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1

Immunopathogenesis of infectious disease: injury and death from friendly fire  

E-print Network

EDITORIAL Immunopathogenesis of infectious disease: injury and death from friendly fire Immunology and Cell Biology (2007) 85, 5. doi:10.1038/sj.icb.7100016 Infectious diseases continue to be a major health and mortality resulting from infectious diseases remain a predicament. In addition, the emergence of new

Cai, Long

2

Infectious Diseases  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

With the threat of a warmer, wetter world and a larger global population, scientists are researching how climate change may impact the spread of infectious diseases,ťsuch as cholera and dengue fever, and how outbreaks may be prevented.ť "Changing Planet" is produced in partnership with the National Science Foundation.

NBC Learn

2010-10-07

3

Emerging and Re-Emerging Infectious Diseases  

MedlinePLUS

... on. Read more information on enabling JavaScript. Emerging Infectious Diseases/Pathogens Skip Content Marketing Share this: Main Content ... medical research and treatments during the 20th century, infectious diseases remain among the leading causes of death worldwide. ...

4

Parallelization: Infectious Disease  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Epidemiology is the study of infectious disease. Infectious diseases are said to be "contagious" among people if they are transmittable from one person to another. Epidemiologists can use models to assist them in predicting the behavior of infectious diseases. This module will develop a simple agent-based infectious disease model, develop a parallel algorithm based on the model, provide a coded implementation for the algorithm, and explore the scaling of the coded implementation on high performance cluster resources.

Aaron Weeden

5

[Infectious diseases research].  

PubMed

There has been a significant increase in research activity into infectious diseases in Spain in the last few years. The Spanish Society of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology (SEIMC) currently has ten study groups, with the cooperation of infectious diseases specialists and microbiologists from different centres, with significant research activity. The program of Redes Temáticas de Investigación Cooperativa en Salud (Special Topics Cooperative Health Research Networks) is an appropriate framework for the strategic coordination of research groups from the Spanish autonomous communities. The Spanish Network for Research in Infectious Diseases (REIPI) and the Network for Research in AIDS (RIS) integrate investigators in Infectious Diseases from multiple groups, which continuously perform important research projects. Research using different experimental models in infectious diseases, in numerous institutions, is an important activity in our country. The analysis of the recent scientific production in Infectious Diseases shows that Spain has a good position in the context of the European Union. The research activity in Infectious Diseases carried out in our country is a great opportunity for the training of specialists in this area of knowledge. PMID:19195467

Carratalŕ, Jordi; Alcamí, José; Cordero, Elisa; Miró, José M; Ramos, José Manuel

2008-12-01

6

76 FR 39041 - Infectious Diseases  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Part 1910 RIN 1218-AC46 Infectious Diseases AGENCY: Occupational Safety...concerning occupational exposure to infectious diseases. OSHA plans to use the information...label it ``Attention: OSHA Infectious Diseases Stakeholder Meeting...

2011-07-05

7

Infectious Diseases Gateway  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

BioMedNet (BMN) presents the Infectious Diseases Gateway "featuring expertly selected content from the leading publications in infectious diseases." Users will find research articles, reviews, and other resources from the Elsevier family of journals and books; all freely available to any reader (free registration required). The Web site also offers related BMN news features, links to other BMN Gateways, and a special supplement to the upcoming Interscience Conference of Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy.

8

National Foundation for Infectious Diseases  

MedlinePLUS

About NFID Contact Us NFID Store Home Infectious Disease Information Infectious Disease Information Chickenpox (Varicella) Diphtheria Ebola Hepatitis A Hepatitis B Hib Disease HPV (Human Papillomavirus) Influenza (Flu) MRSA Measles Meningococcal Disease ...

9

Controlling Infectious Diseases.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Advocates establishing programs to educate the public about the growing threat of communicable diseases and to promote effective strategies. Utilizes recent successes and failures to formulate those strategies. Profiles three recent infectious disease outbreaks that illustrate some of the current problems. Identifies four ways that lawyers can…

Porter, Wm. Lane; Fidler, David P.

1997-01-01

10

Biodefense and Emerging Infectious Diseases  

MedlinePLUS

... more information on enabling JavaScript. Biodefense and Emerging Infectious Diseases Top Banner Content Area Skip Content Marketing Share ... diagnose, treat, and prevent a wide range of infectious diseases, whether those diseases emerge naturally or are deliberately ...

11

FastStats: Infectious Disease  

MedlinePLUS

... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button NCHS Home Infectious Disease Share Compartir Data are for the U.S. Morbidity ... 10 [PDF - 330 KB] More data AIDS/HIV Infectious Disease Prevalence in Los Angeles County–A Comparison to ...

12

Emerging infectious diseases  

PubMed Central

The spectrum of human pathogens and the infectious diseases they cause is continuously changing through evolution and changes in the way human populations interact with their environment and each other. New human pathogens most often emerge from an animal reservoir, emphasizing the central role that non-human reservoirs play in human infectious diseases. Pathogens may also re-emerge with new characteristics, such as multidrug-resistance, or in different places, such as West Nile virus in the USA in 1999, to cause new epidemics. Most human pathogens have a history of evolution in which they first emerge and cause epidemics, become unstably adapted, re-emerge periodically, and eventually become endemic with the potential for future outbreaks. PMID:24563608

van Doorn, H. Rogier

2014-01-01

13

Emerging infectious diseases.  

PubMed

The spectrum of human pathogens and the infectious diseases they cause is continuously changing through evolution and changes in the way human populations interact with their environment and each other. New human pathogens most often emerge from an animal reservoir, emphasizing the central role that non-human reservoirs play in human infectious diseases. Pathogens may also re-emerge with new characteristics, such as multidrug-resistance, or in different places, such as West Nile virus in the USA in 1999, to cause new epidemics. Most human pathogens have a history of evolution in which they first emerge and cause epidemics, become unstably adapted, re-emerge periodically, and eventually become endemic with the potential for future outbreaks. PMID:24563608

van Doorn, H Rogier

2014-01-01

14

Web-based participatory surveillance of infectious diseases: the Influenzanet participatory surveillance experience  

E-print Network

Web-based participatory surveillance of infectious diseases: the Influenzanet participatory. Keywords: Europe, infectious disease, influenza-like illness, Internet, participatory surveillance Article Infectious diseases remain a serious medical burden all around the world, with 15 million deaths per year

Menczer, Filippo

15

Ecology of Infectious Diseases  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

With a dramatic image of a bustling city superimposed over a peaceful forest, the National Science Foundation's homepage on the ecology of infectious diseases is quite intriguing. After clicking on the image, visitors will be treated to an overview of this special report that asks: "Is our interaction with the environment somehow responsible for the increases in incidence of these diseases?" The report is divided into five sections, each exploring a different facet of the National Science Foundation's work on this problem. The sections include "Medical Mystery Solved" and "Lyme Disease on the Rise". Each of these sections includes helpful graphics, well-written text, and links to additional sites. Overall, the site will be most useful for science educators and members of the public health community.

16

Infectious diseases in ancient Egypt.  

PubMed

Techniques for studying infectious disease in the ancient world are discussed. A brief survey of infectious diseases, such as schistosomiasis and malaria, in ancient Egypt is presented, and the physical traces of these diseases are examined. A discussion of the ancient Egyptian physician's response to infectious disease is included. There are two substantial sources of evidence for infectious diseases-physical remains and descriptions in Egyptian medical papyri. This preliminary survey suggests that ancient Egypt was far from the idyllic paradise on the Nile that some historians would like to imagine. PMID:15081501

Brier, Bob

2004-03-01

17

Infectious Disease Specialist: What Is an Infectious Disease Specialist?  

MedlinePLUS

What is an Infectious Disease Specialist? When do I need an ID specialist? What will my visit be like? How was my ID specialist ... children. One of the best strategies for preventing infectious diseases is immunization. Ask your doctor for advice about ...

18

Global mapping of infectious disease.  

PubMed

The primary aim of this review was to evaluate the state of knowledge of the geographical distribution of all infectious diseases of clinical significance to humans. A systematic review was conducted to enumerate cartographic progress, with respect to the data available for mapping and the methods currently applied. The results helped define the minimum information requirements for mapping infectious disease occurrence, and a quantitative framework for assessing the mapping opportunities for all infectious diseases. This revealed that of 355 infectious diseases identified, 174 (49%) have a strong rationale for mapping and of these only 7 (4%) had been comprehensively mapped. A variety of ambitions, such as the quantification of the global burden of infectious disease, international biosurveillance, assessing the likelihood of infectious disease outbreaks and exploring the propensity for infectious disease evolution and emergence, are limited by these omissions. An overview of the factors hindering progress in disease cartography is provided. It is argued that rapid improvement in the landscape of infectious diseases mapping can be made by embracing non-conventional data sources, automation of geo-positioning and mapping procedures enabled by machine learning and information technology, respectively, in addition to harnessing labour of the volunteer 'cognitive surplus' through crowdsourcing. PMID:23382431

Hay, Simon I; Battle, Katherine E; Pigott, David M; Smith, David L; Moyes, Catherine L; Bhatt, Samir; Brownstein, John S; Collier, Nigel; Myers, Monica F; George, Dylan B; Gething, Peter W

2013-03-19

19

Global mapping of infectious disease  

PubMed Central

The primary aim of this review was to evaluate the state of knowledge of the geographical distribution of all infectious diseases of clinical significance to humans. A systematic review was conducted to enumerate cartographic progress, with respect to the data available for mapping and the methods currently applied. The results helped define the minimum information requirements for mapping infectious disease occurrence, and a quantitative framework for assessing the mapping opportunities for all infectious diseases. This revealed that of 355 infectious diseases identified, 174 (49%) have a strong rationale for mapping and of these only 7 (4%) had been comprehensively mapped. A variety of ambitions, such as the quantification of the global burden of infectious disease, international biosurveillance, assessing the likelihood of infectious disease outbreaks and exploring the propensity for infectious disease evolution and emergence, are limited by these omissions. An overview of the factors hindering progress in disease cartography is provided. It is argued that rapid improvement in the landscape of infectious diseases mapping can be made by embracing non-conventional data sources, automation of geo-positioning and mapping procedures enabled by machine learning and information technology, respectively, in addition to harnessing labour of the volunteer ‘cognitive surplus’ through crowdsourcing. PMID:23382431

Hay, Simon I.; Battle, Katherine E.; Pigott, David M.; Smith, David L.; Moyes, Catherine L.; Bhatt, Samir; Brownstein, John S.; Collier, Nigel; Myers, Monica F.; George, Dylan B.; Gething, Peter W.

2013-01-01

20

Infectious muscle disease.  

PubMed

Infectious muscle diseases have very different aetiologies. The viral myositides are proved by clinical and laboratory evidences in various etiologic settings (Influenza A and B, Coxsackie and HIV). The bacterial myositis was considered in the near past a tropical disease, but in our days with migration of people from South to North and the endemia of AIDS it became a problem of the "civilized" world. On the other hand, tuberculous endemia in Central-Eastern Europe, including Romania, results in quite high incidence of osteoarticular tuberculosis. In this section the authors take into consideration some clinical entities, such as psoas abscess, postanginal sepsis, beta-haemolytic streptococcus infection and that caused by Koch bacillus. Other rare musculoskeletal infections such as gas gangrene and non-clostridial anaerobic myonecrosis are also reviewed. Immune depression caused by underlying diseases, therapies, alcoholism or old age is often encountered. The parasitic aetiologies include infestations with Trichinella spiralis, Cysticercus cellulosae, Toxoplasma and Amoeba. The contribution of imagistic methods to diagnosis is emphasised. Ultrasonography associated with CT imaging are usually used, while MRI should be reserved for cases in which axial skeleton is involved. The management is based on appropriate antibiotic therapy and surgery. PMID:17236294

Parasca, I; Damian, Laura; Albu, Adriana

2006-01-01

21

Infectious Diseases in Day Care.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discussed in this publication are infectious illnesses for which children attending day care appear to be at special risk. Also covered are the common cold, some infectious disease problems receiving media attention, and some other annoying but not serious diseases, such as head lice, pinworms, and contagious skin conditions. Causes,…

Sleator, Esther K.

22

IDBD: Infectious Disease Biomarker Database  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biomarkers enable early diagnosis, guide molecu- larly targeted therapy and monitor the activity and therapeutic responses across a variety of diseases. Despite intensified interest and research, however, the overall rate of development of novel biomarkers has been falling. Moreover, no solution is yet available that efficiently retrieves and processes biomarker information pertaining to infectious dis- eases. Infectious Disease Biomarker Database

In Seok Yang; Chunsun Ryu; Ki Joon Cho; Jin Kwang Kim; Swee Hoe Ong; Wayne P. Mitchell; Bong Su Kim; Hee-Bok Oh; Kyung Hyun Kim

2008-01-01

23

What Is a Pediatric Infectious Diseases Specialist?  

MedlinePLUS

... Specialist? Family Life Listen What is a Pediatric Infectious Diseases Specialist? Article Body If your child has a ... teen years. What Kind of Training Do Pediatric Infectious Diseases Specialists Have? Pediatric infectious diseases specialists are medical ...

24

on Infectious & Reportable Diseases HEALTH & SAFETY UNIT MAY 2009  

E-print Network

POLICY on Infectious & Reportable Diseases HEALTH & SAFETY UNIT MAY 2009 #12;Policy on Infectious.............................................................................. 3 4.1 Infectious Diseases ................................................................................... 3 4.2. Notifiable Infectious Diseases

25

The challenge of emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Infectious diseases have for centuries ranked with wars and famine as major challenges to human progress and survival. They remain among the leading causes of death and disability worldwide. Against a constant background of established infections, epidemics of new and old infectious diseases periodically emerge, greatly magnifying the global burden of infections. Studies of these emerging infections reveal the evolutionary

David M. Morens; Gregory K. Folkers; Anthony S. Fauci

2004-01-01

26

Infectious Disease, Endangerment, and Extinction  

PubMed Central

Infectious disease, especially virulent infectious disease, is commonly regarded as a cause of fluctuation or decline in biological populations. However, it is not generally considered as a primary factor in causing the actual endangerment or extinction of species. We review here the known historical examples in which disease has, or has been assumed to have had, a major deleterious impact on animal species, including extinction, and highlight some recent cases in which disease is the chief suspect in causing the outright endangerment of particular species. We conclude that the role of disease in historical extinctions at the population or species level may have been underestimated. Recent methodological breakthroughs may lead to a better understanding of the past and present roles of infectious disease in influencing population fitness and other parameters. PMID:23401844

MacPhee, Ross D. E.; Greenwood, Alex D.

2013-01-01

27

Emerging and Re-emerging Infectious Diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) are characterized by a new or an increased occurrence within the last few decades. They\\u000a include the following categories Emerging diagnosis of infectious diseases: old diseases that are newly classified as infectious\\u000a diseases because of the discovery of a responsible infectious agent.

Thomas Löscher; Luise Prüfer-Krämer

28

The Mathematics of Infectious Diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many models for the spread of infectious diseases in populations have been analyzed math- ematically and applied to specific diseases. Threshold theorems involving the basic repro- duction number R0, the contact number ?, and the replacement number R are reviewed for the classic SIR epidemic and endemic models. Similar results with new expressions for R0 are obtained for MSEIR and

Herbert W. Hethcote

29

Preventing Infectious Disease in Sports.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Preventing infectious disease in sports is fundamental to maintaining team effectiveness and helping athletes avoid the adverse effects of illness. Good hygiene, immunization, minimal exposure to specific diseases, and certain prophylactic measures are essential. Teammates, coaches, trainers, officials, healthcare providers, and community public…

Howe, Warren B.

2003-01-01

30

Global Spread of Infectious Diseases  

E-print Network

We develop simple models for the global spread of infectious diseases, emphasizing human mobility via air travel and the variation of public health infrastructure from region to region. We derive formulas relating the total and peak number of infections in two countries to the rate of travel between them and their respective epidemiological parameters.

S. Hsu; A. Zee

2003-06-25

31

Transplantation and tropical infectious diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

The number of transplant recipients with tropical infectious diseases is growing due to increasing international travel and the rising number of transplants taking place in the tropics and subtropics. With increases in population migration, the prevalence of individuals infected with geographically restricted organisms also rises. There are three potential categories of tropical infections in transplant patients: (1) donor-related infections transmitted

Carlos Franco-Paredes; Jesse T. Jacob; Alicia Hidron; Alfonso J. Rodriguez-Morales; David Kuhar; Angela M. Caliendo

2010-01-01

32

Overview of Infectious Diseases  

MedlinePLUS

... to realize that not all germs (bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites) cause disease. In fact, a host ... we will become infected with harmful bacteria and fungi. The normal balance of bacteria can be upset ...

33

Genetic Contributions to Infectious Disease Risk Infectious disease in cattle production  

E-print Network

Genetic Contributions to Infectious Disease Risk Infectious disease in cattle production remains for novel approaches to disease control. One of the opportunities to mitigate infectious disease threats To identify genetic polymorphisms associated with infectious diseases of cattle of importance to animal

34

Bloodborne Infectious Diseases Exposure Control Plan  

E-print Network

Bloodborne Infectious Diseases Exposure Control Plan Pursuant to the requirements of the MIOSHA Bloodborne Infectious Diseases Standard (R 325.70001 through R 325.700018) Wayne State University Office

Berdichevsky, Victor

35

Computational Modeling and Simulation of Infectious Diseases  

E-print Network

Computational Modeling and Simulation of Infectious Diseases May 21­July 27, 2012 Receive a 10-week of Public Health Models of Infectious Disease Agent Study (MIDAS) National Center of Excellence #12;

Sibille, Etienne

36

Review article Epidemiological surveillance of infectious diseases  

E-print Network

Review article Epidemiological surveillance of infectious diseases in France Barbara DUFOUR for infectious animal diseases are the Direction générale de l'alimentation, the Agence française de sécurité according to a classification based on published criteria. In the case of human infectious diseases

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

37

Bayesian Analysis for Emerging Infectious Diseases  

E-print Network

Bayesian Analysis for Emerging Infectious Diseases C. Jewel, T. Kypraios, P. Neal & G. Roberts of Mathematics, The University of Manchester #12;Bayesian Analysis for Emerging Infectious Diseases. C. Jewell Infectious diseases both within human and animal polulations often pose serious health and socio- economic

Sidorov, Nikita

38

National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Division of Microbiology and Infectious Diseases  

E-print Network

NIAID National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Division of Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Genomics Program The NIAID Division of Microbiology and Infectious Diseases (DMID) has, therapeutics, and vaccines for the treatment and ultimate prevention of infectious and immune-mediated diseases

Levin, Judith G.

39

Infectious Diseases Subdue Serengeti Lions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Infectious diseases stalk wildlife in the Serengeti, and climate change may be an accessory. Lions face serious threats to their future, some head-on, others lurking in the grasses, unseen until it's almost too late. From growing numbers of people living along the Serengeti perimeter to the effects of infectious diseases and climate change, the king of beasts (Panthera leo) leads an uneasy life. For example, lions are subject to simultaneous outbreaks of canine distemper virus (CDV) and babesiosis. CDV, a disease that results in encephalitis and pneumonia, is transmitted by domestic dogs; babesiosis is carried by a tick-borne blood parasite called Babesia. If extreme weather events become more frequent as a result of global climate change, disease may become a major threat to animal populations that have been historically stable. Diseases once thought to have limited impacts, such as babesiosis, should be watched closely. Environmental conditions may tip the scales and result in significantly greater impacts, even in wide open places like the Serengeti.

Cheryl Dybas (Freelance; )

2009-01-01

40

Life course epidemiology and infectious diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

There has been a traditional view that divided epidemiology into infectious and chronic diseases. Since we now know that at least 15% of cancers worldwide are caused by infections,1 that infections frequently have a natural history lasting decades and that the same epidemiological methods can be applied to both infectious and non-infectious diseases, this view can be considered purely historical.

Andrew J Hall; Leland J Yee; Sara L Thomas

2002-01-01

41

Host Genomics in Infectious Diseases  

PubMed Central

Understanding mechanisms by which genetic variants predispose to complications of infectious diseases can lead to important benefits including the development of biomarkers to prioritize vaccination or prophylactic therapy. Family studies, candidate genes in animal models, and the absence of well-defined risks where the complications are rare all can point to genetic predisposition. The most common approach to assessing genetic risk is to conduct an association study, which is a case control study using either a candidate gene approach or a genome wide approach. Although candidate gene variants may focus on potentially causal variants, because other variants across the genome are not tested these studies frequently cannot be replicated. Genome wide association studies need a sizable sample and usually do not identify causal variants but variants which may be in linkage disequilibrium to the actual causal variant. There are many pitfalls that can lead to bias in such studies, including misclassification of cases and controls, use of improper phenotypes, and genotyping errors. These studies have been limited to common genes and rare variants may not be detected. As the use of next generation sequencing becomes more common, it can be anticipated that more variants will be confirmed. The purpose of this review article is to address the issue of genomics in infectious diseases with an emphasis on the host. Although there are a plentitude of studies that focus on the molecular characteristics of pathogens, there are far fewer studies that address the role of human genetics in the predisposition to infection or more commonly its complications. This paper will review both the approaches used to study host genetics in humans and the pitfalls associated with some of these methods. The focus will be on human disease and therefore discussion of the use of animal models will be limited to those where there are genes that have been replicated in humans. The paper will focus on common genetic variants that account for complex traits such as infectious diseases using examples from flaviviruses. PMID:24396626

2013-01-01

42

Emerging Infectious Diseases and Amphibian Population Declines  

Microsoft Academic Search

We review recent research on the pathology, ecology, and biogeography of two emerging infectious wildlife diseases, chytridiomycosis and ranaviral disease, in the context of host-parasite population biology. We examine the role of these diseases in the global decline of amphibian populations and propose hypotheses for the origins and impact of these panzootics. Finally, we discuss emerging infectious diseases as a

Peter Daszak; Lee Berger; Andrew A. Cunningham; Alex D. Hyatt; D. Earl Green; Rick Speare

1999-01-01

43

Genetics of susceptibitlity to human infectious disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Before Robert Koch's work in the late nineteenth century, diseases such as tuberculosis and leprosy were widely believed to be inherited disorders. Heritability of susceptibility to several infectious diseases has been confirmed by studies in the twentieth century. Infectious diseases, old and new, continue to be an important cause of mortality worldwide. A greater understanding of disease processes is needed

Graham S. Cooke; Adrian V. S. Hill

2001-01-01

44

Health outcomes and infectious disease control  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the development of improved health systems, antibiotics and vaccines throughout the 20th century, the prospects for control of infectious diseases improved. During the same time-frame, an approach to disease control was developed which used the health outcomes resulting from various interventions to choose, guide and modify those interventions. Despite these major advances in the control of diseases, infectious diseases

Aileen J. Plant; R. Louise Rushworth

1997-01-01

45

The return of infectious disease.  

PubMed

This article presents the history of efforts to control the spread of infectious disease from the post-antibiotic era to 1995. Since World War II, public health strategy has focused on the eradication of microbes using powerful medical weaponry. The goal was to push humanity through a żhealth transition,ż leaving the age of infectious disease permanently behind. But recent developments have shown that this grandiose optimism was premature. As people move across international borders, unwanted microbial hitch-hikers tag along, as happened in the case of Ebola. In large cities, sex industries arise and multiple-partner sex becomes more common, prompting rapid increases in sexually transmitted disease. Moreover, the practice of sharing syringes is a ready vehicle for the transmission of microbes while unhygienic health facilities become centers for the dissemination of disease rather than its control. Black market access to antimicrobials has led to overuse or outright misuse of the drugs and the emergence of resistant bacteria and parasites. Consequently, old organisms, aided by mankind's misuse of disinfectants and drugs, may take on new and more lethal forms. Even when allegations of biological warfare are not flying, it is often difficult to obtain accurate information about outbreaks of disease, particularly in countries dependent on foreign investment or tourism or both. Unfortunately, only 6 laboratories in the world meet security and safety standards that would make them suitable sites for research on the world's deadliest microbes. National security warrants bolder steps involving focusing not only on microbes directly dangerous to humans, but also on those that could pose major threats to crops or livestock. Unfortunately, economic crises have led to budget cuts, particularly in health care, at all levels of government in the US. PMID:12349255

Garrett, L

1996-11-01

46

Infectious Disease Updates To minimize the risk of any infectious disease, practice these daily preventive  

E-print Network

10/23/14 1 Infectious Disease Updates To minimize the risk of any infectious disease, practice spread this way. · Don't share food or drink items, utensils, tooth brushes, cigarettes, joints, or any diseases of concern. #12;10/23/14 2 Specific Infectious Diseases 1) Influenza (flu) http

Su, Xiao

47

Infectious Diseases and the Immune System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The lesson is design to explain the basic functions of the human immune system, including specific and nonspecific immune response, vaccines, and antibiotics. Primarily, it focuses on infectious diseases and how the immune system defend the body against infectious diseases. The lesson uses the 5E model as an approach for students to become engage, analytical and inquisitive in learning about infectious diseases and the immune system.

Cruz, Arnel D.

2012-06-28

48

Evolutionary Response to Human Infectious Diseases  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Gives an overview of human history, relating cultural changes with resulting changes in population density and in ecological balance to patterns of infectious diseases in man. Discusses mechanisms of evolution of resistance. Suggests that in populations where infectious diseases can be controlled, attention should shift to degenerative diseases

Armelagos, George J.; Dewey, John R.

1970-01-01

49

An Interdisciplinary Perspective: Infectious Diseases and History.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduces the course "Infectious Diseases and History" which is designed for freshman and sophomore students. Aims to teach about infectious diseases, develop skills of using libraries and computer resources, and develop oral and written communication skills. Focuses on tuberculosis as an example of an instructional approach and explains its…

Turco, Jenifer; Byrd, Melanie

2001-01-01

50

Clinical and Translational Infectious Diseases Research  

E-print Network

Clinical and Translational Infectious Diseases Research Anita Shet, M.D. Associate Professor, Pediatrics St. John's Medical College, Bangalore MBBS: St John's Medical College, Bangalore MD: Univ of Minnesota, USA Infectious Diseases Fellowship: Univ of Minnesota, USA HIV Research: Rockefeller University

Udgaonkar, Jayant B.

51

Infectious diseases - new and ancient threats to world health.  

SciTech Connect

When smallpox was eradicated from the globe in the late 1970s, many health experts assumed that infectious and parasitic diseases (IPDs) could at long last be conquered. Death rates from infectious and parasitic diseases had declined during the late 19th century and throughout the 20th century thanks to better public health and sanitation as well as medical advances made possible by economic development. During this period, scientists discovered the germ theory of disease, identified the epidemiology and natural history of many infectious diseases, and created a host of potent antibiotic drugs that helped save millions of lives. Medical researchers learned to identify and cultivate viruses, which led to vaccines for increasing numbers of diseases.

Olshansky, S. J.; Carnes, B.; Rogers, R. G.; Smith, L.; Center for Mechanistic Biology and Biotechnology

1997-07-01

52

Eradication of infectious diseases in heterogeneous populations  

SciTech Connect

A model is presented of infectious disease in heterogeneous populations, which allows for variable intra- to intergroup contact ratios. The authors give necessary and sufficient conditions for disease eradication by means of vaccination. Smallpox is used as an illustrative example.

Travis, C.C.; Lenhart, S.M.

1987-04-01

53

Antimicrobial Human ?-Defensins in the Colon and Their Role in Infectious and Non-Infectious Diseases  

PubMed Central

?-defensins are small cationic antimicrobial peptides secreted by diverse cell types including colonic epithelial cells. Human ?-defensins form an essential component of the intestinal lumen in innate immunity. The defensive mechanisms of ?-defensins include binding to negatively charged microbial membranes that cause cell death and chemoattraction of immune cells. The antimicrobial activity of ?-defensin is well reported in vitro against several enteric pathogens and in non-infectious processes such as inflammatory bowel diseases, which alters ?-defensin production. However, the role of ?-defensin in vivo in its interaction with other immune components in host defense against bacteria, viruses and parasites with more complex membranes is still not well known. This review focuses on the latest findings regarding the role of ?-defensin in relevant human infectious and non-infectious diseases of the colonic mucosa. In addition, we summarize the most significant aspects of ?-defensin and its antimicrobial role in a variety of disease processes. PMID:25436887

Cobo, Eduardo R.; Chadee, Kris

2013-01-01

54

Emerging infectious diseases and amphibian population declines.  

PubMed Central

We review recent research on the pathology, ecology, and biogeography of two emerging infectious wildlife diseases, chytridiomycosis and ranaviral disease, in the context of host-parasite population biology. We examine the role of these diseases in the global decline of amphibian populations and propose hypotheses for the origins and impact of these panzootics. Finally, we discuss emerging infectious diseases as a global threat to wildlife populations. PMID:10603206

Daszak, P.; Berger, L.; Cunningham, A. A.; Hyatt, A. D.; Green, D. E.; Speare, R.

1999-01-01

55

Occupational assessment, screening and vaccination against specified infectious diseases PROCEDURES  

E-print Network

Occupational assessment, screening and vaccination against specified infectious diseases PROCEDURES the infectious diseases specified in this policy directive. Part 1 I have read and understand the requirements of the NSW Health Occupational Assessment, Screening and Vaccination against Specified Infectious Diseases

Viglas, Anastasios

56

76 FR 27070 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases;  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings...National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel, NIAID...National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel,...

2011-05-10

57

Neuropsychological sequelae of adolescent infectious diseases.  

PubMed

This article discusses the neuropsychological sequelae of adolescent infectious diseases. Primary care physicians are encouraged to extend their clinical activities beyond the primary medical care aspects of the infectious disease process to encompass a comprehensive, multidisciplinary, continuum of health care approach. Patient, disease, and socioecologic parameters are the foundation of this approach. This article is designed to help primary care physicians appreciate the complexity of neuropsychological infectious disease issues in the adolescent. Human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) is emphasized because the legion of related sequelae demands a comprehensive health care approach and serves as a model for discussing other principal infectious diseases such as encephalitis (particularly Lyme disease) and bacterial meningitis. PMID:12270806

Obrecht, Robert E; Patrick, Peter D

2002-10-01

58

[Human genetics and infectious diseases (author's transl)].  

PubMed

Infectious diseases, especially the worldwide epidemic diseases such as plague, smallpox, syphilis, tuberculosis have to a great extent selective effects. This is demonstrated inter alia in the different "selection values" in the ABO blood group system. Under present day civilized living conditions O carriers have a preservation advantage over blood group A. The deletion of the selection factor "infectious disease", which entails a decline of immunity, may nevertheless regain importance if environmental changes occur. PMID:6792533

Jörgensen, G

1981-09-25

59

Stress and infectious disease in humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reviews research on the role of stress in infectious disease as measured either by illness behaviors (symptoms and use of health services) or by verified pathology. Substantial evidence was found for an association between stress and increased illness behavior, and less convincing but provocative evidence was found for a similar association between stress and infectious pathology. Introverts, isolates,

Sheldon Cohen; Gail M. Williamson

1991-01-01

60

Infectious Diseases and Immunizations. Matrix No. 15.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper summarizes the major advances achieved by research in the fields of infectious diseases and immunizations during the 1970s, and delineates directions for future research in these fields. (Author/MP)

Sever, John L.

61

Cocirculation of infectious diseases on networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We consider multiple diseases spreading in a static configuration model network. We make standard assumptions that infection transmits from neighbor to neighbor at a disease-specific rate and infected individuals recover at a disease-specific rate. Infection by one disease confers immediate and permanent immunity to infection by any disease. Under these assumptions, we find a simple, low-dimensional ordinary differential equations model which captures the global dynamics of the infection. The dynamics depend strongly on initial conditions. Although we motivate this Rapid Communication with infectious disease, the model may be adapted to the spread of other infectious agents such as competing political beliefs, or adoption of new technologies if these are influenced by contacts. As an example, we demonstrate how to model an infectious disease which can be prevented by a behavior change.

Miller, Joel C.

2013-06-01

62

Unmet diagnostic needs in infectious disease.  

PubMed

Accurate diagnosis is critical to providing appropriate care in infectious diseases (ID). New technologies for infectious disease diagnostics are emerging, but gaps remain in test development and availability. The Emerging Infections Network surveyed ID physicians to assess unmet diagnostic needs. Responses reflected the urgent need to identify drug-resistant infections and highlighted the potential for early diagnosis to improve antibiotic stewardship. Information gained from this survey can help inform recommendations for new diagnostic test development in the future. PMID:25456043

Blaschke, Anne J; Hersh, Adam L; Beekmann, Susan E; Ince, Dilek; Polgreen, Philip M; Hanson, Kimberly E

2015-01-01

63

Passive antibody therapy for infectious diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Antibody-based therapies are currently undergoing a renaissance. After being developed and then largely abandoned in the twentieth century, many antibody preparations are now in clinical use. However, most of the reagents that are available target non-infectious diseases. Interest in using antibodies to treat infectious diseases is now being fuelled by the wide dissemination of drug-resistant microorganisms, the emergence of new

Ekaterina Dadachova; Liise-anne Pirofski; Arturo Casadevall

2004-01-01

64

Genetics and genomics of infectious disease susceptibility  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human genetic variation is a major determinant of susceptibility to many common infectious diseases. Malaria was the first disease to be studied extensively and many susceptibility and resistance loci have been identified. However, genes for other diseases such as HIV\\/AIDS and mycobacterial infections are now being identified using a variety of approaches. A large number of genes appear to influence

Adrian Vs Hill

1999-01-01

65

Ruminant Genetics and Infectious Disease Infectious disease in cattle production remains a significant threat to productivity, profitability, animal wel-  

E-print Network

Ruminant Genetics and Infectious Disease Infectious disease in cattle production remains the need for novel approaches to disease control. One of the opportunities to mitigate infectious disease threats is to use genetic selection for cattle with natural resistance to infectious disease. Resistance

66

Contagious rhythm: infectious diseases of 20th century musicians.  

PubMed

Infectious diseases have led to illness and death for many famous musicians, from the classical period to the rock 'n' roll era. By the 20th century, as public health improved and orchestral composers began living more settled lives, infections among American and European musicians became less prominent. By mid-century, however, seminal jazz musicians famously pursued lifestyles characterized by drug and alcohol abuse. Among the consequences of this risky lifestyle were tuberculosis, syphilis, and chronic viral hepatitis. More contemporary rock musicians have experienced an epidemic of hepatitis C infection and HIV/AIDS related to intravenous drug use and promiscuity. Musical innovation is thus often accompanied by diseases of neglect and overindulgence, particularly infectious illnesses, although risky behavior and associated infectious illnesses tend to decrease as the style matures. PMID:20660936

Sartin, Jeffrey S

2010-07-01

67

Introduction The management of infectious diseases is complex,  

E-print Network

Review Introduction The management of infectious diseases is complex, especially in an intensive review the development of such models applied to infectious disease management. We use the diagnosis and treatment of infectious diseases Any diagnosis, including that of an infectious disease, is based

Lucas, Peter

68

Banting Memorial Lecture 2010^. Type 2 diabetes as an 'infectious' disease: is this the Black Death of the 21st century?  

PubMed

We are currently facing a global pandemic of obesity and Type 2 diabetes. In some settings, the population prevalence of Type 2 diabetes is 50%, and half of those affected will die from diabetes-related complications. Eight centuries ago, an epidemic of bubonic plague swept across Europe, killing at least half of its victims. We here draw comparisons between these two pandemics, proposing close analogies between the 'Black Death' of the 14th century and the modern-day equivalent of Type 2 diabetes. Both diseases can be considered in terms of an aetiological agent, a reservoir, a vector and a predisposing toxic environment; populations can be considered as highly susceptible to the transmissable agents of Type 2 diabetes in the setting of calorie excess, inadequate food labelling, poorly regulated advertising and sedentary lifestyles. As for tackling a pandemic of a contagious microbial pathogen, we believe that breaking the cycle of transmission in the diabetes epidemic must be underpinned by political will and prompt, decisive legislation backed by the medical community. Far from fearing that such measures edge us towards a 'nanny state', we believe individuals should expect a responsible government to safeguard them from the toxic milieu that puts them at risk of obesity and its complications, and that communities and populations have the right to have their health protected. PMID:21166840

Matthews, D R; Matthews, P C

2011-01-01

69

Host Biomarkers and Paediatric Infectious Diseases: From Molecular Profiles to Clinical Application  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Infectious diseases are an important cause of death among children under the age of 5 (Stein et al., 2004). Most of these\\u000a deaths are caused by preventable or curable infections. Limited access to medical care, antibiotics, and vaccinations remains\\u000a a major problem in developing countries. But infectious diseases also continue to be an important public health issue in developed\\u000a countries.

H. K. Brand; P. W. M. Hermans; R. de Groot

2010-01-01

70

Infectious disease and amphibian population declines  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of recent papers have impli- cated pathogens and parasites in amphibian population declines. Here, we review evidence on the link between infectious disease and amphibian population declines. We conclude that available data provide the clearest link for the fungal disease amphibian chytridiomycosis, although other pathogens are also implicated. We suggest additional experimental and observa- tional data that need

Peter Daszak; Andrew A. Cunningham; Alex D. Hyatt

2003-01-01

71

Infectious Diseases and Immunity Ph.D. Program UC Berkeley  

E-print Network

Infectious Diseases and Immunity Ph.D. Program UC Berkeley Ph.D. Degree Program The Graduate Group in Infectious Diseases and Immunity provides the opportunity for the study of the biology of infectious agents of infectious diseases. The degree program is unique in emphasizing integrated, multidisciplinary training

Sjölander, Kimmen

72

Radiolabeled antibodies for therapy of infectious diseases  

PubMed Central

Novel approaches to treatment of infectious diseases are urgently needed. This need has resulted in renewing the interest in antibodies for therapy of infectious diseases. Radioimmunotherapy (RIT) is a cancer treatment modality, which utilizes radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). During the last decade we have translated RIT into the field of experimental fungal, bacterial and HIV infections. In addition, successful proof of principle experiments with radiolabeled pan-antibodies that bind to antigens shared by major pathogenic fungi were performed in vitro. The armamentarium of pan-antibodies would result in reducing the dependence on microorganism-specific antibodies and thus would speed up the development of RIT of infections. We believe that the time is ripe for deploying RIT into the clinic to combat infectious diseases. PMID:25599011

Dadachova, Ekaterina; Casadevall, Arturo

2014-01-01

73

Biodiversity loss and infectious diseases: chapter 5  

USGS Publications Warehouse

When conservation biologists think about infectious diseases, their thoughts are mostly negative. Infectious diseases have been associated with the extinction and endangerment of some species, though this is rare, and other factors like habitat loss and poorly regulated harvest still are the overwhelming drivers of endangerment. Parasites are pervasive and play important roles as natural enemies on par with top predators, from regulating population abundances to maintaining species diversity. Sometimes, parasites themselves can be endangered. However, it seems unlikely that humans will miss extinct parasites. Parasites are often sensitive to habitat loss and degradation, making them positive indicators of ecosystem “health”. Conservation biologists need to carefully consider infectious diseases when planning conservation actions. This can include minimizing the movement of domestic and invasive species, vaccination, and culling.

Lafferty, Kevin D.

2014-01-01

74

Protein Microarrays and Biomarkers of Infectious Disease  

PubMed Central

Protein microarrays are powerful tools that are widely used in systems biology research. For infectious diseases, proteome microarrays assembled from proteins of pathogens will play an increasingly important role in discovery of diagnostic markers, vaccines, and therapeutics. Distinct formats of protein microarrays have been developed for different applications, including abundance-based and function-based methods. Depending on the application, design issues should be considered, such as the need for multiplexing and label or label free detection methods. New developments, challenges, and future demands in infectious disease research will impact the application of protein microarrays for discovery and validation of biomarkers. PMID:21614200

Natesan, Mohan; Ulrich, Robert G.

2010-01-01

75

Spatial dynamics of airborne infectious diseases  

E-print Network

Disease outbreaks, such as those of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome in 2003 and the 2009 pandemic A(H1N1) influenza, have highlighted the potential for airborne transmission in indoor environments. Respirable pathogen-carrying droplets provide a vector for the spatial spread of infection with droplet transport determined by diffusive and convective processes. An epidemiological model describing the spatial dynamics of disease transmission is presented. The effects of an ambient airflow, as an infection control, are incorporated leading to a delay equation, with droplet density dependent on the infectious density at a previous time. It is found that small droplets ($\\sim 0.4\\ \\mu$m) generate a negligible infectious force due to the small viral load and the associated duration they require to transmit infection. In contrast, larger droplets ($\\sim 4\\ \\mu$m) can lead to an infectious wave propagating through a fully susceptible population or a secondary infection outbreak for a localised susceptible population...

Robinson, M; Drossinos, Y

2011-01-01

76

National Infectious Diseases Surveillance data of South Korea  

PubMed Central

The Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (KCDC) operate infectious disease surveillance systems to monitor national disease incidence. Since 1954, Korea has collected data on various infectious diseases in accordance with the Infectious Disease Control and Prevention Act. All physicians (including those working in Oriental medicine) who diagnose a patient with an infectious disease or conduct a postmortem examination of an infectious disease case are obliged to report the disease to the system. These reported data are incorporated into the database of the National Infectious Disease Surveillance System, which has been providing web-based real-time surveillance data on infectious diseases since 2001. In addition, the KCDC analyzes reported data and publishes the Infectious Disease Surveillance Yearbook annually. PMID:25420951

Park, Sunhee; Cho, Eunhee

2014-01-01

77

Global trends in emerging infectious diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) are a significant burden on global economies and public health. Their emergence is thought to be driven largely by socio-economic, environmental and ecological factors, but no comparative study has explicitly analysed these linkages to understand global temporal and spatial patterns of EIDs. Here we analyse a database of 335 EID `events' (origins of EIDs) between 1940

Kate E. Jones; Nikkita G. Patel; Marc A. Levy; Adam Storeygard; Deborah Balk; John L. Gittleman; Peter Daszak

2008-01-01

78

Future Infectious Disease Threats to Europe  

PubMed Central

We examined how different drivers of infectious disease could interact to threaten control efforts in Europe. We considered projected trends through 2020 for 3 broad groups of drivers: globalization and environmental change, social and demographic change, and health system capacity. Eight plausible infectious disease threats with the potential to be significantly more problematic than they are today were identified through an expert consultation: extensively drug-resistant bacteria, vector-borne diseases, sexually transmitted infections, food-borne infections, a resurgence of vaccine-preventable diseases, health care–associated infections, multidrug-resistant tuberculosis, and pandemic influenza. Preemptive measures to be taken by the public health community to counteract these threats were identified. PMID:21940915

Suk, Jonathan E.

2011-01-01

79

Rediscovering Biology - Unit 5: Emerging Infectious Diseases  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page is the jumping-off point for an educational unit on emerging infectious diseases. There are links to a course outline and classroom activity worksheets, a 30-minute video, an online textbook chapter, a collection of relevant images and animations that supplement the chapter, transcripts of interviews with five experts featured in the video, and a glossary and bibliography. The video and textbook chapter cover two main phenomena of emerging diseases - evolution of antibiotic resistance, and mutation of disease organisms due to novel environmental pressures. There are detailed explanations of microbial evolution by mutation and acquisition of new genetic material, as well as case studies of infectious diseases spread by animals. The course outline provides a structure for incorporating the video, the textbook chapter, and five classroom activities into a 2.5hr session appropriate for high school or undergraduate students.

Annenberg Media Learner.org

80

Augmenting Spatio-Textual Search With an Infectious Disease Ontology  

E-print Network

Augmenting Spatio-Textual Search With an Infectious Disease Ontology Michael D. Lieberman Jagan and classifies infectious disease incidence reports by type and geographic location, to aid analysis by domain experts. It identi- fies references to infectious diseases by using a disease ontology. The system

Samet, Hanan

81

Emerging infectious disease: global response, global alert.  

PubMed

Despite spectacular progress in the eradication of infectious diseases, malaria and tuberculosis are making a comeback in many parts of the world. After years of decline, plague, diphtheria, dengue, meningococcal meningitis, yellow fever, and cholera have reappeared as public health threats. In the last 20 years [before 1997] more than 30 new and highly infectious diseases have been identified, including Ebola-type hemorrhagic fever, HIV/AIDs, and hepatitis C. Antibiotic resistance has also emerged during this period, and fewer new antibiotics are being produced because of high development costs and licensing. Drugs no longer offer protection or cure for many infectious diseases, and consequently more people need hospitalization with higher treatment costs. The causes of the appearance of new diseases and the resurgence of old ones include the rapid increase in international travel, the growth of mega-cities with high population densities, inadequate safe water and sanitation, food-borne diseases by the globalization of trade, and human penetration into remote animal and insect habitats. Meanwhile, resources for public health are being reduced, with the result that either the appearance of new diseases or resistance to drugs go unnoticed. A recent example is the human immunodeficiency virus, which went unrecognized until a large number of people got infected. For this very reason the 1997 World Health Day featured the theme of emerging infectious diseases and global response. Such forums are held to help countries rebuild the foundations of disease surveillance and control, while the public and private sectors may be encouraged to develop better techniques for surveillance to confront a common global threat. PMID:12348002

Nakajima, H

1997-01-01

82

Challenges of infectious diseases in the USA.  

PubMed

In the USA, infectious diseases continue to exact a substantial toll on health and health-care resources. Endemic diseases such as chronic hepatitis, HIV, and other sexually transmitted infections affect millions of individuals and widen health disparities. Additional concerns include health-care-associated and foodborne infections--both of which have been targets of broad prevention efforts, with success in some areas, yet major challenges remain. Although substantial progress in reduction of the burden of vaccine-preventable diseases has been made, continued cases and outbreaks of these diseases persist, driven by various contributing factors. Worldwide, emerging and reemerging infections continue to challenge prevention and control strategies while the growing problem of antimicrobial resistance needs urgent action. An important priority for control of infectious disease is to ensure that scientific and technological advances in molecular diagnostics and bioinformatics are well integrated into public health. Broad and diverse partnerships across governments, health care, academia, and industry, and with the public, are essential to effectively reduce the burden of infectious diseases. PMID:24996590

Khabbaz, Rima F; Moseley, Robin R; Steiner, Riley J; Levitt, Alexandra M; Bell, Beth P

2014-07-01

83

Infectious diseases in the operating room.  

PubMed

Patients with infectious diseases have special implications for infection control in the operating room. The increased use and abuse of antibiotics has ushered in a category of resistant organisms. These multiresistant organisms are spread by direct or indirect contact, primarily from the hands of caregivers or contact with contaminated environmental surfaces. Another category of infectious diseases is prions (pronounced pree-ons). Unlike other infectious diseases, human prions diseases are not spread through routine exposures such as direct contact, droplet, and airborne routes. The causative agent is highly resistant to traditional disinfecting and sterilization processes. This article provides an overview of the multiresistant infections of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, vancomycin-resistant enterococci, and Staphylococcus aureus with reduced susceptibility to vancomycin along with the human prions diseases Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, German-Straüssler-Scheinker syndrome, kuru, and fatal familial insomnia. We provide a template of precautions that can be used in developing operating room and anesthesia infection control protocols for this patient population. PMID:11271038

Homa, D G; Palfreyman, M A

2000-02-01

84

75 FR 49502 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...personal privacy. Name of Committee: Microbiology, Infectious Diseases and AIDS Initial Review Group; Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research...Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases...

2010-08-13

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75 FR 26760 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...personal privacy. Name of Committee: Microbiology, Infectious Diseases and AIDS Initial Review Group; Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research...Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases...

2010-05-12

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75 FR 81631 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...personal privacy. Name of Committee: Microbiology, Infectious Diseases and AIDS Initial Review Group. Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research...Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases...

2010-12-28

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76 FR 55074 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...personal privacy. Name of Committee: Microbiology, Infectious Diseases and AIDS Initial Review Group, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research...Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases...

2011-09-06

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77 FR 29676 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...personal privacy. Name of Committee: Microbiology, Infectious Diseases and AIDS Initial Review Group; Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research...Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases...

2012-05-18

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78 FR 3011 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...personal privacy. Name of Committee: Microbiology, Infectious Diseases and AIDS Initial Review Group; Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research...Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases...

2013-01-15

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75 FR 3472 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings...Committee: Microbiology, Infectious Diseases and AIDS Initial Review Group; Microbiology and Infectious Diseases B Subcommittee. Date:...

2010-01-21

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78 FR 58322 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings...Committee: Microbiology, Infectious Diseases and AIDS Initial Review Group, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases B Subcommittee,...

2013-09-23

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75 FR 28029 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings...Committee: Microbiology, Infectious Diseases and AIDS Initial Review Group; Microbiology and Infectious Diseases B Subcommittee. Date:...

2010-05-19

93

Now Trending: Mining Historical Data on Infectious Diseases  

MedlinePLUS

... Home Page Now Trending: Mining Historical Data on Infectious Diseases By Emily Carlson Posted December 2, 2013 Collecting, ... historical health data shows the incidence of 56 infectious diseases in the United States (top) and the effect ...

94

Infectious Disease Modeling of Social Contagion in Networks  

E-print Network

Many behavioral phenomena have been found to spread interpersonally through social networks, in a manner similar to infectious diseases. An important difference between social contagion and traditional infectious diseases, ...

Hill, Alison Lynn

95

U.S. Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases  

MedlinePLUS

... you for your interest in the U.S. Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases (USAMRIID). The dedicated members ... site provides an introduction to the U.S. Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases (USAMRIID) and contains official ...

96

Travel and the emergence of infectious diseases.  

PubMed

Travel is a potent force in the emergence of disease. Migration of humans has been the pathway for disseminating infectious diseases throughout recorded history and will continue to shape the emergence, frequency, and spread of infections in geographic areas and populations. The current volume, speed, and reach of travel are unprecedented. The consequences of travel extend beyond the traveler to the population visited and the ecosystem. When they travel, humans carry their genetic makeup, immunologic sequelae of past infections, cultural preferences, customs, and behavioral patterns. Microbes, animals, and other biologic life also accompany them. Today's massive movement of humans and materials sets the stage for mixing diverse genetic pools at rates and in combinations previously unknown. Concomitant changes in the environment, climate, technology, land use, human behavior, and demographics converge to favor the emergence of infectious diseases caused by a broad range of organisms in humans, as well as in plants and animals. PMID:19785214

Wilson, Mary E

2004-01-01

97

Travel and the emergence of infectious diseases.  

PubMed Central

Travel is a potent force in the emergence of disease. Migration of humans has been the pathway for disseminating infectious diseases throughout recorded history and will continue to shape the emergence, frequency, and spread of infections in geographic areas and populations. The current volume, speed, and reach of travel are unprecedented. The consequences of travel extend beyond the traveler to the population visited and the ecosystem. When they travel, humans carry their genetic makeup, immunologic sequelae of past infections, cultural preferences, customs, and behavioral patterns. Microbes, animals, and other biologic life also accompany them. Today's massive movement of humans and materials sets the stage for mixing diverse genetic pools at rates and in combinations previously unknown. Concomitant changes in the environment, climate, technology, land use, human behavior, and demographics converge to favor the emergence of infectious diseases caused by a broad range of organisms in humans, as well as in plants and animals. PMID:8903157

Wilson, M. E.

1995-01-01

98

Vaccination against infectious diseases: what is promising?  

PubMed

Vaccination has proven to be one of the best weapons protecting the mankind against infectious diseases. Along with the huge progress in microbiology, numerous highly efficacious and safe vaccines have been produced by conventional technology (cultivation), by the use of molecular biology (genetic modification), or by synthetic chemistry. Sterilising prevention is achieved by the stimulation of antibody production, while the stimulation of cell-mediated immune responses may prevent the outbreak of disease in consequence of an acute or reactivated infection. From several examples, two rules are deduced to evaluate the perspectives of future vaccine developments: They are promising, if (1) the natural infectious disease induces immunity or (2) passive immunisation (transfer of antibodies, adoptive transfer of lymphocytes) is successful in preventing infection. PMID:25064610

Doerr, Hans Wilhelm; Berger, Annemarie

2014-12-01

99

Protein crystallography and infectious diseases.  

PubMed Central

The current rapid growth in the number of known 3-dimensional protein structures is producing a database of structures that is increasingly useful as a starting point for the development of new medically relevant molecules such as drugs, therapeutic proteins, and vaccines. This development is beautifully illustrated in the recent book, Protein structure: New approaches to disease and therapy (Perutz, 1992). There is a great and growing promise for the design of molecules for the treatment or prevention of a wide variety of diseases, an endeavor made possible by the insights derived from the structure and function of crucial proteins from pathogenic organisms and from man. We present here 2 illustrations of structure-based drug design. The first is the prospect of developing antitrypanosomal drugs based on crystallographic, ligand-binding, and molecular modeling studies of glycolytic glycosomal enzymes from Trypanosomatidae. These unicellular organisms are responsible for several tropical diseases, including African and American trypanosomiases, as well as various forms of leishmaniasis. Because the target enzymes are also present in the human host, this project is a pioneering study in selective design. The second illustrative case is the prospect of designing anti-cholera drugs based on detailed analysis of the structure of cholera toxin and the closely related Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin. Such potential drugs can be targeted either at inhibiting the toxin's receptor binding site or at blocking the toxin's intracellular catalytic activity. Study of the Vibrio cholerae and E. coli toxins serves at the same time as an example of a general approach to structure-based vaccine design. These toxins exhibit a remarkable ability to stimulate the mucosal immune system, and early results have suggested that this property can be maintained by engineered fusion proteins based on the native toxin structure. The challenge is thus to incorporate selected epitopes from foreign pathogens into the native framework of the toxin such that crucial features of both the epitope and the toxin are maintained. That is, the modified toxin must continue to evoke a strong mucosal immune response, and this response must be directed against an epitope conformation characteristic of the original pathogen. PMID:7849584

Verlinde, C. L.; Merritt, E. A.; Van den Akker, F.; Kim, H.; Feil, I.; Delboni, L. F.; Mande, S. C.; Sarfaty, S.; Petra, P. H.; Hol, W. G.

1994-01-01

100

Infectious Disease Hospitalizations Among Infants in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE. This study describes the burden and epidemiologic features of infectious disease hospitalizations among infants in the United States. METHODS. Hospitalizations with an infectious disease listed as a primary diagnosis for infants (1 year of age) in the United States during 2003 were examined by using the Kids' Inpatient Database. National estimates of infectious disease hospitalizations, hospitalization rates, and various

Krista L. Yorita; Robert C. Holman; James J. Sejvar; Claudia A. Steiner; Lawrence B. Schonberger

2010-01-01

101

Management of Chronic Infectious Diseases in School Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document contains guidelines for developing policies and procedures related to chronic infectious diseases, as recommended by the Illinois Task Force on School Management of Infectious Disease. It is designed to help school personnel understand how infectious diseases can be transmitted, and to assist school districts in the development and…

Illinois State Board of Education, Springfield.

102

Assistant or Associate Professor Division of Infectious Diseases  

E-print Network

Assistant or Associate Professor Division of Infectious Diseases Department of Medicine The Department of Medicine/Division of Infectious Diseases and Geographic Medicine at Stanford University of Infectious Diseases will be considered, including those with clinical and bench-based research programs

Quake, Stephen R.

103

PH 412 Syllabus 2014 Infectious Disease Epidemiology and Prevention  

E-print Network

PH 412 Syllabus 2014 PH 412 Infectious Disease Epidemiology and Prevention Spring Quarter 2014 Thursdays 6-9pm McGaw 2-322 Chad Achenbach, MD, MPH Assistant Professor in Medicine ­ Infectious Diseases hours: By Appointment Infectious Diseases Epidemiology and Prevention will focus on major concepts

Contractor, Anis

104

Contact Tracing to Control Infectious Disease: When Enough is Enough  

E-print Network

Contact Tracing to Control Infectious Disease: When Enough is Enough Benjamin Armbruster Margaret L develop and apply a simulation model of contact tracing and the spread of an infectious disease among;1 Introduction Studies of infectious disease control efforts -- such as screening, vaccination, and contact

MacIver, Malcolm A.

105

Infectious Diseases, Human Capital and Economic Aditya Goenka  

E-print Network

Infectious Diseases, Human Capital and Economic Growth Aditya Goenka (NUS) Lin Liu (University of infectious diseases, which is endogenous deter- mined itself, is the key factor in deciding whether countries, O11. Key Words: Infectious Diseases; Endogenous Growth; Epidemiology; Poverty Trap; Public Health

Bandyopadhyay, Antar

106

REVIEWS AND SYNTHESES Seasonality and the dynamics of infectious diseases  

E-print Network

REVIEWS AND SYNTHESES Seasonality and the dynamics of infectious diseases Sonia Altizer,1 * Andrew availability are ubiquitous and can exert strong pressures on population dynamics. Infectious diseases provide and persistence of infectious diseases, and that population-level responses can range from simple annual cycles

107

Hidden Cluster Detection for Infectious Disease Control and Quarantine Management  

E-print Network

Hidden Cluster Detection for Infectious Disease Control and Quarantine Management Yain-Whar Si, Kan {fstasp,ma46511,robertb,ccfong}@umac.mo Abstract. Infectious diseases that are caused by pathogenic in this paper. Key words: Infectious Disease, Cluster Detection, Contact Tracing, SARS, Health Care Information

Fong, Chi Chiu "Simon"

108

Statistical studies of infectious disease incidence Niels G. Becker  

E-print Network

Statistical studies of infectious disease incidence Niels G. Becker La Trobe University, Bundoora] Summary. Methods for the analysis of data on the incidence of an infectious disease are reviewed±acquired immune de®ciency syndrome epidemic. Infectious disease data seem particularly suited to analysis

Britton, Tom

109

Mathematical Techniques in the Evolutionary Epidemiology of Infectious Diseases  

E-print Network

1 Mathematical Techniques in the Evolutionary Epidemiology of Infectious Diseases Troy Day The epidemiology of infectious diseases is a vibrant and growing area of research. Mathematics has come to play of infectious disease stems, in part, from the high levels of genetic variation that are often generated through

Linder, Tamás

110

Real-Time Event Extraction Infectious Disease Outbreaks  

E-print Network

Real-Time Event Extraction for Infectious Disease Outbreaks Ralph Grishman grishman of information on infectious disease outbreaks. A web crawler is used to retrieve current news stories of information on infectious disease outbreaks, linked back to the reports from which they are derived

111

Emerging infectious diseases of plants: pathogen pollution, climate change  

E-print Network

Emerging infectious diseases of plants: pathogen pollution, climate change and agrotechnology, Boston, MA 02115, USA Emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) pose threats to conservation and public health for the surveillance and control of plant EIDs. Emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) are caused by pathogens that: (i

Schweik, Charles M.

112

INFECTIOUS DISEASE The University of Texas at Austiniv  

E-print Network

INFECTIOUS DISEASE Plan Annex 2014 VIII #12;#12;#12;The University of Texas at Austiniv #12;Infectious Disease Plan Annex v CONTENTS RECORD OF CHANGES..................................................43 #12;The University of Texas at Austinvi #12;Infectious Disease Plan Annex 01 RECORD OF CHANGES

Johnston, Daniel

113

Statistical Inference and Computational Efficiency for Spatial Infectious-Disease  

E-print Network

Statistical Inference and Computational Efficiency for Spatial Infectious-Disease Models of an individual-level infectious disease model for making inference on the biological process underlying infectious disease models is com- plex and computationally demanding, emphasis is put on a minimal

Rosenthal, Jeffrey S.

114

Immigrant and refugee health: common infectious diseases.  

PubMed

Immigrants and refugees are at risk of infectious diseases (IDs) that are rare in the United States. Screening and treatment before entry into the United States are required for some of these diseases, whereas quarantine is mandated for others. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has published specific recommendations for the evaluation and treatment of immigrants and refugees before and after they arrive in the United States. In addition, immigrants and refugees who return to their home countries are at greater risk of IDs than other travelers. Health care professionals are required to report certain IDs to state or local health departments. PMID:25127537

Rew, Karl T; Clarke, S Lindsey; Gossa, Weyinshet; Savin, Daniel

2014-08-01

115

National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created over fifty years ago, the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NAID) "conducts and supports basic and applied research to better understand, treat, and ultimately prevent infectious, immunologic, and allergic diseases." In recent years, the scope of the institute's research activities has expanded to include emerging issues such as the possibility of bioterrorism and West Nile virus. The site contains a wealth of information on the activities of NAID, such as the most recent publications, organizational hierarchy, and funding opportunities for researchers and scholars. The newsroom area is quite thorough, as visitors have access to the database of news releases dating back to 1995 and access to SciBites, which features brief summaries of articles about NAID-funded research, updated weekly. The site is notable for its extensive special section on the growing battery of research on biodefense strategies.

116

Imported Infectious Diseases in Mobile Populations, Spain  

PubMed Central

Migration has contributed to the emergence of certain infectious diseases. To determine which infectious diseases were most common among 2 mobile immigrant groups (sub-Saharan Africans and Latin Americans) in Spain, we analyzed health and demographic characteristics of 2,198 immigrants referred to the Tropical Medicine Unit of Ramón y Cajal Hospital over a 20-year period. The most frequent diagnoses were for latent tuberculosis (716 patients [32.6%]), filariasis (421 [19.2%]), hepatropic virus chronic infection (262 [19.2%]), intestinal parasites (242 [11.0%]), and malaria (212 [9.6%]). Health screening of immigrant populations is needed to ensure early diagnosis and treatment of potentially transmissible infections. PMID:19891861

Monge-Maillo, Begońa; Jiménez, B. Carolina; Pérez-Molina, José A.; Norman, Francesca; Navarro, Miriam; Pérez-Ayala, Ana; Herrero, Juan M.; Zamarrón, Pilar

2009-01-01

117

The value of an infectious diseases specialist.  

PubMed

Infectious diseases (ID) specialists have played a major role in patient care, infection control, and antibiotic management for many years. With the rapidly changing nature of health care, it has become necessary for ID specialists to articulate their value to multiple audiences. This article summarizes the versatile attributes possessed by ID specialists and delineates their value to patients, hospitals, and other integral groups in the health care continuum. PMID:12684914

Petrak, Russell M; Sexton, Daniel J; Butera, Michael L; Tenenbaum, Marvin J; MacGregor, Mary C; Schmidt, Mary E; Joseph, W Patrick; Kemmerly, Sandra A; Dougherty, Mark J; Bakken, Johan S; Curfman, Maria F; Martinelli, Lawrence P; Gainer, R Brooks

2003-04-15

118

Potential Infectious Etiology of Behçet's Disease.  

PubMed

Behçet's disease is a multisystem inflammatory disorder characterized by recurrent oral aphthous ulcers, genital ulcers, uveitis, and skin lesions. The cause of Behçet's disease remains unknown, but epidemiologic findings suggest that an autoimmune process is triggered by an environmental agent in a genetically predisposed individual. An infectious agent could operate through molecular mimicry, and subsequently the disease could be perpetuated by an abnormal immune response to an autoantigen in the absence of ongoing infection. Potentia bacterial are Saccharomyces cerevisiae, mycobacteria, Borrelia burgdorferi, Helicobacter pylori, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Mycoplasma fermentans, but the most commonly investigated microorganism is Streptococcus sanguinis. The relationship between streptococcal infections and Behçet's disease is suggested by clinical observations that an unhygienic oral condition is frequently noted in the oral cavity of Behçet's disease patients. Several viral agents, including herpes simplex virus-1, hepatitis C virus, parvovirus B19, cytomegalovirus, Epstein-Barr virus and varicella zoster virus, may also have some role. PMID:22254152

Galeone, Massimiliano; Colucci, Roberta; D'Erme, Angelo Massimiliano; Moretti, Silvia; Lotti, Torello

2012-01-01

119

Global climate change and infectious diseases  

SciTech Connect

The effects of global climate change on infectious diseases are hypothetical until more is known about the degree of change in temperature and humidity that will occur. Diseases most likely to increase in their distribution and severity have three-factor (agent, vector, and human being) and four-factor (plus vertebrate reservoir host) ecology. Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus mosquitoes may move northward and have more rapid metamorphosis with global warming. These mosquitoes transmit dengue virus, and Aedes aegypti transmits yellow fever virus. The faster metamorphosis and a shorter extrinsic incubation of dengue and yellow fever viruses could lead to epidemics in North America. Vibrio cholera is harbored persistently in the estuaries of the U.S. Gulf Coast. Over the past 200 years, cholera has become pandemic seven times with spread from Asia to Europe, Africa, and North America. Global warming may lead to changes in water ecology that could enhance similar spread of cholera in North America. Some other infectious diseases such as LaCrosse encephalitis and Lyme disease are caused by agents closely dependent on the integrity of their environment. These diseases may become less prominent with global warming because of anticipated modification of their habitats. Ecological studies will help as to understand more fully the possible consequences of global warming. New and more effective methods for control of vectors will be needed. 12 refs., 1 tab.

Shope, R. (Yale Univ. School of Medicine, New Haven, CT (United States))

1991-12-01

120

Spreading Processes Modeling Infectious Disease Dynamics with Networks  

E-print Network

Spreading Processes Modeling Infectious Disease Dynamics with Networks #12;What is epidemiology-location Network Ref: Meyers et al (2003) Emerging Infectious Diseases 9, 204-210 #12;Office Hours Shweta Bansal control the spread? #12;S I R susceptible infectious recovered Compartmental models I dt dR IIIS dt d

Albert, RĂ©ka

121

Global Transport Networks and Infectious Disease Spread  

PubMed Central

Air, sea and land transport networks continue to expand in reach, speed of travel and volume of passengers and goods carried. Pathogens and their vectors can now move further, faster and in greater numbers than ever before. Three important consequences of global transport network expansion are infectious disease pandemics, vector invasion events and vector-borne pathogen importation. This review briefly examines some of the important historical examples of these disease and vector movements, such as the global influenza pandemics, the devastating Anopheles gambiae invasion of Brazil and the recent increases in imported Plasmodium falciparum malaria cases. We then outline potential approaches for future studies of disease movement, focussing on vector invasion and vector-borne disease importation. Such approaches allow us to explore the potential implications of international air travel, shipping routes and other methods of transport on global pathogen and vector traffic. PMID:16647974

Tatem, A.J.; Rogers, D.J.; Hay, S.I.

2011-01-01

122

Infectious diseases: Surveillance, genetic modification and simulation  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Infectious diseases such as influenza and dengue have the potential of becoming a worldwide pandemic that may exert immense pressures on existing medical infrastructures. Careful surveillance of these diseases, supported by consistent model simulations, provides a means for tracking the disease evolution. The integrated surveillance and simulation program is essential in devising effective early warning systems and in implementing efficient emergency preparedness and control measures. This paper presents a summary of simulation analysis on influenza A (H1N1) 2009 in Malaysia. This simulation analysis provides insightful lessons regarding how disease surveillance and simulation should be performed in the future. This paper briefly discusses the controversy over the experimental field release of genetically modified (GM) Aedes aegypti mosquito in Malaysia. Model simulations indicate that the proposed release of GM mosquitoes is neither a viable nor a sustainable control strategy. ?? 2011 WIT Press.

Koh, H.-L.; Teh, S.Y.; De Angelis, D. L.; Jiang, J.

2011-01-01

123

Selected infectious disease disasters for nursing staff training at Egyptian Eastern Border.  

PubMed

Infectious disease disasters are events that involve a biological agent, disease and that result in mass casualties, such as a bioterrorism attack, an emerging outbreak of infectious disease; all disasters pose a risk of infection transmission. But, infectious disease disasters pose the great-risk to illness or death from an infectious disease. This study raised the awareness and improved knowledge by educational program for Military Nursing Staff on selected infectious disease disasters acquired at Egyptian Eastern Border. The selected arthropod-borne diseases were Anthrax, Tick borne relapsing, Louse borne replasing fever and liver fluke; Clonorchis sinensis. An interventional study was used, for 125 staff nurse who accepted to participate. The tools dealt with four questionnaires: (1) Some sociodemographic characteristics data (2) Educational needs assessment a structured questionnaire. (3) Knowledge test (pre/post-test) and (4) Participants' reactions questionnaire. The results showed that educational intervention significantly improvements the nursing staff knowledge, which were achieved at the immediate post intervention phase, and retained via three months post-test phase. In the service training programs about infectious disease disasters at Egyptian Eastern Border must be established and continued on regular basis. This would improve their knowledge about the epidemiology of these infectious disease disasters. PMID:24961011

El-Bahnasawy, Mamdouh M; Labib, Nargis Albert; Abdel-Fattah, Magda Abdel Hameed; Ibrahim, Abeer Mohammad Abdallah; Morsy, Tosson A

2014-04-01

124

Public health surveillance and infectious disease detection.  

PubMed

Emerging infectious diseases, such as HIV/AIDS, SARS, and pandemic influenza, and the anthrax attacks of 2001, have demonstrated that we remain vulnerable to health threats caused by infectious diseases. The importance of strengthening global public health surveillance to provide early warning has been the primary recommendation of expert groups for at least the past 2 decades. However, despite improvements in the past decade, public health surveillance capabilities remain limited and fragmented, with uneven global coverage. Recent initiatives provide hope of addressing this issue, and new technological and conceptual advances could, for the first time, place capability for global surveillance within reach. Such advances include the revised International Health Regulations (IHR 2005) and the use of new data sources and methods to improve global coverage, sensitivity, and timeliness, which show promise for providing capabilities to extend and complement the existing infrastructure. One example is syndromic surveillance, using nontraditional and often automated data sources. Over the past 20 years, other initiatives, including ProMED-mail, GPHIN, and HealthMap, have demonstrated new mechanisms for acquiring surveillance data. In 2009 the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) began the Emerging Pandemic Threats (EPT) program, which includes the PREDICT project, to build global capacity for surveillance of novel infections that have pandemic potential (originating in wildlife and at the animal-human interface) and to develop a framework for risk assessment. Improved understanding of factors driving infectious disease emergence and new technological capabilities in modeling, diagnostics and pathogen identification, and communications, such as using the increasing global coverage of cellphones for public health surveillance, can further enhance global surveillance. PMID:22455675

Morse, Stephen S

2012-03-01

125

Emerging and Reemerging Infectious Diseases: Biocomplexity as an Interdisciplinary Paradigm  

Microsoft Academic Search

Understanding factors responsible for reemergence of diseases believed to have been controlled and outbreaks of previously\\u000a unknown infectious diseases is one of the most difficult scientific problems facing society today. Significant knowledge gaps\\u000a exist for even the most studied emerging infectious diseases. Coupled with failures in the response to the resurgence of infectious\\u000a diseases, this lack of information is embedded

Bruce A. Wilcox; Rita R. Colwell

2005-01-01

126

Global Distribution of Outbreaks of Water-Associated Infectious Diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundWater plays an important role in the transmission of many infectious diseases, which pose a great burden on global public health. However, the global distribution of these water-associated infectious diseases and underlying factors remain largely unexplored.Methods and FindingsBased on the Global Infectious Disease and Epidemiology Network (GIDEON), a global database including water-associated pathogens and diseases was developed. In this study,

Kun Yang; Jeffrey LeJeune; Doug Alsdorf; Bo Lu; C. K. Shum; Song Liang

2012-01-01

127

The changing pattern of infectious disease.  

PubMed Central

Several factors contribute towards a decrease in the prevalence of infectious disease in a population. These include active control measures, active immunisation, and improvement in the socioeconomic state of the population. There appears, however, to be a progressive increase in the resistance of a population in relation to the length of time the population has been exposed to an agent. This increasing resistance is currently thought to be an expression of natural selection but transmission of actively acquired immunity cannot be ruled out and in the light of current evidence remains a highly probable contributory factor. PMID:6437550

Ikwueke, K

1984-01-01

128

Tropical Environments, Human Activities, and the Transmission of Infectious Diseases  

E-print Network

Tropical Environments, Human Activities, and the Transmission of Infectious Diseases LISA diseases than the temperate world. Much of the success of infectious diseases in that region is due to both host-pathogen interactions; tropical diseases; chol- era; lymphatic filariasis; dracunculiasis ABSTRACT

Gottgens, Hans

129

Microbiology and Epidemiology of Infectious Spinal Disease  

PubMed Central

Objective Infectious spinal disease is regarded as an infection by a specific organism that affects the vertebral body, intervertebral disc and adjacent perivertebral soft tissue. Its incidence seems to be increasing as a result of larger proportion of the older patients with chronic debilitating disease, the rise of intravenous drug abuser, and the increase in spinal procedure and surgery. In Korea, studies assessing infectious spinal disease are rare and have not been addressed in recent times. The objectives of this study are to describe the epidemiology of all kind of spinal infectious disease and their clinical and microbiological characteristics as well as to assess the diagnostic methodology and the parameters related to the outcomes. Methods A retrospective study was performed in all infectious spinal disease cases presenting from January 2005 to April 2010 to three tertiary teaching hospitals within a city of 1.5 million in Korea. Patient demographics, risk factors, clinical features, and outcomes were assessed. Risk factors entailed the presence of diabetes, chronic renal failure, liver cirrhosis, immunosuppressants, remote infection, underlying malignancy and previous spinal surgery or procedure. We comparatively analyzed the results between the groups of pyogenic and tuberculous spinal infection. SPSS version 14 statistical software was used to perform the analyses of the data. The threshold for statistical significance was established at p<0.05. Results Ninety-two cases fulfilled the inclusion criteria and were reviewed. Overall, patients of tuberculous spinal infection (TSI) and pyogenic spinal infection (PSI) entailed 20 (21.7%) and 72 (78.3%) cases, respectively. A previous spinal surgery or procedure was the most commonly noted risk factor (39.1%), followed by diabetes (15.2%). The occurrence of both pyogenic and tuberculous spondylitis was predominant in the lumbar spine. Discs are more easily invaded in PSI. At initial presentation, white cell blood count and C-reactive protein levels were higher in PSI compared to TSI (p<0.05). Etiological agents were identified in 53.3%, and the most effective method for identification of etiological agents was tissue culture (50.0%). Staphyococcus aureus was the most commonly isolated infective agent associated with pyogenic spondylitis, followed by E. coli. Surgical treatment was performed in 31.5% of pyogenic spondylitis and in 35.0% of tuberculous spondylitis cases. Conclusion Many previous studies in Korea usually reported that tuberculous spondylitis is the predominant infection. However, in our study, the number of pyogenic infection was 3 times greater than that of tuberculous spinal disease. Etiological agents were identified in a half of all infectious spinal disease. For better outcomes, we should try to identify the causative microorganism before antibiotic therapy and make every effort to improve the result of culture and biopsy. PMID:25289121

Jeong, Se-Jin; Youm, Jin-Young; Kim, Hyun-Woo; Ha, Ho-Gyun; Yi, Jin-Seok

2014-01-01

130

Hajj: infectious disease surveillance and control.  

PubMed

Religious festivals attract a large number of pilgrims from worldwide and are a potential risk for the transmission of infectious diseases between pilgrims, and to the indigenous population. The gathering of a large number of pilgrims could compromise the health system of the host country. The threat to global health security posed by infectious diseases with epidemic potential shows the importance of advanced planning of public health surveillance and response at these religious events. Saudi Arabia has extensive experience of providing health care at mass gatherings acquired through decades of managing millions of pilgrims at the Hajj. In this report, we describe the extensive public health planning, surveillance systems used to monitor public health risks, and health services provided and accessed during Hajj 2012 and Hajj 2013 that together attracted more than 5 million pilgrims from 184 countries. We also describe the recent establishment of the Global Center for Mass Gathering Medicine, a Saudi Government partnership with the WHO Collaborating Centre for Mass Gatherings Medicine, Gulf Co-operation Council states, UK universities, and public health institutions globally. PMID:24857703

Memish, Ziad A; Zumla, Alimuddin; Alhakeem, Rafat F; Assiri, Abdullah; Turkestani, Abdulhafeez; Al Harby, Khalid D; Alyemni, Mohamed; Dhafar, Khalid; Gautret, Philippe; Barbeschi, Maurizio; McCloskey, Brian; Heymann, David; Al Rabeeah, Abdullah A; Al-Tawfiq, Jaffar A

2014-06-14

131

Simulating City-level Airborne Infectious Diseases  

E-print Network

With the exponential growth in the world population and the constant increase in human mobility, the danger of outbreaks of epidemics is rising. Especially in high density urban areas such as public transport and transfer points, where people come in close proximity of each other, we observe a dramatic increase in the transmission of airborne viruses and related pathogens. It is essential to have a good understanding of the `transmission highways' in such areas, in order to prevent or to predict the spreading of infectious diseases. The approach we take is to combine as much information as is possible, from all relevant sources and integrate this in a simulation environment that allows for scenario testing and decision support. In this paper we lay out a novel approach to study Urban Airborne Disease spreading by combining traffic information, with geo-spatial data, infection dynamics and spreading characteristics.

Shan, Mei; Yifan, Zhu; Zhenghu, Zu; Tao, Zheng; Boukhanovsky, A V; Sloot, P M A

2012-01-01

132

All Hands on Deck: Transdisciplinary Approaches to Emerging Infectious Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

The increasing burden of emerging infectious diseases worldwide confronts us with numerous challenges, including the imperative\\u000a to design research and responses that are commensurate to understanding the complex social and ecological contexts in which\\u000a infectious diseases occur. A diverse group of scientists met in Hawaii in March 2005 to discuss the linked social and ecological\\u000a contexts in which infectious diseases

Margot W. Parkes; Leslie Bienen; Jaime Breilh; Lee-Nah Hsu; Marian McDonald; Jonathan A. Patz; Joshua P. Rosenthal; Mazrura Sahani; Adrian Sleigh; David Waltner-Toews; Annalee Yassi

2005-01-01

133

Global Climate and Infectious Disease: The Cholera Paradigm  

Microsoft Academic Search

Historically, infectious diseases have had a profound effect on human populations, including their evolution and cultural development. Despite significant advances in medical science, infectious diseases continue to impact human populations in many parts of the world. Emerging diseases are considered to be those infections that either are newly appearing in the population or are rapidly increasing in incidence or expanding

Rita R. Colwell

1996-01-01

134

Perspectives and research challenges in veterinary infectious diseases  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The Veterinary Infectious Disease specialty section seeks to become an outlet for veterinary research into infectious diseases through the study of the pathogen or its host or the host's environment or by addressing combinations of these aspects of the disease system. We vision research in this are...

135

Two Postdoctoral Positions at the Centre for Infectious Diseases  

E-print Network

Two Postdoctoral Positions at the Centre for Infectious Diseases University of Edinburgh Host between people, who people contact and how they react to a lifethreatening infectious disease Malaria is a globally important disease. The blood stages of malaria infections are responsible

Menczer, Filippo

136

Immunopathology and Infectious Diseases Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Infection Alters  

E-print Network

.2010.091288) Pulmonary diseases are frequent complications of HIV-1 infection, affecting 75% to 85Immunopathology and Infectious Diseases Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Infection Alters Chemokine. Kirschner,§ and Todd A. Reinhart* From the Department of Infectious Diseases and Microbiology,* Graduate

Kirschner, Denise

137

Ills in the pipeline: emerging infectious diseases and wildlife  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In the recent film Contagion, a medical thriller released in fall 2011, the fictitious MEV-1 virus—passed from bat to pig to humans—spreads across the globe as easily as the common cold, killing millions of humans and causing mass hysteria as medical researchers race to find a cure. Though it's Hollywood hyperbole, the film holds a kernel of truth: Researchers believe that the close proximity of Malaysian hog farms to forested areas—the natural habitat for fruit bats—allowed the previously unknown Nipah virus to spill from bats into pigs and subsequently into people, resulting in more than 100 human deaths (Epstein et al. 2006). There is no doubt that in recent times we have seen an unprecedented number of emerging infectious diseases, defined by the Institute for Medicine as new, reemerging, or drug-resistant infections whose incidence has increased or whose incidence threatens to increase in the near future. Many of these have a wildlife origin (Taylor et al. 2001). While this jump may be due, in part, to increased vigilance and reporting, there is a general consensus that current global conditions are creating a situation that is very favorable to the transmission of microbes that cause diseases. (For reviews, see Daszak et al. 2001 and Keesing et al. 2010). Likewise, it's increasingly important that wildlife professionals become aware of how and why new infectious diseases spread and what, if anything, can be done to minimize impacts on wildlife.

Sleeman, Jonathan; Gillin, Colin

2012-01-01

138

The role of infectious disease in marine communities: chapter 5  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Marine ecologists recognize that infectious diseases play and important role in ocean ecosystems. This role may have increased in some host taxa over time (Ward and Lafferty 2004). We begin this chapter by introducing infectious agents and their relationships with their hosts in marine systems. We then put infectious disease agents with their hosts in marine systems. We then put infectious disease agents in the perspective of marine biodiversity and discuss the various factors that affect parasites. Specifically, we introduce some basin epidemiological concepts, including the effects of stress and free-living diversity on parasites. Following this, we give brief consideration to communities of parasites within their hosts, particularly as these can lead to general insights into community ecology. We also give examples of how infectious diseases affect host populations, scaling up to marine communities. Finally, we present examples of marine infectious disease that impair conservation and fisheries.

Lafferty, Kevin D.; Harvell, C. Drew

2014-01-01

139

Computational Modeling in Support of Global Eradication of Infectious Diseases  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The past century has seen tremendous advances in global health, with broad reductions in the worldwide burden of infectious disease. Science has fundamentally advanced our understanding of disease etiology and medicine has provided remarkable capabilities to diagnose many syndromes and to target the causative pathogen. The advent and proliferation of antibiotics has dramatically lowered the impact of infections that were once near certain death sentences. Vaccination has provided a route to protect each new birth cohort from pathogens which once killed a substantial fraction of each generation, and in some countries, vaccination coverage has been raised to sufficiently high levels to fully interrupt transmission of major pathogens. There were 7 million deaths among children under 5 years of age in 2010, substantially down from decades past, and even more so in terms of deaths per capita per year of populations at risk. However, the annual rate globally is 1,070 per 100,000, while in developed countries the rate is only 137 per 100,000 (IHME GBD, 2010). Therefore, bringing global rates down to rates already achieved in developed countries represents the huge gains currently available via means such as vaccination and access to modern health care...

Eckhoff, Philip A.; Gates, William H., III; Myhrvold, Nathan P.; Wood, Lowell

2014-07-01

140

Evolutionary Outcomes of Human Infectious Diseases  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently it has been shown that a simple model was able to reproduce the main "types" of infectious diseases encountered in human populations. This model takes into account key features of the immune system at the within-host level and an implicit description of the contact network of the host population at the between-hosts level. The implicit description of contact network neglects population-level selective pressures such as fluctuations in the number of infected individuals potentially leading to risk of extinction. We present a nested model that allows to keep a within-host level description of immune processes while allowing an explicit description of the ongoing epidemiological dynamics. This model allows us to understand the impact of human population size and contact networks structure in shaping the fitness optima for pathogens life history traits. We mostly focus on variation in duration of infection and antigenic evolution leading to immune escape.

Ballesteros, Sebastien; Combadao, Jaime

2010-09-01

141

PARASITES AND INFECTIOUS DISEASES OF GREATER SAGE-GROUSE  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report the parasites, infectious diseases, and non-infectious diseases related to toxicants found in the Greater Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) across its range. Documentation of population-level effects is rare although researchers have responded to the recent emergence of West Nile virus with rigorous efforts. West Nile virus shows greater virulence and potential population level effects than any infectious agent detected in

THOMAS J. CHRISTIANSEN; CYNTHIA M. TATE

142

Infectious Disease: Connecting Innate Immunity to Biocidal Polymers  

PubMed Central

Infectious disease is a critically important global healthcare issue. In the U.S. alone there are 2 million new cases of hospital-acquired infections annually leading to 90,000 deaths and 5 billion dollars of added healthcare costs. Couple these numbers with the appearance of new antibiotic resistant bacterial strains and the increasing occurrences of community-type outbreaks, and clearly this is an important problem. Our review attempts to bridge the research areas of natural host defense peptides (HDPs), a component of the innate immune system, and biocidal cationic polymers. Recently discovered peptidomimetics and other synthetic mimics of HDPs, that can be short oligomers as well as polymeric macromolecules, provide a unique link between these two areas. An emerging class of these mimics are the facially amphiphilic polymers that aim to emulate the physicochemical properties of HDPs but take advantage of the synthetic ease of polymers. These mimics have been designed with antimicrobial activity and, importantly, selectivity that rivals natural HDPs. In addition to providing some perspective on HDPs, selective mimics, and biocidal polymers, focus is given to the arsenal of biophysical techniques available to study their mode of action and interactions with phospholipid membranes. The issue of lipid type is highlighted and the important role of negative curvature lipids is illustrated. Finally, materials applications (for instance, in the development of permanently antibacterial surfaces) are discussed as this is an important part of controlling the spread of infectious disease. PMID:18160969

Gabriel, Gregory J.; Som, Abhigyan; Madkour, Ahmad E.; Eren, Tarik; Tew, Gregory N.

2007-01-01

143

Noninvasive biophotonic imaging for studies of infectious disease  

PubMed Central

According to World Health Organization estimates, infectious organisms are responsible for approximately one in four deaths worldwide. Animal models play an essential role in the development of vaccines and therapeutic agents but large numbers of animals are required to obtain quantitative microbiological data by tissue sampling. Biophotonic imaging (BPI) is a highly sensitive, nontoxic technique based on the detection of visible light, produced by luciferase-catalysed reactions (bioluminescence) or by excitation of fluorescent molecules, using sensitive photon detectors. The development of bioluminescent/fluorescent microorganisms therefore allows the real-time noninvasive detection of microorganisms within intact living animals. Multiple imaging of the same animal throughout an experiment allows disease progression to be followed with extreme accuracy, reducing the number of animals required to yield statistically meaningful data. In the study of infectious disease, the use of BPI is becoming widespread due to the novel insights it can provide into established models, as well as the impact of the technique on two of the guiding principles of using animals in research, namely reduction and refinement. Here, we review the technology of BPI, from the instrumentation through to the generation of a photonic signal, and illustrate how the technique is shedding light on infection dynamics in vivo. PMID:20955395

Andreu, Nuria; Zelmer, Andrea; Wiles, Siouxsie

2011-01-01

144

Global trends in emerging infectious diseases.  

PubMed

Emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) are a significant burden on global economies and public health. Their emergence is thought to be driven largely by socio-economic, environmental and ecological factors, but no comparative study has explicitly analysed these linkages to understand global temporal and spatial patterns of EIDs. Here we analyse a database of 335 EID 'events' (origins of EIDs) between 1940 and 2004, and demonstrate non-random global patterns. EID events have risen significantly over time after controlling for reporting bias, with their peak incidence (in the 1980s) concomitant with the HIV pandemic. EID events are dominated by zoonoses (60.3% of EIDs): the majority of these (71.8%) originate in wildlife (for example, severe acute respiratory virus, Ebola virus), and are increasing significantly over time. We find that 54.3% of EID events are caused by bacteria or rickettsia, reflecting a large number of drug-resistant microbes in our database. Our results confirm that EID origins are significantly correlated with socio-economic, environmental and ecological factors, and provide a basis for identifying regions where new EIDs are most likely to originate (emerging disease 'hotspots'). They also reveal a substantial risk of wildlife zoonotic and vector-borne EIDs originating at lower latitudes where reporting effort is low. We conclude that global resources to counter disease emergence are poorly allocated, with the majority of the scientific and surveillance effort focused on countries from where the next important EID is least likely to originate. PMID:18288193

Jones, Kate E; Patel, Nikkita G; Levy, Marc A; Storeygard, Adam; Balk, Deborah; Gittleman, John L; Daszak, Peter

2008-02-21

145

Department of Immunology and Infectious Diseases Baseline Statistics  

E-print Network

Department of Immunology and Infectious Diseases Baseline Statistics October 29, 2013 Number Comparisons for the Discipline of Immunology & Infectious Disease Montana State University National Tenure and subfield. Arlington, VA (NSF 13-301). December 2012. (Immunology subfield) 89.9% 80.6% 82.1% 0.0% 10.0% 20

Maxwell, Bruce D.

146

Infectious Diseases and Extinction Risk in Wild Mammals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Parasite-driven declines in wildlife have become increasingly common and can pose significant risks to natural populations. We used the IUCN Red List of Threatened and Endangered Species and compiled data on hosts threatened by infectious disease and their parasites to better understand the role of infectious disease in contemporary host extinctions. The majority of mammal species considered threatened by parasites

AMY B. PEDERSEN; KATE E. JONES; CHARLES L. NUNN; SONIA ALTIZER

2007-01-01

147

Infectious Diseases and Malnutrition Status in Nepal: an Overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper sheds light on infectious diseases and the status of malnutrition in Nepal, a Himalayan country located in South Asia. In spite of efforts by both Government and non-government sectors, infectious diseases are rampant in the countries constituting a major cause of morbidity and mortality, which in turn, impose a socio-economic and public health burden for the country. Intestinal

Shiba Kumar Rai; Kazuko Hirai; Ayako Abe; Yoshimi Ohno

2002-01-01

148

Immunology and Infectious Disease: recommended sequence of required courses www.immunology.psu.edu Immunology and Infectious Disease  

E-print Network

Immunology and Infectious Disease: recommended sequence of required courses www.immunology.psu.edu Immunology and Infectious Disease Dr. James Endres Howell (814) 867­0194 immunology@psu.edu Year 1 VB SC 050S Microbiology Laboratory MICRB 410(3) Principles of Immunology* B M B 402(3) General Biochemistry Choose

Omiecinski, Curtis

149

Aerobiology and Its Role in the Transmission of Infectious Diseases  

PubMed Central

Aerobiology plays a fundamental role in the transmission of infectious diseases. As infectious disease and infection control practitioners continue employing contemporary techniques (e.g., computational fluid dynamics to study particle flow, polymerase chain reaction methodologies to quantify particle concentrations in various settings, and epidemiology to track the spread of disease), the central variables affecting the airborne transmission of pathogens are becoming better known. This paper reviews many of these aerobiological variables (e.g., particle size, particle type, the duration that particles can remain airborne, the distance that particles can travel, and meteorological and environmental factors), as well as the common origins of these infectious particles. We then review several real-world settings with known difficulties controlling the airborne transmission of infectious particles (e.g., office buildings, healthcare facilities, and commercial airplanes), while detailing the respective measures each of these industries is undertaking in its effort to ameliorate the transmission of airborne infectious diseases. PMID:23365758

Fernstrom, Aaron; Goldblatt, Michael

2013-01-01

150

A Method for Screening Climate Change-Sensitive Infectious Diseases  

PubMed Central

Climate change is a significant and emerging threat to human health, especially where infectious diseases are involved. Because of the complex interactions between climate variables and infectious disease components (i.e., pathogen, host and transmission environment), systematically and quantitatively screening for infectious diseases that are sensitive to climate change is still a challenge. To address this challenge, we propose a new statistical indicator, Relative Sensitivity, to identify the difference between the sensitivity of the infectious disease to climate variables for two different climate statuses (i.e., historical climate and present climate) in non-exposure and exposure groups. The case study in Anhui Province, China has demonstrated the effectiveness of this Relative Sensitivity indicator. The application results indicate significant sensitivity of many epidemic infectious diseases to climate change in the form of changing climatic variables, such as temperature, precipitation and absolute humidity. As novel evidence, this research shows that absolute humidity has a critical influence on many observed infectious diseases in Anhui Province, including dysentery, hand, foot and mouth disease, hepatitis A, hemorrhagic fever, typhoid fever, malaria, meningitis, influenza and schistosomiasis. Moreover, some infectious diseases are more sensitive to climate change in rural areas than in urban areas. This insight provides guidance for future health inputs that consider spatial variability in response to climate change. PMID:25594780

Wang, Yunjing; Rao, Yuhan; Wu, Xiaoxu; Zhao, Hainan; Chen, Jin

2015-01-01

151

A method for screening climate change-sensitive infectious diseases.  

PubMed

Climate change is a significant and emerging threat to human health, especially where infectious diseases are involved. Because of the complex interactions between climate variables and infectious disease components (i.e., pathogen, host and transmission environment), systematically and quantitatively screening for infectious diseases that are sensitive to climate change is still a challenge. To address this challenge, we propose a new statistical indicator, Relative Sensitivity, to identify the difference between the sensitivity of the infectious disease to climate variables for two different climate statuses (i.e., historical climate and present climate) in non-exposure and exposure groups. The case study in Anhui Province, China has demonstrated the effectiveness of this Relative Sensitivity indicator. The application results indicate significant sensitivity of many epidemic infectious diseases to climate change in the form of changing climatic variables, such as temperature, precipitation and absolute humidity. As novel evidence, this research shows that absolute humidity has a critical influence on many observed infectious diseases in Anhui Province, including dysentery, hand, foot and mouth disease, hepatitis A, hemorrhagic fever, typhoid fever, malaria, meningitis, influenza and schistosomiasis. Moreover, some infectious diseases are more sensitive to climate change in rural areas than in urban areas. This insight provides guidance for future health inputs that consider spatial variability in response to climate change. PMID:25594780

Wang, Yunjing; Rao, Yuhan; Wu, Xiaoxu; Zhao, Hainan; Chen, Jin

2015-01-01

152

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Risk assessment for airborne infectious diseases in aircraft cabins Jitendra K. Guptaa  

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Risk assessment for airborne infectious diseases in aircraft cabins Jitendra K. Guptaa Ph.D., Chao different risks of infection from airborne infectious diseases such as influenza, severe acute respiratory words: Infectious disease transmission, airliner cabin, influenza, deterministic approach, probabilistic

Chen, Qingyan "Yan"

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...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

2010-05-28

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76 FR 63311 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

2011-10-12

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75 FR 54895 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

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2010-09-09

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77 FR 52338 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

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2012-08-29

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75 FR 59276 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

2010-09-27

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78 FR 52778 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

2013-08-26

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76 FR 53688 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

2011-08-29

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75 FR 7488 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

2010-02-19

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75 FR 54891 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

2010-09-09

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75 FR 13769 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

2010-03-23

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76 FR 60509 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

2011-09-29

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75 FR 19408 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

2010-04-14

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76 FR 17928 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

2011-03-31

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78 FR 36203 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

2013-06-17

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75 FR 28260 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

2010-05-20

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75 FR 11896 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

2010-03-12

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77 FR 72364 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

2012-12-05

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77 FR 13133 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

2012-03-05

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75 FR 994 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

2010-01-07

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76 FR 72959 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings.  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...of Copmmittee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

2011-11-28

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78 FR 29373 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

2013-05-20

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77 FR 14028 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

2012-03-08

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75 FR 16816 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

2010-04-02

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77 FR 297 - National Institute of Allergy And Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings  

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...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy And Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

2012-01-04

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75 FR 18215 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...conducted by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, including consideration...Intramural Research, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, NIH,...

2010-04-09

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76 FR 67749 - National Institute of Allergy And Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy And Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

2011-11-02

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77 FR 68136 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

2012-11-15

257

Networks and the Epidemiology of Infectious Disease  

PubMed Central

The science of networks has revolutionised research into the dynamics of interacting elements. It could be argued that epidemiology in particular has embraced the potential of network theory more than any other discipline. Here we review the growing body of research concerning the spread of infectious diseases on networks, focusing on the interplay between network theory and epidemiology. The review is split into four main sections, which examine: the types of network relevant to epidemiology; the multitude of ways these networks can be characterised; the statistical methods that can be applied to infer the epidemiological parameters on a realised network; and finally simulation and analytical methods to determine epidemic dynamics on a given network. Given the breadth of areas covered and the ever-expanding number of publications, a comprehensive review of all work is impossible. Instead, we provide a personalised overview into the areas of network epidemiology that have seen the greatest progress in recent years or have the greatest potential to provide novel insights. As such, considerable importance is placed on analytical approaches and statistical methods which are both rapidly expanding fields. Throughout this review we restrict our attention to epidemiological issues. PMID:21437001

Danon, Leon; Ford, Ashley P.; House, Thomas; Jewell, Chris P.; Keeling, Matt J.; Roberts, Gareth O.; Ross, Joshua V.; Vernon, Matthew C.

2011-01-01

258

Emerging and Reemerging Infectious Diseases: A Global Problem  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The issue-focused interview reflects on how infectious diseases, such as SARS and AIDS, are a more serious global problem than in the past because: urban populations are growing, thereby increasing opportunities for person-to-person transmittal of these diseases, people are more prone to be in contact with animals that may pass on zoonotic diseases, and public health services may not be equipped to deal with some infectious outbreaks.

Stephen Morse (Mailman School of Public Health of Columbia University; )

2004-05-01

259

Factors that make an infectious disease outbreak controllable  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study is to identify general properties of emerging infectious agents that determine the likely success of two simple public health measures in controlling outbreaks, namely (i) isolating symptomatic individuals and (ii) tracing and quarantining their con- tacts. Because these measures depend on the recognition of specific disease symptoms, we investigate the relative timing of infectious- ness

Christophe Fraser; Steven Riley; Roy M. Anderson; Neil M. Ferguson

2004-01-01

260

International Conference on Emerging Infectious Diseases: Select Presentations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The National Center for Infectious Diseases has made available the audio (and in some cases, video) portion of more than 20 online presentations of selected sessions from the International Conference on Emerging Infectious Diseases, held July 16-19, 2000 in Atlanta, Georgia. Presentations are organized in chronological order of the conference but may also be searched by presenter. Some presentations may be downloaded in Microsoft PowerPoint. For researchers interested in the field of Emerging Infectious Diseases, this resource represents an exceptionally helpful application of Internet technology.

261

Infectious diseases associated with complement deficiencies.  

PubMed Central

The complement system consists of both plasma and membrane proteins. The former influence the inflammatory response, immune modulation, and host defense. The latter are complement receptors, which mediate the cellular effects of complement activation, and regulatory proteins, which protect host cells from complement-mediated injury. Complement activation occurs via either the classical or the alternative pathway, which converge at the level of C3 and share a sequence of terminal components. Four aspects of the complement cascade are critical to its function and regulation: (i) activation of the classical pathway, (ii) activation of the alternative pathway, (iii) C3 convertase formation and C3 deposition, and (iv) membrane attack complex assembly and insertion. In general, mechanisms evolved by pathogenic microbes to resist the effects of complement are targeted to these four steps. Because individual complement proteins subserve unique functional activities and are activated in a sequential manner, complement deficiency states are associated with predictable defects in complement-dependent functions. These deficiency states can be grouped by which of the above four mechanisms they disrupt. They are distinguished by unique epidemiologic, clinical, and microbiologic features and are most prevalent in patients with certain rheumatologic and infectious diseases. Ethnic background and the incidence of infection are important cofactors determining this prevalence. Although complement undoubtedly plays a role in host defense against many microbial pathogens, it appears most important in protection against encapsulated bacteria, especially Neisseria meningitidis but also Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and, to a lesser extent, Neisseria gonorrhoeae. The availability of effective polysaccharide vaccines and antibiotics provides an immunologic and chemotherapeutic rationale for preventing and treating infection in patients with these deficiencies. PMID:1889047

Figueroa, J E; Densen, P

1991-01-01

262

DIVISION OF INFECTIOUS DISEASES AND GEOGRAPHIC MEDICINE DEPARTMENT OF MEDICINE  

E-print Network

. After completing an intensive graduate education program, they take a national at Stanford infectious disease clinic will be decreased considerably. We also hope University and in many hospitals throughout Boston after obtaining a bachelor's degree

Kay, Mark A.

263

Global burden, distribution, and interventions for infectious diseases of poverty  

PubMed Central

Infectious diseases of poverty (IDoP) disproportionately affect the poorest population in the world and contribute to a cycle of poverty as a result of decreased productivity ensuing from long-term illness, disability, and social stigma. In 2010, the global deaths from HIV/AIDS have increased to 1.5 million and malaria mortality rose to 1.17 million. Mortality from neglected tropical diseases rose to 152,000, while tuberculosis killed 1.2 million people that same year. Substantial regional variations exist in the distribution of these diseases as they are primarily concentrated in rural areas of Sub-Saharan Africa, Asia, and Latin America, with geographic overlap and high levels of co-infection. Evidence-based interventions exist to prevent and control these diseases, however, the coverage still remains low with an emerging challenge of antimicrobial resistance. Therefore, community-based delivery platforms are increasingly being advocated to ensure sustainability and combat co-infections. Because of the high morbidity and mortality burden of these diseases, especially in resource-poor settings, it is imperative to conduct a systematic review to identify strategies to prevent and control these diseases. Therefore, we attempted to evaluate the effectiveness of one of these strategies, that is community-based delivery for the prevention and treatment of IDoP. In this paper, we describe the burden, epidemiology, and potential interventions for IDoP. In subsequent papers of this series, we describe the analytical framework and the methodology used to guide the systematic reviews, and report the findings and interpretations of our analyses of the impact of community-based strategies on individual IDoPs. PMID:25110585

2014-01-01

264

Large-Scale Phylogenetic Analysis of Emerging Infectious Diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microorganisms that cause infectious diseases present critical issues of national security, public health, and economic welfare.\\u000a For example, in recent years, highly pathogenic strains of avian influenza have emerged in Asia, spread through Eastern Europe,\\u000a and threaten to become pandemic. As demonstrated by the coordinated response to Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) and\\u000a influenza, agents of infectious disease are being

D. Janies; D. Pol

265

Structural Genomics and Drug Discovery for Infectious Diseases  

SciTech Connect

The application of structural genomics methods and approaches to proteins from organisms causing infectious diseases is making available the three dimensional structures of many proteins that are potential drug targets and laying the groundwork for structure aided drug discovery efforts. There are a number of structural genomics projects with a focus on pathogens that have been initiated worldwide. The Center for Structural Genomics of Infectious Diseases (CSGID) was recently established to apply state-of-the-art high throughput structural biology technologies to the characterization of proteins from the National Institute for Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) category A-C pathogens and organisms causing emerging, or re-emerging infectious diseases. The target selection process emphasizes potential biomedical benefits. Selected proteins include known drug targets and their homologs, essential enzymes, virulence factors and vaccine candidates. The Center also provides a structure determination service for the infectious disease scientific community. The ultimate goal is to generate a library of structures that are available to the scientific community and can serve as a starting point for further research and structure aided drug discovery for infectious diseases. To achieve this goal, the CSGID will determine protein crystal structures of 400 proteins and protein-ligand complexes using proven, rapid, highly integrated, and cost-effective methods for such determination, primarily by X-ray crystallography. High throughput crystallographic structure determination is greatly aided by frequent, convenient access to high-performance beamlines at third-generation synchrotron X-ray sources.

Anderson, W.F.

2010-09-03

266

SPATIAL DYNAMICS OF LAND COVER AND INFECTIOUS DISEASE RISK  

EPA Science Inventory

Climate changes may allow for vector-transmitted tropical diseases to spread into temperate areas. Areas of low ecological diversity are at higher risk of infectious disease transmission due to decreased zooprophylaxis, the diversion of disease carrying insects from humans to ...

267

Tropical infectious diseasesDiagnostics for the developing world  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although 'diseases of affluence', such as diabetes and cardiovascular disease, are increasing in developing countries, infectious diseases still impose the greatest health burden. Annually, just under 1 million people die from malaria, 4.3 million from acute respiratory infections, 2.9 million from enteric infections and 5 million from AIDS and tuberculosis. Other sexually transmitted infections and tropical parasitic infections are responsible

Rosanna W. Peeling; Andrew Ustianowski; Mark D. Perkins; David Mabey

2004-01-01

268

Natural regulatory T cells in infectious disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review discusses the control exerted by natural CD4+ CD25+ regulatory T cells (natural Treg cells) during infectious processes. Natural Treg cells may limit the magnitude of effector responses, which may result in failure to adequately control infection. However, natural Treg cells also help limit collateral tissue damage caused by vigorous antimicrobial immune responses. We describe here various situations in

Barry T Rouse; Yasmine Belkaid

2005-01-01

269

Modeling rapidly disseminating infectious disease during mass gatherings  

PubMed Central

We discuss models for rapidly disseminating infectious diseases during mass gatherings (MGs), using influenza as a case study. Recent innovations in modeling and forecasting influenza transmission dynamics at local, regional, and global scales have made influenza a particularly attractive model scenario for MG. We discuss the behavioral, medical, and population factors for modeling MG disease transmission, review existing model formulations, and highlight key data and modeling gaps related to modeling MG disease transmission. We argue that the proposed improvements will help integrate infectious-disease models in MG health contingency plans in the near future, echoing modeling efforts that have helped shape influenza pandemic preparedness plans in recent years. PMID:23217051

2012-01-01

270

After 2015: infectious diseases in a new era of health and development.  

PubMed

Running over timescales that span decades or centuries, the epidemiological transition provides the central narrative of global health. In this transition, a reduction in mortality is followed by a reduction in fertility, creating larger, older populations in which the main causes of illness and death are no longer acute infections of children but chronic diseases of adults. Since the year 2000, the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) have provided a framework for accelerating the decline of infectious diseases, backed by a massive injection of foreign investment to low-income countries. Despite the successes of the MDGs era, the inhabitants of low-income countries still suffer an enormous burden of disease owing to diarrhoea, pneumonia, HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, malaria and other pathogens. Adding to the predictable burden of endemic disease, the threat of pandemics is ever-present and global. With a view to the future, this review spotlights five aspects of the fight against infection beyond 2015, when the MDGs will be replaced by a new set of goals for poverty reduction and sustainable development. These aspects are: exploiting the biological links between infectious and non-infectious diseases; controlling infections among the new urban majority; enhancing the response to international health threats; expanding childhood immunization programmes to prevent acute and chronic diseases in adults; and working towards universal health coverage. By scanning the wider horizon now, infectious disease specialists have the chance to shape the post-2015 era of health and development. PMID:24821913

Dye, Christopher

2014-01-01

271

After 2015: infectious diseases in a new era of health and development  

PubMed Central

Running over timescales that span decades or centuries, the epidemiological transition provides the central narrative of global health. In this transition, a reduction in mortality is followed by a reduction in fertility, creating larger, older populations in which the main causes of illness and death are no longer acute infections of children but chronic diseases of adults. Since the year 2000, the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) have provided a framework for accelerating the decline of infectious diseases, backed by a massive injection of foreign investment to low-income countries. Despite the successes of the MDGs era, the inhabitants of low-income countries still suffer an enormous burden of disease owing to diarrhoea, pneumonia, HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, malaria and other pathogens. Adding to the predictable burden of endemic disease, the threat of pandemics is ever-present and global. With a view to the future, this review spotlights five aspects of the fight against infection beyond 2015, when the MDGs will be replaced by a new set of goals for poverty reduction and sustainable development. These aspects are: exploiting the biological links between infectious and non-infectious diseases; controlling infections among the new urban majority; enhancing the response to international health threats; expanding childhood immunization programmes to prevent acute and chronic diseases in adults; and working towards universal health coverage. By scanning the wider horizon now, infectious disease specialists have the chance to shape the post-2015 era of health and development. PMID:24821913

Dye, Christopher

2014-01-01

272

Infectious diseases affect marine fisheries and aquaculture economics  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Seafood is a growing part of the economy, but its economic value is diminished by marine diseases. Infectious diseases are common in the ocean, and here we tabulate 67 examples that can reduce commercial species' growth and survivorship or decrease seafood quality. These impacts seem most problematic in the stressful and crowded conditions of aquaculture, which increasingly dominates seafood production as wild fishery production plateaus. For instance, marine diseases of farmed oysters, shrimp, abalone, and various fishes, particularly Atlantic salmon, cost billions of dollars each year. In comparison, it is often difficult to accurately estimate disease impacts on wild populations, especially those of pelagic and subtidal species. Farmed species often receive infectious diseases from wild species and can, in turn, export infectious agents to wild species. However, the impact of disease export on wild fisheries is controversial because there are few quantitative data demonstrating that wild species near farms suffer more from infectious diseases than those in other areas. The movement of exotic infectious agents to new areas continues to be the greatest concern.

Lafferty, Kevin D.; Harvell, C. Drew; Conrad, Jon M.; Friedman, Carolyn S.; Kent, Michael L.; Kuris, Armand M.; Powell, Eric N.; Rondeau, Daniel; Saksida, Sonja M.

2015-01-01

273

Infectious diseases affect marine fisheries and aquaculture economics.  

PubMed

Seafood is a growing part of the economy, but its economic value is diminished by marine diseases. Infectious diseases are common in the ocean, and here we tabulate 67 examples that can reduce commercial species' growth and survivorship or decrease seafood quality. These impacts seem most problematic in the stressful and crowded conditions of aquaculture, which increasingly dominates seafood production as wild fishery production plateaus. For instance, marine diseases of farmed oysters, shrimp, abalone, and various fishes, particularly Atlantic salmon, cost billions of dollars each year. In comparison, it is often difficult to accurately estimate disease impacts on wild populations, especially those of pelagic and subtidal species. Farmed species often receive infectious diseases from wild species and can, in turn, export infectious agents to wild species. However, the impact of disease export on wild fisheries is controversial because there are few quantitative data demonstrating that wild species near farms suffer more from infectious diseases than those in other areas. The movement of exotic infectious agents to new areas continues to be the greatest concern. PMID:25251276

Lafferty, Kevin D; Harvell, C Drew; Conrad, Jon M; Friedman, Carolyn S; Kent, Michael L; Kuris, Armand M; Powell, Eric N; Rondeau, Daniel; Saksida, Sonja M

2015-01-01

274

Infectious diseases following natural disasters: prevention and control measures.  

PubMed

Natural disasters may lead to infectious disease outbreaks when they result in substantial population displacement and exacerbate synergic risk factors (change in the environment, in human conditions and in the vulnerability to existing pathogens) for disease transmission. We reviewed risk factors and potential infectious diseases resulting from prolonged secondary effects of major natural disasters that occurred from 2000 to 2011. Natural disasters including floods, tsunamis, earthquakes, tropical cyclones (e.g., hurricanes and typhoons) and tornadoes have been secondarily described with the following infectious diseases including diarrheal diseases, acute respiratory infections, malaria, leptospirosis, measles, dengue fever, viral hepatitis, typhoid fever, meningitis, as well as tetanus and cutaneous mucormycosis. Risk assessment is essential in post-disaster situations and the rapid implementation of control measures through re-establishment and improvement of primary healthcare delivery should be given high priority, especially in the absence of pre-disaster surveillance data. PMID:22149618

Kouadio, Isidore K; Aljunid, Syed; Kamigaki, Taro; Hammad, Karen; Oshitani, Hitoshi

2012-01-01

275

Recurrence and emergence of infectious diseases in Djibouti city.  

PubMed Central

Public health authorities are now increasingly concerned by changes in the epidemiology of infectious diseases which may have an adverse impact on their budget plans and control strategies. Rapid increases in population and urban migration, various ecological changes, increasing poverty, and a rise in international travel have contributed to the worldwide vulnerability of human populations to the emergence, recurrence or spread of infectious diseases. In the rapidly growing city of Djibouti in East Africa, public health priorities have been altered during the last 10 years by diseases which were unknown or under control until the early 1980s. These diseases, including malaria, AIDS, tuberculosis, dengue fever and cholera, are consuming considerable resources. This article on Djibouti illustrates the epidemiological changes in the region. Besides the specific ecological and behavioural changes, which accompany rapid population growth, poverty seems to be a major cause for the emergence and recurrence of infectious diseases. PMID:8907768

Rodier, G. R.; Parra, J. P.; Kamil, M.; Chakib, S. O.; Cope, S. E.

1995-01-01

276

The Ecology of Infectious Disease: Effects of Host Diversity and Community Composition on Lyme Disease Risk  

E-print Network

The Ecology of Infectious Disease: Effects of Host Diversity and Community Composition on Lyme ecology of infectious disease: Effects of host diversity and community composition on Lyme disease risk to Lyme- disease-bearing ticks. We tested the DilutionEffectmodel, which predictsthat high species

Cochran-Stafira, D. Liane

277

Pediatric malignancies presenting as a possible infectious disease  

PubMed Central

Background The clinical, laboratory, and radiological features of malignancy can overlap with those of infection. The purpose of this study was to determine the findings in children who were initially thought to have an infectious disease but ultimately proved to have a malignancy. Methods The database of patients diagnosed with a malignancy in the Northern Alberta Children's Cancer Program (NACCP) January 1, 1993 to December 31, 2003 was merged with the database of inpatients referred to the infectious diseases service at the Stollery Children's Hospital and charts were reviewed on all patients referred to the infectious diseases consult service prior to the diagnosis of malignancy. Results An infectious diseases consultation for diagnosis was requested in 21 of 561 patients prior to the confirmation of malignancy, and 3 of these 21 patients had both infection and malignancy (leukemia (N = 13), lymphoma (N = 3), rhabdomyosarcoma (N = 1), Langerhan's cell histiocytosis (N = 1), fibrous histicocytosis (N = 1), ependymoma (N = 1), and neuroblastoma (N = 1). The most common reason for infectious diseases consultation was suspected muskuloskeletal infection (N = 9). A palpable or radiographically enlarged spleen was noted in 11 patients (52%). All but 2 patients had abnormal hematologic parameters while an elevated lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) occurred in 10 patients (48%). Delay of diagnosis because of investigation or therapy for an infectious disease occurred in only 2 patients. Conclusion It is not common for treatment of pediatric malignancies to be delayed because infection is thought to be the primary diagnosis. However, pediatric infectious diseases physicians should consider malignancy in the differential diagnosis when they see patients with fever and bone pain, unexplained splenomegaly or abnormal complete blood cell counts. Other clues may include hepatomegaly or elevated LDH. PMID:17519036

Forgie, Sarah E; Robinson, Joan L

2007-01-01

278

Polycystic kidney disease: an unrecognized emerging infectious disease?  

PubMed Central

Polycystic kidney disease (PKD) is one of the most common genetic diseases in humans. We contend that it may be an emerging infectious disease and/or microbial toxicosis in a vulnerable human subpopulation. Use of a differential activation protocol for the Limulus amebocyte lysate (LAL) assay showed bacterial endotoxin and fungal (1-->3)-beta-D-glucans in cyst fluids from human kidneys with PKD. Fatty acid analysis of cyst fluid confirmed the presence of 3-hydroxy fatty acids characteristic of endotoxin. Tissue and cyst fluid from three PKD patients were examined for fungal components. Serologic tests showed Fusarium, Aspergillus, and Candida antigens. IgE, but not IgG, reactive with Fusarium and Candida were also detected in cyst fluid. Fungal DNA was detected in kidney tissue and cyst fluid from these three PKD patients, but not in healthy human kidney tissue. We examine the intertwined nature of the actions of endotoxin and fungal components, sphingolipid biology in PKD, the structure of PKD gene products, infections, and integrity of gut function to establish a mechanistic hypothesis for microbial provocation of human cystic disease. Proof of this hypothesis will require identification of the microbes and microbial components involved and multifaceted studies of PKD cell biology. PMID:9204292

Miller-Hjelle, M. A.; Hjelle, J. T.; Jones, M.; Mayberry, W. R.; Dombrink-Kurtzman, M. A.; Peterson, S. W.; Nowak, D. M.; Darras, F. S.

1997-01-01

279

Infectious Bursal Disease Virus and Antarctic Birds  

Microsoft Academic Search

The geographic isolation of the Antarctic continent coupled with the extreme climate has historically been assumed to protect\\u000a the indigenous Antarctic wildlife from exposure to infectious agents found among animals in more temperate regions. However,\\u000a with the number of tourists visiting the region more than doubling in the last 10 years (IAATO 2004) and climate change predicted\\u000a to enhance the

J. M. Watts; G. D. Miller; G. R. Shellam

280

Global poverty, hunger, death, and disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to address the global dimensions of poverty, hunger, death, and disease. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The authors assemble the most recently available data on these four human scourges from reliable international sources. Findings – Reducing the higher incidence of poverty, hunger, death, and disease in sub-Saharan African countries depends critically on the extension of

Edward OBoyle; Meade OBoyle

2012-01-01

281

Travel and migration associated infectious diseases morbidity in Europe, 2008  

PubMed Central

Background Europeans represent the majority of international travellers and clinicians encountering returned patients have an essential role in recognizing, and communicating travel-associated public health risks. Methods To investigate the morbidity of travel associated infectious diseases in European travellers, we analysed diagnoses with demographic, clinical and travel-related predictors of disease, in 6957 ill returned travellers who presented in 2008 to EuroTravNet centres with a presumed travel associated condition. Results Gastro-intestinal (GI) diseases accounted for 33% of illnesses, followed by febrile systemic illnesses (20%), dermatological conditions (12%) and respiratory illnesses (8%). There were 3 deaths recorded; a sepsis caused by Escherichia coli pyelonephritis, a dengue shock syndrome and a Plasmodium falciparum malaria. GI conditions included bacterial acute diarrhea (6.9%), as well as giardiasis and amebasis (2.3%). Among febrile systemic illnesses with identified pathogens, malaria (5.4%) accounted for most cases followed by dengue (1.9%) and others including chikungunya, rickettsial diseases, leptospirosis, brucellosis, Epstein Barr virus infections, tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) and viral hepatitis. Dermatological conditions were dominated by bacterial infections, arthropod bites, cutaneous larva migrans and animal bites requiring rabies post-exposure prophylaxis and also leishmaniasis, myasis, tungiasis and one case of leprosy. Respiratory illness included 112 cases of tuberculosis including cases of multi-drug resistant or extensively drug resistant tuberculosis, 104 cases of influenza like illness, and 5 cases of Legionnaires disease. Sexually transmitted infections (STI) accounted for 0.6% of total diagnoses and included HIV infection and syphilis. A total of 165 cases of potentially vaccine preventable diseases were reported. Purpose of travel and destination specific risk factors was identified for several diagnoses such as Chagas disease in immigrant travellers from South America and P. falciparum malaria in immigrants from sub-Saharan Africa. Travel within Europe was also associated with health risks with distinctive profiles for Eastern and Western Europe. Conclusions In 2008, a broad spectrum of travel associated diseases were diagnosed at EuroTravNet core sites. Diagnoses varied according to regions visited by ill travellers. The spectrum of travel associated morbidity also shows that there is a need to dispel the misconception that travel, close to home, in Europe, is without significant health risk. PMID:21083874

2010-01-01

282

Perspectives of public health laboratories in emerging infectious diseases  

PubMed Central

The world has experienced an increased incidence and transboundary spread of emerging infectious diseases over the last four decades. We divided emerging infectious diseases into four categories, with subcategories in categories 1 and 4. The categorization was based on the nature and characteristics of pathogens or infectious agents causing the emerging infections, which are directly related to the mechanisms and patterns of infectious disease emergence. The factors or combinations of factors contributing to the emergence of these pathogens vary within each category. We also classified public health laboratories into three types based on function, namely, research, reference and analytical diagnostic laboratories, with the last category being subclassified into primary (community-based) public health and clinical (medical) analytical diagnostic laboratories. The frontline/leading and/or supportive roles to be adopted by each type of public health laboratory for optimal performance to establish the correct etiological agents causing the diseases or outbreaks vary with respect to each category of emerging infectious diseases. We emphasize the need, especially for an outbreak investigation, to establish a harmonized and coordinated national public health laboratory system that integrates different categories of public health laboratories within a country and that is closely linked to the national public health delivery system and regional and international high-end laboratories.

Chua, Kaw Bing; Gubler, Duane J

2013-01-01

283

Incidence and Impact of Selected Infectious Diseases in Childhood.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report provides estimates of the lifetime and annual incidence of certain infectious diseases of children in various demographic groups. Data on the social and health care impact of the diseases in terms of limited activity, days spent in bed, school days lost, contacts with physicians, hospitalizations, surgery, and use of medication are…

Vital and Health Statistics, 1991

1991-01-01

284

Techniques for Preventing the Spread of Infectious Diseases.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Specific procedures are outlined for prevention of the spread of infectious diseases with techniques of handwashing, diapering, and handling of known disease carriers. Protocols for classroom cleanliness list essential steps and key points and precautions for maintaining a hygienic environment. This section includes a list of protocols for food…

California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento.

285

Acute infectious bursal disease in poultry: A review  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review is focused on the acute form of infectious bursal disease (IBD) caused by very virulent IBD virus (vvIBDV). First described in Europe about 10 years ago, this new form of the disease has rapidly spread all over the world, causing dramatic losses; after a decade, it still represents a considerable threat to the poultry industry. Emergence of the

Thierry P. Van Den Berg

2000-01-01

286

Epitheliocystis, a new infectious disease of the bluegill ( Lepomis macrochirus )  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new infectious, benign and chronic disease, histopathologically distinct from the viral disease lymphocystis, has been found in the bluegill. The symptoms are much enlarged cells in skin and gill epithelium, filled with basophilic granules. By electron microscopy these granules were shown to be organisms with the morphological characteristics ofBedsonia (Miyagawanella). During an attempt to isolate the agent in the

G. L. Hoffman; C. E. Dunbar; K. Wolf; L. O. Zwillenberg

1969-01-01

287

Stress, immune reactivity and susceptibility to infectious disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Psychological stress is known to affect immune function and to predict infectious disease susceptibility. However, not all individuals who are stressed develop disease. In the present article, we report on a series of studies from our laboratory describing interindividual variability of immune responses to psychological stress. In our initial series of experimental investigations, we demonstrated that acute laboratory stress alters

Anna L. Marsland; Elizabeth A. Bachen; Sheldon Cohen; Bruce Rabin; Stephen B. Manuck

2002-01-01

288

Trends in Notifiable Infectious Diseases in China: Implications for Surveillance and Population Health Policy  

PubMed Central

This study aimed to analyse trends in notifiable infectious diseases in China, in their historical context. Both English and Chinese literature was searched and diseases were categorised according to the type of disease or transmission route. Temporal trends of morbidity and mortality rates were calculated for eight major infectious diseases types. Strong government commitment to public health responses and improvements in quality of life has led to the eradication or containment of a wide range of infectious diseases in China. The overall infectious diseases burden experienced a dramatic drop during 1975–1995, but since then, it reverted and maintained a gradual upward trend to date. Most notifiable diseases are contained at a low endemic level; however, local small-scale outbreaks remain common. Tuberculosis, as a bacterial infection, has re-emerged since the 1990s and has become prevalent in the country. Sexually transmitted infections are in a rapid, exponential growth phase, spreading from core groups to the general population. Together human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), they account for 39% of all death cases due to infectious diseases in China in 2008. Zoonotic infections, such as severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), rabies and influenza, pose constant threats to Chinese residents and remain the most deadly disease type among the infected individuals. Therefore, second-generation surveillance of behavioural risks or vectors associated with pathogen transmission should be scaled up. It is necessary to implement public health interventions that target HIV and relevant coinfections, address transmission associated with highly mobile populations, and reduce the risk of cross-species transmission of zoonotic pathogens. PMID:22359565

Zhang, Lei; Wilson, David P.

2012-01-01

289

Diseases and Causes of Death in European Bats: Dynamics in Disease Susceptibility and Infection Rates  

PubMed Central

Background Bats receive increasing attention in infectious disease studies, because of their well recognized status as reservoir species for various infectious agents. This is even more important, as bats with their capability of long distance dispersal and complex social structures are unique in the way microbes could be spread by these mammalian species. Nevertheless, infection studies in bats are predominantly limited to the identification of specific pathogens presenting a potential health threat to humans. But the impact of infectious agents on the individual host and their importance on bat mortality is largely unknown and has been neglected in most studies published to date. Methodology/Principal Findings Between 2002 and 2009, 486 deceased bats of 19 European species (family Vespertilionidae) were collected in different geographic regions in Germany. Most animals represented individual cases that have been incidentally found close to roosting sites or near human habitation in urban and urban-like environments. The bat carcasses were subjected to a post-mortem examination and investigated histo-pathologically, bacteriologically and virologically. Trauma and disease represented the most important causes of death in these bats. Comparative analysis of pathological findings and microbiological results show that microbial agents indeed have an impact on bats succumbing to infectious diseases, with fatal bacterial, viral and parasitic infections found in at least 12% of the bats investigated. Conclusions/Significance Our data demonstrate the importance of diseases and infectious agents as cause of death in European bat species. The clear seasonal and individual variations in disease prevalence and infection rates indicate that maternity colonies are more susceptible to infectious agents, underlining the possible important role of host physiology, immunity and roosting behavior as risk factors for infection of bats. PMID:22216354

Mühldorfer, Kristin; Speck, Stephanie; Kurth, Andreas; Lesnik, René; Freuling, Conrad; Müller, Thomas; Kramer-Schadt, Stephanie; Wibbelt, Gudrun

2011-01-01

290

Infectious disease ecology: Effects of ecosystems on disease and of disease on ecosystems: A Review  

E-print Network

think) to do so. It is this innate curiosity that drives us. ALAN BERRYMAN, Medical Lake, Washington INFECTIOUS DISEASE ECOLOGY: EFFECTS OF ECO- SYSTEMS ON DISEASE AND OF DISEASE ON ECOSYS- TEMS. Based on a conference held in Millbrook, New York, May.... Infectious disease ecology is a "hot" field, with many research initiatives and funding programs now focused on the subject. In many ways, it can be seen as the field of ecology opening its eyes and extending its view to the part of the ecological world...

Peterson, A. Townsend

2009-11-01

291

Infectious diseases in the Arabian Peninsula and Egypt.  

PubMed

Infectious diseases are important causes of morbidity and mortality globally. Epidemiologically, differences in the patterns of infectious diseases and antimicrobial resistance exist across diverse geographical regions. In this review on infectious diseases in the Arabian Peninsula and Egypt, the epidemiology of tuberculosis, malaria and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections will be addressed. The challenges of the hepatitis C epidemic in Egypt and the epidemiology of this infection across the region will be reviewed. In recent years, we have seen dengue endemicity become established, with major outbreaks in parts of the region. Emerging data also indicate that, across the region, there is an increasing burden of antibiotic resistance, with endemicity in healthcare settings and dissemination into the community. New challenges include the emergence of the Alkhurma haemorrhagic fever virus in Saudi Arabia. The annual Hajj pilgrimage in Saudi Arabia serves as a model for the control of infectious disease in mass gatherings. As most of these countries constantly experience a uniquely dynamic population influx in the form of expatriate workers, tourists, or pilgrims, concerted regional and international collaboration to address these public health concerns in a region that lies at the crossroads for the global spread of infectious pathogens is imperative. PMID:23066725

Shibl, A; Senok, A; Memish, Z

2012-11-01

292

Combating infectious diseases of poverty: a year on  

PubMed Central

The Infectious Diseases of Poverty journal, launched a year ago, is a platform to engage outside the traditional disciplinary boundaries, and disseminate high quality science towards the improvement of health. This paper reviews the milestone achievements during its first year of operation. The journal has filled an important niche, addressing some of the main priorities in the Global Report for Research on Infectious Diseases of Poverty. Highlights include the publication of three thematic issues on health systems, surveillance and response systems, as well as co-infection and syndemics. The thematic issues have foregrounded the importance and innovation that can be achieved through transdisciplinary research. The journal has been indexed by PubMed since April 2013, with the publication of a total of 38 articles. Finally, the journal is delivering to wider range readers both in developing and developed countries with sustained efforts with a focus on relevant and strategic information towards elimination of infectious diseases of poverty. PMID:24246007

2013-01-01

293

Infectious diseases and malnutrition status in Nepal: an overview.  

PubMed

This paper sheds light on infectious diseases and the status of malnutrition in Nepal, a Himalayan country located in South Asia. In spite of efforts by both Government and non-government sectors, infectious diseases are rampant in the countries constituting a major cause of morbidity and mortality, which in turn, impose a socio-economic and public health burden for the country. Intestinal parasitic infection has been implicated in the causation of malnutrition. Malnutrition associated with child mortality is more common among children aged less than five years. Nepalese women suffer from chronic malnutrition. People in rural areas are more affected by malnutrition than those in urban areas. This has been attributed to poverty, lack of education, and rampant infectious diseases. PMID:22692477

Rai, Shiba Kumar; Kazuko, Hirai; Ayako, Abe; Yoshimi, Ohno

2002-09-01

294

Converting Cancer Therapies into Cures: Lessons from Infectious Diseases  

PubMed Central

During the past decade, cancer drug development has shifted from a focus on cytotoxic chemotherapies to drugs that target specific molecular alterations in tumors. Although these drugs dramatically shrink tumors, the responses are temporary. Research is now focused on overcoming drug resistance, a frequent cause of treatment failure. Here we reflect on analogous challenges faced by researchers in infectious diseases. We compare and contrast the resistance mechanisms arising in cancer and infectious diseases and discuss how approaches for overcoming viral and bacterial infections, such as HIV and tuberculosis, are instructive for developing a more rational approach for cancer therapy. In particular, maximizing the effect of the initial treatment response, which often requires synergistic combination therapy, is foremost among these approaches. A remaining challenge in both fields is identifying drugs that eliminate drug-tolerant “persister” cells (infectious disease) or tumor-initiating/stem cells (cancer) to prevent late relapse and shorten treatment duration. PMID:22424221

Glickman, Michael S.; Sawyers, Charles L.

2012-01-01

295

Infectious diseases subspecialty: declining demand challenges and opportunities.  

PubMed

Recent match results from the National Resident Matching Program for the subspecialty of infectious diseases show an ongoing decline in the number of fellowship positions filled, and, more important, in the number of applicants, particularly from the pool of international medical graduates. The main reasons for this declining application rate are unclear; in the absence of hard data, we present our viewpoint on this issue. Difficulties in securing visas for permanent residency in the United States, perception of a limited job market, and the explosive growth in the number of hospitalist positions may be important contributing factors. Infectious Diseases Society of America members need to focus on medical students and medical residents in their formative years. We present potential solutions to this problem of declining interest in the field of infectious diseases. PMID:25148890

Chandrasekar, Pranatharthi; Havlichek, Daniel; Johnson, Leonard B

2014-12-01

296

Passive Immunity in Prevention and Treatment of Infectious Diseases  

PubMed Central

Antibodies have been used for over a century in the prevention and treatment of infectious disease. They are used most commonly for the prevention of measles, hepatitis A, hepatitis B, tetanus, varicella, rabies, and vaccinia. Although their use in the treatment of bacterial infection has largely been supplanted by antibiotics, antibodies remain a critical component of the treatment of diptheria, tetanus, and botulism. High-dose intravenous immunoglobulin can be used to treat certain viral infections in immunocompromised patients (e.g., cytomegalovirus, parvovirus B19, and enterovirus infections). Antibodies may also be of value in toxic shock syndrome, Ebola virus, and refractory staphylococcal infections. Palivizumab, the first monoclonal antibody licensed (in 1998) for an infectious disease, can prevent respiratory syncytial virus infection in high-risk infants. The development and use of additional monoclonal antibodies to key epitopes of microbial pathogens may further define protective humoral responses and lead to new approaches for the prevention and treatment of infectious diseases. PMID:11023960

Keller, Margaret A.; Stiehm, E. Richard

2000-01-01

297

Prognosis in autoimmune and infectious disease: new insights from genetics  

PubMed Central

A well-recognised feature of autoimmune and infectious diseases is that their clinical course and eventual outcome can vary substantially between affected individuals. This variability in disease prognosis critically determines patient well-being, and yet is relatively poorly understood and largely understudied—with many investigators opting instead to study what causes disease development in the first place. Better understanding of what determines prognosis could provide unique insights into disease biology, potentially revealing new therapeutic targets, and will also be essential if prognosis-based ‘personalised medicine' is ever to become a reality. Here, we highlight the previously under-appreciated role that genetics has in determining prognosis in autoimmune and infectious disease, and the common role that FOXO3 has been shown to have as a modulator of inflammatory responses, and thereby of outcome, across several distinct diseases. PMID:25505963

Lee, James C; Smith, Kenneth G C

2014-01-01

298

Programmed Cell Death in Parkinson's Disease  

PubMed Central

Parkinson's disease is a debilitating disorder characterized by a progressive loss of dopaminergic neurons caused by programmed cell death. The aim of this review is to provide an up-to-date summary of the major programmed cell death pathways as they relate to PD. For a long time, programmed cell death has been synonymous with apoptosis but there now is evidence that other types of programmed cell death exist, such as autophagic cell death or programmed necrosis, and that these types of cell death are relevant to PD. The pathways and signals covered here include namely the death receptors, BCL-2 family, caspases, calpains, cdk5, p53, PARP-1, autophagy, mitophagy, mitochondrial fragmentation, and parthanatos. The review will present evidence from postmortem PD studies, toxin-induced models (especially MPTP/MPP+, 6-hydroxydopamine and rotenone), and from ?-synuclein, LRRK2, Parkin, DJ-1, and PINK1 genetic models of PD, both in vitro and in vivo. PMID:22908196

Venderova, Katerina; Park, David S.

2012-01-01

299

Mortality in East African shorthorn zebu cattle under one year: predictors of infectious-disease mortality  

PubMed Central

Background Infectious livestock diseases remain a major threat to attaining food security and are a source of economic and livelihood losses for people dependent on livestock for their livelihood. Knowledge of the vital infectious diseases that account for the majority of deaths is crucial in determining disease control strategies and in the allocation of limited funds available for disease control. Here we have estimated the mortality rates in zebu cattle raised in a smallholder mixed farming system during their first year of life, identified the periods of increased risk of death and the risk factors for calf mortality, and through analysis of post-mortem data, determined the aetiologies of calf mortality in this population. A longitudinal cohort study of 548 zebu cattle was conducted between 2007 and 2010. Each calf was followed during its first year of life or until lost from the study. Calves were randomly selected from 20 sub-locations and recruited within a week of birth from different farms over a 45 km radius area centered on Busia in the Western part of Kenya. The data comprised of 481.1 calf years of observation. Clinical examinations, sample collection and analysis were carried out at 5 week intervals, from birth until one year old. Cox proportional hazard models with frailty terms were used for the statistical analysis of risk factors. A standardized post-mortem examination was conducted on all animals that died during the study and appropriate samples collected. Results The all-cause mortality rate was estimated at 16.1 (13.0-19.2; 95% CI) per 100 calf years at risk. The Cox models identified high infection intensity with Theileria spp., the most lethal of which causes East Coast Fever disease, infection with Trypanosome spp., and helminth infections as measured by Strongyle spp. eggs per gram of faeces as the three important infections statistically associated with infectious disease mortality in these calves. Analysis of post-mortem data identified East Coast Fever as the main cause of death accounting for 40% of all deaths, haemonchosis 12% and heartwater disease 7%. Conclusion The findings demonstrate the impact of endemic parasitic diseases in indigenous animals expected to be well adapted against disease pressures. Additionally, agreement between results of Cox models using data from simple diagnostic procedures and results from post-mortem analysis underline the potential use such diagnostic data to reduce calf mortality. The control strategies for the identified infectious diseases have been discussed. PMID:24010500

2013-01-01

300

Infectious disease agents mediate interaction in food webs and ecosystems  

PubMed Central

Infectious agents are part of food webs and ecosystems via the relationship with their host species that, in turn, interact with both hosts and non-hosts. Through these interactions, infectious agents influence food webs in terms of structure, functioning and stability. The present literature shows a broad range of impacts of infectious agents on food webs, and by cataloguing that range, we worked towards defining the various mechanisms and their specific effects. To explore the impact, a direct approach is to study changes in food-web properties with infectious agents as separate species in the web, acting as additional nodes, with links to their host species. An indirect approach concentrates not on adding new nodes and links, but on the ways that infectious agents affect the existing links across host and non-host nodes, by influencing the ‘quality’ of consumer–resource interaction as it depends on the epidemiological state host involved. Both approaches are natural from an ecological point of view, but the indirect approach may connect more straightforwardly to commonly used tools in infectious disease dynamics. PMID:24403336

Selakovic, Sanja; de Ruiter, Peter C.; Heesterbeek, Hans

2014-01-01

301

Modeling the spread of infectious disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study of disease spread among large populations is a daunting task to perform without the aid of computers. Not only does this require extensive data retrieval and analysis, but it is impossible to test multiple scenarios. Pestilence is a program that allows students to explore the patterns of disease spread. Pestilence was developed using Netlogo, a programmable modeling environment.

Joseph Glessner

2005-01-01

302

Incentives for Reporting Infectious Disease Outbreaks  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The global spread of diseases such as swine flu and SARS highlights the difficult decision governments face when presented with evidence of a local outbreak. Reporting the outbreak may bring medical assistance but is also likely to trigger trade sanctions by countries hoping to contain the disease. Suppressing the information may avoid trade…

Malani, Anup; Laxminarayan, Ramanan

2011-01-01

303

A Cellular Automaton Framework for Infectious Disease Spread Simulation  

PubMed Central

In this paper, a cellular automaton framework for processing the spatiotemporal spread of infectious diseases is presented. The developed environment simulates and visualizes how infectious diseases might spread, and hence provides a powerful instrument for health care organizations to generate disease prevention and contingency plans. In this study, the outbreak of an avian flu like virus was modeled in the state of Tyrol, and various scenarios such as quarantine, effect of different medications on viral spread and changes of social behavior were simulated. The proposed framework is implemented using the programming language Java. The set up of the simulation environment requires specification of the disease parameters and the geographical information using a population density colored map, enriched with demographic data. The results of the numerical simulations and the analysis of the computed parameters will be used to get a deeper understanding of how the disease spreading mechanisms work, and how to protect the population from contracting the disease. Strategies for optimization of medical treatment and vaccination regimens will also be investigated using our cellular automaton framework. In this study, six different scenarios were simulated. It showed that geographical barriers may help to slow down the spread of an infectious disease, however, when an aggressive and deadly communicable disease spreads, only quarantine and controlled medical treatment are able to stop the outbreak, if at all. PMID:19415136

Pfeifer, Bernhard; Kugler, Karl; Tejada, Maria M; Baumgartner, Christian; Seger, Michael; Osl, Melanie; Netzer, Michael; Handler, Michael; Dander, Andreas; Wurz, Manfred; Graber, Armin; Tilg, Bernhard

2008-01-01

304

Global climate and infectious disease: The cholera paradigm  

SciTech Connect

Historically, infectious diseases have had a profound effect on human populations, including their evolution and cultural development. Despite significant advances in medical science, infectious diseases continue to impact human populations in many parts of the world. Emerging diseases are considered to be those infections that either are newly appearing in the population or are rapidly increasing in incidence or expanding in geographic range. Emergence of disease is not a simple phenomenon, mainly because infectious diseases are dynamic. Most new infections are not caused by truly new pathogens but are microorganisms (viruses, bacteria, fungi, protozoa, and helminths) that find a new way to enter a susceptible host and are newly recognized because of recently developed, sensitive techniques. Human activities drive emergence of disease and a variety of social, economic, political, climatic, technological, and environmental factors can shape the pattern of a disease and influence its emergence into populations. For example, travel affects emergence of disease, and human migrations have been the main source of epidemics throughout history. Trade caravans, religious pilgrimage, and military campaigns facilitated the spread of plague, smallpox, and cholera. Global travel is a fact of modern life and, equally so, the continued evolution of microorganisms; therefore, new infections will continue to emerge, and known infections will change in distribution, frequency, and severity. 88 refs., 1 fig.

Colwell, R.R. [Univ. of Maryland Biotechnology Inst., College Park, MD (United States)] [Univ. of Maryland Biotechnology Inst., College Park, MD (United States)

1996-12-20

305

Lurking in the Shadows: Emerging Rodent Infectious Diseases  

PubMed Central

Rodent parvoviruses, Helicobacter spp., murine norovirus, and several other previously unknown infectious agents have “emerged” in laboratory rodents relatively recently. These agents have been discovered serendipitously or through active investigation of atypical serology results, cell culture contamination, unexpected histopathology, or previously unrecognized clinical disease syndromes. The potential research impact of these agents is not fully known. Infected rodents have demonstrated immunomodulation, tumor suppression, clinical disease (particularly in immunodeficient rodents), and histopathology. Perturbations of organismal and cellular physiology also likely occur. These agents posed unique challenges to laboratory animal resource programs once discovered; it was necessary to develop specific diagnostic assays and an understanding of their epidemiology and transmission routes before attempting eradication, and then evaluate eradication methods for efficacy. Even then management approaches varied significantly, from apathy to total exclusion, and such inconsistency has hindered the sharing and transfer of rodents among institutions, particularly for genetically modified rodent models that may not be readily available. As additional infectious agents are discovered in laboratory rodents in coming years, much of what researchers have learned from experiences with the recently identified pathogens will be applicable. This article provides an overview of the discovery, detection, and research impact of infectious agents recently identified in laboratory rodents. We also discuss emerging syndromes for which there is a suspected infectious etiology, and the unique challenges of managing newly emerging infectious agents. PMID:18506061

Besselsen, David G.; Franklin, Craig L.; Livingston, Robert S.; Riley, Lela K.

2013-01-01

306

Managing an Infectious Disease Outbreak in a School. Lessons Learned from School Crises and Emergencies. Volume 2, Issue 3  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Lessons Learned" is a series of publications that are a brief recounting of actual school emergencies and crises. This "Lessons Learned" issue focuses on an infectious disease incident, which resulted in the death of a student, closure of area schools and the operation of an on-site school vaccine clinic. The report highlights the critical need…

US Department of Education, 2007

2007-01-01

307

Analysis of hospital records in four African countries, 1975-1990, with emphasis on infectious diseases.  

PubMed

Detailed standardized annual reports are analysed for 17 rural hospitals in four African countries, with admission figures of 1.2 million patients (excluding deliveries) and more than 67,000 deaths over a period of 16 years. The countries involved are Zambia, Tanzania, Kenya and Ghana. Figures on admission, causes of death and clinical case fatality rates are presented per country and per 4-year calendar period for the most important infectious diseases. The number of admissions increased substantially in 3 of the 4 countries (50-77%) between 1976 and 1990, but admission rates (per 1,000 population per year) by much less (6-25%), indicating that a large part of the increase in the volume of services was due to population growth. The number of infectious disease admissions in Ghana, however, decreased by 12% and even more in terms of admission rates (by 42%). About 75% of all admissions in children below 15 years of age were due to infections and infection related diseases; for adults this figure was 31%. Malaria is the single most important infectious disease both in terms of admissions and as a cause of death; it has increased substantially in three of the four countries. Bacterial infections, in particular pneumonia, gastroenteritis, meningitis and tuberculosis, are also important diseases in terms of admissions and deaths. On the whole they have remained at more or less the same level in 1975-1990 in terms of both admissions and deaths. Immunizable diseases and measles, once important as causes of admissions and deaths, have declined in all countries. Case fatality rates vary substantially by type of disease. They are very high for tetanus (36.7-68.8%) and meningitis (14.7-43%), and low for malaria (0.6-4.6%). However, they vary considerably in the four countries included in the study and are usually lower in children than in adults. A need for detailed studies with good "standardized" hospital records is emphasized. Representative data are needed from all hospitals in a given catchment area, with defined diagnoses for diseases and details regarding age and sex. This kind of information is highly desirable for planning and operation of curative and preventive medical care in developing countries. PMID:7636917

Petit, P L; van Ginneken, J K

1995-08-01

308

Infectious diseases and extinction risk in wild mammals.  

PubMed

Parasite-driven declines in wildlife have become increasingly common and can pose significant risks to natural populations. We used the IUCN Red List of Threatened and Endangered Species and compiled data on hosts threatened by infectious disease and their parasites to better understand the role of infectious disease in contemporary host extinctions. The majority of mammal species considered threatened by parasites were either carnivores or artiodactyls, two clades that include the majority of domesticated animals. Parasites affecting host threat status were predominantly viruses and bacteria that infect a wide range of host species, including domesticated animals. Counter to our predictions, parasites transmitted by close contact were more likely to cause extinction risk than those transmitted by other routes. Mammal species threatened by parasites were not better studied for infectious diseases than other threatened mammals and did not have more parasites or differ in four key traits demonstrated to affect parasite species richness in other comparative studies. Our findings underscore the need for better information concerning the distribution and impacts of infectious diseases in populations of endangered mammals. In addition, our results suggest that evolutionary similarity to domesticated animals may be a key factor associated with parasite-mediated declines; thus, efforts to limit contact between domesticated hosts and wildlife could reduce extinction risk. PMID:17883492

Pedersen, Amy B; Jones, Kate E; Nunn, Charles L; Altizer, Sonia

2007-10-01

309

Management of Chronic Infectious Diseases in School Children. Revised Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual contains current guidelines for Illinois school personnel to follow when working with children who have infectious diseases. The first chapter focuses on school district development of policies and procedures and program implementation. The next chapter provides information on characteristics, mode of transmission, prevention, and…

Illinois State Board of Education, Springfield.

310

Complete genome assemblies and methylome characterization in infectious diseases  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Understanding the genetic basis of infectious diseases is a critical component to effective treatments. Because of the rapid evolution of bacterial strains and frequent horizontal transfer of DNA between them, resequencing of new isolates against known reference strains often provides an incomplete ...

311

Vitamin A supplementation in infectious diseases: a meta-analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE--To study the effect of vitamin A supplementation on morbidity and mortality from infectious disease. DESIGN--A meta-analysis aimed at identifying and combining mortality and morbidity data from all randomised controlled trials of vitamin A. RESULTS--Of 20 controlled trials identified, 12 trials were randomised trials and provided \\

P P Glasziou; Mackerras Dem

1993-01-01

312

Biotechnology in the diagnosis of infectious diseases and vaccine development  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Molecular biological methods have become increasingly applicable to the diagnosis of infectious diseases and vaccine development. To become widely used the methods need to be easy, safe, sensitive, reproducible and eventually automated to facilitate the evaluation of large number of samples. The p...

313

Social networks and infectious disease: The Colorado Springs study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The social network paradigm provides a set of concepts and methods useful for studying the structure of a population through which infectious agents transmitted during close personal contact spread, and an opportunity to develop improved disease control programs. The research discussed was a first attempt to use a social network approach to better understand factors affecting the transmission of a

A. S. Klovdahl; J. J. Potterat; D. E. Woodhouse; J. B. Muth; S. Q. Muth; W. W. Darrow

1994-01-01

314

Aids and Infectious Diseases (aid) Pmp 2013 Report  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The AIDS and Infectious Diseases (AID) PMP of the WFS contributed this year with a session on August 22nd to the Plenary Sessions of the International Seminars on Planetary Emergencies and Associated Meetings--46th Session: The Role of Science in the Third Millennium (Erice, 19-24 August 2013). Furthermore a workshop on August 24th was organized...

Buonaguro, Franco M.

2014-07-01

315

Cytokine Polymorphisms and Susceptibility to Severe Infectious Diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cytokines are key regulators of the host response to infection, controlling the inflammatory reaction which is an essential component of the defense mechanisms. The major importance of these proteins in the pathogenesis and outcome of infectious diseases has been clearly demonstrated. In humans, there is increasing evidence that the host's cytokine response is genetically determined and that the genetic variability

Jean-Daniel Chiche; Shidasp Siami; Jean-FrançDois Dhainaut; Jean-Paul Mira

2001-01-01

316

Nutritional therapy and infectious diseases: a two-edged sword  

Microsoft Academic Search

The benefits and risks of nutritional therapies in the prevention and management of infectious diseases in the developed world are reviewed. There is strong evidence that early enteral feeding of patients prevents infections in a variety of traumatic and surgical illnesses. There is, however, little support for similar early feeding in medical illnesses. Parenteral nutrition increases the risk of infection

Haig Donabedian

2006-01-01

317

Non-linear incidence and stability of infectious disease models  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we consider the impact of the form of the non-linearity of the infectious disease incidence rate on the dynamics of epidemiological models. We consider a very general form of the non-linear in- cidence rate (in fact, we assumed that the incidence rate is given by an arbitrary function f (S, I, N ) constrained by a few

ANDREI KOROBEINIKOV; PHILIP K. MAINI

2005-01-01

318

Cytokine and cytokine receptor polymorphisms in infectious disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Host immune responses strongly control the outcome of infectious disease, and the resistance to bacterial infections in humans is in part genetically determined. Responses to Gram-negative bacterial endotoxin are affected by the concentration of plasma lipoproteins and lipid transport proteins that are genetically controlled. Alterations of plasma lipid profiles by genetic manipulation in mice indeed strongly modify resistance to bacterial

S. J. H. van Deventer

2000-01-01

319

Pediatric malignancies presenting as a possible infectious disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The clinical, laboratory, and radiological features of malignancy can overlap with those of infection. The purpose of this study was to determine the findings in children who were initially thought to have an infectious disease but ultimately proved to have a malignancy. METHODS: The database of patients diagnosed with a malignancy in the Northern Alberta Children's Cancer Program (NACCP)

Sarah E Forgie; Joan L Robinson

2007-01-01

320

FYI: Services to Poor Families; Controlling Infectious Diseases; Parent Groups.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses services and resources available for families, parents, and child care providers. Describes a National Resource Center for Children in Poverty; a guide for controlling infectious diseases among young children in day care; a directory of parent support groups; and reports of a link between household pesticides and childhood leukemia. (BB)

Children Today, 1987

1987-01-01

321

Rapid non-invasive tests for diagnostics of infectious diseases  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A rapid test for an infectious disease that can be used at point-of-care at a physician's office, a pharmacy, or in the field is critical for the prompt and appropriate therapeutic intervention. Ultimately by treating infections early on will decrease transmission of the pathogen. In contrast to metabolic diseases or cancer where multiple biomarkers are required, infectious disease targets (e.g. antigen, antibody, nucleic acid) are simple and specific for the pathogen causing the disease. Our laboratory has focused on three major infectious disease; HIV, Tuberculosis, and Malaria. These diseases are pandemic in much of the world thus putting natives, tourists and military personnel at risk for becoming infected, and upon returning to the U.S., transmitting these diseases to their contacts. Our devices are designed to detect antigens, antibodies or nucleic acids in blood or saliva samples in less than 30 minutes. An overview describing the current status of each of the three diagnostic platforms is presented. These microfluidic point-of-care devices will be relatively inexpensive, disposable, and user friendly.

Malamud, Daniel

2014-06-01

322

AAV Vectors Vaccines Against Infectious Diseases  

PubMed Central

Since their discovery as a tool for gene transfer, vectors derived from the adeno-associated virus (AAV) have been used for gene therapy applications and attracted scientist to this field for their exceptional properties of efficiency of in vivo gene transfer and the level and duration of transgene expression. For many years, AAVs have been considered as low immunogenic vectors due to their ability to induce long-term expression of non-self-proteins in contrast to what has been observed with other viral vectors, such as adenovirus, for which strong immune responses against the same transgene products were documented. The perceived low immunogenicity likely explains why the use of AAV vectors for vaccination was not seriously considered before the early 2000s. Indeed, while analyses conducted using a variety of transgenes and animal species slowly changed the vision of immunological properties of AAVs, an increasing number of studies were also performed in the field of vaccination. Even if the comparison with other modes of vaccination was not systemically performed, the analyses conducted so far in the field of active immunotherapy strongly suggest that AAVs possess some interesting features to be used as tools to produce an efficient and sustained antibody response. In addition, recent studies also highlighted the potential of AAVs for passive immunotherapy. This review summarizes the main studies conducted to evaluate the potential of AAV vectors for vaccination against infectious agents and discusses their advantages and drawbacks. Altogether, the variety of studies conducted in this field contributes to the understanding of the immunological properties of this versatile virus and to the definition of its possible future applications. PMID:24478774

Nieto, Karen; Salvetti, Anna

2014-01-01

323

ADVICE FOR NEWLY-ARRIVING UNIVERSITY STUDENTS ON VACCINE-PREVENTABLE INFECTIOUS DISEASES Meningitis C  

E-print Network

ADVICE FOR NEWLY-ARRIVING UNIVERSITY STUDENTS ON VACCINE-PREVENTABLE INFECTIOUS DISEASES Meningitis://www.hpa.org.uk/Topics/InfectiousDiseases/InfectionsAZ/MeningococcalDisease/ Mumps and measles Mumps. Countries that have high rates of TB over 40/100,000 of the population are listed at http://www.hpa.org.uk/Topics/InfectiousDiseases

Talbot, James P.

324

A Branching Model for the Spread of Infectious Animal Diseases in Varying  

E-print Network

A Branching Model for the Spread of Infectious Animal Diseases in Varying Environments Pieter with a stochastic model, describing out- breaks of infectious diseases that have potentially great animal or hu- man of infectious diseases of animals (e.g. classical swine fever (CSF), foot and mouth disease (FMD) and Avian

Meester, Ronald

325

Infectious Diseases and Vaccinology M.P.H. Program School of Public Health, UC Berkeley  

E-print Network

Infectious Diseases and Vaccinology M.P.H. Program School of Public Health, UC Berkeley M Diseases and Vaccinology (IDV) provides a basic course of study of infectious diseases in the context-based surveillance and the epidemiology of infectious diseases. The objectives of this program are: to understand

Sjölander, Kimmen

326

UNDERSTANDING REGIONAL PATTERNS OF VECTOR-BORNE INFECTIOUS DISEASE IN A CHANGING ENVIRONMENT  

E-print Network

i UNDERSTANDING REGIONAL PATTERNS OF VECTOR-BORNE INFECTIOUS DISEASE IN A CHANGING ENVIRONMENT of Wisconsin-Madison 2009 #12;ii Abstract UNDERSTANDING REGIONAL PATTERNS OF VECTOR-BORNE INFECTIOUS DISEASE vector-borne infectious diseases. Disease vectors and agents are dependent on their environment, and I

Wisconsin at Madison, University of

327

R E V I E W The role of infectious diseases in biological conservation  

E-print Network

R E V I E W The role of infectious diseases in biological conservation K. F. Smith1,2Ă?, K. Acevedo of environmental changes threaten the survival of species all over the planet, infectious disease has rarely been the role of infectious diseases in biological conservation. We summarize existing knowledge of disease

Pedersen, Amy B.

328

Integrated Training in Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Joseph M. Vinetz, M.D.  

E-print Network

Integrated Training in Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Joseph M. Vinetz, M.D. UCSD Division of Infectious Diseases I. Major diseases 1. Pneumonia 2. Bacterial meningitis 3. Catheter-associated bacteremia inpatient and outpatient infectious disease clinical teams at UCSD Medical Center. The mentor

Gleeson, Joseph G.

329

Noma: an "infectious" disease of unknown aetiology.  

PubMed

Noma (cancrum oris) is a devastating gangrenous disease that leads to severe tissue destruction in the face and is associated with high morbidity and mortality. It is seen almost exclusively in young children living in remote areas of less developed countries, particularly in Africa. The exact prevalence of the disease is unknown, but a conservative estimate is that 770000 people are currently affected by noma sequelae. The cause remains unknown, but a combination of several elements of a plausible aetiology has been identified: malnutrition, a compromised immune system, poor oral hygiene and a lesion of the gingival mucosal barrier, and an unidentified bacterial factor acting as a trigger for the disease. This review discusses the epidemiology, clinical features, current understanding of the pathophysiology, and treatment of the acute phase and sequelae requiring reconstructive surgery. Noma may be preventable if recognised at an early stage. Further research is needed to identify more exactly the causative agents. PMID:12837347

Baratti-Mayer, Denise; Pittet, Brigitte; Montandon, Denys; Bolivar, Ignacio; Bornand, Jacques-Etienne; Hugonnet, Stéphane; Jaquinet, Alexandre; Schrenzel, Jacques; Pittet, Didier

2003-07-01

330

Travel and migration associated infectious diseases morbidity in Europe, 2008  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Europeans represent the majority of international travellers and clinicians encountering returned patients have an essential role in recognizing, and communicating travel-associated public health risks. METHODS: To investigate the morbidity of travel associated infectious diseases in European travellers, we analysed diagnoses with demographic, clinical and travel-related predictors of disease, in 6957 ill returned travellers who presented in 2008 to EuroTravNet

Vanessa Field; Philippe Gautret; Patricia Schlagenhauf; Gerd-Dieter Burchard; Eric Caumes; Mogens Jensenius; Francesco Castelli; Effrossyni Gkrania-Klotsas; Leisa Weld; Rogelio Lopez-Velez; Peter de Vries; Frank von Sonnenburg; Louis Loutan; Philippe Parola

2010-01-01

331

GLOBAL DYNAMICS OF A STAGED PROGRESSION MODEL FOR INFECTIOUS DISEASES  

Microsoft Academic Search

We analyze a mathematical model for infectious diseases that progress through distinct stages within infected hosts. An example of such a disease is AIDS, which results from HIV infection. For a general n-stage stage-progression (SP) model with bilinear incidences, we prove that the global dynamics are completely determined by the basic reproduction number R0: If R0 • 1; then the

Hongbin Guo; Michael Y. Li

2006-01-01

332

Applications of Network Visualisation in Infectious Disease Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

The SARS outbreak during the spring of 2003 showed that any new cases can trigger rapid community and non-social cluster transmission of SARS-CoV. This created substantial health, social and economic consequences. Improved outbreak management requires that identification of such diseases must trigger an immediate public health response. Rapid detection and management of infectious diseases such as SARS and their contacts

Margaret Varga; Zack Jacobson

2006-01-01

333

Infectious Disease and the Public Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The paper examines policy options for schools regarding appropriate services for children with highly communicable, potentially life threatening diseases such as Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) and Herpes. Briefly considered are the school's legal responsibility, implied risk and inability, and actual risk and its control. General…

Crosson, James E.

334

Vector-borne infectious diseases and influenza  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a serious viral disease of animals and humans in Africa and the Middle East that is transmitted by mosquitoes. First isolated in Kenya during an outbreak in 1930 subsequent outbreaks have had a significant impact on animal and human health and national economies, and it is...

335

(Meta)population dynamics of infectious diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

The metapopulation concept provides a very powerful tool for analysing the persistence of spatially-disaggregated populations, in terms of a balance between local extinction and colonization. Exactly the same approach has been developed by epidemiologists, in order to understand patterns of diseases persistence. There is great scope for further cross-fertilization between areas. Recent work on the spatitemporal dynamics of measles illustrates

Bryan Grenfell; John Harwood

1997-01-01

336

Infectious diseases of fishes in the Salish Sea  

USGS Publications Warehouse

As in marine regions throughout other areas of the world, fishes in the Salish Sea serve as hosts for many pathogens, including nematodes, trematodes, protozoans, protists, bacteria, viruses, and crustaceans. Here, we review some of the better-documented infectious diseases that likely contribute to significant losses among free-ranging fishes in the Salish Sea and discuss the environmental and ecological factors that may affect the population-level impacts of disease. Demonstration of these diseases and their impacts to critical and endangered resources provides justification to expand pathogen surveillance efforts and to incorporate disease forecasting and mitigation tools into ecosystem restoration efforts.

Hershberger, Paul; Rhodes, Linda; Kurath, Gael; Winton, James

2013-01-01

337

The Clinic on Dynamical Approaches to Infectious Disease Data (DAIDD) is part of the International Clinics on Infectious Disease Dynamics and Data (ICI3D) Program and is supported by the National Institute of General  

E-print Network

The Clinic on Dynamical Approaches to Infectious Disease Data (DAIDD) is part of the International Clinics on Infectious Disease Dynamics and Data (ICI3D on Dynamical Approaches to Infectious Disease Data December 15-19, 2014 Gainesville, FL

Jarrett, Thomas H.

338

75 FR 1119 - Agency Information Collection (Survey of Appropriate and Timely Diagnosis of Infectious Diseases...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Infectious Diseases (Leishmaniasis), VA Form 10-0476. b. Survey of Appropriate and Timely Diagnosis of Infectious Diseases (Malaria), VA Form 10-0476a. OMB Control Number: 2900-New (VA Form 10-0476). Type of Review: New collection....

2010-01-08

339

76 FR 65204 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: Microbiology, Infectious Diseases and AIDS Initial Review Group, Acquired...Immunology, and Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research, National Institutes...

2011-10-20

340

77 FR 64816 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: Microbiology, Infectious Diseases and AIDS Initial Review Group; Acquired...Immunology, and Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research, National Institutes...

2012-10-23

341

78 FR 68857 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: Microbiology, Infectious Diseases and AIDS Initial Review Group; Acquired...Immunology, and Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research, National Institutes...

2013-11-15

342

Estimating Seasonal Drivers in Childhood Infectious Diseases with Continuous Time Models  

E-print Network

Many important factors affect the spread of childhood infectious disease. To understand better the fundamental drivers of infectious disease spread, several researchers have estimated seasonal transmission coefficients using discrete-time models...

Abbott, George H.

2010-07-14

343

77 FR 61009 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Resource Related Research Projects for AIDS, Allergy, Immunology & Transplantation....

2012-10-05

344

76 FR 27069 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Resource Related Research Projects for AIDS, Allergy, Immunology and Transplantation...

2011-05-10

345

76 FR 4122 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...and funding cycle. Name of Committee: Allergy, Immunology, and Transplantation...

2011-01-24

346

78 FR 37557 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...Resource Related Research Projects for AIDS, Allergy, Immunology and Transplantation...

2013-06-21

347

77 FR 59940 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed...personal privacy. Name of Committee: Allergy, Immunology, and Transplantation Research...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

2012-10-01

348

Mobile Phone–based Infectious Disease Surveillance System, Sri Lanka  

PubMed Central

Because many infectious diseases are emerging in animals in low-income and middle-income countries, surveillance of animal health in these areas may be needed for forecasting disease risks to humans. We present an overview of a mobile phone–based frontline surveillance system developed and implemented in Sri Lanka. Field veterinarians reported animal health information by using mobile phones. Submissions increased steadily over 9 months, with ?4,000 interactions between field veterinarians and reports on the animal population received by the system. Development of human resources and increased communication between local stakeholders (groups and persons whose actions are affected by emerging infectious diseases and animal health) were instrumental for successful implementation. The primary lesson learned was that mobile phone–based surveillance of animal populations is acceptable and feasible in lower-resource settings. However, any system implementation plan must consider the time needed to garner support for novel surveillance methods among users and stakeholders. PMID:20875276

Sawford, Kate; Daniel, Samson L.A.; Nelson, Trisalyn A.; Stephen, Craig

2010-01-01

349

Transmission of Infectious Diseases En Route to Habitat Hotspots  

PubMed Central

Background The spread of infectious diseases in wildlife populations is influenced by patterns of between-host contacts. Habitat “hotspots” - places attracting a large numbers of individuals or social groups - can significantly alter contact patterns and, hence, disease propagation. Research on the importance of habitat hotspots in wildlife epidemiology has primarily focused on how inter-individual contacts occurring at the hotspot itself increase disease transmission. However, in territorial animals, epidemiologically important contacts may primarily occur as animals cross through territories of conspecifics en route to habitat hotspots. So far, the phenomenon has received little attention. Here, we investigate the importance of these contacts in the case where infectious individuals keep visiting the hotspots and in the case where these individuals are not able to travel to the hotspot any more. Methodology and Principal Findings We developed a simulation epidemiological model to investigate both cases in a scenario when transmission at the hotspot does not occur. We find that (i) hotspots still exacerbate epidemics, (ii) when infectious individuals do not travel to the hotspot, the most vulnerable individuals are those residing at intermediate distances from the hotspot rather than nearby, and (iii) the epidemiological vulnerability of a population is the highest when the number of hotspots is intermediate. Conclusions and Significance By altering animal movements in their vicinity, habitat hotspots can thus strongly increase the spread of infectious diseases, even when disease transmission does not occur at the hotspot itself. Interestingly, when animals only visit the nearest hotspot, creating additional artificial hotspots, rather than reducing their number, may be an efficient disease control measure. PMID:22363606

Benavides, Julio; Walsh, Peter D.; Meyers, Lauren Ancel; Raymond, Michel; Caillaud, Damien

2012-01-01

350

The landscape genetics of infectious disease emergence and spread  

PubMed Central

The spread of parasites is inherently a spatial process often embedded in physically complex landscapes. It is therefore not surprising that infectious disease researchers are increasingly taking a landscape genetics perspective to elucidate mechanisms underlying basic ecological processes driving infectious disease dynamics and to understand the linkage between spatially-dependent population processes and the geographic distribution of genetic variation within both hosts and parasites. The increasing availability of genetic information on hosts and parasites when coupled to their ecological interactions can lead to insights for predicting patterns of disease emergence, spread, and control. Here, we review research progress in this area based on four different motivations for the application of landscape genetics approaches: (1) assessing the spatial organization of genetic variation in parasites as a function of environmental variability, (2) using host population genetic structure as a means to parameterize ecological dynamics that indirectly influence parasite populations, e.g. gene flow and movement pathways across heterogeneous landscapes and the concurrent transport of infectious agents, (3) elucidating the temporal and spatial scales of disease processes, and (4) reconstructing and understanding infectious disease invasion. Throughout this review, we emphasise that landscape genetic principles are relevant to infection dynamics across a range of scales from within host dynamics to global geographic patterns and that they can also be applied to unconventional “landscapes” such as heterogeneous contact networks underlying the spread of human and livestock diseases. We conclude by discussing some general considerations and problems for inferring epidemiological processes from genetic data and try to identify possible future directions and applications for this rapidly expanding field. PMID:20618897

Biek, Roman; Real, Leslie A.

2011-01-01

351

76 FR 58523 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Town Hall Meeting on the Future of the...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Town Hall Meeting on the Future...for Biodefense and Emerging Infectious Diseases (RCE) Program; Notice of...National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), a component...

2011-09-21

352

Micro-Simulations of Infectious Disease using Official Register Data The Case of Smallpox  

E-print Network

Micro-Simulations of Infectious Disease using Official Register Data ­ The Case of Smallpox Corresponding author: Lisa Brouwers, PhD Swedish Institute for Infectious Disease Control Department (SICS), Kista, Sweden Martin Camitz, MSc Swedish Institute for Infectious Disease Control, Solna, Sweden

Boman, Magnus

353

Edinburgh Research Explorer Genetic susceptibility to infectious disease in East African  

E-print Network

Edinburgh Research Explorer Genetic susceptibility to infectious disease in East African Shorthorn-Topping, M 2013, 'Genetic susceptibility to infectious disease in East African Shorthorn Zebu: a genome susceptibility to infectious disease in East African Shorthorn Zebu: a genome-wide analysis of the effect

Millar, Andrew J.

354

Bayesian Modeling of Space-Time Properties of Infectious Disease in a College Student Population  

E-print Network

Bayesian Modeling of Space-Time Properties of Infectious Disease in a College Student Population 1Z statistical model is developed for analysis of the time-evolving properties of infectious disease of the model results. Keywords: Infectious disease, Bayesian, semi-Markov I. INTRODUCTION There has been

Carin, Lawrence

355

Clinical Infectious Diseases (in press) NOT FOR DIFFUSION Inserm, Unit 897, Bordeaux, France 1/22  

E-print Network

Clinical Infectious Diseases (in press) NOT FOR DIFFUSION © Inserm, Unit 897, Bordeaux, France 1 Treichville, Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire 4 Centre for Infectious Disease Research in Zambia, Lusaka, Zambia 5, 33076 inserm-00409524,version1-10Aug2009 Author manuscript, published in "Clinical Infectious Diseases

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

356

RESEARCH ARTICLE Open Access Simulation of an SEIR infectious disease model on  

E-print Network

RESEARCH ARTICLE Open Access Simulation of an SEIR infectious disease model on the dynamic contact,3 , Wouter Van den Broeck4 and Philippe Vanhems2,3 Abstract Background: The spread of infectious diseases The pattern of contacts between individuals is a crucial determinant for the spread of infectious diseases

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

357

Integrated Training in Medical Virology Sponsored by the Division of Infectious Diseases  

E-print Network

Integrated Training in Medical Virology Sponsored by the Division of Infectious Diseases Douglas. Clinical Microbiology Rounds: Three times per week, the Infectious Diseases Team meets with the director in the context of the microbiology results and patient histories. 2. Weekly Infectious Disease Rounds: Each

Gleeson, Joseph G.

358

Using mobile phone call data records for modelling infectious disease spread  

E-print Network

Using mobile phone call data records for modelling infectious disease contacts and using the CDR directly for modelling infectious disease spread between individuals would. This understanding will be leveraged to develop the most appropriate models of infectious disease spread based on CDR

Wright, Francis

359

Evolutionary Determinants of Genetic Variation in Susceptibility to Infectious Diseases in Humans  

E-print Network

Evolutionary Determinants of Genetic Variation in Susceptibility to Infectious Diseases in Humans, USA Abstract Although genetic variation among humans in their susceptibility to infectious diseases with 40 human infectious diseases were assessed by a survey of studies on both pedigree-based quantitative

Antonovics, Janis

360

Revised February 1, 2012 Page 1 Protocol on Infectious Disease Notification  

E-print Network

Revised February 1, 2012 Page 1 Protocol on Infectious Disease Notification From time to time, CUNY students or employees may contract an infectious disease that can be spread through casual contact follow this protocol. If a student or an employee is in doubt whether an infectious disease is covered

Dexter, Scott

361

Modeling spatial spread of infectious diseases with a fixed latent period in a spatially continuous domain  

E-print Network

Modeling spatial spread of infectious diseases with a fixed latent period in a spatially continuous, March 2009 Abstract In this paper, with the assumptions that an infectious disease in a population has the dynamics of infectious diseases in population level. Most continuous time models are in the form

Linder, Tamás

362

On the role of reinfection in the transmission of infectious diseases  

E-print Network

On the role of reinfection in the transmission of infectious diseases Rinaldo B. Schinazi LATP, infectious diseases, tuberculosis, spatial stochastic model 1. Introduction. Tuberculosis is usually acquired of the two types of reinfection in the spread of an infectious disease such as TB. We introduce a spatial

Schinazi, Rinaldo

363

Simulation of an SEIR infectious disease model on the dynamic contact network of conference attendees  

E-print Network

Simulation of an SEIR infectious disease model on the dynamic contact network of conference.1186/1741-7015-9-87 #12;Abstract Background The spread of infectious diseases crucially depends on the pattern of contacts computational models of infectious diseases transmission (14-23). Though some of the properties of contact

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

364

A high-resolution human contact network for infectious disease transmission  

E-print Network

A high-resolution human contact network for infectious disease transmission Marcel Salathéa,1 the reconstruction of the social network relevant for infectious disease transmission. At 94% coverage, we collected dynamics | network topology | public health | human interactions Pandemic spread of an infectious disease

Levis, Philip

365

Course Objective 1 1a Relate key pathogens to major syndromes in infectious diseases  

E-print Network

to major syndromes in infectious diseases 2 1b To identify and explain where new of major infectious disease syndromes 4 1d Review the uses of imaging, molecular diagnostics in the management of infectious diseases as well as the role of global

Myers, Lawrence C.

366

Generalized Markov Models of Infectious Disease Spread: A Novel Framework for Developing Dynamic Health Policies  

E-print Network

Generalized Markov Models of Infectious Disease Spread: A Novel Framework for Developing Dynamic for the transmission of infectious diseases in large populations. This class of models, which generalizes the existing discrete-time Markov chain models of infectious diseases, is compatible with efficient dynamic optimization

Cohen, Ted

367

Faculty Position in Women's Infectious Disease Research Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis  

E-print Network

Faculty Position in Women's Infectious Disease Research Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis The Center for Women's Infectious Disease Research (cWIDR, http and biochemistry to purse fundamental problems in infectious disease to improve female health and quality of life

Doering, Tamara

368

Abstract --Highly infectious diseases such as SARS (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome), Avian Influenza (Bird Flu),  

E-print Network

Abstract -- Highly infectious diseases such as SARS (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome), Avian to the global population. Detection and pre- vention of infectious diseases is notoriously complex and prob of cases and transmission routes in a rapid manner is crucial in pre- venting the infectious disease from

Si, Yain Whar "Lawrence"

369

COBRE Center for Zoonotic and Emerging Infectious Diseases 2014 Request for Pilot Grant Proposals  

E-print Network

COBRE Center for Zoonotic and Emerging Infectious Diseases 2014 Request for Pilot Grant Proposals Overview The COBRE Center for Zoonotic and Emerging Infectious Diseases is soliciting proposals for Pilot/or translational research relevant to zoonotic and/or emerging infectious diseases, and there must be a clear

Maxwell, Bruce D.

370

Network-based models of transmission of infectious diseases: a brief overview  

E-print Network

Network-based models of transmission of infectious diseases: a brief overview Winfried Just Hannah but mathematically rigorous de- scription of the network-based models of transmission of infectious diseases of our modeling is that we investigate the spread of one given infectious disease. We ignore demographics

Just, Winfried

371

Children's Participation in a Virtual Epidemic in the Science Classroom: Making Connections to Natural Infectious Diseases  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated students' understanding of a virtual infectious disease in relation to their understanding of natural infectious diseases. Two sixth-grade classrooms of students between the ages of 10 and 12 (46 students) took part in a participatory simulation of a virtual infectious disease, which was integrated into their science…

Neulight, Nina; Kafai, Yasmin B.; Kao, Linda; Foley, Brian; Galas, Cathleen

2007-01-01

372

NIH Global Infectious Disease Research Training Program Award (D43) Program Announcement (PA) Number: PAR10260  

E-print Network

NIH Global Infectious Disease Research Training Program Award (D43) Program Announcement (PA of the announcement of NIH Global Infectious Disease Research Training Program Award (D43) is to invite applications for U.S. and developing country institutions for programs to provide infectious disease (excluding HIV

Finley Jr., Russell L.

373

SymposiumClinical Research Priority Program University of Zurich "Viral Infectious Diseases"  

E-print Network

SymposiumClinical Research Priority Program ­ University of Zurich "Viral Infectious Diseases ­ Chair: Huldrych Günthard, MD. Division of Infectious Diseases and Hospital Epidemiology, University: Nicolas Müller, MD. Division of Infectious Diseases and Hospital Epidemiology, UniversityHospital Zurich

Zürich, Universität

374

Key node selection for containing infectious disease spread using particle swarm optimization  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, some emerging and reemerging infectious diseases have grown into global health threats due to high human mobility. It is important to have intervention plans for containing the spread of such infectious diseases. Among various intervention strategies, screening infected people is an efficient way for evaluating the infection scale and controlling the spread of infectious diseases. Considering the

Xiuju Fu; Sonja Lim; Lipo Wang; G. Lee; S. Ma; Limsoon Wong; Gaoxi Xiao

2009-01-01

375

Cell death in disease: from 2010 onwards  

PubMed Central

The strong interest in cell death, and the shift in emphasis from basic mechanisms to translational aspects fostered the launch last year of the new sister journal of Cell Death and Differentiation, named Cell Death and Disease, to reflect its stronger focus towards clinical applications. Here, we review that first year of activity, which reflects an enthusiastic response by the scientific community. On the basis of this, we now launch two novel initiatives, the start of a new section dedicated to cancer metabolism and the opening of a new editorial office in Shanghai. PMID:21881604

Knight, R A; Melino, G

2011-01-01

376

The Seattle Structural Genomics Center for Infectious Disease (SSGCID)  

PubMed Central

The NIAID-funded Seattle Structural Genomics Center for Infectious Disease (SSGCID) is a consortium established to apply structural genomics approaches to potential drug targets from NIAID priority organisms for biodefense and emerging and re-emerging diseases. The mission of the SSGCID is to determine ~400 protein structures over five years ending in 2012. In order to maximize biomedical impact, ligand-based drug-lead discovery campaigns will be pursued for a small number of high-impact targets. Here we review the center’s target selection processes, which include pro-active engagement of the infectious disease research and drug therapy communities to identify drug targets, essential enzymes, virulence factors and vaccine candidates of biomedical relevance to combat infectious diseases. This is followed by a brief overview of the SSGCID structure determination pipeline and ligand screening methodology. Finally, specifics of our resources available to the scientific community are presented. Physical materials and data produced by SSGCID will be made available to the scientific community, with the aim that they will provide essential groundwork benefiting future research and drug discovery. PMID:19594426

Myler, P.J.; Stacy, R.; Stewart, L.; Staker, B.L.; Van Voorhis, W.C.; Varani, G.; Buchko, G.W.

2010-01-01

377

Surveillance and control of infectious diseases: progress toward the 1990 objectives.  

PubMed Central

Great progress has been made in the United States in reducing infectious disease mortality. However, infectious diseases remain the greatest cause of morbidity in this country. Newer infectious diseases or agents have been recognized, but newer tools for surveillance and control have also been made available. Specific objectives for the reduction of infectious diseases by 1990 have been set by the Public Health Service. The opportunities appear to be good for achieving by 1990 objectives for nosocomial infections, Legionnaires' disease, tuberculosis, and surveillance and control of infectious diseases. Achievement of the 1990 objectives for hepatitis B, pneumococcal pneumonia, and bacterial meningitis, however, will require both scientific advances and additional resources. PMID:6867252

Dowdle, W R

1983-01-01

378

HDL in Infectious Diseases and Sepsis.  

PubMed

During infection significant alterations in lipid metabolism and lipoprotein composition occur. Triglyceride and VLDL cholesterol levels increase, while reduced HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) and LDL cholesterol (LDL-C) levels are observed. More importantly, endotoxemia modulates HDL composition and size: phospholipids are reduced as well as apolipoprotein (apo) A-I, while serum amyloid A (SAA) and secretory phospholipase A2 (sPLA2) dramatically increase, and, although the total HDL particle number does not change, a significant decrease in the number of small- and medium-size particles is observed. Low HDL-C levels inversely correlate with the severity of septic disease and associate with an exaggerated systemic inflammatory response. HDL, as well as other plasma lipoproteins, can bind and neutralize Gram-negative bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and Gram-positive bacterial lipoteichoic acid (LTA), thus favoring the clearance of these products. HDLs are emerging also as a relevant player during parasitic infections, and a specific component of HDL, namely, apoL-1, confers innate immunity against trypanosome by favoring lysosomal swelling which kills the parasite. During virus infections, proteins associated with the modulation of cholesterol bioavailability in the lipid rafts such as ABCA1 and SR-BI have been shown to favor virus entry into the cells. Pharmacological studies support the benefit of recombinant HDL or apoA-I mimetics during bacterial infection, while apoL-1-nanobody complexes were tested for trypanosome infection. Finally, SR-BI antagonism represents a novel and forefront approach interfering with hepatitis C virus entry which is currently tested in clinical studies. From the coming years, we have to expect new and compelling observations further linking HDL to innate immunity and infections. PMID:25522999

Pirillo, Angela; Catapano, Alberico Luigi; Norata, Giuseppe Danilo

2015-01-01

379

Castes, migration, immunogenetics and infectious diseases in south India.  

PubMed

It has been said that the grandest genetic experiment of nature has been conducted in south India in the name of the caste system. One can expect the frequency of an infectious disease to be equal to the product of the frequencies of various indicated loci/alleles, whether physiological, hormonal or immunological, in an endemic area. The sympatrically isolated caste and sub-caste populations of southern India, with differing origins, migration patterns and breeding habits, differ significantly in their HLA and other immune repertoire and are ideal models to study and test this hypothesis. The prevalence of a number of major infectious diseases, including TB and leprosy, are reviewed in different communities in the light of their genetic history. PMID:14960884

Pitchappan, R M

2002-01-01

380

Bats, emerging infectious diseases, and the rabies paradigm revisited  

PubMed Central

The significance of bats as sources of emerging infectious diseases has been increasingly appreciated, and new data have been accumulated rapidly during recent years. For some emerging pathogens the bat origin has been confirmed (such as lyssaviruses, henipaviruses, coronaviruses), for other it has been suggested (filoviruses). Several recently identified viruses remain to be ‘orphan’ but have a potential for further emergence (such as Tioman, Menangle, and Pulau viruses). In the present review we summarize information on major bat-associated emerging infections and discuss specific characteristics of bats as carriers of pathogens (from evolutionary, ecological, and immunological positions). We also discuss drivers and forces of an infectious disease emergence and describe various existing and potential approaches for control and prevention of such infections at individual, populational, and societal levels. PMID:24149032

Kuzmin, Ivan V.; Bozick, Brooke; Guagliardo, Sarah A.; Kunkel, Rebekah; Shak, Joshua R.; Tong, Suxiang; Rupprecht, Charles E

2011-01-01

381

Nutrition and oral infectious diseases: connections and future research.  

PubMed

A workshop on nutrition and oral infectious diseases was held November 5-7, 2000 at the Forsyth Institute, Boston, Massachusetts. The goal of the symposium was to review the current state-of-the-science with regard to nutrition and oral infectious diseases (particularly periodontitis) and then connect the disciplines of nutrition, microbiology, immunology, and clinical periodontology through a comprehensive list of recommendations for future research. The workshop featured five scientific sessions (oral infections and general health, research models, nutrition and infection, nutrition and oral infection, and nutrition, oral health, and life cycle). An agenda with the complete list of speakers together with the recommendations can be found at http://www.forsyth.org/nutrition/recommendations.htm. A brief summary of the workshop is presented in this article. PMID:12060960

Mangan, Dennis F

2002-05-01

382

Infectious bursal disease virus variant from commercial Leghorn pullets.  

PubMed

An infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) was isolated from 39-to-43-day-old commercial leghorn pullets suspected of having infectious bursal disease (IBD). These chickens had been vaccinated with a commercial live IBDV vaccine at 28 and 35 days of age. An isolate designated IN was recovered using specific-pathogen-free (SPF) chickens and the BGM-70 established cell line. Experimental studies using SPF chickens vaccinated with either inactivated vaccines made from the vaccine strain used in the problem flock or a standard-type vaccine indicated no protection against the IN isolate. However, two variants and another standard-type vaccine induced protection against the IN isolate. Cross-neutralization tests indicated that the IN isolate differed antigenically from commercial vaccine strains and was related to the variant IBDV strains recently isolated from broilers. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a variant IBDV recovered from commercial layer chickens in the United States. PMID:2157389

Ismail, N M; Saif, Y M; Wigle, W L; Havenstein, G B; Jackson, C

1990-01-01

383

Synergism between natural products and antibiotics against infectious diseases.  

PubMed

Antibiotics have been effective in treating infectious diseases, but resistance to these drugs has led to the emergence of new and the reemergence of old infectious diseases. One strategy employed to overcome these resistance mechanisms is the use of combination of drugs, such as beta-lactams together with beta-lactamase inhibitors. Several plant extracts have exhibited synergistic activity against microorganisms. This review describes in detail, the observed synergy and mechanism of action between natural products including flavonoids and essential oils and synthetic drugs in effectively combating bacterial, fungal and mycobacterial infections. The mode of action of combination differs significantly than that of the same drugs acting individually; hence isolating a single component may lose its importance thereby simplifying the task of pharma industries. PMID:18599280

Hemaiswarya, Shanmugam; Kruthiventi, Anil Kumar; Doble, Mukesh

2008-08-01

384

Molecular Methods and Platforms for Infectious Diseases Testing  

PubMed Central

The superior sensitivity and specificity associated with the use of molecular assays has greatly improved the field of infectious disease diagnostics by providing clinicians with results that are both accurate and rapidly obtained. Herein, we review molecularly based infectious disease diagnostic tests that are Food and Drug Administration approved or cleared and commercially available in the United States as of December 31, 2010. We describe specific assays and their performance, as stated in the Food and Drug Administration's Summary of Safety and Effectiveness Data or the Office of In Vitro Diagnostic Device Evaluation and Safety's decision summaries, product inserts, or peer-reviewed literature. We summarize indications for testing, limitations, and challenges related to implementation in a clinical laboratory setting for a wide variety of common pathogens. The information presented in this review will be particularly useful for laboratories that plan to implement or expand their molecular offerings in the near term. PMID:21871973

Emmadi, Rajyasree; Boonyaratanakornkit, Jerry B.; Selvarangan, Rangaraj; Shyamala, Venkatakrishna; Zimmer, Barbara L.; Williams, Laurina; Bryant, Bonita; Schutzbank, Ted; Schoonmaker, Michele M.; Amos Wilson, Jean A.; Hall, Leslie; Pancholi, Preeti; Bernard, Kathryn

2011-01-01

385

“Wrong, but Useful”: Negotiating Uncertainty in Infectious Disease Modelling  

PubMed Central

For infectious disease dynamical models to inform policy for containment of infectious diseases the models must be able to predict; however, it is well recognised that such prediction will never be perfect. Nevertheless, the consensus is that although models are uncertain, some may yet inform effective action. This assumes that the quality of a model can be ascertained in order to evaluate sufficiently model uncertainties, and to decide whether or not, or in what ways or under what conditions, the model should be ‘used’. We examined uncertainty in modelling, utilising a range of data: interviews with scientists, policy-makers and advisors, and analysis of policy documents, scientific publications and reports of major inquiries into key livestock epidemics. We show that the discourse of uncertainty in infectious disease models is multi-layered, flexible, contingent, embedded in context and plays a critical role in negotiating model credibility. We argue that usability and stability of a model is an outcome of the negotiation that occurs within the networks and discourses surrounding it. This negotiation employs a range of discursive devices that renders uncertainty in infectious disease modelling a plastic quality that is amenable to ‘interpretive flexibility’. The utility of models in the face of uncertainty is a function of this flexibility, the negotiation this allows, and the contexts in which model outputs are framed and interpreted in the decision making process. We contend that rather than being based predominantly on beliefs about quality, the usefulness and authority of a model may at times be primarily based on its functional status within the broad social and political environment in which it acts. PMID:24146851

Christley, Robert M.; Mort, Maggie; Wynne, Brian; Wastling, Jonathan M.; Heathwaite, A. Louise; Pickup, Roger; Austin, Zoë; Latham, Sophia M.

2013-01-01

386

Pediatricians’ Attitudes About Screening Newborns for Infectious Diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 2002, the U.S. Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA) commissioned the American College of Medical Genetics\\u000a (ACMG) to recommend a uniform newborn screening (NBS) panel. The ACMG sent out a survey to stakeholders to evaluate 80 metabolic\\u000a and genetic conditions and 3 infectious diseases (Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), Toxoplasmosis (Toxo), and Cytomegalovirus\\u000a (CMV)). In March 2005, the ACMG\\/HRSA report

Hanna Schittek; Joy Koopmans; Lainie Friedman Ross

2010-01-01

387

Parasitic and Infectious Disease Responses to Changing Global Nutrient Cycles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Parasitic and infectious diseases (PIDs) are a significant threat to human, livestock, and wildlife health and are changing\\u000a dramatically in the face of human-induced environmental changes such as those in climate and land use. In this article we\\u000a explore the little-studied but potentially important response of PIDs to another major environmental change, that in the global\\u000a nutrient cycles. Humans have

Valerie J. McKenzie; Alan R. Townsend

2007-01-01

388

Design and Evaluation of a Bacterial Clinical Infectious Diseases Ontology  

PubMed Central

With antimicrobial resistance increasing worldwide, there is a great need to use automated antimicrobial decision support systems (ADSSs) to lower antimicrobial resistance rates by promoting appropriate antimicrobial use. However, they are infrequently used mostly because of their poor interoperability with different health information technologies. Ontologies can augment portable ADSSs by providing an explicit knowledge representation for biomedical entities and their relationships, helping to standardize and integrate heterogeneous data resources. We developed a bacterial clinical infectious diseases ontology (BCIDO) using Protégé-OWL. BCIDO defines a controlled terminology for clinical infectious diseases along with domain knowledge commonly used in hospital settings for clinical infectious disease treatment decision-making. BCIDO has 599 classes and 2355 object properties. Terms were imported from or mapped to Systematized Nomenclature of Medicine, Unified Medical Language System, RxNorm and National Center for Bitechnology Information Organismal Classification where possible. Domain expert evaluation using the “laddering” technique, ontology visualization, and clinical notes and scenarios, confirmed the correctness and potential usefulness of BCIDO. PMID:24551353

Gordon, Claire L.; Pouch, Stephanie; Cowell, Lindsay G.; Boland, Mary Regina; Platt, Heather L.; Goldfain, Albert; Weng, Chunhua

2013-01-01

389

Ecopathology in aquaculture: risk factors in infectious disease outbreak.  

PubMed

This paper describes a study of the risk factors associated with disease outbreaks in fish species of fish farms and rivers of north-east Spain. We focused our work on the isolation of fish pathogens (bacteria, virus), the water quality (physicochemical and microbiological quality) and management characteristics. We have observed 2 important viral diseases, infectious pancreatic necrosis and spring viraemia of carp, and 2 important bacterial ones, furunculosis (Aeromonas salmonicida) and bacterial kidney disease (BKD) (Renibacterium salmoninarum). Our preliminary results show that there are some potential risk factors associated with the main diseases of fish, such as fish age, fish species, production system, season and water temperature, but their role depends on the disease. PMID:7711777

Ortega, C; Múzquiz, J L; Docando, J; Planas, E; Alonso, J L; Simón, M C

1995-01-01

390

Infectious diseases of animals and plants: an interdisciplinary approach  

PubMed Central

Animal and plant diseases pose a serious and continuing threat to food security, food safety, national economies, biodiversity and the rural environment. New challenges, including climate change, regulatory developments, changes in the geographical concentration and size of livestock holdings, and increasing trade make this an appropriate time to assess the state of knowledge about the impact that diseases have and the ways in which they are managed and controlled. In this paper, the case is explored for an interdisciplinary approach to studying the management of infectious animal and plant diseases. Reframing the key issues through incorporating both social and natural science research can provide a holistic understanding of disease and increase the policy relevance and impact of research. Finally, in setting out the papers in this Theme Issue, a picture of current and future animal and plant disease threats is presented. PMID:21624914

Wilkinson, Katy; Grant, Wyn P.; Green, Laura E.; Hunter, Stephen; Jeger, Michael J.; Lowe, Philip; Medley, Graham F.; Mills, Peter; Phillipson, Jeremy; Poppy, Guy M.; Waage, Jeff

2011-01-01

391

Integrated Training in Microbiology and Infectious Disease: Peruvian sites in Lima, Joseph M. Vinetz, M.D.  

E-print Network

Integrated Training in Microbiology and Infectious Disease: Peruvian sites in Lima, Iquitos Joseph M. Vinetz, M.D. UCSD Division of Infectious Diseases I. Major Diseases 1. Malaria 2. Leishmaniasis in Global Infectious Diseases entitled "Endemic Infectious Diseases of the Peruvian Amazon" and have

Gleeson, Joseph G.

392

VARIANCE IN SYSTEM DYNAMICS AND AGENT BASED MODELLING USING THE SIR MODEL OF INFECTIOUS DISEASE  

E-print Network

VARIANCE IN SYSTEM DYNAMICS AND AGENT BASED MODELLING USING THE SIR MODEL OF INFECTIOUS DISEASE Based Modelling based on previously published empirical data. INTRODUCTION Models of infectious diseases (Susceptible, Infectious, and Recovered) model is more effective at capturing the natural variation within SIR

Aickelin, Uwe

393

Assessment of an infectious disease history preceding juvenile dermatomyositis symptom onset  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives. A number of studies have looked at the role of infectious diseases in triggering juvenile dermatomyositis (JDM). Previous studies have found a moderately high frequency of infectious symptoms prior to disease onset; however, no specific pathogens could be identified. We sought to correlate preceding infectious symptoms with onset and outcomes of JDM. Methods. We studied an inception cohort of

C. Manlhiot; L. Liang; D. Tran; A. Bitnun; P. N. Tyrrell; B. M. Feldman

2008-01-01

394

76 FR 13195 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases...invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious...

2011-03-10

395

Modelling power-law spread of infectious diseases  

E-print Network

Short-time human travel behaviour can be well described by a power law with respect to distance. We incorporate this information in space-time models for infectious disease surveillance data to better capture the dynamics of disease spread. Two previously established model classes are extended, which both decompose disease risk additively into endemic and epidemic components: a space-time point process model for individual point-referenced data, and a multivariate time series model for aggregated count data. In both frameworks, the power-law spread is embedded into the epidemic component and its decay parameter is estimated simultaneously with all other unknown parameters using (penalised) likelihood inference. The performance of the new approach is investigated by a re-analysis of individual cases of invasive meningococcal disease in Germany (2002-2008), and count data on influenza in 140 administrative districts of Southern Germany (2001-2008). In both applications, the power-law formulations substantially ...

Meyer, Sebastian

2013-01-01

396

Pertussis. A reemerging and an underreported infectious disease.  

PubMed

Pertussis or whooping cough is a highly infectious, vaccine preventable disease. The incidence of the disease  has greatly been reduced since the introduction of the diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis vaccine. Pertussis resurgence has been observed in highly vaccinated populations of Western countries since 1990s. Poor vaccine quality, waning vaccine induced immunity, pathogen adaptation, and enhanced surveillance as well as advancements in diagnostic facilities are some of the reasons considered responsible for the increased reporting of pertussis cases. Pertussis may have been ignored and unnoticed due to its atypical manifestations in partially immunized population or people with waning immunity. We review the reports of pertussis resurgence from different countries and attempt to investigate reasons behind the reappearance of the disease. Pertussis is still an under reported disease and the available data from the developing countries is not a true picture of the story.  Therefore, developing countries need to improve their surveillance systems.  PMID:25316461

Syed, Muhammad A; Bana, Noureen F

2014-10-01

397

Dynamic models of infectious diseases as regulators of population sizes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five SIRS epidemiological models for populations of varying size are considered. The incidences of infection are given by mass action terms involving the number of infectives and either the number of susceptibles or the fraction of the population which is susceptible. When the population dynamics are immigration and deaths, thresholds are found which determine whether the disease dies out or

Jaime Mena-Lorcat; Herbert W. Hethcote

1992-01-01

398

Expanded infectious diseases screening program for Hispanic transplant candidates.  

PubMed

Most guidelines for pre-transplant screening recommend enhanced screening among patients with potential exposure to such pathogens as Strongyloides stercoralis and Trypanosoma cruzi, the cause of Chagas disease. The incidence of these diseases in the Hispanic immigrant population has not been extensively studied. Transplant candidates who were evaluated by our program's Hispanic Transplant Program were referred for expanded infectious disease screening including Mycobacterium tuberculosis, S. stercoralis, Leishmania, and T. cruzi. Between December 2006 and December 2008, 83 patients were screened. Most were from Mexico but we also screened patients from Ecuador, Puerto Rico, and Peru. Most patients lived in urban locations before moving to the United States. Latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) was found in 20%, and 6.7% had serologic evidence of S. stercoralis infection. These patients underwent treatment of latent infection without difficulty. To date, 14 patients have undergone living-donor kidney transplantation. Two of these patients had positive Leishmania titers and are being followed clinically, 1 was treated for S. stercoralis, and 2 were treated for LTBI pre-transplant. All have done well without evidence of screened pathogens an average of 348 days (range 65-766 days) post transplant. Expanded screening identifies endemic infections in the Hispanic immigrant population that can be treated before transplant, thereby minimizing post-transplant infectious complications. PMID:20534036

Fitzpatrick, M A; Caicedo, J C; Stosor, V; Ison, M G

2010-08-01

399

Infectious disease in animal metapopulations: the importance of environmental transmission  

PubMed Central

Motivated by an array of infectious diseases that threaten wildlife populations, a simple metapopulation model (subpopulations connected by animal movement) is developed, which allows for both movement-based and environmental transmission. The model demonstrates that for a range of plausible parameterizations of environmental transmission, increased movement rate of animals between discrete habitats can lead to a decrease in the overall proportion of sites that are occupied. This can limit the ability of the rescue effect to ensure locally extinct populations become recolonized and can drive metapopulations down in size so that extinction by mechanisms other than disease may become more likely. It further highlights that, in the context of environmental transmission, the environmental persistence time of pathogens and the probability of acquiring infection by environmental transmission can affect host metapopulations both qualitatively and quantitatively. Additional spillover sources of infection from alternate reservoir hosts are also included in the model and a synthesis of all three types of transmission, acting alone or in combination, is performed revealing that movement-based transmission is the only necessary condition for a decline in the proportion of occupied sites with increasing movement rate, but that the presence of other types of transmission can reverse this qualitative result. By including the previously neglected role of environmental transmission, this work contributes to the general discussion of when dispersal by wild animals is beneficial or detrimental to populations experiencing infectious disease. PMID:22957148

Park, Andrew W

2012-01-01

400

Evaluation of Border Entry Screening for Infectious Diseases in Humans  

PubMed Central

In response to the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) pandemic of 2003 and the influenza pandemic of 2009, many countries instituted border measures as a means of stopping or slowing the spread of disease. The measures, usually consisting of a combination of border entry/exit screening, quarantine, isolation, and communications, were resource intensive, and modeling and observational studies indicate that border screening is not effective at detecting infectious persons. Moreover, border screening has high opportunity costs, financially and in terms of the use of scarce public health staff resources during a time of high need. We discuss the border-screening experiences with SARS and influenza and propose an approach to decision-making for future pandemics. We conclude that outbreak-associated communications for travelers at border entry points, together with effective communication with clinicians and more effective disease control measures in the community, may be a more effective approach to the international control of communicable diseases. PMID:25625224

Antăo, Catarina; Hall, Robert

2015-01-01

401

The Royal Society Inquiry into Infectious Diseases in Livestock  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

At the conclusion of 2001, The Royal Society Inquiry into Infectious Diseases in Livestock began their investigation into the devastating outbreak of foot and mouth disease that occurred earlier that year in Britain. This report, released in July 2002, outlines some of the ways that future transmission of the disease and subsequent epidemics may be prevented and more effectively controlled. The report was prepared by a committee comprised of scientists, veterinarians, farmers, and other concerned parties who made site visits to areas affected by the outbreak, along with compiling an extensive oral account of the epidemic. Along with the entire 140-page report, there are an 8-page summary of the committee's ten key findings, various progress reports issued before the final report, and the oral and written testimony collected by different members of the committee. On the whole, this is an engaging inquiry into one of the most well publicized epidemiological outbreaks of recent times.

2002-01-01

402

Principles and application of antibody libraries for infectious diseases.  

PubMed

Antibodies have been used efficiently for the treatment and diagnosis of many diseases. Recombinant antibody technology allows the generation of fully human antibodies. Phage display is the gold standard for the production of human antibodies in vitro. To generate monoclonal antibodies by phage display, the generation of antibody libraries is crucial. Antibody libraries are classified according to the source where the antibody gene sequences were obtained. The most useful library for infectious diseases is the immunized library. Immunized libraries would allow better and selective enrichment of antibodies against disease antigens. The antibodies generated from these libraries can be translated for both diagnostic and therapeutic applications. This review focuses on the generation of immunized antibody libraries and the potential applications of the antibodies derived from these libraries. PMID:25214212

Lim, Bee Nar; Tye, Gee Jun; Choong, Yee Siew; Ong, Eugene Boon Beng; Ismail, Asma; Lim, Theam Soon

2014-12-01

403

Predicting and controlling infectious disease epidemics using temporal networks  

PubMed Central

Infectious diseases can be considered to spread over social networks of people or animals. Mainly owing to the development of data recording and analysis techniques, an increasing amount of social contact data with time stamps has been collected in the last decade. Such temporal data capture the dynamics of social networks on a timescale relevant to epidemic spreading and can potentially lead to better ways to analyze, forecast, and prevent epidemics. However, they also call for extended analysis tools for network epidemiology, which has, to date, mostly viewed networks as static entities. We review recent results of network epidemiology for such temporal network data and discuss future developments. PMID:23513178

Holme, Petter

2013-01-01

404

Applications of luminescent systems to infectious disease methodology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The characterization of a clinical sample by a simple, fast, accurate, automatable analytical measurement is important in the management of infectious disease. Luminescence assays offer methods rich with options for these measurements. The instrumentation is common to each assay, and the investment is reasonable. Three general procedures were developed to varying degrees of completeness which measure bacterial levels by measuring their ATP, FMN and iron porphyrins. Bacteriuria detection and antibiograms can be determined within half a day. The characterization of the sample for its soluble ATP, FMN or prophyrins was also performed.

Picciolo, G. L.; Chappelle, E. W.; Deming, J. W.; Mcgarry, M. A.; Nibley, D. A.; Okrend, H.; Thomas, R. R.

1976-01-01

405

Nonzero solutions of nonlinear integral equations modeling infectious disease  

SciTech Connect

Sufficient conditions to insure the existence of periodic solutions to the nonlinear integral equation, x(t) = ..integral../sup t//sub t-tau/f(s,x(s))ds, are given in terms of simple product and product integral inequalities. The equation can be interpreted as a model for the spread of infectious diseases (e.g., gonorrhea or any of the rhinovirus viruses) if x(t) is the proportion of infectives at time t and f(t,x(t)) is the proportion of new infectives per unit time.

Williams, L.R. (Indiana Univ., South Bend); Leggett, R.W.

1982-01-01

406

Creating a global dialogue on infectious disease surveillance: connecting organizations for regional disease surveillance (CORDS).  

PubMed

Connecting Organizations for Regional Disease Surveillance (CORDS) is an international non-governmental organization focused on information exchange between disease surveillance networks in different areas of the world. By linking regional disease surveillance networks, CORDS builds a trust-based social fabric of experts who share best practices, surveillance tools and strategies, training courses, and innovations. CORDS exemplifies the shifting patterns of international collaboration needed to prevent, detect, and counter all types of biological dangers - not just naturally occurring infectious diseases, but also terrorist threats. Representing a network-of-networks approach, the mission of CORDS is to link regional disease surveillance networks to improve global capacity to respond to infectious diseases. CORDS is an informal governance cooperative with six founding regional disease surveillance networks, with plans to expand; it works in complement and cooperatively with the World Health Organization (WHO), the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE), and the Food and Animal Organization of the United Nations (FAO). As described in detail elsewhere in this special issue of Emerging Health Threats, each regional network is an alliance of a small number of neighboring countries working across national borders to tackle emerging infectious diseases that require unified regional efforts. Here we describe the history, culture and commitment of CORDS; and the novel and necessary role that CORDS serves in the existing international infectious disease surveillance framework. PMID:23362412

Gresham, Louise S; Smolinski, Mark S; Suphanchaimat, Rapeepong; Kimball, Ann Marie; Wibulpolprasert, Suwit

2013-01-01

407

Creating a Global Dialogue on Infectious Disease Surveillance: Connecting Organizations for Regional Disease Surveillance (CORDS)  

PubMed Central

Connecting Organizations for Regional Disease Surveillance (CORDS) is an international non-governmental organization focused on information exchange between disease surveillance networks in different areas of the world. By linking regional disease surveillance networks, CORDS builds a trust-based social fabric of experts who share best practices, surveillance tools and strategies, training courses, and innovations. CORDS exemplifies the shifting patterns of international collaboration needed to prevent, detect, and counter all types of biological dangers – not just naturally occurring infectious diseases, but also terrorist threats. Representing a network-of-networks approach, the mission of CORDS is to link regional disease surveillance networks to improve global capacity to respond to infectious diseases. CORDS is an informal governance cooperative with six founding regional disease surveillance networks, with plans to expand; it works in complement and cooperatively with the World Health Organization (WHO), the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE), and the Food and Animal Organization of the United Nations (FAO). As described in detail elsewhere in this special issue of Emerging Health Threats, each regional network is an alliance of a small number of neighboring countries working across national borders to tackle emerging infectious diseases that require unified regional efforts. Here we describe the history, culture and commitment of CORDS; and the novel and necessary role that CORDS serves in the existing international infectious disease surveillance framework. PMID:23362412

Gresham, Louise S.; Smolinski, Mark S.; Suphanchaimat, Rapeepong; Kimball, Ann Marie; Wibulpolprasert, Suwit

2013-01-01

408

CDC Vital Signs: Preventable Deaths from Heart Disease and Stroke  

MedlinePLUS

... Signs Share Compartir Preventable Deaths from Heart Disease & Stroke Improving care can save more lives September 2013 ... Details Problem Many deaths from heart disease and stroke can be prevented. What do we know about ...

409

Parasitic Diseases as the Cause of Death of Prisoners of War during the Korean War (1950-1953)  

PubMed Central

To determine the cause of death of prisoners of war during the Korean War (1950-1953), death certificates or medical records were analyzed. Out of 7,614 deaths, 5,013 (65.8%) were due to infectious diseases. Although dysentery and tuberculosis were the most common infectious diseases, parasitic diseases had caused 14 deaths: paragonimiasis in 5, malaria in 3, amoebiasis in 2, intestinal parasitosis in 2, ascariasis in 1, and schistosomiasis in 1. These results showed that paragonimiasis, malaria, and amoebiasis were the most fatal parasitic diseases during the early 1950s in the Korean Peninsula. Since schistosomiasis is not endemic to Korea, it is likely that the infected private soldier moved from China or Japan to Korea. PMID:25031479

2014-01-01

410

Parasitic diseases as the cause of death of prisoners of war during the Korean War (1950-1953).  

PubMed

To determine the cause of death of prisoners of war during the Korean War (1950-1953), death certificates or medical records were analyzed. Out of 7,614 deaths, 5,013 (65.8%) were due to infectious diseases. Although dysentery and tuberculosis were the most common infectious diseases, parasitic diseases had caused 14 deaths: paragonimiasis in 5, malaria in 3, amoebiasis in 2, intestinal parasitosis in 2, ascariasis in 1, and schistosomiasis in 1. These results showed that paragonimiasis, malaria, and amoebiasis were the most fatal parasitic diseases during the early 1950s in the Korean Peninsula. Since schistosomiasis is not endemic to Korea, it is likely that the infected private soldier moved from China or Japan to Korea. PMID:25031479

Huh, Sun

2014-06-01

411

Risk Factors for Infectious Diseases in Backyard Poultry Farms in the Poyang Lake Area, China  

PubMed Central

Emergence and transmission of infectious diseases have an enormous impact on the poultry industry and present a serious threat to the health of humans and wild birds. Noncommercial poultry operations, such as backyard poultry facilities in China, are potential sources of virus exchange between commercial poultry and wild birds. It is particularly critical in wetland areas where backyard poultry have close contact with commercial poultry and migratory birds, therefore increasing the risk of contracting infectious diseases. To evaluate the transmission risks, a cross-sectional study was undertaken in the Poyang Lake area, China, involving 309 residents in the backyard poultry farms in three counties (Region A, B, and C) of Jiangxi Province. We examined the backyard poultry population, poultry species, presence of poultry deaths from infectious diseases, food sources, and biosecurity practices. Region B ranked highest for biosecurity while region C ranked lowest. The risks of infectious diseases were assessed by adjusted odds ratio based on multivariate logistic regression analysis. Potential risk factors in the three regions of the study site were compared. In Region A, significant factor was contact of poultry with wild birds (OR: 6.573, 95% CI: 2.148–20.115, P=0.001). In Region B, the most significant factor was contact of poultry with neighboring backyard waterfowls (OR: 3.967, 95% CI: 1.555–10.122, P=0.004). In Region C, significant factors were poultry purchase from local live bird markets (OR: 3.740, 95% CI: 1.243–11.255, P=0.019), and contact of poultry with wild birds (OR: 3.379, 95% CI: 1.058–10.791, P=0.040). In summary, backyard poultry was significantly affected by neighboring commercial poultry and close contact with wild birds. The results are expected to improve our understanding of the transmission risks of infectious diseases in a typical backyard poultry environment in rural China, and address the need to improve local farming practices and take preventive measures. PMID:23840680

Wang, Yong; Jiang, Zhiben; Jin, Zhenyu; Tan, Hua; Xu, Bing

2013-01-01

412

Leptospirosis in Taiwan--an underestimated infectious disease.  

PubMed

Leptospirosis is a re-emerging infectious disease affecting both animals and humans worldwide. This infection is associated with occupational contact with animals, recreational exposure and contact with leptospires as a consequence of flooding. Multiple organ involvement may be encountered in acute severe leptospirosis and early renal involvement is commonly characterized by tubulo-interstitial nephritis and tubular dysfunction. Leptospirosis has been increasingly recognized as an important infectious disease in Taiwan since 1997 and Leptospira santarosai serovar Shermani is the main serovar encountered. The most common presentations are fever, jaundice and acute renal failure. This triad presentation in patients with acute multiple organ dysfunction should alert physicians to the possibility of leptospirosis. Penicillin treatment is effec- Dr. Chih-Wei Yang tive and may dramatically save patients from multiple organ failure provided it is given early. The rapid IgM assay may aid screening of Leptospirosis, thus allowing effective treatment to be initiated early. Leptospirosis appears to be underestimated in Taiwan and affects at least 10% of patients with multiple organ dysfunction. Therefore, a high level of clinical suspicion may help in identifying underestimated leptospirosis in Taiwan. PMID:17595998

Yang, Chih-Wei

2007-01-01

413

Biosecurity Measures in 48 Isolation Facilities Managing Highly Infectious Diseases  

PubMed Central

Biosecurity measures are traditionally applied to laboratories, but they may also be usefully applied in highly specialized clinical settings, such as the isolation facilities for the management of patients with highly infectious diseases (eg, viral hemorrhagic fevers, SARS, smallpox, potentially severe pandemic flu, and MDR- and XDR-tuberculosis). In 2009 the European Network for Highly Infectious Diseases conducted a survey in 48 isolation facilities in 16 European countries to determine biosecurity measures for access control to the facility. Security personnel are present in 39 facilities (81%). In 35 facilities (73%), entrance to the isolation area is restricted; control methods include electronic keys, a PIN system, closed-circuit TV, and guards at the doors. In 25 facilities (52%), identification and registration of all staff entering and exiting the isolation area are required. Access control is used in most surveyed centers, but specific lacks exist in some facilities. Further data are needed to assess other biosecurity aspects, such as the security measures during the transportation of potentially contaminated materials and measures to address the risk of an “insider attack.” PMID:22571373

Puro, Vincenzo; Schilling, Stefan; Thomson, Gail; De Iaco, Giuseppina; Brouqui, Philippe; Maltezou, Helena C.; Bannister, Barbara; Gottschalk, René; Brodt, Hans-Rheinhard; Ippolito, Giuseppe

2012-01-01

414

[Sir Arthur Conan Doyle, Sherlock Holmes and infectious diseases].  

PubMed

Besides a pleasant author of best sellers, Sir Arthur Conan Doyle was a medical doctor, writing excellent short stories about the exercise of his profession in England. However, even he mentions The British Medical Journal and The Lancet in the Sherlock Holmes's stories, when in the plot introduces infectious diseases, Conan Doyle ignores important discoveries in the field of tetanus. Anyway, the appearing of infectious diseases in the adventures of the detective are rare: one mention of tetanus, another of leprosy and- the most analyzed in medical literature a case of murder by inoculation of bacteria, probably the agent of melioidosis. Also he makes his hero discovers the toxic actions of a medusa and a transplant of solid organ. Little for a physician and less for an author who also wrote science fiction: it seems that the history of the great medical discoveries at the end of nineteenth century and beginning of the twentieth has passed by his side.., and he just couldn't see it. PMID:21186510

Ledermann D, Walter

2010-10-01

415

Biosecurity measures in 48 isolation facilities managing highly infectious diseases.  

PubMed

Biosecurity measures are traditionally applied to laboratories, but they may also be usefully applied in highly specialized clinical settings, such as the isolation facilities for the management of patients with highly infectious diseases (eg, viral hemorrhagic fevers, SARS, smallpox, potentially severe pandemic flu, and MDR- and XDR-tuberculosis). In 2009 the European Network for Highly Infectious Diseases conducted a survey in 48 isolation facilities in 16 European countries to determine biosecurity measures for access control to the facility. Security personnel are present in 39 facilities (81%). In 35 facilities (73%), entrance to the isolation area is restricted; control methods include electronic keys, a PIN system, closed-circuit TV, and guards at the doors. In 25 facilities (52%), identification and registration of all staff entering and exiting the isolation area are required. Access control is used in most surveyed centers, but specific lacks exist in some facilities. Further data are needed to assess other biosecurity aspects, such as the security measures during the transportation of potentially contaminated materials and measures to address the risk of an "insider attack." PMID:22571373

Puro, Vincenzo; Fusco, Francesco M; Schilling, Stefan; Thomson, Gail; De Iaco, Giuseppina; Brouqui, Philippe; Maltezou, Helena C; Bannister, Barbara; Gottschalk, René; Brodt, Hans-Rheinhard; Ippolito, Giuseppe

2012-06-01

416

Mapping infectious disease landscapes: unmanned aerial vehicles and epidemiology.  

PubMed

The potential applications of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), or drones, have generated intense interest across many fields. UAVs offer the potential to collect detailed spatial information in real time at relatively low cost and are being used increasingly in conservation and ecological research. Within infectious disease epidemiology and public health research, UAVs can provide spatially and temporally accurate data critical to understanding the linkages between disease transmission and environmental factors. Using UAVs avoids many of the limitations associated with satellite data (e.g., long repeat times, cloud contamination, low spatial resolution). However, the practicalities of using UAVs for field research limit their use to specific applications and settings. UAVs fill a niche but do not replace existing remote-sensing methods. PMID:25443854

Fornace, Kimberly M; Drakeley, Chris J; William, Timothy; Espino, Fe; Cox, Jonathan

2014-11-01

417

Sheep Movement Networks and the Transmission of Infectious Diseases  

PubMed Central

Background and Methodology Various approaches have been used to investigate how properties of farm contact networks impact on the transmission of infectious diseases. The potential for transmission of an infection through a contact network can be evaluated in terms of the basic reproduction number, R0. The magnitude of R0 is related to the mean contact rate of a host, in this case a farm, and is further influenced by heterogeneities in contact rates of individual hosts. The latter can be evaluated as the second order moments of the contact matrix (variances in contact rates, and co-variance between contacts to and from individual hosts). Here we calculate these quantities for the farms in a country-wide livestock network: >15,000 Scottish sheep farms in each of 4 years from July 2003 to June 2007. The analysis is relevant to endemic and chronic infections with prolonged periods of infectivity of affected animals, and uses different weightings of contacts to address disease scenarios of low, intermediate and high animal-level prevalence. Principal Findings and Conclusions Analysis of networks of Scottish farms via sheep movements from July 2003 to June 2007 suggests that heterogeneities in movement patterns (variances and covariances of rates of movement on and off the farms) make a substantial contribution to the potential for the transmission of infectious diseases, quantified as R0, within the farm population. A small percentage of farms (<20%) contribute the bulk of the transmission potential (>80%) and these farms could be efficiently targeted by interventions aimed at reducing spread of diseases via animal movement. PMID:20567504

Volkova, Victoriya V.; Howey, Richard; Savill, Nicholas J.; Woolhouse, Mark E. J.

2010-01-01

418

Impact of infectious diseases consultation on the management of S. aureus bacteraemia in children  

E-print Network

For peer review only Impact of infectious diseases consultation on the management of S. aureus bactaeremia in children Journal: BMJ Open Manuscript ID: bmjopen-2013-004659.R1 Article Type: Research Date Submitted by the Author: 02-Jun... , Emma; Cambridge University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Department of Infectious Diseases Aliyu, Sani; Cambridge University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Department of Infectious Diseases O'Donnell, Roddy; Cambridge University Hospitals NHS...

Saunderson, R.B.; Gouliouris, Theodore; Cartwright, Edward J.; Nickerson, Emma J.; Aliyu, S.H.; O’Donnell, D. Roddy; Kelsall, Wilf; Limmathurotsakul, D.; Peacock, S.J.; Török, M. Estée

2014-07-10

419

Water-Borne Infectious Disease Outbreaks Associated with Water Scarcity and Rainfall Events  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a An important number of major infectious diseases are related to water. The greatest consequences for the human population\\u000a are the faecal-oral water-borne infectious diseases, which are transmitted by ingestion of the causal agents that are released\\u000a into water through faeces. The occurrence of outbreaks of water-borne infectious diseases could be affected by water scarcity\\u000a at different degrees depending on the

Juan Jofre; Anicet R. Blanch; Francisco Lucena

420

Rationale and Methodological Options for Assessing Infectious Disease and Related Measures in Social Science Surveys  

Microsoft Academic Search

Infectious disease is an important, but often overlooked, component of population health in high-income nations. Common, everyday infections exact significant costs, including school and work absenteeism, reduced productivity, and substantial health care expenditures. Infectious disease also shapes trajectories of biological risk and health and may be causally linked to chronic disease risk later in life. The size, diversity, and representativeness

Thomas W. McDade; Mark D. Hayward

2009-01-01

421

The U.S.Mexico Border Infectious Disease Surveillance Project: Establishing Binational Border Surveillance  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1997, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the Mexican Secretariat of Health, and border health officials began the development of the Border Infectious Disease Sur- veillance (BIDS) project, a surveillance system for infectious diseases along the U.S.-Mexico border. During a 3-year period, a binational team implemented an active, sentinel surveillance system for hepatitis and febrile exanthems at 13

Michelle Weinberg; Stephen Waterman; Carlos Alvarez Lucas; Veronica Carrion Falcon; Pablo Kuri Morales; Luis Anaya Lopez; Chris Peter; Alejandro Escobar Gutiérrez; Ernesto Ramirez Gonzalez; Ana Flisser; Ralph Bryan; Enrique Navarro Valle; Alfonso Rodriguez; Gerardo Alvarez Hernandez; Cecilia Rosales; Javier Arias Ortiz; Michael Landen; Hugo Vilchis; Julie Rawlings; Francisco Lopez Leal; Luis Ortega; Elaine Flagg; Roberto Tapia Conyer

422

ore than half of all the infectious diseases that affect humans are  

E-print Network

ESSAY M ore than half of all the infectious diseases that affect humans are zoonoses research explored the ecol- ogy of infectious disease in a changing world: specifically, in a world subject--pathogens naturally transmitted from animals. Because a substantial proportion of these diseases originate in wildlife

Napp, Nils

423

The potential role of toilets as a vector for transmission of infectious disease Mark Jackson1,*  

E-print Network

The potential role of toilets as a vector for transmission of infectious disease Mark Jackson1. There are three primary vectors for the transmission of infectious diseases: fomites and direct contact; large be a significant method of disease transmission. A simple two room model showed that solely through aerosolization

Siegel, Jeffrey

424

Genetic susceptibility to infectious disease: lessons from mouse models of leishmaniasis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Susceptibility to infectious disease is influenced by multiple host genes, most of which are low penetrance QTLs that are difficult to map in humans. Leishmaniasis is a well-studied infectious disease with a variety of symptoms and well-defined immunological features. Mouse models of this disease have revealed more than 20 QTLs as being susceptibility genes, studies of which have made important

Peter Demant; Marie Lipoldová

2006-01-01

425

Spectrum of non-inflammatory bowel disease and non-infectious colitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A variety of inflammatory diseases of the colon, which can be differentiated from inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and infectious colitis by their clinical, endoscopic and histological characteristics, are reported as non- IBD and non-infectious colitis. These diseases include microscopic colitis, ischemic colitis, segmental colitis associated with diverticula, radiation colitis, diversion colitis, eosinophilic colitis and Behcet's colitis. The etiopathogenesis of most

Ioannis E Koutroubakis

426

LETTER Does habitat disturbance increase infectious disease risk for Hillary Young,1,2  

E-print Network

. Studies have described this phenomenon for Lyme disease (e.g. Allan et al. 2003; Ostfeld 2011), West NileLETTER Does habitat disturbance increase infectious disease risk for primates? Hillary Young,1 that ecosystem conservation protects human and wildlife populations against infectious disease. We tested

Nunn, Charles

427

78 FR 13678 - Board of Scientific Counselors, Office of Infectious Diseases (BSC, OID)  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Board of Scientific Counselors, Office of Infectious Diseases (BSC, OID) Notice of Cancellation...activities, for both the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and...

2013-02-28

428

Are There Any Objections against Our Hypothesis That Buerger Disease Is an Infectious Disease?  

PubMed

In 1878, Winiwarter used a microscope and reported a case of 57 year-old man demonstrating Buerger disease. After that, 134 years passed. Leo Buerger and Edgar V. Allen strongly suggested that Buerger disease is an infectious disease without any doubt. Also, an etiologic point is the luminal infectious thrombus, which is thought to be the core of the disease. Many etiological factors were proposed and then discarded after academic scrutiny, but two big discoveries were made in 2005 and 2008. Namely, periodontal bacteria DNA was found in the occluded arteries of 93% of patients with Buerger disease, and periodontal bacteria (typical weak bacteria) were found to dwell in the platelets. Using these evidences, supported by genetic and epidemiological facts, we could almost explain the pathogenesis or clinical course of Buerger disease, which had been already studied. PMID:23555529

Iwai, Takehisa; Umeda, Makoto; Inoue, Yoshinori

2012-01-01

429

Large-scale spatial population databases in infectious disease research  

PubMed Central

Modelling studies on the spatial distribution and spread of infectious diseases are becoming increasingly detailed and sophisticated, with global risk mapping and epidemic modelling studies now popular. Yet, in deriving populations at risk of disease estimates, these spatial models must rely on existing global and regional datasets on population distribution, which are often based on outdated and coarse resolution data. Moreover, a variety of different methods have been used to model population distribution at large spatial scales. In this review we describe the main global gridded population datasets that are freely available for health researchers and compare their construction methods, and highlight the uncertainties inherent in these population datasets. We review their application in past studies on disease risk and dynamics, and discuss how the choice of dataset can affect results. Moreover, we highlight how the lack of contemporary, detailed and reliable data on human population distribution in low income countries is proving a barrier to obtaining accurate large-scale estimates of population at risk and constructing reliable models of disease spread, and suggest research directions required to further reduce these barriers. PMID:22433126

2012-01-01

430

Tropical American plants in the treatment of infectious diseases.  

PubMed

The increasingly diverse U.S. immigrant populations and the growing use of medicinal herbs create a need for health care professionals to expand their knowledge in this area. This is a review of tropical plants, Annona Muricata, Artemisia absinthium, Cinchona officinalis, Illicium verum, Momordica charantia, Opuntia streptacantha, Schinus terebinthifolius, and Tabebuia avellanedae (impetiginosa), commonly used by Latino and Haitian populations for the treatment of infectious disease. All the eight plants discussed here have one or more of the following: antibacterial, antiviral, antifungal, or antiparasitic properties. All of these plants are primarily known and used in the tropical region, but they are also readily available for purchase in the United States, specifically in the ethnic markets. This review discusses their traditional uses, chemical constituents, proven scientific evidence, and toxicities. PMID:22436096

Dvorkin-Camiel, Lana; Whelan, Julia S

2008-01-01

431

Nutritional therapy and infectious diseases: a two-edged sword  

PubMed Central

The benefits and risks of nutritional therapies in the prevention and management of infectious diseases in the developed world are reviewed. There is strong evidence that early enteral feeding of patients prevents infections in a variety of traumatic and surgical illnesses. There is, however, little support for similar early feeding in medical illnesses. Parenteral nutrition increases the risk of infection when compared to enteral feeding or delayed nutrition. The use of gastric feedings appears to be as safe and effective as small bowel feedings. Dietary supplementation with glutamine appears to lower the risk of post-surgical infections and the ingestion of cranberry products has value in preventing urinary tract infections in women. PMID:16952310

Donabedian, Haig

2006-01-01

432

Genetic characterisation of infectious bursal disease virus isolates in Ethiopia  

PubMed Central

The objective of the investigation was to characterise infectious bursal disease viruses (IBDV) circulating in commercial and breeding poultry farms in Ethiopia between 2009 and 2011. The nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequence for VP2 hypervariable region of ten IBDVs were determined by RT-PCR, sequenced and compared to well characterised IBDV isolates worldwide. IBDV genetic material was amplified directly from bursa or cell passaged material. Phylogenetically, Ethiopian IBDVs represented two genetic lineages: very virulent (vv) IBDVs or variants of the classical attenuated vaccine strain (D78). The nucleotide identity between Ethiopian vvIBDVs ranged between 0% and 2.6%. Ethiopian vvIBDVs are clustered phylogenetically with the African IBDV genetic lineage, independent of the Asian/European lineage. This report demonstrates the circulation of vvIBDV in commercial and breeding poultry farms in Ethiopia. PMID:24145155

Jenberie, Shiferaw; Lynch, Stacey E.; Kebede, Fekadu; Christley, Robert M.; Gelaye, Esayas; Negussie, Haileleul; Asmare, Kassahun; Ayelet, Gelagay

2014-01-01

433

Antibody-based therapies for emerging infectious diseases.  

PubMed Central

In the 19th century, it was discovered that immune sera were useful in treating infectious diseases. Serum therapy was largely abandoned in the 1940s because of the toxicity associated with the administration of heterologous sera and the introduction of effective antimicrobial chemotherapy. Recent advances in the technology of monoclonal antibody production provide the means to generate human antibody reagents and reintroduce antibody therapies, while avoiding the toxicities associated with serum therapy. Because of the versatility of antibodies, antibody-based therapies could, in theory, be developed against any existing pathogen. The advantages of antibody-based therapies include versatility, low toxicity, pathogen specificity, enhancement of immune function, and favorable pharmacokinetics; the disadvantages include high cost, limited usefulness against mixed infections, and the need for early and precise microbiologic diagnosis. The potential of antibodies as antiinfective agents has not been fully tapped. Antibody-based therapies constitute a potentially useful option against newly emergent pathogens. PMID:8903230

Casadevall, A.

1996-01-01

434

Reconceptualizing major depressive disorder as an infectious disease  

PubMed Central

In this article, I argue for a reconceptualization of major depressive disorder (major depression) as an infectious disease. I suggest that major depression may result from a parasitic, bacterial, or viral infection and present examples that illustrate possible pathways by which these microorganisms could contribute to the etiology of major depression. I also argue that the reconceptualization of the human body as an ecosystem for these microorganisms and the human genome as a host for non-human exogenous sequences may greatly amplify the opportunity to discover genetic links to the illness. Deliberately speculative, this article is intended to stimulate novel research approaches and expand the circle of researchers taking aim at this vexing illness. PMID:25364500

2014-01-01

435

[Infectious diseases and injuries of bladder and urinary tract].  

PubMed

Urinary tract infections are the most common infectious diseases in Germany. In most cases clarification does not rely on imaging techniques other than sonography and is made mostly based on clinical symptoms. Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can be used in selected cases to find the cause and detection or exclusion of complications, e.g. recurrent or atypical and complicated courses. The method of choice for clarification of urolithiasis is CT. Using low-dose techniques, detection or exclusion of urinary stones can be achieved with a high sensitivity and specificity as well as an acceptable level of radiation exposure. Native stone CT supplies additional fundamental information that can substantially influence further therapy planning. The diagnosis of ureteral injuries is clinically and radiologically not trivial and clarification is aided by urographic contrast media. The method of CT cystography has an important role in the diagnostics of urinary bladder injuries. PMID:25367313

Budjan, J; Riffel, P; Ong, M M; Bolenz, C; Schönberg, S O; Haneder, S

2014-11-01

436

Research on an Infectious Disease Transmission by Flocking Birds  

PubMed Central

The swarm intelligence is becoming a hot topic. The flocking of birds is a natural phenomenon, which is formed and organized without central or external controls for some benefits (e.g., reduction of energy consummation). However, the flocking also has some negative effects on the human, as the infectious disease H7N9 will easily be transmited from the denser flocking birds to the human. Zombie-city model has been proposed to help analyzing and modeling the flocking birds and the artificial society. This paper focuses on the H7N9 virus transmission in the flocking birds and from the flocking birds to the human. And some interesting results have been shown: (1) only some simple rules could result in an emergence such as the flocking; (2) the minimum distance between birds could affect H7N9 virus transmission in the flocking birds and even affect the virus transmissions from the flocking birds to the human. PMID:23864820

Mao, Xinjun; Guessoum, Zahia

2013-01-01

437

Research on an infectious disease transmission by flocking birds.  

PubMed

The swarm intelligence is becoming a hot topic. The flocking of birds is a natural phenomenon, which is formed and organized without central or external controls for some benefits (e.g., reduction of energy consummation). However, the flocking also has some negative effects on the human, as the infectious disease H7N9 will easily be transmited from the denser flocking birds to the human. Zombie-city model has been proposed to help analyzing and modeling the flocking birds and the artificial society. This paper focuses on the H7N9 virus transmission in the flocking birds and from the flocking birds to the human. And some interesting results have been shown: (1) only some simple rules could result in an emergence such as the flocking; (2) the minimum distance between birds could affect H7N9 virus transmission in the flocking birds and even affect the virus transmissions from the flocking birds to the human. PMID:23864820

Tang, Mingsheng; Mao, Xinjun; Guessoum, Zahia

2013-01-01

438

The Global Threat of New and Reemerging Infectious Diseases  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Authored by Jennifer Brower and Peter Chalk, working on behalf of the RAND Corporation, this 140-page online book explores an in-depth analysis of the security implications posed by the dissemination of various infectious diseases. Throughout the work, the authors draw on two case studies, namely the HIV/ AIDS epidemic in South Africa and the public health response system within the United States. The book itself is available as six separate chapters, including an appendix and bibliography. For those looking for a brief synopsis of the work, a nine-page summary is also available. The authors conclude their work by presenting several recommendations that may address various existing shortcomings, including increased coordination between public health authorities at all levels of government, integration of the private sector into overall public health efforts, and a large-scale education and information campaign.

Brower, Jennifer, 1967-.; Chalk, Peter.

439

Utilizing bacterial flagellins against infectious diseases and cancers.  

PubMed

The flagellum is the organelle providing motility to bacterial cells and its activity is coupled to the cellular chemotaxis machinery. The flagellar filament is the largest portion of the flagellum, which consists of repeating subunits of the protein flagellin. Receptors of the innate immune system including Toll like receptor 5, ICE protease activating factor, and neuronal apoptosis inhibitory protein 5 signal in response to bacterial flagellins. In addition to inducing innate immune responses, bacterial flagellins mediate the development of adaptive immune responses to both flagellins and coadministered antigens. Therefore, these proteins have intensively been investigated for the vaccine development and the immunotherapy. This review describes the utilization of bacterial flagellins for the construction of vaccines against infectious diseases and cancer immunotherapy. Furthermore, the key factors affecting the performance of these systems are highlighted. PMID:24276957

Tarahomjoo, Shirin

2014-02-01

440

Media impact switching surface during an infectious disease outbreak  

PubMed Central

There are many challenges to quantifying and evaluating the media impact on the control of emerging infectious diseases. We modeled such media impacts using a piecewise smooth function depending on both the case number and its rate of change. The proposed model was then converted into a switching system, with the switching surface determined by a functional relationship between susceptible populations and different subgroups of infectives. By parameterizing the proposed model with the 2009 A/H1N1 influenza outbreak data in the Shaanxi province of China, we observed that media impact switched off almost as the epidemic peaked. Our analysis implies that media coverage significantly delayed the epidemic's peak and decreased the severity of the outbreak. Moreover, media impacts are not always effective in lowering the disease transmission during the entire outbreak, but switch on and off in a highly nonlinear fashion with the greatest effect during the early stage of the outbreak. The finding draws the attention to the important role of informing the public about ‘the rate of change of case numbers' rather than ‘the absolute number of cases' to alter behavioral changes, through a self-adaptive media impact switching on and off, for better control of disease transmission. PMID:25592757

Xiao, Yanni; Tang, Sanyi; Wu, Jianhong

2015-01-01

441

Technology innovation for infectious diseases in the developing world  

PubMed Central

Enabling innovation and access to health technologies remains a key strategy in combating infectious diseases in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). However, a gulf between paying markets and the endemicity of such diseases has contributed to the dearth of R&D in meeting these public health needs. While the pharmaceutical industry views emerging economies as potential new markets, most of the world’s poorest bottom billion now reside in middle-income countries--a fact that has complicated tiered access arrangements. However, product development partnerships--particularly those involving academic institutions and small firms--find commercial opportunities in pursuing even neglected diseases; and a growing pharmaceutical sector in BRICS countries offers hope for an indigenous base of innovation. Such innovation will be shaped by 1) access to building blocks of knowledge; 2) strategic use of intellectual property and innovative financing to meet public health goals; 3) collaborative norms of open innovation; and 4) alternative business models, some with a double bottom line. Facing such resource constraints, LMICs are poised to develop a new, more resource-effective model of innovation that holds exciting promise in meeting the needs of global health. PMID:23849080

2012-01-01

442

Technology innovation for infectious diseases in the developing world.  

PubMed

Enabling innovation and access to health technologies remains a key strategy in combating infectious diseases in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). However, a gulf between paying markets and the endemicity of such diseases has contributed to the dearth of R&D in meeting these public health needs. While the pharmaceutical industry views emerging economies as potential new markets, most of the world's poorest bottom billion now reside in middle-income countries--a fact that has complicated tiered access arrangements. However, product development partnerships--particularly those involving academic institutions and small firms--find commercial opportunities in pursuing even neglected diseases; and a growing pharmaceutical sector in BRICS countries offers hope for an indigenous base of innovation. Such innovation will be shaped by 1) access to building blocks of knowledge; 2) strategic use of intellectual property and innovative financing to meet public health goals; 3) collaborative norms of open innovation; and 4) alternative business models, some with a double bottom line. Facing such resource constraints, LMICs are poised to develop a new, more resource-effective model of innovation that holds exciting promise in meeting the needs of global health. PMID:23849080

So, Anthony D; Ruiz-Esparza, Quentin

2012-01-01

443

Media impact switching surface during an infectious disease outbreak  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There are many challenges to quantifying and evaluating the media impact on the control of emerging infectious diseases. We modeled such media impacts using a piecewise smooth function depending on both the case number and its rate of change. The proposed model was then converted into a switching system, with the switching surface determined by a functional relationship between susceptible populations and different subgroups of infectives. By parameterizing the proposed model with the 2009 A/H1N1 influenza outbreak data in the Shaanxi province of China, we observed that media impact switched off almost as the epidemic peaked. Our analysis implies that media coverage significantly delayed the epidemic's peak and decreased the severity of the outbreak. Moreover, media impacts are not always effective in lowering the disease transmission during the entire outbreak, but switch on and off in a highly nonlinear fashion with the greatest effect during the early stage of the outbreak. The finding draws the attention to the important role of informing the public about `the rate of change of case numbers' rather than `the absolute number of cases' to alter behavioral changes, through a self-adaptive media impact switching on and off, for better control of disease transmission.

Xiao, Yanni; Tang, Sanyi; Wu, Jianhong

2015-01-01

444

Media impact switching surface during an infectious disease outbreak.  

PubMed

There are many challenges to quantifying and evaluating the media impact on the control of emerging infectious diseases. We modeled such media impacts using a piecewise smooth function depending on both the case number and its rate of change. The proposed model was then converted into a switching system, with the switching surface determined by a functional relationship between susceptible populations and different subgroups of infectives. By parameterizing the proposed model with the 2009 A/H1N1 influenza outbreak data in the Shaanxi province of China, we observed that media impact switched off almost as the epidemic peaked. Our analysis implies that media coverage significantly delayed the epidemic's peak and decreased the severity of the outbreak. Moreover, media impacts are not always effective in lowering the disease transmission during the entire outbreak, but switch on and off in a highly nonlinear fashion with the greatest effect during the early stage of the outbreak. The finding draws the attention to the important role of informing the public about 'the rate of change of case numbers' rather than 'the absolute number of cases' to alter behavioral changes, through a self-adaptive media impact switching on and off, for better control of disease transmission. PMID:25592757

Xiao, Yanni; Tang, Sanyi; Wu, Jianhong

2015-01-01

445

DISEASE IN HUMAN EVOLUTION: THE RE-EMERGENCE OF INFECTIOUS DISEASE IN THE THIRD EPIDEMIOLOGICAL TRANSITION  

Microsoft Academic Search

For millions of years, humans and their ancestors suffered from diseases -- both the kind caused by infectious pathogens (e.g., bacteria, viruses, parasites) and the kind caused by our own bodies as they age and degenerate. Over this long period, humans constantly created new ways of living and eating, and actual physical or genetic changes evolved to minimize the effects

George J. Armelagos; Kathleen C. Barnes; James Lin

446

Results of a National Survey of Infectious Diseases Specialists regarding Influenza Vaccination Programs for Healthcare Workers  

Microsoft Academic Search

A minority of infectious diseases consultants currently work in healthcare institutions requiring influenza vaccination for healthcare workers, and in approximately half of these institutions, the health- care workers who refuse vaccination do not face substantial con- sequences for their refusal. Although true mandatory policies are not common, a majority of infectious diseases consultants support such policies. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol

Edward Septimus; Charles Helms

2010-01-01

447

Challenges to Global Surveillance and Response to Infectious Disease Outbreaks of International Importance  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents a notional scheme of global surveillance and response to infectious disease outbreaks and reviews 14 in- ternational surveillance and response programs. In combination, the scheme and the programs illustrate how, in an ideal world and in the real world, infectious disease outbreaks of public health significance could be detected and contained. No- table practices and achievements of

Penny Hitchcock; Allison Chamberlain; Megan Van Wagoner; Thomas V. Inglesby; Tara O'Toole

2007-01-01

448

Evaluating a New Online Course in the Epidemiology of Infectious Diseases by Studying Student Learning Styles  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

At RMIT University, students may now elect to study infectious diseases through a course called Outbreak--The Detection and Control of Infectious Disease. Outbreak was designed to simulate in an online class the effective teamwork required to bring resolution to outbreak crises and enable frameworks for future prevention. The appropriateness of…

Rogers, James W.; Cox, James R.

2008-01-01

449

Report of the Committee on Infectious Diseases. Twenty-first Edition, 1988.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book is a comprehensive textbook of infectious diseases. It is organized in five parts: (1) active and passive immunization; (2) recommendations for care of children in special circumstances; (3) summaries of infectious diseases; (4) antimicrobial prophylaxis; and (5) antimicrobials. There are six appendices: (1) federal vaccine injury…

American Academy of Pediatrics, Elk Grove Village, IL.

450

Social networks and the spread of infectious diseases: The AIDS example  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conceptualizing a population as a set of individuals linked together to form a large social network provides a fruitful perspective for better understanding the spread of some infectious diseases. Data related to AIDS (the acquired immune deficiency syndrome) were used to illustrate the potential usefulness of a network approach in evaluating the infectious agent hypothesis when studying a disease or

Alden S. Klovdahl

1985-01-01

451

Infectious Diseases as Causes of Mental Retardation and Other Concomitant Neurological Sequelae.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examination of 1,000 Finnish patients with mental retardation indicated that infectious diseases were the only cause of mental retardation in 11.1 percent and a contributory cause in a further 1.5 percent. Among the former group of 111 patients, the causative infectious disease operated prenatally in 18 percent and perinatally/postnatally in 82…

Iivanainen, Matti; Lahdevirta, Juhani

1988-01-01

452

Male circumcision, religion, and infectious diseases: an ecologic analysis of 118 developing countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Both religious practices and male circumcision (MC) have been associated with HIV and other sexually-transmitted infectious diseases. Most studies have been limited in size and have not adequately controlled for religion, so these relationships remain unclear. METHODS: We evaluated relationships between MC prevalence, Muslim and Christian religion, and 7 infectious diseases using country-specific data among 118 developing countries. We

Paul K Drain; Daniel T Halperin; James P Hughes; Jeffrey D Klausner; Robert C Bailey

2006-01-01

453

Infectious Diseases as a Career Choice: Perceptions of Medical Residents in the Philippines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Questionnaires were answered in 1989 by 476 medical residents throughout the Philippines regarding their preferred subspecialty choice, their perceived reasons for the choice, and their descriptions of Infectious Diseases as a subspecialty. The most popular career choice was Cardiology followed by Pulmonary Medicine; 14.6% listed Infectious Diseases with more female than male residents choosing it. \\

Angeles Tan-Alora

454

Emerging Infectious Diseases Vol. 9, No. 1, January 2003 29 Congenital Transmission of  

E-print Network

Emerging Infectious Diseases · Vol. 9, No. 1, January 2003 29 RESEARCH Congenital Transmission, the causative agent of Chagas disease, infects 10­18 million people in the Americas (1), half of whom most

Cohen, Joel E.

455

The spectrum of oculocutaneous disease: Part I. Infectious, inflammatory, and genetic causes of oculocutaneous disease.  

PubMed

Many skin diseases are associated with ocular findings, emphasizing the need for dermatologists to be fully aware of their presence, and as a result, avoid overlooking conditions with potentially major ocular complications, including blindness. We review important oculocutaneous disease associations with recommendations for the management of the ocular complications and appropriate referral to our ophthalmology colleagues. Part I of this 2-part review focuses on the infectious, inflammatory, and genetic relationships. PMID:24742848

Horner, Mary E; Abramson, Amanda K; Warren, Richard B; Swanson, Susan; Menter, M Alan

2014-05-01

456

[Kenya Research Station and viral infectious disease research].  

PubMed

The Institute of Tropical Medicine, Kenya Research Station, Nagasaki University was established by a fund of the Ministry of Education (MEXT) in 2005. Currently, the station has been on ''The Clinical and Epidemiological Research Program of Tropical Medicine and Emerging Infectious Diseases-Establishment of Education and Research System between Africa and Japan- ''. The project has been supported by about 20 Japanese staff and 85 Kenyan staff, and in the research station, 10 research teams have worked on their researches for the prevention of tropical medicine and emerging diseases collaborating with other researches and The JICA Grassroots Technical Cooperation Project has also started in 2012. In April 2010, Nagasaki University, Africa Station has been established along with Kenya Research Station, and it made possible for other faculties to join research in Kenya. School of Dentistry has started oral health survey in Mbita, while School of Fishery, School of Engineering and School of Health Science have a plan of a joint project targeting areas by Lake Victoria. Our aim is to develop a foundation which enables all researchers from different fields to carry out their research for improvement health and living standards of the locals. PMID:24769581

Ichinose, Yoshio

2013-01-01

457

Gold nanoparticles based colorimetric nanodiagnostics for cancer and infectious diseases  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Traditional in vitro diagnostics requires specialized laboratories and costly instrumentation, both for the amplification of nucleic acid targets (usually achieved by PCR) and for the assay readout, often based on fluorescence. We are developing hybrid nanomaterials-based sensors for the rapid and low-cost diagnosis of various disease biomarkers, for applications in portable platforms for diagnostics at the point-of-care. To this aim, we exploited the size and distancedependent optical properties of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) to achieve colorimetric detection. Moreover, in order to avoid the complexity of thermal cycles associated to traditional PCR, the design of our systems includes signal amplification schemes, achieved by the use of enzymes (nucleases, helicase) or DNAzymes. Focused on instrument-free and sensitive detection, we carefully combined the intrinsic sensitivity by multivalency of functionalized AuNPs with isothermal and non-stringent enzyme-aided reaction conditions, controlled AuNPs aggregates, universal reporters and magnetic microparticles, the latter used both as a substrate and as a means for the colorimetric detection. We obtained simple and robust assays for the sensitive (pM range or better) naked-eye detection of cancer or infectious diseases (HPV, HCV) biomarkers, requiring no instrumentation except for a simple heating plate. Finally, we are also developing non-medical applications of these bio-nanosensors, such as in the development of on-field rapid tests for the detection of pollutants and other food and water contaminants.

Valentini, Paola; Persano, Stefano; Cecere, Paola; Sabella, Stefania; Pompa, Pier Paolo

2014-03-01

458

Translational research in infectious disease: current paradigms and challenges ahead  

PubMed Central

In recent years, the biomedical community has witnessed a rapid scientific and technological evolution following the development and refinement of high-throughput methodologies. Concurrently and consequentially, the scientific perspective has changed from the reductionist approach of meticulously analyzing the fine details of a single component of biology, to the “holistic” approach of broadmindedly examining the globally interacting elements of biological systems. The emergence of this new way of thinking has brought about a scientific revolution in which genomics, proteomics, metabolomics and other “omics” have become the predominant tools by which large amounts of data are amassed, analyzed and applied to complex questions of biology that were previously unsolvable. This enormous transformation of basic science research and the ensuing plethora of promising data, especially in the realm of human health and disease, have unfortunately not been followed by a parallel increase in the clinical application of this information. On the contrary, the number of new potential drugs in development has been steadily decreasing, suggesting the existence of roadblocks that prevent the translation of promising research into medically relevant therapeutic or diagnostic application. In this paper we will review, in a non-inclusive fashion, several recent scientific advancements in the field of translational research, with a specific focus on how they relate to infectious disease. We will also present a current picture of the limitations and challenges that exist for translational research, as well as ways that have been proposed by the National Institutes of Health to improve the state of this field. PMID:22633095

Fontana, Judith M.; Alexander, Elizabeth; Salvatore, Mirella

2012-01-01

459

Emerging infectious diseases of wildlife: role in amphibian population declines and global implications  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We review recent research on the pathology, ecology, and biogeography of two emerging infectious wildlife diseases, chytridiomycosis and ranaviral disease, in the context of host-parasite population biology. We examine the role of these diseases in the global decline of amphibian populations and propose hypotheses for the origins and impact of these panzootics. Finally, we discuss emerging infectious diseases as a global threat to wildlife populations.

Daszak, P.; Berger, L.; Cunningham, A.A.; Hyatt, A.D.; Green, D.E.; Speare, R.

1999-01-01

460

Merging Economics and Epidemiology to Improve the Prediction and Management of Infectious Disease.  

PubMed

Mathematical epidemiology, one of the oldest and richest areas in mathematical biology, has significantly enhanced our understanding of how pathogens emerge, evolve, and spread. Classical epidemiological models, the standard for predicting and managing the spread of infectious disease, assume that contacts between susceptible and infectious individuals depend on their relative frequency in the population. The behavioral factors that underpin contact rates are not generally addressed. There is, however, an emerging a class of models that addresses the feedbacks between infectious disease dynamics and the behavioral decisions driving host contact. Referred to as "economic epidemiology" or "epidemiological economics," the approach explores the determinants of decisions about the number and type of contacts made by individuals, using insights and methods from economics. We show how the approach has the potential both to improve predictions of the course of infectious disease, and to support development of novel approaches to infectious disease management. PMID:25233829

Perrings, Charles; Castillo-Chavez, Carlos; Chowell, Gerardo; Daszak, Peter; Fenichel, Eli P; Finnoff, David; Horan, Richard D; Kilpatrick, A Marm; Kinzig, Ann P; Kuminoff, Nicolai V; Levin, Simon; Morin, Benjamin; Smith, Katherine F; Springborn, Michael

2014-09-19

461

Enhanced Surveillance for Detection and Management of Infectious Diseases: Regional Collaboration in the Middle East  

PubMed Central

Formed before international negotiations of the revised International Health Regulations (IHR), the Middle East Consortium for Infectious Disease Surveillance (MECIDS) is a regional collaboration aimed at facilitating implementation of the revised IHR and, more broadly, improving the detection and control of infectious disease outbreaks among neighboring countries in an area of continuous dispute. Initially focused on enhancing foodborne disease surveillance, MECIDS has expanded the scope of its work to also include avian and pandemic influenza and other emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases. Here, we describe the history and governance of MECIDS, highlighting key achievements over the consortium's seven-year history, and discuss the future of MECIDS. PMID:23362413

Leventhal, Alex; Ramlawi, Assad; Belbiesi, Adel; Sheikh, Sami; Haddadin, Akhtam; Husseini, Sari; Abdeen, Ziad; Cohen, Dani

2013-01-01

462

76 FR 63308 - Data and Data Needs To Advance Risk Assessment for Emerging Infectious Diseases Relevant to Blood...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Assessment for Emerging Infectious Diseases Relevant to Blood and Blood Products; Public Workshop AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration...Assessment for Emerging Infectious Diseases Relevant to Blood and Blood Products.'' The purpose of the public...

2011-10-12

463

Molecular and phenotypic characterization of infectious bursal disease virus isolates.  

PubMed

Two infectious bursal disease viruses (IBDVs 1174 and V1) were isolated from IBDV-vaccinated broiler flocks in California and Georgia. These flocks had a history of subclinical immunosuppression. These isolates are commonly used in IBDV progeny challenge studies at Auburn, AL, as well as vaccine manufacturer's vaccine efficacy studies, because they come from populated poultry-producing states, and are requested by poultry veterinarians from those states. Nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) generated viral genome products for sequencing. A 491-bp segment from the VP2 gene, covering the hypervariable region, from each isolate was analyzed and compared with previously sequenced isolates. Sequence analysis showed that they were more closely related to the Delaware (Del) E antigenic variant than they are to the Animal Health Plant Inspection Service (APHIS) standard, both at the nucleotide level (96%, 97%) and at the amino acid level (94%, 97%). Both isolates had the glutamine to lysine shift in amino acid 249 which has been reported to be critical in binding the virus neutralizing Mab B69. Phenotypic studies showed that both isolates produced rapid atrophy of the bursae and weight loss, without the edematous bursal phase, in 2-wk-old commercial broilers having antibody against IBDV. A progeny challenge study showed both isolates produced more atrophy of the bursae (less percentage of protection) than the Del E isolate. Molecular and phenotypic data of these important IBDV isolates help in the improved detection and control of this continually changing and important viral pathogen of chickens. PMID:17626491

Dormitorio, T V; Giambrone, J J; Guo, K; Jackwood, D J

2007-06-01

464

Comparative Pathogenomics of Bacteria Causing Infectious Diseases in Fish  

PubMed Central

Fish living in the wild as well as reared in the aquaculture facilities are susceptible to infectious diseases caused by a phylogenetically diverse collection of bacterial pathogens. Control and treatment options using vaccines and drugs are either inadequate, inefficient, or impracticable. The classical approach in studying fish bacterial pathogens has been looking at individual or few virulence factors. Recently, genome sequencing of a number of bacterial fish pathogens has tremendously increased our understanding of the biology, host adaptation, and virulence factors of these important pathogens. This paper attempts to compile the scattered literature on genome sequence information of fish pathogenic bacteria published and available to date. The genome sequencing has uncovered several complex adaptive evolutionary strategies mediated by horizontal gene transfer, insertion sequence elements, mutations and prophage sequences operating in fish pathogens, and how their genomes evolved from generalist environmental strains to highly virulent obligatory pathogens. In addition, the comparative genomics has allowed the identification of unique pathogen-specific gene clusters. The paper focuses on the comparative analysis of the virulogenomes of important fish bacterial pathogens, and the genes involved in their evolutionary adaptation to different ecological niches. The paper also proposes some new directions on finding novel vaccine and chemotherapeutic targets in the genomes of bacterial pathogens of fish. PMID:22675651

Sudheesh, Ponnerassery S.; Al-Ghabshi, Aliya; Al-Mazrooei, Nashwa; Al-Habsi, Saoud

2012-01-01

465

Clinical Applications of Molecular Biology for Infectious Diseases  

PubMed Central

Molecular biological methods for the detection and characterisation of microorganisms have revolutionised diagnostic microbiology and are now part of routine specimen processing. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) techniques have led the way into this new era by allowing rapid detection of microorganisms that were previously difficult or impossible to detect by traditional microbiological methods. In addition to detection of fastidious microorganisms, more rapid detection by molecular methods is now possible for pathogens of public health importance. Molecular methods have now progressed beyond identification to detect antimicrobial resistance genes and provide public health information such as strain characterisation by genotyping. Treatment of certain microorganisms has been improved by viral resistance detection and viral load testing for the monitoring of responses to antiviral therapies. With the advent of multiplex PCR, real-time PCR and improvements in efficiency through automation, the costs of molecular methods are decreasing such that the role of molecular methods will further increase. This review will focus on the clinical utility of molecular methods performed in the clinical microbiology laboratory, illustrated with the many examples of how they have changed laboratory diagnosis and therefore the management of infectious diseases. PMID:16886046

Speers, David J

2006-01-01

466

Colorado State University, Office of the Vice President for Research Building Operations Manager, Infectious Disease Research Center  

E-print Network

Manager, Infectious Disease Research Center Colorado State University has a dynamic opportunity for a seasoned Building Operations Manager to join its Infectious Disease Research Center (IDRC). The optimal the University with hitech facilities and equipment for researching emerging infectious diseases and methods

Rutledge, Steven

467

Measuring contact patterns with wearable sensors: methods, data characteristics and applications to data-driven simulations of infectious diseases  

E-print Network

to data-driven simulations of infectious diseases A. Barrat1,2,3,§ , C. Cattuto3 , A.E. Tozzi4 , P to inform models of infectious diseases transmission. We moreover discuss several limitations of the data and future avenues for data collection and modeling efforts in the field of infectious diseases. #12

Barrat, Alain

468

Infectious diseases in the aftermath of monsoon flooding in Pakistan  

PubMed Central

Pakistan is ranked 9th in terms of flood-affected countries worldwide. In the summer of 2010, the northern province of Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa received more than 312 mm of rain in a 56 hour period. This resulted in over 1 600 deaths across the region. In addition, over 14 million people were directly affected by this record-breaking deluge. Flood affected regions serve as ideal breeding grounds for pathogens, leading to the spread of diseases. The poor standards of hygiene in camps set up for individuals displaced by the floods also contribute to this. It is essential that those involved in relief efforts are aware of the epidemiology of diseases that have historically seen a sudden upsurge after natural disasters. Keeping this in mind, we conducted a simple review of literature. An extensive literature search was conducted using the PubMed data base and online search engines. Articles published in the last 20 years were considered along with some historical articles where a background was required. Seven major diseases were identified to increase substantially in the aftermath of natural disasters. They were then classified into acute and sub-acute settings. Diarrhea, skin & eye infections and leptospirosis were identified in the acute setting while malaria, leishmaniasis, respiratory infections and hepatitis were identified in the sub-acute setting. PMID:23569839

Baqir, Maryam; Sobani, Zain A; Bhamani, Amyn; Bham, Nida Shahab; Abid, Sidra; Farook, Javeria; Beg, M Asim

2012-01-01

469

Dosage of lactate in the cerebrospinal fluid in infectious diseases of the central nervous system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyzes the diagnosis aid of the dosage of lactate in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in infectious diseases of the central nervous system (CNS). We analyzed prospectively 130 samples of CSF of 116 patients with diagnoses of infectious processes in the CNS. The 130 samples of CSF were divided into five groups: 28 samples of the control group, 40

Hideraldo Luis Souza Cabeça; Hélio Rodrigues Gomes; Luís dos Ramos Machado; José Antonio Livramento

2001-01-01

470

Targeting Toll-like receptor signaling as a novel approach to prevent ocular infectious diseases  

PubMed Central

Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play a key role in the innate immune response to invading pathogens. Thus, their discovery has opened up a wide range of therapeutic possibilities for various infectious and inflammatory diseases. In the last several years, extensive research efforts have provided a considerable wealth of information on the expression and function of TLRs in the eye, with significant implications for better understanding of pathogenesis of infectious eye diseases affecting the cornea, uvea, and the retina. In this review, by using bacterial keratitis and endophthalmitis as examples, we discuss the possibilities of targeting TLR signaling for the prevention or treatment of ocular infectious diseases. PMID:24434316

Pandey, Rajeev K.; Yu, Fu-shin; Kumar, Ashok

2013-01-01

471

Indole Alkaloids from Marine Sources as Potential Leads against Infectious Diseases  

PubMed Central

Indole alkaloids comprise a large and complex class of natural products found in a variety of marine sources. Infectious diseases remain a major threat to public health, and in the absence of long-term protective vaccines, the control of these infectious diseases is based on a small number of chemotherapeutic agents. Furthermore, the emerging resistance against these drugs makes it urgently necessary to discover and develop new, safe and, effective anti-infective agents. In this regard, the aim of this review is to highlight indole alkaloids from marine sources which have been shown to demonstrate activity against infectious diseases. PMID:24995289

França, Paulo H. B.; Barbosa, Daniel P.; da Silva, Daniel L.; Ribeiro, Ęurica A. N.; Santana, Antônio E. G.; Santos, Bárbara V. O.; Barbosa-Filho, José M.; Quintans, Jullyana S. S.; Barreto, Rosana S. S.; Quintans-Júnior, Lucindo J.; de Araújo-Júnior, Joăo X.

2014-01-01

472

Influence of diabetes and hyperglycaemia on infectious disease hospitalisation and outcome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims\\/hypothesis  Diabetes mellitus is believed to increase susceptibility to infectious diseases. The effects of hyperglycaemia per se on infectious\\u000a disease risk are unknown and the influence of diabetes on infectious disease outcome is controversial.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Materials and methods  We studied 10,063 individuals from the Danish general population, who were participants in The Copenhagen City Heart Study,\\u000a over a follow-up period of 7 years. Risk

T. Benfield; J. S. Jensen; B. G. Nordestgaard

2007-01-01

473

Indole alkaloids from marine sources as potential leads against infectious diseases.  

PubMed

Indole alkaloids comprise a large and complex class of natural products found in a variety of marine sources. Infectious diseases remain a major threat to public health, and in the absence of long-term protective vaccines, the control of these infectious diseases is based on a small number of chemotherapeutic agents. Furthermore, the emerging resistance against these drugs makes it urgently necessary to discover and develop new, safe and, effective anti-infective agents. In this regard, the aim of this review is to highlight indole alkaloids from marine sources which have been shown to demonstrate activity against infectious diseases. PMID:24995289

França, Paulo H B; Barbosa, Daniel P; da Silva, Daniel L; Ribeiro, Ęurica A N; Santana, Antônio E G; Santos, Bárbara V O; Barbosa-Filho, José M; Quintans, Jullyana S S; Barreto, Rosana S S; Quintans-Júnior, Lucindo J; de Araújo-Júnior, Joăo X

2014-01-01

474

Infectious microbial diseases and host defense responses in Sydney rock oysters  

PubMed Central

Aquaculture has long been seen as a sustainable solution to some of the world's growing food shortages. However, experience over the past 50 years indicates that infectious diseases caused by viruses, bacteria, and eukaryotes limit the productivity of aquaculture. In extreme cases, these types of infectious agents threaten the viability of entire aquaculture industries. This article describes the threats from infectious diseases in aquaculture and then focuses on one example (QX disease in Sydney rock oysters) as a case study. QX appears to be typical of many emerging diseases in aquaculture, particularly because environmental factors seem to play a crucial role in disease outbreaks. Evidence is presented that modulation of a generic subcellular stress response pathway in oysters is responsible for both resistance and susceptibility to infectious microbes. Understanding and being able to manipulate this pathway may be the key to sustainable aquaculture. PMID:24795701

Raftos, David A.; Kuchel, Rhiannon; Aladaileh, Saleem; Butt, Daniel

2014-01-01

475

Coronary heart disease and stroke deaths - United States, 2009.  

PubMed

Heart disease and stroke are the first and fourth leading causes of death, respectively in the United States. In 2008, heart disease and stroke were responsible for nearly a third of all deaths in the United States (30.4%), killing more than three-quarters of a million people that year. Coronary heart disease (CHD) is the cause of more than two-thirds of all heart disease-related deaths. One of the Healthy People 2020 objectives includes reducing the rate of CHD deaths by 20% from the baseline rate of 126 deaths per 100,000 population per year, to a goal of 100.8 deaths per 100,000 (objective HDS-2). The objectives also include reducing the rate of stroke deaths by 20% over the baseline of 42.2 deaths per 100,000, to a goal of 33.8 deaths per 100,000 population. Although the rates of death from both CHD and stroke have declined continuously in recent decades and the Healthy People 2010 goals for these two objectives were met among the overall U.S. population in 2004, the death rates remain high, particularly among men and blacks. PMID:24264507

Gillespie, Cathleen D; Wigington, Charles; Hong, Yuling

2013-11-22

476

Effects of Extreme Precipitation to the Distribution of Infectious Diseases in Taiwan, 1994–2008  

PubMed Central

The incidence of extreme precipitation has increased with the exacerbation of worldwide climate disruption. We hypothesize an association between precipitation and the distribution patterns that would affect the endemic burden of 8 infectious diseases in Taiwan, including water- and vector-borne infectious diseases. A database integrating daily precipitation and temperature, along with the infectious disease case registry for all 352 townships in the main island of Taiwan was analysed for the period from 1994 to 2008. Four precipitation levels, <130 mm, 130–200 mm, 200–350 mm and >350 mm, were categorized to represent quantitative differences, and their associations with each specific disease was investigated using the Generalized Additive Mixed Model and afterwards mapped on to the Geographical Information System. Daily precipitation levels were significantly correlated with all 8 mandatory-notified infectious diseases in Taiwan. For water-borne infections, extreme torrential precipitation (>350 mm/day) was found to result in the highest relative risk for bacillary dysentery and enterovirus infections when compared to ordinary rain (<130 mm/day). Yet, for vector-borne diseases, the relative risk of dengue fever and Japanese encephalitis increased with greater precipitation only up to 350 mm. Differential lag effects following precipitation were statistically associated with increased risk for contracting individual infectious diseases. This study’s findings can help health resource sector management better allocate medical resources and be better prepared to deal with infectious disease outbreaks following future extreme precipitation events. PMID:22737206

Chen, Mu-Jean; Lin, Chuan-Yao; Wu, Yi-Ting; Wu, Pei-Chih; Lung, Shih-Chun; Su, Huey-Jen

2012-01-01

477

Anthropogenic environmental change and the emergence of infectious diseases in wildlife  

Microsoft Academic Search

By using the criteria that define emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) of humans, we can identify a similar group of EIDs in wildlife. In the current review we highlight an important series of wildlife EIDs: amphibian chytridiomycosis; diseases of marine invertebrates and vertebrates and two recently-emerged viral zoonoses, Nipah virus disease and West Nile virus disease. These exemplify the varied etiology,

P. Daszak; A. A. Cunningham; A. D. Hyatt

2001-01-01

478

Neutrophil apoptotic cell death: does it contribute to the increased infectious risk in aging?  

PubMed

During the last few years, several studies have pointed out the imbalance of immune response with advancing age, which accounts for the increased susceptibility of elderly individuals to life-threatening diseases. This review is focused on the role of neutrophil apoptosis in the age-associated decline of cytotoxicity towards invading micro-organisms. The results indicate that the overall intrinsic mechanisms regulating neutrophil cell death are unaffected by age. Neutrophils from aged humans exhibit a diminished ability to be rescued by proinflammatory mediators, as well as a weak buffer capacity towards proapoptotic reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated during cell stimulation. Such events may hamper in vivo the accumulation of functionally active cells in inflammatory areas, thus contributing to the increased infection-related risk of morbidity and mortality with advanced age. The impact of these new findings in terms of therapeutic applications is discussed. PMID:11506063

Tortorella, C; Piazzolla, G; Napoli, N; Antonaci, S

2001-01-01

479

Land-Use Change and Emerging Infectious Disease on an Island Continent  

PubMed Central

A more rigorous and nuanced understanding of land-use change (LUC) as a driver of emerging infectious disease (EID) is required. Here we examine post hunter-gatherer LUC as a driver of infectious disease in one biogeographical region with a compressed and documented history—continental Australia. We do this by examining land-use and native vegetation change (LUCC) associations with infectious disease emergence identified through a systematic (1973–2010) and historical (1788–1973) review of infectious disease literature of humans and animals. We find that 22% (20) of the systematically reviewed EIDs are associated with LUCC, most frequently where natural landscapes have been removed or replaced with agriculture, plantations, livestock or urban development. Historical clustering of vector-borne, zoonotic and environmental disease emergence also follows major periods of extensive land clearing. These advanced stages of LUCC are accompanied by changes in the distribution and density of hosts and vectors, at varying scales and chronology. This review of infectious disease emergence in one continent provides valuable insight into the association between accelerated global LUC and concurrent accelerated infectious disease emergence. PMID:23812027

McFarlane, Rosemary A.; Sleigh, Adrian C.; McMichael, Anthony J.

2013-01-01

480

76 FR 3917 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel; Characterization of Pandemic Flu. Date: February 11, 2011. Time: 12 p.m. to 3 p.m. Agenda: To review and evaluate grant applications. Place:...

2011-01-21

481

75 FR 48978 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel; T-Cell Immunology. Date: September 16, 2010. Time: 12:30 p.m. to 4...Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.855, Allergy, Immunology, and Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology...

2010-08-12

482

75 FR 54896 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...niaid.nih.gov. Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel, Nonhuman Primate Major Histocompatibility Complex Gene Discovery and Typing. Date: October 4, 2010. Time: 10 a.m. to 2 p.m....

2010-09-09

483

Ask Dr. Sue--Updates: Infectious Diseases, SIDS, HIV/AIDS.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes new concerns about infectious diseases in childcare settings (tuberculosis, gastrointestinal infections, and lice); sleep position and SIDS; HIV/AIDS issues; and the use of sterilized sand in sand boxes. (DR)

Aronson, Susan S.

1995-01-01

484

Some Similarities between the Spread of an Infectious Disease and Population Growth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A simple simulation demonstrates how spread of an infectious disease can result in exponential increase in the number of infected individuals. Discussion questions and a graphing activity develop an understanding of exponential and logistic population growth.

Doherty, Jennifer; Waldron, Ingrid

485

Toward a transdisciplinary understanding and a global control of emerging infectious diseases.  

PubMed

The Franceville International Centre for Medical Research (CIRMF) organized a first international symposium on infectious diseases, environments, and biodiversity. Over 200 international experts gathered in Gabon to forecast and work to prevent the emergence of infectious diseases. This symposium aimed to strengthen the regional and international fight against the emergence of infectious diseases with high-level scientific debates. Toward this goal, it brought together experts in human and animal health, the environment, and ecology, including biologists, climatologists, microbiologists, epidemiologists, public health professionals, and human and social sciences specialists. National, regional and international participants were present to debate on the challenges related to the emergence of infectious diseases and on the responses to be implemented. The symposium was very successful, and plans for a second symposium of this kind to be held in the near future in another high-biodiversity area are already underway. PMID:22169793

Gonzalez, Jean-Paul; Lambert, Gérard; Legand, Anaďs; Debré, Patrice

2011-12-01

486

Immunopathological characterisation of infectious diseases of the koala and the platypus.  

E-print Network

??Doctor of Philosophy(PhD)%%%This study characterised the pathological and immunopathological features of selected infectious diseases in the koala and the platypus. Originally, lymphosarcoma, cryptococcosis and chlamydiosis… (more)

Connolly, Joanne H.

2000-01-01

487

76 FR 16798 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel; Host Response to Francisella. Date: May 11, 2011. Time: 1 p.m. to 6 p.m. Agenda: To review and evaluate grant applications. Place:...

2011-03-25

488

EPIDEMIOLOGIC APPLICATIONS OF EMERGING INFECTIOUS DISEASE MODELING TO SUPPORT US MILITARY READINESS AND NATIONAL SECURITY  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Advances in epidemiologic modeling offer new opportunities for emerging infectious disease (EID) prediction, detection, and control. Recent applications across diverse fields include simulations of pandemic influenza to evaluate containment strategies, ecological niche modeling to identify potential...

489

Infectious diseases in Yellowstone’s canid community  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Each summer Yellowstone Wolf Project staff visit den sites to monitor the success of wolf reproduction and pup rearing behavior. For the purposes of wolf monitoring, Yellowstone National Park (YNP) is divided into two study areas, the northern range and the interior, each distinguished by their ecological and physiographical differences. The 1,000 square kilometer northern range, characterized by lower elevations (1,500–2,200 m), serves as prime winter habitat for ungulates and supports a higher density of wolves than the interior (20–99 wolves/1,000 km2 versus 2–11 wolves/1,000 km2). The interior of the park encompasses 7,991 square kilometers, is higher in elevation, receives higher annual snowfall, and generally supports lower densities of wolves and ungulates. During the Yellowstone Wolf Project’s 2005 observations on the northern range, researchers noticed that some wolf pups were disappearing and those that remained were unusually listless. The Slough Creek pups, at first numbering 18, dwindled to three survivors. Similar findings were mirrored at other den sites across the northern range. When annual den surveys were conducted in late July, all that remained were scattered piles of bones and fur. Coyotes suffered similar setbacks in 2005, with many of the survivors exhibiting neurological shakes and tremors. The park’s canids had been affected by something, but what? Prompted by what seemed to be a disease outbreak, the Yellowstone Wolf Project, the Yellowstone Ecological Research Center (YERC), and the University of Minnesota decided to take several collaborative approaches toward improving our understanding of the presence and role of infectious disease in Yellowstone’s canid community. Several serological studies have been conducted in the past among the park’s coyotes (Gese et al. 1997) and cougars (Biek 2006), providing a helpful foundation on which to build and compare. A serological survey was conducted, using serum samples collected during routine wolf and coyote captures over a period of 18 years (Almberg et al. 2009). Simulation models were used to explore the dynamics of canine distemper virus (Almberg et al. 2010)—one of the more prominent pathogens in terms of its effects on its hosts—and several long-term pathogen surveillance projects were initiated which are intended to someday provide a foundation for more advanced genetic-based analyses of pathogen dynamics. Since these initial efforts, the group has also expanded the research to include a study of sarcoptic mange, which began affecting wolves and coyotes in YNP in 2006 and 2007.

Almberg, Emily S.; Cross, Paul C.; Mech, L. David; Smith, Doug W.; Sheldon, Jennifer W.; Crabtree, Robert L.

2011-01-01

490

Indirect transmission and the effect of seasonal pathogen inactivation on infectious disease periodicity  

E-print Network

The annual occurrence of many infectious diseases remains a constant burden to public health systems. The seasonal patterns in respiratory disease incidence observed in temperate regions have been attributed to the impact of environmental conditions on pathogen survival. A model describing the transmission of an infectious disease by means of a pathogenic state capable of surviving in an environmental reservoir outside of its host organism is presented in this paper. The ratio of pathogen lifespan to the duration of the infectious disease state is found to be a critical parameter in determining disease dynamics. The introduction of a seasonally forced pathogen inactivation rate identifies a time delay between peak pathogen survival and peak disease incidence. The delay is dependent on specific disease parameters and, for influenza, decreases with increasing reproduction number. The observed seasonal oscillations are found to have a period identical to that of the seasonally forced inactivation rate and which ...

Robinson, Marguerite; Stilianakis, Nikolaos I

2013-01-01

491

Infectious diseases in children and adolescents in the Republic of Korea; Past & recent status  

PubMed Central

Compared to the past decades, in recent decades, environmental and hygienic conditions in the Republic of Korea have improved along with socioeconomic developments, and the incidence of most infectious diseases, especially vaccine-preventable diseases, has greatly decreased due to active immunization with the developed level of health care. However, the incidence of some diseases has been increasing, and new diseases have been emerging. To cope with such changes actively, the government put the "Law for Control and Prevention of Infectious Diseases" into effect; this law was entirely revised on December 30, 2010. In this report, I review the past and recent status of infectious diseases in the Republic of Korea, following the introduction of this law, on the basis of data in the "National Notifiable Disease Surveillance System", which had been accumulated between the years 1960 and 2010. PMID:22323905

2011-01-01

492

A role for methotrexate in the management of non-infectious orbital inflammatory disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

AIMTo evaluate the clinical usefulness of methotrexate for patients with non-infectious orbital inflammatory disease who fail to respond to systemic corticosteroids and\\/or orbital irradiation.METHODSThe medical records of patients with non-infectious orbital inflammatory disease who were treated with methotrexate at Oregon Health Sciences University between June 1993 and June 2000 were examined. Methotrexate was administered at a median maximum dose of

Justine R Smith; James T Rosenbaum

2001-01-01

493

Cell death in health and disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cell death is clearly an important factor in development, homeostasis, pathology and in aging, but medical efforts based on controlling cell death have not become major aspects of medicine. There are several rea- sons why hopes have been slow to be fulfilled, and they present indications for new directions in research. Most effort has focused on the machinery of cell

Richard A Lockshin; Zahra Zakeri

2007-01-01

494

Evaluating potential infectious disease threats for southern resident killer whales, Orcinus orca: a model for endangered species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Infectious diseases have the potential to play a role in the decline of threatened wildlife populations, as well as negatively affect their long-term viability, but determining which infectious agents present risks can be difficult. The southern resident killer whale, Orcinus orca, population is endangered and little is known about infectious diseases in this species. Using available reference literature, we identified

Joseph K. Gaydos; Kenneth C. Balcomb; Richard W. Osborne; Leslie Dierauf

2004-01-01

495

Route prediction model of infectious diseases for 2018 Winter Olympics in Korea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There are many types of respiratory infectious diseases caused by germs, virus, mycetes and parasites. Researchers recently have tried to develop mathematical models to predict the epidemic of infectious diseases. However, with the development of ground transportation system in modern society, the spread of infectious diseases became faster and more complicated in terms of the speed and the pathways. The route of infectious diseases during Vancouver Olympics was predicted based on the Susceptible-Infectious-Recovered (SIR) model. In this model only the air traffic as an essential factor for the intercity migration of infectious diseases was involved. Here, we propose a multi-city transmission model to predict the infection route during 2018 Winter Olympics in Korea based on the pre-existing SIR model. Various types of transportation system such as a train, a car, a bus, and an airplane for the interpersonal contact in both inter- and intra-city are considered. Simulation is performed with assumptions and scenarios based on realistic factors including demographic, transportation and diseases data in Korea. Finally, we analyze an economic profit and loss caused by the variation of the number of tourists during the Olympics.

Kim, Eungyeong; Lee, Seok; Byun, Young Tae; Kim, Jae Hun; Lee, Hyuk-jae; Lee, Taikjin

2014-03-01

496

Modeling Infectious Disease in Mice: Co-Adaptation and the Role of Host-Specific IFNc Responses  

E-print Network

]. Such host tropism or host restriction limits the usefulness of the mouse as a model for infectious disease restriction. Species-Specific Immune Evasion by Pathogens Contributes to Host Tropism For many infectious

Starnbach, Michael

497

Edge-Based Compartmental Modeling for Infectious Disease Spread Part III: Disease and Population Structure  

E-print Network

We consider the edge-based compartmental models for infectious disease spread introduced in Part I. These models allow us to consider standard SIR diseases spreading in random populations. In this paper we show how to handle deviations of the disease or population from the simplistic assumptions of Part I. We allow the population to have structure due to effects such as demographic detail or multiple types of risk behavior the disease to have more complicated natural history. We introduce these modifications in the static network context, though it is straightforward to incorporate them into dynamic networks. We also consider serosorting, which requires using the dynamic network models. The basic methods we use to derive these generalizations are widely applicable, and so it is straightforward to introduce many other generalizations not considered here.

Miller, Joel C

2011-01-01

498

Emerging Infectious Disease Leads to Rapid Population Declines of Common British Birds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emerging infectious diseases are increasingly cited as threats to wildlife, livestock and humans alike. They can threaten geographically isolated or critically endangered wildlife populations; however, relatively few studies have clearly demonstrated the extent to which emerging diseases can impact populations of common wildlife species. Here, we report the impact of an emerging protozoal disease on British populations of greenfinch Carduelis

Robert A. Robinson; Becki Lawson; Mike P. Toms; Kirsi M. Peck; James K. Kirkwood; Julian Chantrey; Innes R. Clatworthy; Andy D. Evans; Laura A. Hughes; Oliver C. Hutchinson; Shinto K. John; Tom W. Pennycott; Matthew W. Perkins; Peter S. Rowley; Vic R. Simpson; Kevin M. Tyler; Andrew A. Cunningham; Sean Rands

2010-01-01

499

95Vol. 5, No. 1, JanuaryFebruary 1999 Emerging Infectious Diseases Hantaviruses (genus Hantavirus, family  

E-print Network

disease. Since 1993, when hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) was recognized and its etiologic agent, Sin95Vol. 5, No. 1, JanuaryFebruary 1999 Emerging Infectious Diseases Hantavirus Hantaviruses (genus]) and among rodents (frequently by aggressive encounters and biting [6,7]). Human diseases due to hantaviruses

500

The ecology of infectious disease: Effects of host diversity and community composition  

E-print Network

The ecology of infectious disease: Effects of host diversity and community composition on Lyme of human risk of exposure to Lyme- disease-bearing ticks. We tested the Dilution Effect model, which of vertebrate biodiversity and community com- position can reduce the incidence of Lyme disease. The inexorable