India needs to rethink and revise its health policy to broaden the agenda of disease control. A comprehensive review and redesign of the health system is needed urgently to ensure equity and quality in health care. We recommend the creation of a functional public health infrastructure that is shared between central and state governments, with professional leadership and a formally trained public health cadre of personnel who manage an integrated control mechanism of diseases in districts that includes infectious and non-infectious diseases, and injuries. PMID:21227500

John, T Jacob; Dandona, Lalit; Sharma, Vinod P; Kakkar, Manish

2011-01-10

69

Banting Memorial Lecture 2010^. Type 2 diabetes as an 'infectious' disease: is this the Black Death of the 21st century?  

PubMed

We are currently facing a global pandemic of obesity and Type 2 diabetes. In some settings, the population prevalence of Type 2 diabetes is 50%, and half of those affected will die from diabetes-related complications. Eight centuries ago, an epidemic of bubonic plague swept across Europe, killing at least half of its victims. We here draw comparisons between these two pandemics, proposing close analogies between the 'Black Death' of the 14th century and the modern-day equivalent of Type 2 diabetes. Both diseases can be considered in terms of an aetiological agent, a reservoir, a vector and a predisposing toxic environment; populations can be considered as highly susceptible to the transmissable agents of Type 2 diabetes in the setting of calorie excess, inadequate food labelling, poorly regulated advertising and sedentary lifestyles. As for tackling a pandemic of a contagious microbial pathogen, we believe that breaking the cycle of transmission in the diabetes epidemic must be underpinned by political will and prompt, decisive legislation backed by the medical community. Far from fearing that such measures edge us towards a 'nanny state', we believe individuals should expect a responsible government to safeguard them from the toxic milieu that puts them at risk of obesity and its complications, and that communities and populations have the right to have their health protected. PMID:21166840

Matthews, D R; Matthews, P C

2011-01-01

70

Contagious Rhythm: Infectious Diseases of 20th Century Musicians  

PubMed Central

Infectious diseases have led to illness and death for many famous musicians, from the classical period to the rock ’n’ roll era. By the 20th century, as public health improved and orchestral composers began living more settled lives, infections among American and European musicians became less prominent. By mid-century, however, seminal jazz musicians famously pursued lifestyles characterized by drug and alcohol abuse. Among the consequences of this risky lifestyle were tuberculosis, syphilis, and chronic viral hepatitis. More contemporary rock musicians have experienced an epidemic of hepatitis C infection and HIV/AIDS related to intravenous drug use and promiscuity. Musical innovation is thus often accompanied by diseases of neglect and overindulgence, particularly infectious illnesses, although risky behavior and associated infectious illnesses tend to decrease as the style matures.

Sartin, Jeffrey S.

2010-01-01

71

Substance Abuse Treatment Clinician Opinions and Infectious Disease Service Delivery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Substance abuse treatment programs are an important platform for delivery of services for infectious diseases associated with drug and alcohol use. However, important components of infectious disease care are not universally provided. Clinician training often focuses on information about infectious diseases and less attention is paid to provider opinions and attitudes that may be barriers to providing infectious diseases services.

Kathlene Tracy; Lawrence S. Brown; Steven Kritz; Donald Alderson; Jim Robinson; Edmund J. Bini; Michael Levy; Donald Calsyn; Traci Rieckmann; Bret Fuller; Pat McAuliffe; John Rotrosen

2009-01-01

72

Health systems perspectives - infectious diseases of poverty  

PubMed Central

The right to health as a fundamental human right is enshrined in the World Health Organization’s charter and has been reaffirmed in international agreements spanning decades. This new journal reminds us of the essential characteristic of poverty as a violent abuse of human rights. The context of poverty – its social, political and economic dimensions – remain in the reader’s mind as evidence is provided on technical solutions to managing the infectious diseases that afflict poor populations world-wide. Applying a health systems framework to a discussion on infectious diseases of poverty emerges from the papers in this journal’s first edition. Many of the articles discuss treatments, indicating the importance of pharmaceuticals for neglected diseases. Delivery strategies to reach impoverished populations also figure within this first round of papers. Innovative programs that provide diagnostics and treatment for infectious diseases to hard-to-reach rural and urban communities are needed clearly needed, and some good examples are discussed here. Future editions will explore other health system components, broadening the evidence base to increase understanding of effective and sustainable interventions to reduce the burden of infectious disease among the poor. The editors are to be congratulated on the release of this inaugural issue of the journal Infectious Diseases of Poverty. We look forward to reading subsequent editions.

2012-01-01

73

Infectious disease and amphibian population declines  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of recent papers have impli- cated pathogens and parasites in amphibian population declines. Here, we review evidence on the link between infectious disease and amphibian population declines. We conclude that available data provide the clearest link for the fungal disease amphibian chytridiomycosis, although other pathogens are also implicated. We suggest additional experimental and observa- tional data that need

Peter Daszak; Andrew A. Cunningham; Alex D. Hyatt

2003-01-01

74

Epidemic! The World of Infectious Disease - Exhibit  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Web site, created to complement the museum's Epidemic! exhibit, provides an in-depth look at the world of infectious disease. It includes information on how environmental changes can affect the spread of disease, the three major groups of microbes and how disease is spread, and the factors that determine whether an outbreak will become an epidemic or a pandemic. There is a list, organized by topic and specific disease, of more than 250 Web sites and a glossary.

75

Infectious diseases and securitization: WHO's dilemma.  

PubMed

The threat posed by infectious diseases has been increasingly framed as a security issue. The UN Security Council's Resolution 1308, which designated HIV/AIDS as a threat to international security, evidenced the securitization process. Using securitization theory as a theoretical tool, this article explores the securitization of infectious diseases in the World Health Organization (WHO). While WHO has tended to securitize infectious diseases since 2000, it has encountered a dilemma in the process because of the inherent asymmetry of interest between developed and developing countries. The act of securitization in WHO currently remains mostly a rhetorical device, since WHO's norms emblematic of securitization have not been backed by operational measures for verification or enforcement due to these asymmetric interests. PMID:21612367

Jin, Jiyong; Karackattu, Joe Thomas

2011-06-01

76

Emerging infectious diseases associated with bat viruses.  

PubMed

Bats play important roles as pollen disseminators and pest predators. However, recent interest has focused on their role as natural reservoirs of pathogens associated with emerging infectious diseases. Prior to the outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), about 60 bat virus species had been reported. The number of identified bat viruses has dramatically increased since the initial SARS outbreak, and most are putative novel virus species or genotypes. Serious infectious diseases caused by previously identified bat viruses continue to emerge throughout in Asia, Australia, Africa and America. Intriguingly, bats infected by these different viruses seldom display clinical symptoms of illness. The pathogenesis and potential threat of bat-borne viruses to public health remains largely unknown. This review provides a brief overview of bat viruses associated with emerging human infectious diseases. PMID:23917838

Shi, ZhengLi

2013-08-07

77

Emerging infectious diseases of chelonians.  

PubMed

Various new diseases have emerged in captive and wild populations of turtles and tortoises. Several of these seem to be on the rise and have the potential to cause widespread disease. This article reviews the current literature and authors' experience with intranuclear coccidiosis, cryptosporidium, iridovirus, and adenovirus. The biology, epidemiology, clinical signs, diagnosis, treatment, and pathologic changes are described for each disease. PMID:23642864

Gibbons, Paul M; Steffes, Zachary J

2013-03-15

78

Host Biomarkers and Paediatric Infectious Diseases: From Molecular Profiles to Clinical Application  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Infectious diseases are an important cause of death among children under the age of 5 (Stein et al., 2004). Most of these\\u000a deaths are caused by preventable or curable infections. Limited access to medical care, antibiotics, and vaccinations remains\\u000a a major problem in developing countries. But infectious diseases also continue to be an important public health issue in developed\\u000a countries.

H. K. Brand; P. W. M. Hermans; R. de Groot

2010-01-01

79

DNA microarrays in the clinic: infectious diseases.  

PubMed

We argue that the most-promising area of clinical application of microarrays in the foreseeable future is the diagnostics and monitoring of infectious diseases. Microarrays for the detection and characterization of human pathogens have already found their way into clinical practice in some countries. After discussing the persistent, yet often underestimated, importance of infectious diseases for public health, we consider the technologies that are best suited for the detection and clinical investigation of pathogens. Clinical application of microarray technologies for the detection of mycobacteria, Bacillus anthracis, HIV, hepatitis and influenza viruses, and other major pathogens, as well as the analysis of their drug-resistance patterns, illustrate our main thesis. PMID:18536036

Mikhailovich, Vladimir; Gryadunov, Dmitry; Kolchinsky, Alexander; Makarov, Alexander A; Zasedatelev, Alexander

2008-07-01

80

[Corticosteroids in the treatment of infectious diseases].  

PubMed

The addition of a corticosteroid has become a common practice for the treatment of some infectious diseases, such as meningitis, septic shock, moderate to severe Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia. The belief that steroids may have a beneficial effect in the early stage of pro-inflammatory infections explains the renewed interest for these treatments. This review of recent literature helps determine the use of steroids in the treatment of infectious diseases as formal guidance, questionable or rather contraindicated. When there is a clear scientific indication for the use of corticosteroids regardless of the current infection, the latter is never a formal contraindication. PMID:23697079

Kronig, I; Schibler, M; Rougemont, M; Emonet, S

2013-04-24

81

Protein Microarrays and Biomarkers of Infectious Disease  

PubMed Central

Protein microarrays are powerful tools that are widely used in systems biology research. For infectious diseases, proteome microarrays assembled from proteins of pathogens will play an increasingly important role in discovery of diagnostic markers, vaccines, and therapeutics. Distinct formats of protein microarrays have been developed for different applications, including abundance-based and function-based methods. Depending on the application, design issues should be considered, such as the need for multiplexing and label or label free detection methods. New developments, challenges, and future demands in infectious disease research will impact the application of protein microarrays for discovery and validation of biomarkers.

Natesan, Mohan; Ulrich, Robert G.

2010-01-01

82

Infectious diseases in the 21st century.  

PubMed

Infecto-contagious diseases in the twenty-first century with respect to precedent will see themselves deprived of smallpox, dracunculiasis and very probably of paralyzing poliomyelitis. Vaccination-preventable diseases, such as measles, whooping cough, diphtheria, tetanus, rabies, some forms of meningitis, yellow fever and episodes of disseminated tuberculosis will greatly diminish in their rates of morbi-lethality; the elimination of some, and the eradication of measles, are expected. Other diseases such as diarrhea (including cholera), geo-helminthiasis, some severe respiratory tract infections and the majority of vector-transmitted infectious diseases will decrease due to improvements in potable water services, drainage, sanitary food control, living quarters, and individual and community anti-vector action. Leprosy, onchocerciasis and several parasitoses will be controlled by the available antimicrobial drugs. Infectious diseases will continue to be an important health problem due to: Reduction in the immunocompetence resulting from the aging of the population, chemotherapies necessary for neoplasms, and autoimmune pathology and the survival of persons with primary immunodeficiencies; lifestyles prone to infectious pathology, such as mega-city urbanization, children in day care centers, industrialized foods, intravenous drug addiction, sexual liberation, global commerce, and tourism; antibiotic-multiresistant microbial flora; environmental disturbances as a result of global warming, deforestation, the settling of virgin areas, dams, the large-scale use of pesticides, fertilizers and antimicrobials, and natural/social disasters generators of poverty, violence and deprivation will result in emergence or re-emergence of infectious diseases already controlled in the past. PMID:9204602

Kumate, J

1997-01-01

83

CISH and Susceptibility to Infectious Diseases  

PubMed Central

Background The interleukin-2 (IL2)-mediated immune response is critical for host defence against infectious pathogens. CISH, a suppressor of cytokine signalling, controls IL2 signalling. Methods We tested for association between CISH polymorphisms and susceptibility to major infectious diseases (bacteremia, tuberculosis and severe malaria) in 8402 persons from the Gambia, Hong Kong, Kenya, Malawi, and Vietnam using a case-control design. We have previously tested twenty other immune-related genes in one or more of these sample collections. Results We observed associations between variant alleles of multiple CISH polymorphisms and increased susceptibility to each infectious disease in each of the study populations. When all five SNPs (CISH ?639, ?292, ?163, +1320 and +3415) within the CISH-associated locus were considered together in a multi-SNP score, we found substantial support for an effect of CISH genetic variants on susceptibility to bacteremia, malaria, and tuberculosis (overall P=3.8 × 10?11) with CISH ?292 being “responsible” for the majority of the association signal (P=4.58×10?7). Peripheral blood mononuclear cells of adult volunteers carrying the CISH ?292 variant showed a muted response to IL2 stimulation — in the form of 25-40% less CISH — when compared with “control” cells lacking the ?292 variant. Conclusions Variants of CISH are associated with susceptibility to diseases caused by diverse infectious pathogens, suggesting that negative regulators of cytokine signalling may play a major role in immunity against various infectious diseases. The overall risk of having one of these infectious diseases was found to be increased by at least 18 percent in individuals carrying the variant CISH alleles.

Khor, Chiea C.; Vannberg, Fredrik O.; Chapman, Stephen J.; Guo, Haiyan; Wong, Sunny H.; Walley, Andrew J.; Vukcevic, Damjan; Rautanen, Anna; Mills, Tara C.; Chang, Kwok-Chiu; Kam, Kai-Man; Crampin, Amelia C.; Ngwira, Bagrey; Leung, Chi-Chiu; Tam, Cheuk-Ming; Chan, Chiu-Yeung; Sung, Joseph J.Y.; Yew, Wing-Wai; Toh, Kai-Yee; Tay, Stacey K.H.; Kwiatkowski, Dominic; Lienhardt, Christian; Hien, Tran-Tinh; Day, Nicholas P.; Peshu, Nobert; Marsh, Kevin; Maitland, Kathryn; Scott, J. Anthony; Williams, Thomas N.; Berkley, James A.; Floyd, Sian; Tang, Nelson L.S.; Fine, Paul E.M.; Goh, Denise L.M.; Hill, Adrian V.S.

2013-01-01

84

Emerging Infectious Diseases: Coping with Uncertainty  

Microsoft Academic Search

The world’s scientific community must be in a state of constant readiness to address the threat posed by newly emerging infectious\\u000a diseases. Whether the disease in question is SARS in humans or BSE in animals, scientists must be able to put into action\\u000a various disease containment measures when everything from the causative pathogen to route(s) of transmission is essentially\\u000a uncertain.

Louise Cummings

2009-01-01

85

Modeling Addictive Consumption as an Infectious Disease*  

PubMed Central

The dominant model of addictive consumption in economics is the theory of rational addiction. The addict in this model chooses how much they are going to consume based upon their level of addiction (past consumption), the current benefits and all future costs. Several empirical studies of cigarette sales and price data have found a correlation between future prices and consumption and current consumption. These studies have argued that the correlation validates the rational addiction model and invalidates any model in which future consumption is not considered. An alternative to the rational addiction model is one in which addiction spreads through a population as if it were an infectious disease, as supported by the large body of empirical research of addictive behaviors. In this model an individual's probability of becoming addicted to a substance is linked to the behavior of their parents, friends and society. In the infectious disease model current consumption is based only on the level of addiction and current costs. Price and consumption data from a simulation of the infectious disease model showed a qualitative match to the results of the rational addiction model. The infectious disease model can explain all of the theoretical results of the rational addiction model with the addition of explaining initial consumption of the addictive good.

Alamar, Benjamin; Glantz, Stanton A.

2011-01-01

86

Corneal Inflammatory Diseases - Infectious Keratitis in Dogs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Kecová H., Z. Hlinomazová, P. Rau‰er, A. Neãas: Corneal Inflammatory Diseases - Infectious Keratitis in Dogs. Acta Vet. Brno 2004, 73: 359-363. This article compares different aspects of corneal infection in human versus veterinary medicine. It emphasizes different aetiology of development of corneal infection and distinct number of pathogens employed (monoinfections in people versus often mixed infections in dogs). Contrary

H. KECOVÁ; Z. HLINOMAZOVÁ; P. RAU; A. NEâAS

87

Global trends in emerging infectious diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) are a significant burden on global economies and public health. Their emergence is thought to be driven largely by socio-economic, environmental and ecological factors, but no comparative study has explicitly analysed these linkages to understand global temporal and spatial patterns of EIDs. Here we analyse a database of 335 EID `events' (origins of EIDs) between 1940

Kate E. Jones; Nikkita G. Patel; Marc A. Levy; Adam Storeygard; Deborah Balk; John L. Gittleman; Peter Daszak

2008-01-01

88

Manzamines in the Treatment of Infectious Disease.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A method of treating an infectious disease or condition in a subject in need of such treatment is disclosed. The method comprises administering to a subject an effective amount of a manzamine, manzamine derivative or analog or an optical isomer or racemat...

K. El-Sayed M. T. Hamann

2005-01-01

89

DNA vaccination against infectious bursal disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal of this thesis was to explore the feasibility of using DNA vaccination technology against infectious bursal disease (IBD) virus (IBDV) infection in chickens. The objectives were to (1) construct plasmids as DNA vaccines against homologous challenge with classical standard challenge (STC) strain of IBDV; (2) construct plasmids containing different fragments of IBDV large segment genome to identify the

Hua-Chen Chang

2000-01-01

90

Infectious Disease: A Global Health Threat.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

U.S. Government interagency working group was convened on December 14, 1994, to consider the global threat of emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases. the working group was established under the aegis of the Committee on International Science, Engine...

1995-01-01

91

Infectious disease experimentation involving human volunteers.  

PubMed

The current care of patients with infectious diseases owes a tremendous debt to healthy volunteers who allowed investigators to induce disease in them for the study of transmission, natural history, and treatment. We reviewed the English-language medical literature about the rarely discussed subject of the use of healthy volunteers in human-subject research in infectious diseases to determine the contributions of these experiments to the current understanding of disease transmission. The literature review focused on hepatitis, upper respiratory infections, and malaria, which represent the array of issues involved in this type of research. Researchers successfully induced infection through injecting, nebulizing, and feeding specimens to thousands of volunteers, who included authentic volunteers as well as soldiers and imprisoned subjects. These volunteers often undertook unforeseen and unpredictable risks during these experiments for the benefit of others. Future research in these areas must strike an adequate balance between the risks to participants and the benefits to society. PMID:11880963

Rosenbaum, Julie Rothstein; Sepkowitz, Kent A

2002-03-01

92

An overview of infectious bursal disease.  

PubMed

Infectious bursal disease (IBD) is a viral immunosuppressive disease of chickens attacking mainly an important lymphoid organ in birds [the bursa of Fabricius (BF)]. The emergence of new variant strains of the causative agent [infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV)] has made it more urgent to develop new vaccination strategies against IBD. One of these strategies is the use of recombinant vaccines (DNA and viral-vectored vaccines). Several studies have investigated the host immune response towards IBDV. This review will present a detailed background on the disease and its causative agent, accompanied by a summary of the most recent findings regarding the host immune response to IBDV infection and the use of recombinant vaccines against IBD. PMID:22707044

Mahgoub, Hebata Allah; Bailey, Michael; Kaiser, Pete

2012-06-17

93

Multilevel Analysis of Infectious Diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traditional study designs, such as individual-level studies and ecological studies, are unable to simultaneously examine the effects of individual-level and group-level factors on risk of disease. Multilevel analysis overcomes this limitation by allowing the simultaneous investigation of factors defined at multiple levels. Areas in which multilevel modeling can be applied to sexually transmitted infection (STI) research include examining how both

2005-01-01

94

[The past decade's infectious diseases].  

PubMed

The past decade saw emerging infections such as SARS, avian and pandemic influenza, food-borne infections and the bioterror threat. New vaccines became available and novel technologies for detection and typing of microorganisms were applied. In the years to come, control of antimicrobial drug resistance and nosocomial infections will continue to pose challenges in the light of an increasing number of senior citizens and individuals with chronic diseases. There will also be unknown challenges: We have not faced the last HIV, ebola, SARS or avian or swine flu epidemic. PMID:21299933

Mølbak, Kåre

2011-02-01

95

Travel and the emergence of infectious diseases.  

PubMed Central

Travel is a potent force in the emergence of disease. Migration of humans has been the pathway for disseminating infectious diseases throughout recorded history and will continue to shape the emergence, frequency, and spread of infections in geographic areas and populations. The current volume, speed, and reach of travel are unprecedented. The consequences of travel extend beyond the traveler to the population visited and the ecosystem. When they travel, humans carry their genetic makeup, immunologic sequelae of past infections, cultural preferences, customs, and behavioral patterns. Microbes, animals, and other biologic life also accompany them. Today's massive movement of humans and materials sets the stage for mixing diverse genetic pools at rates and in combinations previously unknown. Concomitant changes in the environment, climate, technology, land use, human behavior, and demographics converge to favor the emergence of infectious diseases caused by a broad range of organisms in humans, as well as in plants and animals.

Wilson, M. E.

1995-01-01

96

Protein crystallography and infectious diseases.  

PubMed Central

The current rapid growth in the number of known 3-dimensional protein structures is producing a database of structures that is increasingly useful as a starting point for the development of new medically relevant molecules such as drugs, therapeutic proteins, and vaccines. This development is beautifully illustrated in the recent book, Protein structure: New approaches to disease and therapy (Perutz, 1992). There is a great and growing promise for the design of molecules for the treatment or prevention of a wide variety of diseases, an endeavor made possible by the insights derived from the structure and function of crucial proteins from pathogenic organisms and from man. We present here 2 illustrations of structure-based drug design. The first is the prospect of developing antitrypanosomal drugs based on crystallographic, ligand-binding, and molecular modeling studies of glycolytic glycosomal enzymes from Trypanosomatidae. These unicellular organisms are responsible for several tropical diseases, including African and American trypanosomiases, as well as various forms of leishmaniasis. Because the target enzymes are also present in the human host, this project is a pioneering study in selective design. The second illustrative case is the prospect of designing anti-cholera drugs based on detailed analysis of the structure of cholera toxin and the closely related Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin. Such potential drugs can be targeted either at inhibiting the toxin's receptor binding site or at blocking the toxin's intracellular catalytic activity. Study of the Vibrio cholerae and E. coli toxins serves at the same time as an example of a general approach to structure-based vaccine design. These toxins exhibit a remarkable ability to stimulate the mucosal immune system, and early results have suggested that this property can be maintained by engineered fusion proteins based on the native toxin structure. The challenge is thus to incorporate selected epitopes from foreign pathogens into the native framework of the toxin such that crucial features of both the epitope and the toxin are maintained. That is, the modified toxin must continue to evoke a strong mucosal immune response, and this response must be directed against an epitope conformation characteristic of the original pathogen.

Verlinde, C. L.; Merritt, E. A.; Van den Akker, F.; Kim, H.; Feil, I.; Delboni, L. F.; Mande, S. C.; Sarfaty, S.; Petra, P. H.; Hol, W. G.

1994-01-01

97

Epidemiological monitoring for emerging infectious diseases  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Homeland Security News Wire has been reporting on new ways to fight epidemics using digital tools such as iPhone, social networks, Wikipedia, and other Internet sites. Instant two-way communication now gives consumers the ability to complement official reports on emerging infectious diseases from health authorities. However, there is increasing concern that these communications networks could open the door to mass panic from unreliable or false reports. There is thus an urgent need to ensure that epidemiological monitoring for emerging infectious diseases gives health authorities the capability to identify, analyze, and report disease outbreaks in as timely and efficient a manner as possible. One of the dilemmas in the global dissemination of information on infectious diseases is the possibility that information overload will create inefficiencies as the volume of Internet-based surveillance information increases. What is needed is a filtering mechanism that will retrieve relevant information for further analysis by epidemiologists, laboratories, and other health organizations so they are not overwhelmed with irrelevant information and will be able to respond quickly. This paper introduces a self-organizing ontology that could be used as a filtering mechanism to increase relevance and allow rapid analysis of disease outbreaks as they evolve in real time.

Greene, Marjorie

2010-04-01

98

Infectious Disease Screening. The N-SSATA Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In 2007, fewer than half of all facilities reported the availability of on-site infectious disease screening. The facilities that were most likely to provide infectious disease screening were operated by the Federal Government, followed by those operated ...

2010-01-01

99

Steps for Preventing Infectious Diseases in Women1  

PubMed Central

Communicable diseases account for approximately 25% of deaths in most Latin American and Caribbean countries; illness from communicable diseases reaches 40% in developing countries. Mainly affected are poor women in rural areas. A medical approach is not sufficient to implement effective infectious disease prevention strategies in women, which would offset these numbers. Health policies must be changed, and social restrictions that circumscribe women need to be eliminated. In the long run, the only solution is to improve women's socioeconomic status. The following three steps are necessary for developing a prevention strategy: 1) a gender perspective must be incorporated into infectious disease analysis and research to target policies and programs. Data collected must be disaggregated by sex, age, socioeconomic status, education, ethnicity, and geographic location; 2) models must be developed and implemented that address gender inequities in infectious diseases in an integrated manner; and 3) outreach activities must be supported, using information, education, and communication strategies and materials for advocacy and training. Active participation of civil society groups is key to translating the strategy into specific interventions.

Fescina, Ricardo; Ramon-Pardo, Pilar

2004-01-01

100

Diseases of Dairy Animals: Infectious Diseases: Johne's Disease  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Johne's disease is a chronic, debilitating intestinal disorder in cattle, sheep and wild ruminants, characterized by diarrhea, weight loss and death. Animals usually become infected when they are young by ingesting feces or milk containing the causative bacteria. However, clinical signs of disease...

101

Selected emerging infectious diseases of squamata.  

PubMed

It is important that reptile clinicians have an appreciation for the epidemiology, clinical signs, pathology, diagnostic options, and prognostic parameters for novel and emerging infectious diseases in squamates. This article provides an update on emerging squamate diseases reported in the primary literature within the past decade. Updates on adenovirus, iridovirus, rhabdovirus, arenavirus, and paramyxovirus epidemiology, divergence, and host fidelity are presented. A new emerging bacterial disease of Uromastyx species, Devriesea agamarum, is reviewed. Chrysosporium ophiodiicola-associated mortality in North American snakes is discussed. Cryptosporidium and pentastomid infections in squamates are highlighted among emerging parasitic infections. PMID:23642865

Latney, La'toya V; Wellehan, James

2013-02-23

102

Hearing loss in infectious and tropical diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a (1) \\u000a A study was undertaken to study the role the infectious, tropical and nutritional diseases play in the etiology of hearing\\u000a loss. A review of the literature revealed that there was very little information available on the effects on hearing of these\\u000a diseases. These diseases have a world wide distribution though they are more prevalent is Asia, Middle East

Y. P. Kapur

1965-01-01

103

Infectious diseases and global warming: Tracking disease incidence rates globally  

SciTech Connect

Given the increasing importance of impact of global warming on public health, there is no global database system to monitor infectious disease and disease in general, and to which global data of climate change and environmental factors, such as temperature, greenhouse gases, and human activities, e.g., coastal development, deforestation, can be calibrated, investigated and correlated. The author proposes the diseases incidence rates be adopted as the basic global measure of morbidity of infectious diseases. The importance of a correctly chosen measure of morbidity of disease is presented. The importance of choosing disease incidence rates as the measure of morbidity and the mathematical foundation of which are discussed. The author further proposes the establishment of a global database system to track the incidence rates of infectious diseases. Only such a global system can be used to calibrate and correlate other globally tracked climatic, greenhouse gases and environmental data. The infrastructure and data sources for building such a global database is discussed.

Low, N.C. [Low and Associates Actuary, Cerritos, CA (United States)

1995-09-01

104

Social inequalities and emerging infectious diseases.  

PubMed Central

Although many who study emerging infections subscribe to social-production-of-disease theories, few have examined the contribution of social inequalities to disease emergence. Yet such inequalities have powerfully sculpted not only the distribution of infectious diseases, but also the course of disease in those affected. Outbreaks of Ebola, AIDS, and tuberculosis suggest that models of disease emergence need to be dynamic, systemic, and critical. Such models--which strive to incorporate change and complexity, and are global yet alive to local variation--are critical of facile claims of causality, particularly those that scant the pathogenic roles of social inequalities. Critical perspectives on emerging infections ask how large-scale social forces influence unequally positioned individuals in increasingly interconnected populations; a critical epistemology of emerging infectious diseases asks what features of disease emergence are obscured by dominant analytic frameworks. Research questions stemming from such a reexamination of disease emergence would demand close collaboration between basic scientists, clinicians, and the social scientists and epidemiologists who adopt such perspectives.

Farmer, P.

1996-01-01

105

Discovering network behind infectious disease outbreak  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stochasticity and spatial heterogeneity are of great interest recently in studying the spread of an infectious disease. The presented method solves an inverse problem to discover the effectively decisive topology of a heterogeneous network and reveal the transmission parameters which govern the stochastic spreads over the network from a dataset on an infectious disease outbreak in the early growth phase. Populations in a combination of epidemiological compartment models and a meta-population network model are described by stochastic differential equations. Probability density functions are derived from the equations and used for the maximal likelihood estimation of the topology and parameters. The method is tested with computationally synthesized datasets and the WHO dataset on the SARS outbreak.

Maeno, Yoshiharu

2010-11-01

106

National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created over fifty years ago, the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NAID) "conducts and supports basic and applied research to better understand, treat, and ultimately prevent infectious, immunologic, and allergic diseases." In recent years, the scope of the institute's research activities has expanded to include emerging issues such as the possibility of bioterrorism and West Nile virus. The site contains a wealth of information on the activities of NAID, such as the most recent publications, organizational hierarchy, and funding opportunities for researchers and scholars. The newsroom area is quite thorough, as visitors have access to the database of news releases dating back to 1995 and access to SciBites, which features brief summaries of articles about NAID-funded research, updated weekly. The site is notable for its extensive special section on the growing battery of research on biodefense strategies.

107

Management of Chronic Infectious Diseases in School Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document contains guidelines for developing policies and procedures related to chronic infectious diseases, as recommended by the Illinois Task Force on School Management of Infectious Disease. It is designed to help school personnel understand how infectious diseases can be transmitted, and to assist school districts in the development and…

Illinois State Board of Education, Springfield.

108

The Challenge of Infectious Diseases to the Biomedical Paradigm  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The resurgence of infectious diseases and the emergence of infectious diseases raise questions on how to cope with the situation. The germ or clinical approach is the hegemonic biomedical paradigm. In this article, the author argues that the spread of infectious diseases has posted a challenge to the biomedical paradigm and shows how lock-in…

Foladori, Guillermo

2005-01-01

109

Developing the role of the infectious diseases clinical nurse specialist  

Microsoft Academic Search

In November 2001 an infectious diseases clinical nurse specialist (ID CNS) post was created within the infectious diseases unit (Lister unit) at Northwick Park and St Marks NHS Trusts in Harrow, Middlesex. We believe this to be the first of its kind. The purpose of this post was to provide:? Trust-wide infectious diseases nursing expertise? Specialist care within the context

C. Smales; H. Varia

2004-01-01

110

Interferon antibodies in patients with infectious diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interferons (IFNs) are generally recognized as the most important therapeutic agent in some infectious diseases such as chronic\\u000a hepatitis B and C. Since the early clinical trials it was documented that the therapeutic use of IFNs could be complicated\\u000a by the development of antibodies able to neutralize or to bind to the IFN molecule.\\u000a \\u000a After several years of research it

G. Antonelli; E. Simeoni; M. Currenti; F. De Pisa; V. Colizzi; M. Pistello; F. Dianzani

1997-01-01

111

In ovo Vaccine Against Infectious Bursal Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

A recombinant attenuated vaccine against infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) was administered in ovo to 18-day-old embryos. The vaccine was genetically tailored to protect from challenges in the field against classic and variant strains of IBDV. The vaccine virus contains neutralizing epitopes from both classic (D78) and variant strain (GLS), and abrogates expression of the nonstructural protein, VP5 of IBDV.

L. Moura; V. Vakharia; M. Liu; H. Song

2007-01-01

112

Antioxidant nanoparticles for control of infectious disease.  

PubMed

The new ground being broken by the field of nanotechnology provides us with numerous prospects for treatment and prevention of infectious diseases. Recent reports have demonstrated that several types of nanoparticles act as potent free radical scavengers and antioxidants. Specific nanoconstructs are also reported to have anti-inflammatory activities. Given these properties, the potential application of antioxidant nanoparticles for controlling infectious diseases are discussed in this review. Numerous pathogenic agents establish their virulence and pathogenicity by virtue of their ability to produce free radicals and damage the cells of the immune system. For example, Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a bacterium that produces the toxin pyocyanin, which induces cell damage and compromises the immune system through production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Nanoparticle antioxidants may provide unique opportunities to counteract the pathogenicity of these types of microorganisms and their formation of biofilms, which are also related to oxygen levels and ROS production. The use of nanoparticles may also play a role in controlling conditions such as ventilation associated pneumonia, where high levels of oxygen induces oxidative stress and inhibits respiratory tract immunity. In contrast, nanoparticle antioxidants, by virtue of their anti-inflammatory activity, may blunt a host's normal immune defenses to certain microorganisms. This review will address this emerging double-edged sword for nanomedicine and its potential role in controlling infectious disease and will address future directions for research in this emerging frontier. PMID:19689385

Elswaifi, Shaadi F; Palmieri, James R; Hockey, Kevin S; Rzigalinski, Beverly A

2009-08-01

113

Pregnancy and Susceptibility to Infectious Diseases  

PubMed Central

To summarize the literature regarding susceptibility of pregnant women to infectious diseases and severity of resulting disease, we conducted a review using a PubMed search and other strategies. Studies were included if they reported information on infection risk or disease outcome in pregnant women. In all, 1454 abstracts were reviewed, and a total of 85 studies were included. Data were extracted regarding number of cases in pregnant women, rates of infection, risk factors for disease severity or complications, and maternal outcomes. The evidence indicates that pregnancy is associated with increased severity of some infectious diseases, such as influenza, malaria, hepatitis E, and herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection (risk for dissemination/hepatitis); there is also some evidence for increased severity of measles and smallpox. Disease severity seems higher with advanced pregnancy. Pregnant women may be more susceptible to acquisition of malaria, HIV infection, and listeriosis, although the evidence is limited. These results reinforce the importance of infection prevention as well as of early identification and treatment of suspected influenza, malaria, hepatitis E, and HSV disease during pregnancy.

Jamieson, Denise J.; Kourtis, Athena P.

2013-01-01

114

Infectious diseases and global warming: Tracking disease incidence rates globally  

Microsoft Academic Search

Given the increasing importance of impact of global warming on public health, there is no global database system to monitor infectious disease and disease in general, and to which global data of climate change and environmental factors, such as temperature, greenhouse gases, and human activities, e.g., coastal development, deforestation, can be calibrated, investigated and correlated. The author proposes the diseases

1995-01-01

115

[These infectious diseases imported with food].  

PubMed

People are sometimes frightened by food scares and foodstuffs are increasingly suspected of containing dangerous substances or infectious agents, as a result of the unprecedented development of the industry and food trade in the world. Rightly or wrongly, imported food is held responsible for the greatest risks. Importing an infectious disease along with food can be a source of danger, involving multiple agents, mainly bacterial (Salmonella, Campylobacter, Verotoxin producing Escherichia coli, Listeria...), but also parasitic (Toxoplasma gondii, Cyclospora cayetanensis, Trichinella spp...), and viral (Norovirus, hepatitis A virus), as well as non conventional communicable agents and mycotoxins. Prevention of food risks means enforcing international regulations on the part of the 149 member states of the WTO, increasing vigilance with regard to illegal imports of food, systematically investigating collective food-borne outbreaks, and finally implementing controls according to the hazard analysis and critical control point (HACCP) method. PMID:18956818

Buisson, Y; Marié, J L; Davoust, B

2008-10-01

116

Global climate change and infectious diseases.  

PubMed Central

The effects of global climate change on infectious diseases are hypothetical until more is known about the degree of change in temperature and humidity that will occur. Diseases most likely to increase in their distribution and severity have three-factor (agent, vector, and human being) and four-factor (plus vertebrate reservoir host) ecology. Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus mosquitoes may move northward and have more rapid metamorphosis with global warming. These mosquitoes transmit dengue virus, and Aedes aegypti transmits yellow fever virus. The faster metamorphosis and a shorter extrinsic incubation of dengue and yellow fever viruses could lead to epidemics in North America. Vibrio cholerae is harbored persistently in the estuaries of the U.S. Gulf Coast. Over the past 200 years, cholera has become pandemic seven times with spread from Asia to Europe, Africa, and North America. Global warming may lead to changes in water ecology that could enhance similar spread of cholera in North America. Some other infectious diseases such as LaCrosse encephalitis and Lyme disease are caused by agents closely dependent on the integrity of their environment. These diseases may become less prominent with global warming because of anticipated modification of their habitats. Ecological studies will help us to understand more fully the possible consequences of global warming. New and more effective methods for control of vectors will be needed.

Shope, R

1991-01-01

117

Global Transport Networks and Infectious Disease Spread  

PubMed Central

Air, sea and land transport networks continue to expand in reach, speed of travel and volume of passengers and goods carried. Pathogens and their vectors can now move further, faster and in greater numbers than ever before. Three important consequences of global transport network expansion are infectious disease pandemics, vector invasion events and vector-borne pathogen importation. This review briefly examines some of the important historical examples of these disease and vector movements, such as the global influenza pandemics, the devastating Anopheles gambiae invasion of Brazil and the recent increases in imported Plasmodium falciparum malaria cases. We then outline potential approaches for future studies of disease movement, focussing on vector invasion and vector-borne disease importation. Such approaches allow us to explore the potential implications of international air travel, shipping routes and other methods of transport on global pathogen and vector traffic.

Tatem, A.J.; Rogers, D.J.; Hay, S.I.

2011-01-01

118

Public health surveillance and infectious disease detection.  

PubMed

Emerging infectious diseases, such as HIV/AIDS, SARS, and pandemic influenza, and the anthrax attacks of 2001, have demonstrated that we remain vulnerable to health threats caused by infectious diseases. The importance of strengthening global public health surveillance to provide early warning has been the primary recommendation of expert groups for at least the past 2 decades. However, despite improvements in the past decade, public health surveillance capabilities remain limited and fragmented, with uneven global coverage. Recent initiatives provide hope of addressing this issue, and new technological and conceptual advances could, for the first time, place capability for global surveillance within reach. Such advances include the revised International Health Regulations (IHR 2005) and the use of new data sources and methods to improve global coverage, sensitivity, and timeliness, which show promise for providing capabilities to extend and complement the existing infrastructure. One example is syndromic surveillance, using nontraditional and often automated data sources. Over the past 20 years, other initiatives, including ProMED-mail, GPHIN, and HealthMap, have demonstrated new mechanisms for acquiring surveillance data. In 2009 the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) began the Emerging Pandemic Threats (EPT) program, which includes the PREDICT project, to build global capacity for surveillance of novel infections that have pandemic potential (originating in wildlife and at the animal-human interface) and to develop a framework for risk assessment. Improved understanding of factors driving infectious disease emergence and new technological capabilities in modeling, diagnostics and pathogen identification, and communications, such as using the increasing global coverage of cellphones for public health surveillance, can further enhance global surveillance. PMID:22455675

Morse, Stephen S

2012-03-01

119

Global infectious disease surveillance and health intelligence.  

PubMed

Current concerns about the spread of infectious diseases, especially unexpected ("emerging") infections such as pandemic influenza or severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), have renewed focus on the critical importance of global early warning and rapid response. Although considerable progress has been made, many gaps remain. A number of the gaps can be addressed through increased political will, resources for reporting, improved coordination and sharing of information, raising clinicians' awareness, and additional research to develop more rigorous triggers for action. The increasing availability of communications and information technologies worldwide offers new opportunities for reporting even in low-capacity settings. PMID:17630449

Morse, Stephen S

120

The Impact of Infection on Population Health: Results of the Ontario Burden of Infectious Diseases Study  

PubMed Central

Background Evidence-based priority setting is increasingly important for rationally distributing scarce health resources and for guiding future health research. We sought to quantify the contribution of a wide range of infectious diseases to the overall infectious disease burden in a high-income setting. Methodology/Principal Findings We used health-adjusted life years (HALYs), a composite measure comprising premature mortality and reduced functioning due to disease, to estimate the burden of 51 infectious diseases and associated syndromes in Ontario using 2005–2007 data. Deaths were estimated from vital statistics data and disease incidence was estimated from reportable disease, healthcare utilization, and cancer registry data, supplemented by local modeling studies and national and international epidemiologic studies. The 51 infectious agents and associated syndromes accounted for 729 lost HALYs, 44.2 deaths, and 58,987 incident cases per 100,000 population annually. The most burdensome infectious agents were: hepatitis C virus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, human papillomavirus, hepatitis B virus, human immunodeficiency virus, Staphylococcus aureus, influenza virus, Clostridium difficile, and rhinovirus. The top five, ten, and 20 pathogens accounted for 46%, 67%, and 75% of the total infectious disease burden, respectively. Marked sex-specific differences in disease burden were observed for some pathogens. The main limitations of this study were the exclusion of certain infectious diseases due to data availability issues, not considering the impact of co-infections and co-morbidity, and the inability to assess the burden of milder infections that do not result in healthcare utilization. Conclusions/Significance Infectious diseases continue to cause a substantial health burden in high-income settings such as Ontario. Most of this burden is attributable to a relatively small number of infectious agents, for which many effective interventions have been previously identified. Therefore, these findings should be used to guide public health policy, planning, and research.

Kwong, Jeffrey C.; Ratnasingham, Sujitha; Campitelli, Michael A.; Daneman, Nick; Deeks, Shelley L.; Manuel, Douglas G.; Allen, Vanessa G.; Bayoumi, Ahmed M.; Fazil, Aamir; Fisman, David N.; Gershon, Andrea S.; Gournis, Effie; Heathcote, E. Jenny; Jamieson, Frances B.; Jha, Prabhat; Khan, Kamran M.; Majowicz, Shannon E.; Mazzulli, Tony; McGeer, Allison J.; Muller, Matthew P.; Raut, Abhishek; Rea, Elizabeth; Remis, Robert S.; Shahin, Rita; Wright, Alissa J.; Zagorski, Brandon; Crowcroft, Natasha S.

2012-01-01

121

Emerging and Reemerging Infectious Diseases: Biocomplexity as an Interdisciplinary Paradigm  

Microsoft Academic Search

Understanding factors responsible for reemergence of diseases believed to have been controlled and outbreaks of previously\\u000a unknown infectious diseases is one of the most difficult scientific problems facing society today. Significant knowledge gaps\\u000a exist for even the most studied emerging infectious diseases. Coupled with failures in the response to the resurgence of infectious\\u000a diseases, this lack of information is embedded

Bruce A. Wilcox; Rita R. Colwell

2005-01-01

122

Review Article: Current status of vaccines against infectious bursal disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) is the aetiological agent of the acute and highly contagious infectious bursal disease (IBD) or “Gumboro disease”. IBD is one of the economically most important diseases that affects commercially produced chickens worldwide. Along with strict hygiene management of poultry farms, vaccination programs with inactivated and live attenuated viruses have been used to prevent IBD. Live

Hermann Müller; Egbert Mundt; Nicolas Eterradossi; M. Rafiqul Islam

2012-01-01

123

Current status of vaccines against infectious bursal disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) is the aetiological agent of the acute and highly contagious infectious bursal disease (IBD) or “Gumboro disease”. IBD is one of the economically most important diseases that affects commercially produced chickens worldwide. Along with strict hygiene management of poultry farms, vaccination programmes with inactivated and live attenuated viruses have been used to prevent IBD. Live

Hermann Müller; Egbert Mundt; Nicolas Eterradossi; M. Rafiqul Islam

2012-01-01

124

Dendrimers--revolutionary drugs for infectious diseases.  

PubMed

Over recent years innovative nanomolecules in a form of dendrimers have been gaining increasing interest. These compounds can be designed and modified in many ways giving a molecule which meets required expectations. For this reason dendrimers are the object of intensive studies in many fields of nanoscience including one of the most thriving--biomedicine. Numerous studies provide evidence that some dendrimers exhibit activities against many species/strains of viruses, bacteria, fungi, and prions. These types of dendritic nanostructures which are distinguished by antipathogenic properties and low cytotoxicity to eukaryotic cells may be potentially applied in medicine as novel drugs for various infectious diseases, especially those which are persistent, marked by high mortality rate, or untreatable. Dendrimers can exert their effect via different mechanisms of action, which are, in most cases, related to multivalency of the nanomolecule. The application of dendrimers is likely to be a breakthrough in prevention and treatment of infectious diseases which still beset humanity and may significantly improve the quality of people's life. PMID:22761054

Lazniewska, Joanna; Milowska, Katarzyna; Gabryelak, Teresa

2012-07-03

125

Foresight China II: Identification and Detection of Infectious Diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the growing threat of emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases, which spread more easily and quickly worldwide resulted\\u000a from the globalization, it is necessary to be capable to forecast significant changes of infectious diseases for emergency\\u000a preparation purpose. Foresight China Project aims at exploring a new method by identifying the drivers of infectious diseases\\u000a and predicting the trends of these

Jiayuan Feng; Angus Nicoll

2008-01-01

126

Newborn Screening for Congenital Infectious Diseases  

PubMed Central

To estimate the prevalence of congenital toxoplasmosis, Chagas disease, cytomegalovirus, and rubella, blood samples on dried blood spot (DBS) from neonates (day 3–20 of life) were screened for immunoglobulin (Ig) M against Toxoplasma gondii, cytomegalovirus, rubella virus, and IgG against Trypanosoma cruzi by methods used for serum and adapted for use with DBS. Positive samples were further analyzed for IgM and IgG in serum from neonates and mothers. DBS samples from 364,130 neonates were tested for Toxoplasma gondii–specific IgM, and 15,873 neonates were also tested for IgM against cytomegalovirus and rubella virus and for Trypanosoma cruzi–specific IgG. A total of 195 were diagnosed with congenital toxoplasmosis, 16 with cytomegalovirus, and 11 with congenital rubella. One newborn had a confirmed result for Chagas disease, and 21 mothers had positive serum antibodies. These results suggest that infectious diseases should be considered for future inclusion in programs for newborn screening of metabolic diseases in disease-endemic areas.

Rubin, Roselia; Schulte, Jaqueline; Giugliani, Roberto

2004-01-01

127

Postexposure prophylaxis for common infectious diseases.  

PubMed

Postexposure prophylaxis (PEP) is effective in preventing illness after potential or documented exposure to a variety of microbial pathogens and in reducing the risk of secondary spread of infection. Guidelines have been published by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices for proper use of PEP for bloodborne pathogens, for microorganisms transmitted by either airborne or droplet spread or through direct contact, and for infections acquired after traumatic injuries. Depending on the type of exposure, different forms of PEP are available, including vaccines, immune globulins, antibiotics, and antiviral medications. Physicians should assess a patient's potential need for PEP based on several factors, including the type of exposure, the timing and severity of illness in the source patient, the exposed person's susceptibility to infectious diseases of concern, and the relative risks and benefits of the PEP regimen in an individual situation. Immunity to certain infectious diseases can be ensured with prior infection or vaccination, and by serologic testing in patients with a negative or uncertain history. PEP should be given to persons exposed to index cases of pertussis and invasive meningococcal infection regardless of immunization history, and should be given following rabies and tetanus exposure regardless of the length of delay. In general, PEP should be given as soon as possible following a high-risk exposure. Persons exposed to bloodborne pathogens should have baseline testing for human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis B virus, and hepatitis C virus antibodies, and follow-up testing at six weeks, three months, and six months postexposure. PMID:23939603

Bader, Mazen S; McKinsey, David S

2013-07-01

128

Global Climate and Infectious Disease: The Cholera Paradigm  

Microsoft Academic Search

Historically, infectious diseases have had a profound effect on human populations, including their evolution and cultural development. Despite significant advances in medical science, infectious diseases continue to impact human populations in many parts of the world. Emerging diseases are considered to be those infections that either are newly appearing in the population or are rapidly increasing in incidence or expanding

Rita R. Colwell

1996-01-01

129

Framing infectious diseases and U.S. public opinion  

Microsoft Academic Search

The United States has been increasingly concerned with the transnational threat posed by infectious diseases. Effective policy implementation to contain the spread of these diseases requires active engagement and support of the American public. To influence American public opinion and enlist support for related domestic and foreign policies, both domestic agencies and international organizations have framed infectious diseases as security

Mita Saksena

2011-01-01

130

Framing Infectious Diseases and U.S. Public Opinion  

Microsoft Academic Search

The United States has been increasingly concerned with the transnational threat posed by infectious diseases. Effective policy implementation to contain the spread of these diseases requires active engagement and support of the American public. To influence American public opinion and enlist support for related domestic and foreign policies, both domestic agencies and international organizations have framed infectious diseases as security

Mita Saksena

2011-01-01

131

A two-component model for counts of infectious diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a stochastic model for the analysis of time series of disease counts as col- lected in typical surveillance systems on notifiable infectious diseases. The model is based on a Poisson or negative binomial observation model with two components: A parameter- driven component relates the disease incidence to latent parameters describing endemic seasonal patterns, which are typical for infectious

Leonhard Held; Mathias Hofmann; Michael Hohle; Volker Schmid

2005-01-01

132

Infectious Disease Proteome Biomarkers: Final Technical Report  

SciTech Connect

Research for the DOE Infectious Disease Proteome Biomarkers focused on Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) and Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus (VEEV). RVFV and VEEV are Category A and B pathogens respectively. Among the priority threats, RVFV and VEEV rank high in their potential for being weaponized and introduced to the United States, spreading quickly, and having a large health and economic impact. In addition, they both have live attenuated vaccine, which allows work to be performed at BSL-2. While the molecular biology of RVFV and VEEV are increasingly well-characterized, little is known about its host-pathogen interactions. Our research is aimed at determining critical alterations in host signaling pathways to identify therapeutics targeted against the host.

Bailey, Charles L.

2011-12-31

133

Procalcitonin as a biomarker of infectious diseases  

PubMed Central

Traditional biomarkers, including C-reactive protein, leukocytes, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and clinical signs and symptoms, are not sufficiently sensitive or specific enough to guide treatment decisions in infectious febrile diseases. Procalcitonin (PCT) is synthesized by a large number of tissues and organs in response to invasion by pathogenic bacteria, fungi, and some parasites. A growing body of evidence supports the use of PCT as a marker to improve the diagnosis of bacterial infections and to guide antibiotic therapy. Clinically, PCT levels may help guide the need for empirical antibiotic therapy, source control for infections, and duration of antibiotic therapy. The aim of this review is to summarize the current evidence for PCT in different infections and clinical settings, and to discuss the reliability of this marker in order to provide physicians with an overview of the potential for PCT to guide antibiotic therapy.

2013-01-01

134

Procalcitonin as a biomarker of infectious diseases.  

PubMed

Traditional biomarkers, including C-reactive protein, leukocytes, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and clinical signs and symptoms, are not sufficiently sensitive or specific enough to guide treatment decisions in infectious febrile diseases. Procalcitonin (PCT) is synthesized by a large number of tissues and organs in response to invasion by pathogenic bacteria, fungi, and some parasites. A growing body of evidence supports the use of PCT as a marker to improve the diagnosis of bacterial infections and to guide antibiotic therapy. Clinically, PCT levels may help guide the need for empirical antibiotic therapy, source control for infections, and duration of antibiotic therapy. The aim of this review is to summarize the current evidence for PCT in different infections and clinical settings, and to discuss the reliability of this marker in order to provide physicians with an overview of the potential for PCT to guide antibiotic therapy. PMID:23682219

Lee, Hyuck

2013-05-01

135

Evolutionary Outcomes of Human Infectious Diseases  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently it has been shown that a simple model was able to reproduce the main ``types'' of infectious diseases encountered in human populations. This model takes into account key features of the immune system at the within-host level and an implicit description of the contact network of the host population at the between-hosts level. The implicit description of contact network neglects population-level selective pressures such as fluctuations in the number of infected individuals potentially leading to risk of extinction. We present a nested model that allows to keep a within-host level description of immune processes while allowing an explicit description of the ongoing epidemiological dynamics. This model allows us to understand the impact of human population size and contact networks structure in shaping the fitness optima for pathogens life history traits. We mostly focus on variation in duration of infection and antigenic evolution leading to immune escape.

Ballesteros, Sebastien; Combadao, Jaime

2010-09-01

136

Preventing Emerging Infectious Diseases: Addressing the Problem of Foodborne and Waterborne Diseases. A Strategy for the 21st Century.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Infectious diseases are a continuing menace to all segments of society. They cause suffering and death and impose an enormous financial burden on society. Because we do not know what new diseases will arise, we must always be prepared for the unexpected. ...

2001-01-01

137

Immunosuppressive effect of infectious bursal disease virus on vaccination against infectious bronchitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Groups of broiler chicks hatched with parental antibodies to infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) and infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) were vaccinated against IBV at 1 day of age via the oculonasal routes and inoculated with virulent IBDV at 1, 5, 10, 15 or 20 days of age.While the non?IBDV inoculated birds were solidly immune against IBV challenge at an age

C. Pejkovski; F. G. Davelaar; B. Kouwenhoven

1979-01-01

138

PARASITES AND INFECTIOUS DISEASES OF GREATER SAGE-GROUSE  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report the parasites, infectious diseases, and non-infectious diseases related to toxicants found in the Greater Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) across its range. Documentation of population-level effects is rare although researchers have responded to the recent emergence of West Nile virus with rigorous efforts. West Nile virus shows greater virulence and potential population level effects than any infectious agent detected in

THOMAS J. CHRISTIANSEN; CYNTHIA M. TATE

139

Proactive strategies to avoid infectious disease.  

PubMed

Infectious disease exerts a large selective pressure on all organisms. One response to this has been for animals to evolve energetically costly immune systems to counter infection, while another--the focus of this theme issue--has been the evolution of proactive strategies primarily to avoid infection. These strategies can be grouped into three types, all of which demonstrate varying levels of interaction with the immune system. The first concerns maternal strategies that function to promote the immunocompetence of their offspring. The second type of strategy influences mate selection, guiding the selection of a healthy mate and one who differs maximally from the self in their complement of antigen-coding genes. The third strategy involves two classes of behaviour. One relates to the capacity of the organisms to learn associations between cues indicative of pathogen threat and immune responses. The other relates to prevention and even treatment of infection through behaviours such as avoidance, grooming, quarantine, medicine and care of the sick. In humans, disease avoidance is based upon cognition and especially the emotion of disgust. Human disease avoidance is not without its costs. There is a propensity to reject healthy individuals who just appear sick--stigmatization--and the system may malfunction, resulting in various forms of psychopathology. Pathogen threat also appears to have been a highly significant and unrecognized force in shaping human culture so as to minimize infection threats. This cultural shaping process--moralization--can be co-opted to promote human health. PMID:22042913

Stevenson, Richard J; Case, Trevor I; Oaten, Megan J

2011-12-12

140

The Effect of Global Warming on Infectious Diseases  

PubMed Central

Global warming has various effects on human health. The main indirect effects are on infectious diseases. Although the effects on infectious diseases will be detected worldwide, the degree and types of the effect are different, depending on the location of the respective countries and socioeconomical situations. Among infectious diseases, water- and foodborne infectious diseases and vector-borne infectious diseases are two main categories that are forecasted to be most affected. The effect on vector-borne infectious diseases such as malaria and dengue fever is mainly because of the expansion of the infested areas of vector mosquitoes and increase in the number and feeding activity of infected mosquitoes. There will be increase in the number of cases with water- and foodborne diarrhoeal diseases. Even with the strongest mitigation procedures, global warming cannot be avoided for decades. Therefore, implementation of adaptation measures to the effect of global warming is the most practical action we can take. It is generally accepted that the impacts of global warming on infectious diseases have not been apparent at this point yet in East Asia. However, these impacts will appear in one form or another if global warming continues to progress in future. Further research on the impacts of global warming on infectious diseases and on future prospects should be conducted.

Kurane, Ichiro

2010-01-01

141

Noninvasive biophotonic imaging for studies of infectious disease.  

PubMed

According to World Health Organization estimates, infectious organisms are responsible for approximately one in four deaths worldwide. Animal models play an essential role in the development of vaccines and therapeutic agents but large numbers of animals are required to obtain quantitative microbiological data by tissue sampling. Biophotonic imaging (BPI) is a highly sensitive, nontoxic technique based on the detection of visible light, produced by luciferase-catalysed reactions (bioluminescence) or by excitation of fluorescent molecules, using sensitive photon detectors. The development of bioluminescent/fluorescent microorganisms therefore allows the real-time noninvasive detection of microorganisms within intact living animals. Multiple imaging of the same animal throughout an experiment allows disease progression to be followed with extreme accuracy, reducing the number of animals required to yield statistically meaningful data. In the study of infectious disease, the use of BPI is becoming widespread due to the novel insights it can provide into established models, as well as the impact of the technique on two of the guiding principles of using animals in research, namely reduction and refinement. Here, we review the technology of BPI, from the instrumentation through to the generation of a photonic signal, and illustrate how the technique is shedding light on infection dynamics in vivo. PMID:20955395

Andreu, Nuria; Zelmer, Andrea; Wiles, Siouxsie

2010-10-19

142

Sudden death in Whipple's disease.  

PubMed Central

Despite antibiotic therapy, some patients with uncomplicated Whipple's disease die suddenly and inexplicably. We describe one such patient who died following unexplained cardiorespiratory arrest and was found to have chronic active myocarditis related to the causative organism. We postulate myocarditis as a cause of sudden death. Images Figure 1 Figure 2

McGettigan, P.; Mooney, E. E.; Sinnott, M.; Sweeney, E. C.; Feely, J.

1997-01-01

143

Population dynamics of infectious diseases: A discrete time model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mathematical models of infectious diseases can provide important insight into our understanding of epidemiological processes, the course of infection within a host, the transmission dynamics in a host population, and formulation or implementation of infection control programs. We present a framework for modeling the dynamics of infectious diseases in discrete time, based on the theory of matrix population models. The

Madan K. Oli; Meenakshi Venkataraman; Paul A. Klein; Lori D. Wendland; Mary B. Brown

2006-01-01

144

Infectious Diseases and Malnutrition Status in Nepal: an Overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper sheds light on infectious diseases and the status of malnutrition in Nepal, a Himalayan country located in South Asia. In spite of efforts by both Government and non-government sectors, infectious diseases are rampant in the countries constituting a major cause of morbidity and mortality, which in turn, impose a socio-economic and public health burden for the country. Intestinal

Shiba Kumar Rai; Kazuko Hirai; Ayako Abe; Yoshimi Ohno

2002-01-01

145

Automation of Blood Donor Testing for Infectious Diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

The early recognised risk of transmitting infectious diseases by blood components and the consequent introduction of mandatory serological testing of blood donations for infectious diseases has pushed the development of various automated serological testing systems. As correct performance of pre- and post-analytical work steps is essential for obtaining valid test results, the need for standardisation of these processes has led

Annette Schuller; Willy Kurt Roth

2007-01-01

146

Communicating about emerging infectious disease: The importance of research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emerging infectious diseases have taken on renewed significance in the public health sector since the 1990s. Worldwide, governments are preparing emergency plans to guide them; their plans acknowledge that communication will be vital in the event of an outbreak. However, much of the emerging infectious disease communication literature deals with one-way transmission of facts to the public by experts. Little

Bev J. Holmes

2008-01-01

147

Infectious disease, development, and climate change: a scenario analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study the effects of development and climate change on infectious diseases in Sub-Saharan Africa. Infant mortality and infectious disease are closely related, but there are better data for the former. In an international cross-section, per capita income, literacy, and absolute poverty significantly affect infant mortality. We use scenarios of these three determinants and of climate change to project the

RICHARD S.J. TOL; KRISTIE L. EBI; GARY W. YOHE

2007-01-01

148

Research and Development of New Vaccines Against Infectious Diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Infectious diseases are re- sponsible for approximately 25% of global mortality, es- pecially in children aged younger than 5 years. Much of the burden of infectious diseases could be alleviated if appropriate mechanisms could be put in place to en- sure access for all children to basic vaccines, regard- less of geographical loca- tion or economic status. In addition, new

Marie Paule Kieny; Jean-Louis Excler; Marc Girard

149

Impact of Climate Variability on Infectious Disease in West Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

The importance of infectious disease as a determinant (as well as an outcome) of poverty has recently become a prominent argument for international and national investment in the control of infectious disease, as can be seen in the recently articulated United Nations (UN) Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). Climate variability and land use change have an enormous impact on health in

Madeleine C. Thomson; Stephen J. Connor; Neil Ward; David Molyneux

2004-01-01

150

Bacteriophage therapy: a revitalized therapy against bacterial infectious diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacteriophage (phage) therapy involves using phages or their products as bioagents for the treatment or prophylaxis of bacterial infectious diseases. Much evidence in support of the effectiveness of phage therapy against bacterial infectious diseases has accumulated since 1980 from animal model studies conducted in Western countries. Reports indicate that appropriate administration of living phages can be used to treat lethal

Shigenobu Matsuzaki; Mohammad Rashel; Jumpei Uchiyama; Shingo Sakurai; Takako Ujihara; Masayuki Kuroda; Masahiko Ikeuchi; Toshikazu Tani; Mikiya Fujieda; Hiroshi Wakiguchi; Shosuke Imai

2005-01-01

151

Household structure and infectious disease transmission  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY One of the central tenets of modern infectious disease epidemiology is that an understanding of heterogeneities, both in host demography and transmission, allows control to be efficiently optimized. Due to the strong interactions present, households are one of the most important heterogeneities to consider, both in terms of predicting epidemic severity and as a target for intervention. We consider these effects in the context of pandemic influenza in Great Britain, and find that there is significant local (ward-level) variation in the basic reproductive ratio, with some regions predicted to suffer 50% faster growth rate of infection than the mean. Childhood vaccination was shown to be highly effective at controlling an epidemic, generally outperforming random vaccination and substantially reducing the variation between regions; only nine out of over 10 000 wards did not obey this rule and these can be identified as demographically atypical regions. Since these benefits of childhood vaccination are a product of correlations between household size and number of dependent children in the household, our results are qualitatively robust for a variety of disease scenarios.

HOUSE, T.; KEELING, M. J.

2009-01-01

152

[Effectiveness of cefotaxime in pediatric infectious diseases].  

PubMed

Cefotaxime (CTX) was administered to 117 pediatric patients. Although 26 of these patients were excluded from the clinical evaluation of the study because other antimicrobial agents were given concomitantly with CTX or because no infectious diseases were proved, these cases were evaluated for adverse effects of the drug. The remaining 91 cases were evaluated for clinical effect; pneumonia in 56 cases, septicemia in 5, suspected septicemia in 5, meningitis (aseptic cases included) in 3, urinary tract infection in 5 and other diseases in 17. No pathogenic organisms were identified in any of the pneumonia cases, even either by bacterial culture or other laboratory test methods. Pathogens of septicemia were E. coli in 3 cases, K. pneumoniae in 1 and E. agglomerans in 1. Those of urinary tract infections were E. coli in 3 cases, a mixed infection of S. aureus and an unidentified species of Gram-negative rods in 1, and unknown in 1. Clinical effectiveness rates of CTX were 78.6% in pneumonia and 100% in septicemia, suspected septicemia and urinary tract infections. One patient with purulent meningitis caused by H. influenzae was also treated with CTX successfully. Adverse reactions and abnormal laboratory findings were observed in 12 cases (12/117 = 10.3%); rash in 2 cases, vomiting in 1, abdominal pain in 1, diarrhea in 5, granulocytopenia and thrombocytopenia in 1, eosinophilia in 3 and elevation of liver enzymes (GOT and LDH) in 1. PMID:3989970

Takimoto, M; Tasaki, T; Kusunoki, Y; Yoshioka, H; Hiramoto, A; Sanae, N; Tsuchida, A; Maruyama, S; Mukai, N; Takahashi, Y

1985-01-01

153

Infectious disease risk in asbestos abatement workers  

PubMed Central

Background The current literature reports increased infectious disease occurrence in various construction occupations, as an important contributor to morbidity and mortality arising from employment. These observations should be expanded to asbestos abatement workers, as the abatement can create an environment favorable for bacterial, viral and fungal infections. Discussion Asbestos abatement work employs activities resulting in cuts, blisters and abrasions to the skin, work in a dirty environment and exposure to dust, mists and fumes. Furthermore, this population exhibits a high smoking rate which increases the risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and respiratory infections. In addition, these workers also commonly employ respirators, which can accumulate dirt and debris magnifying exposure to microbes. Use of respirators and related types of personal protective equipment, especially if shared and in the close environment experienced by workers, may enhance communicability of these agents, including viruses. Summary Abatement workers need to be provided with information on hazards and targeted by appropriate health education to reduce the infection risk. Epidemiological studies to investigate this risk in asbestos removers are recommended.

2012-01-01

154

Computer-assisted detection of infectious lung diseases: a review.  

PubMed

Respiratory tract infections are a leading cause of death and disability worldwide. Although radiology serves as a primary diagnostic method for assessing respiratory tract infections, visual analysis of chest radiographs and computed tomography (CT) scans is restricted by low specificity for causal infectious organisms and a limited capacity to assess severity and predict patient outcomes. These limitations suggest that computer-assisted detection (CAD) could make a valuable contribution to the management of respiratory tract infections by assisting in the early recognition of pulmonary parenchymal lesions, providing quantitative measures of disease severity and assessing the response to therapy. In this paper, we review the most common radiographic and CT features of respiratory tract infections, discuss the challenges of defining and measuring these disorders with CAD, and propose some strategies to address these challenges. PMID:21723090

Ba?c?, Ula?; Bray, Mike; Caban, Jesus; Yao, Jianhua; Mollura, Daniel J

2011-07-01

155

Computer-Assisted Detection of Infectious Lung Diseases: A Review  

PubMed Central

Respiratory tract infections are a leading cause of death and disability worldwide. Although radiology serves as a primary diagnostic method for assessing respiratory tract infections, visual analysis of chest radiographs and computed tomography (CT) scans is restricted by low specificity for causal infectious organisms and a limited capacity to assess severity and predict patient outcomes. These limitations suggest that computer-assisted detection (CAD) could make a valuable contribution to the management of respiratory tract infections by assisting in the early recognition of pulmonary parenchymal lesions, providing quantitative measures of disease severity and assessing the response to therapy. In this paper, we review the most common radiographic and CT features of respiratory tract infections, discuss the challenges of defining and measuring these disorders with CAD, and propose some strategies to address these challenges.

Bagci, Ulas; Bray, Mike; Caban, Jesus; Yao, Jianhua; Mollura, Daniel J.

2011-01-01

156

Infectious Disease and National Security: Strategic Information Needs.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The global community has suffered recently from newly emerged infectious diseases, including HIV/AIDS and severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), and from reemerging diseases once thought to be in decline. Additionally, it is increasingly recognized tha...

G. Cecchine M. Moore

2006-01-01

157

Early Epidemiological Assessment of the Virulence Emerging Infectious Diseases: A Case Study of a Influenza Pandemic  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The case fatality ratio (CFR), the ratio of deaths from an infectious disease to the number of cases, provides an\\u000aassessment of virulence. Calculation of the ratio of the cumulative number of deaths to cases during the course of an\\u000aepidemic tends to result in a biased CFR. The present study develops a simple method to obtain an unbiased

Hiroshi Nishiura; Don Klinkenberg; Mick Roberts; Johan A. P. Heesterbeek

2009-01-01

158

Aerobiology and Its Role in the Transmission of Infectious Diseases  

PubMed Central

Aerobiology plays a fundamental role in the transmission of infectious diseases. As infectious disease and infection control practitioners continue employing contemporary techniques (e.g., computational fluid dynamics to study particle flow, polymerase chain reaction methodologies to quantify particle concentrations in various settings, and epidemiology to track the spread of disease), the central variables affecting the airborne transmission of pathogens are becoming better known. This paper reviews many of these aerobiological variables (e.g., particle size, particle type, the duration that particles can remain airborne, the distance that particles can travel, and meteorological and environmental factors), as well as the common origins of these infectious particles. We then review several real-world settings with known difficulties controlling the airborne transmission of infectious particles (e.g., office buildings, healthcare facilities, and commercial airplanes), while detailing the respective measures each of these industries is undertaking in its effort to ameliorate the transmission of airborne infectious diseases.

Fernstrom, Aaron; Goldblatt, Michael

2013-01-01

159

Networks and the Epidemiology of Infectious Disease  

PubMed Central

The science of networks has revolutionised research into the dynamics of interacting elements. It could be argued that epidemiology in particular has embraced the potential of network theory more than any other discipline. Here we review the growing body of research concerning the spread of infectious diseases on networks, focusing on the interplay between network theory and epidemiology. The review is split into four main sections, which examine: the types of network relevant to epidemiology; the multitude of ways these networks can be characterised; the statistical methods that can be applied to infer the epidemiological parameters on a realised network; and finally simulation and analytical methods to determine epidemic dynamics on a given network. Given the breadth of areas covered and the ever-expanding number of publications, a comprehensive review of all work is impossible. Instead, we provide a personalised overview into the areas of network epidemiology that have seen the greatest progress in recent years or have the greatest potential to provide novel insights. As such, considerable importance is placed on analytical approaches and statistical methods which are both rapidly expanding fields. Throughout this review we restrict our attention to epidemiological issues.

Danon, Leon; Ford, Ashley P.; House, Thomas; Jewell, Chris P.; Keeling, Matt J.; Roberts, Gareth O.; Ross, Joshua V.; Vernon, Matthew C.

2011-01-01

160

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76 FR 45586 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting  

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...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...conducted by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, including consideration...Intramural Research, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, NIH,...

2011-07-29

185

78 FR 11897 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

2013-02-20

186

76 FR 77241 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Meetings...given of meetings of the National Advisory Allergy and Infectious Diseases Council. The...Name of Committee: National Advisory Allergy and Infectious Diseases Council....

2011-12-12

187

76 FR 60509 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

2011-09-29

188

78 FR 39300 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

2013-07-01

189

76 FR 8753 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...nih.gov. Name: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

2011-02-15

190

75 FR 18510 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

2010-04-12

191

75 FR 993 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

2010-01-07

192

76 FR 22112 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

2011-04-20

193

77 FR 14028 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

2012-03-08

194

77 FR 76296 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Meetings...given of meetings of the National Advisory Allergy and Infectious Diseases Council. The...Name of Committee: National Advisory Allergy and Infectious Diseases Council....

2012-12-27

195

75 FR 54891 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

2010-09-09

196

78 FR 41939 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

2013-07-12

197

76 FR 66731 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

2011-10-27

198

78 FR 38998 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

2013-06-28

199

75 FR 57972 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...conducted by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, including consideration...Intramural Research, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, NIH,...

2010-09-23

200

76 FR 72959 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings.  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...of Copmmittee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

2011-11-28

201

78 FR 26792 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

2013-05-08

202

77 FR 297 - National Institute of Allergy And Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy And Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

2012-01-04

203

75 FR 11896 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

2010-03-12

204

75 FR 7488 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

2010-02-19

205

76 FR 71349 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

2011-11-17

206

77 FR 12604 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

2012-03-01

207

76 FR 51996 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

2011-08-19

208

78 FR 63999 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

2013-10-25

209

77 FR 58851 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...conducted by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, including consideration...Intramural Research, National Institute of Allergy, and Infectious Diseases, NIH,...

2012-09-24

210

75 FR 48978 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Meetings...given of meetings of the National Advisory Allergy and Infectious Diseases Council. The...Name of Committee: National Advisory Allergy and Infectious Diseases Council....

2010-08-12

211

78 FR 29373 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

2013-05-20

212

77 FR 10541 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

2012-02-22

213

75 FR 54895 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

2010-09-09

214

76 FR 4927 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

2011-01-27

215

77 FR 52338 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

2012-08-29

216

77 FR 4051 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

2012-01-26

217

75 FR 41212 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

2010-07-15

218

77 FR 50139 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

2012-08-20

219

76 FR 54240 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

2011-08-31

220

76 FR 63933 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

2011-10-14

221

78 FR 36203 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

2013-06-17

222

75 FR 76475 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Meetings...given of meetings of the National Advisory Allergy and Infectious Diseases Council. The...Name of Committee: National Advisory Allergy and Infectious Diseases Council....

2010-12-08

223

77 FR 69639 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

2012-11-20

224

77 FR 59940 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasisn...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

2012-10-01

225

75 FR 19408 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

2010-04-14

226

76 FR 58024 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

2011-09-19

227

78 FR 27976 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

2013-05-13

228

77 FR 72364 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

2012-12-05

229

75 FR 53321 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

2010-08-31

230

78 FR 33428 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

2013-06-04

231

78 FR 108 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

2013-01-02

232

77 FR 53206 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

2012-08-31

233

75 FR 4094 - National Institute of Allergy And Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy And Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

2010-01-26

234

76 FR 75552 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

2011-12-02

235

77 FR 11140 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

2012-02-24

236

77 FR 48165 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

2012-08-13

237

75 FR 16816 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

2010-04-02

238

76 FR 52670 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

2011-08-23

239

76 FR 17928 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

2011-03-31

240

76 FR 67749 - National Institute of Allergy And Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy And Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

2011-11-02

241

77 FR 52041 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

2012-08-28

242

77 FR 16845 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

2012-03-22

243

78 FR 58322 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: Microbiology, Infectious Diseases and AIDS Initial Review Group, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases B Subcommittee, Microbiology & Infectious Diseases B Subcommittee (MID-B)...

2013-09-23

244

78 FR 56904 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

2013-09-16

245

77 FR 66624 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

2012-11-06

246

Factors that make an infectious disease outbreak controllable  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study is to identify general properties of emerging infectious agents that determine the likely success of two simple public health measures in controlling outbreaks, namely (i) isolating symptomatic individuals and (ii) tracing and quarantining their con- tacts. Because these measures depend on the recognition of specific disease symptoms, we investigate the relative timing of infectious- ness

Christophe Fraser; Steven Riley; Roy M. Anderson; Neil M. Ferguson

2004-01-01

247

International Conference on Emerging Infectious Diseases: Select Presentations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The National Center for Infectious Diseases has made available the audio (and in some cases, video) portion of more than 20 online presentations of selected sessions from the International Conference on Emerging Infectious Diseases, held July 16-19, 2000 in Atlanta, Georgia. Presentations are organized in chronological order of the conference but may also be searched by presenter. Some presentations may be downloaded in Microsoft PowerPoint. For researchers interested in the field of Emerging Infectious Diseases, this resource represents an exceptionally helpful application of Internet technology.

248

A disease management case study in infectious disease.  

PubMed

One of the earliest attempts at risk sharing between a managed-care organization and a pharmaceutical company is the infectious disease management program developed since late 1993 by Intergroup of Arizona and Eli Lilly and Company (Indianapolis, Indiana) in conjunction with the Center for Pharmaceutical Economics at The University of Arizona (Tucson, Arizona) and other entities. In the first phase of the program, protocols were built around eight infectious disease states, and it was recognized that second-line antibiotics were often prescribed when more economical first-line antibiotics would be equally effective. The second phase of the program emphasized developing treatment algorithms focused on patient outcomes, using merged medical and pharmacy claims databases to determine the effects of the antibiotic changes. To implement the program successfully, some significant shifts in corporate, medical, and patient mind-sets had to be addressed. A primary goal was to encourage a movement from a rebate, volume-driven, cost structure to a shared-risk, appropriate-use, reimbursement method in which both managed-care and the pharmaceutical company incentives could mesh as far as possible. Over the long term, it is hoped that this project will lay the groundwork for other disease management programs for high-impact, frequently occurring diseases. PMID:9001853

Wert, S M

249

Infectious diseases associated with complement deficiencies.  

PubMed Central

The complement system consists of both plasma and membrane proteins. The former influence the inflammatory response, immune modulation, and host defense. The latter are complement receptors, which mediate the cellular effects of complement activation, and regulatory proteins, which protect host cells from complement-mediated injury. Complement activation occurs via either the classical or the alternative pathway, which converge at the level of C3 and share a sequence of terminal components. Four aspects of the complement cascade are critical to its function and regulation: (i) activation of the classical pathway, (ii) activation of the alternative pathway, (iii) C3 convertase formation and C3 deposition, and (iv) membrane attack complex assembly and insertion. In general, mechanisms evolved by pathogenic microbes to resist the effects of complement are targeted to these four steps. Because individual complement proteins subserve unique functional activities and are activated in a sequential manner, complement deficiency states are associated with predictable defects in complement-dependent functions. These deficiency states can be grouped by which of the above four mechanisms they disrupt. They are distinguished by unique epidemiologic, clinical, and microbiologic features and are most prevalent in patients with certain rheumatologic and infectious diseases. Ethnic background and the incidence of infection are important cofactors determining this prevalence. Although complement undoubtedly plays a role in host defense against many microbial pathogens, it appears most important in protection against encapsulated bacteria, especially Neisseria meningitidis but also Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and, to a lesser extent, Neisseria gonorrhoeae. The availability of effective polysaccharide vaccines and antibiotics provides an immunologic and chemotherapeutic rationale for preventing and treating infection in patients with these deficiencies.

Figueroa, J E; Densen, P

1991-01-01

250

75 FR 81631 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel. Development of Therapeutics Products...National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel. Development of Therapeutics...

2010-12-28

251

Early Epidemiological Assessment of the Virulence of Emerging Infectious Diseases: A Case Study of an Influenza Pandemic  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundThe case fatality ratio (CFR), the ratio of deaths from an infectious disease to the number of cases, provides an assessment of virulence. Calculation of the ratio of the cumulative number of deaths to cases during the course of an epidemic tends to result in a biased CFR. The present study develops a simple method to obtain an unbiased estimate

Hiroshi Nishiura; Don Klinkenberg; Mick Roberts; Johan A. P. Heesterbeek; Jean Peccoud

2009-01-01

252

National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Division of ...  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

Text VersionPage 1. 5/3/2013 1 National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Division of Allergy, Immunology and Transplantation May 3, 2013 ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/advisorycommittees/committeesmeetingmaterials

253

Ten-Year Profile of Infectious and Parasitic Disease Hospitalizations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Infectious and parasitic diseases are responsible for a significant percentage of hospital admissions among Navy and Marine Corps personnel and pose a threat to military readiness in different operational environments. The object of this study was to deve...

L. A. Palinkas T. S. Pineda R. G. Burr

1989-01-01

254

Large-Scale Phylogenetic Analysis of Emerging Infectious Diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microorganisms that cause infectious diseases present critical issues of national security, public health, and economic welfare.\\u000a For example, in recent years, highly pathogenic strains of avian influenza have emerged in Asia, spread through Eastern Europe,\\u000a and threaten to become pandemic. As demonstrated by the coordinated response to Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) and\\u000a influenza, agents of infectious disease are being

D. Janies; D. Pol

255

Survival analysis in infectious disease research: Describing events in time  

PubMed Central

Survival analysis methods can be used in infectious disease research to describe the occurrence and timing of clinical or other events subject to censoring and truncation. Here, the survival, hazard and cumulative hazard functions are defined and simple nonparametric estimators are provided using an illustrative example of survival after AIDS diagnosis. An understanding of these foundational measures is central for an informed use of the survival analysis methods common in infectious disease research.

Cole, Stephen R.; Hudgens, Michael G.

2010-01-01

256

Structural Genomics and Drug Discovery for Infectious Diseases  

SciTech Connect

The application of structural genomics methods and approaches to proteins from organisms causing infectious diseases is making available the three dimensional structures of many proteins that are potential drug targets and laying the groundwork for structure aided drug discovery efforts. There are a number of structural genomics projects with a focus on pathogens that have been initiated worldwide. The Center for Structural Genomics of Infectious Diseases (CSGID) was recently established to apply state-of-the-art high throughput structural biology technologies to the characterization of proteins from the National Institute for Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) category A-C pathogens and organisms causing emerging, or re-emerging infectious diseases. The target selection process emphasizes potential biomedical benefits. Selected proteins include known drug targets and their homologs, essential enzymes, virulence factors and vaccine candidates. The Center also provides a structure determination service for the infectious disease scientific community. The ultimate goal is to generate a library of structures that are available to the scientific community and can serve as a starting point for further research and structure aided drug discovery for infectious diseases. To achieve this goal, the CSGID will determine protein crystal structures of 400 proteins and protein-ligand complexes using proven, rapid, highly integrated, and cost-effective methods for such determination, primarily by X-ray crystallography. High throughput crystallographic structure determination is greatly aided by frequent, convenient access to high-performance beamlines at third-generation synchrotron X-ray sources.

Anderson, W.F.

2010-09-03

257

A PubMed-Wide Associational Study of Infectious Diseases  

PubMed Central

Background Computational discovery is playing an ever-greater role in supporting the processes of knowledge synthesis. A significant proportion of the more than 18 million manuscripts indexed in the PubMed database describe infectious disease syndromes and various infectious agents. This study is the first attempt to integrate online repositories of text-based publications and microbial genome databases in order to explore the dynamics of relationships between pathogens and infectious diseases. Methodology/Principal Findings Herein we demonstrate how the knowledge space of infectious diseases can be computationally represented and quantified, and tracked over time. The knowledge space is explored by mapping of the infectious disease literature, looking at dynamics of literature deposition, zooming in from pathogen to genome level and searching for new associations. Syndromic signatures for different pathogens can be created to enable a new and clinically focussed reclassification of the microbial world. Examples of syndrome and pathogen networks illustrate how multilevel network representations of the relationships between infectious syndromes, pathogens and pathogen genomes can illuminate unexpected biological similarities in disease pathogenesis and epidemiology. Conclusions/Significance This new approach based on text and data mining can support the discovery of previously hidden associations between diseases and microbial pathogens, clinically relevant reclassification of pathogenic microorganisms and accelerate the translational research enterprise.

Sintchenko, Vitali; Anthony, Stephen; Phan, Xuan-Hieu; Lin, Frank; Coiera, Enrico W.

2010-01-01

258

Structural Genomics and Drug Discovery for Infectious Diseases  

PubMed Central

The application of structural genomics methods and approaches to proteins from organisms causing infectious diseases is making available the three dimensional structures of many proteins that are potential drug targets and laying the groundwork for structure aided drug discovery efforts. There are a number of structural genomics projects with a focus on pathogens that have been initiated worldwide. The Center for Structural Genomics of Infectious Diseases (CSGID) was recently established to apply state-of-the-art high throughput structural biology technologies to the characterization of proteins from the National Institute for Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) category A–C pathogens and organisms causing emerging, or re-emerging infectious diseases. The target selection process emphasizes potential biomedical benefits. Selected proteins include known drug targets and their homologs, essential enzymes, virulence factors and vaccine candidates. The Center also provides a structure determination service for the infectious disease scientific community. The ultimate goal is to generate a library of structures that are available to the scientific community and can serve as a starting point for further research and structure aided drug discovery for infectious diseases. To achieve this goal, the CSGID will determine protein crystal structures of 400 proteins and protein-ligand complexes using proven, rapid, highly integrated, and cost-effective methods for such determination, primarily by X-ray crystallography. High throughput crystallographic structure determination is greatly aided by frequent, convenient access to high-performance beamlines at third-generation synchrotron X-ray sources.

Anderson, W. F.

2009-01-01

259

Natural regulatory T cells in infectious disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review discusses the control exerted by natural CD4+ CD25+ regulatory T cells (natural Treg cells) during infectious processes. Natural Treg cells may limit the magnitude of effector responses, which may result in failure to adequately control infection. However, natural Treg cells also help limit collateral tissue damage caused by vigorous antimicrobial immune responses. We describe here various situations in

Barry T Rouse; Yasmine Belkaid

2005-01-01

260

Effects of Mannan Oligosaccharides on Antibody Response to Infectious Bronchitis, Infectious Bursal Disease and Newcastle Disease in Chickens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shafey, T.M., Al-Mufarej, S., Shalaby, M.I. and Jarelnabi, A.J. 2001. Effects of mannan oligosaccharides on antibody response to infectious bronchitis, infectious bursal disease and Newcastle disease in chickens. J. Appl. Anim. Res., 19: 117–127.The effects of feeding a mannan oligosaccharide (Bio-Mos) from 0 to 3g\\/kg diet on 1 to 35 day serum total protein, albumin and globulin and on antibody

T. M. Shafey; S. Al-Mufarej; M. I. Shalaby; A. J. Jarelnabi

2001-01-01

261

Tropical infectious diseasesDiagnostics for the developing world  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although 'diseases of affluence', such as diabetes and cardiovascular disease, are increasing in developing countries, infectious diseases still impose the greatest health burden. Annually, just under 1 million people die from malaria, 4.3 million from acute respiratory infections, 2.9 million from enteric infections and 5 million from AIDS and tuberculosis. Other sexually transmitted infections and tropical parasitic infections are responsible

Rosanna W. Peeling; Andrew Ustianowski; Mark D. Perkins; David Mabey

2004-01-01

262

Foodborne Infectious Disease - The Human Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Understanding the human impact of infectious agents potentially transmitted through the food chain is required to establish intervention priorities when considering the on-farm aspects of these agents. Canadian livestock husbandry, food processing and handling systems, and food preparation and consumption are likely sufficiently similar to the U.S. that the following U.S. information applies to the Canadian situation. On the other

John M. Gay

263

Modeling rapidly disseminating infectious disease during mass gatherings.  

PubMed

We discuss models for rapidly disseminating infectious diseases during mass gatherings (MGs), using influenza as a case study. Recent innovations in modeling and forecasting influenza transmission dynamics at local, regional, and global scales have made influenza a particularly attractive model scenario for MG. We discuss the behavioral, medical, and population factors for modeling MG disease transmission, review existing model formulations, and highlight key data and modeling gaps related to modeling MG disease transmission. We argue that the proposed improvements will help integrate infectious-disease models in MG health contingency plans in the near future, echoing modeling efforts that have helped shape influenza pandemic preparedness plans in recent years. PMID:23217051

Chowell, Gerardo; Nishiura, Hiroshi; Viboud, Cécile

2012-12-07

264

Modeling rapidly disseminating infectious disease during mass gatherings  

PubMed Central

We discuss models for rapidly disseminating infectious diseases during mass gatherings (MGs), using influenza as a case study. Recent innovations in modeling and forecasting influenza transmission dynamics at local, regional, and global scales have made influenza a particularly attractive model scenario for MG. We discuss the behavioral, medical, and population factors for modeling MG disease transmission, review existing model formulations, and highlight key data and modeling gaps related to modeling MG disease transmission. We argue that the proposed improvements will help integrate infectious-disease models in MG health contingency plans in the near future, echoing modeling efforts that have helped shape influenza pandemic preparedness plans in recent years.

2012-01-01

265

Infectious causes of chronic inflammatory diseases and cancer.  

PubMed Central

Powerful diagnostic technology, plus the realization that organisms of otherwise unimpressive virulence can produce slowly progressive chronic disease with a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations and disease outcomes, has resulted in the discovery of new infectious agents and new concepts of infectious diseases. The demonstration that final outcome of infection is as much determined by the genetic background of the patient as by the genetic makeup of the infecting agent is indicating that a number of chronic diseases of unknown etiology are caused by one or more infectious agents. One well-known example is the discovery that stomach ulcers are due to Helicobacter pylori. Mycoplasmas may cause chronic lung disease in newborns and chronic asthma in adults, and Chlamydia pneumoniae, a recently identified common cause of acute respiratory infection, has been associated with atherosclerosis. A number of infectious agents that cause or contribute to neoplastic diseases in humans have been documented in the past 6 years. The association and causal role of infectious agents in chronic inflammatory diseases and cancer have major implications for public health, treatment, and prevention.

Cassell, G. H.

1998-01-01

266

The burden of disease in Maputo City, Mozambique: registered and autopsied deaths in 1994.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To classify the causes of death in Maputo City, Mozambique, using the methods of the Global Burden of Disease study, in order to provide information for health policy-makers and to obtain a baseline for future studies in Maputo City and provincial capitals. METHODS: Data were taken from the Maputo City death register and autopsy records for 1994. FINDINGS: A total of 9011 deaths were recorded in the death register, representing a coverage of approximately 86%. Of these, 8114 deaths (92%) were classified by cause. Communicable, maternal, perinatal, and nutritional disorders accounted for 5319 deaths; noncommunicable diseases for 1834; and injuries for 961. The 10 leading causes of registered deaths were perinatal disorders (1643 deaths); malaria (928); diarrhoeal diseases (814); tuberculosis (456); lower respiratory infections (416); road-traffic accidents (371); anaemia (269); cerebrovascular diseases (269); homicide (188); and bacterial meningitis (178). CONCLUSIONS: Infectious diseases of all types, injuries, and cerebrovascular disease ranked as leading causes of death, according to both the autopsy records and the city death register. AIDS-related deaths were underreported. With HIV infection increasing rapidly, AIDS will add to the already high burden of infectious diseases and premature mortality in Maputo City. The results of the study indicate that cause of death is a useful outcome indicator for disease control programmes.

Dgedge, M.; Novoa, A.; Macassa, G.; Sacarlal, J.; Black, J.; Michaud, C.; Cliff, J.

2001-01-01

267

Biomarkers of endothelial activation/dysfunction in infectious diseases.  

PubMed

Endothelial dysfunction contributes to the pathogenesis of a variety of potentially serious infectious diseases and syndromes, including sepsis and septic shock, hemolytic-uremic syndrome, severe malaria, and dengue hemorrhagic fever. Because endothelial activation often precedes overt endothelial dysfunction, biomarkers of the activated endothelium in serum and/or plasma may be detectable before classically recognized markers of disease, and therefore, may be clinically useful as biomarkers of disease severity or prognosis in systemic infectious diseases. In this review, the current status of mediators of endothelial cell function (angiopoietins-1 and -2), components of the coagulation pathway (von Willebrand Factor, ADAMTS13, and thrombomodulin), soluble cell-surface adhesion molecules (soluble E-selectin, sICAM-1, and sVCAM-1), and regulators of vascular tone and permeability (VEGF and sFlt-1) as biomarkers in severe infectious diseases is discussed in the context of sepsis, E. coli O157:H7 infection, malaria, and dengue virus infection. PMID:23669075

Page, Andrea V; Liles, W Conrad

2013-04-19

268

Infectious diseases following natural disasters: prevention and control measures.  

PubMed

Natural disasters may lead to infectious disease outbreaks when they result in substantial population displacement and exacerbate synergic risk factors (change in the environment, in human conditions and in the vulnerability to existing pathogens) for disease transmission. We reviewed risk factors and potential infectious diseases resulting from prolonged secondary effects of major natural disasters that occurred from 2000 to 2011. Natural disasters including floods, tsunamis, earthquakes, tropical cyclones (e.g., hurricanes and typhoons) and tornadoes have been secondarily described with the following infectious diseases including diarrheal diseases, acute respiratory infections, malaria, leptospirosis, measles, dengue fever, viral hepatitis, typhoid fever, meningitis, as well as tetanus and cutaneous mucormycosis. Risk assessment is essential in post-disaster situations and the rapid implementation of control measures through re-establishment and improvement of primary healthcare delivery should be given high priority, especially in the absence of pre-disaster surveillance data. PMID:22149618

Kouadio, Isidore K; Aljunid, Syed; Kamigaki, Taro; Hammad, Karen; Oshitani, Hitoshi

2012-01-01

269

Recommendations for Training and Certification for Pharmacists Practicing, Mentoring, and Educating in Infectious Diseases Pharmacotherapy Joint Opinion of the Society of Infectious Diseases Pharmacists and the Infectious Diseases Practice and Research Network of the American College of Clinical Pharmacy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently created guidelines for the development of institutional antimicrobial stewardship programs recommend that a pharmacist with infectious diseases training be included as a core member of the antimicrobial stewardship team. However, training and certification requirements for infectious diseases - trained clinical pharmacists have not been established. Although pharmacists have nurtured their interest in infectious diseases by self-directed learning or on-the-job

Erika J. Ernst; Michael E. Klepser; John A. Bosso; Michael J. Rybak; Elizabeth D. Hermsen; Marisel Segarra-Newnham; Richard H. Drew

2009-01-01

270

Infectious disease as an evolutionary paradigm.  

PubMed Central

The basic principles of genetics and evolution apply equally to human hosts and to emerging infections, in which foodborne outbreaks play an important and growing role. However, we are dealing with a very complicated coevolutionary process in which infectious agent outcomes range from mutual annihilation to mutual integration and resynthesis of a new species. In our race against microbial evolution, new molecular biology tools will help us study the past; education and a global public health perspective will help us deal better with the future.

Lederberg, J.

1997-01-01

271

Patterns in the effects of infectious diseases on population growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

An infectious disease may reduce or even stop the exponential growth of a population. We consider two very simple models for microparasitic and macroparasitic diseases, respectively, and study how the effect depends on a contact parameter K. The results are presented as bifurcation diagrams involving several threshold values of ?. The precise form of the bifurcation diagram depends critically on

O. Diekmann; M. Kretzschmar

1991-01-01

272

Acute infectious bursal disease in poultry: A review  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review is focused on the acute form of infectious bursal disease (IBD) caused by very virulent IBD virus (vvIBDV). First described in Europe about 10 years ago, this new form of the disease has rapidly spread all over the world, causing dramatic losses; after a decade, it still represents a considerable threat to the poultry industry. Emergence of the

Thierry P. Van Den Berg

2000-01-01

273

Mad cow and other maladies: update on emerging infectious diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

ately, several emerging infectious diseases have had a great deal of play in the media, resulting in anxiety among health care workers and their patients. This article ex- plores the epidemiology and clinical characteristics of some of these emerging infections. BOVINE SPONGIFORM ENCEPHALOPATHY AND VARIANT CREUTZFELDT-JAKOB DISEASE Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), also known as \\

CRISTIE COLUMBUS

274

Studies of dynamics of infectious diseases using mathematical models  

Microsoft Academic Search

This thesis centers on the study of transmission dynamics of infectious diseases using mathematical models. It includes two main topics. The first one concerns the evolutionary dynamics of the human-schistosome-snail system. The second topic is on the evaluation of disease control strategies for directly transmitted infections such as influenza and SARS.^ The models attempt to answer specific biological questions that

Yiding Yang

2010-01-01

275

Incidence and Impact of Selected Infectious Diseases in Childhood.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This report provides estimates of the lifetime and annual incidence of certain infectious diseases of children in various demographic groups. Data on the social and health care impact of the diseases in terms of limited activity, days spent in bed, school days lost, contacts with physicians, hospitalizations, surgery, and use of medication are…

Vital and Health Statistics, 1991

1991-01-01

276

Incidence and Impact of Selected Infectious Diseases in Childhood.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report provides estimates of the lifetime and annual incidence of certain infectious diseases of children in various demographic groups. Data on the social and health care impact of the diseases in terms of limited activity, days spent in bed, school days lost, contacts with physicians, hospitalizations, surgery, and use of medication are…

Vital and Health Statistics, 1991

1991-01-01

277

Converting Cancer Therapies into Cures: Lessons from Infectious Diseases  

PubMed Central

During the past decade, cancer drug development has shifted from a focus on cytotoxic chemotherapies to drugs that target specific molecular alterations in tumors. Although these drugs dramatically shrink tumors, the responses are temporary. Research is now focused on overcoming drug resistance, a frequent cause of treatment failure. Here we reflect on analogous challenges faced by researchers in infectious diseases. We compare and contrast the resistance mechanisms arising in cancer and infectious diseases and discuss how approaches for overcoming viral and bacterial infections, such as HIV and tuberculosis, are instructive for developing a more rational approach for cancer therapy. In particular, maximizing the effect of the initial treatment response, which often requires synergistic combination therapy, is foremost among these approaches. A remaining challenge in both fields is identifying drugs that eliminate drug-tolerant “persister” cells (infectious disease) or tumor-initiating/stem cells (cancer) to prevent late relapse and shorten treatment duration.

Glickman, Michael S.; Sawyers, Charles L.

2012-01-01

278

Passive Immunity in Prevention and Treatment of Infectious Diseases  

PubMed Central

Antibodies have been used for over a century in the prevention and treatment of infectious disease. They are used most commonly for the prevention of measles, hepatitis A, hepatitis B, tetanus, varicella, rabies, and vaccinia. Although their use in the treatment of bacterial infection has largely been supplanted by antibiotics, antibodies remain a critical component of the treatment of diptheria, tetanus, and botulism. High-dose intravenous immunoglobulin can be used to treat certain viral infections in immunocompromised patients (e.g., cytomegalovirus, parvovirus B19, and enterovirus infections). Antibodies may also be of value in toxic shock syndrome, Ebola virus, and refractory staphylococcal infections. Palivizumab, the first monoclonal antibody licensed (in 1998) for an infectious disease, can prevent respiratory syncytial virus infection in high-risk infants. The development and use of additional monoclonal antibodies to key epitopes of microbial pathogens may further define protective humoral responses and lead to new approaches for the prevention and treatment of infectious diseases.

Keller, Margaret A.; Stiehm, E. Richard

2000-01-01

279

Trends in Notifiable Infectious Diseases in China: Implications for Surveillance and Population Health Policy  

PubMed Central

This study aimed to analyse trends in notifiable infectious diseases in China, in their historical context. Both English and Chinese literature was searched and diseases were categorised according to the type of disease or transmission route. Temporal trends of morbidity and mortality rates were calculated for eight major infectious diseases types. Strong government commitment to public health responses and improvements in quality of life has led to the eradication or containment of a wide range of infectious diseases in China. The overall infectious diseases burden experienced a dramatic drop during 1975–1995, but since then, it reverted and maintained a gradual upward trend to date. Most notifiable diseases are contained at a low endemic level; however, local small-scale outbreaks remain common. Tuberculosis, as a bacterial infection, has re-emerged since the 1990s and has become prevalent in the country. Sexually transmitted infections are in a rapid, exponential growth phase, spreading from core groups to the general population. Together human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), they account for 39% of all death cases due to infectious diseases in China in 2008. Zoonotic infections, such as severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), rabies and influenza, pose constant threats to Chinese residents and remain the most deadly disease type among the infected individuals. Therefore, second-generation surveillance of behavioural risks or vectors associated with pathogen transmission should be scaled up. It is necessary to implement public health interventions that target HIV and relevant coinfections, address transmission associated with highly mobile populations, and reduce the risk of cross-species transmission of zoonotic pathogens.

Zhang, Lei; Wilson, David P.

2012-01-01

280

Climate variability and outbreaks of infectious diseases in Europe  

PubMed Central

Several studies provide evidence of a link between vector-borne disease outbreaks and El Niño driven climate anomalies. Less investigated are the effects of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO). Here, we test its impact on outbreak occurrences of 13 infectious diseases over Europe during the last fifty years, controlling for potential bias due to increased surveillance and detection. NAO variation statistically influenced the outbreak occurrence of eleven of the infectious diseases. Seven diseases were associated with winter NAO positive phases in northern Europe, and therefore with above-average temperatures and precipitation. Two diseases were associated with the summer or spring NAO negative phases in northern Europe, and therefore with below-average temperatures and precipitation. Two diseases were associated with summer positive or negative NAO phases in southern Mediterranean countries. These findings suggest that there is potential for developing early warning systems, based on climatic variation information, for improved outbreak control and management.

Morand, Serge; Owers, Katharine A.; Waret-Szkuta, Agnes; McIntyre, K. Marie; Baylis, Matthew

2013-01-01

281

Climate variability and outbreaks of infectious diseases in Europe.  

PubMed

Several studies provide evidence of a link between vector-borne disease outbreaks and El Niño driven climate anomalies. Less investigated are the effects of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO). Here, we test its impact on outbreak occurrences of 13 infectious diseases over Europe during the last fifty years, controlling for potential bias due to increased surveillance and detection. NAO variation statistically influenced the outbreak occurrence of eleven of the infectious diseases. Seven diseases were associated with winter NAO positive phases in northern Europe, and therefore with above-average temperatures and precipitation. Two diseases were associated with the summer or spring NAO negative phases in northern Europe, and therefore with below-average temperatures and precipitation. Two diseases were associated with summer positive or negative NAO phases in southern Mediterranean countries. These findings suggest that there is potential for developing early warning systems, based on climatic variation information, for improved outbreak control and management. PMID:23639950

Morand, Serge; Owers, Katharine A; Waret-Szkuta, Agnes; McIntyre, K Marie; Baylis, Matthew

2013-01-01

282

Superantigens and their role in infectious disease.  

PubMed

Although the exact mechanisms by which superantigens may contribute to the pathogenesis of diseases are unknown, it seems increasingly likely that they have a role in the induction and pathogenesis of disease. The studies described here demonstrate that in several different diseases either bacterial or viral superantigens can be isolated from patients. There is also a preferential expansion of particular V beta T-cell subsets, which is a common feature of superantigen stimulation. From the work that has been done to date it can be hypothesized that superantigens may act in several ways. They may stimulate and activate T cells that are autoreactive and lead to the induction or exacerbation of autoimmune disease, as in RA. Alternatively, they may lead to the depletion of T-cell subsets based on V beta expression, thereby resulting in the severe reduction in lymphocytes in certain immunodeficiency diseases such as AIDS. But perhaps the most likely contribution of superantigens to disease pathogenesis is seen indirectly by their effect on the immune system-particularly the stimulation of large numbers of T lymphocytes expressing the same V beta domain. Thus it is likely that the direct effect of various T-cell-derived inflammatory mediators (i.e., interleukins and other cytokines) released by these activated T lymphocytes is the primary cause of disease pathology via response to superantigen stimulation. In addition to the diseases discussed here, there are a number of other diseases in which a potential role for superantigens is being studied. These include autoimmune diseases seen after group A streptococcal infections in which the streptococcal M protein has been postulated to act as a superantigen such as scarlet fever, rheumatic heart disease, and poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis. Other diseases being studied include psoriasis, lupus-like disease, and lymphoproliferative diseases (reviewed in Kotzin et al.). In the coming years the exact role of superantigens and the specific mechanisms by which they contribute to disease should be more clearly defined. Our understanding of these molecules could also lead to new therapies for the treatment of these diseases. PMID:7718212

Schafer, R; Sheil, J M

1995-01-01

283

Nurses' contacts and potential for infectious disease transmission.  

PubMed

Nurses' contacts with potentially infectious persons probably place them at higher risk than the general population for infectious diseases. During an influenza pandemic, illness among nurses might result in staff shortage. We aimed to show the value of individual data from the healthcare sector for mathematical modeling of infectious disease transmission. Using a paper diary approach, we compared nurses' daily contacts (2-way conversation with >2 words or skin-to-skin contact) with those of matched controls from a representative population survey. Nurses (n = 129) reported a median of 40 contacts (85% work related), and controls (n = 129) reported 12 contacts (33% work related). For nurses, 51% of work-related contacts were with patients (74% involving skin-to-skin contact, and 63% lasted < or =15 minutes); 40% were with staff members (29% and 36%, respectively). Our data, used with simulation models, can help predict staff availability and provide information for pandemic preparedness planning. PMID:19788812

Bernard, Helen; Fischer, Richela; Mikolajczyk, Rafael T; Kretzschmar, Mirjam; Wildner, Manfred

2009-09-01

284

Incentives for Reporting Infectious Disease Outbreaks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The global spread of diseases such as swine flu and SARS highlights the difficult decision governments face when presented with evidence of a local outbreak. Reporting the outbreak may bring medical assistance but is also likely to trigger trade sanctions by countries hoping to contain the disease. Suppressing the information may avoid trade sanctions, but increases the likelihood of widespread

Anup Malani; Ramanan Laxminarayan

2011-01-01

285

Incentives for Reporting Infectious Disease Outbreaks  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The global spread of diseases such as swine flu and SARS highlights the difficult decision governments face when presented with evidence of a local outbreak. Reporting the outbreak may bring medical assistance but is also likely to trigger trade sanctions by countries hoping to contain the disease. Suppressing the information may avoid trade…

Malani, Anup; Laxminarayan, Ramanan

2011-01-01

286

Emerging infectious diseases in southeast Asia: regional challenges to control.  

PubMed

Southeast Asia is a hotspot for emerging infectious diseases, including those with pandemic potential. Emerging infectious diseases have exacted heavy public health and economic tolls. Severe acute respiratory syndrome rapidly decimated the region's tourist industry. Influenza A H5N1 has had a profound effect on the poultry industry. The reasons why southeast Asia is at risk from emerging infectious diseases are complex. The region is home to dynamic systems in which biological, social, ecological, and technological processes interconnect in ways that enable microbes to exploit new ecological niches. These processes include population growth and movement, urbanisation, changes in food production, agriculture and land use, water and sanitation, and the effect of health systems through generation of drug resistance. Southeast Asia is home to about 600 million people residing in countries as diverse as Singapore, a city state with a gross domestic product (GDP) of US$37,500 per head, and Laos, until recently an overwhelmingly rural economy, with a GDP of US$890 per head. The regional challenges in control of emerging infectious diseases are formidable and range from influencing the factors that drive disease emergence, to making surveillance systems fit for purpose, and ensuring that regional governance mechanisms work effectively to improve control interventions. PMID:21269678

Coker, Richard J; Hunter, Benjamin M; Rudge, James W; Liverani, Marco; Hanvoravongchai, Piya

2011-01-25

287

Global poverty, hunger, death, and disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to address the global dimensions of poverty, hunger, death, and disease. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The authors assemble the most recently available data on these four human scourges from reliable international sources. Findings – Reducing the higher incidence of poverty, hunger, death, and disease in sub-Saharan African countries depends critically on the extension of

Edward OBoyle; Meade OBoyle

2012-01-01

288

75 FR 4091 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice...Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...Partnerships in Biodefense Food and Waterborne Diseases. Date...Assistance Program Nos. 93.855, Allergy, Immunology, and...

2010-01-26

289

The Geographic Distribution of Infectious Diseases.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The accomplishments of the first year's work of the three year program, Computerized Mapping of Disease (MOD), are summarized as follows: (1) The broad outlines of the MOD computerized system were clearly defined, along with requirements of equipment, pro...

H. I. Firminger H. C. Hopps

1966-01-01

290

A Cellular Automaton Framework for Infectious Disease Spread Simulation  

PubMed Central

In this paper, a cellular automaton framework for processing the spatiotemporal spread of infectious diseases is presented. The developed environment simulates and visualizes how infectious diseases might spread, and hence provides a powerful instrument for health care organizations to generate disease prevention and contingency plans. In this study, the outbreak of an avian flu like virus was modeled in the state of Tyrol, and various scenarios such as quarantine, effect of different medications on viral spread and changes of social behavior were simulated. The proposed framework is implemented using the programming language Java. The set up of the simulation environment requires specification of the disease parameters and the geographical information using a population density colored map, enriched with demographic data. The results of the numerical simulations and the analysis of the computed parameters will be used to get a deeper understanding of how the disease spreading mechanisms work, and how to protect the population from contracting the disease. Strategies for optimization of medical treatment and vaccination regimens will also be investigated using our cellular automaton framework. In this study, six different scenarios were simulated. It showed that geographical barriers may help to slow down the spread of an infectious disease, however, when an aggressive and deadly communicable disease spreads, only quarantine and controlled medical treatment are able to stop the outbreak, if at all.

Pfeifer, Bernhard; Kugler, Karl; Tejada, Maria M; Baumgartner, Christian; Seger, Michael; Osl, Melanie; Netzer, Michael; Handler, Michael; Dander, Andreas; Wurz, Manfred; Graber, Armin; Tilg, Bernhard

2008-01-01

291

Management of Chronic Infectious Diseases in School Children. Revised Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual contains current guidelines for Illinois school personnel to follow when working with children who have infectious diseases. The first chapter focuses on school district development of policies and procedures and program implementation. The next chapter provides information on characteristics, mode of transmission, prevention, and…

Illinois State Board of Education, Springfield.

292

Population Biology, Evolution, and Infectious Disease: Convergence and Synthesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traditionally, the interest of population and evolutionary biologists in infectious diseases has been almost exclusively in their role as agents of natural selection in higher organisms. Recently, this interest has expanded to include the genetic structure and evolution of microparasite populations, the mechanisms of pathogenesis and the immune response, and the population biology, ecology, and evolutionary consequenc- es of medical

Bruce R. Levin; Marc Lipsitch; Sebastian Bonhoeffer

1999-01-01

293

Castes, Migration, Immunogenetics and Infectious Diseases in South India  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been said that the grandest genetic experiment of nature has been conducted in south India in the name of the caste system. One can expect the frequency of an infectious disease to be equal to the product of the frequencies of various indicated loci\\/alleles, whether physiological, hormonal or immunological, in an endemic area. The sympatrically isolated caste and

R. M. Pitchappan

2002-01-01

294

Multiscale mobility networks and the spatial spreading of infectious diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Among the realistic ingredients to be considered in the computational modeling of infectious diseases, human mobility represents a crucial challenge both on the theoretical side and in view of the limited availability of empirical data. To study the interplay between short- scale commuting flows and long-range airline traffic in shaping the spatiotemporal pattern of a global epidemic we (i) analyze

Duygu Balcan; Hao Hud; Alessandro Vespignani

295

Network Television Evening News Coverage of Infectious Disease Events.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Examines coverage of several infectious diseases and teenage suicide to see whether television news favors covering illness where it clusters or when it occurs near major news centers where it is easier to cover. Finds that television news did go to where the illness broke out but tended to favor reporting urban over rural suicides. (RS)|

Greenberg, Michael; Wartenberg, Daniel

1990-01-01

296

Network Television Evening News Coverage of Infectious Disease Events  

Microsoft Academic Search

This content analysis of the evening news of ABC, CBS and NBC for the 1978–1987 years, using the Vanderbilt archives, enables these authors to examine coverage of several infectious diseases and teenage suicide to see if television favors covering illness where it clusters, or near major news centers, where it is easier to cover. In general, this study finds television

Michael Greenberg; Daniel Wartenberg

1990-01-01

297

Vitamin A supplementation in infectious diseases: a meta-analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE--To study the effect of vitamin A supplementation on morbidity and mortality from infectious disease. DESIGN--A meta-analysis aimed at identifying and combining mortality and morbidity data from all randomised controlled trials of vitamin A. RESULTS--Of 20 controlled trials identified, 12 trials were randomised trials and provided \\

P P Glasziou; Mackerras Dem

1993-01-01

298

Nutritional therapy and infectious diseases: a two-edged sword  

Microsoft Academic Search

The benefits and risks of nutritional therapies in the prevention and management of infectious diseases in the developed world are reviewed. There is strong evidence that early enteral feeding of patients prevents infections in a variety of traumatic and surgical illnesses. There is, however, little support for similar early feeding in medical illnesses. Parenteral nutrition increases the risk of infection

Haig Donabedian

2006-01-01

299

Social networks and infectious disease: The Colorado Springs study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The social network paradigm provides a set of concepts and methods useful for studying the structure of a population through which infectious agents transmitted during close personal contact spread, and an opportunity to develop improved disease control programs. The research discussed was a first attempt to use a social network approach to better understand factors affecting the transmission of a

A. S. Klovdahl; J. J. Potterat; D. E. Woodhouse; J. B. Muth; S. Q. Muth; W. W. Darrow

1994-01-01

300

The Thymus Is a Common Target Organ in Infectious Diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Infectious disease immunology has largely focused on the effector immune response, changes in the blood and peripheral lymphoid organs of infected individuals, and vaccine development. Studies of the thymus in infected individuals have been neglected, although this is progressively changing. The thymus is a primary lymphoid organ, able to generate mature T cells that eventually colonize secondary lymphoid organs, and

Wilson Savino

2006-01-01

301

Ultraviolet radiation, resistance to infectious diseases, and vaccination responses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation, as in sunlight, can modulate immune responses in animals and humans. This immunomodulation can lead to positive health effects especially with respect to certain autoimmune diseases and allergies. However, UV-induced immunomodulation has also been shown to be deleterious. Experimental animal studies have revealed that UV exposure can impair resistance to many infectious agents, such as

Annemarie Sleijffers; Johan Garssen; Henk Van Loveren

2002-01-01

302

Interactive effects of infectious diseases and pollution in aquatic molluscs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aquatic molluscs are ideal invertebrate model systems for environmental monitoring and toxicology. However, like all animals, they are subjected to a wide range of infectious diseases that can have significant effects on host ecology and physiology and are therefore a source of natural stress to populations. Anthropogenic activities, especially involving chemical contaminants that pollute the environment, can also affect molluscan

N. J. Morley

2010-01-01

303

Environmental Change, Global Warming and Infectious Diseases in Northern Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

We are increasing our clinical surveillance for new and increasing infectious diseases that may relate to environmental changes occurring in the short term and global warming over the longer term. It is predicted that with global warming the tropical north of Australia will become both hotter and wetter. This is likely to expand the receptive area within Australia for mosquito-borne

Bart J. Currie

2001-01-01

304

Genotyping of Canadian field strains of infectious bursal disease virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

For this retrospective study, infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) was detected in 134 bursal samples that originated from flocks with conditions such as airsacculitis, tracheitis, pneumonia, septicaemia, inclusion body hepatitis, coccidiosis, and\\/or a history of production problems without overt clinical symptoms. Samples were from seven Canadian provinces: Ontario, Quebec, Manitoba, British Columbia, Nova Scotia, Alberta, and Newfoundland and Labrador. Viral

Davor Ojkic; Emily Martin; Janet Swinton; Brian Binnington; Marina Brash

2007-01-01

305

Infectious Disease and the Public Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The paper examines policy options for schools regarding appropriate services for children with highly communicable, potentially life threatening diseases such as Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) and Herpes. Briefly considered are the school's legal responsibility, implied risk and inability, and actual risk and its control. General…

Crosson, James E.

306

Vector-borne infectious diseases and influenza  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a serious viral disease of animals and humans in Africa and the Middle East that is transmitted by mosquitoes. First isolated in Kenya during an outbreak in 1930 subsequent outbreaks have had a significant impact on animal and human health and national economies, and it is...

307

(Meta)population dynamics of infectious diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

The metapopulation concept provides a very powerful tool for analysing the persistence of spatially-disaggregated populations, in terms of a balance between local extinction and colonization. Exactly the same approach has been developed by epidemiologists, in order to understand patterns of diseases persistence. There is great scope for further cross-fertilization between areas. Recent work on the spatitemporal dynamics of measles illustrates

Bryan Grenfell; John Harwood

1997-01-01

308

Update on cutaneous manifestations of infectious diseases.  

PubMed

Many emerging pathogens present in the skin and are of interest to dermatologists. Recent epidemics of measles, avian flu, and SARS demonstrated how an organism can rapidly spread worldwide because of airline travel. Travelers are often contagious before they are aware that they have the disease, contributing to the spread. This article reviews bacterial, mycobacterial, fungal, and viral pathogens important to dermatologists. PMID:19932331

Elston, Dirk M

2009-11-01

309

Ultrasound of tropical and infectious diseases that affect the scrotum.  

PubMed

Ultrasonography of the scrotum permits assessment of testicular and extratesticular masses with high sensitivity. It can differentiate a variety of conditions involving the scrotum, testicles, and epididymis with similar clinical manifestations, including infectious and tropical diseases. The authors performed conventional and color Doppler ultrasonographic examinations in 76 patients who presented with scrotal pain, swelling, and/or tenderness. Their diagnoses included sexually transmitted disease (eg, gonorrhea, syphilis, chlamydial infection), tuberculosis, mumps, and various tropical diseases (eg, filariasis, leishmaniasis, schistosomiasis, paracoccidioidomycosis). The most common imaging findings were enlarged hypoechoic testes, hypervascularity, small hydroceles, and cutaneous edema. This report reviews these and other possible presentations of tropical and infectious diseases affecting the scrotum, emphasizing ultrasound findings that facilitate diagnosis. PMID:15480215

de Cassio Saito, Osmar; de Barros, Nestor; Chammas, Maria Cristina; Oliveira, Ilka Regina Souza; Cerri, Giovanni Guido

2004-03-01

310

Contact tracing to control infectious disease: when enough is enough  

Microsoft Academic Search

Contact tracing (also known as partner notification) is a primary means of controlling infectious diseases such as tuberculosis\\u000a (TB), human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). However, little work has been done to\\u000a determine the optimal level of investment in contact tracing. In this paper, we present a methodology for evaluating the appropriate\\u000a level of investment in contact

Benjamin Armbruster; Margaret L. Brandeau

2007-01-01

311

Infectious diseases in the critically ill patients.  

PubMed

Infection is common in the critically ill and often results due to the severity of the patient's illness. Recent data suggest 51% of intensive care unit (ICU) patients are infected, and 71% receive antimicrobial therapy. Bacterial infection is the primary concern, although some fungal infections are opportunistic. Infection more than doubles the ICU mortality rate, and the costs associated with infection may be as high as 40% of total ICU expenditures. There are many contemporary antimicrobial resistance concerns that the critical care clinician must consider in managing the pharmacotherapy of infection. Methicillin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus, vancomycin resistance in Enterococci, beta-lactamase resistance in Enterobacteriaceae, multidrug resistance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter species, fluoroquinolone resistance in Escherichia coli, and fungal resistance are among the most common issues ICU clinician's must face in managing infection. Critical illness causes changes in pharmacokinetics that influence drug and dosing considerations. Absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion may all be affected by the various disease states that define critical illness. Several specific diseases are discussed, including ventilator-associated pneumonia, various fungal infections, gastrointestinal infections due to Clostridium difficile, urinary tract infections, and bloodstream infections. Within each disease section, discussion includes causes and prevention strategies, microbiology, evidence-based guidelines, and important caveats. PMID:21507873

Martin, Steven J; Yost, Raymond J

2011-02-01

312

Aspiration pneumonia and death in Huntington's disease.  

PubMed

Huntington's disease (HD) is a progressive neurodegenerative autosomal dominant disease characterized by choreatic and hypokinetic movements, disturbed behaviour, and cognitive decline. Pneumonia is the most common cause of death, followed by cardiovasculair diseases. It has been suggested that choking is the causative underlying factor for pneumonia in HD. As a detailed specification of the type of pneumonia has never been performed, we analyzed the records of our Brain Bank containing 224 cases to determine the exact cause of death and type of pneumonia. The conclusion is that the majority (86.8%) of our HD patients where the cause of death could be identified died from aspiration pneumonia. PMID:22307361

Heemskerk, Anne-Wil; Roos, Raymund A C

2012-01-30

313

[Prevention of infectious diseases of viral origin].  

PubMed

In France, smallpox and poliomyelitis have almost disappeared thanks to generalized vaccination, no case of small pox has been reported since 1975. 17 cases of poliomyelitis were reported in 1975. These two vaccinations remain compulsory. The prophylaxis of measles, which is a very common disease, is based on vaccination recommended for young children, particularly those living in groups. The frequency of severe forms of flu is reduced by vaccination which is advised in the elderly and in weak or exposed subjects. Rubella raises the problem of contamination of pregnant women. It is recommended to vaccinate young girls and also, after serological reactions, women who are professionally exposed to the disease. Epidemic virus hepatitis (virus A) is increasing in frequency, whereas transfusion hepatitis is becoming less common since the strict application of measures of prophylaxis. The spread of rabies, mainly in the fox, is worrying for public health workers. No case of human rabies has been noted in France. Preventive anti-rabic treatment is applied in the case of a patient bitten by a suspicious animal. PMID:190696

Corre-Hurst, L

1977-02-23

314

[Emerging infectious diseases among swine workers].  

PubMed

In the last years emerging infections represent an important problem of public health and occupational medicine. Biological agents and their hosts exist in a precariously balanced and continuously evolving relationship, influenced by their environment. RNA viruses are responsible for most of the emerging diseases. Epidemics that recently affected the world of work are zoonoses, such as cases of SARS in healthcare staff Dutch poultry workers infected with the avian virus A/H7N7 in 2003, the current threat of avian flu A/H5N1 to poultry workers. Workers at risk include those who are in contact with live or dead infected animals, with aerosols, dust or surfaces contaminated by animal secretions, persons engaged in animal breeding and trade, veterinaries, and others. Pigs are at risk of acquiring many viral and bacterial diseases and, consequently, could be able to transmit some of these infections to occupationally exposed subjects. The aim of our study is to set out some emerging zoonosis that could affect swine workers, an occupational sector where a proper assessment of biological risks is difficult to perform. PMID:18409745

Vonesch, N; Di Renzi, S; Martini, A; Melis, P; Signorini, S; Tomao, P

315

Why we need crowdsourced data in infectious disease surveillance.  

PubMed

In infectious disease surveillance, public health data such as environmental, hospital, or census data have been extensively explored to create robust models of disease dynamics. However, this information is also subject to its own biases, including latency, high cost, contributor biases, and imprecise resolution. Simultaneously, new technologies including Internet and mobile phone based tools, now enable information to be garnered directly from individuals at the point of care. Here, we consider how these crowdsourced data offer the opportunity to fill gaps in and augment current epidemiological models. Challenges and methods for overcoming limitations of the data are also reviewed. As more new information sources become mature, incorporating these novel data into epidemiological frameworks will enable us to learn more about infectious disease dynamics. PMID:23689991

Chunara, Rumi; Smolinski, Mark S; Brownstein, John S

2013-08-01

316

Infectious agents associated with respiratory disease in pheasants.  

PubMed

In a case-control study of the infectious agents associated with natural outbreaks of respiratory disease in pheasants, 28 batches of birds from sites affected by disease and eight batches of birds from unaffected sites were examined by six veterinary laboratories in England, Wales and Scotland, and tested for mycoplasmas, other bacteria and viruses. Sinusitis was the commonest sign of disease and was associated with Mycoplasma gallisepticum as detected by PCR in the trachea (P < 0.05) and conjunctiva (P < 0.01). Sinusitis was also associated with pasteurella cultured from the sinus (P < 0.05), antibody to avian pneumovirus (APV) (P < 0.01) and avian coronaviruses as detected by reverse-transcriptase PCR (P < 0.05); there was no association between disease and APV as detected by PCR. Avian coronaviruses were the most common infectious agents detected. They were genetically close to infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) but differed in their gene sequence from all the serotypes of IBV previously identified in domestic fowl, and serological tests with six known IBV types showed little cross reactivity. Mycoplasma species other than M gallisepticum were cultured in 18 batches of pheasants but, with the exception of Mycoplasma gallinaceum, were not associated with disease. PMID:12054135

Welchman, D de B; Bradbury, J M; Cavanagh, D; Aebischer, N J

2002-05-25

317

An integrated assessment framework for climate change and infectious diseases.  

PubMed Central

Many potential human health effects have been hypothesized to result either directly or indirectly from global climate change. Changes in the prevalence and spread of infectious diseases are some of the most widely cited potential effects of climate change, and could have significant consequences for human health as well as economic and societal impacts. These changes in disease incidence would be mediated through biologic, ecologic, sociologic, and epidemiologic processes that interact with each other and which may themselves be influenced by climate change. Although hypothesized infectious disease effects have been widely discussed, there have not yet been thorough quantitative studies addressing the many processes at work. In part this is because of the complexity of the many indirect and feedback interactions or mechanisms that bear on all aspects of the climate issue. It also results from the difficulty of including the multitude of always-changing determinants of these diseases. This paper proposes a framework for an integrated assessment of the impacts of climate change on infectious diseases. The framework allows identification of potentially important indirect interactions or mechanisms, identification of important research gaps, and a means of integrating targeted research from a variety of disciplines into an enhanced understanding of the whole system. Images Figure 1 Figure 2

Chan, N Y; Ebi, K L; Smith, F; Wilson, T F; Smith, A E

1999-01-01

318

Strongyloidiasis: an emerging infectious disease in China.  

PubMed

Since the first case of strongyloidiasis reported in China in 1973, there have been 330 confirmed cases as of 2011. The present study conducted a meta-analysis on 106 cases for which detailed information on clinical symptoms, diagnosis, and outcome was available. Most (63%) cases were from the past decade. Immunocompromised patients and those given cortical hormones accounted for 68% of the cases, and case-fatality rate was 38%. General clinical symptoms included abdominal pain (53%), diarrhea (46%), fever (40%), and vomiting (39%). The parasite positivity rate in feces, sputum, and urine by microscopic diagnosis was 75%, 24%, and 8%, respectively, and gastrointestinal endoscopy or other biopsy detection rates were 17%. A lack of specific clinical manifestations makes early diagnosis and correct treatment difficult. Strongyloidiasis is an emerging disease in China, and public and clinical awareness needs to be raised to improve prevention and control. PMID:23468357

Wang, Chunmei; Xu, Jiabao; Zhou, Xiaohong; Li, Juan; Yan, Guiyun; James, Anthony A; Chen, Xiaoguang

2013-03-01

319

The use of proteomics to study infectious diseases.  

PubMed

Technology surrounding genomics, or the study of an organism's genome and its gene use, has advanced rapidly resulting in an abundance of readily available genomic data. Although genomics is extremely valuable, proteins are ultimately responsible for controlling most aspects of cellular function. The field of proteomics, or the study of the full array of proteins produced by an organism, has become the premier arena for the identification and characterization of proteins. Yet the task of characterizing a proteomic profile is more complex, in part because many unique proteins can be produced by the same gene product and because proteins have more diverse chemical structures making sequencing and identification more difficult. Proteomic profiles of a particular organism, tissue or cell are influenced by a variety of environmental stimuli, including those brought on by infectious disease. The intent of this review is to highlight applications of proteomics used in the study of pathogenesis, etiology and pathology of infectious disorders. While many infectious agents have been the target of proteomic studies, this review will focus on those infectious diseases which rank among the highest in worldwide mortalities, such as HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, malaria, measles, and hepatitis. PMID:18473905

List, E O; Berryman, D E; Bower, B; Sackmann-Sala, L; Gosney, E; Ding, J; Okada, S; Kopchick, J J

2008-03-01

320

The landscape genetics of infectious disease emergence and spread  

PubMed Central

The spread of parasites is inherently a spatial process often embedded in physically complex landscapes. It is therefore not surprising that infectious disease researchers are increasingly taking a landscape genetics perspective to elucidate mechanisms underlying basic ecological processes driving infectious disease dynamics and to understand the linkage between spatially-dependent population processes and the geographic distribution of genetic variation within both hosts and parasites. The increasing availability of genetic information on hosts and parasites when coupled to their ecological interactions can lead to insights for predicting patterns of disease emergence, spread, and control. Here, we review research progress in this area based on four different motivations for the application of landscape genetics approaches: (1) assessing the spatial organization of genetic variation in parasites as a function of environmental variability, (2) using host population genetic structure as a means to parameterize ecological dynamics that indirectly influence parasite populations, e.g. gene flow and movement pathways across heterogeneous landscapes and the concurrent transport of infectious agents, (3) elucidating the temporal and spatial scales of disease processes, and (4) reconstructing and understanding infectious disease invasion. Throughout this review, we emphasise that landscape genetic principles are relevant to infection dynamics across a range of scales from within host dynamics to global geographic patterns and that they can also be applied to unconventional “landscapes” such as heterogeneous contact networks underlying the spread of human and livestock diseases. We conclude by discussing some general considerations and problems for inferring epidemiological processes from genetic data and try to identify possible future directions and applications for this rapidly expanding field.

Biek, Roman; Real, Leslie A.

2011-01-01

321

77 FR 6810 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice...Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...Preclinical/Clinical AIDS Vaccine Development Program (IPCAVD). Date...Assistance Program Nos. 93.855, Allergy, Immunology, and...

2012-02-09

322

75 FR 54895 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice...Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...Support Program for AIDS Vaccine Development. Date: October 12, 2010...Assistance Program Nos. 93.855, Allergy, Immunology, and...

2010-09-09

323

75 FR 29353 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice...Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel, Career Development Grant Review. Date: June...Assistance Program Nos. 93.855, Allergy, Immunology, and...

2010-05-25

324

75 FR 8975 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of...of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel, Consortium of Food Allergy Research (CoFAR) and CoFAR...

2010-02-26

325

78 FR 37557 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Resource Related Research Projects for AIDS, Allergy, Immunology and Transplantation...

2013-06-21

326

76 FR 4122 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...and funding cycle. Name of Committee: Allergy, Immunology, and Transplantation...

2011-01-24

327

77 FR 59940 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...personal privacy. Name of Committee: Allergy, Immunology, and Transplantation Research...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

2012-10-01

328

78 FR 31952 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...personal privacy. Name of Committee: Allergy, Immunology, and Transplantation Research...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

2013-05-28

329

76 FR 27069 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Resource Related Research Projects for AIDS, Allergy, Immunology and Transplantation...

2011-05-10

330

77 FR 61009 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Resource Related Research Projects for AIDS, Allergy, Immunology & Transplantation....

2012-10-05

331

77 FR 43604 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID); Notice of Workshop  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID); Notice of Workshop SUMMARY: The National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), a component of the National...

2012-07-25

332

National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Profile: Fiscal Year 2000.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) conducts and supports scientific research on infectious and immunologic diseases. The goals of this research are to delineate pathogenesis, improve diagnosis and treatment, and develop vacc...

2001-01-01

333

78 FR 17218 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice...Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...Collaborative Partnership to Advance Global Biomedical Research Programs...Assistance Program Nos. 93.855, Allergy, Immunology, and...

2013-03-20

334

National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Profile. Fiscal Year 2002.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) supports and conducts basic and applied research to better understand, treat, and prevent infectious, immunologic, and allergic diseases. For more than 50 years, NIAID research has led to n...

2002-01-01

335

Genome-wide association studies and infectious disease.  

PubMed

The identification of genetic variants predisposing to complex diseases and phenotypes represent a challenge for geneticists in the early part of the 21st century. These are not simple Mendelian disorders caused by single mutations, such as cystic fibrosis or Huntington's disease, but common diseases that are usually polygenic in origin. The predisposing genes can be susceptibility factors or protective factors. One example of such a complex disease is the inflammatory skin disease psoriasis. However, another example could be protection from an infectious disease. Both of these phenotypes are due in part to the presence of low-risk variants in the host. Moreover, all of these complex phenotypes require environmental triggers as well and, in the case of infectious diseases, these are pathogens. In the case of other common diseases such as cardiovascular disease the triggers are often lifestyle-related issues such as diet or exercise. Genome-wide association studies are now identifying some of these genetic susceptibility factors. PMID:20370638

Bowcock, Anne M

2010-01-01

336

Screening for infectious diseases at international airports: the Frankfurt model.  

PubMed

Historically, ships brought infectious diseases to the continents of the world, but in this modern era, infectious diseases and pandemics are primarily spread through aviation as a mode of travel. This is a significant issue in the realm of infection control because of the increased potential for the rapid worldwide transmission and spread of disease. Although the transmission of infectious diseases to airline passengers inside an aircraft is a rare occurrence, it is essential to implement entry and exit screening procedures at airports within the context of the International Health Regulations (IHR) in order to slow down the spread of infection, especially during the early phases of a pandemic event. Currently, there are no standardized procedures for health screening at airports, thus allowing individual regional authorities to determine what they deem to be appropriate screening measures for implementation. In this paper, we will discuss a new pragmatic approach for entry and exit screening procedures at international airports, propose a new classification system for contacts within the aircraft, and discuss changing the fixed enforcement of standardized community mitigation measures to the implementation of measures that correspond to specific characteristics of individual pathogenic agents. The proposed catalog of screening measures is aimed at attaining the goals of the IHR, which states that the measures should be reasonable while avoiding inconvenience or harm to passengers and should not be any more disruptive to the smooth handling of passenger traffic than is necessary. PMID:19601499

Gaber, Walter; Goetsch, Udo; Diel, Roland; Doerr, Hans W; Gottschalk, René

2009-07-01

337

The Seattle Structural Genomics Center for Infectious Disease (SSGCID)  

PubMed Central

The NIAID-funded Seattle Structural Genomics Center for Infectious Disease (SSGCID) is a consortium established to apply structural genomics approaches to potential drug targets from NIAID priority organisms for biodefense and emerging and re-emerging diseases. The mission of the SSGCID is to determine ~400 protein structures over five years ending in 2012. In order to maximize biomedical impact, ligand-based drug-lead discovery campaigns will be pursued for a small number of high-impact targets. Here we review the center’s target selection processes, which include pro-active engagement of the infectious disease research and drug therapy communities to identify drug targets, essential enzymes, virulence factors and vaccine candidates of biomedical relevance to combat infectious diseases. This is followed by a brief overview of the SSGCID structure determination pipeline and ligand screening methodology. Finally, specifics of our resources available to the scientific community are presented. Physical materials and data produced by SSGCID will be made available to the scientific community, with the aim that they will provide essential groundwork benefiting future research and drug discovery.

Myler, P.J.; Stacy, R.; Stewart, L.; Staker, B.L.; Van Voorhis, W.C.; Varani, G.; Buchko, G.W.

2010-01-01

338

Risk of Infectious Disease Transmission Through Use of Allografts  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a – \\u000a The number of musculoskeletal and other allografts implanted in patients continues to increase because of the desirable characteristics\\u000a of such grafts for use in plastic and reconstructive surgery. Allografts, however, can harbor pathogens and pose at least\\u000a some risk for transmission of infectious diseases to recipients.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a – \\u000a Case reports document that bacterial, viral, and prion diseases (Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease or

Robert H. Kennedy; C. Randal Mills; Paul Brown

339

76 FR 58523 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Town Hall Meeting on the Future of the...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Town Hall Meeting on the Future...for Biodefense and Emerging Infectious Diseases (RCE) Program; Notice of...National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), a component...

2011-09-21

340

Castes, migration, immunogenetics and infectious diseases in south India.  

PubMed

It has been said that the grandest genetic experiment of nature has been conducted in south India in the name of the caste system. One can expect the frequency of an infectious disease to be equal to the product of the frequencies of various indicated loci/alleles, whether physiological, hormonal or immunological, in an endemic area. The sympatrically isolated caste and sub-caste populations of southern India, with differing origins, migration patterns and breeding habits, differ significantly in their HLA and other immune repertoire and are ideal models to study and test this hypothesis. The prevalence of a number of major infectious diseases, including TB and leprosy, are reviewed in different communities in the light of their genetic history. PMID:14960884

Pitchappan, R M

2002-01-01

341

Molecular Methods and Platforms for Infectious Diseases Testing  

PubMed Central

The superior sensitivity and specificity associated with the use of molecular assays has greatly improved the field of infectious disease diagnostics by providing clinicians with results that are both accurate and rapidly obtained. Herein, we review molecularly based infectious disease diagnostic tests that are Food and Drug Administration approved or cleared and commercially available in the United States as of December 31, 2010. We describe specific assays and their performance, as stated in the Food and Drug Administration's Summary of Safety and Effectiveness Data or the Office of In Vitro Diagnostic Device Evaluation and Safety's decision summaries, product inserts, or peer-reviewed literature. We summarize indications for testing, limitations, and challenges related to implementation in a clinical laboratory setting for a wide variety of common pathogens. The information presented in this review will be particularly useful for laboratories that plan to implement or expand their molecular offerings in the near term.

Emmadi, Rajyasree; Boonyaratanakornkit, Jerry B.; Selvarangan, Rangaraj; Shyamala, Venkatakrishna; Zimmer, Barbara L.; Williams, Laurina; Bryant, Bonita; Schutzbank, Ted; Schoonmaker, Michele M.; Amos Wilson, Jean A.; Hall, Leslie; Pancholi, Preeti; Bernard, Kathryn

2011-01-01

342

Infectious bursal disease virus variant from commercial Leghorn pullets.  

PubMed

An infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) was isolated from 39-to-43-day-old commercial leghorn pullets suspected of having infectious bursal disease (IBD). These chickens had been vaccinated with a commercial live IBDV vaccine at 28 and 35 days of age. An isolate designated IN was recovered using specific-pathogen-free (SPF) chickens and the BGM-70 established cell line. Experimental studies using SPF chickens vaccinated with either inactivated vaccines made from the vaccine strain used in the problem flock or a standard-type vaccine indicated no protection against the IN isolate. However, two variants and another standard-type vaccine induced protection against the IN isolate. Cross-neutralization tests indicated that the IN isolate differed antigenically from commercial vaccine strains and was related to the variant IBDV strains recently isolated from broilers. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a variant IBDV recovered from commercial layer chickens in the United States. PMID:2157389

Ismail, N M; Saif, Y M; Wigle, W L; Havenstein, G B; Jackson, C

343

Isolation of infectious bursal disease virus from Turkeys  

Microsoft Academic Search

A virus, which is morphologically identical and antigenically related to two previously known isolates of infectious bursal disease (IBD) virus, was isolated from pooled faeces of 6?week?old turkeys with diarrhoea. It is concluded that this virus, designated TY89, is an isolate of IBD virus. The isolation of TY89 was heavily dependent upon the use of electron microscopy and the immunofluorescence

M. S. McNulty; G. M. Allan; J. B. McFerran

1979-01-01

344

Diagnosing norovirus-associated infectious intestinal disease using viral load  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) is the main method for laboratory diagnosis of norovirus-associated infectious intestinal disease (IID). However, up to 16% of healthy individuals in the community, with no recent history of IID, may be RT-PCR positive; so it is unclear whether norovirus is actually the cause of illness in an IID case when they are RT-PCR positive.

Gemma Phillips; Ben Lopman; Clarence C Tam; Miren Iturriza-Gomara; David Brown; Jim Gray

2009-01-01

345

"Wrong, but Useful": Negotiating Uncertainty in Infectious Disease Modelling  

PubMed Central

For infectious disease dynamical models to inform policy for containment of infectious diseases the models must be able to predict; however, it is well recognised that such prediction will never be perfect. Nevertheless, the consensus is that although models are uncertain, some may yet inform effective action. This assumes that the quality of a model can be ascertained in order to evaluate sufficiently model uncertainties, and to decide whether or not, or in what ways or under what conditions, the model should be ‘used’. We examined uncertainty in modelling, utilising a range of data: interviews with scientists, policy-makers and advisors, and analysis of policy documents, scientific publications and reports of major inquiries into key livestock epidemics. We show that the discourse of uncertainty in infectious disease models is multi-layered, flexible, contingent, embedded in context and plays a critical role in negotiating model credibility. We argue that usability and stability of a model is an outcome of the negotiation that occurs within the networks and discourses surrounding it. This negotiation employs a range of discursive devices that renders uncertainty in infectious disease modelling a plastic quality that is amenable to ‘interpretive flexibility’. The utility of models in the face of uncertainty is a function of this flexibility, the negotiation this allows, and the contexts in which model outputs are framed and interpreted in the decision making process. We contend that rather than being based predominantly on beliefs about quality, the usefulness and authority of a model may at times be primarily based on its functional status within the broad social and political environment in which it acts.

Christley, Robert M.; Mort, Maggie; Wynne, Brian; Wastling, Jonathan M.; Heathwaite, A. Louise; Pickup, Roger; Austin, Zoe; Latham, Sophia M.

2013-01-01

346

Cytokines in the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and other infectious diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  The pathogenesis of several infectious diseases is frequently related not only to their etiological agents of viral, bacterial,\\u000a or parasitic nature, but also to the host immune response. Both inflammatory responses and specific immune responses to the\\u000a invading microorganisms are controlled by complex networks of intercellular signalling molecules, namely cytokines. This rapidly\\u000a growing family of mediators includes lymphokines, interleukins, and

G. Poli; E. Vicenzi; S. Ghezzi; A. Lazzarin

1995-01-01

347

Immunorheophoresis for the diagnosis of infectious bursal disease.  

PubMed

The immunorheophoresis (IR) technique was used for the detection of infectious bursal disease antigen from bursae collected from field cases and experimentally infected chickens. When these results were compared with that of the agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID) test, they showed excellent agreement as determined by kappa value. However, the time taken for the appearance of the precipitin lines was reduced from 14-24 hr in the AGID test to 3-5 hr in the IR technique. PMID:9645332

Raj, G D; Jayakumar, V; Thangavelu, A; Koteeswaran, A; Venugopalan, A T

348

Applying Knowledge Discovery to Predict Infectious Disease Epidemics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Predictive modelling, in a knowledge discovery context, is regarded as the problem of deriving predictive knowledge from historical\\/temporal data. Here we argue that neural networks, an established computational technology, can efficaciously be used to perform predictive modelling, i.e. to explore the intrinsic dynamics of temporal data. Infectious-disease epidemic risk management is a candidate area for exploiting the potential of neural

Syed Sibte Raza Abidi; Alwyn Goh

1998-01-01

349

Infectious Diseases in Mexico. A Survey from 1995–2000  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data obtained at a central laboratory for emerging, re-emerging, and other infectious diseases in Mexico from 1995–2000 are presented. An outstanding increase of DEN-3 circulation was identified. Aedes aegypti, the dengue vector, is widely distributed. Leptospirosis has become the most important differential diagnosis for dengue. Identification of rabies virus variants allowed cataloging of new transmitters of rabies. Rotavirus showed a

Ana Flisser; Andrés Velasco-Villa; Carmen Mart??nez-Campos; Fernando González-Dom??nguez; Baltasar Briseño-Garc??a; Rosario Garc??a-Suárez; Angel Caballero-Serv??n; Irma Hernández-Monroy; Herlinda Garc??a-Lozano; Lucina Gutiérrez-Cogco; Guadalupe Rodr??guez-Angeles; Irma López-Mart??nez; Sonia Galindo-Virgen; Roberto Vázquez-Campuzano; Susana Balandrano-Campos; Carmen Guzmán-Bracho; Angélica Olivo-D??az; Jorge Luis de la Rosa; Clementina Magos; Alejandro Escobar-Gutiérrez; Dolores Correa

2002-01-01

350

Pediatric infectious disease: unusual head and neck infections.  

PubMed

Infections in children in the head and neck regions are common, leading to frequent use and overuse of antibiotics. This review includes common as well as diverse and unusual infectious diseases, such as PFAPA (Periodic Fever Aphthous stomatitis, Pharyngitis, Adenitis) syndrome, Lemierre Syndrome, Arcanobacterium infection, and tuberculous and nontuberculous adenitis, which occur in infants, children, and adolescents. In addition, the first pediatric vaccines available with the potential to prevent oropharyngeal cancers are reviewed. PMID:22739434

Moffett, Kathryn S

2012-06-26

351

Characterisation of New Zealand isolates of infectious bursal disease virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary.  ?Isolates of infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) were obtained from domestic poultry in New Zealand in 1997 and 1998. An\\u000a in-vivo pathogenicity study carried out in specific pathogen free (SPF) chickens demonstrated the low virulence of one of\\u000a the virus isolates. The nucleotide sequences of the hypervariable region of the VP2 gene of two isolates were determined and\\u000a compared with

Y. F. Chai; N. H. Christensen; C. R. Wilks; J. Meers

2001-01-01

352

Genetic reassortment of infectious bursal disease virus in nature  

Microsoft Academic Search

Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV), a double-stranded RNA virus, is a member of the Birnaviridae family. Four pathotypes of IBDV, attenuated, virulent, antigenic variant, and very virulent (vvIBDV), have been identified. We isolated and characterized the genomic reassortant IBDV strain ZJ2000 from severe field outbreaks in commercial flocks. Full-length genomic sequence analysis showed that ZJ2000 is a natural genetic reassortant

Yongwei Wei; Jianrong Li; Jiangtao Zheng; Hong Xu; Long Li; Lian Yu

2006-01-01

353

Molecular epizootiology of infectious bursal disease (IBD) in Korea  

Microsoft Academic Search

We conducted a molecular epizootiological study of infectious bursal disease (IBD) in Korea by analyzing 85 IBD viruses (IBDVs)\\u000a obtained from vaccinated or unvaccinated flocks between 1980 and 2007. Phylogenetic analysis of the partial nucleotide sequence\\u000a of the hypervariable region of the VP2 gene (nucleotides 661–1020) and pathogenicity tests revealed more genetic and phenotypic\\u000a diversity of IBDV in Korea than

Woo-Jin Jeon; Kang-Seuk Choi; Dong-Woo Lee; Eun-Kyoung Lee; Sang-Ho Cha; Sun-Hee Cho; Jun-Hun Kwon; Yeo-sung Yoon; Sun-Joong Kim; Jae-Hong Kim; Hyuk-Joon Kwon

2009-01-01

354

Economic and Ethical Aspects of Controlling Infectious Diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Controlling infectious diseases is expensive and decisions have to be made on how to spend the money. Cost effectiveness analysis\\u000a provides a rational basis for making these decisions, even if the present state of the art in this domain does not escape\\u000a criticism. A presentation of the methods currently available, of the results they have produced, and of the criticisms

Joseph Brunet-Jailly

355

"Wrong, but useful": negotiating uncertainty in infectious disease modelling.  

PubMed

For infectious disease dynamical models to inform policy for containment of infectious diseases the models must be able to predict; however, it is well recognised that such prediction will never be perfect. Nevertheless, the consensus is that although models are uncertain, some may yet inform effective action. This assumes that the quality of a model can be ascertained in order to evaluate sufficiently model uncertainties, and to decide whether or not, or in what ways or under what conditions, the model should be 'used'. We examined uncertainty in modelling, utilising a range of data: interviews with scientists, policy-makers and advisors, and analysis of policy documents, scientific publications and reports of major inquiries into key livestock epidemics. We show that the discourse of uncertainty in infectious disease models is multi-layered, flexible, contingent, embedded in context and plays a critical role in negotiating model credibility. We argue that usability and stability of a model is an outcome of the negotiation that occurs within the networks and discourses surrounding it. This negotiation employs a range of discursive devices that renders uncertainty in infectious disease modelling a plastic quality that is amenable to 'interpretive flexibility'. The utility of models in the face of uncertainty is a function of this flexibility, the negotiation this allows, and the contexts in which model outputs are framed and interpreted in the decision making process. We contend that rather than being based predominantly on beliefs about quality, the usefulness and authority of a model may at times be primarily based on its functional status within the broad social and political environment in which it acts. PMID:24146851

Christley, Robert M; Mort, Maggie; Wynne, Brian; Wastling, Jonathan M; Heathwaite, A Louise; Pickup, Roger; Austin, Zoë; Latham, Sophia M

2013-10-16

356

Importance of National Institute of Infectious Diseases and Institutes of Public Health on control of infectious diseases in the new century.  

PubMed

As the incidence of infectious diseases has recently decreased, we are faced with new problems, such as emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases, food poisoning, zoonosis, and bio-terrorism. In light of these new conditions, the National Institute of Infectious Diseases, the Local Institutes of Public Health, public health offices, and other medical organization must maintain close relationship in order to protect the health and safety of the citizens. PMID:12606825

Tanno, Sakiko

2002-12-01

357

Surface Markers on Lymphocytes of Patients with Infectious Diseases  

PubMed Central

Peripheral blood lymphocytes from normal subjects and patients with viral and bacterial infectious diseases were examined for the presence of three surface markers: (i) surface immunoglobulins, (ii) receptor for C3 complement component (EAC test), and (iii) spontaneous binding of sheep red blood cells (E rosette formation). The first two markers are used to detect bone marrow-derived lymphocytes (B cells); the E rosette formation is dependent on thymus-derived lymphocytes (T cells). We demonstrated these assumptions, as defined by others, by the fractionation of lymphocytes on bead columns coated with immunoglobulin plus anti-immunoglobulin. The peripheral blood lymphocytes of normal individuals consisted of 52% T cells, 23% B cells with EAC receptor, and 21% B cells with membrane immunoglobulin. There was no significant difference in these values from those obtained in viral or bacterial diseases. Only a few cases of infectious mononucleosis had an increase in T cells. These results give us a partial picture of the T- and B-cell frequency in normal subjects and in patients with infectious diseases. Images

Aiuti, Fernando; Ciarla, Maria V.; D'Asero, Carmelo; D'Amelio, Raffaele; Garofalo, John A.

1973-01-01

358

Infectious diseases citation patterns: mapping the literature 2008-2010  

PubMed Central

Objectives: The research identified the publication types and ages most frequently cited in the infectious diseases literature and the most commonly cited journals. Methods: From 2008–2010, 5,056 articles in 5 infectious diseases journals cited 166,650 items. Two random samples were drawn: one (n?=?1,060) from the total set of citations and one (n?=?1,060) from the citations to journal articles. For each sample citation, publication type and date, age of cited item, and inclusion of uniform resource locator (URL) were collected. For each item in the cited journal articles sample, journal title, publication date, and age of the cited article were collected. Bradford zones were used for further analysis. Results: Journal articles (91%, n?=?963) made up the bulk of cited items, followed by miscellaneous items (4.6%, n?=?49). Dates of publication for cited items ranged from 1933–2010 (mean?=?2001, mode?=?2007). Over half (50.2%, n?=?483) of cited journal articles were published within the previous 5 years. The journal article citations included 358 unique journal titles. Discussion: The citations to current and older publications in a range of disciplines, heavy citation of journals, and citation of miscellaneous and government documents revealed the depth and breadth of resources needed for the study of infectious diseases.

Rethlefsen, Melissa L.; Livinski, Alicia A.

2013-01-01

359

The Guinea Pig as a Model of Infectious Diseases  

PubMed Central

The words ‘guinea pig’ are synonymous with scientific experimentation, but much less is known about this species than many other laboratory animals. This animal model has been used for approximately 200 y and was the first to be used in the study of infectious diseases such as tuberculosis and diphtheria. Today the guinea pig is used as a model for a number of infectious bacterial diseases, including pulmonary, sexually transmitted, ocular and aural, gastrointestinal, and other infections that threaten the lives of humans. Most studies on the immune response to these diseases, with potential therapies and vaccines, have been conducted in animal models (for example, mouse) that may have less similarity to humans because of the large number of immunologic reagents available for these other species. This review presents some of the diseases for which the guinea pig is regarded as the premier model to study infections because of its similarity to humans with regard to symptoms and immune response. Furthermore, for diseases in which guinea pigs share parallel pathogenesis of disease with humans, they are potentially the best animal model for designing treatments and vaccines. Future studies of immune regulation of these diseases, novel therapies, and preventative measures require the development of new immunologic reagents designed specifically for the guinea pig.

Padilla-Carlin, Danielle J; McMurray, David N; Hickey, Anthony J

2008-01-01

360

Effects of global climate on infectious disease: the cholera model.  

PubMed

Recently, the role of the environment and climate in disease dynamics has become a subject of increasing interest to microbiologists, clinicians, epidemiologists, and ecologists. Much of the interest has been stimulated by the growing problems of antibiotic resistance among pathogens, emergence and/or reemergence of infectious diseases worldwide, the potential of bioterrorism, and the debate concerning climate change. Cholera, caused by Vibrio cholerae, lends itself to analyses of the role of climate in infectious disease, coupled to population dynamics of pathogenic microorganisms, for several reasons. First, the disease has a historical context linking it to specific seasons and biogeographical zones. In addition, the population dynamics of V. cholerae in the environment are strongly controlled by environmental factors, such as water temperature, salinity, and the presence of copepods, which are, in turn, controlled by larger-scale climate variability. In this review, the association between plankton and V. cholerae that has been documented over the last 20 years is discussed in support of the hypothesis that cholera shares properties of a vector-borne disease. In addition, a model for environmental transmission of cholera to humans in the context of climate variability is presented. The cholera model provides a template for future research on climate-sensitive diseases, allowing definition of critical parameters and offering a means of developing more sophisticated methods for prediction of disease outbreaks. PMID:12364378

Lipp, Erin K; Huq, Anwar; Colwell, Rita R

2002-10-01

361

Infectious diseases of animals and plants: an interdisciplinary approach.  

PubMed

Animal and plant diseases pose a serious and continuing threat to food security, food safety, national economies, biodiversity and the rural environment. New challenges, including climate change, regulatory developments, changes in the geographical concentration and size of livestock holdings, and increasing trade make this an appropriate time to assess the state of knowledge about the impact that diseases have and the ways in which they are managed and controlled. In this paper, the case is explored for an interdisciplinary approach to studying the management of infectious animal and plant diseases. Reframing the key issues through incorporating both social and natural science research can provide a holistic understanding of disease and increase the policy relevance and impact of research. Finally, in setting out the papers in this Theme Issue, a picture of current and future animal and plant disease threats is presented. PMID:21624914

Wilkinson, Katy; Grant, Wyn P; Green, Laura E; Hunter, Stephen; Jeger, Michael J; Lowe, Philip; Medley, Graham F; Mills, Peter; Phillipson, Jeremy; Poppy, Guy M; Waage, Jeff

2011-07-12

362

Potential Infectious Etiology of Beh?et's Disease  

PubMed Central

Behçet's disease is a multisystem inflammatory disorder characterized by recurrent oral aphthous ulcers, genital ulcers, uveitis, and skin lesions. The cause of Behçet's disease remains unknown, but epidemiologic findings suggest that an autoimmune process is triggered by an environmental agent in a genetically predisposed individual. An infectious agent could operate through molecular mimicry, and subsequently the disease could be perpetuated by an abnormal immune response to an autoantigen in the absence of ongoing infection. Potentia bacterial are Saccharomyces cerevisiae, mycobacteria, Borrelia burgdorferi, Helicobacter pylori, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Mycoplasma fermentans, but the most commonly investigated microorganism is Streptococcus sanguinis. The relationship between streptococcal infections and Behçet's disease is suggested by clinical observations that an unhygienic oral condition is frequently noted in the oral cavity of Behçet's disease patients. Several viral agents, including herpes simplex virus-1, hepatitis C virus, parvovirus B19, cytomegalovirus, Epstein-Barr virus and varicella zoster virus, may also have some role.

Galeone, Massimiliano; Colucci, Roberta; D'Erme, Angelo Massimiliano; Moretti, Silvia; Lotti, Torello

2012-01-01

363

Extracellular DNA traps in allergic, infectious, and autoimmune diseases.  

PubMed

Extracellular DNA traps are part of the innate immune response and are seen with many infectious, allergic, and autoimmune diseases. They can be generated by several different leukocytes, including neutrophils, eosinophils, and monocytes, as well as mast cells. Here, we review the composition of these extracellular DNA-containing structures as well as potential mechanisms for their production and function. In general, extracellular DNA traps have been described as binding to and killing pathogens, particularly bacteria, fungi, but also parasites. On the other hand, it is possible that DNA traps contribute to immunopathology in chronic inflammatory diseases, such as bronchial asthma. In addition, it has been demonstrated that they can initiate and/or potentiate autoimmune diseases. Extracellular DNA traps represent a frequently observed phenomenon in inflammatory diseases, and they appear to participate in the cross-talk between different immune cells. These new insights into the pathogenesis of inflammatory diseases may open new avenues for targeted therapies. PMID:23409745

Simon, D; Simon, H U; Yousefi, S

2013-02-15

364

Infectious Disease Outbreaks in Competitive Sports, 2005-2010  

PubMed Central

Context Old, evolving, and new infectious agents continually threaten the participation of competitors in sports. Objective To provide an update of the medical literature on infectious disease outbreaks in sport for the last 5 years (May 2005–November 2010). Main Outcome Measure(s) A total of 21 outbreaks or clusters were identified. Results Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (n = 7, 33%; mainly community acquired) and tinea (trichophytosis: n = 6, 29%) were the most common pathogens responsible for outbreaks. Skin and soft tissue was the most common site of infection (n = 15, 71%). Conclusions The majority of outbreaks reported occurred in close-contact sports, mainly combat sports (ie, wrestling, judo) and American football. Twelve outbreaks (57%) involved high school or collegiate competitors. Common community outbreak pathogens, such as influenza virus and norovirus, have received little attention.

Collins, Cathal James; O'Connell, Brian; BCh, SI MB

2012-01-01

365

Analysis of host- and strain-dependent cell death responses during infectious salmon anemia virus infection in vitro  

PubMed Central

Background Infectious salmon anemia virus (ISAV) is an aquatic orthomyxovirus and the causative agent of infectious salmon anemia (ISA), a disease of great importance in the Atlantic salmon farming industry. In vitro, ISAV infection causes cytophatic effect (CPE) in cell lines from Atlantic salmon, leading to rounding and finally detachment of the cells from the substratum. In this study, we investigated the mode of cell death during in vitro ISAV infection in different Atlantic salmon cell lines, using four ISAV strains causing different mortality in vivo. Results The results show that caspase 3/7 activity increased during the course of infection in ASK and SHK-1 cells, infected cells showed increased surface expression of phosphatidylserine and increased PI uptake, compared to mock infected cells; and morphological alterations of the mitochondria were observed. Expression analysis of immune relevant genes revealed no correlation between in vivo mortality and expression, but good correlation in expression of interferon genes. Conclusion Results from this study indicate that there is both strain and cell type dependent differences in the virus-host interaction during ISAV infection. This is important to bear in mind when extrapolating in vitro findings to the in vivo situation.

Schi?tz, Berit L; Baekkevold, Espen S; Poulsen, Lene C; Mjaaland, Siri; Gj?en, Tor

2009-01-01

366

Transmission Heterogeneity and Control Strategies for Infectious Disease Emergence  

PubMed Central

Background The control of emergence and spread of infectious diseases depends critically on the details of the genetic makeup of pathogens and hosts, their immunological, behavioral and ecological traits, and the pattern of temporal and spatial contacts among the age/stage-classes of susceptible and infectious host individuals. Methods and Findings We show that failing to acknowledge the existence of heterogeneities in the transmission rate among age/stage-classes can make traditional eradication and control strategies ineffective, and in some cases, policies aimed at controlling pathogen emergence can even increase disease incidence in the host. When control strategies target for reduction in numbers those subsets of the population that effectively limit the production of new susceptible individuals, then control can produce a flush of new susceptibles entering the population. The availability of a new cohort of susceptibles may actually increase disease incidence. We illustrate these general points using Classical Swine Fever as a reference disease. Conclusion Negative effects of culling are robust to alternative formulations of epidemiological processes and underline the importance of better assessing transmission structure in the design of wildlife disease control strategies.

Bolzoni, Luca; Real, Leslie; De Leo, Giulio

2007-01-01

367

Infectious Coryza: Overview of the Disease and New Diagnostic Options  

PubMed Central

Infectious coryza is a well-recognized and commonly encountered upper respiratory tract disease of chickens that is caused by the bacterium Haemophilus paragallinarum. The occurrence of recent outbreaks in North America has emphasized that the disease can be significant in meat chickens as well as layer chickens. In developing countries, coryza is commonly complicated by the presence of a range of other infections, resulting in severe disease and significant economic losses. Unusual forms of the disease, involving arthritis and septicemia, again associated with the presence of other pathogens, have been found in South America. Newly recognized bacteria such as Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale and phenotypic variant forms of both H. paragallinarum and close relatives (variant in that they no longer require V-factor for growth in vitro) have increased the difficulty associated with diagnosing the disease. There have been suggestions in both South America and South Africa that new serovars or serovar variants, associated with unusual clinical manifestations and causing vaccine failures, are emerging. Definitive evidence to confirm or deny the role of these “variants” in vaccine failures is currently not available. A new DNA-based diagnostic technique, involving PCR, has been recently described and will greatly assist in the diagnosis of infectious coryza.

Blackall, P. J.

1999-01-01

368

[A brief discussion on ancient Chinese Infectious Hospital and setting down for the patients with infectious diseases].  

PubMed

The medical care and treatment of patients with infectious diseases began in the Yin-Sang dynasty is the earliest in Chinese character, indicating an idea of patients with infectious diseases kept in isolation ward. This character was found in Bronze inscriptious dated 3350 years ago. In the Spring and Autumn period, isolation ward for infectious disease patients was mentioned in Lun Yu. In the Qin dynasty, isolation ward for leprosy patients was mentioned by Qinjian from Yunmeng (Cloudy Dreams of Sleeping Tiger) in Hubei provice, which was called Liqiansuo. In the Eastern Han dynasty, infectious army hospital was set up --Yanlu. From the Six dynasties period to the Sui-Tang dynasties, clinical wards in the temples, and after the song dynasty--An Le Fang, An Ji Fang, Bao Shou Cui He Guan, Jiang Li Yuan, Yang Ji Yuan, Fu Tian Yuan etc, though not specifically set up for infectious diseases patients, all played an important role for the isolation, setting down and treatment of infectious diseases patients. PMID:11618963

Li, L

1997-01-01

369

A Comparative Analysis of Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers and Polychlorinated Biphenyls in Southern Sea Otters that Died of Infectious Diseases and Noninfectious Causes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Southern sea otters (Enhydra lutris nereis) from the California coast continue to exhibit a slower population regrowth rate than the population in Alaska. Infectious\\u000a diseases have been identified as a frequent cause of death. Infectious diseases caused by varied pathogens including bacteria,\\u000a fungi, and parasites were suggestive of compromised immunological health of mature animals in this population. To test the

Kurunthachalam Kannan; Emily Perrotta; Nancy J. Thomas; Kenneth M. Aldous

2007-01-01

370

Adaptive contact networks change effective disease infectiousness and dynamics.  

PubMed

Human societies are organized in complex webs that are constantly reshaped by a social dynamic which is influenced by the information individuals have about others. Similarly, epidemic spreading may be affected by local information that makes individuals aware of the health status of their social contacts, allowing them to avoid contact with those infected and to remain in touch with the healthy. Here we study disease dynamics in finite populations in which infection occurs along the links of a dynamical contact network whose reshaping may be biased based on each individual's health status. We adopt some of the most widely used epidemiological models, investigating the impact of the reshaping of the contact network on the disease dynamics. We derive analytical results in the limit where network reshaping occurs much faster than disease spreading and demonstrate numerically that this limit extends to a much wider range of time scales than one might anticipate. Specifically, we show that from a population-level description, disease propagation in a quickly adapting network can be formulated equivalently as disease spreading on a well-mixed population but with a rescaled infectiousness. We find that for all models studied here--SI, SIS and SIR--the effective infectiousness of a disease depends on the population size, the number of infected in the population, and the capacity of healthy individuals to sever contacts with the infected. Importantly, we indicate how the use of available information hinders disease progression, either by reducing the average time required to eradicate a disease (in case recovery is possible), or by increasing the average time needed for a disease to spread to the entire population (in case recovery or immunity is impossible). PMID:20808884

Van Segbroeck, Sven; Santos, Francisco C; Pacheco, Jorge M

2010-08-19

371

76 FR 10383 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...would constitute a clearly unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious...of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel; Genomics of Transplantation Cooperative Research Program. Date:...

2011-02-24

372

Climate Change and the Geographic Distribution of Infectious Diseases  

PubMed Central

Our ability to predict the effects of climate change on the spread of infectious diseases is in its infancy. Numerous, and in some cases conflicting, predictions have been developed, principally based on models of biological processes or mapping of current and historical disease statistics. Current debates on whether climate change, relative to socioeconomic determinants, will be a major influence on human disease distributions are useful to help identify research needs but are probably artificially polarized. We have at least identified many of the critical geophysical constraints, transport opportunities, biotic requirements for some disease systems, and some of the socioeconomic factors that govern the process of migration and establishment of parasites and pathogens. Furthermore, we are beginning to develop a mechanistic understanding of many of these variables at specific sites. Better predictive understanding will emerge in the coming years from analyses regarding how these variables interact with each other.

2010-01-01

373

Dynamics of infectious disease transmission by inhalable respiratory droplets  

PubMed Central

Transmission of respiratory infectious diseases in humans, for instance influenza, occurs by several modes. Respiratory droplets provide a vector of transmission of an infectious pathogen that may contribute to different transmission modes. An epidemiological model incorporating the dynamics of inhalable respiratory droplets is developed to assess their relevance in the infectious process. Inhalable respiratory droplets are divided into respirable droplets, with droplet diameter less than 10 µm, and inspirable droplets, with diameter in the range 10–100 µm: both droplet classes may be inhaled or settle. Droplet dynamics is determined by their physical properties (size), whereas population dynamics is determined by, among other parameters, the pathogen infectivity and the host contact rates. Three model influenza epidemic scenarios, mediated by different airborne or settled droplet classes, are analysed. The scenarios are distinguished by the characteristic times associated with breathing at contact and with hand-to-face contact. The scenarios suggest that airborne transmission, mediated by respirable droplets, provides the dominant transmission mode in middle and long-term epidemics, whereas inspirable droplets, be they airborne or settled, characterize short-term epidemics with high attack rates. The model neglects close-contact transmission by droplet sprays (direct projection onto facial mucous membranes), retaining close-contact transmission by inspirable droplets.

Stilianakis, Nikolaos I.; Drossinos, Yannis

2010-01-01

374

On the Social-Economic Significance of Infectious Diseases. I. Characteristics of the Role of Infectious-Disease Morbidity in Temporary Incapacity.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The important role of infectious diseases in the causation of temporary incapacity of blue- and white-collar workers in a large industrial establishment is shown. Every other case and every third day of incapacity was connected with infectious-disease mor...

I. L. Shakhanina R. P. Argutina A. A. Sumarokov

1971-01-01

375

Emerging Infectious Diseases: A Peer-Reviewed Journal Tracking and Analyzing Disease Trends  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The US National Center for Infectious Diseases, Center for Disease Control, offers the full text of its quarterly, peer reviewed journal Emerging Infectious Diseases at its web site. The issues are divided into three categories: Perspectives, dealing with the underlying causes of infectious disease emergence; Synopses, summaries of specific diseases; and Dispatches, "brief laboratory or epidemiologic reports with an international scope." The October-December 1996 issue contains articles on protecting against dangerous emerging pathogens, "Molecular Mechanisms of Bacterial Virulence," and Creutzfeldt-Jacob Disease in the US, among others. Issues are available in HTML, ASCII, .pdf, and PostScript format. A limited number of issues are available in Spanish, French and Chinese.

1995-01-01

376

Nonzero solutions of nonlinear integral equations modeling infectious disease  

SciTech Connect

Sufficient conditions to insure the existence of periodic solutions to the nonlinear integral equation, x(t) = ..integral../sup t//sub t-tau/f(s,x(s))ds, are given in terms of simple product and product integral inequalities. The equation can be interpreted as a model for the spread of infectious diseases (e.g., gonorrhea or any of the rhinovirus viruses) if x(t) is the proportion of infectives at time t and f(t,x(t)) is the proportion of new infectives per unit time.

Williams, L.R. (Indiana Univ., South Bend); Leggett, R.W.

1982-01-01

377

[Perspective of development of vaccine against infectious diseases].  

PubMed

It is really expected to develop vaccines which are based on newly developed technologies, since we are facing to various emerging infectious diseases such as new influenza epidemic. Various vaccines for infants or children have been developed to use, but vaccines for adolescent such as human papilloma vaccine, and those for adults such as zoster vaccine have been recently developed in USA and Europe. Vaccines based on new concept such as recombinant vaccine, DNA vaccine, polypeptide vaccine and mucosal vaccine will be on market in near future. Furthermore, development of new adjuvants inducing high immunity but having few side-reaction is urgently needed. PMID:21922749

Yamanishi, Koichi

2011-09-01

378

Role of oxidative stress in infectious diseases. A review.  

PubMed

Oxidative stress plays a dual role in infections. Free radicals protect against invading microorganisms, and they can also cause tissue damage during the resulting inflammation. In the process of infection, there is generation of reactive species by myeloperoxidase, NADPH oxidase, and nitric oxide synthase. On the other hand, reactive species can be generated among others, by cytochrome P450, some metals, and xanthine oxidase. Some pathologies arising during infection can be attributed to oxidative stress and generation of reactive species in infection can even have fatal consequences. This article reviews the basic pathways in which reactive species can accumulate during infectious diseases and discusses the related health consequences. PMID:23504625

Pohanka, Miroslav

2013-03-17

379

Nutritional therapy and infectious diseases: a two-edged sword  

PubMed Central

The benefits and risks of nutritional therapies in the prevention and management of infectious diseases in the developed world are reviewed. There is strong evidence that early enteral feeding of patients prevents infections in a variety of traumatic and surgical illnesses. There is, however, little support for similar early feeding in medical illnesses. Parenteral nutrition increases the risk of infection when compared to enteral feeding or delayed nutrition. The use of gastric feedings appears to be as safe and effective as small bowel feedings. Dietary supplementation with glutamine appears to lower the risk of post-surgical infections and the ingestion of cranberry products has value in preventing urinary tract infections in women.

Donabedian, Haig

2006-01-01

380

Pathogenicity, attenuation, and immunogenicity of infectious bursal disease virus.  

PubMed

An investigation was conducted in specific-pathogen-free chickens on the pathogenicity of bursa-derived and tissue culture-attenuated classic (STC) and variant (IN) serotype 1 strains of infectious bursal disease virus. The IN bursa-derived virus caused bursal inflammation, necrosis, and atrophy earlier than the bursa-derived STC virus. Both viruses lost their pathogenicity after four passages in BGM-70 cells. A statistically significant level (P < 0.05) of protection was observed in SPF chickens vaccinated with the attenuated IN virus used as a live or inactivated vaccine followed by homologous (IN) and heterologous (STC) challenge with bursa-derived viruses. PMID:8883785

Hassan, M K; Al-Natour, M Q; Ward, L A; Saif, Y M

381

Expanded infectious diseases screening program for Hispanic transplant candidates.  

PubMed

Most guidelines for pre-transplant screening recommend enhanced screening among patients with potential exposure to such pathogens as Strongyloides stercoralis and Trypanosoma cruzi, the cause of Chagas disease. The incidence of these diseases in the Hispanic immigrant population has not been extensively studied. Transplant candidates who were evaluated by our program's Hispanic Transplant Program were referred for expanded infectious disease screening including Mycobacterium tuberculosis, S. stercoralis, Leishmania, and T. cruzi. Between December 2006 and December 2008, 83 patients were screened. Most were from Mexico but we also screened patients from Ecuador, Puerto Rico, and Peru. Most patients lived in urban locations before moving to the United States. Latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) was found in 20%, and 6.7% had serologic evidence of S. stercoralis infection. These patients underwent treatment of latent infection without difficulty. To date, 14 patients have undergone living-donor kidney transplantation. Two of these patients had positive Leishmania titers and are being followed clinically, 1 was treated for S. stercoralis, and 2 were treated for LTBI pre-transplant. All have done well without evidence of screened pathogens an average of 348 days (range 65-766 days) post transplant. Expanded screening identifies endemic infections in the Hispanic immigrant population that can be treated before transplant, thereby minimizing post-transplant infectious complications. PMID:20534036

Fitzpatrick, M A; Caicedo, J C; Stosor, V; Ison, M G

2010-05-30

382

Dynamic models of infectious diseases as regulators of population sizes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five SIRS epidemiological models for populations of varying size are considered. The incidences of infection are given by mass action terms involving the number of infectives and either the number of susceptibles or the fraction of the population which is susceptible. When the population dynamics are immigration and deaths, thresholds are found which determine whether the disease dies out or

Jaime Mena-Lorcat; Herbert W. Hethcote

1992-01-01

383

Public apprehension of emerging infectious diseases: are changes afoot?  

PubMed

Using social representations theory this paper casts light on the pattern of content that characterises the public response to emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases (EID). The pattern is: distancing the disease from the self/ one's in-groups; blame of particular entities for the disease's origin and/or spread; and stigmatisation of those who have contracted it and/or who are represented as having intensified its spread. This pattern is not unique to EID but extends to many risks, making EID fruitful events for understanding public apprehension of potential dangers. This process may be driven by worry, fear and anxiety since when levels of these are low, as has arguably been the case with the 2009/10 "Swine Flu" pandemic, the pattern transforms. The distancing-blame-stigma pattern may also be transformed by growing reflexivity, a feature of late modern societies, as well as material features of the epidemic and "EID fatigue". PMID:21936260

Joffe, Helene

2011-07-01

384

Analysis of timeliness of infectious disease reporting in the Netherlands  

PubMed Central

Background Timely reporting of infectious disease cases to public health authorities is essential to effective public health response. To evaluate the timeliness of reporting to the Dutch Municipal Health Services (MHS), we used as quantitative measures the intervals between onset of symptoms and MHS notification, and between laboratory diagnosis and notification with regard to six notifiable diseases. Methods We retrieved reporting data from June 2003 to December 2008 from the Dutch national notification system for shigellosis, EHEC/STEC infection, typhoid fever, measles, meningococcal disease, and hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection. For each disease, median intervals between date of onset and MHS notification were calculated and compared with the median incubation period. The median interval between date of laboratory diagnosis and MHS notification was similarly analysed. For the year 2008, we also investigated whether timeliness is improved by MHS agreements with physicians and laboratories that allow direct laboratory reporting. Finally, we investigated whether reports made by post, fax, or e-mail were more timely. Results The percentage of infectious diseases reported within one incubation period varied widely, between 0.4% for shigellosis and 90.3% for HAV infection. Not reported within two incubation periods were 97.1% of shigellosis cases, 76.2% of cases of EHEC/STEC infection, 13.3% of meningococcosis cases, 15.7% of measles cases, and 29.7% of typhoid fever cases. A substantial percentage of infectious disease cases was reported more than three days after laboratory diagnosis, varying between 12% for meningococcosis and 42% for shigellosis. MHS which had agreements with physicians and laboratories showed a significantly shorter notification time compared to MHS without such agreements. Conclusions Over the study period, many cases of the six notifiable diseases were not reported within two incubation periods, and many were reported more than three days after laboratory diagnosis. An increase in direct laboratory reporting of diagnoses to MHS would improve timeliness, as would the use of fax rather than post or e-mail. Automated reporting systems have to be explored in the Netherlands. Development of standardised and improved measures for timeliness is needed.

2011-01-01

385

Integrated management of childhood illness: an emphasis on the management of infectious diseases.  

PubMed

The Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (IMCI) strategy has helped strengthen the application and expand coverage of key child survival interventions aimed at preventing deaths from infectious disease, respiratory illness, and malnutrition, whether at the health services, in the community, or at home. IMCI covers the prevention, treatment, and follow-up of the leading causes of mortality, which are responsible for at least two-thirds of deaths of children younger than 5 years in the countries of the Americas. The IMCI clinical guidelines take an evidence-based, syndrome approach to case managment that supports the rational, effective, and affordable use of drugs and diagnostic tools. When clinical resources are limited, the syndrome approach is a more realistic and cost-effective way to manage patients. Careful and systematic assessment of common symptoms and well-selected clinical signs provide sufficient information to guide effective actions. PMID:16822470

Benguigui, Yehuda; Stein, Fernando

2006-04-01

386

Lyme disease: a unique human model for an infectious etiology of rheumatic disease.  

PubMed Central

Lyme disease is a complex immune-mediated multi-system disorder that is infectious in origin and inflammatory or "rheumatic" in expression. Through its epidemiologic characteristics, large numbers of a seasonally synchronized patient population are readily available for prospective study. Lyme disease has a known clinical onset ("zero time"), marked by the characteristic expanding skin lesion, erythema chronicum migrans, and a clearly defined pre-articular phase. At least some manifestations of the disorder are responsive to antibiotics, and the causative agent--a spirochete--is now known. These advantages make Lyme disease unique as a human model for an infectious etiology of rheumatic disease.

Malawista, S. E.; Steere, A. C.; Hardin, J. A.

1984-01-01

387

Neurological diseasesTargeting programmed cell death in neurodegenerative diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Molecular pathways of programmed cell death (PCD) are activated in various neurodegenerative disorders including Parkinson's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and Huntington's disease. In these diseases, PCD might be pathogenic, and targeting it might mitigate neurodegeneration. To identify potential neuroprotective targets within the PCD machinery, the expression and activity of some of its components have been altered by genetic or pharmacological

Serge Przedborski; Miquel Vila

2003-01-01

388

[Sir Arthur Conan Doyle, Sherlock Holmes and infectious diseases].  

PubMed

Besides a pleasant author of best sellers, Sir Arthur Conan Doyle was a medical doctor, writing excellent short stories about the exercise of his profession in England. However, even he mentions The British Medical Journal and The Lancet in the Sherlock Holmes's stories, when in the plot introduces infectious diseases, Conan Doyle ignores important discoveries in the field of tetanus. Anyway, the appearing of infectious diseases in the adventures of the detective are rare: one mention of tetanus, another of leprosy and- the most analyzed in medical literature a case of murder by inoculation of bacteria, probably the agent of melioidosis. Also he makes his hero discovers the toxic actions of a medusa and a transplant of solid organ. Little for a physician and less for an author who also wrote science fiction: it seems that the history of the great medical discoveries at the end of nineteenth century and beginning of the twentieth has passed by his side.., and he just couldn't see it. PMID:21186510

Ledermann D, Walter

2010-10-01

389

Biosecurity measures in 48 isolation facilities managing highly infectious diseases.  

PubMed

Biosecurity measures are traditionally applied to laboratories, but they may also be usefully applied in highly specialized clinical settings, such as the isolation facilities for the management of patients with highly infectious diseases (eg, viral hemorrhagic fevers, SARS, smallpox, potentially severe pandemic flu, and MDR- and XDR-tuberculosis). In 2009 the European Network for Highly Infectious Diseases conducted a survey in 48 isolation facilities in 16 European countries to determine biosecurity measures for access control to the facility. Security personnel are present in 39 facilities (81%). In 35 facilities (73%), entrance to the isolation area is restricted; control methods include electronic keys, a PIN system, closed-circuit TV, and guards at the doors. In 25 facilities (52%), identification and registration of all staff entering and exiting the isolation area are required. Access control is used in most surveyed centers, but specific lacks exist in some facilities. Further data are needed to assess other biosecurity aspects, such as the security measures during the transportation of potentially contaminated materials and measures to address the risk of an "insider attack." PMID:22571373

Puro, Vincenzo; Fusco, Francesco M; Schilling, Stefan; Thomson, Gail; De Iaco, Giuseppina; Brouqui, Philippe; Maltezou, Helena C; Bannister, Barbara; Gottschalk, René; Brodt, Hans-Rheinhard; Ippolito, Giuseppe

2012-05-09

390

[Historical origin and evolution of the agents of infectious diseases].  

PubMed

Data on the establishment and further evolution of the causative agents of human infectious diseases were systematized. Saprophytes proved to be the initial stage of this evolution for all the parasitic species. It was demonstrated by concrete examples that evolution of parasitism was the result of an interaction of many factors (the mechanism of transmission of the causative agents, the immunity formation in the population, hereditary resistance, etc.) and not only the sequence of a unilateral action of the transmission mechanism. The author considers that some properties of the causative agents of the infecticus diseases of man (spore formation, the capacity to reproduction on the objects of the external environment) were not newly acquired in the process of the parasitic species formation, but atavistic signs which persisted from saprophytic ancestors. The dialectics of progressive and regressive processes in the acqisition of the parasitic properties by saprophytes is considered. PMID:983587

Sokhin, A A

1976-08-01

391

Globalization of infectious diseases: the impact of migration.  

PubMed

With up to 2% of the world's population living outside of their country of birth, the potential impact of population mobility on health and on use of health services of migrant host nations is increasing in its importance. The drivers of mobility, the process of the international movement, and the back-and-forth transitioning between differential risk environments has significance for the management of infectious diseases in migrant receiving areas. The management issues are broad, high-level, and cross-cutting, including policy decisions on managing the migration process for skilled-labor requirements, population demographic and biometric characteristics, and family reunification; to program issues encompassing health care professional education, training, and maintenance of competence; communication of global events of public health significance; development of management guidelines, particularly for nonendemic diseases; access to diagnostic and therapeutic interventions for exotic or rare clinical presentations; and monitoring of health service use and health outcomes in both the migrant and local populations. PMID:15227621

Gushulak, Brian D; MacPherson, Douglas W

2004-05-20

392

Biological warfare training. Infectious disease outbreak differentiation criteria.  

PubMed

The threat of biological terrorism and warfare may increase as the availability of weaponizable agents increase, the relative production costs of these agents decrease, and, most importantly, there exist terrorist groups willing to use them. Therefore, an important consideration during the current emphasis of heightened surveillance for emerging infectious diseases is the capability to differentiate between natural and intentional outbreaks. Certain attributes of a disease outbreak, while perhaps not pathognomic for a biological attack when considered singly, may in combination with other attributes provide convincing evidence for intentional causation. These potentially differentiating criteria include proportion of combatants at risk, temporal patterns of illness onset, number of cases, clinical presentation, strain/variant, economic impact, geographic location, morbidity/mortality, antimicrobial resistance patterns, seasonal distribution, zoonotic potential, residual infectivity/toxicity, prevention/therapeutic potential, route of exposure, weather/climate conditions, incubation period, and concurrence with belligerent activities of potential adversaries. PMID:10681967

Noah, D L; Sobel, A L; Ostroff, S M; Kildew, J A

1999-01-01

393

Biological warfare training: infectious disease outbreak differentiation criteria.  

PubMed

The threat of biological terrorism and warfare may increase as the availability of weaponizable agents increases, the relative production costs of these agents decrease, and, most importantly, there exist terrorist groups willing to use them. Therefore, an important consideration during the current period of heightened surveillance for emerging infectious diseases is the ability to differentiate between natural and intentional outbreaks. Certain attributes of a disease outbreak, although perhaps not pathognomonic for a biological attack when considered singly, may combine to provide convincing evidence of intentional causation. These potentially differentiating criteria include proportion of combatants at risk, temporal patterns of illness onset, number of cases, clinical presentation, strain/variant, economic impact, geographic location, morbidity/mortality, antimicrobial resistance patterns, seasonal distribution, zoonotic potential, residual infectivity/toxicity, prevention/therapeutic potential, route of exposure, weather/climate conditions, incubation period, and concurrence with belligerent activities of potential adversaries. PMID:9575761

Noah, D L; Sobel, A L; Ostroff, S M; Kildew, J A

1998-04-01

394

Discernment between deliberate and natural infectious disease outbreaks.  

PubMed

Public health authorities should be vigilant to the potential for outbreaks deliberately caused by biological agents (bioterrorism). Such events require a rapid response and incorporation of non-traditional partners for disease investigation and outbreak control. The astute application of infectious disease epidemiological principles can promote an enhanced index of suspicion for such events. We discuss epidemiological indicators that should be considered during outbreak investigations, and also examine their application during bioterrorism incidents, an accidental release of an agent, outbreaks of infections that were alleged to have been deliberately initiated, and a model scenario. The Grunow & Finke epidemiological assessment tool is used to examine these historical events and the model scenario. The results received from this analysis, coupled with an understanding of epidemiological clues to unnatural events, and knowledge of how to manage such events, can aid in the improved response and resolution of epidemics. PMID:16893485

Dembek, Z F; Kortepeter, M G; Pavlin, J A

2006-08-08

395

Poverty trap formed by the ecology of infectious diseases  

PubMed Central

While most of the world has enjoyed exponential economic growth, more than one-sixth of the world is today roughly as poor as their ancestors were many generations ago. Widely accepted general explanations for the persistence of such poverty have been elusive and are needed by the international development community. Building on a well-established model of human infectious diseases, we show how formally integrating simple economic and disease ecology models can naturally give rise to poverty traps, where initial economic and epidemiological conditions determine the long-term trajectory of the health and economic development of a society. This poverty trap may therefore be broken by improving health conditions of the population. More generally, we demonstrate that simple human ecological models can help explain broad patterns of modern economic organization.

Bonds, Matthew H.; Keenan, Donald C.; Rohani, Pejman; Sachs, Jeffrey D.

2010-01-01

396

[Genetic susceptibility to infectious diseases: immunogenetical approaches to mycobacterial infections and subacute sclerosing panencephalitis].  

PubMed

Genetic susceptibility to infectious diseases can be explained by nucleotide alteration (mutation, polymorphism, etc.) of genes encoding molecules involved in the entry of or the immune response to microorganisms. We have conducted studies on host genetic factors for the development of mycobacterial infections and subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) in the past decade. First, we identified autosomal dominant IFN-gamma receptor deficiency as a predominant genetic basis of patients with bacille Calmette-Guérin osteomyelitis in Japan. Second, by gene-based association analysis of 21 candidate genes, it was suggested that genetic variants of IL-12 receptor beta1 gene (IL12RB1) confer genetic susceptibility to tuberculosis, and are associated with the progression of the disease in Japanese. Third, we demonstrated that variants of several genes encoding molecules associated with innate immunity (MxA and TLR3 genes) and acquired immunity (IL4 and programmed cell death 1 [PD1] genes) were associated with the development of SSPE. Immunogenetical approaches to infectious diseases would help us to evaluate the risk for disease development and progression, individualize prevention and treatment strategies, and create new therapies. PMID:20549906

Kusuhara, Koichi

2010-06-01

397

[Emerging infectious diseases: the example of the Indian Ocean chikungunya outbreak (2005-2006)].  

PubMed

Factors known to trigger the emergence or re-emergence of infectious diseases include globalisation, population growth, migration, international trade, urbanisation, forest destruction, climate change, loss of biodiversity, poverty, famine and war. Epidemics not only lead to disastrous loss of human life but may also have catastrophic economic, political and social consequences. Outbreaks may rapidly jeopardize industry, trade or tourism in countries that are unprepared. Dengue is currently spreading throughout the tropics, while another arbovirus, chikungunya, infected 30 to 75% of the population in some parts of the Indian Ocean region between 2005 and 2006. Chikungunya is now spreading through India, where more than a million people have so far been infected. This viral disease can cause lasting disability, and the first deaths were recently reported in La Réunion and Mayotte. All countries are at risk from emerging or re-emerging diseases, but the consequences are far worse in poor countries. Microbial pathogens and wild mammals, birds and arthropods do not respect man-made borders. There is still time to act against this threat of emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases, through prevention, anticipation, monitoring and research. PMID:17645111

Flahault, Antoine

2007-01-01

398

Neglected infectious diseases: are push and pull incentive mechanisms suitable for promoting drug development research?  

PubMed

Infectious diseases are among the main causes of death and disability in developing countries, and they are a major reason for the health disparity between rich and poor countries. One of the reasons for this public health tragedy is a lack of lifesaving essential medicines, which either do not exist or badly need improvements. In this article, we analyse which of the push and pull mechanisms proposed in the recent literature may serve to promote research into neglected infectious diseases. A combination of push programmes that subsidise research inputs through direct funding and pull programmes that reward research output rather than research input may be the appropriate strategy to stimulate research into neglected diseases. On the one hand, early-stage (basic) research should be supported through push mechanisms, such as research grants or publicly financed research institutions. On the other hand, pull mechanisms, such as prize funds that link reward payments to the health impacts of effective medicines, have the potential to stimulate research into neglected diseases. PMID:23343639

Mueller-Langer, Frank

2013-01-24

399

Creating a Global Dialogue on Infectious Disease Surveillance: Connecting Organizations for Regional Disease Surveillance (CORDS)  

PubMed Central

Connecting Organizations for Regional Disease Surveillance (CORDS) is an international non-governmental organization focused on information exchange between disease surveillance networks in different areas of the world. By linking regional disease surveillance networks, CORDS builds a trust-based social fabric of experts who share best practices, surveillance tools and strategies, training courses, and innovations. CORDS exemplifies the shifting patterns of international collaboration needed to prevent, detect, and counter all types of biological dangers – not just naturally occurring infectious diseases, but also terrorist threats. Representing a network-of-networks approach, the mission of CORDS is to link regional disease surveillance networks to improve global capacity to respond to infectious diseases. CORDS is an informal governance cooperative with six founding regional disease surveillance networks, with plans to expand; it works in complement and cooperatively with the World Health Organization (WHO), the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE), and the Food and Animal Organization of the United Nations (FAO). As described in detail elsewhere in this special issue of Emerging Health Threats, each regional network is an alliance of a small number of neighboring countries working across national borders to tackle emerging infectious diseases that require unified regional efforts. Here we describe the history, culture and commitment of CORDS; and the novel and necessary role that CORDS serves in the existing international infectious disease surveillance framework.

Gresham, Louise S.; Smolinski, Mark S.; Suphanchaimat, Rapeepong; Kimball, Ann Marie; Wibulpolprasert, Suwit

2013-01-01

400

Infectious disease modeling of social contagion in networks.  

PubMed

Many behavioral phenomena have been found to spread interpersonally through social networks, in a manner similar to infectious diseases. An important difference between social contagion and traditional infectious diseases, however, is that behavioral phenomena can be acquired by non-social mechanisms as well as through social transmission. We introduce a novel theoretical framework for studying these phenomena (the SISa model) by adapting a classic disease model to include the possibility for 'automatic' (or 'spontaneous') non-social infection. We provide an example of the use of this framework by examining the spread of obesity in the Framingham Heart Study Network. The interaction assumptions of the model are validated using longitudinal network transmission data. We find that the current rate of becoming obese is 2 per year and increases by 0.5 percentage points for each obese social contact. The rate of recovering from obesity is 4 per year, and does not depend on the number of non-obese contacts. The model predicts a long-term obesity prevalence of approximately 42, and can be used to evaluate the effect of different interventions on steady-state obesity. Model predictions quantitatively reproduce the actual historical time course for the prevalence of obesity. We find that since the 1970s, the rate of recovery from obesity has remained relatively constant, while the rates of both spontaneous infection and transmission have steadily increased over time. This suggests that the obesity epidemic may be driven by increasing rates of becoming obese, both spontaneously and transmissively, rather than by decreasing rates of losing weight. A key feature of the SISa model is its ability to characterize the relative importance of social transmission by quantitatively comparing rates of spontaneous versus contagious infection. It provides a theoretical framework for studying the interpersonal spread of any state that may also arise spontaneously, such as emotions, behaviors, health states, ideas or diseases with reservoirs. PMID:21079667

Hill, Alison L; Rand, David G; Nowak, Martin A; Christakis, Nicholas A

2010-11-04

401

Infectious Disease Modeling of Social Contagion in Networks  

PubMed Central

Many behavioral phenomena have been found to spread interpersonally through social networks, in a manner similar to infectious diseases. An important difference between social contagion and traditional infectious diseases, however, is that behavioral phenomena can be acquired by non-social mechanisms as well as through social transmission. We introduce a novel theoretical framework for studying these phenomena (the SISa model) by adapting a classic disease model to include the possibility for ‘automatic’ (or ‘spontaneous’) non-social infection. We provide an example of the use of this framework by examining the spread of obesity in the Framingham Heart Study Network. The interaction assumptions of the model are validated using longitudinal network transmission data. We find that the current rate of becoming obese is 2 per year and increases by 0.5 percentage points for each obese social contact. The rate of recovering from obesity is 4 per year, and does not depend on the number of non-obese contacts. The model predicts a long-term obesity prevalence of approximately 42, and can be used to evaluate the effect of different interventions on steady-state obesity. Model predictions quantitatively reproduce the actual historical time course for the prevalence of obesity. We find that since the 1970s, the rate of recovery from obesity has remained relatively constant, while the rates of both spontaneous infection and transmission have steadily increased over time. This suggests that the obesity epidemic may be driven by increasing rates of becoming obese, both spontaneously and transmissively, rather than by decreasing rates of losing weight. A key feature of the SISa model is its ability to characterize the relative importance of social transmission by quantitatively comparing rates of spontaneous versus contagious infection. It provides a theoretical framework for studying the interpersonal spread of any state that may also arise spontaneously, such as emotions, behaviors, health states, ideas or diseases with reservoirs.

Hill, Alison L.; Rand, David G.; Nowak, Martin A.; Christakis, Nicholas A.

2010-01-01

402

The infectious diseases impact statement: a mechanism for addressing emerging diseases.  

PubMed Central

The use of an Infectious Diseases Impact Statement (IDIS) is proposed for predictive assessments of local changes in infectious diseases arising from human-engineered activities. IDIS is intended to be analogous to an Environmental Impact Statement. The drafting of an IDIS for specific activities, particularly in developing nations, would provide a formal mechanism for examining potential changes in local health conditions, including infected and susceptible populations, diseases likely to fluctuate in response to development, existing control measures, and vectors likely to be affected by human activities. The resulting survey data could provide a rational basis and direction for development, surveillance, and prevention measures. An IDIS process that balances environmental alterations, local human health, and economic growth could substantially alter the nature of international development efforts and infectious disease outbreaks.

McSweegan, E.

1996-01-01

403

Human genetics of infectious diseases: between proof of principle and paradigm  

PubMed Central

The observation that only a fraction of individuals infected by infectious agents develop clinical disease raises fundamental questions about the actual pathogenesis of infectious diseases. Epidemiological and experimental evidence is accumulating to suggest that human genetics plays a major role in this process. As we discuss here, human predisposition to infectious diseases seems to cover a continuous spectrum from monogenic to polygenic inheritance. Although many studies have provided proof of principle that infectious diseases may result from various types of inborn errors of immunity, the genetic determinism of most infectious diseases in most patients remains unclear. However, in the future, studies in human genetics are likely to establish a new paradigm for infectious diseases.

Alcais, Alexandre; Abel, Laurent; Casanova, Jean-Laurent

2009-01-01

404

Immunogenicity of infectious bursal disease viruses in chickens.  

PubMed

Cross-protective properties of infectious bursal disease viruses (IBDVs) were studied. Viruses represented different subtypes of serotype 1, including recently isolated viruses (variants), and a serotype 2 virus. Chickens were vaccinated at 3 weeks of age with inactivated vaccines containing 10(5), 10(6), 10(7), or 10(8) mean tissue-culture infectious dose of a given virus and challenged 2 weeks later using either 10(2) or 10(3.5) mean embryo infectious dose (EID50) of either a standard virus or a variant serotype 1 virus. Protection was evaluated at 5 and 10 days post-challenge, based on gross and microscopic lesions, body weight, and bursa/body-weight ratios. The serotype 2 virus did not confer protection on birds challenged with the serotype 1 viruses. Vaccines made of variant viruses at the low doses protected chickens challenged with the high or low doses of either the standard or the variant viruses. Vaccines made of the standard or variant strains at low doses protected against high or low challenge doses of the standard strain. Vaccines made of the high dose of any of the standard strains protected chickens against the variant virus when the low challenge dose (10(2) EID50) was used, but not when the high challenge dose (10(3.5) EID50) was used. The lowest dose of the standard viruses vaccines required to confer protection against the variant virus varied depending on the strain. Results indicated that protection depended on the strain and dose of both the vaccine and challenge viruses and that the variant strains and standard strains share a common protective antigen(s). PMID:1659364

Ismail, N M; Saif, Y M

405

Interaction Between Newcastle Disease and Infectious Bursal Disease Vaccines Commonly Used in Sudan  

Microsoft Academic Search

It was the aim of this study to determine the interaction between the Newcastle disease (ND) and infectious bursal disease (IBD) vaccines used to control these two important viral infections greatly affecting poultry industry worldwide. The commercially available vaccines in the Sudan were used. Haemagglutination inhibition (HI) and agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID) tests were employed to measure the Ab titres

2004-01-01

406

How to make predictions about future infectious disease risks  

PubMed Central

Formal, quantitative approaches are now widely used to make predictions about the likelihood of an infectious disease outbreak, how the disease will spread, and how to control it. Several well-established methodologies are available, including risk factor analysis, risk modelling and dynamic modelling. Even so, predictive modelling is very much the ‘art of the possible’, which tends to drive research effort towards some areas and away from others which may be at least as important. Building on the undoubted success of quantitative modelling of the epidemiology and control of human and animal diseases such as AIDS, influenza, foot-and-mouth disease and BSE, attention needs to be paid to developing a more holistic framework that captures the role of the underlying drivers of disease risks, from demography and behaviour to land use and climate change. At the same time, there is still considerable room for improvement in how quantitative analyses and their outputs are communicated to policy makers and other stakeholders. A starting point would be generally accepted guidelines for ‘good practice’ for the development and the use of predictive models.

Woolhouse, Mark

2011-01-01

407

Eradication versus control: the economics of global infectious disease policies.  

PubMed Central

A disease is controlled if, by means of a public policy, the circulation of an infectious agent is restricted below the level that would be sustained by individuals acting independently to control the disease. A disease is eliminated if it is controlled sufficiently to prevent an epidemic from occurring in a given geographical area. Control and elimination are achieved locally, but a disease can only be eradicated if it is eliminated everywhere. Eradication is plainly a more demanding goal, but it has two advantages over control. First, the economics of eradication can be very favourable when eradication not only reduces infections but also avoids the need for vaccinations in future. Indeed, when eradication is feasible, it will either pay to control it to a fairly low level or to eradicate it. This suggests that, from an economics perspective, diseases that are eliminated in high-income countries are prime candidates for future eradication efforts. Second, the incentives for countries to participate in an eradication initiative can be strong; indeed they can be even stronger than an international control programme. Moreover, high-income countries typically benefit so much that they will be willing to finance elimination in developing countries. Full financing of an eradication effort by nation-states is not always guaranteed, but it can be facilitated by a variety of means. Hence, from the perspective of economics and international relations, eradication has a number of advantages over control. The implications for smallpox and polio eradication programmes are discussed.

Barrett, Scott

2004-01-01

408

Spatiotemporal Infectious Disease Modeling: A BME-SIR Approach  

PubMed Central

This paper is concerned with the modeling of infectious disease spread in a composite space-time domain under conditions of uncertainty. We focus on stochastic modeling that accounts for basic mechanisms of disease distribution and multi-sourced in situ uncertainties. Starting from the general formulation of population migration dynamics and the specification of transmission and recovery rates, the model studies the functional formulation of the evolution of the fractions of susceptible-infected-recovered individuals. The suggested approach is capable of: a) modeling population dynamics within and across localities, b) integrating the disease representation (i.e. susceptible-infected-recovered individuals) with observation time series at different geographical locations and other sources of information (e.g. hard and soft data, empirical relationships, secondary information), and c) generating predictions of disease spread and associated parameters in real time, while considering model and observation uncertainties. Key aspects of the proposed approach are illustrated by means of simulations (i.e. synthetic studies), and a real-world application using hand-foot-mouth disease (HFMD) data from China.

Angulo, Jose; Yu, Hwa-Lung; Langousis, Andrea; Kolovos, Alexander; Wang, Jinfeng; Madrid, Ana Esther; Christakos, George

2013-01-01

409

[Prion disease as infectious disease transmissible from animals to human].  

PubMed

Prion diseases such as bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) have been recognized as zoonosis since the existence of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD) was reported in 1996. After then, BSE became a serious social problem all over the world. The incidence of BSE in EU and UK appears declining, and the vCJD incidence also shows a tendency to decrease. On the contrary, fears for the spread of BSE became actual problems: BSE occurrence outside of EU, introduction of BSE to other ruminants, and transmission of vCJD by blood transfusion. To prevent further spread of animal prion diseases and to reduce their risk to human being, active surveillance for animal prion diseases, removal of specified risk materials from food and feed chains, and effective feed regulation for livestock should be important. For the disclosure and elimination of prion-contaminated blood, materials for medical and pharmaceutical products, it is required to improve the sensitivity of prion detection methods. Furthermore, establishment of the therapeutics for human prion diseases is urgent problem. PMID:16363697

Horiuchi, Motohiro

2005-12-01

410

Evaluating Syndromic Data for Surveillance of Non-infectious Disease  

PubMed Central

Objective To evaluate several non-infectious disease related syndromes that are based on chief complaint (cc) emergency department (ED) syndromic surveillance (SS) data by comparing these with the New York Statewide Planning and Research Cooperative System (SPARCS) clinical diagnosis data. In particular, this work compares SS and SPARCS data for total ED visits and visits associated with three non-infectious disease syndromes, namely asthma, oral health and hypothermia. Introduction Syndromic surveillance data has predominantly been used for surveillance of infectious disease and for broad symptom types that could be associated with bioterrorism. There has been a growing interest to expand the uses of syndromic data beyond infectious disease. Because many of these conditions are specific and can be swiftly diagnosed (as opposed to infectious agents that require a lab test for confirmation) there could be added value in using the ICD9 ED discharge diagnosis field collected by SS. However, SS discharge diagnosis data is not complete or as timely as chief complaint data. Therefore, for the time being SS chief complaint data is relied on for non-infectious disease surveillance. SPARCS data are based on clinical diagnoses and include information on final diagnosis, providing a means for comparing the chief complaint (from SS) to a diagnosis code (from SPARCS), for evaluating how well the syndrome is captured by SS and for assessing if it would be advantageous to get SS ED diagnosis codes in a more timely and complete manner. Methods Syndromes previously developed by the DOHMH were used for this work. Syndrome definitions are based on querying the cc field in SS data for terms associated with asthma, oral health and hypothermia. The asthma syndrome consists of search terms for ‘ASTHMA’, ‘WHEEZING’ and ‘COPD’. The oral health syndrome uses (‘TOOTH’ or ‘GUM’) and (‘ACHE’, ‘HURT’) and excludes visits resulting from trauma (e.g., ‘INJURY’, ‘ACCIDENT’). The hypothermia syndrome is limited to search for the word ‘HYPOTHERMIA’. For the purpose of comparison of the SS data with SPARCS data for the three syndromes, the following ICD9 diagnosis codes were considered in SPARCS: 493 for asthma, 521–523, 525, 528–529 for oral health and 991 for hypothermia. SS and SPARCS data for 2007 were used for this work as this was the most recent and complete SPARCS ED dataset that was available. Overall city-wide daily counts and hospital-level annual counts for total ED, asthma-, oral health- and hypothermia-related visits were computed for SS ED data and SPARCS ED data. A comparison of daily and hospital trends for SS and SPARCS for total and syndrome-related counts were conducted using correlation coefficients. Results There is a high correlation between total ED SS and SPARCS daily counts (r=0.98, p-value<0.001). On average, SPARCS daily counts are higher by approximately 75 visits (range: ?674, 591) per day. Correlations between SS and SPARCS daily counts for asthma, oral health and hypothermia were 0.96 (p-value<0.001), 0.66 (p-value<0.001) and 0.45 (p-value<0.001), respectively. Correlations between SS and SPARCS hospital-level annual counts for asthma, oral health and hypothermia were 0.89 (p<0.001), 0.87 (p<0.001) and 0.07 (p=0.61). In 2007, less than 8% of individual SS records had a discharge diagnosis, and this was found to vary between hospitals (0–69%); therefore, a comparison between SS discharge diagnosis and SPARCS diagnosis data was not possible. Conclusions Overall, syndromic surveillance data was found to be a useful data source for public health surveillance of non-infectious disease. Total ED visits were found to be comparable between SS and SPARCS. While direct comparison of counts for syndromes is not possible, the daily syndrome counts between SS and SPARCS correlated well. However, the strength of correlation varied depending on the syndrome

Lall, Ramona; Paladini, Marc

2013-01-01

411

Genetic susceptibility to infectious disease: lessons from mouse models of leishmaniasis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Susceptibility to infectious disease is influenced by multiple host genes, most of which are low penetrance QTLs that are difficult to map in humans. Leishmaniasis is a well-studied infectious disease with a variety of symptoms and well-defined immunological features. Mouse models of this disease have revealed more than 20 QTLs as being susceptibility genes, studies of which have made important

Peter Demant; Marie Lipoldová

2006-01-01

412

Neuroimmunomodulation during Infectious Diseases: Mechanisms, Causes and Consequences for the Host  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this special issue of Neuroimmunomodulation, the reader will find reviewed some of the hottest topics in the field of neuroendocrine-immune interactions, with emphasis on infectious diseases. For instance, the role that immunoendocrine alterations have during human tuberculosis, a chronic infectious disease, is discussed, and it is concluded that these immunoendocrine interactions may play a detrimental role during the disease,

Oscar Bottasso; Jorge Morales-Montor

2009-01-01

413

Rationale and Methodological Options for Assessing Infectious Disease and Related Measures in Social Science Surveys  

Microsoft Academic Search

Infectious disease is an important, but often overlooked, component of population health in high-income nations. Common, everyday infections exact significant costs, including school and work absenteeism, reduced productivity, and substantial health care expenditures. Infectious disease also shapes trajectories of biological risk and health and may be causally linked to chronic disease risk later in life. The size, diversity, and representativeness

Thomas W. McDade; Mark D. Hayward

2009-01-01

414

The U.S.Mexico Border Infectious Disease Surveillance Project: Establishing Binational Border Surveillance  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1997, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the Mexican Secretariat of Health, and border health officials began the development of the Border Infectious Disease Sur- veillance (BIDS) project, a surveillance system for infectious diseases along the U.S.-Mexico border. During a 3-year period, a binational team implemented an active, sentinel surveillance system for hepatitis and febrile exanthems at 13

Michelle Weinberg; Stephen Waterman; Carlos Alvarez Lucas; Veronica Carrion Falcon; Pablo Kuri Morales; Luis Anaya Lopez; Chris Peter; Alejandro Escobar Gutiérrez; Ernesto Ramirez Gonzalez; Ana Flisser; Ralph Bryan; Enrique Navarro Valle; Alfonso Rodriguez; Gerardo Alvarez Hernandez; Cecilia Rosales; Javier Arias Ortiz; Michael Landen; Hugo Vilchis; Julie Rawlings; Francisco Lopez Leal; Luis Ortega; Elaine Flagg; Roberto Tapia Conyer

415

The major antigenic protein of infectious bursal disease virus, VP2, is an apoptotic inducer.  

PubMed Central

Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) is the causative agent of an economically important poultry disease. Vaccinia virus recombinants expressing the IBDV mature structural capsid proteins VP2 and VP3 were generated by using vectors for inducible gene expression. Characterization of these recombinant viruses demonstrated that expression of VP2 leads to induction of apoptosis in a variety of mammalian cell lines. Transfection of cell cultures with a expression vector containing the VP2 coding region under the control of the immediate-early promoter-enhancer region of human cytomegalovirus also triggers programmed cell death. The apoptotic effect of VP2 is efficiently counteracted by coexpression of the proto-oncogene bcl-2. The results presented demonstrate that VP2 is a bona fide apoptotic inducer. Evaluation of the significance of this finding for the virus life cycle must await further research.

Fernandez-Arias, A; Martinez, S; Rodriguez, J F

1997-01-01

416

[Epidemiological situation of infectious diseases in Lvov and Cracow during and after World War I (until the year 1922)].  

PubMed

In Lvov and Cracow at the times of World War I, the infectious diseases such as tuberculosis followed by typhus fever, typhoid fever, dysentery, as well as scarlet fever, diphtheria, measles, whooping cough, smallpox, cholera and venereal diseases (particularly syphilis) posed one of the most significant and dangerous problems for inhabitants. Their increased prevalence was the result of deteriorating sanitary and living conditions of the city population. The spread of epidemic infectious diseases was enhanced by marching troops, migration of civilians and war prisoners, return of large groups of displaced people and demobilized soldiers after regaining independence in November 1918. Additionally, unfavorable epidemiological situation in Lvov deteriorated at the time of the war with Ukrainians (November 1918-April 1919) and Bolsheviks (July-August 1920). The control of infectious diseases was in the hands of regional local physicians who referred patients to hospitals, isolated homes, bath and disinfection institutions, and conducted vaccinations against smallpox. A decrease in infectious diseases prevalence and deaths to the prewar levels occurred in 1922. PMID:19522244

Berner, W?odzimierz

2009-01-01

417

75 FR 22607 - Board of Scientific Counselors, Coordinating Center for Infectious Diseases (CCID)  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Board of...Counselors, Coordinating Center for Infectious Diseases (CCID) In accordance with section...92-463), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention...

2010-04-29

418

78 FR 13678 - Board of Scientific Counselors, Office of Infectious Diseases (BSC, OID)  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Board of Scientific Counselors, Office of Infectious Diseases (BSC, OID) Notice of Cancellation...activities, for both the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and...

2013-02-28

419

[Infectious disease epidemiology education and training Programs. FETP and EPIET].  

PubMed

The German Field Epidemiology Training Programme (FETP) and the European Programme for Intervention Epidemiology Training (EPIET) were founded to develop a network of epidemiologists for the surveillance and control of communicable diseases. During their 2-year training, FETP or EPIET fellows are based at the Robert Koch-Institut or other European host institutes and have to conduct outbreak investigations, carry out surveillance and research projects and publish the results. Since 1995, all 22 FETP and 94 EPIET fellows have conducted and published numerous outbreak investigations, surveillance and research projects, for example on pathogens inducing salmonellosis, influenza, SARS or avian influenza. Currently, 70% of FETP and EPIET alumni are working in key positions in communicable disease control on a regional, national or international level. The German FETP and the European EPIET programme offer high quality practical training in applied epidemiology. The expert knowledge of the alumni of both training programmes will be incorporated into the new European Centre for Disease Control (ECDC) and determine the future direction of infectious disease epidemiology in Germany and Europe. PMID:16160894

Bremer, V

2005-09-01

420

Large-scale spatial population databases in infectious disease research.  

PubMed

Modelling studies on the spatial distribution and spread of infectious diseases are becoming increasingly detailed and sophisticated, with global risk mapping and epidemic modelling studies now popular. Yet, in deriving populations at risk of disease estimates, these spatial models must rely on existing global and regional datasets on population distribution, which are often based on outdated and coarse resolution data. Moreover, a variety of different methods have been used to model population distribution at large spatial scales. In this review we describe the main global gridded population datasets that are freely available for health researchers and compare their construction methods, and highlight the uncertainties inherent in these population datasets. We review their application in past studies on disease risk and dynamics, and discuss how the choice of dataset can affect results. Moreover, we highlight how the lack of contemporary, detailed and reliable data on human population distribution in low income countries is proving a barrier to obtaining accurate large-scale estimates of population at risk and constructing reliable models of disease spread, and suggest research directions required to further reduce these barriers. PMID:22433126

Linard, Catherine; Tatem, Andrew J

2012-03-20

421

The deterministic limit of infectious disease models with dynamic partners.  

PubMed

This paper analyzes the large population dynamics of an infectious disease model with contacts that occur during partnerships. The model allows for concurrent partnerships following a very broad class of dynamic laws. Previous work, with a stochastic version of the model, computed the reproductive number, the initial growth rate, and the final size. In the present paper, the deterministic system that is the limit for large populations is constructed. The construction is unusual in requiring two different scaling factors. Next, the approximation used by Watts and May for a related model is compared with the exact solution. This approximation is most accurate at the beginning of the epidemic and when partnerships are short. Lastly, the model is generalized to allow dependencies among partnerships. This generalization permits proportional mixing with an arbitrary distribution on the number of partners. PMID:9656648

Altmann, M

1998-06-15

422

Consanguinity and susceptibility to infectious diseases in humans  

PubMed Central

Studies of animal populations suggest that low genetic heterozygosity is an important risk factor for infection by a diverse range of pathogens, but relatively little research has looked to see whether similar patterns exist in humans. We have used microsatellite genome screen data for tuberculosis (TB), hepatitis and leprosy to test the hypothesis that inbreeding depression increases risk of infection. Our results indicate that inbred individuals are more common among our infected cases for TB and hepatitis, but only in populations where consanguineous marriages are common. No effect was found either for leprosy, which is thought to be oligogenic, or for hepatitis in Italy where consanguineous marriages are rare. Our results suggest that consanguinity is an important risk factor in susceptibility to infectious diseases in humans.

Lyons, Emily J.; Frodsham, Angela J.; Zhang, Lyna; Hill, Adrian V.S.; Amos, William

2009-01-01

423

The Global Threat of New and Reemerging Infectious Diseases  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Authored by Jennifer Brower and Peter Chalk, working on behalf of the RAND Corporation, this 140-page online book explores an in-depth analysis of the security implications posed by the dissemination of various infectious diseases. Throughout the work, the authors draw on two case studies, namely the HIV/ AIDS epidemic in South Africa and the public health response system within the United States. The book itself is available as six separate chapters, including an appendix and bibliography. For those looking for a brief synopsis of the work, a nine-page summary is also available. The authors conclude their work by presenting several recommendations that may address various existing shortcomings, including increased coordination between public health authorities at all levels of government, integration of the private sector into overall public health efforts, and a large-scale education and information campaign.

Chalk, Peter.; Brower, Jennifer, 1967-.

424

Modified phages: novel antimicrobial agents to combat infectious diseases.  

PubMed

Researchers increasingly believe that microbial, molecular and synthetic biology techniques along with genetic engineering will facilitate the treatment of persistent infectious diseases. However, such therapy has been plagued by the emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria, resulting in significant obstacles to treatment. Phage therapy is one promising alternative to antibiotics, especially now that recent modifications to ubiquitous phages have made them more controllable. Additionally, convincing in vitro and in vivo studies of genetically modified lytic phages and engineered non-lytic phages have confirmed the advantages of novel, specific bactericidal agents over antibiotics in some cases. There is still a need for a better understanding of phage therapy, however, before it can be adopted widely. PMID:21689739

Moradpour, Zahra; Ghasemian, Abdollah

2011-06-15

425

Rocket immunoelectrophoresis in the diagnosis of infectious bursal disease.  

PubMed

The rocket immunoelectrophoresis (RIE) test was used for the qualitative detection and quantitative estimation of infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) specific antigen in experimentally infected chickens and samples collected from suspected outbreaks. The IBDV specific antigen was detected in the bursae of experimentally inoculated chickens up to 5 days post infection (PI) by the agar gel precipitation (AGP) test and 7 days PI by the RIE test. The RIE detected IBDV specific antigen in a significantly greater number of samples collected from the field outbreaks than the conventional AGP test. Exudative bursae were found to have a higher antigen content than haemorrhagic bursae and are recommended as the material of choice for diagnosis of IBD. This test could also be used to quantify IBDV specific antigen in commercial killed vaccines. PMID:10907288

Raj, G D; Thangavelu, A; Elankumaran, S; Koteeswaran, A

2000-06-01

426

[Guidelines of initial diagnostic procedures for bacterial infectious disease].  

PubMed

The practice of the initial diagnostic procedures for infectious disease in febrile patients is important. The rational screening steps to the correct diagnosis of infections are: 1) thorough history taking and physical examination (identification of the organs affected), 2) simpler essential laboratory tests such as white blood cell count, microscopy of blood smear, determination of C-reactive protein, electrocardiography and chest x-ray film (confirmation of infection), 3) direct or indirect demonstration of pathogenic organisms by stain-enhanced microscopy and culture of specific specimens (identification of etiologic organisms). Extensive culture and serologic testing on febrile patients for identification of organisms depend on individual basis. Indeed, medical care is a team effort with collaboration of doctors, nurses and technologists. More importantly the doctor in charge is fully responsible for interrogation and examination of the patients, interpretation of laboratory results, diagnoses and treatments. PMID:2199699

Arakawa, M

1990-05-01

427

[Small rodents in the forest ecosystem as infectious disease reservoirs].  

PubMed

Due to numerousness of populations and width of ecologic valence, small rodents are important parts of almost any forest ecosystem. The represent an important animal group, which connects primary makers with higher trophic levels. They transmit various infectious diseases dangerous for the health of people and domestic and wild animals (trichinosis, leptospirosis, tick encephalitis, Lyme disease, hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome, etc.). The following species of small rodents live in forest ecosystems of Croatia: Chletrionomys glareolus Schreib., Arvicola terrestris L, M. subterraneus de Sel., M. arvalis Pall., M. agrestis L, M. multiplex Fat., Apodemus agrarius Pall., A. sylvaticus L. and A. flavicollis Melch. Small rodents transmit causative agents of diseases in active (excretion products) of passive (ectoparasites and endoparasites) ways. Their multiplication potential is quite high. Transmission of certain disease sometimes takes place extremely fast due to the high number of rodents, their high movability and distribution, and the fact that they easily get in touch with men and domestic and wild animals. The number of population of each species is directly influenced by abiotic and biotic factors and changes during one year and in a several year period. In a year when the influence of ecologic factors is favorable, it is presumed that the number of these rodents will significantly increase, by which the danger of their damaging effect also increases. The following factors influence the increase of a small rodent population: number and physiologic condition of the population, meteorologic conditions, habitat, food sources, natural enemies, and diseases. The occurrence of an epidemic is closely connected to the number and infectivity of causative agents. Regular control of the number of rodent population and their infectivity can help in planning preventive epidemiologic and sanitary measures to preclude the occurrence of epidemics and individual cases of disease among animals and humans who come in contact with forest (forest workers, holiday makers, hikers, soldiers, tourists, etc.). PMID:15011471

Margaleti?, Josip

2003-01-01

428

38 CFR 4.88b - Schedule of ratings-infectious diseases, immune disorders and nutritional deficiencies.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...ratings-infectious diseases, immune disorders and nutritional deficiencies...Ratings Infectious Diseases, Immune Disorders and Nutritional Deficiencies...ratingsâinfectious diseases, immune disorders and nutritional deficiencies...necrosis under the appropriate system 6301Visceral...

2010-07-01

429

38 CFR 4.88b - Schedule of ratings-infectious diseases, immune disorders and nutritional deficiencies.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...ratings-infectious diseases, immune disorders and nutritional deficiencies...Ratings Infectious Diseases, Immune Disorders and Nutritional Deficiencies...ratingsâinfectious diseases, immune disorders and nutritional deficiencies...necrosis under the appropriate system 6301Visceral...

2009-07-01

430

An Emerging Infectious Disease Triggering Large-Scale Hyperpredation  

PubMed Central

Hyperpredation refers to an enhanced predation pressure on a secondary prey due to either an increase in the abundance of a predator population or a sudden drop in the abundance of the main prey. This scarcely documented mechanism has been previously studied in scenarios in which the introduction of a feral prey caused overexploitation of native prey. Here we provide evidence of a previously unreported link between Emergent Infectious Diseases (EIDs) and hyperpredation on a predator-prey community. We show how a viral outbreak caused the population collapse of a host prey at a large spatial scale, which subsequently promoted higher-than-normal predation intensity on a second prey from shared predators. Thus, the disease left a population dynamic fingerprint both in the primary host prey, through direct mortality from the disease, and indirectly in the secondary prey, through hyperpredation. This resulted in synchronized prey population dynamics at a large spatio-temporal scale. We therefore provide evidence for a novel mechanism by which EIDs can disrupt a predator-prey interaction from the individual behavior to the population dynamics. This mechanism can pose a further threat to biodiversity through the human-aided disruption of ecological interactions at large spatial and temporal scales.

Moleon, Marcos; Almaraz, Pablo; Sanchez-Zapata, Jose A.

2008-01-01

431

Technology innovation for infectious diseases in the developing world.  

PubMed

Enabling innovation and access to health technologies remains a key strategy in combating infectious diseases in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). However, a gulf between paying markets and the endemicity of such diseases has contributed to the dearth of R&D in meeting these public health needs. While the pharmaceutical industry views emerging economies as potential new markets, most of the world's poorest bottom billion now reside in middle-income countries--a fact that has complicated tiered access arrangements. However, product development partnerships--particularly those involving academic institutions and small firms--find commercial opportunities in pursuing even neglected diseases; and a growing pharmaceutical sector in BRICS countries offers hope for an indigenous base of innovation. Such innovation will be shaped by 1) access to building blocks of knowledge; 2) strategic use of intellectual property and innovative financing to meet public health goals; 3) collaborative norms of open innovation; and 4) alternative business models, some with a double bottom line. Facing such resource constraints, LMICs are poised to develop a new, more resource-effective model of innovation that holds exciting promise in meeting the needs of global health. PMID:23849080

So, Anthony D; Ruiz-Esparza, Quentin

2012-10-25

432

Autoimmune and infectious skin diseases that target desmogleins.  

PubMed

Desmosomes are intercellular adhesive junctions of epithelial cells that contain two major transmembrane components, the desmogleins (Dsg) and desmocollins (Dsc), which are cadherin-type cell-cell adhesion molecules and are anchored to intermediate filaments of keratin through interactions with plakoglobin and desmoplakin. Desmosomes play an important role in maintaining the proper structure and barrier function of the epidermis and mucous epithelia. Four Dsg isoforms have been identified to date, Dsg1-Dsg4, and are involved in several skin and heart diseases. Dsg1 and Dsg3 are the two major Dsg isoforms in the skin and mucous membranes, and are targeted by IgG autoantibodies in pemphigus, an autoimmune disease of the skin and mucous membranes. Dsg1 is also targeted by exfoliative toxin (ET) released by Staphylococcus aureus in the infectious skin diseases bullous impetigo and staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome (SSSS). ET is a unique serine protease that shows lock and key specificity to Dsg1. Dsg2 is expressed in all tissues possessing desmosomes, including simple epithelia and myocardia, and mutations in this gene are responsible for arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy/dysplasia. Dsg4 plays an important adhesive role mainly in hair follicles, and Dsg4 mutations cause abnormal hair development. Recently, an active disease model for pemphigus was generated by a unique approach using autoantigen-deficient mice that do not acquire tolerance against the defective autoantigen. Adoptive transfer of Dsg3(-/-) lymphocytes into mice expressing Dsg3 induces stable anti-Dsg3 IgG production with development of the pemphigus phenotype. This mouse model is a valuable tool with which to investigate immunological mechanisms of harmful IgG autoantibody production in pemphigus. Further investigation of desmoglein molecules will continue to provide insight into the unsolved pathophysiological mechanisms of diseases and aid in the development of novel therapeutic strategies with minimal side effects. PMID:20467217

Amagai, Masayuki

2010-01-01

433

Infectious diseases in internationally adopted children: findings in children from China, Russia, and eastern Europe.  

PubMed

Conditions in many orphanages provide a fertile environment for infectious diseases uncommonly encountered in industrialized nations. Moreover, health care providers may be unfamiliar with the need to test for these conditions in internationally adopted children. Pediatric infectious disease specialists provide much-needed expertise for parents and providers alike. PMID:10079853

Hostetter, M K

1999-01-01

434

Impediments to global surveillance of infectious diseases: consequences of open reporting in a global economy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Globalization has led to an increase in the spread of emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases. International efforts are being launched to control their dissemination through global surveillance, a major hindrance to which is the failure of some countries to report outbreaks. Current guidelines and regulations on emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases do not sufficiently take into account the fact that

Richard A. Cash; Vasant Narasimhan

435

Evaluating a New Online Course in the Epidemiology of Infectious Diseases by Studying Student Learning Styles  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|At RMIT University, students may now elect to study infectious diseases through a course called Outbreak--The Detection and Control of Infectious Disease. Outbreak was designed to simulate in an online class the effective teamwork required to bring resolution to outbreak crises and enable frameworks for future prevention. The appropriateness of…

Rogers, James W.; Cox, James R.

2008-01-01

436

Report of the Committee on Infectious Diseases. Twenty-first Edition, 1988.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book is a comprehensive textbook of infectious diseases. It is organized in five parts: (1) active and passive immunization; (2) recommendations for care of children in special circumstances; (3) summaries of infectious diseases; (4) antimicrobial prophylaxis; and (5) antimicrobials. There are six appendices: (1) federal vaccine injury…

American Academy of Pediatrics, Elk Grove Village, IL.

437

Is the decline of desert bighorn sheep from infectious disease the result of low MHC variation?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bighorn sheep populations have greatly declined in numbers and distribution since European settlement, primarily because of high susceptibility to infectious diseases transmitted to them from domestic livestock. It has been suggested that low variation at major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes, the most important genetic aspect of the vertebrate immune system, may result in high susceptibility to infectious disease. Therefore, we

Gustavo A. Gutierrez-Espeleta; Philip W. Hedrick; Steven T. Kalinowski; Daniel Garrigan

2001-01-01

438

Possible impact of rising sea levels on vector-borne infectious diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Vector-borne infectious diseases are a significant cause of human and animal mortality and morbidity. Modeling studies predict that changes in climate that accompany global warming will alter the transmission risk of many vector-borne infectious diseases in different parts of the world. Global warming will also raise sea levels, which will lead to an increase in saline and brackish water

Ranjan Ramasamy; Sinnathamby N Surendran

2011-01-01

439

Social networks and the spread of infectious diseases: The AIDS example  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conceptualizing a population as a set of individuals linked together to form a large social network provides a fruitful perspective for better understanding the spread of some infectious diseases. Data related to AIDS (the acquired immune deficiency syndrome) were used to illustrate the potential usefulness of a network approach in evaluating the infectious agent hypothesis when studying a disease or

Alden S. Klovdahl

1985-01-01

440

Preparation and evaluation of Vero-cell infectious bursal disease vaccine in Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present work was carried out to develop an effective vaccine to control infectious bursal disease (IBD). The very virulent infectious bursal disease virus (vvIBDV) was adapted to grow in Vero-cell line after three serial passages. The virus was then attenuated by further serial passages and pathogenicity of different passages was determined in broiler chicks free from antibodies against IBDV.

Muhammad Hidayat Rasool; Iftikhar Hussain

2006-01-01

441

Ascorbic Acid Supplementation Improved Antibody Response to Infectious Bursal Disease Vaccination in Chickens  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the present study was to determine if supplementation of ascorbic acid (AA) to the diet would have a beneficial effect on infectious bursal disease (IBD) vaccination of chickens for protection against infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) infection. Two hundred forty specific pathogen-free (SPF) chickens were divided into eight experimental groups. A 2 × 2 × 2 factorial

J. Amakye-Anim; T. L. Lin; P. Y. Hester; D. Thiagarajan; B. A. Watkins; C. C. Wu

442

Social and environmental risk factors in the emergence of infectious diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fifty years ago, the age-old scourge of infectious disease was receding in the developed world in response to improved public health measures, while the advent of antibiotics, better vaccines, insecticides and improved surveillance held the promise of eradicating residual problems. By the late twentieth century, however, an increase in the emergence and re-emergence of infectious diseases was evident in many

Robin A Weiss; Anthony J McMichael

2004-01-01

443

A branching model for the spread of infectious animal diseases in varying environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is concerned with a stochastic model, describing outbreaks of infectious diseases that have potentially great animal or human health consequences, and which can result in such severe economic losses that immediate sets of measures need to be taken to curb the spread. During an outbreak of such a disease, the environment that the infectious agent experiences is therefore

Pieter Trapman; Ronald Meester; Hans Heesterbeek

2004-01-01

444

Multiplex infectious disease microarrays: STAT serology on a drop of blood  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

New and resurgent viral and antibiotic-resistant bacterial diseases are being encountered worldwide. The US CDC now ranks hospital acquired infections among the top 10 leading causes of death in the US, costing $20 billion annually. Such nosocomial infections presently affect 5% - 10% of hospitalized patients leading to 2 million cases and 99,000 deaths annually. Until now, assays available to mount comprehensive surveillance of infectious disease exposure by biosecurity agencies and hospital infection control units have been too slow and too costly. In earlier clinical studies we have reported proteomic microarrays combining 13 autoimmune and 26 viral and bacterial pathogens that revealed correlations between autoimmune diseases and antecedent infections. In this work we have expanded the array to 40 viruses and bacteria and investigated a suspected role of human endogenous retroviruses in autoimmune neuropathies. Using scanning laser imaging, and fluorescence color multiplexing, serum IgG and IgM responses are measured concurrently on the same array, for 14 arrays (patient samples) per microscope slide in 15 minutes. Other advantages include internal calibration, 10 ?L sample size, increased laboratory efficiency, and potential factor of 100 cost reduction.

Ewart, Tom; Tarnopolsky, Mark; Baker, Steve; Raha, Sandeep; Wong, Yuen-Yee; Ciebiera, Kathy

2009-06-01

445

The major infectious epidemic diseases of Civil War soldiers.  

PubMed

Two thirds of the 600,000 deaths of Civil War soldiers were caused by disease. Physicians during the war kept detailed records and reports, which were tabulated, discussed in detail, and published after the war. These records include case histories, autopsy descriptions, photographs, and photomicrographs; they are the best records of the medical experiences of any of America's wars, even those in the twentieth century. Because the Civil War occurred just before the discoveries of bacteriology, these records are of particular historical interest. PMID:15145382

Bollet, Alfred Jay

2004-06-01

446

Design of Schistosomiasis Ontology (IDOSCHISTO) Extending the Infectious Disease Ontology.  

PubMed

Epidemiological monitoring of the schistosomiasis' spreading brings together many practitioners working at different levels of granularity (biology, host individual, host population), who have different perspectives (biology, clinic and epidemiology) on the same phenomenon. Biological perspective deals with pathogens (e.g. life cycle) or physiopathology while clinical perspective deals with hosts (e.g. healthy or infected host, diagnosis, treatment, etc.). In an epidemiological perspective corresponding to the host population level of granularity, the schistosomiasis disease is characterized according to the way (causes, risk factors, etc.) it spreads in this population over space and time. In this paper we provide an ontological analysis and design for the Schistosomiasis domain knowledge and spreading dynamics. IDOSCHISTO - the schistosomiasis ontology - is designed as an extension of the Infectious Disease Ontology (IDO). This ontology aims at supporting the schistosomiasis monitoring process during a spreading crisis by enabling data integration, semantic interoperability, for collaborative work on one hand and for risk analysis and decision making on the otherhand. PMID:23920598

Camara, Gaoussou; Despres, Sylvie; Djedidi, Rim; Lo, Moussa

2013-01-01

447

Multiscale mobility networks and the spatial spreading of infectious diseases  

PubMed Central

Among the realistic ingredients to be considered in the computational modeling of infectious diseases, human mobility represents a crucial challenge both on the theoretical side and in view of the limited availability of empirical data. To study the interplay between short-scale commuting flows and long-range airline traffic in shaping the spatiotemporal pattern of a global epidemic we (i) analyze mobility data from 29 countries around the world and find a gravity model able to provide a global description of commuting patterns up to 300 kms and (ii) integrate in a worldwide-structured metapopulation epidemic model a timescale-separation technique for evaluating the force of infection due to multiscale mobility processes in the disease dynamics. Commuting flows are found, on average, to be one order of magnitude larger than airline flows. However, their introduction into the worldwide model shows that the large-scale pattern of the simulated epidemic exhibits only small variations with respect to the baseline case where only airline traffic is considered. The presence of short-range mobility increases, however, the synchronization of subpopulations in close proximity and affects the epidemic behavior at the periphery of the airline transportation infrastructure. The present approach outlines the possibility for the definition of layered computational approaches where different modeling assumptions and granularities can be used consistently in a unifying multiscale framework.

Balcan, Duygu; Colizza, Vittoria; Goncalves, Bruno; Hu, Hao; Ramasco, Jose J.; Vespignani, Alessandro

2009-01-01

448

Infectious diseases in Mexico. A survey from 1995-2000.  

PubMed

Data obtained at a central laboratory for emerging, re-emerging, and other infectious diseases in Mexico from 1995-2000 are presented. An outstanding increase of DEN-3 circulation was identified. Aedes aegypti, the dengue vector, is widely distributed. Leptospirosis has become the most important differential diagnosis for dengue. Identification of rabies virus variants allowed cataloging of new transmitters of rabies. Rotavirus showed a clear seasonal distribution, while different proportions of pathogenic classes of Escherichia coli under endemic and outbreak conditions were seen. Serotypes of several bacteria are reported as well as the sources of isolation and frequency of Shigella, Salmonella, and Vibrio cholerae. Rise and disappearance of cholera could be followed along the past decade. Influenza strains were identified, as were several pathogens causing sexually transmitted infections. Laboratory support was important for surveillance after Hurricane Mitch. Multidrug-resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis are emerging and primary resistance is very high. It is now mandatory to search for antibodies to Trypanosoma cruzi in blood banks. Triatoma barberi, a peridomestic bug, is the main vector of Chagas disease. Localized cutaneous leishmaniosis increased in regions having a guerrilla element in Chiapas. Modern immunodiagnostic techniques are used for control studies of cysticercosis and similar techniques were recently standardized for Trichinella spiralis detection. Low iodine values in children's urine were found in several Mexican states; therefore, use of iodized salt should be encouraged. PMID:12234523

Flisser, Ana; Velasco-Villa, Andrés; Martínez-Campos, Carmen; González-Domínguez, Fernando; Briseño-García, Baltasar; García-Suárez, Rosario; Caballero-Servín, Angel; Hernández-Monroy, Irma; García-Lozano, Herlinda; Gutiérrez-Cogco, Lucina; Rodríguez-Angeles, Guadalupe; López-Martínez, Irma; Galindo-Virgen, Sonia; Vázquez-Campuzano, Roberto; Balandrano-Campos, Susana; Guzmán-Bracho, Carmen; Olivo-Díaz, Angélica; de la Rosa, Jorge; Magos, Clementina; Escobar-Gutiérrez, Alejandro; Correa, Dolores

449

Land-use change and infectious disease in West Africa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Land-use change has been associated with changes in the dynamics of infectious disease in West Africa. Here we describe the complex interactions of land-use change with three diseases (both vector- and non-vector-borne) of considerable public health significance in this region, namely, malaria and irrigation; epidemic meningitis and land degradation; onchocerciasis and deforestation. We highlight the confounding effect of climate variability, which acts as a driver of both land-use change and human health. We conclude, as have others, that the scale of observation always matters, and complex and dynamic feedbacks among social-ecological systems are not easily teased apart. We suggest that in order to establish the causal chain of interactions between land-use change and human health outcomes two approaches are necessary. The first is to have a thorough understanding of the aetiology of disease and the specific mechanisms by which land-use and climate variability affect the transmission of pathogens. This is achieved by focused, detailed studies encompassing a wide range of potential drivers, which are inevitably small scale and often cover short time periods. The second consists of large-scale studies of statistical associations between transmission indices or health outcomes and environmental variables stratified by known ecological or socio-economic confounders, and sufficient in size to overcome local biases in results. Such research activities need to be designed to inform each other if we are to develop predictive models for monitoring these diseases and to develop integrated programs for human health and sustainable land use.

Thomson, M. C.; Ericksen, P. J.; Mohamed, A. Ben; Connor, S. J.

450

Sudden death in congenital heart disease.  

PubMed

Sudden cardiac death is a common mechanism of demise in association with congenital cardiac abnormalities. The varied mechanisms may include failure of the transitional circulation, arrhythmias, postoperative or perioperative complications in the neonate and coronary ischaemia, arrhythmias, sepsis, thrombosis, or pulmonary hypertensive crisis in the older child. Knowledge of the natural history of unoperated and operated forms of congenital heart disease and long term follow up with the detection and treatment of underlying hemodynamic abnormalities should improve outcomes. There are few patients with congenital cardiac anomalies that are cured and most require long term care. PMID:15331283

Pelech, Andrew N; Neish, Steven R

2004-10-01

451

Preventing Emerging Infectious Diseases: A Strategy for the 21st Century.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In 1994, CDC launched the first phase of a nationwide effort to revitalize national capacity to protect the public from infectious diseases. The effort focused on four goals: improving disease surveillance and outbreak response; support-ng research to und...

S. Binder A. M. Levitt

1998-01-01

452

Development of a Discrete Spatial-Temporal SEIR Simulator for Modeling Infectious Diseases.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Multiple techniques have been developed to model the temporal evolution of infectious diseases. Some of these techniques have also been adapted to model the spatial evolution of the disease. This report examines the application of one such technique, the ...

S. A. McKenna

2000-01-01

453

Emerging infectious diseases of wildlife: role in amphibian population declines and global implications  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We review recent research on the pathology, ecology, and biogeography of two emerging infectious wildlife diseases, chytridiomycosis and ranaviral disease, in the context of host-parasite population biology. We examine the role of these diseases in the global decline of amphibian populations and propose hypotheses for the origins and impact of these panzootics. Finally, we discuss emerging infectious diseases as a global threat to wildlife populations.

Daszak, P.; Berger, L.; Cunningham, A. A.; Hyatt, A. D.; Green, D. E.; Speare, R.

1999-01-01

454

Recombinant infectious bursal disease virus carrying hepatitis C virus epitopes.  

PubMed

The delivery of foreign epitopes by a replicating nonpathogenic avian infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) was explored. The aim of the study was to identify regions in the IBDV genome that are amenable to the introduction of a sequence encoding a foreign peptide. By using a cDNA-based reverse genetics system, insertions or substitutions of sequences encoding epitope tags (FLAG, c-Myc, or hepatitis C virus epitopes) were engineered in the open reading frames of a nonstructural protein (VP5) and the capsid protein (VP2). Attempts were also made to generate recombinant IBDV that displayed foreign epitopes in the exposed loops (P(BC) and P(HI)) of the VP2 trimer. We successfully recovered recombinant IBDVs expressing c-Myc and two different virus-neutralizing epitopes of human hepatitis C virus (HCV) envelope glycoprotein E in the VP5 region. Western blot analyses with anti-c-Myc and anti-HCV antibodies provided positive identification of both the c-Myc and HCV epitopes that were fused to the N terminus of VP5. Genetic analysis showed that the recombinants carrying the c-Myc/HCV epitopes maintained the foreign gene sequences and were stable after several passages in Vero and 293T cells. This is the first report describing efficient expression of foreign peptides from a replication-competent IBDV and demonstrates the potential of this virus as a vector. PMID:21106739

Upadhyay, Chitra; Ammayappan, Arun; Patel, Deendayal; Kovesdi, Imre; Vakharia, Vikram N

2010-11-24

455

The activation of vivax malaria hypnozoites by infectious diseases.  

PubMed

The periodicity of vivax malaria relapses may be explained by the activation of latent hypnozoites acquired from a previous malarial infection. The activation stimulus could be the febrile illness associated with acute malaria or a different febrile infection. We review historical records to examine the association between relapses of Plasmodium vivax and febrile infectious diseases. In data from British soldiers in Palestine, epidemic falciparum malaria triggered a smaller epidemic of P vivax relapses only in those who had been extensively exposed to malaria previously. Relapses did not follow pandemic influenza infection. Evidence from three simultaneous typhoid and malaria epidemics suggest that typhoid fever might activate P vivax hypnozoites. Some data lend support to the notion that vivax malaria relapse followed febrile illness caused by relapsing fever, trench fever, epidemic typhus, and Malta fever (brucellosis). These observations suggest that systemic parasitic and bacterial infections, but not viral infections, can activate P vivax hypnozoites. Specific components of the host's acute febrile inflammatory response, and not fever alone, are probably important factors in the provocation of a relapse of vivax malaria. PMID:23809889

Shanks, G Dennis; White, Nicholas J

2013-06-26

456

Modelling in infectious diseases: between haphazard and hazard.  

PubMed

Modelling of infectious diseases is difficult, if not impossible. No epidemic has ever been truly predicted, rather than being merely noticed when it was already ongoing. Modelling the future course of an epidemic is similarly tenuous, as exemplified by ominous predictions during the last influenza pandemic leading to exaggerated national responses. The continuous evolution of microorganisms, the introduction of new pathogens into the human population and the interactions of a specific pathogen with the environment, vectors, intermediate hosts, reservoir animals and other microorganisms are far too complex to be predictable. Our environment is changing at an unprecedented rate, and human-related factors, which are essential components of any epidemic prediction model, are difficult to foresee in our increasingly dynamic societies. Any epidemiological model is, by definition, an abstraction of the real world, and fundamental assumptions and simplifications are therefore required. Indicator-based surveillance methods and, more recently, Internet biosurveillance systems can detect and monitor outbreaks of infections more rapidly and accurately than ever before. As the interactions between microorganisms, humans and the environment are too numerous and unexpected to be accurately represented in a mathematical model, we argue that prediction and model-based management of epidemics in their early phase are quite unlikely to become the norm. PMID:23879334

Neuberger, A; Paul, M; Nizar, A; Raoult, D

2013-07-23

457

Applications of bioluminescence imaging to the study of infectious diseases.  

PubMed

Bioluminescence imaging (BLI) has emerged as a powerful new method to analyse infectious diseases in animal models. BLI offers real-time monitoring of spatial and temporal progression of infection in the same animal, as opposed to euthanizing a cohort of animals and quantifying colony or plaque forming units at multiple time points. Pathogens or mice are engineered to express genetically encoded luciferase enzymes from bacteria, insects, or the sea pansy. The seminal study showing the feasibility of detecting microbially generated luminescence within a living mouse was published by Contag and colleagues in 1995, using Salmonella typhimurium transformed with the lux operon from Photorhabdus luminescens. Following this, they and others performed many studies of infection by bioluminescent Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. Viruses can also be engineered to encode luciferase. Our laboratory has used bioluminescent reporter viruses to follow HSV and vaccinia pathogenesis; others have used an alphavirus or novirhabdovirus. Recently, even eukaryotic parasites Plasmodium, Leishmania and Toxoplasma have been transformed with luciferase and yielded unique insights into their in vivo behaviour. We expect that both the range of organisms and the molecular events able to be studied by BLI will continue to expand, yielding important insights into mechanisms of pathogenesis. PMID:17587328

Hutchens, Martha; Luker, Gary D

2007-06-24

458

Molecular epizootiology of infectious bursal disease (IBD) in Korea.  

PubMed

We conducted a molecular epizootiological study of infectious bursal disease (IBD) in Korea by analyzing 85 IBD viruses (IBDVs) obtained from vaccinated or unvaccinated flocks between 1980 and 2007. Phylogenetic analysis of the partial nucleotide sequence of the hypervariable region of the VP2 gene (nucleotides 661-1020) and pathogenicity tests revealed more genetic and phenotypic diversity of IBDV in Korea than has been reported previously. We showed that very virulent IBDVs (vvIBDVs) were already present in Korea in 1986. Moreover, vvIBDVs were repeatedly detected in Korean poultry that had been vaccinated, which casts doubt on the IBD vaccine programs. We also identified novel putative antigenic variant (AV)-like IBDV isolates on the basis of their antigenic indices and the presence of amino acid changes (P222S or P222T-A321D) that are known to affect the antigenicity of VP2. These observations suggest that future studies examining the efficacy of conventional vaccines against atrophy of the bursa of Fabricius and vvIBDV shedding may be useful. Moreover, it will be of interest to determine the prevalence of putative Korean antigenic variants and whether these strains exert immunosuppressive effects in vaccinated birds. PMID:19728069

Jeon, Woo-Jin; Choi, Kang-Seuk; Lee, Dong-Woo; Lee, Eun-Kyoung; Cha, Sang-Ho; Cho, Sun-Hee; Kwon, Jun-Hun; Yoon, Yeo-sung; Kim, Sun-Joong; Kim, Jae-Hong; Kwon, Hyuk-Joon

2009-09-01

459

Molecular characterization of Brazilian infectious bursal disease viruses.  

PubMed

A reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) procedure was used to amplify a VP2 gene fragment (248 bp) from infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV). The procedure allowed the detection of known IBDV strains from the United States, along with field isolates and commercial vaccines produced in Brazil. Amplified VP2 fragments were further characterized by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis. From 55 Brazilian commercial flocks, 48 field samples were IBDV positive by RT-TCR. Vaccine RFLP patterns were found in 12 flocks, a pattern compatible with classic IBDV in one flock, four new patterns in 31 flocks, and a pattern compatible with very virulent (vv) IBDV in four flocks. Sequence analysis showed that the vvIBDV RFLP patterns were closely related to the vvIBDVs described in Europe and Asia. Phylogenetic analysis of the four new RFLP patterns showed that they were closely related to but distinct from other classic, variant, and vvIBDVs, suggesting a high prevalence of different IBDV strains in Brazilian commercial flocks. PMID:11417808

Ikuta, N; El-Attrache, J; Villegas, P; García, E M; Lunge, V R; Fonseca, A S; Oliveira, C; Marques, E K

460

Genetic reassortment of infectious bursal disease virus in nature.  

PubMed

Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV), a double-stranded RNA virus, is a member of the Birnaviridae family. Four pathotypes of IBDV, attenuated, virulent, antigenic variant, and very virulent (vvIBDV), have been identified. We isolated and characterized the genomic reassortant IBDV strain ZJ2000 from severe field outbreaks in commercial flocks. Full-length genomic sequence analysis showed that ZJ2000 is a natural genetic reassortant virus with segments A and B derived from attenuated and very virulent strains of IBDV, respectively. ZJ2000 exhibited delayed replication kinetics as compared to attenuated strains. However, ZJ2000 was pathogenic to specific pathogen free (SPF) chickens and chicken embryos. Similar to a standard virulent IBDV strain, ZJ2000 caused 26.7% mortality, 100% morbidity, and severe bursal lesions at both gross and histopathological levels. Taken together, our data provide direct evidence for genetic reassortment of IBDV in nature, which may play an important role in the evolution, virulence, and host range of IBDV. Our data also suggest that VP2 is not the sole determinant of IBDV virulence, and that the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase protein, VP1, may play an important role in IBDV virulence. The discovery of reassortant viruses in nature suggests an additional risk of using live IBDV vaccines, which could act as genetic donors for genome reassortment. PMID:17010936

Wei, Yongwei; Li, Jianrong; Zheng, Jiangtao; Xu, Hong; Li, Long; Yu, Lian

2006-09-20

461

International Congress for Infectious Diseases (4th) Held at Munich (West Germany) on 26-30 April 1966.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Congress, organized by the International Association for the Study of Infectious and Parasitic Diseases, was held in Munich, Germany, 26-30 Apr 1966. It was divided into four divisions, (1) acute infectious diseases, including viral hepatitis, rubella...

C. H. Miller

1966-01-01

462

"RED-LEG"--AN INFECTIOUS DISEASE OF FROGS  

PubMed Central

The epidemics we have observed, were due to the presence and growth in the frogs of Bacillus hydrophilus fuscus. This was proved by recovering the bacillus in pure culture from the body fluids of frogs sick or dead of the disease, and the inoculation of healthy frogs with an emulsion of the pure culture, and by obtaining the same clinical picture and pathological findings as in the original diseased frogs; and, finally, by recovering the bacillus in pure culture from frogs inoculated and sick or dying as a result of the inoculation. The disease is widely distributed throughout North America and Europe, and in this country and Canada is known as "red-leg." It has been observed by us chiefly in the warm weather of September and October. The disease is characterized by congestion of the ventral surfaces of the body, with more or less ulceration in, and hæmorrhage beneath, the skin, bloating due to serous exudation into the lymph sacs, gradual failure to respond to stimuli, which symptoms are followed by coma and death, the last being occasionally preceded by tetanic seizures. After death hæmorrhages into the muscles and degenerative changes in the muscles, spleen, liver, and, to a slight degree, in the intestinal tract, are found. The blood shows an advanced degree of anæmia and leucocytosis. Predisposing causes of the disease are lesions of the skin, which seem to be the usual portal of entry of the infection, and lowered resistance from heat and from anæmia. By a series of controlled experiments with inoculated frogs we have shown that, while temperatures a little above freezing have no harmful effect upon the frogs, they completely control all manifestations of the disease in inoculated or diseased frogs, if the frogs are left in the cold for a period as long as seven days; and, further, that even short periods in the cold chamber will bring about a delay of the fatal results in diseased or inoculated frogs. The anæmia so often found in apparently healthy frogs seems in many cases to be due to the presence in the lungs of the frog of a parasite, the Distomum cylindraceum, which, occurring in sufficiently large numbers in an individual frog, is capable of materially diminishing the available supply of red corpuscles. Severe laking of the blood, the presence of numerous isolated red-cell nuclei, and great diminution in the number, or almost total absence of the red cells in the diseased frogs, are in proportion to the severity of the infection and due to bacterial action. The presence of the hæmatozoan parasite, the Drepanidium, does not play any part as a predisposing or exciting cause of the disease. The ascarid Rhabdomena nigrovenosum, although frequently present as a parasite in the lungs of the frogs, plays no part in causing or promoting the disease.

Emerson, Haven; Norris, Charles

1905-01-01

463

20 CFR 718.303 - Death from a respirable disease.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Death from a respirable disease. 718.303...DETERMINING COAL MINERS' TOTAL DISABILITY OR DEATH DUE TO PNEUMOCONIOSIS Presumptions Applicable...Eligibility Determinations § 718.303 Death from a respirable disease....

2013-04-01

464

Role of Sphingomyelinase in Infectious Diseases Caused by Bacillus cereus  

PubMed Central

Bacillus cereus (B. cereus) is a pathogen in opportunistic infections. Here we show that Bacillus cereus sphingomyelinase (Bc-SMase) is a virulence factor for septicemia. Clinical isolates produced large amounts of Bc-SMase, grew in vivo, and caused death among mice, but ATCC strains isolated from soil did not. A transformant of the ATCC strain carrying a recombinant plasmid containing the Bc-SMase gene grew in vivo, but that with the gene for E53A, which has little enzymatic activity, did not. Administration of an anti-Bc-SMase antibody and immunization against Bc-SMase prevented death caused by the clinical isolates, showing that Bc-SMase plays an important role in the diseases caused by B. cereus. Treatment of mouse macrophages with Bc-SMase resulted in a reduction in the generation of H2O2 and phagocytosis of macrophages induced by peptidoglycan (PGN), but no effect on the release of TNF-? and little release of LDH under our experimental conditions. Confocal laser microscopy showed that the treatment of mouse macrophages with Bc-SMase resulted in the formation of ceramide-rich domains. A photobleaching analysis suggested that the cells treated with Bc-SMase exhibited a reduction in membrane fluidity. The results suggest that Bc-SMase is essential for the hydrolysis of SM in membranes, leading to a reduction in phagocytosis.

Oda, Masataka; Hashimoto, Manabu; Takahashi, Masaya; Ohmae, Yuka; Seike, Soshi; Kato, Ryoko; Fujita, Aoi; Tsuge, Hideaki; Nagahama, Masahiro; Ochi, Sadayuki; Sasahara, Teppei; Hayashi, Shunji; Hirai, Yoshikazu; Sakurai, Jun

2012-01-01

465

Infectious diseases in the aftermath of monsoon flooding in Pakistan.  

PubMed

Pakistan is ranked 9th in terms of flood-affected countries worldwide. In the summer of 2010, the northern province of Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa received more than 312 mm of rain in a 56 hour period. This resulted in over 1 600 deaths across the region. In addition, over 14 million people were directly affected by this record-breaking deluge. Flood affected regions serve as ideal breeding grounds for pathogens, leading to the spread of diseases. The poor standards of hygiene in camps set up for individuals displaced by the floods also contribute to this. It is essential that those involved in relief efforts are aware of the epidemiology of diseases that have historically seen a sudden upsurge after natural disasters. Keeping this in mind, we conducted a simple review of literature. An extensive literature search was conducted using the PubMed data base and online search engines. Articles published in the last 20 years were considered along with some historical articles where a background was required. Seven major diseases were identified to increase substantially in the aftermath of natural disasters. They were then classified into acute and sub-acute settings. Diarrhea, skin & eye infections and leptospirosis were identified in the acute setting while malaria, leishmaniasis, respiratory infections and hepatitis were identified in the sub-acute setting. PMID:23569839

Baqir, Maryam; Sobani, Zain A; Bhamani, Amyn; Bham, Nida Shahab; Abid, Sidra; Farook, Javeria; Beg, M Asim

2012-01-01

466

Media\\/psychological impact on multiple outbreaks of emerging infectious diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

We use a compartmental model to illustrate a possible mechanism for multiple outbreaks or even sustained periodic oscillations of emerging infectious diseases due to the psychological impact of the reported numbers of infectious and hospitalized individuals. This impact leads to the change of avoidance and contact patterns at both individual and community levels, and incorporating this impact using a simple

Rongsong Liu; Jianhong Wu; Huaiping Zhu

2007-01-01

467

Estimating front-wave velocity of infectious diseases: a simple, efficient method applied to bluetongue  

Microsoft Academic Search

Understanding the spatial dynamics of an infectious disease is critical when attempting to predict where and how fast the\\u000a disease will spread. We illustrate an approach using a trend-surface analysis (TSA) model combined with a spatial error simultaneous\\u000a autoregressive model (SARerr model) to estimate the speed of diffusion of bluetongue (BT), an infectious disease of ruminants caused by bluetongue virus

Maryline Pioz; Hélène Guis; Didier Calavas; Benoît Durand; David Abrial; Christian Ducrot

2011-01-01

468

Hepatitis B Vaccination Cuts Deaths from Liver Disease, Cancer  

MedlinePLUS

... page, please enable JavaScript. Hepatitis B Vaccination Cuts Deaths From Liver Disease, Cancer: Study Taiwan study highlights ... Taiwanese researchers report a 90 percent reduction in deaths from complications of hepatitis B since the country ...

469

Clinical reasoning for the infectious disease specialist: a primer to recognize cognitive biases.  

PubMed

Infectious disease specialists are frequently consulted for diagnostic and therapeutic advice on challenging cases. When evaluating patients, the infectious disease specialist is well positioned to offer an appropriate diagnostic approach but is also at risk of not recognizing the correct diagnosis for a variety of reasons. We believe it is important to provide infectious disease specialists and trainees with a fundamental understanding of diagnostic errors, clinical reasoning, and cognitive biases. We present 2 cases demonstrating common cognitive biases leading to diagnostic errors, and we reflect on strategies that may aid in their prevention. We hope to provide knowledge and tools that may help prevent diagnostic errors in the future. PMID:23595833

Vick, Amanda; Estrada, Carlos A; Rodriguez, J Martin

2013-04-17

470

The genetic theory of infectious diseases: a brief history and selected illustrations.  

PubMed

Until the mid-nineteenth century, life expectancy at birth averaged 20 years worldwide, owing mostly to childhood fevers. The germ theory of diseases then gradually overcame the belief that diseases were intrinsic. However, around the turn of the twentieth century, asymptomatic infection was discovered to be much more common than clinical disease. Paradoxically, this observation barely challenged the newly developed notion that infectious diseases were fundamentally extrinsic. Moreover, interindividual variability in the course of infection was typically explained by the emerging immunological (or somatic) theory of infectious diseases, best illustrated by the impact of vaccination. This powerful explanation is, however, best applicable to reactivation and secondary infections, particularly in adults; it can less easily account for interindividual variability in the course of primary infection during childhood. Population and clinical geneticists soon proposed a complementary hypothesis, a germline genetic theory of infectious diseases. Over the past century, this idea has gained some support, particularly among clinicians and geneticists, but has also encountered resistance, particularly among microbiologists and immunologists. We present here the genetic theory of infectious diseases and briefly discuss its history and the challenges encountered during its emergence in the context of the apparently competing but actually complementary microbiological and immunological theories. We also illustrate its recent achievements by highlighting inborn errors of immunity underlying eight life-threatening infectious diseases of children and young adults. Finally, we consider the far-reaching biological and clinical implications of the ongoing human genetic dissection of severe infectious diseases. PMID:23724903

Casanova, Jean-Laurent; Abel, Laurent

2013-05-29