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Sample records for death infectious diseases

  1. [Struggle against infectious diseases in children in the Magallanes Region: death, passion and life (Part I)].

    PubMed

    Vieira, Matías

    2013-12-01

    Historical background of infectious diseases of children in the Region of Magallanes is reviewed, with special emphasis on their impact on infant mortality. For purposes of publication, the research is divided into two parts. In this first one, we present a brief relation of the facts that led to the death of almost all of the Spanish colonizers of the Strait of Magellan, including children (1584-1590); following, a description of the available data on infectious diseases affecting Patagonian Indians before contact with white man. Finally we describe the health situation in Punta Arenas, from the foundation of Bulnes Fort until the end of the 19th century. PMID:24522318

  2. Infectious disease

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pierson, Duane L.

    1990-01-01

    This is a collection of viewgraphs on the Johnson Space Center's work on infectious disease. It addresses their major concern over outbreaks of infectious disease that could jeopardize the health, safety and/or performance of crew members engaged in long duration space missions. The Antarctic environment is seen as an analogous location on Earth and a good place to carry out such infectious disease studies and methods for proposed studies as suggested.

  3. Pediatric in-Hospital Death from Infectious Disease in Uganda: Derivation of Clinical Prediction Models

    PubMed Central

    Lowlaavar, Nasim; Larson, Charles P.; Kumbakumba, Elias; Zhou, Guohai; Ansermino, J. Mark; Singer, Joel; Kissoon, Niranjan; Wong, Hubert; Ndamira, Andrew; Kabakyenga, Jerome; Kiwanuka, Julius; Wiens, Matthew O.

    2016-01-01

    Background Pediatric hospital mortality from infectious diseases in resource constrained countries remains unacceptably high. Improved methods of risk-stratification can assist in referral decision making and resource allocation. The purpose of this study was to create prediction models for in-hospital mortality among children admitted with suspected infectious diseases. Methods This two-site prospective observational study enrolled children between 6 months and 5 years admitted with a proven or suspected infection. Baseline clinical and laboratory variables were collected on enrolled children. The primary outcome was death during admission. Stepwise logistic regression minimizing Akaike’s information criterion was used to identify the most promising multivariate models. The final model was chosen based on parsimony. Results 1307 children were enrolled consecutively, and 65 (5%) of whom died during their admission. Malaria, pneumonia and gastroenteritis were diagnosed in 50%, 31% and 8% of children, respectively. The primary model included an abnormal Blantyre coma scale, HIV and weight-for-age z-score. This model had an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.85 (95% CI, 0.80–0.89) with a sensitivity and specificity of 83% and 76%, respectively. The positive and negative predictive values were 15% and 99%, respectively. Two alternate models with similar performance characteristics were developed withholding HIV and weight-for-age z-score, for use when these variables are not available. Conclusions Risk stratification of children admitted with infectious diseases can be calculated based on several easily measured variables. Risk stratification at admission can be used for allocation of scarce human and physical resources and to guide referral among children admitted to lower level health facilities. PMID:26963914

  4. Postmortem diagnosis of infectious heart diseases: A mystifying cause of Sudden Infant Death.

    PubMed

    Gaaloul, Imed; Riabi, Samira; Evans, Mark; Hunter, Timothy; Huber, Sally; Aouni, Mahjoub

    2016-05-01

    Sudden infant death (SID) is an unresolved problem of high relevance and previous studies have indicated a role of viral heart infections. The diagnosis remains difficult in clinical practice using routine diagnostic tests and must be substantially improved. A prospective study based on post-mortem samples from SID victims whose heart disease was not clinically recognized was conducted for 4 years in a Tunisian University Hospital. Pediatric cases of unnatural death served as controls. Both SID victims and controls were investigated for possible coxsackievirus-B (CV-B) infection in heart tissue. During the study period, 39 cases with a male predominance (77%) were reported. There was no positive family history of coronary artery disease among the victims. In 35 cases (90%), low birth weight and/or critical development period were reported. All SID victims had complained of mild fever and insomnia for a few days preceding death, which required infectious laboratory investigations marked with an elevated white blood cell count (WBC) and C-reactive protein (CRP). The cardiac biomarkers were also elevated. The histopathological investigations of the heart tissue samples revealed signs of myocardial and pericardial inflammation. Enterovirus was detected by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and PCR from myocardial samples from 6 cases (15.3%) having myocarditis and 3 cases (7.7%) having perimyocarditis. The current study is of great interest and is aimed at urging health professionals to adopt systematically long intensive heart care in infants with underlying vulnerability as well as new diagnostic approaches including histopathology complemented with IHC and molecular pathology. PMID:27016640

  5. Ethics and infectious disease.

    PubMed

    Selgelid, Michael J

    2005-06-01

    Bioethics apparently suffers from a misdistribution of research resources analogous to the '10/90' divide in medical research. Though infectious disease should be recognized as a topic of primary importance for bioethics, the general topic of infectious disease has received relatively little attention from the discipline of bioethics in comparison with things like abortion, euthanasia, genetics, cloning, stem cell research, and so on. The fact that the historical and potential future consequences of infectious diseases are almost unrivalled is one reason that the topic of infectious disease warrants more attention from bioethicists. The 'Black Death' eliminated one third of the European population during the 14th Century; the 1989 flu killed between 20 and 100 million people; and, in the 20th Century smallpox killed perhaps three times more people than all the wars of that period. In the contemporary world, epidemics (AIDS, multi-drug resistant turberculosis, and newly emerging infectious diseases such as SARS) continue to have dramatic consequences. A second reason why the topic of infectious disease deserves further attention is that it raises difficult ethical questions of its own. While infected individuals can threaten the health of other individuals and society as a whole, for example, public health care measures such as surveillance, isolation, and quarantine can require the infringement of widely accepted basic human rights and liberties. An important and difficult ethical question asks how to strike a balance between the utilitarian aim of promoting public health, on the one hand, and libertarian aims of protecting privacy and freedom of movement, on the other, in contexts involving diseases that are--to varying degrees--contagious, deadly, or otherwise dangerous. Third, since their burden is most heavily shouldered by the poor (in developing countries), infectious diseases involve issues of justice--which should be a central concern of ethics. I conclude by providing sociological and historical explanations of why the topic of infectious disease has not already received more attention from bioethicists. PMID:16167406

  6. [Struggle against infectious diseases in children in the Magallanes region: death, passion and life. (Part II)].

    PubMed

    Vieira, Matías

    2014-02-01

    The first part of this work was published in the previous issue of this magazine. In order to finalize with the historical review of infectious diseases which have been determining factors on regional infant mortality, we analyze firstly the case of religious missions and its impact on the rapid extinction of Patagonian Indians. Secondly, we review the health situation of Punta Arenas during the first half of the 20th century, switching from a high mortality rate from infectious or contagious diseases, to a remarkable improvement in this issue, coming to bear the best health indicators in the country. PMID:24740781

  7. Malnutrition as an underlying cause of childhood deaths associated with infectious diseases in developing countries.

    PubMed Central

    Rice, A. L.; Sacco, L.; Hyder, A.; Black, R. E.

    2000-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Recent estimates suggest that malnutrition (measured as poor anthropometric status) is associated with about 50% of all deaths among children. Although the association between malnutrition and all-cause mortality is well documented, the malnutrition-related risk of death associated with specific diseases is less well described. We reviewed published literature to examine the evidence for a relation between malnutrition and child mortality from diarrhoea, acute respiratory illness, malaria and measles, conditions that account for over 50% of deaths in children worldwide. METHODS: MEDLINE was searched for suitable review articles and original reports of community-based and hospital-based studies. Findings from cohort studies and case-control studies were reviewed and summarized. RESULTS: The strongest and most consistent relation between malnutrition and an increased risk of death was observed for diarrhoea and acute respiratory infection. The evidence, although limited, also suggests a potentially increased risk for death from malaria. A less consistent association was observed between nutritional status and death from measles. Although some hospital-based studies and case-control studies reported an increased risk of mortality from measles, few community-based studies reported any association. DISCUSSION: The risk of malnutrition-related mortality seems to vary for different diseases. These findings have important implications for the evaluation of nutritional intervention programmes and child survival programmes being implemented in settings with different disease profiles. PMID:11100616

  8. Modeling Infectious Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... more confidence in the predictions. Who builds the models? Since May 2004, a network of researchers has ... National Academy of Sciences What diseases does MIDAS model? The MIDAS network focuses on infectious disease outbreaks, ...

  9. Mitigating Infectious Disease Outbreaks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davey, Victoria

    The emergence of new, transmissible infections poses a significant threat to human populations. As the 2009 novel influenza A/H1N1 pandemic and the 2014-2015 Ebola epidemic demonstrate, we have observed the effects of rapid spread of illness in non-immune populations and experienced disturbing uncertainty about future potential for human suffering and societal disruption. Clinical and epidemiologic characteristics of a newly emerged infectious organism are usually gathered in retrospect as the outbreak evolves and affects populations. Knowledge of potential effects of outbreaks and epidemics and most importantly, mitigation at community, regional, national and global levels is needed to inform policy that will prepare and protect people. Study of possible outcomes of evolving epidemics and application of mitigation strategies is not possible in observational or experimental research designs, but computational modeling allows conduct of `virtual' experiments. Results of well-designed computer simulations can aid in the selection and implementation of strategies that limit illness and death, and maintain systems of healthcare and other critical resources that are vital to public protection. Mitigating Infectious Disease Outbreaks.

  10. [Proteomics in infectious diseases].

    PubMed

    Quero, Sara; Párraga-Niño, Noemí; García-Núñez, Marian; Sabrià, Miquel

    2016-04-01

    Infectious diseases have a high incidence in the population, causing a major impact on global health. In vitro culture of microorganisms is the first technique applied for infection diagnosis which is laborious and time consuming. In recent decades, efforts have been focused on the applicability of «Omics» sciences, highlighting the progress provided by proteomic techniques in the field of infectious diseases. This review describes the management, processing and analysis of biological samples for proteomic research. PMID:25583331

  11. Seasonality of infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Fisman, David N

    2007-01-01

    Seasonality, a periodic surge in disease incidence corresponding to seasons or other calendar periods, characterizes many infectious diseases of public health importance. The recognition of seasonal patterns in infectious disease occurrence dates back at least as far as the Hippocratic era, but mechanisms underlying seasonality of person-to-person transmitted diseases are not well understood. Improved understanding will enhance understanding of host-pathogen interactions and will improve the accuracy of public health surveillance and forecasting systems. Insight into seasonal disease patterns may be gained through the use of autocorrelation methods or construction of periodograms, while seasonal oscillation of infectious diseases can be easily simulated using simple transmission models. Models demonstrate that small seasonal changes in host or pathogen factors may be sufficient to create large seasonal surges in disease incidence, which may be important particularly in the context of global climate change. Seasonality represents a rich area for future research. PMID:17222079

  12. Melioidosis: an emerging infectious disease.

    PubMed

    Raja, N S; Ahmed, M Z; Singh, N N

    2005-01-01

    Infectious diseases account for a third of all the deaths in the developing world. Achievements in understanding the basic microbiology, pathogenesis, host defenses and expanded epidemiology of infectious diseases have resulted in better management and reduced mortality. However, an emerging infectious disease, melioidosis, is becoming endemic in the tropical regions of the world and is spreading to non-endemic areas. This article highlights the current understanding of melioidosis including advances in diagnosis, treatment and prevention. Better understanding of melioidosis is essential, as it is life-threatening and if untreated, patients can succumb to it. Our sources include a literature review, information from international consensus meetings on melioidosis and ongoing discussions within the medical and scientific community. PMID:16006713

  13. Why infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Bartlett, John G

    2014-09-15

    Infectious diseases is a broad discipline that is almost unique in contemporary medicine with its ability to cure and prevent disease, to identify specific disease causes (microbes), and to deal with diverse, sometimes massive outbreaks. The value of the infectious disease practitioner is now magnified by the crisis of antibiotic resistance, the expanding consequences of international travel, the introduction of completely new pathogen diagnostics, and healthcare reform with emphasis on infection prevention and cost in dollars and lives. Infectious disease careers have great personal rewards to the practitioner based on these observations. It is unfortunate that we have been so effective in our work, but relatively ineffective in convincing the healthcare system of this value. PMID:25151484

  14. Controlling Infectious Diseases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, Wm. Lane; Fidler, David P.

    1997-01-01

    Advocates establishing programs to educate the public about the growing threat of communicable diseases and to promote effective strategies. Utilizes recent successes and failures to formulate those strategies. Profiles three recent infectious disease outbreaks that illustrate some of the current problems. Identifies four ways that lawyers can…

  15. Eosinophilia in Infectious Diseases.

    PubMed

    O'Connell, Elise M; Nutman, Thomas B

    2015-08-01

    In determining the etiology of eosinophilia, it is necessary to consider the type of patient, including previous travel and exposure history, comorbidities, and symptoms. In this review, we discuss the approach to the patient with eosinophilia from an infectious diseases perspective based on symptom complexes. PMID:26209897

  16. Addressing the challenges of emerging infectious disease.

    PubMed

    Pinner, R W

    1996-01-01

    Through the recent examples of diphtheria in the former Soviet Union, plague in India, and trends in pneumonia mortality in the United States, the author, in this article, illustrates issues in emerging infectious diseases. The Centers for Disease Control's plan, Addressing Emerging Infectious Disease Threats: A Prevention Strategy for the United States, is summarized. Initial efforts to implement this plan are described, with particular focus on the development of Emerging Infections Programs, which are conducting epidemiologic and laboratory projects on several infectious diseases, including invasive bacterial diseases, unexplained deaths, foodborne diseases, and ehrlichiosis in four population-based sites in the United States. PMID:8571983

  17. Seasonal infectious disease epidemiology

    PubMed Central

    Grassly, Nicholas C; Fraser, Christophe

    2006-01-01

    Seasonal change in the incidence of infectious diseases is a common phenomenon in both temperate and tropical climates. However, the mechanisms responsible for seasonal disease incidence, and the epidemiological consequences of seasonality, are poorly understood with rare exception. Standard epidemiological theory and concepts such as the basic reproductive number R0 no longer apply, and the implications for interventions that themselves may be periodic, such as pulse vaccination, have not been formally examined. This paper examines the causes and consequences of seasonality, and in so doing derives several new results concerning vaccination strategy and the interpretation of disease outbreak data. It begins with a brief review of published scientific studies in support of different causes of seasonality in infectious diseases of humans, identifying four principal mechanisms and their association with different routes of transmission. It then describes the consequences of seasonality for R0, disease outbreaks, endemic dynamics and persistence. Finally, a mathematical analysis of routine and pulse vaccination programmes for seasonal infections is presented. The synthesis of seasonal infectious disease epidemiology attempted by this paper highlights the need for further empirical and theoretical work. PMID:16959647

  18. [Notable imported infectious diseases].

    PubMed

    Ohnishi, Kenji

    2011-03-01

    Japanese doctors are somewhat unfamiliar with imported infectious diseases, however, the following imported infectious diseases are notable: cholera, which is currently endemic in Haiti and which there is a possibility of it being imported to Japan from endemic areas; typhoid fever and paratyphoid fever, whose causative organisms showing low sensitivity to fluoroquinolones have become predominant; rabies, which exhibits a high mortality; avian influenza H5N1, which has the possibility of changing into a new type of human influenza; chikungunya fever, in which the number of Japanese patients is increasing; and cyclosporiasis, which led to a number of food poisonings in the USA and Canada, and as a growing number of Japanese travel abroad, the number of infected Japanese patients returning from endemic areas will increase. It is thus important to identify the presence of these diseases on diagnosis. PMID:21560415

  19. Bedbugs and Infectious Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Blanc, Véronique; Del Giudice, Pascal; Levy-Bencheton, Anna; Chosidow, Olivier; Marty, Pierre; Brouqui, Philippe

    2011-01-01

    Bedbugs are brown and flat hematophagous insects. The 2 cosmopolite species, Cimex lectularius and Cimex hemipterus, feed on humans and/or domestic animals, and recent outbreaks have been reported in occidental countries. Site assessment for bedbug eradication is complex but can be assured, despite emerging insecticide resistance, by hiring a pest-control manager. The common dermatological presentation of bites is an itchy maculopapular wheal. Urticarial reactions and anaphylaxis can also occur. Bedbugs are suspected of transmitting infectious agents, but no report has yet demonstrated that they are infectious disease vectors. We describe 45 candidate pathogens potentially transmitted by bedbugs, according to their vectorial capacity, in the wild, and vectorial competence, in the laboratory. Because of increasing demands for information about effective control tactics and public health risks of bedbugs, continued research is needed to identify new pathogens in wild Cimex species (spp) and insecticide resistance. PMID:21288844

  20. Prioritising Infectious Disease Mapping

    PubMed Central

    Pigott, David M.; Howes, Rosalind E.; Wiebe, Antoinette; Battle, Katherine E.; Golding, Nick; Gething, Peter W.; Dowell, Scott F.; Farag, Tamer H.; Garcia, Andres J.; Kimball, Ann M.; Krause, L. Kendall; Smith, Craig H.; Brooker, Simon J.; Kyu, Hmwe H.; Vos, Theo; Murray, Christopher J. L.; Moyes, Catherine L.; Hay, Simon I.

    2015-01-01

    Background Increasing volumes of data and computational capacity afford unprecedented opportunities to scale up infectious disease (ID) mapping for public health uses. Whilst a large number of IDs show global spatial variation, comprehensive knowledge of these geographic patterns is poor. Here we use an objective method to prioritise mapping efforts to begin to address the large deficit in global disease maps currently available. Methodology/Principal Findings Automation of ID mapping requires bespoke methodological adjustments tailored to the epidemiological characteristics of different types of diseases. Diseases were therefore grouped into 33 clusters based upon taxonomic divisions and shared epidemiological characteristics. Disability-adjusted life years, derived from the Global Burden of Disease 2013 study, were used as a globally consistent metric of disease burden. A review of global health stakeholders, existing literature and national health priorities was undertaken to assess relative interest in the diseases. The clusters were ranked by combining both metrics, which identified 44 diseases of main concern within 15 principle clusters. Whilst malaria, HIV and tuberculosis were the highest priority due to their considerable burden, the high priority clusters were dominated by neglected tropical diseases and vector-borne parasites. Conclusions/Significance A quantitative, easily-updated and flexible framework for prioritising diseases is presented here. The study identifies a possible future strategy for those diseases where significant knowledge gaps remain, as well as recognising those where global mapping programs have already made significant progress. For many conditions, potential shared epidemiological information has yet to be exploited. PMID:26061527

  1. [Globalization and infectious diseases].

    PubMed

    Mirski, Tomasz; Bartoszcze, Michał; Bielawska-Drózd, Agata

    2011-01-01

    Globalization is a phenomenon characteristic of present times. It can be considered in various aspects: economic, environmental changes, demographic changes, as well as the development of new technologies. All these aspects of globalization have a definite influence on the emergence and spread of infectious diseases. Economic aspects ofglobalization are mainly the trade development, including food trade, which has an impact on the spread of food-borne diseases. The environmental changes caused by intensive development of industry, as a result of globalization, which in turn affects human health. The demographic changes are mainly people migration between countries and rural and urban areas, which essentially favors the global spread of many infectious diseases. While technological advances prevents the spread of infections, for example through better access to information, it may also increase the risk, for example through to create opportunities to travel into more world regions, including the endemic regions for various diseases. The phenomenon ofglobalization is also closely associated with the threat of terrorism, including bioterrorism. It forces the governments of many countries to develop effective programs to protect and fight against this threat. PMID:22390054

  2. Infectious bursal disease (Gumboro disease).

    PubMed

    van den Berg, T P; Eterradossi, N; Toquin, D; Meulemans, G

    2000-08-01

    Infectious bursal disease (IBD) (Gumboro disease) has been described throughout the world, and the socio-economic significance of the disease is considerable world-wide. Various forms of the disease have been described, but typing remains unclear, since antigenic and pathotypic criteria are used indiscriminately, and the true incidence of different types is difficult to determine. Moreover, the infection, when not fatal, leads to a degree of immunosuppression which is often difficult to measure. Finally, the control measures used are subject to variations, and seldom follow a specific or standardised plan. In the context of expanding international trade, the authors provide an overview of existing knowledge on the subject to enhance available information on the epidemiology of IBD, the identification of reliable viral markers for diagnosis, and the implementation of specific control measures to ensure a global and co-ordinated approach to the disease. PMID:10935278

  3. Integral equation models for endemic infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Hethcote, H W; Tudor, D W

    1980-03-01

    Endemic infectious diseases for which infection confers permanent immunity are described by a system of nonlinear Volterra integral equations of convolution type. These constant-parameter models include vital dynamics (birth and deaths), immunization and distributed infectious period. The models are shown to be well posed, the threshold criteria are determined and the asymptotic behavior is analysed. It is concluded that distributed delays do not change the thresholds and the asymptotic behaviors of the models. PMID:7365328

  4. BORDER INFECTIOUS DISEASES SURVEILLANCE PROJECT

    EPA Science Inventory

    In 1997, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the Mexican Secretariat of Health, and border health officials began the development of the Border Infectious Disease Surveillance (BIDS) project, a surveillance system for infectious diseases along the U.S.-Mexico border. ...

  5. [Infectious diseases (beside AIDS)].

    PubMed

    Bellini, C; Senn, L; Zanetti, G

    2008-01-01

    A simplified version of the US guidelines for prophylaxis of infectious endocarditis was published in 2007. Changes are expected in Switzerland as well. Posaconsole is a new antifungal agent available mostly for prophylaxis in immunocompromised patients. Epidemiology of sexually transmitted infections warrants screening in young adults and after one episode. A meta-analysis clarified the impact of antibiotic therapy in patients with Campylobacter spp. infection. In the field of emerging diseases, we discuss Norovirus epidemics, community-acquired bacteria producing extended-spectrum betalactamases, extensively resistant tuberculosis, and new respiratory viruses. Finally, we address a basic research topic that may change practice in the future: the relationship between individual susceptibility to infection and innate immunity. PMID:18251213

  6. Global mapping of infectious disease

    PubMed Central

    Hay, Simon I.; Battle, Katherine E.; Pigott, David M.; Smith, David L.; Moyes, Catherine L.; Bhatt, Samir; Brownstein, John S.; Collier, Nigel; Myers, Monica F.; George, Dylan B.; Gething, Peter W.

    2013-01-01

    The primary aim of this review was to evaluate the state of knowledge of the geographical distribution of all infectious diseases of clinical significance to humans. A systematic review was conducted to enumerate cartographic progress, with respect to the data available for mapping and the methods currently applied. The results helped define the minimum information requirements for mapping infectious disease occurrence, and a quantitative framework for assessing the mapping opportunities for all infectious diseases. This revealed that of 355 infectious diseases identified, 174 (49%) have a strong rationale for mapping and of these only 7 (4%) had been comprehensively mapped. A variety of ambitions, such as the quantification of the global burden of infectious disease, international biosurveillance, assessing the likelihood of infectious disease outbreaks and exploring the propensity for infectious disease evolution and emergence, are limited by these omissions. An overview of the factors hindering progress in disease cartography is provided. It is argued that rapid improvement in the landscape of infectious diseases mapping can be made by embracing non-conventional data sources, automation of geo-positioning and mapping procedures enabled by machine learning and information technology, respectively, in addition to harnessing labour of the volunteer ‘cognitive surplus’ through crowdsourcing. PMID:23382431

  7. Infectious Diseases in Day Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sleator, Esther K.

    Discussed in this publication are infectious illnesses for which children attending day care appear to be at special risk. Also covered are the common cold, some infectious disease problems receiving media attention, and some other annoying but not serious diseases, such as head lice, pinworms, and contagious skin conditions. Causes,…

  8. 76 FR 39041 - Infectious Diseases

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-05

    ...-596, 84 STAT. 1590 (29 U.S.C. 653, 655, 657), Secretary of Labor's Order No. 4-2010 (75 FR 55355 (Sept... Occupational Safety and Health Administration 29 CFR Part 1910 RIN 1218-AC46 Infectious Diseases AGENCY... exposure to infectious diseases. OSHA plans to use the information gathered at these meetings to...

  9. Conflict and Emerging Infectious Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Legros, Dominique; Formenty, Pierre; Connolly, Maire A.

    2007-01-01

    Detection and control of emerging infectious diseases in conflict situations are major challenges due to multiple risk factors known to enhance emergence and transmission of infectious diseases. These include inadequate surveillance and response systems, destroyed infrastructure, collapsed health systems and disruption of disease control programs, and infection control practices even more inadequate than those in resource-poor settings, as well as ongoing insecurity and poor coordination among humanitarian agencies. This article outlines factors that potentiate emergence and transmission of infectious diseases in conflict situations and highlights several priority actions for their containment and control. PMID:18217543

  10. Infectious and coronary artery disease

    PubMed Central

    Rezaee-Zavareh, Mohammad Saeid; Tohidi, Mohammad; Sabouri, Amin; Ramezani-Binabaj, Mahdi; Sadeghi-Ghahrodi, Mohsen; Einollahi, Behzad

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Atherosclerotic event is one of the most causes of death in the world. Coronary artery disease (CAD) is one manifestation of atherosclerosis. It is well-known that several risk factors, such as diabetes mellitus (DM), smoking, hypertension (HTN), have effects on it. It is proposed that infection can lead to atherosclerosis or even make its process faster. Here, we discuss about the effect of some of infectious agents on the atherosclerosis and CAD. METHODS In this study, first we did a comprehensive search in PubMed, Scopus, and Science Direct using some related keywords such as atherosclerosis, CAD, myocardial infarction (MI), infection, and name of viruses and bacteria. After finding the related papers, we reviewed the correlation between some microbial agents and risk of CAD. RESULTS Literature has reported several infectious agents (viruses, bacteria, and parasites) that can be associated with risk of CAD. This association for some of them like Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori), Chlamydia pneumonia (C. pneumoniae), and Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a very strong. On the other hand, there are some other agents like influenza that still need to be more investigated through original studies. Furthermore, different mechanisms (general and special) have been reported for the association of each agent with CAD. CONCLUSION Based on the studies in databases and our literature review, it is so clear that some microbes and infectious agents can be involved in the process of atherosclerosis. Therefore, controlling each type of infections especially among people with a traditional risk factor for atherosclerosis should be taken into account for reducing the risk of CAD and atherosclerosis. PMID:27114736

  11. Vasculitis and infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Satta, R; Biondi, G

    2015-04-01

    Vasculitis usually presents without a well-known underline cause (idiopathic vasculitis), nevertheless, it is sometimes possible to find out one or more causative agents (secondary vasculitis). Nowadays, thanks to the increasing amount of precise diagnostic tools, a piece of idiopathic vasculitis is reclassified as associated with probable etiology, which can be set off by several factors, such as infections. Infections are considered to be the most common cause of secondary vasculitis. Virtually, every infectious agent can trigger a vasculitis by different mechanisms which can be divided in two main categories: direct and indirect. In the former, infectious agents destroy directly the vascular wall leading, eventually, to a subsequent inflammatory response. In the latter, indirect form, they stimulate an immune response against blood vessels. Different infectious agents are able to directly damage the vascular wall. Among these, it is possible to recognize Staphylococcus spp, Streptococcus spp, Salmonella spp, Treponema spp, Rickettsia spp, Cytomegalovirus, Herpes Simplex Virus 1 and 2, and many others which have a peculiar tropism for endothelial cells. Conversely, another group of microbial agents, such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Mycobacterium leprae, Hepatits B Virus, Human Immunodeficiency Virus and others, trigger vasculitis in the indirect way. This is due to the fact that they can share epitopes with the host or modify self-antigens, thus leading to a cross-self reaction of the immune system. These mechanism, in turn, leads to immunological responses classified as type I-IV by Gell-Coombs. Nevertheless, it is difficult to strictly separate the direct and indirect forms, because most infectious agents can cause vasculitis in both ways (mixed forms). This paper will analyze the link between infectious agents and vasculitis, focusing on direct and indirect secondary vasculitis, and on a group of probable infection-related idiopathic vasculitis, and finally on a group of idiopathic vasculitis with microbiological triggers. Furthermore, a diagnostic and therapeutic approach to vasculitis when an underline infection has been suspected is suggested. PMID:25876145

  12. Infectious Disease, Endangerment, and Extinction

    PubMed Central

    MacPhee, Ross D. E.; Greenwood, Alex D.

    2013-01-01

    Infectious disease, especially virulent infectious disease, is commonly regarded as a cause of fluctuation or decline in biological populations. However, it is not generally considered as a primary factor in causing the actual endangerment or extinction of species. We review here the known historical examples in which disease has, or has been assumed to have had, a major deleterious impact on animal species, including extinction, and highlight some recent cases in which disease is the chief suspect in causing the outright endangerment of particular species. We conclude that the role of disease in historical extinctions at the population or species level may have been underestimated. Recent methodological breakthroughs may lead to a better understanding of the past and present roles of infectious disease in influencing population fitness and other parameters. PMID:23401844

  13. Trends in Infectious Disease Mortality Rates, Spain, 1980–2011

    PubMed Central

    Llácer, Alicia; Palmera-Suárez, Rocio; Gómez-Barroso, Diana; Savulescu, Camelia; González-Yuste, Paloma; Fernández-Cuenca, Rafael

    2014-01-01

    Using mortality data from National Institute of Statistics in Spain, we analyzed trends of infectious disease mortality rates in Spain during 1980–2011 to provide information on surveillance and control of infectious diseases. During the study period, 628,673 infectious disease–related deaths occurred, the annual change in the mortality rate was −1.6%, and the average infectious disease mortality rate was 48.5 deaths/100,000 population. Although the beginning of HIV/AIDS epidemic led to an increased mortality rate, a decreased rate was observed by the end of the twentieth century. By codes from the International Classification of Diseases, 9th revision, the most frequent underlying cause of death was pneumonia. Emergence and reemergence of infectious diseases continue to be public health problems despite reduced mortality rates produced by various interventions. Therefore, surveillance and control systems should be reinforced with a goal of providing reliable data for useful decision making. PMID:24750997

  14. IDBD: Infectious Disease Biomarker Database

    PubMed Central

    Yang, In Seok; Ryu, Chunsun; Cho, Ki Joon; Kim, Jin Kwang; Ong, Swee Hoe; Mitchell, Wayne P.; Kim, Bong Su; Kim, Kyung Hyun

    2008-01-01

    Biomarkers enable early diagnosis, guide molecularly targeted therapy and monitor the activity and therapeutic responses across a variety of diseases. Despite intensified interest and research, however, the overall rate of development of novel biomarkers has been falling. Moreover, no solution is yet available that efficiently retrieves and processes biomarker information pertaining to infectious diseases. Infectious Disease Biomarker Database (IDBD) is one of the first efforts to build an easily accessible and comprehensive literature-derived database covering known infectious disease biomarkers. IDBD is a community annotation database, utilizing collaborative Web 2.0 features, providing a convenient user interface to input and revise data online. It allows users to link infectious diseases or pathogens to protein, gene or carbohydrate biomarkers through the use of search tools. It supports various types of data searches and application tools to analyze sequence and structure features of potential and validated biomarkers. Currently, IDBD integrates 611 biomarkers for 66 infectious diseases and 70 pathogens. It is publicly accessible at http://biomarker.cdc.go.kr and http://biomarker.korea.ac.kr. PMID:17982173

  15. Human migration and infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Soto, S M

    2009-01-01

    Emerging infectious diseases (EID) are defined as diseases that have appeared recently or that have recently increased in their frequency, geographical distribution or both. Commercial globalisation, population movements and environmental changes are the main factors favouring the international spread of microorganisms. Transport and communication development constitutes also a remarkable factor in the worldwide dispersion of microorganisms. The mass movement of large numbers of people creates new opportunities for the spread and establishment of common or novel infectious diseases. A surveillance system to detect emergent and re-emergent infections, a rapid responsiveness of healthcare systems and laboratories, vector control, and the provision of healthcare education programmes to inform the population of how to avoid infections are needed in order to stop the spread of infectious diseases. PMID:19220349

  16. Preventing Infectious Disease in Sports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howe, Warren B.

    2003-01-01

    Preventing infectious disease in sports is fundamental to maintaining team effectiveness and helping athletes avoid the adverse effects of illness. Good hygiene, immunization, minimal exposure to specific diseases, and certain prophylactic measures are essential. Teammates, coaches, trainers, officials, healthcare providers, and community public…

  17. Extreme weather events and infectious disease outbreaks

    PubMed Central

    McMichael, Anthony J

    2015-01-01

    Human-driven climatic changes will fundamentally influence patterns of human health, including infectious disease clusters and epidemics following extreme weather events. Extreme weather events are projected to increase further with the advance of human-driven climate change. Both recent and historical experiences indicate that infectious disease outbreaks very often follow extreme weather events, as microbes, vectors and reservoir animal hosts exploit the disrupted social and environmental conditions of extreme weather events. This review article examines infectious disease risks associated with extreme weather events; it draws on recent experiences including Hurricane Katrina in 2005 and the 2010 Pakistan mega-floods, and historical examples from previous centuries of epidemics and ‘pestilence’ associated with extreme weather disasters and climatic changes. A fuller understanding of climatic change, the precursors and triggers of extreme weather events and health consequences is needed in order to anticipate and respond to the infectious disease risks associated with human-driven climate change. Post-event risks to human health can be constrained, nonetheless, by reducing background rates of persistent infection, preparatory action such as coordinated disease surveillance and vaccination coverage, and strengthened disaster response. In the face of changing climate and weather conditions, it is critically important to think in ecological terms about the determinants of health, disease and death in human populations. PMID:26168924

  18. Extreme weather events and infectious disease outbreaks.

    PubMed

    McMichael, Anthony J

    2015-01-01

    Human-driven climatic changes will fundamentally influence patterns of human health, including infectious disease clusters and epidemics following extreme weather events. Extreme weather events are projected to increase further with the advance of human-driven climate change. Both recent and historical experiences indicate that infectious disease outbreaks very often follow extreme weather events, as microbes, vectors and reservoir animal hosts exploit the disrupted social and environmental conditions of extreme weather events. This review article examines infectious disease risks associated with extreme weather events; it draws on recent experiences including Hurricane Katrina in 2005 and the 2010 Pakistan mega-floods, and historical examples from previous centuries of epidemics and 'pestilence' associated with extreme weather disasters and climatic changes. A fuller understanding of climatic change, the precursors and triggers of extreme weather events and health consequences is needed in order to anticipate and respond to the infectious disease risks associated with human-driven climate change. Post-event risks to human health can be constrained, nonetheless, by reducing background rates of persistent infection, preparatory action such as coordinated disease surveillance and vaccination coverage, and strengthened disaster response. In the face of changing climate and weather conditions, it is critically important to think in ecological terms about the determinants of health, disease and death in human populations. PMID:26168924

  19. Infectious diseases of working equids.

    PubMed

    Stringer, Andrew P

    2014-12-01

    Most working equids reside in low-income countries where they have an essential role in the livelihoods of their owners. Numerous infectious diseases negatively impact the health and productivity of these animals. There are considerable technical, social-behavioral, and institutional impediments globally to reducing the burden of infectious diseases on working equids. One the greatest remaining challenges is the lack of funding for research, resulting from the low priority assigned to working equids by funding bodies. Changing the attitudes of decision makers will require data-driven advocacy, and global networks of collaborators have a vital role in building this more robust evidence base. PMID:25441116

  20. Adventures in Infectious Diseases

    ScienceCinema

    Fisher-Hoch, Susan [University of Texas School of Public Health

    2014-06-25

    Dr. Susan Fisher-Hoch, Virologist and Epidemiologist, will discuss her research and travels associated with viral hemorrhagic fevers. From the Ebola outbreak in Reston, Virginia to outbreaks of Crimean Congo Hemorrhagic Fever in South Africa, Senegal, and Saudi Arabia, Dr. Fisher-Hoch has studied and tracked the pathophysiology of these viral diseases. These studies have led her from the Center for Disease Control in the United States, to Lyon, France where she was instrumental in designing, constructing, and rendering operational a laboratory capable of containing some of the world's most dangerous diseases.

  1. Adventures in Infectious Diseases

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher-Hoch, Susan

    2011-11-01

    Dr. Susan Fisher-Hoch, Virologist and Epidemiologist, will discuss her research and travels associated with viral hemorrhagic fevers. From the Ebola outbreak in Reston, Virginia to outbreaks of Crimean Congo Hemorrhagic Fever in South Africa, Senegal, and Saudi Arabia, Dr. Fisher-Hoch has studied and tracked the pathophysiology of these viral diseases. These studies have led her from the Center for Disease Control in the United States, to Lyon, France where she was instrumental in designing, constructing, and rendering operational a laboratory capable of containing some of the world's most dangerous diseases.

  2. Deforestation and avian infectious diseases

    PubMed Central

    Sehgal, R. N. M.

    2010-01-01

    In this time of unprecedented global change, infectious diseases will impact humans and wildlife in novel and unknown ways. Climate change, the introduction of invasive species, urbanization, agricultural practices and the loss of biodiversity have all been implicated in increasing the spread of infectious pathogens. In many regards, deforestation supersedes these other global events in terms of its immediate potential global effects in both tropical and temperate regions. The effects of deforestation on the spread of pathogens in birds are largely unknown. Birds harbor many of the same types of pathogens as humans and in addition can spread infectious agents to humans and other wildlife. It is thought that avifauna have gone extinct due to infectious diseases and many are presently threatened, especially endemic island birds. It is clear that habitat degradation can pose a direct threat to many bird species but it is uncertain how these alterations will affect disease transmission and susceptibility to disease. The migration and dispersal of birds can also change with habitat degradation, and thus expose populations to novel pathogens. Some recent work has shown that the results of landscape transformation can have confounding effects on avian malaria, other haemosporidian parasites and viruses. Now with advances in many technologies, including mathematical and computer modeling, genomics and satellite tracking, scientists have tools to further research the disease ecology of deforestation. This research will be imperative to help predict and prevent outbreaks that could affect avifauna, humans and other wildlife worldwide. PMID:20190120

  3. Overview of Infectious Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... to realize that not all germs (bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites) cause disease. In fact, a host ... we will become infected with harmful bacteria and fungi. The normal balance of bacteria can be upset ...

  4. 75 FR 24835 - Infectious Diseases

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-06

    ... this issue. B. History of Occupational Safety and Health Regulations Addressing Protection of Workers... in improving a workplace's IC program (e.g., worker adherence to safe work practices). Please... Occupational Safety and Health Administration 29 CFR Part 1910 RIN No. 1218-AC46 Infectious Diseases...

  5. Emerging infectious plant diseases

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Healthy plants are essential to the survival of humans and animals on earth. Despite the value of plants, however, threats to plant health are generally considered secondary in importance to those of humans and animals. Although the most extensively studied pathogens are those causing disease on s...

  6. Global warming and infectious disease.

    PubMed

    Khasnis, Atul A; Nettleman, Mary D

    2005-01-01

    Global warming has serious implications for all aspects of human life, including infectious diseases. The effect of global warming depends on the complex interaction between the human host population and the causative infectious agent. From the human standpoint, changes in the environment may trigger human migration, causing disease patterns to shift. Crop failures and famine may reduce host resistance to infections. Disease transmission may be enhanced through the scarcity and contamination of potable water sources. Importantly, significant economic and political stresses may damage the existing public health infrastructure, leaving mankind poorly prepared for unexpected epidemics. Global warming will certainly affect the abundance and distribution of disease vectors. Altitudes that are currently too cool to sustain vectors will become more conducive to them. Some vector populations may expand into new geographic areas, whereas others may disappear. Malaria, dengue, plague, and viruses causing encephalitic syndromes are among the many vector-borne diseases likely to be affected. Some models suggest that vector-borne diseases will become more common as the earth warms, although caution is needed in interpreting these predictions. Clearly, global warming will cause changes in the epidemiology of infectious diseases. The ability of mankind to react or adapt is dependent upon the magnitude and speed of the change. The outcome will also depend on our ability to recognize epidemics early, to contain them effectively, to provide appropriate treatment, and to commit resources to prevention and research. PMID:16216650

  7. Current outlook of infectious diseases in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Ho, M

    1998-06-01

    The "emerging" infectious diseases have received global attention. Taiwan is a country which is going through the process of becoming "developed" from being "developing". If we compare five leading causes of death in 1952 and in 1993, three were infectious diseases in 1952 and there was none in 1993. And yet today, infectious diseases remain a major problem in this country as well in every country in the world, whether developing or developed. Some of the problems Taiwan faces are old problems with old faces. They have never been adequately solved because the societal and environmental sanitary infrastructure does not ensure proper sewage disposal, safe potable water and freedom from dangerous vectors. Examples are the diarrheal diseases, parasitic diseases, scrub typhus and Japanese encephalitis. Some of the Taiwan's problems are caused by old agents which present a new face. Mortality from tuberculosis took a dramatic and gratifying plunge in the last fifty years. Yet tuberculosis is ever present and a constant public health threat. Dengue has become a problem again because of a world breakdown in the control of the mosquito, Aedes egypti, and it is partly contributed to by increased urbanization and world travel. The problem of antibiotic resistant bacteria causing hospital acquired and community acquired infections is probably the most serious "new" problem. The most important cause is excessive and indiscriminate use of antibiotics in the community and in hospitals. We propose the establishment of "Bacterial Infections Reference Laboratory" at the National Health Research Institutes to be a national facility to study the epidemiology and control of antibiotic resistance. All infectious diseases require a rigorous system of surveillance, and precise etiological diagnosis before they can be treated or prevented. This should be kept clearly in mind when one considers the changing role of the infectious disease physician in Taiwan in the face of unsolved disease problems and a new health care system. There is inadequate attention to precise microbiological definition of most infectious diseases in Taiwan. The community of infectious disease specialists may well redirect its attention to improving the competence and utilization of microbiological laboratory diagnosis. PMID:10596983

  8. Infectious diseases of the newborn.

    PubMed

    Gillam, G L

    1978-11-01

    Despite the advent of antibiotics, infectious diseases remain a significant cause of mortality and morbidity in the neonatal period. Infection is the third commonest cause of perinatal mortality after hypoxia and malformations. Neonatal mortality rates from infection are of the order of 1:1000 live births. Although infections are theoretically preventable, there has been no significant change in incidence over the last 30 years. PMID:743019

  9. Emerging infectious diseases in Mongolia.

    PubMed

    Ebright, John R; Altantsetseg, Togoo; Oyungerel, Ravdan

    2003-12-01

    Since 1990, Mongolia's health system has been in transition. Impressive gains have been accomplished through a national immunization program, which was instituted in 1991. Nevertheless, the country continues to confront four major chronic infections: hepatitis B and C, brucellosis, tuberculosis, and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). As of 2001, only two cases of HIV infections had been detected in Mongolia, but concern grows that the rate will increase along with the rising rates of STDs and increase in tourism. Other infectious diseases of importance in Mongolia include echinococcosis, plague, tularemia, anthrax, foot-and-mouth, and rabies. PMID:14720388

  10. Livestock infectious diseases and zoonoses

    PubMed Central

    Tomley, Fiona M.; Shirley, Martin W.

    2009-01-01

    Infectious diseases of livestock are a major threat to global animal health and welfare and their effective control is crucial for agronomic health, for safeguarding and securing national and international food supplies and for alleviating rural poverty in developing countries. Some devastating livestock diseases are endemic in many parts of the world and threats from old and new pathogens continue to emerge, with changes to global climate, agricultural practices and demography presenting conditions that are especially favourable for the spread of arthropod-borne diseases into new geographical areas. Zoonotic infections that are transmissible either directly or indirectly between animals and humans are on the increase and pose significant additional threats to human health and the current pandemic status of new influenza A (H1N1) is a topical example of the challenge presented by zoonotic viruses. In this article, we provide a brief overview of some of the issues relating to infectious diseases of livestock, which will be discussed in more detail in the papers that follow. PMID:19687034

  11. [Update in Infectious Diseases 2015].

    PubMed

    Candel, Francisco Javier; López González, Laura; García-García, Ana Belén; Chiarella, Flavia; Picazo, Juan José

    2015-09-01

    Infectious disease remains current worldwide. During the second half of 2014 an outbreak of ebolavirus hit West Africa with implications in the rest of the world. In fact, Spain declared the first imported case of this infection. Multiresistant enterobacteria outbreaks are emerging all around the world in a moment on which WHO draws attention to the limited resources, coining the term "post antibiotic era". On the other hand, 2014 went down in history as one in which hepatitis C is cured. Are also current HIV epidemiological control or strategies for antiviral and antifungal prophylaxis in immunocompromised hosts. PMID:26365724

  12. Asthma: a chronic infectious disease?

    PubMed

    Caramori, Gaetano; Papadopoulos, Nikos; Contoli, Marco; Marku, Brunilda; Forini, Giacomo; Pauletti, Alessia; Johnston, Sebastian L; Papi, Alberto

    2012-09-01

    There are increasing data to support the "hygiene" and "microbiota" hypotheses of a protective role of infections in modulating the risk of subsequent development of asthma. There is less evidence that respiratory infections can actually cause the development of asthma. There is some evidence that rhinovirus respiratory infections are associated with the development of asthma, particularly in childhood, whereas these infections in later life seem to have a weaker association with the development of asthma. The role of bacterial infections in chronic asthma remains unclear. This article reviews the available evidence indicating that asthma may be considered as a chronic infectious disease. PMID:22929096

  13. Infectious diseases and vaccine sciences: strategic directions.

    PubMed

    Luby, Stephen P; Brooks, W Abdullah; Zaman, K; Hossain, Shahed; Ahmed, Tahmeed

    2008-09-01

    Despite substantial progress, infectious diseases remain important causes of ill-health and premature deaths in Bangladesh. Bangladesh has experienced a > 90% reduction in the incidence of deaths due to childhood diarrhoea over the last 25 years. Further reductions can be achieved through the introduction of effective vaccines against rotavirus and improvements in home hygiene, quality of drinking-water, and clinical case management, including appropriate use of oral rehydration solution and zinc. Pneumonia is now the leading cause of childhood deaths in Bangladesh, and the pneumonia-specific child mortality is largely unchanged over the last 25 years. Reductions in mortality due to pneumonia can be achieved through the introduction of protein conjugate vaccines against Haemophilus influenza type b and Streptococcus pneumoniae, improvements in case management, including efforts to prevent delays in providing appropriate treatment, and the wider use of zinc. Tuberculosis is responsible for an estimated 70,000 deaths each year in Bangladesh. Although services for directly-observed therapy have expanded markedly, improved case finding and involvement of private practitioners will be important to reduce the burden of disease. PMID:18831226

  14. Interleukin-12 in infectious diseases.

    PubMed Central

    Romani, L; Puccetti, P; Bistoni, F

    1997-01-01

    Interleukin-12 (IL-12) is a potent immunoregulatory cytokine that is crucially involved in a wide range of infectious diseases. In several experimental models of bacterial, parasitic, viral, and fungal infection, endogenous IL-12 is required for early control of infection and for generation and perhaps maintenance of acquired protective immunity, directed by T helper type 1 (Th1) cells and mediated by phagocytes. Although the relative roles of IL-12 and gamma interferon in Th1-cell priming may be to a significant extent pathogen dependent, common to most infections is that IL-12 regulates the magnitude of the gamma interferon response at the initiation of infection, thus potentiating natural resistance, favoring Th1-cell development; and inhibiting Th2 responses. Treatment of animals with IL-12, either alone or as a vaccine adjuvant, has been shown to prevent disease by many of the same infectious agents, by stimulating innate resistance or promoting specific reactivity. Although IL-12 may enhance protective memory responses in vaccination or in combination with antimicrobial chemotherapy, it is yet unclear whether exogenous IL-12 can alter established responses in humans. Continued investigation into the possible application of IL-12 therapy to human infections is warranted by the role of the cytokine in inflammation, immunopathology, and autoimmunity. PMID:9336665

  15. Predicting global variation in infectious disease severity

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Per M.; De Fine Licht, Henrik H.

    2016-01-01

    Background and objectives: Understanding the underlying causes for the variation in case-fatality-ratios (CFR) is important for assessing the mechanism governing global disparity in the burden of infectious diseases. Variation in CFR is likely to be driven by factors such as population genetics, demography, transmission patterns and general health status. We present data here that support the hypothsis that changes in CFRs for specific diseases may be the result of serial passage through different hosts. For example passage through adults may lead to lower CFR, whereas passage through children may have the opposite effect. Accordingly changes in CFR may occur in parallel with demographic transitions. Methodology: We explored the predictability of CFR using data obtained from the World Health Organization (WHO) disease databases for four human diseases: mumps, malaria, tuberculosis and leptospirosis and assessed these for association with a range of population characteristics, such as crude birth and death rates, median age of the population, mean body mass index, proportion living in urban areas and tuberculosis vaccine coverage. We then tested this predictive model on Danish historical demographic and population data. Results: Birth rates were the best predictor for mumps and malaria CFR. For tuberculosis CFR death rates were the best predictor and for leptospirosis population density was a significant predictor. Conclusions and implications: CFR predictors differed among diseases according to their biology. We suggest that the overall result reflects an interaction between the forces driving demographic change and the virulence of human-to-human transmitted diseases. PMID:26884415

  16. [Infectious diseases--new horizons].

    PubMed

    Spirer, Zvi; Barzilai, Asher

    2012-08-01

    During the last decade we have witnessed important developments in the field of infectious diseases. These developments have in a large part been made possible due to our entry into the genomic period. The main areas of progress include diagnosis, understanding of the pathophysiology, genetics, anti-microbial therapy and the prevention of disease by new vaccines. The diagnosis of infection using Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR), contributes today to the early identification of a pathogen, long before the culture and serology. In the future, we will be able to utilize molecular methodologies based on the unique response of the host to a specific infection--the genetic signature. This method will enable very early identification of the pathogen, institution of optimal treatment, and will prevent the excessive use of antibiotics. Another area that has developed in recent years is the genetics of infectious diseases. Accumulated data shows that changes in the genome, polymorphism, result in different reactions by people to different infections. As a result of these changes some people are resistant to certain infections whilst others are especially sensitive to other infections. Introduction of this knowledge into clinical practice will enable more rational medical management with an emphasis on personalized medicine. After a long period without the development of new antibiotics, there are now signs of conceptual and practical breakthroughs in the development of antibiotic agents whose activity is based on new principles and directed against sites different from those of existing antibiotics. These advances are predominantly due to progress in the field of genomics. Similarly, in the development of future vaccines, more and more vaccines will be developed using genomic methods, enabling the creation of vaccines against diseases that we have not yet succeeded to eradicate. Genomic methods will enable the design of vaccines tailored to the specific genomic structure of the host--personal vaccines. All these four aspects of progress in the field of infectious diseases are not science fiction, and it can be stated with confidence that the future is already here. PMID:23350296

  17. Epidemiological surveillance of infectious diseases in France.

    PubMed

    Dufour, B; La Vieille, S

    2000-01-01

    Epidemiological surveillance, namely the continuous monitoring of diseases and health determinants in a population, has developed over the past fifteen years, in the sphere of human health as well as in animal health. All epidemiological surveillance networks include the following four stages: data collection, data transmission, data processing and dissemination of information. However, despite this basic similarity, the very many networks existing in France are extremely varied in nature. At the national level, the bodies involved in epidemiological surveillance for infectious animal diseases are the Direction générale de l'alimentation, the Agence française de sécurité sanitaire des aliments and, to a lesser degree, the Institut français de recherche pour l'exploitation de la mer. In the field, the networks rely on the Direction des services vétérinaires, veterinary practitioners, laboratories in each département, and livestock producers' groups (especially animal health protection groups). Some twenty French networks currently in operation are presented in this article according to a classification based on published criteria. In the case of human infectious diseases, epidemiological surveillance is carried out almost entirely by the Direction générale de la santé and the Directions départementales d'action sanitaire et sociale, the Institut de veille sanitaire and the various Centres nationaux de référence (CNRs). Most human infectious diseases are monitored by one or more of the following broad categories of networks: reporting of notifiable diseases, the CNRs, the network of sentinel doctors, the network of hospital laboratories and departments, and medical causes of death. An example where surveillance is covered by several networks is also presented, namely surveillance for salmonellosis and Salmonella. Lastly, methods for evaluating networks are discussed. PMID:10779198

  18. [Infectious diseases and population assistance: general issues].

    PubMed

    Russo, G; Riccardo, F; Scaroni, E; Nardi, L; De Rosa, A G; Pacini, A; Pacifici, L E

    2007-01-01

    Actually the infectious diseases are a predominant cause of morbidity and mortality in limited resource countries and, of course, not unimportant in industrialized countries where the social phenomena of immigration and increased internal and international mobility of people may facilitate the reemergence of infectious diseases considered overcome. It is becoming more and more important to consider the actual role of assistance of people for infectious diseases: a careful consideration needing of concretes example for becoming medical practices and social languages appropriates to the local context and useful for promoting more efficacious cares and prevention of infectious diseases. PMID:17598991

  19. [Frequent infectious diseases in migrants].

    PubMed

    Stich, A

    2016-05-01

    The current influx of refugees and the high rate of immigration increase the rate and impact of infectious diseases in Europe. Infections can be detected at the initial examination of arriving refugees as a result of systematic screening or within the framework of general medical care. Diagnosis and treatment require special expertise and in some cases special precautions. The spectrum of infections is determined by the country of origin of migrants and the conditions experienced on fleeing to Germany. In this article the diagnostics and treatment of the most important infections are presented. As far as infections are concerned refugees and migrants do not represent a threat to the general population but instead have to be perceived as a highly vulnerable group. PMID:27142435

  20. Multifractal signatures of infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Holdsworth, Amber M; Kevlahan, Nicholas K-R; Earn, David J D

    2012-09-01

    Incidence of infection time-series data for the childhood diseases measles, chicken pox, rubella and whooping cough are described in the language of multifractals. We explore the potential of using the wavelet transform maximum modulus (WTMM) method to characterize the multiscale structure of the observed time series and of simulated data generated by the stochastic susceptible-exposed-infectious-recovered (SEIR) epidemic model. The singularity spectra of the observed time series suggest that each disease is characterized by a unique multifractal signature, which distinguishes that particular disease from the others. The wavelet scaling functions confirm that the time series of measles, rubella and whooping cough are clearly multifractal, while chicken pox has a more monofractal structure in time. The stochastic SEIR epidemic model is unable to reproduce the qualitative singularity structure of the reported incidence data: it is too smooth and does not appear to have a multifractal singularity structure. The precise reasons for the failure of the SEIR epidemic model to reproduce the correct multiscale structure of the reported incidence data remain unclear. PMID:22442094

  1. Ocular manifestations of infectious skin diseases.

    PubMed

    Sadowska-Przytocka, Anna; Czarnecka-Operacz, Magdalena; Jenerowicz, Dorota; Grzybowski, Andrzej

    2016-01-01

    Ocular complications of infectious skin diseases are a common occurrence. Managing the inflamed or infected eye in the emergency setting presents a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge to the emergency physician. Infectious agents may affect any part of the eye. Ocular findings may be the first sign of many infectious diseases, such as, for example, gonorrhea or chlamydia infection. Understanding the various forms of ocular involvement in these conditions is important, because untreated ophthalmic involvement can lead to severe vision loss. This review focuses on the significant ocular manifestations of the most common infectious diseases, including bacterial, viral, fungal, and parasitic infections, that both ophthalmologists and dermatologists may encounter. PMID:26903179

  2. An Interdisciplinary Perspective: Infectious Diseases and History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turco, Jenifer; Byrd, Melanie

    2001-01-01

    Introduces the course "Infectious Diseases and History" which is designed for freshman and sophomore students. Aims to teach about infectious diseases, develop skills of using libraries and computer resources, and develop oral and written communication skills. Focuses on tuberculosis as an example of an instructional approach and explains its…

  3. An Interdisciplinary Perspective: Infectious Diseases and History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turco, Jenifer; Byrd, Melanie

    2001-01-01

    Introduces the course "Infectious Diseases and History" which is designed for freshman and sophomore students. Aims to teach about infectious diseases, develop skills of using libraries and computer resources, and develop oral and written communication skills. Focuses on tuberculosis as an example of an instructional approach and explains its

  4. Evolutionary Response to Human Infectious Diseases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armelagos, George J.; Dewey, John R.

    1970-01-01

    Gives an overview of human history, relating cultural changes with resulting changes in population density and in ecological balance to patterns of infectious diseases in man. Discusses mechanisms of evolution of resistance. Suggests that in populations where infectious diseases can be controlled, attention should shift to degenerative diseases…

  5. Eradication of infectious diseases in heterogeneous populations

    SciTech Connect

    Travis, C.C.; Lenhart, S.M.

    1987-04-01

    A model is presented of infectious disease in heterogeneous populations, which allows for variable intra- to intergroup contact ratios. The authors give necessary and sufficient conditions for disease eradication by means of vaccination. Smallpox is used as an illustrative example.

  6. Emerging infectious diseases and amphibian population declines.

    PubMed Central

    Daszak, P.; Berger, L.; Cunningham, A. A.; Hyatt, A. D.; Green, D. E.; Speare, R.

    1999-01-01

    We review recent research on the pathology, ecology, and biogeography of two emerging infectious wildlife diseases, chytridiomycosis and ranaviral disease, in the context of host-parasite population biology. We examine the role of these diseases in the global decline of amphibian populations and propose hypotheses for the origins and impact of these panzootics. Finally, we discuss emerging infectious diseases as a global threat to wildlife populations. PMID:10603206

  7. Infectious diseases - new and ancient threats to world health.

    SciTech Connect

    Olshansky, S. J.; Carnes, B.; Rogers, R. G.; Smith, L.; Center for Mechanistic Biology and Biotechnology

    1997-07-01

    When smallpox was eradicated from the globe in the late 1970s, many health experts assumed that infectious and parasitic diseases (IPDs) could at long last be conquered. Death rates from infectious and parasitic diseases had declined during the late 19th century and throughout the 20th century thanks to better public health and sanitation as well as medical advances made possible by economic development. During this period, scientists discovered the germ theory of disease, identified the epidemiology and natural history of many infectious diseases, and created a host of potent antibiotic drugs that helped save millions of lives. Medical researchers learned to identify and cultivate viruses, which led to vaccines for increasing numbers of diseases.

  8. 76 FR 27070 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases;

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-10

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis... . Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel,...

  9. Glycan arrays as tools for infectious disease research.

    PubMed

    Geissner, Andreas; Anish, Chakkumkal; Seeberger, Peter H

    2014-02-01

    Infectious diseases cause millions of deaths worldwide each year and are a major burden for economies, especially in underdeveloped countries. Glycans and their interactions with other biomolecules are involved in all major steps of infection. Glycan arrays enable the rapid and sensitive detection of those interactions and are among the most powerful techniques to study the molecular biology of infectious diseases. This review will focus on recent developments and discuss the applications of glycan arrays to the elucidation of host-pathogen and pathogen-pathogen interactions, the development of tools for infection diagnosis and the use of glycan arrays in modern vaccine design. PMID:24534751

  10. Global biogeography of human infectious diseases

    PubMed Central

    Murray, Kris A.; Preston, Nicholas; Allen, Toph; Zambrana-Torrelio, Carlos; Hosseini, Parviez R.; Daszak, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The distributions of most infectious agents causing disease in humans are poorly resolved or unknown. However, poorly known and unknown agents contribute to the global burden of disease and will underlie many future disease risks. Existing patterns of infectious disease co-occurrence could thus play a critical role in resolving or anticipating current and future disease threats. We analyzed the global occurrence patterns of 187 human infectious diseases across 225 countries and seven epidemiological classes (human-specific, zoonotic, vector-borne, non–vector-borne, bacterial, viral, and parasitic) to show that human infectious diseases exhibit distinct spatial grouping patterns at a global scale. We demonstrate, using outbreaks of Ebola virus as a test case, that this spatial structuring provides an untapped source of prior information that could be used to tighten the focus of a range of health-related research and management activities at early stages or in data-poor settings, including disease surveillance, outbreak responses, or optimizing pathogen discovery. In examining the correlates of these spatial patterns, among a range of geographic, epidemiological, environmental, and social factors, mammalian biodiversity was the strongest predictor of infectious disease co-occurrence overall and for six of the seven disease classes examined, giving rise to a striking congruence between global pathogeographic and “Wallacean” zoogeographic patterns. This clear biogeographic signal suggests that infectious disease assemblages remain fundamentally constrained in their distributions by ecological barriers to dispersal or establishment, despite the homogenizing forces of globalization. Pathogeography thus provides an overarching context in which other factors promoting infectious disease emergence and spread are set. PMID:26417098

  11. Global biogeography of human infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Murray, Kris A; Preston, Nicholas; Allen, Toph; Zambrana-Torrelio, Carlos; Hosseini, Parviez R; Daszak, Peter

    2015-10-13

    The distributions of most infectious agents causing disease in humans are poorly resolved or unknown. However, poorly known and unknown agents contribute to the global burden of disease and will underlie many future disease risks. Existing patterns of infectious disease co-occurrence could thus play a critical role in resolving or anticipating current and future disease threats. We analyzed the global occurrence patterns of 187 human infectious diseases across 225 countries and seven epidemiological classes (human-specific, zoonotic, vector-borne, non-vector-borne, bacterial, viral, and parasitic) to show that human infectious diseases exhibit distinct spatial grouping patterns at a global scale. We demonstrate, using outbreaks of Ebola virus as a test case, that this spatial structuring provides an untapped source of prior information that could be used to tighten the focus of a range of health-related research and management activities at early stages or in data-poor settings, including disease surveillance, outbreak responses, or optimizing pathogen discovery. In examining the correlates of these spatial patterns, among a range of geographic, epidemiological, environmental, and social factors, mammalian biodiversity was the strongest predictor of infectious disease co-occurrence overall and for six of the seven disease classes examined, giving rise to a striking congruence between global pathogeographic and "Wallacean" zoogeographic patterns. This clear biogeographic signal suggests that infectious disease assemblages remain fundamentally constrained in their distributions by ecological barriers to dispersal or establishment, despite the homogenizing forces of globalization. Pathogeography thus provides an overarching context in which other factors promoting infectious disease emergence and spread are set. PMID:26417098

  12. Global climate change and infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Shuman, E K

    2011-01-01

    Climate change is occurring as a result of warming of the earth's atmosphere due to human activity generating excess amounts of greenhouse gases. Because of its potential impact on the hydrologic cycle and severe weather events, climate change is expected to have an enormous effect on human health, including on the burden and distribution of many infectious diseases. The infectious diseases that will be most affected by climate change include those that are spread by insect vectors and by contaminated water. The burden of adverse health effects due to these infectious diseases will fall primarily on developing countries, while it is the developed countries that are primarily responsible for climate change. It is up to governments and individuals to take the lead in halting climate change, and we must increase our understanding of the ecology of infectious diseases in order to protect vulnerable populations. PMID:23022814

  13. Impact of infectious diseases on war.

    PubMed

    Smallman-Raynor, Matthew R; Cliff, Andrew D

    2004-06-01

    Wartime epidemics of infectious diseases have decimated the fighting strength of armies, caused the suspension and cancellation of military operations, and brought havoc to the civil populations of belligerent and nonbelligerent states. This article summarizes the principal factors that have contributed to the spread of infectious diseases in past wars and reviews the associated demographic losses in military and civil populations. Drawing on the detailed epidemiologic records for the United States Army, case studies of the spread of infectious diseases in relation to military mobilization are presented for the American Civil War, Spanish-American War,and World War I. The article concludes with a brief overview of infectious disease activity in high- and low-intensity conflicts of the late twentieth and early twenty-first centuries. PMID:15145384

  14. Emerging and Re-Emerging Infectious Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... Read more information on enabling JavaScript. Skip Content Marketing Share this: Main Content Area Emerging Infectious Diseases/Pathogens Research Introduction and Goals Despite remarkable advances in medical research ...

  15. Coping with Stress during Infectious Disease Outbreaks

    MedlinePlus

    · Coping With Stress During Infectious Disease Outbreaks What You Should Know When you hear, read, or watch news about an outbreak ... you may feel anxious and show signs of stress—even when the outbreak affects people far from ...

  16. Advances in microfluidics in combating infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Tay, Andy; Pavesi, Andrea; Yazdi, Saeed Rismani; Lim, Chwee Teck; Warkiani, Majid Ebrahimi

    2016-01-01

    One of the important pursuits in science and engineering research today is to develop low-cost and user-friendly technologies to improve the health of people. Over the past decade, research efforts in microfluidics have been made to develop methods that can facilitate low-cost diagnosis of infectious diseases, especially in resource-poor settings. Here, we provide an overview of the recent advances in microfluidic devices for point-of-care (POC) diagnostics for infectious diseases and emphasis is placed on malaria, sepsis and AIDS/HIV. Other infectious diseases such as SARS, tuberculosis, and dengue are also briefly discussed. These infectious diseases are chosen as they contribute the most to disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) lost according to the World Health Organization (WHO). The current state of research in this area is evaluated and projection toward future applications and accompanying challenges are also discussed. PMID:26854743

  17. Infectious Diseases and Immunizations. Matrix No. 15.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sever, John L.

    This paper summarizes the major advances achieved by research in the fields of infectious diseases and immunizations during the 1970s, and delineates directions for future research in these fields. (Author/MP)

  18. Paediatric infectious diseases: the last 50 years.

    PubMed

    Starr, Mike

    2015-01-01

    Many advances and challenges have occurred in the field of paediatric infectious diseases during the past 50 years. It is impossible to cover all of these in a short review, but a few highlights and lowlights will be covered. These include virtual disappearance of some infectious diseases, emergence of new ones, infections in the immunocompromised, antimicrobial resistance, development of new and improved antimicrobials, improved diagnostic tests and the Human Microbiome Project. PMID:25557805

  19. Cocirculation of infectious diseases on networks.

    PubMed

    Miller, Joel C

    2013-06-01

    We consider multiple diseases spreading in a static configuration model network. We make standard assumptions that infection transmits from neighbor to neighbor at a disease-specific rate and infected individuals recover at a disease-specific rate. Infection by one disease confers immediate and permanent immunity to infection by any disease. Under these assumptions, we find a simple, low-dimensional ordinary differential equations model which captures the global dynamics of the infection. The dynamics depend strongly on initial conditions. Although we motivate this Rapid Communication with infectious disease, the model may be adapted to the spread of other infectious agents such as competing political beliefs, or adoption of new technologies if these are influenced by contacts. As an example, we demonstrate how to model an infectious disease which can be prevented by a behavior change. PMID:23848616

  20. Banting Memorial Lecture 2010^. Type 2 diabetes as an 'infectious' disease: is this the Black Death of the 21st century?

    PubMed

    Matthews, D R; Matthews, P C

    2011-01-01

    We are currently facing a global pandemic of obesity and Type 2 diabetes. In some settings, the population prevalence of Type 2 diabetes is 50%, and half of those affected will die from diabetes-related complications. Eight centuries ago, an epidemic of bubonic plague swept across Europe, killing at least half of its victims. We here draw comparisons between these two pandemics, proposing close analogies between the 'Black Death' of the 14th century and the modern-day equivalent of Type 2 diabetes. Both diseases can be considered in terms of an aetiological agent, a reservoir, a vector and a predisposing toxic environment; populations can be considered as highly susceptible to the transmissable agents of Type 2 diabetes in the setting of calorie excess, inadequate food labelling, poorly regulated advertising and sedentary lifestyles. As for tackling a pandemic of a contagious microbial pathogen, we believe that breaking the cycle of transmission in the diabetes epidemic must be underpinned by political will and prompt, decisive legislation backed by the medical community. Far from fearing that such measures edge us towards a 'nanny state', we believe individuals should expect a responsible government to safeguard them from the toxic milieu that puts them at risk of obesity and its complications, and that communities and populations have the right to have their health protected. PMID:21166840

  1. [Impacts of climate change on infectious diseases].

    PubMed

    Kołodyński, Jan; Malinowska, Anna

    2002-01-01

    Climate warming may have significant impacts on human health, including changes in the distribution and seasonality of vector-borne diseases. We discuss the consequences of climate change on infectious diseases. Effects of transmission of the imported tropical diseases in Europe are discussed. PMID:16883701

  2. Rabbit Models for Studying Human Infectious Diseases.

    PubMed

    Peng, Xuwen; Knouse, John A; Hernon, Krista M

    2015-12-01

    Using an appropriate animal model is crucial for mimicking human disease conditions, and various facets including genetics, anatomy, and pathophysiology should be considered before selecting a model. Rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) are well known for their wide use in production of antibodies, eye research, atherosclerosis and other cardiovascular diseases. However, a systematic description of the rabbit as primary experimental models for the study of various human infectious diseases is unavailable. This review focuses on the human infectious diseases for which rabbits are considered a classic or highly appropriate model, including AIDS (caused by HIV1), adult T-cell leukemia-lymphoma (human T-lymphotropic virus type 1), papilloma or carcinoma (human papillomavirus) , herpetic stromal keratitis (herpes simplex virus type 1), tuberculosis (Mycobacterium tuberculosis), and syphilis (Treponema pallidum). In addition, particular aspects of the husbandry and care of rabbits used in studies of human infectious diseases are described. PMID:26678367

  3. Emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Feldmann, Heinz; Czub, Markus; Jones, Steven; Dick, Daryl; Garbutt, Michael; Grolla, Allen; Artsob, Harvey

    2002-10-01

    In human history, numerous infectious diseases have emerged and re-emerged. Aside from many others, the so-called 'exotic' agents in particular are a threat to our public health systems due to limited experience in case management and lack of appropriate resources. Many of these agents are zoonotic in origin and transmitted from animals to man either directly or via vectors. The reservoirs are often infected subclinically or asymptomatically and the distribution of the diseases basically reflects the range and the population dynamics of their reservoir hosts. As examples, emergence/re-emergence is discussed here for diseases caused by filoviruses, hantaviruses, paramyxoviruses, flaviviruses and Yersinia pestis. In addition, bioterrorism is addressed as one factor which has now to be considered in infectious disease emergence/re-emergence. Preparedness for known and unknown infectious diseases will be a top priority for our public health systems in the beginning of the millennium. PMID:12410344

  4. Contagious Rhythm: Infectious Diseases of 20th Century Musicians

    PubMed Central

    Sartin, Jeffrey S.

    2010-01-01

    Infectious diseases have led to illness and death for many famous musicians, from the classical period to the rock ’n’ roll era. By the 20th century, as public health improved and orchestral composers began living more settled lives, infections among American and European musicians became less prominent. By mid-century, however, seminal jazz musicians famously pursued lifestyles characterized by drug and alcohol abuse. Among the consequences of this risky lifestyle were tuberculosis, syphilis, and chronic viral hepatitis. More contemporary rock musicians have experienced an epidemic of hepatitis C infection and HIV/AIDS related to intravenous drug use and promiscuity. Musical innovation is thus often accompanied by diseases of neglect and overindulgence, particularly infectious illnesses, although risky behavior and associated infectious illnesses tend to decrease as the style matures. PMID:20660936

  5. Contagious rhythm: infectious diseases of 20th century musicians.

    PubMed

    Sartin, Jeffrey S

    2010-07-01

    Infectious diseases have led to illness and death for many famous musicians, from the classical period to the rock 'n' roll era. By the 20th century, as public health improved and orchestral composers began living more settled lives, infections among American and European musicians became less prominent. By mid-century, however, seminal jazz musicians famously pursued lifestyles characterized by drug and alcohol abuse. Among the consequences of this risky lifestyle were tuberculosis, syphilis, and chronic viral hepatitis. More contemporary rock musicians have experienced an epidemic of hepatitis C infection and HIV/AIDS related to intravenous drug use and promiscuity. Musical innovation is thus often accompanied by diseases of neglect and overindulgence, particularly infectious illnesses, although risky behavior and associated infectious illnesses tend to decrease as the style matures. PMID:20660936

  6. Radiolabeled antibodies for therapy of infectious diseases

    PubMed Central

    Dadachova, Ekaterina; Casadevall, Arturo

    2014-01-01

    Novel approaches to treatment of infectious diseases are urgently needed. This need has resulted in renewing the interest in antibodies for therapy of infectious diseases. Radioimmunotherapy (RIT) is a cancer treatment modality, which utilizes radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). During the last decade we have translated RIT into the field of experimental fungal, bacterial and HIV infections. In addition, successful proof of principle experiments with radiolabeled pan-antibodies that bind to antigens shared by major pathogenic fungi were performed in vitro. The armamentarium of pan-antibodies would result in reducing the dependence on microorganism-specific antibodies and thus would speed up the development of RIT of infections. We believe that the time is ripe for deploying RIT into the clinic to combat infectious diseases. PMID:25599011

  7. Climate change and infectious diseases in Europe.

    PubMed

    Semenza, Jan C; Menne, Bettina

    2009-06-01

    Concerted action is needed to address public health issues raised by climate change. In this Review we discuss infections acquired through various routes (arthropod vector, rodent, water, food, and air) in view of a changing climate in Europe. Based on an extensive review of published work and expert workshops, we present an assessment of the infectious disease challenges: incidence, prevalence, and distribution are projected to shift in a changing environment. Due to the high level of uncertainty on the rate of climate change and its impact on infectious diseases, we propose to mount a proactive public health response by building an integrated network for environmental and epidemiological data. This network would have the capacity to connect epidemic intelligence and infectious disease surveillance with meteorological, entomological, water quality, remote sensing, and other data, for multivariate analyses and predictions. Insights from these analyses could then guide adaptation strategies and protect population health from impending threats related to climate change. PMID:19467476

  8. Biodiversity loss and infectious diseases: chapter 5

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lafferty, Kevin D.

    2014-01-01

    When conservation biologists think about infectious diseases, their thoughts are mostly negative. Infectious diseases have been associated with the extinction and endangerment of some species, though this is rare, and other factors like habitat loss and poorly regulated harvest still are the overwhelming drivers of endangerment. Parasites are pervasive and play important roles as natural enemies on par with top predators, from regulating population abundances to maintaining species diversity. Sometimes, parasites themselves can be endangered. However, it seems unlikely that humans will miss extinct parasites. Parasites are often sensitive to habitat loss and degradation, making them positive indicators of ecosystem “health”. Conservation biologists need to carefully consider infectious diseases when planning conservation actions. This can include minimizing the movement of domestic and invasive species, vaccination, and culling.

  9. Hepatitis C Now Leading Infectious Disease Killer in U.S.

    MedlinePlus

    ... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_158651.html Hepatitis C Now Leading Infectious Disease Killer in U.S. ... May 4, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- The number of hepatitis C-linked deaths in the United States reached ...

  10. Treatment of infectious disease: beyond antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Nigam, Anshul; Gupta, Divya; Sharma, Ashwani

    2014-01-01

    Several antibiotics have been discovered following the discovery of penicillin. These antibiotics had been helpful in treatment of infectious diseases considered dread for centuries. The advent of multiple drug resistance in microbes has posed new challenge to researchers. The scientists are now evaluating alternatives for combating infectious diseases. This review focuses on major alternatives to antibiotics on which preliminary work had been carried out. These promising anti-microbial include: phages, bacteriocins, killing factors, antibacterial activities of non-antibiotic drugs and quorum quenching. PMID:24661689

  11. [Corticosteroids in the treatment of infectious diseases].

    PubMed

    Kronig, I; Schibler, M; Rougemont, M; Emonet, S

    2013-04-24

    The addition of a corticosteroid has become a common practice for the treatment of some infectious diseases, such as meningitis, septic shock, moderate to severe Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia. The belief that steroids may have a beneficial effect in the early stage of pro-inflammatory infections explains the renewed interest for these treatments. This review of recent literature helps determine the use of steroids in the treatment of infectious diseases as formal guidance, questionable or rather contraindicated. When there is a clear scientific indication for the use of corticosteroids regardless of the current infection, the latter is never a formal contraindication. PMID:23697079

  12. Protein Microarrays and Biomarkers of Infectious Disease

    PubMed Central

    Natesan, Mohan; Ulrich, Robert G.

    2010-01-01

    Protein microarrays are powerful tools that are widely used in systems biology research. For infectious diseases, proteome microarrays assembled from proteins of pathogens will play an increasingly important role in discovery of diagnostic markers, vaccines, and therapeutics. Distinct formats of protein microarrays have been developed for different applications, including abundance-based and function-based methods. Depending on the application, design issues should be considered, such as the need for multiplexing and label or label free detection methods. New developments, challenges, and future demands in infectious disease research will impact the application of protein microarrays for discovery and validation of biomarkers. PMID:21614200

  13. Infectious diseases in the 21st century.

    PubMed

    Kumate, J

    1997-01-01

    Infecto-contagious diseases in the twenty-first century with respect to precedent will see themselves deprived of smallpox, dracunculiasis and very probably of paralyzing poliomyelitis. Vaccination-preventable diseases, such as measles, whooping cough, diphtheria, tetanus, rabies, some forms of meningitis, yellow fever and episodes of disseminated tuberculosis will greatly diminish in their rates of morbi-lethality; the elimination of some, and the eradication of measles, are expected. Other diseases such as diarrhea (including cholera), geo-helminthiasis, some severe respiratory tract infections and the majority of vector-transmitted infectious diseases will decrease due to improvements in potable water services, drainage, sanitary food control, living quarters, and individual and community anti-vector action. Leprosy, onchocerciasis and several parasitoses will be controlled by the available antimicrobial drugs. Infectious diseases will continue to be an important health problem due to: Reduction in the immunocompetence resulting from the aging of the population, chemotherapies necessary for neoplasms, and autoimmune pathology and the survival of persons with primary immunodeficiencies; lifestyles prone to infectious pathology, such as mega-city urbanization, children in day care centers, industrialized foods, intravenous drug addiction, sexual liberation, global commerce, and tourism; antibiotic-multiresistant microbial flora; environmental disturbances as a result of global warming, deforestation, the settling of virgin areas, dams, the large-scale use of pesticides, fertilizers and antimicrobials, and natural/social disasters generators of poverty, violence and deprivation will result in emergence or re-emergence of infectious diseases already controlled in the past. PMID:9204602

  14. Infectious diseases of Pacific salmon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    1954-01-01

    A variety of bacteria has been found responsible for outbreaks of disease in salmon in sea water. The most important of these is a species of Vibrio. Tuberculosis has been found in adult chinook salmon and the evidence indicates that the disease was contracted at sea.

  15. Infectious Disease Risk Associated with Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pierson, Duane L.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation opens with views of the shuttle in various stages of preparation for launch, a few moments after launch prior to external fuel tank separation, a few pictures of the earth,and several pictures of astronomical interest. The presentation reviews the factors effecting the risks of infectious disease during space flight, such as the crew, water, food, air, surfaces and payloads and the factors that increase disease risk, the factors affecting the risk of infectious disease during spaceflight, and the environmental factors affecting immunity, such as stress. One factor in space infectious disease is latent viral reactivation, such as herpes. There are comparisons of the incidence of viral reactivation in space, and in other analogous situations (such as bed rest, or isolation). There is discussion of shingles, and the pain and results of treatment. There is a further discussion of the changes in microbial pathogen characteristics, using salmonella as an example of the increased virulence of microbes during spaceflight. A factor involved in the risk of infectious disease is stress.

  16. Progress and Challenges in Infectious Disease Cartography.

    PubMed

    Kraemer, Moritz U G; Hay, Simon I; Pigott, David M; Smith, David L; Wint, G R William; Golding, Nick

    2016-01-01

    Quantitatively mapping the spatial distributions of infectious diseases is key to both investigating their epidemiology and identifying populations at risk of infection. Important advances in data quality and methodologies have allowed for better investigation of disease risk and its association with environmental factors. However, incorporating dynamic human behavioural processes in disease mapping remains challenging. For example, connectivity among human populations, a key driver of pathogen dispersal, has increased sharply over the past century, along with the availability of data derived from mobile phones and other dynamic data sources. Future work must be targeted towards the rapid updating and dissemination of appropriately designed disease maps to guide the public health community in reducing the global burden of infectious disease. PMID:26604163

  17. Modeling Addictive Consumption as an Infectious Disease*

    PubMed Central

    Alamar, Benjamin; Glantz, Stanton A.

    2011-01-01

    The dominant model of addictive consumption in economics is the theory of rational addiction. The addict in this model chooses how much they are going to consume based upon their level of addiction (past consumption), the current benefits and all future costs. Several empirical studies of cigarette sales and price data have found a correlation between future prices and consumption and current consumption. These studies have argued that the correlation validates the rational addiction model and invalidates any model in which future consumption is not considered. An alternative to the rational addiction model is one in which addiction spreads through a population as if it were an infectious disease, as supported by the large body of empirical research of addictive behaviors. In this model an individual's probability of becoming addicted to a substance is linked to the behavior of their parents, friends and society. In the infectious disease model current consumption is based only on the level of addiction and current costs. Price and consumption data from a simulation of the infectious disease model showed a qualitative match to the results of the rational addiction model. The infectious disease model can explain all of the theoretical results of the rational addiction model with the addition of explaining initial consumption of the addictive good. PMID:21339848

  18. Infectious diseases mortality in central Serbia.

    PubMed Central

    Vlajinac, H D; Marinkovi?, J M; Kocev, N I; Adanja, B J; Pekmezovi?, T D; Sipeti?, S B; Jovanovi?, D J

    1997-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE: To determine the influence and the effect of the war in the former Yugoslavia and of the United Nations economic sanctions on mortality from infectious diseases. DESIGN: This was a descriptive study analysing mortality data time series. SETTING: Central Serbia, Yugoslavia. PARTICIPANTS: The population of central Serbia was the subject of the study (about six million inhabitants). MEASUREMENTS: Mortality rates were standardised directly, using the "European population" as the standard. Regression analysis and analysis of covariance were undertaken. MAIN RESULTS: During the period 1973-93, mortality from infectious diseases showed a decreasing trend. From 1987-90, and infectious diseases was significantly higher than expected on the basis of the trend for the preceding period (p = 0.020 and p = 0.00). In addition, there was a statistically significant departure from the preceding trend (p = 0.036) in men between 1991 and 1993 (the period of the war and UN sanctions)--the main effect being in younger age groups. CONCLUSION: The economic crisis in the former Yugoslavia during the 1980s followed by the outbreak of the war and the damaging effects of UN economic sanctions had a distinctly adverse effect on mortality from infectious diseases. PMID:9196647

  19. Genetics of Infectious Disease Resistance in Animals

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This presentation will summarize genomic resources available for studies of genetic control of infectious disease resistance in animals. It will then review data collected in our and collaborators’ labs of genetic control of swine resistance to viral infections, e.g., Porcine reproductive and respir...

  20. Prevention of infectious diseases in aquaculture

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    1989-01-01

    Infectious diseases remain one of the most important limitations to the successful propagation of aquatic animals. Most of the losses caused by pathogens in aquaculture could be prevented by health inspection, adequate environment and sound management practices. Effective control measures, mainly based upon 1) avoidance of pathogens 2) modification of the environment 3) improvement of host resistance 4) vaccination and 5) chemoprophylaxis are described.

  1. Microbial Pathogenesis: Mechanisms of Infectious Disease

    PubMed Central

    Carruthers, Vern B.; Cotter, Peggy A.; Kumamoto, Carol A.

    2009-01-01

    The FASEB Summer Research Conference on Microbial Pathogenesis: Mechanisms of Infectious Disease was held in Colorado, USA in July 2007. The central theme was the interplay between pathogenic microbes and their mammalian hosts. Here, we review the presented research that highlights this theme, including studies of both short-term and long-term interactions between microbes and their hosts. PMID:18005739

  2. Infectious bursal disease and hemorrhagic enteritis.

    PubMed

    Saif, Y M

    1998-08-01

    Infectious bursal disease (IBD) of chickens and hemorrhagic enteritis (HE) of turkeys are caused by infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) and hemorrhagic enteritis virus (HEV), respectively. Both diseases have common features, including an acute stage followed by immunosuppression, resulting in lowered resistance to a variety of infectious agents and poor response to commonly used vaccines. The IBDV and HEV infections are widespread in commercial chicken and turkey flocks, respectively. The acute stage of the disease, the immunosuppression that follows, and the widespread distribution of both diseases, are major factors contributing to the economic significance of both diseases. The mechanism of immunosuppression for both infections has similarities, both affect lymphocytes and macrophages, and both are lymphocidal. In this report, an overview of both diseases with emphasis on some of the recent findings will be presented. There has been greater research activity on IBD than on HE, reflecting the relative economic importance of the species affected and the recent changes in the antigenic make up and pathogenicity of the IBDV. PMID:9706087

  3. An overview of infectious bursal disease.

    PubMed

    Mahgoub, Hebata Allah; Bailey, Michael; Kaiser, Pete

    2012-11-01

    Infectious bursal disease (IBD) is a viral immunosuppressive disease of chickens attacking mainly an important lymphoid organ in birds [the bursa of Fabricius (BF)]. The emergence of new variant strains of the causative agent [infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV)] has made it more urgent to develop new vaccination strategies against IBD. One of these strategies is the use of recombinant vaccines (DNA and viral-vectored vaccines). Several studies have investigated the host immune response towards IBDV. This review will present a detailed background on the disease and its causative agent, accompanied by a summary of the most recent findings regarding the host immune response to IBDV infection and the use of recombinant vaccines against IBD. PMID:22707044

  4. Future Infectious Disease Threats to Europe

    PubMed Central

    Suk, Jonathan E.

    2011-01-01

    We examined how different drivers of infectious disease could interact to threaten control efforts in Europe. We considered projected trends through 2020 for 3 broad groups of drivers: globalization and environmental change, social and demographic change, and health system capacity. Eight plausible infectious disease threats with the potential to be significantly more problematic than they are today were identified through an expert consultation: extensively drug-resistant bacteria, vector-borne diseases, sexually transmitted infections, food-borne infections, a resurgence of vaccine-preventable diseases, health care–associated infections, multidrug-resistant tuberculosis, and pandemic influenza. Preemptive measures to be taken by the public health community to counteract these threats were identified. PMID:21940915

  5. Emerging infectious disease: global response, global alert.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, H

    1997-01-01

    Despite spectacular progress in the eradication of infectious diseases, malaria and tuberculosis are making a comeback in many parts of the world. After years of decline, plague, diphtheria, dengue, meningococcal meningitis, yellow fever, and cholera have reappeared as public health threats. In the last 20 years [before 1997] more than 30 new and highly infectious diseases have been identified, including Ebola-type hemorrhagic fever, HIV/AIDs, and hepatitis C. Antibiotic resistance has also emerged during this period, and fewer new antibiotics are being produced because of high development costs and licensing. Drugs no longer offer protection or cure for many infectious diseases, and consequently more people need hospitalization with higher treatment costs. The causes of the appearance of new diseases and the resurgence of old ones include the rapid increase in international travel, the growth of mega-cities with high population densities, inadequate safe water and sanitation, food-borne diseases by the globalization of trade, and human penetration into remote animal and insect habitats. Meanwhile, resources for public health are being reduced, with the result that either the appearance of new diseases or resistance to drugs go unnoticed. A recent example is the human immunodeficiency virus, which went unrecognized until a large number of people got infected. For this very reason the 1997 World Health Day featured the theme of emerging infectious diseases and global response. Such forums are held to help countries rebuild the foundations of disease surveillance and control, while the public and private sectors may be encouraged to develop better techniques for surveillance to confront a common global threat. PMID:12348002

  6. [The past decade's infectious diseases].

    PubMed

    Mølbak, Kåre

    2011-02-01

    The past decade saw emerging infections such as SARS, avian and pandemic influenza, food-borne infections and the bioterror threat. New vaccines became available and novel technologies for detection and typing of microorganisms were applied. In the years to come, control of antimicrobial drug resistance and nosocomial infections will continue to pose challenges in the light of an increasing number of senior citizens and individuals with chronic diseases. There will also be unknown challenges: We have not faced the last HIV, ebola, SARS or avian or swine flu epidemic. PMID:21299933

  7. Emerging infectious diseases: a cause for concern.

    PubMed

    Berns, D S; Rager, B

    2000-12-01

    As the twenty-first century begins it becomes increasingly apparent that the twentieth century, which opened with the promise of the eradication of most infectious diseases, closed with the specter of the reemergence of many deadly infectious diseases that have a rapidly increasing incidence and geographic range. Equally if not more alarming is the appearance of new infectious diseases that have become major sources of morbidity and mortality. Among recent examples are HIV/AIDS, hantavirus pulmonary syndrome, Lyme disease, hemolytic uremic syndrome (caused by a strain of Escherichia coli), Rift Valley fever, Dengue hemorrhagic fever, malaria, cryptosporidiosis, and schistosomiasis. The reasons for this situation are easily identified in some cases as associated with treatment modalities (permissive use of antibiotics), the industrial use of antibiotics, demographic changes, societal behavior patterns, changes in ecology, global warming, the inability to deliver minimal health care and the neglect of well-established public health priorities. In addition is the emergence of diseases of another type. We have begun to characterize the potential microbial etiology of what has historically been referred to as chronic diseases. PMID:11344776

  8. Challenges of infectious diseases in the USA.

    PubMed

    Khabbaz, Rima F; Moseley, Robin R; Steiner, Riley J; Levitt, Alexandra M; Bell, Beth P

    2014-07-01

    In the USA, infectious diseases continue to exact a substantial toll on health and health-care resources. Endemic diseases such as chronic hepatitis, HIV, and other sexually transmitted infections affect millions of individuals and widen health disparities. Additional concerns include health-care-associated and foodborne infections--both of which have been targets of broad prevention efforts, with success in some areas, yet major challenges remain. Although substantial progress in reduction of the burden of vaccine-preventable diseases has been made, continued cases and outbreaks of these diseases persist, driven by various contributing factors. Worldwide, emerging and reemerging infections continue to challenge prevention and control strategies while the growing problem of antimicrobial resistance needs urgent action. An important priority for control of infectious disease is to ensure that scientific and technological advances in molecular diagnostics and bioinformatics are well integrated into public health. Broad and diverse partnerships across governments, health care, academia, and industry, and with the public, are essential to effectively reduce the burden of infectious diseases. PMID:24996590

  9. Vaccination against infectious diseases: what is promising?

    PubMed

    Doerr, Hans Wilhelm; Berger, Annemarie

    2014-12-01

    Vaccination has proven to be one of the best weapons protecting the mankind against infectious diseases. Along with the huge progress in microbiology, numerous highly efficacious and safe vaccines have been produced by conventional technology (cultivation), by the use of molecular biology (genetic modification), or by synthetic chemistry. Sterilising prevention is achieved by the stimulation of antibody production, while the stimulation of cell-mediated immune responses may prevent the outbreak of disease in consequence of an acute or reactivated infection. From several examples, two rules are deduced to evaluate the perspectives of future vaccine developments: They are promising, if (1) the natural infectious disease induces immunity or (2) passive immunisation (transfer of antibodies, adoptive transfer of lymphocytes) is successful in preventing infection. PMID:25064610

  10. Travel and the emergence of infectious diseases.

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, M. E.

    1995-01-01

    Travel is a potent force in the emergence of disease. Migration of humans has been the pathway for disseminating infectious diseases throughout recorded history and will continue to shape the emergence, frequency, and spread of infections in geographic areas and populations. The current volume, speed, and reach of travel are unprecedented. The consequences of travel extend beyond the traveler to the population visited and the ecosystem. When they travel, humans carry their genetic makeup, immunologic sequelae of past infections, cultural preferences, customs, and behavioral patterns. Microbes, animals, and other biologic life also accompany them. Today's massive movement of humans and materials sets the stage for mixing diverse genetic pools at rates and in combinations previously unknown. Concomitant changes in the environment, climate, technology, land use, human behavior, and demographics converge to favor the emergence of infectious diseases caused by a broad range of organisms in humans, as well as in plants and animals. PMID:8903157

  11. [Update in infectious diseases. Part I: epidemiology].

    PubMed

    Salzberger, B; Franzen, C; Fätkenheuer, G

    2000-06-15

    A number of infectious agents has been newly detected in the last 10 years. Climatic changes and migration have been the most important factors in the emergence of new and old infections. Additionally, new methods for the detection of DNA and RNA have played an important role in the detection of agents difficult to culture. Relevant new bacterial pathogens are Bartonella henselae (cat scratch disease, bacillary angiomatosis), Tropheryma whippeli (Whipple's disease) and new Rickettsiae. Newly detected viral pathogens include Sin-nombre virus (pulmonary Hanta virus syndrome), Nipah- and Hendra virus and avian influenza. Bovine spongiform encephalopathy has been transmitted to humans causing the newly described syndrome of variant Creuzfeldt-Jakob disease. The extent of this new epidemic is not yet clear. These trends from the last years clearly indicate, that further new infections and infectious agents will be detected in the future. PMID:10935415

  12. Infectious Disease Stigmas: Maladaptive in Modern Society

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Rachel A.; Hughes, David

    2014-01-01

    At multiple times in human history people have asked if there are good stigmas. Is there some useful function stigmas serve in the context of our evolutionary history; is stigma adaptive? This essay discusses stigmas as a group-selection strategy and the human context in which stigmas likely appeared. The next section explores how human patterns have changed in modern society and the consequences for infectious disease (ID) stigmas in the modern age. The concluding section suggests that while social-living species may be particularly apt to create and communicate ID stigmas and enact ID-related stigmatization, such stigma-related processes no longer function to protect human communities. Stigmas do not increase the ability of modern societies to survive infectious diseases, but in fact may be important drivers of problematic disease dynamics and act as catalysts for failures in protecting public health. PMID:25477728

  13. Diseases of Dairy Animals: Infectious Diseases: Johne's Disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Johne's disease is a chronic, debilitating intestinal disorder in cattle, sheep and wild ruminants, characterized by diarrhea, weight loss and death. Animals usually become infected when they are young by ingesting feces or milk containing the causative bacteria. However, clinical signs of disease...

  14. Epidemics of infectious diseases in newborn nurseries.

    PubMed

    Smith, D H

    1979-06-01

    The newborn nursery is a frequent site of epidemics of infectious disease. The unique susceptibility of neonates to colonization, their intimate exposure to hospital personnel, and their frquent contact with possibly contaminated inanimate objects are major factors contributing to the risk of nursery epidemics. Most of the epidemics described have been caused by bacteria; the role of viruses in nosocomial infections is not well defined but is undoubtedly greater than presently appreciated. All bacteria implicated in nursery epidemics have the capacity to survive or even multiply in the environment or on human skin or to cause gastrointestinal disease. Analysis of the etiologic bacteria, the epidemiology of outbreaks studied, and extensive clinical research indicate that bacterial transmission in this setting occurs primarily by manual contact and very infrequently by the respiratory route. The cornerstone of a program to prevent infectious diseases in the nursery consists of active, disease-oriented surveillance by specially trained personnel; microbiologic surveillance is important only when specifically indicated. Practical technical considerations for prevention of infectious diseases in nurseries are available. Programs to eradicate an ongoing epidemic must be individualized. PMID:380862

  15. Epidemiological monitoring for emerging infectious diseases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greene, Marjorie

    2010-04-01

    The Homeland Security News Wire has been reporting on new ways to fight epidemics using digital tools such as iPhone, social networks, Wikipedia, and other Internet sites. Instant two-way communication now gives consumers the ability to complement official reports on emerging infectious diseases from health authorities. However, there is increasing concern that these communications networks could open the door to mass panic from unreliable or false reports. There is thus an urgent need to ensure that epidemiological monitoring for emerging infectious diseases gives health authorities the capability to identify, analyze, and report disease outbreaks in as timely and efficient a manner as possible. One of the dilemmas in the global dissemination of information on infectious diseases is the possibility that information overload will create inefficiencies as the volume of Internet-based surveillance information increases. What is needed is a filtering mechanism that will retrieve relevant information for further analysis by epidemiologists, laboratories, and other health organizations so they are not overwhelmed with irrelevant information and will be able to respond quickly. This paper introduces a self-organizing ontology that could be used as a filtering mechanism to increase relevance and allow rapid analysis of disease outbreaks as they evolve in real time.

  16. Platelet satellitism in infectious disease?

    PubMed Central

    Laskaj, Renata; Sikiric, Dubravka; Skerk, Visnja

    2015-01-01

    Background Platelet satellitism is a phenomenon of unknown etiology of aggregating platelets around polymorphonuclear neutrophils and other blood cells which causes pseudothrombocytopenia, visible by microscopic examination of blood smears. It has been observed so far in about a hundred cases in the world. Case subject and methods Our case involves a 73-year-old female patient with a urinary infection. Biochemical serum analysis (CRP, glucose, AST, ALT, ALP, GGT, bilirubin, sodium, potassium, chloride, urea, creatinine) and blood cell count were performed with standard methods on autoanalyzers. Serum protein fractions were examined by electrophoresis and urinalysis with standard methods on autoanalyzer together with microscopic examination of urine sediment. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate, blood culture and urine culture tests were performed with standard methods. Results Due to typical pathological values for bacterial urinary infection, the patient was admitted to the hospital. Blood smear examination revealed phenomenon, which has persisted for three weeks after the disease has been cured. Blood smears with EDTA as an anticoagulant had platelet satellitism whereas the phenomenon was not observed in tubes with different anticoagulants (Na, Li-heparin) and capillary blood. Discussion We hypothesize that satellitism was induced by some immunological mechanism through formation of antibodies which have mediated platelets binding to neutrophil membranes and vice versa. Unfortunately we were unable to determine the putative trigger for this phenomenon. To our knowledge this is the second case of platelet satellitism ever described in Croatia. PMID:26110042

  17. Infectious diseases and global warming: Tracking disease incidence rates globally

    SciTech Connect

    Low, N.C.

    1995-09-01

    Given the increasing importance of impact of global warming on public health, there is no global database system to monitor infectious disease and disease in general, and to which global data of climate change and environmental factors, such as temperature, greenhouse gases, and human activities, e.g., coastal development, deforestation, can be calibrated, investigated and correlated. The author proposes the diseases incidence rates be adopted as the basic global measure of morbidity of infectious diseases. The importance of a correctly chosen measure of morbidity of disease is presented. The importance of choosing disease incidence rates as the measure of morbidity and the mathematical foundation of which are discussed. The author further proposes the establishment of a global database system to track the incidence rates of infectious diseases. Only such a global system can be used to calibrate and correlate other globally tracked climatic, greenhouse gases and environmental data. The infrastructure and data sources for building such a global database is discussed.

  18. Social inequalities and emerging infectious diseases.

    PubMed Central

    Farmer, P.

    1996-01-01

    Although many who study emerging infections subscribe to social-production-of-disease theories, few have examined the contribution of social inequalities to disease emergence. Yet such inequalities have powerfully sculpted not only the distribution of infectious diseases, but also the course of disease in those affected. Outbreaks of Ebola, AIDS, and tuberculosis suggest that models of disease emergence need to be dynamic, systemic, and critical. Such models--which strive to incorporate change and complexity, and are global yet alive to local variation--are critical of facile claims of causality, particularly those that scant the pathogenic roles of social inequalities. Critical perspectives on emerging infections ask how large-scale social forces influence unequally positioned individuals in increasingly interconnected populations; a critical epistemology of emerging infectious diseases asks what features of disease emergence are obscured by dominant analytic frameworks. Research questions stemming from such a reexamination of disease emergence would demand close collaboration between basic scientists, clinicians, and the social scientists and epidemiologists who adopt such perspectives. PMID:8969243

  19. Discovering network behind infectious disease outbreak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maeno, Yoshiharu

    2010-11-01

    Stochasticity and spatial heterogeneity are of great interest recently in studying the spread of an infectious disease. The presented method solves an inverse problem to discover the effectively decisive topology of a heterogeneous network and reveal the transmission parameters which govern the stochastic spreads over the network from a dataset on an infectious disease outbreak in the early growth phase. Populations in a combination of epidemiological compartment models and a meta-population network model are described by stochastic differential equations. Probability density functions are derived from the equations and used for the maximal likelihood estimation of the topology and parameters. The method is tested with computationally synthesized datasets and the WHO dataset on the SARS outbreak.

  20. [Infectious diseases in the genomic era].

    PubMed

    Moreno Switt, Andrea I; Toledo, Viviana

    2015-10-01

    Next generation sequencing (NGS) technologies have arrived, changing research and infectious disease research into a new era, the "genomic era". Currently, the developed world is introducing NGS in a number of applications, including clinical diagnostics, epidemiology, and microbiology. In developing countries NGS is being progressively introduced. Technologies currently available allow to sequence the whole genome of bacterial and viral strains for an approximate cost of $100 USD, which is highly cost savings compared to old-technologies for genome sequencing. Here we review recent publication of whole genome sequencing used for, (i) tracking of foodborne outbreaks, with emphasis in Salmonella and Listeria monocytogenes, (ii) building genomic databases for Governments, (iii) investigating nosocomial infections, and (iv) clinical diagnosis. The genomic era is here to stay and researchers should use these "massive databases" generated by this technology to decrease infectious diseases and thus improve health of humans and animals. PMID:26633116

  1. Imported Infectious Diseases in Mobile Populations, Spain

    PubMed Central

    Monge-Maillo, Begoña; Jiménez, B. Carolina; Pérez-Molina, José A.; Norman, Francesca; Navarro, Miriam; Pérez-Ayala, Ana; Herrero, Juan M.; Zamarrón, Pilar

    2009-01-01

    Migration has contributed to the emergence of certain infectious diseases. To determine which infectious diseases were most common among 2 mobile immigrant groups (sub-Saharan Africans and Latin Americans) in Spain, we analyzed health and demographic characteristics of 2,198 immigrants referred to the Tropical Medicine Unit of Ramón y Cajal Hospital over a 20-year period. The most frequent diagnoses were for latent tuberculosis (716 patients [32.6%]), filariasis (421 [19.2%]), hepatropic virus chronic infection (262 [19.2%]), intestinal parasites (242 [11.0%]), and malaria (212 [9.6%]). Health screening of immigrant populations is needed to ensure early diagnosis and treatment of potentially transmissible infections. PMID:19891861

  2. Peripheral Nervous System Manifestations of Infectious Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Brizzi, Kate T.

    2014-01-01

    Infectious causes of peripheral nervous system (PNS) disease are underrecognized but potentially treatable. Heightened awareness educed by advanced understanding of the presentations and management of these infections can aid diagnosis and facilitate treatment. In this review, we discuss the clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and treatment of common bacterial, viral, and parasitic infections that affect the PNS. We additionally detail PNS side effects of some frequently used antimicrobial agents. PMID:25360209

  3. History and Practice: Antibodies in Infectious Diseases.

    PubMed

    Hey, Adam

    2015-04-01

    Antibodies and passive antibody therapy in the treatment of infectious diseases is the story of a treatment concept which dates back more than 120 years, to the 1890s, when the use of serum from immunized animals provided the first effective treatment options against infections with Clostridium tetani and Corynebacterium diphtheriae. However, after the discovery of penicillin by Fleming in 1928, and the subsequent introduction of the much cheaper and safer antibiotics in the 1930s, serum therapy was largely abandoned. However, the broad and general use of antibiotics in human and veterinary medicine has resulted in the development of multi-resistant strains of bacteria with limited to no response to existing treatments and the need for alternative treatment options. The combined specificity and flexibility of antibody-based treatments makes them very valuable tools for designing specific antibody treatments to infectious agents. These attributes have already caused a revolution in new antibody-based treatments in oncology and inflammatory diseases, with many approved products. However, only one monoclonal antibody, palivizumab, for the prevention and treatment of respiratory syncytial virus, is approved for infectious diseases. The high cost of monoclonal antibody therapies, the need for parallel development of diagnostics, and the relatively small markets are major barriers for their development in the presence of cheap antibiotics. It is time to take a new and revised look into the future to find appropriate niches in infectious diseases where new antibody-based treatments or combinations with existing antibiotics, could prove their value and serve as stepping stones for broader acceptance of the potential for and value of these treatments. PMID:26104697

  4. 76 FR 28443 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-17

    ...: Microbiology, Infectious Diseases and AIDS Initial Review Group, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research... Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research, National Institutes of Health, HHS)...

  5. Pregnancy and Susceptibility to Infectious Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Jamieson, Denise J.; Kourtis, Athena P.

    2013-01-01

    To summarize the literature regarding susceptibility of pregnant women to infectious diseases and severity of resulting disease, we conducted a review using a PubMed search and other strategies. Studies were included if they reported information on infection risk or disease outcome in pregnant women. In all, 1454 abstracts were reviewed, and a total of 85 studies were included. Data were extracted regarding number of cases in pregnant women, rates of infection, risk factors for disease severity or complications, and maternal outcomes. The evidence indicates that pregnancy is associated with increased severity of some infectious diseases, such as influenza, malaria, hepatitis E, and herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection (risk for dissemination/hepatitis); there is also some evidence for increased severity of measles and smallpox. Disease severity seems higher with advanced pregnancy. Pregnant women may be more susceptible to acquisition of malaria, HIV infection, and listeriosis, although the evidence is limited. These results reinforce the importance of infection prevention as well as of early identification and treatment of suspected influenza, malaria, hepatitis E, and HSV disease during pregnancy. PMID:23935259

  6. Management of Chronic Infectious Diseases in School Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois State Board of Education, Springfield.

    This document contains guidelines for developing policies and procedures related to chronic infectious diseases, as recommended by the Illinois Task Force on School Management of Infectious Disease. It is designed to help school personnel understand how infectious diseases can be transmitted, and to assist school districts in the development and…

  7. The Challenge of Infectious Diseases to the Biomedical Paradigm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foladori, Guillermo

    2005-01-01

    The resurgence of infectious diseases and the emergence of infectious diseases raise questions on how to cope with the situation. The germ or clinical approach is the hegemonic biomedical paradigm. In this article, the author argues that the spread of infectious diseases has posted a challenge to the biomedical paradigm and shows how lock-in…

  8. Is irritable bowel syndrome an infectious disease?

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, John Richard

    2016-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is the most common of all gastroenterological diseases. While many mechanisms have been postulated to explain its etiology, no single mechanism entirely explains the heterogeneity of symptoms seen with the various phenotypes of the disease. Recent data from both basic and clinical sciences suggest that underlying infectious disease may provide a unifying hypothesis that better explains the overall symptomatology. The presence of small intestinal bowel overgrowth (SIBO) has been documented in patients with IBS and reductions in SIBO as determined by breath testing correlate with IBS symptom improvement in clinical trials. The incidence of new onset IBS symptoms following acute infectious gastroenteritis also suggests an infectious cause. Alterations in microbiota-host interactions may compromise epithelial barrier integrity, immune function, and the development and function of both central and enteric nervous systems explaining alterations in the brain-gut axis. Clinical evidence from treatment trials with both probiotics and antibiotics also support this etiology. Probiotics appear to restore the imbalance in the microflora and improve IBS-specific quality of life. Antibiotic trials with both neomycin and rifaximin show improvement in global IBS symptoms that correlates with breath test normalization in diarrhea-predominant patients. The treatment response to two weeks of rifaximin is sustained for up to ten weeks and comparable results are seen in symptom reduction with retreatment in patients who develop recurrent symptoms. PMID:26819502

  9. Sex Differences in Pediatric Infectious Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Muenchhoff, Maximilian; Goulder, Philip J. R.

    2014-01-01

    The success of the immune response is finely balanced between, on the one hand, the need to engage vigorously with, and clear, certain pathogens; and, on the other, the requirement to minimize immunopathology and autoimmunity. Distinct immune strategies to achieve this balance have evolved in females and males and also in infancy through to adulthood. Sex differences in outcome from a range of infectious diseases can be identified from as early as fetal life, such as in congenital cytomegalovirus infection. The impact of sex hormones on the T-helper 1/T-helper 2 cytokine balance has been proposed to explain the higher severity of most infectious diseases in males. In the minority where greater morbidity and mortality is observed in females, this is hypothesized to arise because of greater immunopathology and/or autoimmunity. However, a number of unexplained exceptions to this rule are described. Studies that have actually measured the sex differences in children in the immune responses to infectious diseases and that would further test these hypotheses, are relatively scarce. PMID:24966192

  10. The burden of obesity on infectious disease.

    PubMed

    Karlsson, Erik A; Beck, Melinda A

    2010-12-01

    The world is now experiencing an epidemic of obesity. Although the effects of obesity on the development of metabolic and cardiovascular problems are well studied, much less is known about the impact of obesity on immune function and infectious disease. Studies in obese humans and with obese animal models have repeatedly demonstrated impaired immune function, including decreased cytokine production, decreased response to antigen/mitogen stimulation, reduced macrophage and dendritic cell function, and natural killer cell impairment. Recent studies have demonstrated that the impaired immune response in the obese host leads to increased susceptibility to infection with a number of different pathogens such as community-acquired tuberculosis, influenza, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, coxsackievirus, Helicobacter pylori and encephalomyocarditis virus. While no specific mechanism has been defined for the decreased immune response to infectious disease in the obese host, several obesity-associated changes such as excessive inflammation, altered adipokine signaling, metabolic changes and even epigenetic regulation could affect the immune response. This review will discuss what is currently known about the relationship between obesity and infectious disease. PMID:21127339

  11. Is irritable bowel syndrome an infectious disease?

    PubMed

    Thompson, John Richard

    2016-01-28

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is the most common of all gastroenterological diseases. While many mechanisms have been postulated to explain its etiology, no single mechanism entirely explains the heterogeneity of symptoms seen with the various phenotypes of the disease. Recent data from both basic and clinical sciences suggest that underlying infectious disease may provide a unifying hypothesis that better explains the overall symptomatology. The presence of small intestinal bowel overgrowth (SIBO) has been documented in patients with IBS and reductions in SIBO as determined by breath testing correlate with IBS symptom improvement in clinical trials. The incidence of new onset IBS symptoms following acute infectious gastroenteritis also suggests an infectious cause. Alterations in microbiota-host interactions may compromise epithelial barrier integrity, immune function, and the development and function of both central and enteric nervous systems explaining alterations in the brain-gut axis. Clinical evidence from treatment trials with both probiotics and antibiotics also support this etiology. Probiotics appear to restore the imbalance in the microflora and improve IBS-specific quality of life. Antibiotic trials with both neomycin and rifaximin show improvement in global IBS symptoms that correlates with breath test normalization in diarrhea-predominant patients. The treatment response to two weeks of rifaximin is sustained for up to ten weeks and comparable results are seen in symptom reduction with retreatment in patients who develop recurrent symptoms. PMID:26819502

  12. Electronic tools for infectious diseases and microbiology

    PubMed Central

    Burdette, Steven D

    2007-01-01

    Electronic tools for infectious diseases and medical microbiology have the ability to change the way the diagnosis and treatment of infectious diseases are approached. Medical information today has the ability to be dynamic, keeping up with the latest research or clinical issues, instead of being static and years behind, as many textbooks are. The ability to rapidly disseminate information around the world opens up the possibility of communicating with people thousands of miles away to quickly and efficiently learn about emerging infections. Electronic tools have expanded beyond the desktop computer and the Internet, and now include personal digital assistants and other portable devices such as cellular phones. These pocket-sized devices have the ability to provide access to clinical information at the point of care. New electronic tools include e-mail listservs, electronic drug databases and search engines that allow focused clinical questions. The goal of the present article is to provide an overview of how electronic tools can impact infectious diseases and microbiology, while providing links and resources to allow users to maximize their efficiency in accessing this information. Links to the mentioned Web sites and programs are provided along with other useful electronic tools. PMID:18978984

  13. Using biological networks to improve our understanding of infectious diseases

    PubMed Central

    Mulder, Nicola J.; Akinola, Richard O.; Mazandu, Gaston K.; Rapanoel, Holifidy

    2014-01-01

    Infectious diseases are the leading cause of death, particularly in developing countries. Although many drugs are available for treating the most common infectious diseases, in many cases the mechanism of action of these drugs or even their targets in the pathogen remain unknown. In addition, the key factors or processes in pathogens that facilitate infection and disease progression are often not well understood. Since proteins do not work in isolation, understanding biological systems requires a better understanding of the interconnectivity between proteins in different pathways and processes, which includes both physical and other functional interactions. Such biological networks can be generated within organisms or between organisms sharing a common environment using experimental data and computational predictions. Though different data sources provide different levels of accuracy, confidence in interactions can be measured using interaction scores. Connections between interacting proteins in biological networks can be represented as graphs and edges, and thus studied using existing algorithms and tools from graph theory. There are many different applications of biological networks, and here we discuss three such applications, specifically applied to the infectious disease tuberculosis, with its causative agent Mycobacterium tuberculosis and host, Homo sapiens. The applications include the use of the networks for function prediction, comparison of networks for evolutionary studies, and the generation and use of host–pathogen interaction networks. PMID:25379138

  14. Emerging, evolving, and established infectious diseases and interventions.

    PubMed

    Halloran, M Elizabeth; Longini, Ira M

    2014-09-12

    Planning, implementing, and evaluating interventions against infectious diseases depend on the nature of the infectious disease; the availability of intervention measures; and logistical, economic, and political constraints. Infectious diseases and vaccine- or drug-based interventions can be loosely categorized by the degree to which the infectious disease and the intervention are well established. Pertussis, polio, and measles are three examples of long-known infectious diseases for which global vaccination has dramatically reduced the public health burden. Pertussis vaccination was introduced in the 1940s, polio vaccination in the 1950s, and measles vaccination in the 1960s, nearly eliminating these diseases in many places. PMID:25214617

  15. Concluding perspectives of sequelae and long-term consequences of infectious diseases - what's next?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Infectious diseases are a major cause of morbidity and mortality, representing the second leading cause of death worldwide and the third leading cause of death in the United States. Moreover, infections caused by different pathogenic agents, including food-borne pathogens, can lead to serious post-...

  16. Infectious etiopathogenesis of Crohn’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Carrière, Jessica; Darfeuille-Michaud, Arlette; Nguyen, Hang Thi Thu

    2014-01-01

    Important advances during the last decade have been made in understanding the complex etiopathogenesis of Crohn’s disease (CD). While many gaps in our knowledge still exist, it has been suggested that the etiology of CD is multifactorial including genetic, environmental and infectious factors. The most widely accepted theory states that CD is caused by an aggressive immune response to infectious agents in genetically predisposed individuals. The rise of genome-wide association studies allowed the identification of loci and genetic variants in several components of host innate and adaptive immune responses to microorganisms in the gut, highlighting an implication of intestinal microbiota in CD etiology. Moreover, numerous independent studies reported a dysbiosis, i.e., a modification of intestinal microbiota composition, with an imbalance between the abundance of beneficial and harmful bacteria. Although microorganisms including viruses, yeasts, fungi and bacteria have been postulated as potential CD pathogens, based on epidemiological, clinicopathological, genetic and experimental evidence, their precise role in this disease is not clearly defined. This review summarizes the current knowledge of the infectious agents associated with an increased risk of developing CD. Therapeutic approaches to modulate the intestinal dysbiosis and to target the putative CD-associated pathogens, as well as their potential mechanisms of action are also discussed. PMID:25232246

  17. Global climate change and infectious diseases

    SciTech Connect

    Shope, R. )

    1991-12-01

    The effects of global climate change on infectious diseases are hypothetical until more is known about the degree of change in temperature and humidity that will occur. Diseases most likely to increase in their distribution and severity have three-factor (agent, vector, and human being) and four-factor (plus vertebrate reservoir host) ecology. Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus mosquitoes may move northward and have more rapid metamorphosis with global warming. These mosquitoes transmit dengue virus, and Aedes aegypti transmits yellow fever virus. The faster metamorphosis and a shorter extrinsic incubation of dengue and yellow fever viruses could lead to epidemics in North America. Vibrio cholera is harbored persistently in the estuaries of the U.S. Gulf Coast. Over the past 200 years, cholera has become pandemic seven times with spread from Asia to Europe, Africa, and North America. Global warming may lead to changes in water ecology that could enhance similar spread of cholera in North America. Some other infectious diseases such as LaCrosse encephalitis and Lyme disease are caused by agents closely dependent on the integrity of their environment. These diseases may become less prominent with global warming because of anticipated modification of their habitats. Ecological studies will help as to understand more fully the possible consequences of global warming. New and more effective methods for control of vectors will be needed. 12 refs., 1 tab.

  18. Early adversity, immunity and infectious disease.

    PubMed

    Avitsur, Ronit; Levy, Sigal; Goren, Naama; Grinshpahet, Rachel

    2015-01-01

    Complex interactions between biological, behavioral and environmental factors are involved in mediating individual differences in health and disease. In this review, we present evidence suggesting that increased vulnerability to infectious disease may be at least, in part, due to long-lasting effects of early life psychosocial adversities. Studies have shown that maternal psychosocial stress during pregnancy is associated with long lasting changes in immune function and disease resistance in the offspring. Studies further indicated that harsh environmental conditions during the neonatal period may also cause lasting changes in host response to infectious disease. Although the mechanisms involved in these effects have not been fully examined, several potential mediators have been described, including changes in the development of the offspring hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, alterations in epigenetic pathways, stress-related maternal health risk behavior and infection during pregnancy. Although there are ample literature indicating that perinatal psychosocial stress increases vulnerability to disease, other reports suggest that mild predictable stressors may benefit the organism and allow better coping with future stressors. Thus, understanding the possible consequences of perinatal adversities and the mechanisms that are involved in immune regulation is important for increasing awareness to the potential outcomes of early negative life events and providing insight into potential therapies to combat infection in vulnerable individuals. PMID:25721541

  19. Global climate change and infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Shope, R

    1991-12-01

    The effects of global climate change on infectious diseases are hypothetical until more is known about the degree of change in temperature and humidity that will occur. Diseases most likely to increase in their distribution and severity have three-factor (agent, vector, and human being) and four-factor (plus vertebrate reservoir host) ecology. Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus mosquitoes may move northward and have more rapid metamorphosis with global warming. These mosquitoes transmit dengue virus, and Aedes aegypti transmits yellow fever virus. The faster metamorphosis and a shorter extrinsic incubation of dengue and yellow fever viruses could lead to epidemics in North America. Vibrio cholerae is harbored persistently in the estuaries of the U.S. Gulf Coast. Over the past 200 years, cholera has become pandemic seven times with spread from Asia to Europe, Africa, and North America. Global warming may lead to changes in water ecology that could enhance similar spread of cholera in North America. Some other infectious diseases such as LaCrosse encephalitis and Lyme disease are caused by agents closely dependent on the integrity of their environment. These diseases may become less prominent with global warming because of anticipated modification of their habitats. Ecological studies will help us to understand more fully the possible consequences of global warming. New and more effective methods for control of vectors will be needed. PMID:1820262

  20. [These infectious diseases imported with food].

    PubMed

    Buisson, Y; Marié, J L; Davoust, B

    2008-10-01

    People are sometimes frightened by food scares and foodstuffs are increasingly suspected of containing dangerous substances or infectious agents, as a result of the unprecedented development of the industry and food trade in the world. Rightly or wrongly, imported food is held responsible for the greatest risks. Importing an infectious disease along with food can be a source of danger, involving multiple agents, mainly bacterial (Salmonella, Campylobacter, Verotoxin producing Escherichia coli, Listeria...), but also parasitic (Toxoplasma gondii, Cyclospora cayetanensis, Trichinella spp...), and viral (Norovirus, hepatitis A virus), as well as non conventional communicable agents and mycotoxins. Prevention of food risks means enforcing international regulations on the part of the 149 member states of the WTO, increasing vigilance with regard to illegal imports of food, systematically investigating collective food-borne outbreaks, and finally implementing controls according to the hazard analysis and critical control point (HACCP) method. PMID:18956818

  1. Global Transport Networks and Infectious Disease Spread

    PubMed Central

    Tatem, A.J.; Rogers, D.J.; Hay, S.I.

    2011-01-01

    Air, sea and land transport networks continue to expand in reach, speed of travel and volume of passengers and goods carried. Pathogens and their vectors can now move further, faster and in greater numbers than ever before. Three important consequences of global transport network expansion are infectious disease pandemics, vector invasion events and vector-borne pathogen importation. This review briefly examines some of the important historical examples of these disease and vector movements, such as the global influenza pandemics, the devastating Anopheles gambiae invasion of Brazil and the recent increases in imported Plasmodium falciparum malaria cases. We then outline potential approaches for future studies of disease movement, focussing on vector invasion and vector-borne disease importation. Such approaches allow us to explore the potential implications of international air travel, shipping routes and other methods of transport on global pathogen and vector traffic. PMID:16647974

  2. Infectious diseases: Surveillance, genetic modification and simulation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Koh, H. L.; Teh, S.Y.; De Angelis, D. L.; Jiang, J.

    2011-01-01

    Infectious diseases such as influenza and dengue have the potential of becoming a worldwide pandemic that may exert immense pressures on existing medical infrastructures. Careful surveillance of these diseases, supported by consistent model simulations, provides a means for tracking the disease evolution. The integrated surveillance and simulation program is essential in devising effective early warning systems and in implementing efficient emergency preparedness and control measures. This paper presents a summary of simulation analysis on influenza A (H1N1) 2009 in Malaysia. This simulation analysis provides insightful lessons regarding how disease surveillance and simulation should be performed in the future. This paper briefly discusses the controversy over the experimental field release of genetically modified (GM) Aedes aegypti mosquito in Malaysia. Model simulations indicate that the proposed release of GM mosquitoes is neither a viable nor a sustainable control strategy. ?? 2011 WIT Press.

  3. 76 FR 12745 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-08

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis... of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel; Infectious Disease Conference Grants....

  4. Nutritional modulation of resistance to infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Klasing, K C

    1998-08-01

    Dietary characteristics can modulate a bird's susceptibility to infectious challenges and subtle influences due to the level of nutrients or the types of ingredients may at times be of critical importance. This review considers seven mechanisms for nutritional modulation of resistance to infectious disease in poultry. 1) Nutrition may impact the development of the immune system, both in ovo and in the first weeks posthatch. Micronutrient deficiencies that affect developmental events, such as the seeding of lymphoid organs and clonal expansion of lymphocyte clones, can negatively impact the immune system later in life. 2) A substrate role of nutrients is necessary for the immune response so that responding cells can divide and synthesize effector molecules. The quantitative need for nutrients for supporting a normal immune system, as well as the proliferation of leukocytes and the production of antibodies during an infectious challenge, is very small relative to uses for growth or egg production. It is likely that the systemic acute phase response that accompanies most infectious challenges is a more significant consumer of nutrients than the immune system itself. 3) The low concentration of some nutrients (e.g., iron) in body fluids makes them the limiting substrates for the proliferation of invading pathogens and the supply of these nutrients is further limited during the immune response. 4) Some nutrients (e.g., fatty acids and vitamins A, D, and E) have direct regulatory actions on leukocytes by binding to intracellular receptors or by modifying the release of second messengers. 5) The diet may also have indirect regulatory effects that are mediated by the classical endocrine system. 6) Physical and chemical aspects of the diet can modify the populations of microorganisms in the gastrointestinal tract, the capacity of pathogens to attach to enterocytes, and the integrity of the intestinal epithelium. PMID:9706075

  5. Public health surveillance and infectious disease detection.

    PubMed

    Morse, Stephen S

    2012-03-01

    Emerging infectious diseases, such as HIV/AIDS, SARS, and pandemic influenza, and the anthrax attacks of 2001, have demonstrated that we remain vulnerable to health threats caused by infectious diseases. The importance of strengthening global public health surveillance to provide early warning has been the primary recommendation of expert groups for at least the past 2 decades. However, despite improvements in the past decade, public health surveillance capabilities remain limited and fragmented, with uneven global coverage. Recent initiatives provide hope of addressing this issue, and new technological and conceptual advances could, for the first time, place capability for global surveillance within reach. Such advances include the revised International Health Regulations (IHR 2005) and the use of new data sources and methods to improve global coverage, sensitivity, and timeliness, which show promise for providing capabilities to extend and complement the existing infrastructure. One example is syndromic surveillance, using nontraditional and often automated data sources. Over the past 20 years, other initiatives, including ProMED-mail, GPHIN, and HealthMap, have demonstrated new mechanisms for acquiring surveillance data. In 2009 the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) began the Emerging Pandemic Threats (EPT) program, which includes the PREDICT project, to build global capacity for surveillance of novel infections that have pandemic potential (originating in wildlife and at the animal-human interface) and to develop a framework for risk assessment. Improved understanding of factors driving infectious disease emergence and new technological capabilities in modeling, diagnostics and pathogen identification, and communications, such as using the increasing global coverage of cellphones for public health surveillance, can further enhance global surveillance. PMID:22455675

  6. The changing pattern of infectious disease.

    PubMed Central

    Ikwueke, K

    1984-01-01

    Several factors contribute towards a decrease in the prevalence of infectious disease in a population. These include active control measures, active immunisation, and improvement in the socioeconomic state of the population. There appears, however, to be a progressive increase in the resistance of a population in relation to the length of time the population has been exposed to an agent. This increasing resistance is currently thought to be an expression of natural selection but transmission of actively acquired immunity cannot be ruled out and in the light of current evidence remains a highly probable contributory factor. PMID:6437550

  7. Why infectious disease research needs community ecology

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Pieter T. J.; de Roode, Jacobus C.; Fenton, Andy

    2016-01-01

    Infectious diseases often emerge from interactions among multiple species and across nested levels of biological organization. Threats as diverse as Ebola virus, human malaria, and bat white-nose syndrome illustrate the need for a mechanistic understanding of the ecological interactions underlying emerging infections. We describe how recent advances in community ecology can be adopted to address contemporary challenges in disease research. These analytical tools can identify the factors governing complex assemblages of multiple hosts, parasites, and vectors, and reveal how processes link across scales from individual hosts to regions. They can also determine the drivers of heterogeneities among individuals, species, and regions to aid targeting of control strategies. We provide examples where these principles have enhanced disease management and illustrate how they can be further extended. PMID:26339035

  8. Entry screening for infectious diseases in humans.

    PubMed

    Selvey, Linda A; Antão, Catarina; Hall, Robert

    2015-02-01

    In response to the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) pandemic of 2003 and the influenza pandemic of 2009, many countries instituted border measures as a means of stopping or slowing the spread of disease. The measures, usually consisting of a combination of border entry/exit screening, quarantine, isolation, and communications, were resource intensive, and modeling and observational studies indicate that border screening is not effective at detecting infectious persons. Moreover, border screening has high opportunity costs, financially and in terms of the use of scarce public health staff resources during a time of high need. We discuss the border-screening experiences with SARS and influenza and propose an approach to decision-making for future pandemics. We conclude that outbreak-associated communications for travelers at border entry points, together with effective communication with clinicians and more effective disease control measures in the community, may be a more effective approach to the international control of communicable diseases. PMID:25625224

  9. Why infectious disease research needs community ecology.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Pieter T J; de Roode, Jacobus C; Fenton, Andy

    2015-09-01

    Infectious diseases often emerge from interactions among multiple species and across nested levels of biological organization. Threats as diverse as Ebola virus, human malaria, and bat white-nose syndrome illustrate the need for a mechanistic understanding of the ecological interactions underlying emerging infections. We describe how recent advances in community ecology can be adopted to address contemporary challenges in disease research. These analytical tools can identify the factors governing complex assemblages of multiple hosts, parasites, and vectors, and reveal how processes link across scales from individual hosts to regions. They can also determine the drivers of heterogeneities among individuals, species, and regions to aid targeting of control strategies. We provide examples where these principles have enhanced disease management and illustrate how they can be further extended. PMID:26339035

  10. The Impact of Infection on Population Health: Results of the Ontario Burden of Infectious Diseases Study

    PubMed Central

    Kwong, Jeffrey C.; Ratnasingham, Sujitha; Campitelli, Michael A.; Daneman, Nick; Deeks, Shelley L.; Manuel, Douglas G.; Allen, Vanessa G.; Bayoumi, Ahmed M.; Fazil, Aamir; Fisman, David N.; Gershon, Andrea S.; Gournis, Effie; Heathcote, E. Jenny; Jamieson, Frances B.; Jha, Prabhat; Khan, Kamran M.; Majowicz, Shannon E.; Mazzulli, Tony; McGeer, Allison J.; Muller, Matthew P.; Raut, Abhishek; Rea, Elizabeth; Remis, Robert S.; Shahin, Rita; Wright, Alissa J.; Zagorski, Brandon; Crowcroft, Natasha S.

    2012-01-01

    Background Evidence-based priority setting is increasingly important for rationally distributing scarce health resources and for guiding future health research. We sought to quantify the contribution of a wide range of infectious diseases to the overall infectious disease burden in a high-income setting. Methodology/Principal Findings We used health-adjusted life years (HALYs), a composite measure comprising premature mortality and reduced functioning due to disease, to estimate the burden of 51 infectious diseases and associated syndromes in Ontario using 20052007 data. Deaths were estimated from vital statistics data and disease incidence was estimated from reportable disease, healthcare utilization, and cancer registry data, supplemented by local modeling studies and national and international epidemiologic studies. The 51 infectious agents and associated syndromes accounted for 729 lost HALYs, 44.2 deaths, and 58,987 incident cases per 100,000 population annually. The most burdensome infectious agents were: hepatitis C virus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, human papillomavirus, hepatitis B virus, human immunodeficiency virus, Staphylococcus aureus, influenza virus, Clostridium difficile, and rhinovirus. The top five, ten, and 20 pathogens accounted for 46%, 67%, and 75% of the total infectious disease burden, respectively. Marked sex-specific differences in disease burden were observed for some pathogens. The main limitations of this study were the exclusion of certain infectious diseases due to data availability issues, not considering the impact of co-infections and co-morbidity, and the inability to assess the burden of milder infections that do not result in healthcare utilization. Conclusions/Significance Infectious diseases continue to cause a substantial health burden in high-income settings such as Ontario. Most of this burden is attributable to a relatively small number of infectious agents, for which many effective interventions have been previously identified. Therefore, these findings should be used to guide public health policy, planning, and research. PMID:22962601

  11. Emerging infectious diseases and travel medicine.

    PubMed

    Ostroff, S M; Kozarsky, P

    1998-03-01

    International movement of individuals, populations, and products is one of the major factors associated with the emergence and reemergence of infectious diseases as the pace of global travel and commerce increases rapidly. Travel can be associated with disease emergence because (1) the disease arises in an area of heavy tourism, (2) tourists may be at heightened risk because of their activities, or (3) because they can act as vectors to transport the agent to new areas. Examples of recently recognized diseases with relationship to travel include HIV, Legionnaire's disease, cyclosporiasis, Vibrio cholerae O139 Bengal, hantavirus, and variant Creutzfeldt-Jacob disease. Reemerging diseases include dengue fever, malaria, cholera, schistosomiasis, leptospirosis, and viral hemorrhagic fevers. In addition, tuberculosis, drug-resistant shigellosis, and cholera have been major concerns in refugee and migrant populations. Because of the unique role of travel in emerging infections, efforts are underway to address this factor by agencies such as the CDC, WHO, the International Society of Travel Medicine, and the travel industry. PMID:9494841

  12. Mathematical modeling of infectious disease dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Siettos, Constantinos I.; Russo, Lucia

    2013-01-01

    Over the last years, an intensive worldwide effort is speeding up the developments in the establishment of a global surveillance network for combating pandemics of emergent and re-emergent infectious diseases. Scientists from different fields extending from medicine and molecular biology to computer science and applied mathematics have teamed up for rapid assessment of potentially urgent situations. Toward this aim mathematical modeling plays an important role in efforts that focus on predicting, assessing, and controlling potential outbreaks. To better understand and model the contagious dynamics the impact of numerous variables ranging from the micro hostpathogen level to host-to-host interactions, as well as prevailing ecological, social, economic, and demographic factors across the globe have to be analyzed and thoroughly studied. Here, we present and discuss the main approaches that are used for the surveillance and modeling of infectious disease dynamics. We present the basic concepts underpinning their implementation and practice and for each category we give an annotated list of representative works. PMID:23552814

  13. Towards effective emerging infectious disease surveillance.

    PubMed

    Ear, Sophal

    2014-01-01

    In this plenary talk given at the annual meeting of the Association for Politics and the Life Sciences at Texas Tech University last October, Professor Sophal Ear, then of the U.S. Naval Postgraduate School in Monterey, discussed his research on the political economy of emerging infectious disease (EID) surveillance programs. His talk reviews lessons learned for U.S. military medical research laboratories collaborating with developing countries and is comprised of three case studies: Cambodia (U.S. Naval Area Medical Research Unit 2 or NAMRU-2), Indonesia (also NAMRU-2 in the context of H5N1 or Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza), (1) and Mexico (that country's handling of A/H1N1 or Swine Flu in 2009). (2) Professor Ear's research provides policymakers with tools for improving the effectiveness of new or existing EID surveillance programs. His work also offers host countries the opportunity to incorporate ideas, provide opinions, and debate the management of political and economic constraints facing their programs. In this analysis, constraints are found for each case study and general recommendations are given for improving global emerging infectious disease surveillance across political, economic, and cultural dimensions. PMID:25514524

  14. Dendrimers--revolutionary drugs for infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Lazniewska, Joanna; Milowska, Katarzyna; Gabryelak, Teresa

    2012-01-01

    Over recent years innovative nanomolecules in a form of dendrimers have been gaining increasing interest. These compounds can be designed and modified in many ways giving a molecule which meets required expectations. For this reason dendrimers are the object of intensive studies in many fields of nanoscience including one of the most thriving--biomedicine. Numerous studies provide evidence that some dendrimers exhibit activities against many species/strains of viruses, bacteria, fungi, and prions. These types of dendritic nanostructures which are distinguished by antipathogenic properties and low cytotoxicity to eukaryotic cells may be potentially applied in medicine as novel drugs for various infectious diseases, especially those which are persistent, marked by high mortality rate, or untreatable. Dendrimers can exert their effect via different mechanisms of action, which are, in most cases, related to multivalency of the nanomolecule. The application of dendrimers is likely to be a breakthrough in prevention and treatment of infectious diseases which still beset humanity and may significantly improve the quality of people's life. PMID:22761054

  15. Hajj: infectious disease surveillance and control.

    PubMed

    Memish, Ziad A; Zumla, Alimuddin; Alhakeem, Rafat F; Assiri, Abdullah; Turkestani, Abdulhafeez; Al Harby, Khalid D; Alyemni, Mohamed; Dhafar, Khalid; Gautret, Philippe; Barbeschi, Maurizio; McCloskey, Brian; Heymann, David; Al Rabeeah, Abdullah A; Al-Tawfiq, Jaffar A

    2014-06-14

    Religious festivals attract a large number of pilgrims from worldwide and are a potential risk for the transmission of infectious diseases between pilgrims, and to the indigenous population. The gathering of a large number of pilgrims could compromise the health system of the host country. The threat to global health security posed by infectious diseases with epidemic potential shows the importance of advanced planning of public health surveillance and response at these religious events. Saudi Arabia has extensive experience of providing health care at mass gatherings acquired through decades of managing millions of pilgrims at the Hajj. In this report, we describe the extensive public health planning, surveillance systems used to monitor public health risks, and health services provided and accessed during Hajj 2012 and Hajj 2013 that together attracted more than 5 million pilgrims from 184 countries. We also describe the recent establishment of the Global Center for Mass Gathering Medicine, a Saudi Government partnership with the WHO Collaborating Centre for Mass Gatherings Medicine, Gulf Co-operation Council states, UK universities, and public health institutions globally. PMID:24857703

  16. Emerging infectious diseases: a 10-year perspective from the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases.

    PubMed

    Fauci, Anthony S; Touchette, Nancy A; Folkers, Gregory K

    2005-04-01

    Although optimists once imagined that serious infectious disease threats would by now be conquered, newly emerging (e.g., severe acute respiratory syndrome [SARS]), reemerging (e.g., West Nile virus), and even deliberately disseminated infectious diseases (e.g., anthrax bioterrorism) continue to appear throughout the world. Over the past decade, the global effort to identify and characterize infectious agents, decipher the underlying pathways by which they cause disease, and develop preventive measures and treatments for many of the world's most dangerous pathogens has resulted in considerable progress. Intramural and extramural investigators supported by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) have contributed substantially to this effort. This overview highlights selected NIAID-sponsored research advances over the past decade, with a focus on progress in combating HIV/AIDS, malaria, tuberculosis, influenza, SARS, West Nile virus, and potential bioterror agents. Many basic research discoveries have been translated into novel diagnostics, antiviral and antimicrobial compounds, and vaccines, often with extraordinary speed. PMID:15829188

  17. Rapid infectious diseases diagnostics using Smartphones

    PubMed Central

    Bates, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    The “Smartphone” is an almost universal possession in high-income populations, and is rapidly becoming so in lower-income regions, particularly among urban populations, and serves social networking and a quest for information and knowledge. The field of infectious disease diagnostics is at a potential watershed moment, with the essential building blocks for the development of diagnostic assays being ever more available and affordable, which is leading to creative innovative approaches to developing much-needed accurate and simple point-of-care (POC) diagnostic tools for high disease burden, low-income settings. We review the importance and implications of a paper published in Science Translational Medicine on the development of a smartphone-powered and -controlled multiplex immunological assay that tests for HIV and syphilis simultaneously. This is reviewed in the context of other prototype smartphone-enabled/assisted diagnostic devices, and how such developments might shape the future of the POC diagnostics field. PMID:26488011

  18. Global capacity for emerging infectious disease detection.

    PubMed

    Chan, Emily H; Brewer, Timothy F; Madoff, Lawrence C; Pollack, Marjorie P; Sonricker, Amy L; Keller, Mikaela; Freifeld, Clark C; Blench, Michael; Mawudeku, Abla; Brownstein, John S

    2010-12-14

    The increasing number of emerging infectious disease events that have spread internationally, such as severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and the 2009 pandemic A/H1N1, highlight the need for improvements in global outbreak surveillance. It is expected that the proliferation of Internet-based reports has resulted in greater communication and improved surveillance and reporting frameworks, especially with the revision of the World Health Organization's (WHO) International Health Regulations (IHR 2005), which went into force in 2007. However, there has been no global quantitative assessment of whether and how outbreak detection and communication processes have actually changed over time. In this study, we analyzed the entire WHO public record of Disease Outbreak News reports from 1996 to 2009 to characterize spatial-temporal trends in the timeliness of outbreak discovery and public communication about the outbreak relative to the estimated outbreak start date. Cox proportional hazards regression analyses show that overall, the timeliness of outbreak discovery improved by 7.3% [hazard ratio (HR) = 1.073, 95% CI (1.038; 1.110)] per year, and public communication improved by 6.2% [HR = 1.062, 95% CI (1.028; 1.096)] per year. However, the degree of improvement varied by geographic region; the only WHO region with statistically significant (α = 0.05) improvement in outbreak discovery was the Western Pacific region [HR = 1.102 per year, 95% CI (1.008; 1.205)], whereas the Eastern Mediterranean [HR = 1.201 per year, 95% CI (1.066; 1.353)] and Western Pacific regions [HR = 1.119 per year, 95% CI (1.025; 1.221)] showed improvement in public communication. These findings provide quantitative historical assessment of timeliness in infectious disease detection and public reporting of outbreaks. PMID:21115835

  19. Postexposure prophylaxis for common infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Bader, Mazen S; McKinsey, David S

    2013-07-01

    Postexposure prophylaxis (PEP) is effective in preventing illness after potential or documented exposure to a variety of microbial pathogens and in reducing the risk of secondary spread of infection. Guidelines have been published by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices for proper use of PEP for bloodborne pathogens, for microorganisms transmitted by either airborne or droplet spread or through direct contact, and for infections acquired after traumatic injuries. Depending on the type of exposure, different forms of PEP are available, including vaccines, immune globulins, antibiotics, and antiviral medications. Physicians should assess a patient's potential need for PEP based on several factors, including the type of exposure, the timing and severity of illness in the source patient, the exposed person's susceptibility to infectious diseases of concern, and the relative risks and benefits of the PEP regimen in an individual situation. Immunity to certain infectious diseases can be ensured with prior infection or vaccination, and by serologic testing in patients with a negative or uncertain history. PEP should be given to persons exposed to index cases of pertussis and invasive meningococcal infection regardless of immunization history, and should be given following rabies and tetanus exposure regardless of the length of delay. In general, PEP should be given as soon as possible following a high-risk exposure. Persons exposed to bloodborne pathogens should have baseline testing for human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis B virus, and hepatitis C virus antibodies, and follow-up testing at six weeks, three months, and six months postexposure. PMID:23939603

  20. Infectious Diseases Associated with Environmental Exposures or Conditions

    EPA Science Inventory

    This indicator describes the occurrence of 12 infectious diseases as reported to the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) for varying periods between 1995 and 2009. The spread and appearance of these infectious diseases may change in relation to chang...

  1. The role of infectious disease in marine communities: chapter 5

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lafferty, Kevin D.; Harvell, C. Drew

    2014-01-01

    Marine ecologists recognize that infectious diseases play and important role in ocean ecosystems. This role may have increased in some host taxa over time (Ward and Lafferty 2004). We begin this chapter by introducing infectious agents and their relationships with their hosts in marine systems. We then put infectious disease agents with their hosts in marine systems. We then put infectious disease agents in the perspective of marine biodiversity and discuss the various factors that affect parasites. Specifically, we introduce some basin epidemiological concepts, including the effects of stress and free-living diversity on parasites. Following this, we give brief consideration to communities of parasites within their hosts, particularly as these can lead to general insights into community ecology. We also give examples of how infectious diseases affect host populations, scaling up to marine communities. Finally, we present examples of marine infectious disease that impair conservation and fisheries.

  2. Role of glycosaminoglycans in infectious disease.

    PubMed

    Jinno, Akiko; Park, Pyong Woo

    2015-01-01

    Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) have been shown to bind to a wide variety of microbial pathogens, including viruses, bacteria, parasites, and fungi in vitro. GAGs are thought to promote pathogenesis by facilitating pathogen attachment, invasion, or evasion of host defense mechanisms. However, the role of GAGs in infectious disease has not been extensively studied in vivo and therefore their pathophysiological significance and functions are largely unknown. Here we describe methods to directly investigate the role of GAGs in infections in vivo using mouse models of bacterial lung and corneal infection. The overall experimental strategy is to establish the importance and specificity of GAGs, define the essential structural features of GAGs, and identify a biological activity of GAGs that promotes pathogenesis. PMID:25325982

  3. Infectious Disease Proteome Biomarkers: Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, Charles L.

    2011-12-31

    Research for the DOE Infectious Disease Proteome Biomarkers focused on Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) and Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus (VEEV). RVFV and VEEV are Category A and B pathogens respectively. Among the priority threats, RVFV and VEEV rank high in their potential for being weaponized and introduced to the United States, spreading quickly, and having a large health and economic impact. In addition, they both have live attenuated vaccine, which allows work to be performed at BSL-2. While the molecular biology of RVFV and VEEV are increasingly well-characterized, little is known about its host-pathogen interactions. Our research is aimed at determining critical alterations in host signaling pathways to identify therapeutics targeted against the host.

  4. Salmonella-based vaccines for infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Young Min; Cox, Mandy M; Calhoun, Leona N

    2007-04-01

    The use of Salmonella spp. as a delivery system for foreign antigens represents a unique opportunity for the development of ideal vaccines with unparalleled merits. Increased understanding of the mechanisms underlying Salmonella virulence and host immune response will continuously create novel strategies for more effective Salmonella-based vaccines. However, limitations in our capability to manipulate the genome of a vector strain efficiently have delayed the realization of vaccination ideas. Owing to the development of new technologies in recent years, it has now become feasible to rapidly construct Salmonella vaccine strains that carry precise modifications on the chromosomal DNA. This technical advancement will open a new avenue for the effective development of Salmonella-based vaccines for infectious diseases of both human and animal health importance. PMID:17408365

  5. Evolutionary Outcomes of Human Infectious Diseases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballesteros, Sebastien; Combadao, Jaime

    2010-09-01

    Recently it has been shown that a simple model was able to reproduce the main "types" of infectious diseases encountered in human populations. This model takes into account key features of the immune system at the within-host level and an implicit description of the contact network of the host population at the between-hosts level. The implicit description of contact network neglects population-level selective pressures such as fluctuations in the number of infected individuals potentially leading to risk of extinction. We present a nested model that allows to keep a within-host level description of immune processes while allowing an explicit description of the ongoing epidemiological dynamics. This model allows us to understand the impact of human population size and contact networks structure in shaping the fitness optima for pathogens life history traits. We mostly focus on variation in duration of infection and antigenic evolution leading to immune escape.

  6. Role of Glycosaminoglycans in Infectious Disease

    PubMed Central

    Jinno, Akiko; Park, Pyong Woo

    2015-01-01

    Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) have been shown to bind to a wide variety of microbial pathogens, including viruses, bacteria, parasites, and fungi in vitro. GAGs are thought to promote pathogenesis by facilitating pathogen attachment, invasion, or evasion of host defense mechanisms. However, the role of GAGs in infectious disease has not been extensively studied in vivo and therefore their pathophysiological significance and functions are largely unknown. Here we describe methods to directly investigate the role of GAGs in infections in vivo using mouse models of bacterial lung and corneal infection. The overall experimental strategy is to establish the importance and specificity of GAGs, define the essential structural features of GAGs, and identify a biological activity of GAGs that promotes pathogenesis. PMID:25325982

  7. Leading infectious diseases problems in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Erdem, H; Akova, M

    2012-11-01

    Turkey has significant geographical and socio-economic differences throughout a vast area of the country. These characteristics affect the epidemiology of infectious diseases, some of which are rarely seen in western Europe. However, effectively implemented control measures have resulted in decreased rates of many community-acquired infections, including tuberculosis and malaria, that were major health problems only a few decades ago. There are high rates of antimicrobial resistance in various nosocomial isolates of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. A recently implemented, nationwide, electronic resistance surveillance system in hospitals is expected to produce reliable data, and possibly will help to develop an effective strategy to decrease antimicrobial resistance in bacteria that currently plague many tertiary-care hospitals in the country. This article summarizes the most frequently encountered community-acquired infections, and gives an overview of current antimicrobial resistance in both outpatient and hospital settings in Turkey. PMID:23043613

  8. Prevalence of infectious pathogens in Crohn's disease.

    PubMed

    Knösel, Thomas; Schewe, Christiane; Petersen, Nanni; Dietel, Manfred; Petersen, Iver

    2009-01-01

    The importance of infectious pathogens in Crohn's disease (CD) is still under debate. Therefore, we examined a panel of potential viral and bacterial pathogens in a large series of CD patients and controls. Archival tissue from 76 patients, 56 with CD and 20 control patients, with normal colon mucosa (n=10) and non-steroid anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID)-induced colitis (n=10) were examined using PCR-based detection methods for human cytomegalovirus (CMV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), herpes simplex virus 1, 2 (HSV1,2), adenovirus (AD), varicella-zoster virus (VZV), human herpes virus 6 (HHV6), human herpes virus 8 (HHV8), Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (Mtbc), atypical mycobacteria (nM/MG1), including Mycobacterium avium (subspecies paratuberculosis, MAP), Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (Sm), and Yersinia enterocolitica (Ye). In CD patients, positive PCR results were achieved in 19 cases (34%). Sm was most frequent in 10 of 56 cases (17.9%) followed by EBV (6/56, 10.7%), nM/MG1 (4/56, 7.1%), including MAP, HHV6, and CMV (2/56, 3.6%), and finally Mtbc and AD (1/56, 1.8%). The control patients showed positive PCR results in 12 patients (12/20, 60%), nine of them with only weak signals, suggesting a persistent infection. In addition, we compared typical pathomorphological features of CD patients with the PCR results and found a significant correlation between EBV infection and mural abscesses (P=0.014). Our data demonstrate that several potential pathogens can be detected in a sizeable fraction of specimens from patients with CD, but also in control patients, suggesting that the analyzed infectious pathogens may be associated with the disease, but do not represent an obligatory cause. PMID:19186006

  9. Computational Modeling in Support of Global Eradication of Infectious Diseases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eckhoff, Philip A.; Gates, William H., III; Myhrvold, Nathan P.; Wood, Lowell

    2014-07-01

    The past century has seen tremendous advances in global health, with broad reductions in the worldwide burden of infectious disease. Science has fundamentally advanced our understanding of disease etiology and medicine has provided remarkable capabilities to diagnose many syndromes and to target the causative pathogen. The advent and proliferation of antibiotics has dramatically lowered the impact of infections that were once near certain death sentences. Vaccination has provided a route to protect each new birth cohort from pathogens which once killed a substantial fraction of each generation, and in some countries, vaccination coverage has been raised to sufficiently high levels to fully interrupt transmission of major pathogens. There were 7 million deaths among children under 5 years of age in 2010, substantially down from decades past, and even more so in terms of deaths per capita per year of populations at risk. However, the annual rate globally is 1,070 per 100,000, while in developed countries the rate is only 137 per 100,000 (IHME GBD, 2010). Therefore, bringing global rates down to rates already achieved in developed countries represents the huge gains currently available via means such as vaccination and access to modern health care...

  10. Factors in the emergence of infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Morse, S S

    1995-01-01

    "Emerging" infectious diseases can be defined as infections that have newly appeared in a population or have existed but are rapidly increasing in incidence or geographic range. Among recent examples are HIV/AIDS, hantavirus pulmonary syndrome, Lyme disease, and hemolytic uremic syndrome (a foodborne infection caused by certain strains of Escherichia coli). Specific factors precipitating disease emergence can be identified in virtually all cases. These include ecological, environmental, or demographic factors that place people at increased contact with a previously unfamiliar microbe or its natural host or promote dissemination. These factors are increasing in prevalence; this increase, together with the ongoing evolution of viral and microbial variants and selection for drug resistance, suggests that infections will continue to emerge and probably increase and emphasizes the urgent need for effective surveillance and control. Dr. David Satcher's article and this overview inaugurate Perspectives, a regular section in this journal intended to present and develop unifying concepts and strategies for considering emerging infections and their underlying factors. The editors welcome, as contributions to the Perspectives section, overviews, syntheses, and case studies that shed light on how and why infections emerge, and how they may be anticipated and prevented. PMID:8903148

  11. Immune responses to infectious diseases in bivalves.

    PubMed

    Allam, Bassem; Raftos, David

    2015-10-01

    Many species of bivalve mollusks (phylum Mollusca, class Bivalvia) are important in fisheries and aquaculture, whilst others are critical to ecosystem structure and function. These crucial roles mean that considerable attention has been paid to the immune responses of bivalves such as oysters, clams and mussels against infectious diseases that can threaten the viability of entire populations. As with many invertebrates, bivalves have a comprehensive repertoire of immune cells, genes and proteins. Hemocytes represent the backbone of the bivalve immune system. However, it is clear that mucosal tissues at the interface with the environment also play a critical role in host defense. Bivalve immune cells express a range of pattern recognition receptors and are highly responsive to the recognition of microbe-associated molecular patterns. Their responses to infection include chemotaxis, phagolysosomal activity, encapsulation, complex intracellular signaling and transcriptional activity, apoptosis, and the induction of anti-viral states. Bivalves also express a range of inducible extracellular recognition and effector proteins, such as lectins, peptidoglycan-recognition proteins, thioester bearing proteins, lipopolysaccharide and β1,3-glucan-binding proteins, fibrinogen-related proteins (FREPs) and antimicrobial proteins. The identification of FREPs and other highly diversified gene families in bivalves leaves open the possibility that some of their responses to infection may involve a high degree of pathogen specificity and immune priming. The current review article provides a comprehensive, but not exhaustive, description of these factors and how they are regulated by infectious agents. It concludes that one of the remaining challenges is to use new "omics" technologies to understand how this diverse array of factors is integrated and controlled during infection. PMID:26003824

  12. Noninvasive biophotonic imaging for studies of infectious disease

    PubMed Central

    Andreu, Nuria; Zelmer, Andrea; Wiles, Siouxsie

    2011-01-01

    According to World Health Organization estimates, infectious organisms are responsible for approximately one in four deaths worldwide. Animal models play an essential role in the development of vaccines and therapeutic agents but large numbers of animals are required to obtain quantitative microbiological data by tissue sampling. Biophotonic imaging (BPI) is a highly sensitive, nontoxic technique based on the detection of visible light, produced by luciferase-catalysed reactions (bioluminescence) or by excitation of fluorescent molecules, using sensitive photon detectors. The development of bioluminescent/fluorescent microorganisms therefore allows the real-time noninvasive detection of microorganisms within intact living animals. Multiple imaging of the same animal throughout an experiment allows disease progression to be followed with extreme accuracy, reducing the number of animals required to yield statistically meaningful data. In the study of infectious disease, the use of BPI is becoming widespread due to the novel insights it can provide into established models, as well as the impact of the technique on two of the guiding principles of using animals in research, namely reduction and refinement. Here, we review the technology of BPI, from the instrumentation through to the generation of a photonic signal, and illustrate how the technique is shedding light on infection dynamics in vivo. PMID:20955395

  13. Infectious Disease: Connecting Innate Immunity to Biocidal Polymers

    PubMed Central

    Gabriel, Gregory J.; Som, Abhigyan; Madkour, Ahmad E.; Eren, Tarik; Tew, Gregory N.

    2007-01-01

    Infectious disease is a critically important global healthcare issue. In the U.S. alone there are 2 million new cases of hospital-acquired infections annually leading to 90,000 deaths and 5 billion dollars of added healthcare costs. Couple these numbers with the appearance of new antibiotic resistant bacterial strains and the increasing occurrences of community-type outbreaks, and clearly this is an important problem. Our review attempts to bridge the research areas of natural host defense peptides (HDPs), a component of the innate immune system, and biocidal cationic polymers. Recently discovered peptidomimetics and other synthetic mimics of HDPs, that can be short oligomers as well as polymeric macromolecules, provide a unique link between these two areas. An emerging class of these mimics are the facially amphiphilic polymers that aim to emulate the physicochemical properties of HDPs but take advantage of the synthetic ease of polymers. These mimics have been designed with antimicrobial activity and, importantly, selectivity that rivals natural HDPs. In addition to providing some perspective on HDPs, selective mimics, and biocidal polymers, focus is given to the arsenal of biophysical techniques available to study their mode of action and interactions with phospholipid membranes. The issue of lipid type is highlighted and the important role of negative curvature lipids is illustrated. Finally, materials applications (for instance, in the development of permanently antibacterial surfaces) are discussed as this is an important part of controlling the spread of infectious disease. PMID:18160969

  14. Household structure and infectious disease transmission

    PubMed Central

    HOUSE, T.; KEELING, M. J.

    2009-01-01

    SUMMARY One of the central tenets of modern infectious disease epidemiology is that an understanding of heterogeneities, both in host demography and transmission, allows control to be efficiently optimized. Due to the strong interactions present, households are one of the most important heterogeneities to consider, both in terms of predicting epidemic severity and as a target for intervention. We consider these effects in the context of pandemic influenza in Great Britain, and find that there is significant local (ward-level) variation in the basic reproductive ratio, with some regions predicted to suffer 50% faster growth rate of infection than the mean. Childhood vaccination was shown to be highly effective at controlling an epidemic, generally outperforming random vaccination and substantially reducing the variation between regions; only nine out of over 10 000 wards did not obey this rule and these can be identified as demographically atypical regions. Since these benefits of childhood vaccination are a product of correlations between household size and number of dependent children in the household, our results are qualitatively robust for a variety of disease scenarios. PMID:18840319

  15. Infectious disease risk in asbestos abatement workers

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The current literature reports increased infectious disease occurrence in various construction occupations, as an important contributor to morbidity and mortality arising from employment. These observations should be expanded to asbestos abatement workers, as the abatement can create an environment favorable for bacterial, viral and fungal infections. Discussion Asbestos abatement work employs activities resulting in cuts, blisters and abrasions to the skin, work in a dirty environment and exposure to dust, mists and fumes. Furthermore, this population exhibits a high smoking rate which increases the risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and respiratory infections. In addition, these workers also commonly employ respirators, which can accumulate dirt and debris magnifying exposure to microbes. Use of respirators and related types of personal protective equipment, especially if shared and in the close environment experienced by workers, may enhance communicability of these agents, including viruses. Summary Abatement workers need to be provided with information on hazards and targeted by appropriate health education to reduce the infection risk. Epidemiological studies to investigate this risk in asbestos removers are recommended. PMID:22897975

  16. Information Supply Chain System for Managing Rare Infectious Diseases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gopalakrishna-Remani, Venugopal

    2012-01-01

    Timely identification and reporting of rare infectious diseases has important economic, social and health implications. In this study, we investigate how different stakeholders in the existing reporting system influence the timeliness in identification and reporting of rare infectious diseases. Building on the vision of the information supply

  17. Information Supply Chain System for Managing Rare Infectious Diseases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gopalakrishna-Remani, Venugopal

    2012-01-01

    Timely identification and reporting of rare infectious diseases has important economic, social and health implications. In this study, we investigate how different stakeholders in the existing reporting system influence the timeliness in identification and reporting of rare infectious diseases. Building on the vision of the information supply…

  18. Computer-Assisted Detection of Infectious Lung Diseases: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Bagci, Ulas; Bray, Mike; Caban, Jesus; Yao, Jianhua; Mollura, Daniel J.

    2011-01-01

    Respiratory tract infections are a leading cause of death and disability worldwide. Although radiology serves as a primary diagnostic method for assessing respiratory tract infections, visual analysis of chest radiographs and computed tomography (CT) scans is restricted by low specificity for causal infectious organisms and a limited capacity to assess severity and predict patient outcomes. These limitations suggest that computer-assisted detection (CAD) could make a valuable contribution to the management of respiratory tract infections by assisting in the early recognition of pulmonary parenchymal lesions, providing quantitative measures of disease severity and assessing the response to therapy. In this paper, we review the most common radiographic and CT features of respiratory tract infections, discuss the challenges of defining and measuring these disorders with CAD, and propose some strategies to address these challenges. PMID:21723090

  19. Climate change-related migration and infectious disease.

    PubMed

    McMichael, Celia

    2015-01-01

    Anthropogenic climate change will have significant impacts on both human migration and population health, including infectious disease. It will amplify and alter migration pathways, and will contribute to the changing ecology and transmission dynamics of infectious disease. However there has been limited consideration of the intersections between migration and health in the context of a changing climate. This article argues that climate-change related migration - in conjunction with other drivers of migration - will contribute to changing profiles of infectious disease. It considers infectious disease risks for different climate-related migration pathways, including: forced displacement, slow-onset migration particularly to urban-poor areas, planned resettlement, and labor migration associated with climate change adaptation initiatives. Migration can reduce vulnerability to climate change, but it is critical to better understand and respond to health impacts - including infectious diseases - for migrant populations and host communities. PMID:26151221

  20. 78 FR 69683 - Board of Scientific Counselors, Office of Infectious Diseases (BSC, OID)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-20

    ... Immunization and Respiratory Diseases, the National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases, and...- based efforts to prevent infectious diseases, and 3) immunization changes at the state level....

  1. Current applications of nanoparticles in infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Zazo, Hinojal; Colino, Clara I; Lanao, José M

    2016-02-28

    For decades infections have been treated easily with drugs. However, in the 21st century, they may become lethal again owing to the development of antimicrobial resistance. Pathogens can become resistant by means of different mechanisms, such as increasing the time they spend in the intracellular environment, where drugs are unable to reach therapeutic levels. Moreover, drugs are also subject to certain problems that decrease their efficacy. This requires the use of high doses, and frequent administrations must be implemented, causing adverse side effects or toxicity. The use of nanoparticle systems can help to overcome such problems and increase drug efficacy. Accordingly, there is considerable current interest in their use as antimicrobial agents against different pathogens like bacteria, virus, fungi or parasites, multidrug-resistant strains and biofilms; as targeting vectors towards specific tissues; as vaccines and as theranostic systems. This review begins with an overview of the different types and characteristics of nanoparticles used to deliver drugs to the target, followed by a review of current research and clinical trials addressing the use of nanoparticles within the field of infectious diseases. PMID:26772877

  2. Networks and the Epidemiology of Infectious Disease

    PubMed Central

    Danon, Leon; Ford, Ashley P.; House, Thomas; Jewell, Chris P.; Keeling, Matt J.; Roberts, Gareth O.; Ross, Joshua V.; Vernon, Matthew C.

    2011-01-01

    The science of networks has revolutionised research into the dynamics of interacting elements. It could be argued that epidemiology in particular has embraced the potential of network theory more than any other discipline. Here we review the growing body of research concerning the spread of infectious diseases on networks, focusing on the interplay between network theory and epidemiology. The review is split into four main sections, which examine: the types of network relevant to epidemiology; the multitude of ways these networks can be characterised; the statistical methods that can be applied to infer the epidemiological parameters on a realised network; and finally simulation and analytical methods to determine epidemic dynamics on a given network. Given the breadth of areas covered and the ever-expanding number of publications, a comprehensive review of all work is impossible. Instead, we provide a personalised overview into the areas of network epidemiology that have seen the greatest progress in recent years or have the greatest potential to provide novel insights. As such, considerable importance is placed on analytical approaches and statistical methods which are both rapidly expanding fields. Throughout this review we restrict our attention to epidemiological issues. PMID:21437001

  3. Imaging combined autoimmune and infectious disease microarrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ewart, Tom; Raha, Sandeep; Kus, Dorothy; Tarnopolsky, Mark

    2006-09-01

    Bacterial and viral pathogens are implicated in many severe autoimmune diseases, acting through such mechanisms as molecular mimicry, and superantigen activation of T-cells. For example, Helicobacter pylori, well known cause of stomach ulcers and cancers, is also identified in ischaemic heart disease (mimicry of heat shock protein 65), autoimmune pancreatitis, systemic sclerosis, autoimmune thyroiditis (HLA DRB1*0301 allele susceptibility), and Crohn's disease. Successful antibiotic eradication of H.pylori often accompanies their remission. Yet current diagnostic devices, and test-limiting cost containment, impede recognition of the linkage, delaying both diagnosis and therapeutic intervention until the chronic debilitating stage. We designed a 15 minute low cost 39 antigen microarray assay, combining autoimmune, viral and bacterial antigens1. This enables point-of-care serodiagnosis and cost-effective narrowly targeted concurrent antibiotic and monoclonal anti-T-cell and anti-cytokine immunotherapy. Arrays of 26 pathogen and 13 autoimmune antigens with IgG and IgM dilution series were printed in triplicate on epoxysilane covalent binding slides with Teflon well masks. Sera diluted 1:20 were incubated 10 minutes, washed off, anti-IgG-Cy3 (green) and anti-IgM-Dy647 (red) were incubated for 5 minutes, washed off and the slide was read in an ArrayWoRx(e) scanning CCD imager (Applied Precision, Issaquah, WA). As a preliminary model for the combined infectious disease-autoimmune diagnostic microarray we surveyed 98 unidentified, outdated sera that were discarded after Hepatitis B antibody testing. In these, significant IgG or IgM autoantibody levels were found: dsDNA 5, ssDNA 11, Ro 2, RNP 7, SSB 4, gliadin 2, thyroglobulin 13 cases. Since control sera showed no autoantibodies, the high frequency of anti-DNA and anti-thyroglobulin antibodies found in infected sera lend increased support for linkage of infection to subsequent autoimmune disease. Expansion of the antigen set with synthetic peptide sequences should reveal the shared bacterial/human epitopes involved.

  4. Aerobiology and Its Role in the Transmission of Infectious Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Fernstrom, Aaron; Goldblatt, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Aerobiology plays a fundamental role in the transmission of infectious diseases. As infectious disease and infection control practitioners continue employing contemporary techniques (e.g., computational fluid dynamics to study particle flow, polymerase chain reaction methodologies to quantify particle concentrations in various settings, and epidemiology to track the spread of disease), the central variables affecting the airborne transmission of pathogens are becoming better known. This paper reviews many of these aerobiological variables (e.g., particle size, particle type, the duration that particles can remain airborne, the distance that particles can travel, and meteorological and environmental factors), as well as the common origins of these infectious particles. We then review several real-world settings with known difficulties controlling the airborne transmission of infectious particles (e.g., office buildings, healthcare facilities, and commercial airplanes), while detailing the respective measures each of these industries is undertaking in its effort to ameliorate the transmission of airborne infectious diseases. PMID:23365758

  5. Aerobiology and its role in the transmission of infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Fernstrom, Aaron; Goldblatt, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Aerobiology plays a fundamental role in the transmission of infectious diseases. As infectious disease and infection control practitioners continue employing contemporary techniques (e.g., computational fluid dynamics to study particle flow, polymerase chain reaction methodologies to quantify particle concentrations in various settings, and epidemiology to track the spread of disease), the central variables affecting the airborne transmission of pathogens are becoming better known. This paper reviews many of these aerobiological variables (e.g., particle size, particle type, the duration that particles can remain airborne, the distance that particles can travel, and meteorological and environmental factors), as well as the common origins of these infectious particles. We then review several real-world settings with known difficulties controlling the airborne transmission of infectious particles (e.g., office buildings, healthcare facilities, and commercial airplanes), while detailing the respective measures each of these industries is undertaking in its effort to ameliorate the transmission of airborne infectious diseases. PMID:23365758

  6. A Method for Screening Climate Change-Sensitive Infectious Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yunjing; Rao, Yuhan; Wu, Xiaoxu; Zhao, Hainan; Chen, Jin

    2015-01-01

    Climate change is a significant and emerging threat to human health, especially where infectious diseases are involved. Because of the complex interactions between climate variables and infectious disease components (i.e., pathogen, host and transmission environment), systematically and quantitatively screening for infectious diseases that are sensitive to climate change is still a challenge. To address this challenge, we propose a new statistical indicator, Relative Sensitivity, to identify the difference between the sensitivity of the infectious disease to climate variables for two different climate statuses (i.e., historical climate and present climate) in non-exposure and exposure groups. The case study in Anhui Province, China has demonstrated the effectiveness of this Relative Sensitivity indicator. The application results indicate significant sensitivity of many epidemic infectious diseases to climate change in the form of changing climatic variables, such as temperature, precipitation and absolute humidity. As novel evidence, this research shows that absolute humidity has a critical influence on many observed infectious diseases in Anhui Province, including dysentery, hand, foot and mouth disease, hepatitis A, hemorrhagic fever, typhoid fever, malaria, meningitis, influenza and schistosomiasis. Moreover, some infectious diseases are more sensitive to climate change in rural areas than in urban areas. This insight provides guidance for future health inputs that consider spatial variability in response to climate change. PMID:25594780

  7. A method for screening climate change-sensitive infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yunjing; Rao, Yuhan; Wu, Xiaoxu; Zhao, Hainan; Chen, Jin

    2015-01-01

    Climate change is a significant and emerging threat to human health, especially where infectious diseases are involved. Because of the complex interactions between climate variables and infectious disease components (i.e., pathogen, host and transmission environment), systematically and quantitatively screening for infectious diseases that are sensitive to climate change is still a challenge. To address this challenge, we propose a new statistical indicator, Relative Sensitivity, to identify the difference between the sensitivity of the infectious disease to climate variables for two different climate statuses (i.e., historical climate and present climate) in non-exposure and exposure groups. The case study in Anhui Province, China has demonstrated the effectiveness of this Relative Sensitivity indicator. The application results indicate significant sensitivity of many epidemic infectious diseases to climate change in the form of changing climatic variables, such as temperature, precipitation and absolute humidity. As novel evidence, this research shows that absolute humidity has a critical influence on many observed infectious diseases in Anhui Province, including dysentery, hand, foot and mouth disease, hepatitis A, hemorrhagic fever, typhoid fever, malaria, meningitis, influenza and schistosomiasis. Moreover, some infectious diseases are more sensitive to climate change in rural areas than in urban areas. This insight provides guidance for future health inputs that consider spatial variability in response to climate change. PMID:25594780

  8. A Systematic Review of Methodology: Time Series Regression Analysis for Environmental Factors and Infectious Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Imai, Chisato; Hashizume, Masahiro

    2015-01-01

    Background: Time series analysis is suitable for investigations of relatively direct and short-term effects of exposures on outcomes. In environmental epidemiology studies, this method has been one of the standard approaches to assess impacts of environmental factors on acute non-infectious diseases (e.g. cardiovascular deaths), with conventionally generalized linear or additive models (GLM and GAM). However, the same analysis practices are often observed with infectious diseases despite of the substantial differences from non-infectious diseases that may result in analytical challenges. Methods: Following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines, systematic review was conducted to elucidate important issues in assessing the associations between environmental factors and infectious diseases using time series analysis with GLM and GAM. Published studies on the associations between weather factors and malaria, cholera, dengue, and influenza were targeted. Findings: Our review raised issues regarding the estimation of susceptible population and exposure lag times, the adequacy of seasonal adjustments, the presence of strong autocorrelations, and the lack of a smaller observation time unit of outcomes (i.e. daily data). These concerns may be attributable to features specific to infectious diseases, such as transmission among individuals and complicated causal mechanisms. Conclusion: The consequence of not taking adequate measures to address these issues is distortion of the appropriate risk quantifications of exposures factors. Future studies should pay careful attention to details and examine alternative models or methods that improve studies using time series regression analysis for environmental determinants of infectious diseases. PMID:25859149

  9. Would control of childhood infectious diseases reduce malnutrition?

    PubMed

    Black, R E

    1991-01-01

    Infectious diseases and especially diarrheal diseases have been noted to have an adverse effect on the growth of underprivileged children in developing countries. Diarrheal diseases have been estimated to account for 10-80% of growth retardation in the first few years of life, with the magnitude of effect possibly modified by other factors, such as the adequacy and source of dietary intake, treatment and feeding practices during and following illness and the opportunity for catch-up growth after illness. In the only study in which infectious diseases and routine dietary intake have been evaluated simultaneously, inadequate dietary intake rather than infectious diseases, was found to have the predominant role in growth faltering. Although reduction in infectious diseases is desirable for many reasons, the relative feasibility and cost of this approach to improve nutritional status must be compared with more direct nutrition interventions. PMID:1957617

  10. Recombinant bivalent vaccines against infectious laryngotracheitis and Newcastle disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) is a highly contagious acute respiratory disease of chickens caused by infection of infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV). The current commercial ILT vaccines are either not safe or less effective. Therefore, there is a pressing need to develop safer and more...

  11. 77 FR 2985 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

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  17. Infectious diseases associated with complement deficiencies.

    PubMed Central

    Figueroa, J E; Densen, P

    1991-01-01

    The complement system consists of both plasma and membrane proteins. The former influence the inflammatory response, immune modulation, and host defense. The latter are complement receptors, which mediate the cellular effects of complement activation, and regulatory proteins, which protect host cells from complement-mediated injury. Complement activation occurs via either the classical or the alternative pathway, which converge at the level of C3 and share a sequence of terminal components. Four aspects of the complement cascade are critical to its function and regulation: (i) activation of the classical pathway, (ii) activation of the alternative pathway, (iii) C3 convertase formation and C3 deposition, and (iv) membrane attack complex assembly and insertion. In general, mechanisms evolved by pathogenic microbes to resist the effects of complement are targeted to these four steps. Because individual complement proteins subserve unique functional activities and are activated in a sequential manner, complement deficiency states are associated with predictable defects in complement-dependent functions. These deficiency states can be grouped by which of the above four mechanisms they disrupt. They are distinguished by unique epidemiologic, clinical, and microbiologic features and are most prevalent in patients with certain rheumatologic and infectious diseases. Ethnic background and the incidence of infection are important cofactors determining this prevalence. Although complement undoubtedly plays a role in host defense against many microbial pathogens, it appears most important in protection against encapsulated bacteria, especially Neisseria meningitidis but also Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and, to a lesser extent, Neisseria gonorrhoeae. The availability of effective polysaccharide vaccines and antibiotics provides an immunologic and chemotherapeutic rationale for preventing and treating infection in patients with these deficiencies. PMID:1889047

  18. The usefulness of case reports in managing emerging infectious disease

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Emerging infectious diseases are an important problem in medicine. Case reports usually document episodes in the early emerging phase or in a small outbreak. Although the case report is considered weak evidence in medical literature, it is usually the first report when there is a new emerging infectious disease. There is no doubt that case reports can provide useful information for further case series, reviews and studies. This editorial focuses on the usefulness of the case report on emerging infectious disease to the medical society. Publication in this area is highly welcomed by the journal and can serve as a future point of reference. PMID:21599907

  19. Nanocarriers in therapy of infectious and inflammatory diseases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikoba, Ufuoma; Peng, Haisheng; Li, Haichun; Miller, Cathy; Yu, Chenxu; Wang, Qun

    2015-02-01

    Nanotechnology is a growing science that has applications in various areas of medicine. The composition of nanocarriers for drug delivery is critical to guarantee high therapeutic performance when targeting specific host sites. Applications of nanotechnology are prevalent in the diagnosis and treatment of infectious and inflammatory diseases. This review summarizes recent advancements in the application of nanotechnology to the therapy of infectious and inflammatory diseases. The major focus is on the design and fabrication of various nanomaterials, characteristics and physicochemical properties of drug-loaded nanocarriers, and the use of these nanoscale drug delivery systems in treating infectious and inflammatory diseases, such as AIDS, hepatitis, tuberculosis, melanoma, and representative inflammatory diseases. Clinical trials and future perspective of the use of nanocarriers are also discussed in detail. We hope that such a review will be valuable to researchers who are exploring nanoscale drug delivery systems for the treatment of specific infectious and inflammatory diseases.

  20. Antimicrobial Human β-Defensins in the Colon and Their Role in Infectious and Non-Infectious Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Cobo, Eduardo R.; Chadee, Kris

    2013-01-01

    β-defensins are small cationic antimicrobial peptides secreted by diverse cell types including colonic epithelial cells. Human β-defensins form an essential component of the intestinal lumen in innate immunity. The defensive mechanisms of β-defensins include binding to negatively charged microbial membranes that cause cell death and chemoattraction of immune cells. The antimicrobial activity of β-defensin is well reported in vitro against several enteric pathogens and in non-infectious processes such as inflammatory bowel diseases, which alters β-defensin production. However, the role of β-defensin in vivo in its interaction with other immune components in host defense against bacteria, viruses and parasites with more complex membranes is still not well known. This review focuses on the latest findings regarding the role of β-defensin in relevant human infectious and non-infectious diseases of the colonic mucosa. In addition, we summarize the most significant aspects of β-defensin and its antimicrobial role in a variety of disease processes. PMID:25436887

  1. 77 FR 36563 - National Institute of Allergy And Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-19

    ... personal privacy. Name of Committee: Microbiology, Infectious Diseases and AIDS Initial Review Group..., Allergy, Immunology, and Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases...

  2. 75 FR 11896 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-12

    ... Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel; B cell Immunology Partnership Program for HIV-1..., Immunology, and Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research,...

  3. 78 FR 68857 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-15

    ... personal privacy. Name of Committee: Microbiology, Infectious Diseases and AIDS Initial Review Group... Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research, National Institutes of Health, HHS)...

  4. Sudden unexpected death from natural diseases: Fifteen years' experience with 484 cases in Seychelles.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Peng; Wang, Ji-Gang; Gao, Peng; Li, Xia; Brewer, Rubell

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to identify and subclassify sudden natural death (sudden death from natural diseases) cases in Seychelles. A total of 484 sudden natural death cases with autopsy at the Clinical Pathology Laboratory, Victoria Hospital, Seychelles between 1997 through 2012 were retrospectively reviewed. Among them, 363 cases (75%) were male and 121 (25%) were female. The most frequent sudden deaths were attributed to cardiovascular diseases (78.5%), and then followed by infectious diseases (9.9%), and gastrointestinal diseases (9.1%). This is the largest population-based study on sudden natural deaths in Seychelles. PMID:26580722

  5. New technologies in predicting, preventing and controlling emerging infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Christaki, Eirini

    2015-01-01

    Surveillance of emerging infectious diseases is vital for the early identification of public health threats. Emergence of novel infections is linked to human factors such as population density, travel and trade and ecological factors like climate change and agricultural practices. A wealth of new technologies is becoming increasingly available for the rapid molecular identification of pathogens but also for the more accurate monitoring of infectious disease activity. Web-based surveillance tools and epidemic intelligence methods, used by all major public health institutions, are intended to facilitate risk assessment and timely outbreak detection. In this review, we present new methods for regional and global infectious disease surveillance and advances in epidemic modeling aimed to predict and prevent future infectious diseases threats. PMID:26068569

  6. [History of the infectious disease specialty in Spain].

    PubMed

    Aguado García, José María; Iribarren Loyarte, José Antonio; Gómez Mateos, Jesús; Gutiérrez Rodero, Félix; Segura Porta, Ferrán

    2008-12-01

    This paper includes a brief summary of the clinical history of the diagnosis and treatment of infectious diseases in Spain. Firstly, the origins of a specialty arising from the need for specialists to attend to, in a practical and modern form, the different health problems of patients affected by infectious diseases, are described. Secondly, the appearance of AIDS, at the beginning of the 1980's, prompted the creation of specific units dedicated to the care of problems associated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and the concomitant opportunistic infections arising from the immunodeficiency arising from the HIV infection. Thirdly, in the last decades and even today, nosocomial infections have appeared as an alarming problem, needing the presence of specialist physicians in this field. Finally, emigration and international travel require specialists in infectious diseases with specific expertise in international health, once more highlighting the importance of the specialty of Infectious Diseases. PMID:19195463

  7. A world wide web guide to pediatric infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Pappas, Georgios; Papadimitriou, Photini; Kontogiannis, Konstantinos E; Falagas, Matthew E

    2010-08-01

    Pediatric infectious disease is a subspecialty constantly evolving in terms of scientific information. A novel means of attaining medical information that has emerged in recent years is the World Wide Web (WWW). The authors sought to assess availability and content of sites offering information on pediatric infectious diseases in the WWW. Websites chosen by two authors were evaluated by a specialist in pediatrics and a specialist in infectious diseases, and a representative list was constructed. A sub-search was performed for immunization-related websites. Websites from national and international institutions focusing on pediatrics in general or pediatric infectious diseases in particular offer ample information for health professionals and parents/public. There is an over-representation of vaccination-related material in the WWW, whereas no sites related to bioterrorism and children were considered as significant for inclusion during the process. Free access to related research remains a controversial issue. PMID:19948783

  8. Newcastle disease virus as a vaccine vector for infectious laryngotracheitis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Effective, safe, and incapable of reverting to virulence are characteristics desirable for infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV) vaccines. Recombinant Newcastle disease virus (NDV) expressing foreign antigens of avian and mammalian pathogens have been demonstrated to elicit protective immunity....

  9. Global burden, distribution, and interventions for infectious diseases of poverty.

    PubMed

    Bhutta, Zulfiqar A; Sommerfeld, Johannes; Lassi, Zohra S; Salam, Rehana A; Das, Jai K

    2014-01-01

    Infectious diseases of poverty (IDoP) disproportionately affect the poorest population in the world and contribute to a cycle of poverty as a result of decreased productivity ensuing from long-term illness, disability, and social stigma. In 2010, the global deaths from HIV/AIDS have increased to 1.5 million and malaria mortality rose to 1.17 million. Mortality from neglected tropical diseases rose to 152,000, while tuberculosis killed 1.2 million people that same year. Substantial regional variations exist in the distribution of these diseases as they are primarily concentrated in rural areas of Sub-Saharan Africa, Asia, and Latin America, with geographic overlap and high levels of co-infection. Evidence-based interventions exist to prevent and control these diseases, however, the coverage still remains low with an emerging challenge of antimicrobial resistance. Therefore, community-based delivery platforms are increasingly being advocated to ensure sustainability and combat co-infections. Because of the high morbidity and mortality burden of these diseases, especially in resource-poor settings, it is imperative to conduct a systematic review to identify strategies to prevent and control these diseases. Therefore, we attempted to evaluate the effectiveness of one of these strategies, that is community-based delivery for the prevention and treatment of IDoP. In this paper, we describe the burden, epidemiology, and potential interventions for IDoP. In subsequent papers of this series, we describe the analytical framework and the methodology used to guide the systematic reviews, and report the findings and interpretations of our analyses of the impact of community-based strategies on individual IDoPs. PMID:25110585

  10. Global burden, distribution, and interventions for infectious diseases of poverty

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Infectious diseases of poverty (IDoP) disproportionately affect the poorest population in the world and contribute to a cycle of poverty as a result of decreased productivity ensuing from long-term illness, disability, and social stigma. In 2010, the global deaths from HIV/AIDS have increased to 1.5 million and malaria mortality rose to 1.17 million. Mortality from neglected tropical diseases rose to 152,000, while tuberculosis killed 1.2 million people that same year. Substantial regional variations exist in the distribution of these diseases as they are primarily concentrated in rural areas of Sub-Saharan Africa, Asia, and Latin America, with geographic overlap and high levels of co-infection. Evidence-based interventions exist to prevent and control these diseases, however, the coverage still remains low with an emerging challenge of antimicrobial resistance. Therefore, community-based delivery platforms are increasingly being advocated to ensure sustainability and combat co-infections. Because of the high morbidity and mortality burden of these diseases, especially in resource-poor settings, it is imperative to conduct a systematic review to identify strategies to prevent and control these diseases. Therefore, we attempted to evaluate the effectiveness of one of these strategies, that is community-based delivery for the prevention and treatment of IDoP. In this paper, we describe the burden, epidemiology, and potential interventions for IDoP. In subsequent papers of this series, we describe the analytical framework and the methodology used to guide the systematic reviews, and report the findings and interpretations of our analyses of the impact of community-based strategies on individual IDoPs. PMID:25110585

  11. Structural Genomics and Drug Discovery for Infectious Diseases

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, W.F.

    2010-09-03

    The application of structural genomics methods and approaches to proteins from organisms causing infectious diseases is making available the three dimensional structures of many proteins that are potential drug targets and laying the groundwork for structure aided drug discovery efforts. There are a number of structural genomics projects with a focus on pathogens that have been initiated worldwide. The Center for Structural Genomics of Infectious Diseases (CSGID) was recently established to apply state-of-the-art high throughput structural biology technologies to the characterization of proteins from the National Institute for Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) category A-C pathogens and organisms causing emerging, or re-emerging infectious diseases. The target selection process emphasizes potential biomedical benefits. Selected proteins include known drug targets and their homologs, essential enzymes, virulence factors and vaccine candidates. The Center also provides a structure determination service for the infectious disease scientific community. The ultimate goal is to generate a library of structures that are available to the scientific community and can serve as a starting point for further research and structure aided drug discovery for infectious diseases. To achieve this goal, the CSGID will determine protein crystal structures of 400 proteins and protein-ligand complexes using proven, rapid, highly integrated, and cost-effective methods for such determination, primarily by X-ray crystallography. High throughput crystallographic structure determination is greatly aided by frequent, convenient access to high-performance beamlines at third-generation synchrotron X-ray sources.

  12. Global Distribution of Outbreaks of Water-Associated Infectious Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Kun; LeJeune, Jeffrey; Alsdorf, Doug; Lu, Bo; Shum, C. K.; Liang, Song

    2012-01-01

    Background Water plays an important role in the transmission of many infectious diseases, which pose a great burden on global public health. However, the global distribution of these water-associated infectious diseases and underlying factors remain largely unexplored. Methods and Findings Based on the Global Infectious Disease and Epidemiology Network (GIDEON), a global database including water-associated pathogens and diseases was developed. In this study, reported outbreak events associated with corresponding water-associated infectious diseases from 1991 to 2008 were extracted from the database. The location of each reported outbreak event was identified and geocoded into a GIS database. Also collected in the GIS database included geo-referenced socio-environmental information including population density (2000), annual accumulated temperature, surface water area, and average annual precipitation. Poisson models with Bayesian inference were developed to explore the association between these socio-environmental factors and distribution of the reported outbreak events. Based on model predictions a global relative risk map was generated. A total of 1,428 reported outbreak events were retrieved from the database. The analysis suggested that outbreaks of water-associated diseases are significantly correlated with socio-environmental factors. Population density is a significant risk factor for all categories of reported outbreaks of water-associated diseases; water-related diseases (e.g., vector-borne diseases) are associated with accumulated temperature; water-washed diseases (e.g., conjunctivitis) are inversely related to surface water area; both water-borne and water-related diseases are inversely related to average annual rainfall. Based on the model predictions, “hotspots” of risks for all categories of water-associated diseases were explored. Conclusions At the global scale, water-associated infectious diseases are significantly correlated with socio-environmental factors, impacting all regions which are affected disproportionately by different categories of water-associated infectious diseases. PMID:22348158

  13. The burden of disease in Maputo City, Mozambique: registered and autopsied deaths in 1994.

    PubMed Central

    Dgedge, M.; Novoa, A.; Macassa, G.; Sacarlal, J.; Black, J.; Michaud, C.; Cliff, J.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To classify the causes of death in Maputo City, Mozambique, using the methods of the Global Burden of Disease study, in order to provide information for health policy-makers and to obtain a baseline for future studies in Maputo City and provincial capitals. METHODS: Data were taken from the Maputo City death register and autopsy records for 1994. FINDINGS: A total of 9011 deaths were recorded in the death register, representing a coverage of approximately 86%. Of these, 8114 deaths (92%) were classified by cause. Communicable, maternal, perinatal, and nutritional disorders accounted for 5319 deaths; noncommunicable diseases for 1834; and injuries for 961. The 10 leading causes of registered deaths were perinatal disorders (1643 deaths); malaria (928); diarrhoeal diseases (814); tuberculosis (456); lower respiratory infections (416); road-traffic accidents (371); anaemia (269); cerebrovascular diseases (269); homicide (188); and bacterial meningitis (178). CONCLUSIONS: Infectious diseases of all types, injuries, and cerebrovascular disease ranked as leading causes of death, according to both the autopsy records and the city death register. AIDS-related deaths were underreported. With HIV infection increasing rapidly, AIDS will add to the already high burden of infectious diseases and premature mortality in Maputo City. The results of the study indicate that cause of death is a useful outcome indicator for disease control programmes. PMID:11436477

  14. Role of connexin/pannexin containing channels in infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Eugenin, Eliseo A

    2014-04-17

    In recent years it has become evident that gap junctions and hemichannels, in concert with extracellular ATP and purinergic receptors, play key roles in several physiological processes and pathological conditions. However, only recently has their importance in infectious diseases been explored, likely because early reports indicated that connexin containing channels were completely inactivated under inflammatory conditions, and therefore no further research was performed. However, recent evidence indicates that several infectious agents take advantage of these communication systems to enhance inflammation and apoptosis, as well as to participate in the infectious cycle of several pathogens. In the current review, we will discuss the role of these channels/receptors in the pathogenesis of several infectious diseases and the possibilities of generating novel therapeutic approaches to reduce or prevent these diseases. PMID:24486013

  15. International efforts to control infectious diseases, 1851 to the present.

    PubMed

    Stern, Alexandra Minna; Markel, Howard

    2004-09-22

    Many 21st-century observers explain international efforts to control infectious diseases as a function of globalization and recent transformations in international commerce, transportation, and human migration. However, these contemporary global health initiatives can be more fully understood by also exploring the origins of international health organizations and regulations, which were initially dedicated exclusively to stemming the tide of infectious epidemics. This article reviews 3 eras of international approaches to controlling infectious diseases (1851-1881, 1881-1945, and 1945 to the present) and concludes by assessing how nations have a strong fiscal and humanitarian incentive to invest in infectious disease control programs and infrastructures in and beyond their own borders. PMID:15383519

  16. Role of Connexin/Pannexin containing channels in infectious diseases

    PubMed Central

    Eugenin, Eliseo A.

    2014-01-01

    In recent years it has become evident that gap junctions and hemichannels, in concert with extracellular ATP and purinergic receptors, play key roles in several physiological processes and pathological conditions. However, only recently has their importance in infectious diseases been explored, likely because early reports indicated that connexin containing channels were completely inactivated under inflammatory conditions, and therefore no further research was performed. However, recent evidence indicates that several infectious agents take advantage of these communication systems to enhance inflammation and apoptosis, as well as to participate in the infectious cycle of several pathogens. In the current review, we will discuss the role of these channels/receptors in the pathogenesis of several infectious diseases and the possibilities of generating novel therapeutic approaches to reduce or prevent these diseases. PMID:24486013

  17. Infectious Diseases of Poverty in Children: A Tale of Two Worlds.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Caitlin; Paintsil, Elijah

    2016-02-01

    "Infectious diseases of poverty" (IDoP) describes infectious diseases that are more prevalent among poor and vulnerable populations, namely human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, tuberculosis (TB), malaria, and neglected tropical diseases (NTDs). In 2013, 190,000 children died of HIV-related causes and there were 550,000 cases and 80,000 TB deaths in children. Children under age 5 account for 78% of malaria deaths annually. NTDs remain a public health challenge in low- and middle-income countries. This article provides an overview of the major IDoP that affect children. Clinicians must be familiar with the epidemiology and clinical manifestations to ensure prompt diagnosis and treatment. PMID:26613688

  18. Emerging infectious diseases: vulnerabilities, contributing factors and approaches.

    PubMed

    Lashley, Felissa R

    2004-04-01

    We live in an ever more connected global village linked through international travel, politics, economics, culture and human-human and human-animal interactions. The realization that the concept of globalization includes global exposure to disease-causing agents that were formerly confined to small, remote areas and that infectious disease outbreaks can have political, economic and social roots and effects is becoming more apparent. Novel infectious disease microbes continue to be discovered because they are new or newly recognized, have expanded their geographic range, have been shown to cause a new disease spectrum, have jumped the species barrier from animals to humans, have become resistant to antimicrobial agents, have increased in incidence or have become more virulent. These emerging infectious disease microbes may have the potential for use as agents of bioterrorism. Factors involved in the emergence of infectious diseases are complex and interrelated and involve all classifications of organisms transmitted in a variety of ways. In 2003, outbreaks of interest included severe acute respiratory syndrome, monkeypox and avian influenza. Information from the human genome project applied to microbial organisms and their hosts will provide new opportunities for detection, diagnosis, treatment, prevention, control and prognosis. New technology related not only to genetics but also to satellite and monitoring systems will play a role in weather, climate and the approach to environmental manipulations that influence factors contributing to infectious disease emergence and control. Approaches to combating emerging infectious diseases include many disciplines, such as animal studies, epidemiology, immunology, ecology, environmental studies, microbiology, pharmacology, other sciences, health, medicine, public health, nursing, cultural, political and social studies, all of which must work together. Appropriate financial support of the public health infrastructure including surveillance, prevention, communication, adherence techniques and the like will be needed to support efforts to address emerging infectious disease threats. PMID:15482195

  19. 78 FR 7793 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-04

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis....855, Allergy, Immunology, and Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious...

  20. 76 FR 13649 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-14

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis....855, Allergy, Immunology, and Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious...

  1. 78 FR 63996 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-25

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis... review and funding cycle. Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious...

  2. Genome-wide association studies and susceptibility to infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Newport, Melanie J; Finan, Chris

    2011-03-01

    Progress in genomics and the associated technological, statistical and bioinformatics advances have facilitated the successful implementation of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) towards understanding the genetic basis of common diseases. Infectious diseases contribute significantly to the global burden of disease and there is robust epidemiological evidence that host genetic factors are important determinants of the outcome of interactions between host and pathogen. Indeed, infectious diseases have exerted profound selective pressure on human evolution. However, the application of GWAS to infectious diseases has been relatively limited compared with non-communicable diseases. Here we review GWAS findings for important infectious diseases, including malaria, tuberculosis and HIV. We highlight some of the pitfalls recognized more generally for GWAS, as well as issues specific to infection, including the role of the pathogen which also has a genome. We also discuss the challenges encountered when studying African populations which are genetically more ancient and more diverse that other populations and disproportionately bear the main global burden of serious infectious diseases. PMID:21436306

  3. SPATIAL DYNAMICS OF LAND COVER AND INFECTIOUS DISEASE RISK

    EPA Science Inventory

    Climate changes may allow for vector-transmitted tropical diseases to spread into temperate areas. Areas of low ecological diversity are at higher risk of infectious disease transmission due to decreased zooprophylaxis, the diversion of disease carrying insects from humans to
    ...

  4. Self-disseminating vaccines for emerging infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Aisling A; Redwood, Alec J; Jarvis, Michael A

    2016-01-01

    Modern human activity fueled by economic development is profoundly altering our relationship with microorganisms. This altered interaction with microbes is believed to be the major driving force behind the increased rate of emerging infectious diseases from animals. The spate of recent infectious disease outbreaks, including Ebola virus disease and Middle East respiratory syndrome, emphasize the need for development of new innovative tools to manage these emerging diseases. Disseminating vaccines are one such novel approach to potentially interrupt animal to human (zoonotic) transmission of these pathogens. PMID:26524478

  5. Modeling rapidly disseminating infectious disease during mass gatherings

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    We discuss models for rapidly disseminating infectious diseases during mass gatherings (MGs), using influenza as a case study. Recent innovations in modeling and forecasting influenza transmission dynamics at local, regional, and global scales have made influenza a particularly attractive model scenario for MG. We discuss the behavioral, medical, and population factors for modeling MG disease transmission, review existing model formulations, and highlight key data and modeling gaps related to modeling MG disease transmission. We argue that the proposed improvements will help integrate infectious-disease models in MG health contingency plans in the near future, echoing modeling efforts that have helped shape influenza pandemic preparedness plans in recent years. PMID:23217051

  6. Self-disseminating vaccines for emerging infectious diseases

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Aisling A.; Redwood, Alec J.; Jarvis, Michael A.

    2016-01-01

    Modern human activity fueled by economic development is profoundly altering our relationship with microorganisms. This altered interaction with microbes is believed to be the major driving force behind the increased rate of emerging infectious diseases from animals. The spate of recent infectious disease outbreaks, including Ebola virus disease and Middle East respiratory syndrome, emphasize the need for development of new innovative tools to manage these emerging diseases. Disseminating vaccines are one such novel approach to potentially interrupt animal to human (zoonotic) transmission of these pathogens. PMID:26524478

  7. Infectious diseases affect marine fisheries and aquaculture economics.

    PubMed

    Lafferty, Kevin D; Harvell, C Drew; Conrad, Jon M; Friedman, Carolyn S; Kent, Michael L; Kuris, Armand M; Powell, Eric N; Rondeau, Daniel; Saksida, Sonja M

    2015-01-01

    Seafood is a growing part of the economy, but its economic value is diminished by marine diseases. Infectious diseases are common in the ocean, and here we tabulate 67 examples that can reduce commercial species' growth and survivorship or decrease seafood quality. These impacts seem most problematic in the stressful and crowded conditions of aquaculture, which increasingly dominates seafood production as wild fishery production plateaus. For instance, marine diseases of farmed oysters, shrimp, abalone, and various fishes, particularly Atlantic salmon, cost billions of dollars each year. In comparison, it is often difficult to accurately estimate disease impacts on wild populations, especially those of pelagic and subtidal species. Farmed species often receive infectious diseases from wild species and can, in turn, export infectious agents to wild species. However, the impact of disease export on wild fisheries is controversial because there are few quantitative data demonstrating that wild species near farms suffer more from infectious diseases than those in other areas. The movement of exotic infectious agents to new areas continues to be the greatest concern. PMID:25251276

  8. Infectious Diseases Affect Marine Fisheries and Aquaculture Economics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lafferty, Kevin D.; Harvell, C. Drew; Conrad, Jon M.; Friedman, Carolyn S.; Kent, Michael L.; Kuris, Armand M.; Powell, Eric N.; Rondeau, Daniel; Saksida, Sonja M.

    2015-01-01

    Seafood is a growing part of the economy, but its economic value is diminished by marine diseases. Infectious diseases are common in the ocean, and here we tabulate 67 examples that can reduce commercial species' growth and survivorship or decrease seafood quality. These impacts seem most problematic in the stressful and crowded conditions of aquaculture, which increasingly dominates seafood production as wild fishery production plateaus. For instance, marine diseases of farmed oysters, shrimp, abalone, and various fishes, particularly Atlantic salmon, cost billions of dollars each year. In comparison, it is often difficult to accurately estimate disease impacts on wild populations, especially those of pelagic and subtidal species. Farmed species often receive infectious diseases from wild species and can, in turn, export infectious agents to wild species. However, the impact of disease export on wild fisheries is controversial because there are few quantitative data demonstrating that wild species near farms suffer more from infectious diseases than those in other areas. The movement of exotic infectious agents to new areas continues to be the greatest concern.

  9. Infectious diseases affect marine fisheries and aquaculture economics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lafferty, Kevin D.; Harvell, C. Drew; Conrad, Jon M.; Friedman, Carolyn S.; Kent, Michael L.; Kuris, Armand M.; Powell, Eric N.; Rondeau, Daniel; Saksida, Sonja M.

    2015-01-01

    Seafood is a growing part of the economy, but its economic value is diminished by marine diseases. Infectious diseases are common in the ocean, and here we tabulate 67 examples that can reduce commercial species' growth and survivorship or decrease seafood quality. These impacts seem most problematic in the stressful and crowded conditions of aquaculture, which increasingly dominates seafood production as wild fishery production plateaus. For instance, marine diseases of farmed oysters, shrimp, abalone, and various fishes, particularly Atlantic salmon, cost billions of dollars each year. In comparison, it is often difficult to accurately estimate disease impacts on wild populations, especially those of pelagic and subtidal species. Farmed species often receive infectious diseases from wild species and can, in turn, export infectious agents to wild species. However, the impact of disease export on wild fisheries is controversial because there are few quantitative data demonstrating that wild species near farms suffer more from infectious diseases than those in other areas. The movement of exotic infectious agents to new areas continues to be the greatest concern.

  10. Infectious diseases following natural disasters: prevention and control measures.

    PubMed

    Kouadio, Isidore K; Aljunid, Syed; Kamigaki, Taro; Hammad, Karen; Oshitani, Hitoshi

    2012-01-01

    Natural disasters may lead to infectious disease outbreaks when they result in substantial population displacement and exacerbate synergic risk factors (change in the environment, in human conditions and in the vulnerability to existing pathogens) for disease transmission. We reviewed risk factors and potential infectious diseases resulting from prolonged secondary effects of major natural disasters that occurred from 2000 to 2011. Natural disasters including floods, tsunamis, earthquakes, tropical cyclones (e.g., hurricanes and typhoons) and tornadoes have been secondarily described with the following infectious diseases including diarrheal diseases, acute respiratory infections, malaria, leptospirosis, measles, dengue fever, viral hepatitis, typhoid fever, meningitis, as well as tetanus and cutaneous mucormycosis. Risk assessment is essential in post-disaster situations and the rapid implementation of control measures through re-establishment and improvement of primary healthcare delivery should be given high priority, especially in the absence of pre-disaster surveillance data. PMID:22149618

  11. Bayesian networks in infectious disease eco-epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Lau, Colleen L; Smith, Carl S

    2016-03-01

    Globally, infectious diseases are responsible for a significant burden on human health. Drivers of disease transmission depend on interactions between humans, the environment, vectors, carriers, and pathogens; transmission dynamics are therefore potentially highly complex. Research in infectious disease eco-epidemiology has been rapidly gaining momentum because of the rising global importance of disease emergence and outbreaks, and growing understanding of the intimate links between human health and the environment. The scientific community is increasingly recognising the need for multidisciplinary translational research, integrated approaches, and innovative methods and tools to optimise risk prediction and control measures. Environmental health experts have also identified the need for more advanced analytical and biostatistical approaches to better determine causality, and deal with unknowns and uncertainties inherent in complex systems. In this paper, we discuss the use of Bayesian networks in infectious disease eco-epidemiology, and the potential for developing dynamic tools for public health decision-making and improving intervention strategies. PMID:26812850

  12. Ventilation assessment of an infectious disease ward housing TB patients

    SciTech Connect

    Crandall, M.S.; Hughes, R.T.

    1996-05-01

    The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) assisted the National Center for Infectious Diseases and the National Center for Prevention Services, Centers for Disease Control (CDC), in their investigation of nosocomial transmission of tuberculosis (TB) at a Veterans Administration Medical Center. NIOSH was asked to determine whether ventilation requirements expected of TB patient isolation facilities were being met. In the Infectious Disease ward (513), 24 staff were given a tuberculin skin test (TST) in the summer of 1991. Eleven (46%) were positive then, and 13 were negative. Ten of the 13 testing negative in 1991 were retested within a year, and 5 (50%) converted to a positive TST. NIOSH investigators made ventilation measurements on Ward 5B, an infectious diseases ward housing patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), two of them with infectious TB, to determine the status of the systems serving the area. Airflow measurements showed that in all the single-patient rooms, exhaust airflow was essentially zero. The average supply airflow varied above and below the designed value. These rooms were all positively pressurized, which would be recommended for the isolation of infectious patients. Based on the measurements made during this evaluation, it was recommended that a separate isolation facility be constructed in the hospital to house infectious patients. Interim corrective measures for the systems in place were also recommended.

  13. Learning lessons from operational research in infectious diseases: can the same model be used for noncommunicable diseases in developing countries?

    PubMed Central

    Bosu, William K

    2014-01-01

    About three-quarters of global deaths from noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) occur in developing countries. Nearly a third of these deaths occur before the age of 60 years. These deaths are projected to increase, fueled by such factors as urbanization, nutrition transition, lifestyle changes, and aging. Despite this burden, there is a paucity of research on NCDs, due to the higher priority given to infectious disease research. Less than 10% of research on cardiovascular diseases comes from developing countries. This paper assesses what lessons from operational research on infectious diseases could be applied to NCDs. The lessons are drawn from the priority setting for research, integration of research into programs and routine service delivery, the use of routine data, rapid-assessment survey methods, modeling, chemoprophylaxis, and the translational process of findings into policy and practice. With the lines between infectious diseases and NCDs becoming blurred, it is justifiable to integrate the programs for the two disease groups wherever possible, eg, screening for diabetes in tuberculosis. Applying these lessons will require increased political will, research capacity, ownership, use of local expertise, and research funding. PMID:25506254

  14. Health systems perspectives – infectious diseases of poverty

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The right to health as a fundamental human right is enshrined in the World Health Organization’s charter and has been reaffirmed in international agreements spanning decades. This new journal reminds us of the essential characteristic of poverty as a violent abuse of human rights. The context of poverty – its social, political and economic dimensions – remain in the reader’s mind as evidence is provided on technical solutions to managing the infectious diseases that afflict poor populations world-wide. Applying a health systems framework to a discussion on infectious diseases of poverty emerges from the papers in this journal’s first edition. Many of the articles discuss treatments, indicating the importance of pharmaceuticals for neglected diseases. Delivery strategies to reach impoverished populations also figure within this first round of papers. Innovative programs that provide diagnostics and treatment for infectious diseases to hard-to-reach rural and urban communities are needed clearly needed, and some good examples are discussed here. Future editions will explore other health system components, broadening the evidence base to increase understanding of effective and sustainable interventions to reduce the burden of infectious disease among the poor. The editors are to be congratulated on the release of this inaugural issue of the journal Infectious Diseases of Poverty. We look forward to reading subsequent editions. PMID:23848993

  15. Infectious Diseases, Urbanization and Climate Change: Challenges in Future China

    PubMed Central

    Tong, Michael Xiaoliang; Hansen, Alana; Hanson-Easey, Scott; Cameron, Scott; Xiang, Jianjun; Liu, Qiyong; Sun, Yehuan; Weinstein, Philip; Han, Gil-Soo; Williams, Craig; Bi, Peng

    2015-01-01

    China is one of the largest countries in the world with nearly 20% of the world’s population. There have been significant improvements in economy, education and technology over the last three decades. Due to substantial investments from all levels of government, the public health system in China has been improved since the 2003 severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) outbreak. However, infectious diseases still remain a major population health issue and this may be exacerbated by rapid urbanization and unprecedented impacts of climate change. This commentary aims to explore China’s current capacity to manage infectious diseases which impair population health. It discusses the existing disease surveillance system and underscores the critical importance of strengthening the system. It also explores how the growing migrant population, dramatic changes in the natural landscape following rapid urbanization, and changing climatic conditions can contribute to the emergence and re-emergence of infectious disease. Continuing research on infectious diseases, urbanization and climate change may inform the country’s capacity to deal with emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases in the future. PMID:26371017

  16. Infectious Diseases, Urbanization and Climate Change: Challenges in Future China.

    PubMed

    Tong, Michael Xiaoliang; Hansen, Alana; Hanson-Easey, Scott; Cameron, Scott; Xiang, Jianjun; Liu, Qiyong; Sun, Yehuan; Weinstein, Philip; Han, Gil-Soo; Williams, Craig; Bi, Peng

    2015-09-01

    China is one of the largest countries in the world with nearly 20% of the world's population. There have been significant improvements in economy, education and technology over the last three decades. Due to substantial investments from all levels of government, the public health system in China has been improved since the 2003 severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) outbreak. However, infectious diseases still remain a major population health issue and this may be exacerbated by rapid urbanization and unprecedented impacts of climate change. This commentary aims to explore China's current capacity to manage infectious diseases which impair population health. It discusses the existing disease surveillance system and underscores the critical importance of strengthening the system. It also explores how the growing migrant population, dramatic changes in the natural landscape following rapid urbanization, and changing climatic conditions can contribute to the emergence and re-emergence of infectious disease. Continuing research on infectious diseases, urbanization and climate change may inform the country's capacity to deal with emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases in the future. PMID:26371017

  17. Infectious diseases: considerations for the 21st century.

    PubMed

    Fauci, A S

    2001-03-01

    The discipline of infectious diseases will assume added prominence in the 21st century in both developed and developing nations. To an unprecedented extent, issues related to infectious diseases in the context of global health are on the agendas of world leaders, health policymakers, and philanthropies. This attention has focused both on scientific challenges such as vaccine development and on the deleterious effects of infectious diseases on economic development and political stability. Interest in global health has led to increasing levels of financial support, which, combined with recent technological advances, provide extraordinary opportunities for infectious disease research in the 21st century. The sequencing of human and microbial genomes and advances in functional genomics will underpin significant progress in many areas, including understanding human predisposition and susceptibility to disease, microbial pathogenesis, and the development new diagnostics, vaccines, and therapies. Increasingly, infectious disease research will be linked to the development of the medical infrastructure and training needed in developing countries to translate scientific advances into operational reality. PMID:11229834

  18. Infectious Diseases in Sub-Saharan Immigrants to Spain.

    PubMed

    Serre Delcor, Núria; Maruri, Begoña Treviño; Arandes, Antoni Soriano; Guiu, Isabel Claveria; Essadik, Hakima Ouaarab; Soley, Mateu Espasa; Romero, Israel Molina; Ascaso, Carlos

    2016-04-01

    Immigrants may be carriers of infectious diseases because of the prevalence of these diseases in their country of origin, exposure during migration, or conditions during resettlement, with this prevalence being particularly high in sub-Saharan Africans. We performed a retrospective review of 180 sub-Saharan immigrants screened for infectious diseases at an International Health Center from January 2009 to December 2012. At least one pathogenic infectious disease was diagnosed in 72.8% patients: 60.6% latent tuberculosis infection, 36.8% intestinal parasites (intestinal protozoa or helminths), 28.1% helminths, 14.8% hepatitis B surface antigen positive, 1.2% anti-hepatitis C virus positive, 1.2% human immunodeficiency virus-positive, and 1.2% malaria. Coinfections were present in 28.4%. There was significant association between eosinophilia (absolute count or percentage) or hyper-IgE and the presence of helminths (P< 0.001). Relative eosinophilia and hyper-IgE were better indicators of helminth infection than absolute eosinophilia, particularly for schistosomiasis and strongyloidiasis. We found a high prevalence of infectious diseases in sub-Saharan immigrants, which could lead to severe health problems (in the absence of prompt treatment), representing a high cost to the public health system and possible transmission in the host country. Accurate screening and tailored protocols for infectious diseases are recommended in sub-Saharan immigrants. PMID:26880782

  19. After 2015: infectious diseases in a new era of health and development

    PubMed Central

    Dye, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Running over timescales that span decades or centuries, the epidemiological transition provides the central narrative of global health. In this transition, a reduction in mortality is followed by a reduction in fertility, creating larger, older populations in which the main causes of illness and death are no longer acute infections of children but chronic diseases of adults. Since the year 2000, the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) have provided a framework for accelerating the decline of infectious diseases, backed by a massive injection of foreign investment to low-income countries. Despite the successes of the MDGs era, the inhabitants of low-income countries still suffer an enormous burden of disease owing to diarrhoea, pneumonia, HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, malaria and other pathogens. Adding to the predictable burden of endemic disease, the threat of pandemics is ever-present and global. With a view to the future, this review spotlights five aspects of the fight against infection beyond 2015, when the MDGs will be replaced by a new set of goals for poverty reduction and sustainable development. These aspects are: exploiting the biological links between infectious and non-infectious diseases; controlling infections among the new urban majority; enhancing the response to international health threats; expanding childhood immunization programmes to prevent acute and chronic diseases in adults; and working towards universal health coverage. By scanning the wider horizon now, infectious disease specialists have the chance to shape the post-2015 era of health and development. PMID:24821913

  20. 77 FR 56660 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-13

    ... personal privacy. Name of Committee: Microbiology, Infectious Diseases and AIDS Initial Review Group; Microbiology and Infectious Diseases B Subcommittee. MID-B October 2012. Date: October 9, 2012. Time: 8 a.m. to...: Microbiology, Infectious Diseases and AIDS Initial Review Group; Microbiology and Infectious Diseases...

  1. 28 CFR 549.15 - Infectious disease training and preventive measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Infectious disease training and... INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT MEDICAL SERVICES Infectious Disease Management § 549.15 Infectious disease training and..., incorporating a question-and-answer session, about infectious diseases to all newly committed inmates,...

  2. 28 CFR 549.15 - Infectious disease training and preventive measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Infectious disease training and... INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT MEDICAL SERVICES Infectious Disease Management § 549.15 Infectious disease training and..., incorporating a question-and-answer session, about infectious diseases to all newly committed inmates,...

  3. 28 CFR 549.15 - Infectious disease training and preventive measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Infectious disease training and... INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT MEDICAL SERVICES Infectious Disease Management § 549.15 Infectious disease training and..., incorporating a question-and-answer session, about infectious diseases to all newly committed inmates,...

  4. 28 CFR 549.15 - Infectious disease training and preventive measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Infectious disease training and... INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT MEDICAL SERVICES Infectious Disease Management § 549.15 Infectious disease training and..., incorporating a question-and-answer session, about infectious diseases to all newly committed inmates,...

  5. 28 CFR 549.15 - Infectious disease training and preventive measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Infectious disease training and... INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT MEDICAL SERVICES Infectious Disease Management § 549.15 Infectious disease training and..., incorporating a question-and-answer session, about infectious diseases to all newly committed inmates,...

  6. Multinational Disease Surveillance Programs: Promoting Global Information Exchange for Infectious Diseases.

    PubMed

    Varan, Aiden K; Bruniera-Oliveira, Robson; Peter, Christopher R; Fonseca-Ford, Maureen; Waterman, Stephen H

    2015-09-01

    Cross-border surveillance for emerging diseases such as Ebola and other infectious diseases requires effective international collaboration. We surveyed representatives from 12 multinational disease surveillance programs between January 2013 and April 2014. Our survey identified programmatic similarities despite variation in health priorities, geography, and socioeconomic context, providing a contemporary perspective on infectious disease surveillance networks. PMID:26033019

  7. Surveillance of Zoonotic Infectious Disease Transmitted by Small Companion Animals

    PubMed Central

    Breitschwerdt, Edward; Cleaveland, Sarah; Karkare, Umesh; Khanna, Chand; Kirpensteijn, Jolle; Kuiken, Thijs; Lappin, Michael R.; McQuiston, Jennifer; Mumford, Elizabeth; Myers, Tanya; Palatnik-de-Sousa, Clarisa B.; Rubin, Carol; Takashima, Gregg; Thiermann, Alex

    2012-01-01

    The One Health paradigm for global health recognizes that most new human infectious diseases will emerge from animal reservoirs. Little consideration has been given to the known and potential zoonotic infectious diseases of small companion animals. Cats and dogs closely share the domestic environment with humans and have the potential to act as sources and sentinels of a wide spectrum of zoonotic infections. This report highlights the lack of a coordinated global surveillance scheme that monitors disease in these species and makes a case for the necessity of developing a strategy to implement such surveillance.

  8. Infectious and zoonotic disease testing in pet birds.

    PubMed

    Cray, Carolyn

    2011-03-01

    Pet bird ownership and the veterinary diagnostic market for avian and exotic species testing have grown markedly during the past 20 years. Birds present with both unique infectious diseases and other diseases that are known to the human medical community, including aspergillosis, mycobacteriosis, chlamydophilosis, and bornavirus infection, some of which have clear zoonotic implications. Although diagnostic testing for these avian infectious diseases has grown considerably and includes the newer technology of polymerase chain reaction as well as traditional serologic testing, guidelines for the use and interpretation of these tests and standardization of tests among veterinary laboratories remains an unmet challenge. PMID:21295723

  9. Pathogens: a new open access journal serving all those interested in infectious disease.

    PubMed

    Young, Lawrence S

    2011-01-01

    Infection ranks alongside cardiovascular disease as the major cause of human death across the world. Word Health Organization data for 2002 shows that 26% of all deaths, almost 15 million in number, were due to infectious disease with HIV/AIDS, TB and malaria being the top three responsible infections. A significant proportion of these deaths were due to lower respiratory infections and diarrheal diseases in children. The worldwide morbidity associated with infectious disease is incalculable. When considered along with the consequences of infection in animals, it is hard to imagine any other disease that has such a significant impact on our lives-on health systems, on agriculture and on world economics. Our understanding of the agents responsible for infections-bacteria, fungi, parasites, prions and viruses-has an interesting history that heralds the great developments in modern biology and demonstrates how an understanding of disease pathogenesis can lead to successful prophylactic and therapeutic interventions. Van Leeuwenhoek's first observation of bacteria under the light microscope, John Snow's investigations tracing the source of a cholera epidemic in Victorian London's Soho and Pasteur's vaccines for rabies and anthrax contributed to an acceptance of the germ theory of disease and to the rational, scientific application of this knowledge to develop innovative disease control measures ranging from hygienic practices to antibiotics. [...]. PMID:25436600

  10. [Mortality trends in Switzerland. 2. Infectious diseases 1876-1977].

    PubMed

    Gubéran, E

    1980-04-12

    An analysis has been made of the evolution in Switzerland of mortality due to the main infectious diseases ever since causes of death began to be registered. Mortality due to tuberculosis, diphtheria, scarlet fever, whooping cough, measles, typhoid, puerperal fever and infant gastro-enteritis started to fall long before the introduction of immunization and/or antibiotics. This decline was probably due to a great extent to various factors linked to the steady rise in the standard of living: qualitative and quantitative improvements in nutrition; better public and personal hygiene; better housing and working conditions and improvements in education. Immunization has probably been decisive in the eradication of smallpox and poliomyelitis and for the reduction in mortality from tetanus. The introduction of sulfonamides and antibiotics was associated with the beginning of the decline in mortality from non-meningococcal meningitis, otitis and appendicitis and with a more pronounced decline in mortality from pneumonia and acute rheumatic fever. Finally, mortality from syphilis started to decline a few years after the introduction of Salvarsan. PMID:6990483

  11. Perspectives of public health laboratories in emerging infectious diseases

    PubMed Central

    Chua, Kaw Bing; Gubler, Duane J

    2013-01-01

    The world has experienced an increased incidence and transboundary spread of emerging infectious diseases over the last four decades. We divided emerging infectious diseases into four categories, with subcategories in categories 1 and 4. The categorization was based on the nature and characteristics of pathogens or infectious agents causing the emerging infections, which are directly related to the mechanisms and patterns of infectious disease emergence. The factors or combinations of factors contributing to the emergence of these pathogens vary within each category. We also classified public health laboratories into three types based on function, namely, research, reference and analytical diagnostic laboratories, with the last category being subclassified into primary (community-based) public health and clinical (medical) analytical diagnostic laboratories. The frontline/leading and/or supportive roles to be adopted by each type of public health laboratory for optimal performance to establish the correct etiological agents causing the diseases or outbreaks vary with respect to each category of emerging infectious diseases. We emphasize the need, especially for an outbreak investigation, to establish a harmonized and coordinated national public health laboratory system that integrates different categories of public health laboratories within a country and that is closely linked to the national public health delivery system and regional and international high-end laboratories. PMID:26038473

  12. Travel and migration associated infectious diseases morbidity in Europe, 2008

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Europeans represent the majority of international travellers and clinicians encountering returned patients have an essential role in recognizing, and communicating travel-associated public health risks. Methods To investigate the morbidity of travel associated infectious diseases in European travellers, we analysed diagnoses with demographic, clinical and travel-related predictors of disease, in 6957 ill returned travellers who presented in 2008 to EuroTravNet centres with a presumed travel associated condition. Results Gastro-intestinal (GI) diseases accounted for 33% of illnesses, followed by febrile systemic illnesses (20%), dermatological conditions (12%) and respiratory illnesses (8%). There were 3 deaths recorded; a sepsis caused by Escherichia coli pyelonephritis, a dengue shock syndrome and a Plasmodium falciparum malaria. GI conditions included bacterial acute diarrhea (6.9%), as well as giardiasis and amebasis (2.3%). Among febrile systemic illnesses with identified pathogens, malaria (5.4%) accounted for most cases followed by dengue (1.9%) and others including chikungunya, rickettsial diseases, leptospirosis, brucellosis, Epstein Barr virus infections, tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) and viral hepatitis. Dermatological conditions were dominated by bacterial infections, arthropod bites, cutaneous larva migrans and animal bites requiring rabies post-exposure prophylaxis and also leishmaniasis, myasis, tungiasis and one case of leprosy. Respiratory illness included 112 cases of tuberculosis including cases of multi-drug resistant or extensively drug resistant tuberculosis, 104 cases of influenza like illness, and 5 cases of Legionnaires disease. Sexually transmitted infections (STI) accounted for 0.6% of total diagnoses and included HIV infection and syphilis. A total of 165 cases of potentially vaccine preventable diseases were reported. Purpose of travel and destination specific risk factors was identified for several diagnoses such as Chagas disease in immigrant travellers from South America and P. falciparum malaria in immigrants from sub-Saharan Africa. Travel within Europe was also associated with health risks with distinctive profiles for Eastern and Western Europe. Conclusions In 2008, a broad spectrum of travel associated diseases were diagnosed at EuroTravNet core sites. Diagnoses varied according to regions visited by ill travellers. The spectrum of travel associated morbidity also shows that there is a need to dispel the misconception that travel, close to home, in Europe, is without significant health risk. PMID:21083874

  13. Sharing Data for Global Infectious Disease Surveillance and Outbreak Detection.

    PubMed

    Aarestrup, Frank M; Koopmans, Marion G

    2016-04-01

    Rapid global sharing and comparison of epidemiological and genomic data on infectious diseases would enable more rapid and efficient global outbreak control and tracking of diseases. Several barriers for global sharing exist but, in our opinion, the presumed magnitude of the problems appears larger than they are, and solutions can be found. PMID:26875619

  14. Incidence and Impact of Selected Infectious Diseases in Childhood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vital and Health Statistics, 1991

    1991-01-01

    This report provides estimates of the lifetime and annual incidence of certain infectious diseases of children in various demographic groups. Data on the social and health care impact of the diseases in terms of limited activity, days spent in bed, school days lost, contacts with physicians, hospitalizations, surgery, and use of medication are…

  15. Techniques for Preventing the Spread of Infectious Diseases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento.

    Specific procedures are outlined for prevention of the spread of infectious diseases with techniques of handwashing, diapering, and handling of known disease carriers. Protocols for classroom cleanliness list essential steps and key points and precautions for maintaining a hygienic environment. This section includes a list of protocols for food…

  16. Emerging relations between infectious diseases and coronary artery disease and atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Fong, I W

    2000-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in developed countries. The cause is multifactorial. A substantial proportion of patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) do not have traditional risk factors. Infectious diseases may play a role in these cases, or they may intensify the effect of other risk factors. The association of CAD and Chlamydia pneumoniae infection is firmly established, but causality is yet to be proven. The link with other infectious agents or conditions, such as cytomegalovirus, herpes simplex virus, Helicobacter pylori and periodontitis, is more controversial. Cytomegalovirus infection is more strongly linked than native CAD to coronary artery restenosis after angioplasty and to accelerated CAD after cardiac transplantation. However, new data on this topic are appearing in the literature almost every month. The potential for novel therapeutic management of cardiovascular disease and stroke is great if infection is proven to cause or accelerate CAD or atherosclerosis. However, physicians should not "jump the gun" and start using antibiotic therapy prematurely for CAD. The results of large randomized clinical trials in progress will help establish causality and the benefits of antimicrobial therapy in CAD. PMID:10920732

  17. Four steps toward the control of aging: following the example of infectious disease.

    PubMed

    Rose, Michael R; Cabral, Larry G; Kezos, James N; Barter, Thomas T; Phillips, Mark A; Smith, Barbara L; Burnham, Terence C

    2016-02-01

    The biotechnological task of controlling human aging will evidently be complex, given the failure of all simple strategies for accomplishing this task to date. In view of this complexity, a multi-step approach will be necessary. One precedent for a multi-step biotechnological success is the burgeoning control of human infectious diseases from 1840 to 2000. Here we break down progress toward the control of infectious disease into four key steps, each of which have analogs for the control of aging. (1) Agreement about the fundamental nature of the medical problem. (2) Public health measures to mitigate some of the factors that exacerbate the medical problem. (3) Early biotechnological interventions that ward off the more tractable disease etiologies. (4) Deep understanding of the underlying biology of the diseases involved, leading in turn to comprehensive control of the medical problems that they pose. Achievement of all four of these steps has allowed most people who live in Western countries to live largely free of imminent death due to infectious disease. Accomplishing the equivalent feat for aging over this century should lead to a similar outcome for aging-associated disease. Neither infection nor aging will ever be entirely abolished, but they can both be rendered minor causes of death and disability. PMID:26112235

  18. The burden of infectious diseases in the Brazilian Southern state of Santa Catarina.

    PubMed

    Traebert, Jefferson; Nickel, Daniela A; Traebert, Eliane; Escalante, Juan J C; Schneider, Ione J C

    2016-01-01

    Infectious diseases are still significant causes of deaths in Brazil. The objective of this study was to estimate the burden of selected infectious diseases in the Brazilian Southern state of Santa Catarina in 2011. An ecological study was conducted. The infectious diseases included were HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, hepatitis B, hepatitis C, Chagas disease, diarrheal diseases and other infectious diseases. Data were collected from official health information systems. Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALY) were estimated by the sum of Years of Life Lost (YLL) and Years Lived with Disability (YLD). 45,237.33 DALYs were estimated, with a rate of 685.46 DALYs per 100,000 population. 92.9% was due to YLL and 7.1% to YLD. Men and the age range of 0-4 years presented higher burden. The highest burden was attributed to HIV/AIDS. There was a high concentration of burden rates in the coast regions of the state. It could be concluded that more than 90% of the burden was attributed to the early mortality component. The highest burden was observed among men, children under 5 years of age and at the coast regions of the state. The highest levels of burden were due to HIV/AIDS. PMID:26608780

  19. Reflectance confocal microscopy in infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Cinotti, E; Labeille, B; Cambazard, F; Perrot, J L

    2015-10-01

    In vivo reflectance confocal microscope (RCM) is a high-resolution non-invasive imaging technique that was initially focused on the diagnosis of skin cancers. A rising number of other indications have been later described for the diagnosis and management of inflammatory and infectious dermatological disorders. RCM can identify cutaneous parasites that are not visible to naked eye such as Sarcoptes scabiei and Demodex folliculorum and it allows to better identify the different body parts of bigger parasites such as ticks. Fungal filaments can also be identified as elongated bright structures in the cutaneous upper layers. RCM cannot observe virus directly. However, the cytopathic effect associated with some virus can be recognized. In addition of being helpful for the diagnosis and follow-up after treatment, thanks to its non-invasiveness, RCM allows pathophysiological studies. PMID:26129682

  20. Infectious diseases in the Arabian Peninsula and Egypt.

    PubMed

    Shibl, A; Senok, A; Memish, Z

    2012-11-01

    Infectious diseases are important causes of morbidity and mortality globally. Epidemiologically, differences in the patterns of infectious diseases and antimicrobial resistance exist across diverse geographical regions. In this review on infectious diseases in the Arabian Peninsula and Egypt, the epidemiology of tuberculosis, malaria and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections will be addressed. The challenges of the hepatitis C epidemic in Egypt and the epidemiology of this infection across the region will be reviewed. In recent years, we have seen dengue endemicity become established, with major outbreaks in parts of the region. Emerging data also indicate that, across the region, there is an increasing burden of antibiotic resistance, with endemicity in healthcare settings and dissemination into the community. New challenges include the emergence of the Alkhurma haemorrhagic fever virus in Saudi Arabia. The annual Hajj pilgrimage in Saudi Arabia serves as a model for the control of infectious disease in mass gatherings. As most of these countries constantly experience a uniquely dynamic population influx in the form of expatriate workers, tourists, or pilgrims, concerted regional and international collaboration to address these public health concerns in a region that lies at the crossroads for the global spread of infectious pathogens is imperative. PMID:23066725

  1. Interleukin-10 inhibits apoptotic cell death in infectious mononucleosis T cells.

    PubMed Central

    Taga, K; Chretien, J; Cherney, B; Diaz, L; Brown, M; Tosato, G

    1994-01-01

    T lymphocytes from patients with acute EBV-induced infectious mononucleosis rapidly die by apoptosis in vitro. Because human and viral IL-10 are likely to be induced during acute EBV infection and display a variety of functions on human T cells, we examined IL-10 effects on infectious mononucleosis T cell death. After 12 h of incubation in medium alone, only 35.6 (+/- 8.2%) of the originally seeded infectious mononucleosis T cells were viable. Addition of human IL-10 (100 U/ml) to T cell cultures significantly improved recovery of viable cells (71.3 +/- 6.2%, P = 0.0156). Viral IL-10 had comparable effects to human IL-10 in this system. Protection from death by human and viral IL-10 (100 U/ml) was dose dependent and continued over a 6-d culture period. The human IL-10 effect was neutralized by the anti-human IL-10 mAb 19F1. Morphology and analysis of DNA after separation on agarose gels showed that IL-10 inhibits loss of cell volume, chromatin condensation, and DNA fragmentation, characteristics of death by apoptosis. As assessed by [3H]thymidine incorporation, the T cells were not induced to proliferate by IL-10 above the level exhibited when first removed from blood. T cells protected from death by IL-10 proliferated to IL-2 and spontaneously killed sensitive targets as effectively as medium-precultured T cells. Thus, IL-10 promotes the survival of infectious mononucleosis T cells otherwise destined to die by apoptosis and may be critical for the establishment of immunologic memory after resolution of the illness. Images PMID:8040267

  2. NAMRU-3: forty-six years of infectious disease research.

    PubMed

    Hibbs, R G

    1993-07-01

    The United States Naval Medical Research Unit No. 3 (NAMRU-3), Cairo, Egypt, has been in continuous operation studying infectious diseases of military importance since its establishment in 1946, even during the lapse in diplomatic relations from 1967-1974. Other overseas research laboratories of the Naval Medical Research and Development Command include NAMRU-2 in Jakarta, Indonesia, with a detachment in Manila, and the Naval Medical Research Institute Detachment Lima, Peru. Comparable U.S. Army overseas research laboratories are located in Thailand, Brazil, Korea, and Kenya. Department of Defense overseas laboratories conduct research on infectious diseases endemic to their respective geographic regions which could adversely impact on the health of deployed military forces. This article describes the history of one such laboratory, NAMRU-3, and the important infectious disease research it conducts to enhance the health of military forces deployed to its strategic geographical region of the world. PMID:8351052

  3. Human genetics of infectious diseases: a unified theory.

    PubMed

    Casanova, Jean-Laurent; Abel, Laurent

    2007-02-21

    Since the early 1950s, the dominant paradigm in the human genetics of infectious diseases postulates that rare monogenic immunodeficiencies confer vulnerability to multiple infectious diseases (one gene, multiple infections), whereas common infections are associated with the polygenic inheritance of multiple susceptibility genes (one infection, multiple genes). Recent studies, since 1996 in particular, have challenged this view. A newly recognised group of primary immunodeficiencies predisposing the individual to a principal or single type of infection is emerging. In parallel, several common infections have been shown to reflect the inheritance of one major susceptibility gene, at least in some populations. This novel causal relationship (one gene, one infection) blurs the distinction between patient-based Mendelian genetics and population-based complex genetics, and provides a unified conceptual frame for exploring the molecular genetic basis of infectious diseases in humans. PMID:17255931

  4. Combating infectious diseases of poverty: a year on

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The Infectious Diseases of Poverty journal, launched a year ago, is a platform to engage outside the traditional disciplinary boundaries, and disseminate high quality science towards the improvement of health. This paper reviews the milestone achievements during its first year of operation. The journal has filled an important niche, addressing some of the main priorities in the Global Report for Research on Infectious Diseases of Poverty. Highlights include the publication of three thematic issues on health systems, surveillance and response systems, as well as co-infection and syndemics. The thematic issues have foregrounded the importance and innovation that can be achieved through transdisciplinary research. The journal has been indexed by PubMed since April 2013, with the publication of a total of 38 articles. Finally, the journal is delivering to wider range readers both in developing and developed countries with sustained efforts with a focus on relevant and strategic information towards elimination of infectious diseases of poverty. PMID:24246007

  5. Infectious diseases subspecialty: declining demand challenges and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Chandrasekar, Pranatharthi; Havlichek, Daniel; Johnson, Leonard B

    2014-12-01

    Recent match results from the National Resident Matching Program for the subspecialty of infectious diseases show an ongoing decline in the number of fellowship positions filled, and, more important, in the number of applicants, particularly from the pool of international medical graduates. The main reasons for this declining application rate are unclear; in the absence of hard data, we present our viewpoint on this issue. Difficulties in securing visas for permanent residency in the United States, perception of a limited job market, and the explosive growth in the number of hospitalist positions may be important contributing factors. Infectious Diseases Society of America members need to focus on medical students and medical residents in their formative years. We present potential solutions to this problem of declining interest in the field of infectious diseases. PMID:25148890

  6. Therapeutic targeting of autophagy in neurodegenerative and infectious diseases

    PubMed Central

    Bento, Carla F.

    2015-01-01

    Autophagy is a conserved process that uses double-membrane vesicles to deliver cytoplasmic contents to lysosomes for degradation. Although autophagy may impact many facets of human biology and disease, in this review we focus on the ability of autophagy to protect against certain neurodegenerative and infectious diseases. Autophagy enhances the clearance of toxic, cytoplasmic, aggregate-prone proteins and infectious agents. The beneficial roles of autophagy can now be extended to supporting cell survival and regulating inflammation. Autophagic control of inflammation is one area where autophagy may have similar benefits for both infectious and neurodegenerative diseases beyond direct removal of the pathogenic agents. Preclinical data supporting the potential therapeutic utility of autophagy modulation in such conditions is accumulating. PMID:26101267

  7. Trends in Notifiable Infectious Diseases in China: Implications for Surveillance and Population Health Policy

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lei; Wilson, David P.

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to analyse trends in notifiable infectious diseases in China, in their historical context. Both English and Chinese literature was searched and diseases were categorised according to the type of disease or transmission route. Temporal trends of morbidity and mortality rates were calculated for eight major infectious diseases types. Strong government commitment to public health responses and improvements in quality of life has led to the eradication or containment of a wide range of infectious diseases in China. The overall infectious diseases burden experienced a dramatic drop during 1975–1995, but since then, it reverted and maintained a gradual upward trend to date. Most notifiable diseases are contained at a low endemic level; however, local small-scale outbreaks remain common. Tuberculosis, as a bacterial infection, has re-emerged since the 1990s and has become prevalent in the country. Sexually transmitted infections are in a rapid, exponential growth phase, spreading from core groups to the general population. Together human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), they account for 39% of all death cases due to infectious diseases in China in 2008. Zoonotic infections, such as severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), rabies and influenza, pose constant threats to Chinese residents and remain the most deadly disease type among the infected individuals. Therefore, second-generation surveillance of behavioural risks or vectors associated with pathogen transmission should be scaled up. It is necessary to implement public health interventions that target HIV and relevant coinfections, address transmission associated with highly mobile populations, and reduce the risk of cross-species transmission of zoonotic pathogens. PMID:22359565

  8. A technological update of molecular diagnostics for infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yu-Tsueng

    2008-09-01

    Identification of a causative pathogen is essential for the choice of treatment for most infectious diseases. Many FDA approved molecular assays; usually more sensitive and specific compared to traditional tests, have been developed in the last decade. A new trend of high throughput and multiplexing assays are emerging thanks to technological developments for the human genome sequencing project. The applications of microarray and ultra high throughput sequencing technologies for diagnostic microbiology are reviewed. The race for the $1000 genome technology by 2014 will have a profound impact in diagnosis and treatment of infectious diseases in the near future. PMID:18782035

  9. Quantum pharmacology for infectious diseases: a molecular connectivity approach.

    PubMed

    Singh, Shailza

    2012-09-01

    Infectious diseases are a major cause of global health, economic and social problems. Relationship between the infectious diseases and drugs designed to combat them can be understood by the Quantum Pharmacology approach. Quantum pharmacology which is an amalgamation of chemistry, quantum mechanics and computer modeling aims to understand the structure activity relationship of a drug. As compared to the classical MM, the hybrid QM/MM approach which takes into account the quantum mechanics along with the molecular mechanics facilitates the simulation of biological structures with greater accuracy and speed. This review highlights the importance of quantum mechanics for a better understanding of molecular systems and QSAR studies. PMID:22738083

  10. Recurrent infectious diseases in human CD53 deficiency.

    PubMed Central

    Mollinedo, F; Fontán, G; Barasoain, I; Lazo, P A

    1997-01-01

    We report a familiar syndrome of recurrent heterogeneous infectious diseases, caused by bacteria, fungi, and viruses, which has as its only detectable defect the lack of CD53 antigen expression in neutrophils. All other assays ruled out known causes of recurrent infectious diseases due to either leukocyte adhesion or phagocytosis defects. CD53 belongs to the transmembrane-4 superfamily of proteins, which are a novel group of membrane proteins implicated in growth regulation and cell motility and possibly cell adhesion. We postulate that defects in these membrane proteins can be clinically manifested as complex recurrent infections. PMID:9067662

  11. Climate variability and outbreaks of infectious diseases in Europe

    PubMed Central

    Morand, Serge; Owers, Katharine A.; Waret-Szkuta, Agnes; McIntyre, K. Marie; Baylis, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    Several studies provide evidence of a link between vector-borne disease outbreaks and El Niño driven climate anomalies. Less investigated are the effects of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO). Here, we test its impact on outbreak occurrences of 13 infectious diseases over Europe during the last fifty years, controlling for potential bias due to increased surveillance and detection. NAO variation statistically influenced the outbreak occurrence of eleven of the infectious diseases. Seven diseases were associated with winter NAO positive phases in northern Europe, and therefore with above-average temperatures and precipitation. Two diseases were associated with the summer or spring NAO negative phases in northern Europe, and therefore with below-average temperatures and precipitation. Two diseases were associated with summer positive or negative NAO phases in southern Mediterranean countries. These findings suggest that there is potential for developing early warning systems, based on climatic variation information, for improved outbreak control and management. PMID:23639950

  12. Prognosis in autoimmune and infectious disease: new insights from genetics

    PubMed Central

    Lee, James C; Smith, Kenneth G C

    2014-01-01

    A well-recognised feature of autoimmune and infectious diseases is that their clinical course and eventual outcome can vary substantially between affected individuals. This variability in disease prognosis critically determines patient well-being, and yet is relatively poorly understood and largely understudied—with many investigators opting instead to study what causes disease development in the first place. Better understanding of what determines prognosis could provide unique insights into disease biology, potentially revealing new therapeutic targets, and will also be essential if prognosis-based ‘personalised medicine' is ever to become a reality. Here, we highlight the previously under-appreciated role that genetics has in determining prognosis in autoimmune and infectious disease, and the common role that FOXO3 has been shown to have as a modulator of inflammatory responses, and thereby of outcome, across several distinct diseases. PMID:25505963

  13. Incentives for Reporting Infectious Disease Outbreaks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malani, Anup; Laxminarayan, Ramanan

    2011-01-01

    The global spread of diseases such as swine flu and SARS highlights the difficult decision governments face when presented with evidence of a local outbreak. Reporting the outbreak may bring medical assistance but is also likely to trigger trade sanctions by countries hoping to contain the disease. Suppressing the information may avoid trade…

  14. Incentives for Reporting Infectious Disease Outbreaks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malani, Anup; Laxminarayan, Ramanan

    2011-01-01

    The global spread of diseases such as swine flu and SARS highlights the difficult decision governments face when presented with evidence of a local outbreak. Reporting the outbreak may bring medical assistance but is also likely to trigger trade sanctions by countries hoping to contain the disease. Suppressing the information may avoid trade

  15. Editorial: Mathematical modelling of infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Fenton, Andy

    2016-06-01

    The field of disease ecology - the study of the spread and impact of parasites and pathogens within their host populations and communities - has a long history of using mathematical models. Dating back over 100 years, researchers have used mathematics to describe the spread of disease-causing agents, understand the relationship between host density and transmission and plan control strategies. The use of mathematical modelling in disease ecology exploded in the late 1970s and early 1980s through the work of Anderson and May (Anderson and May, 1978, 1981, 1992; May and Anderson, 1978), who developed the fundamental frameworks for studying microparasite (e.g. viruses, bacteria and protozoa) and macroparasite (e.g. helminth) dynamics, emphasizing the importance of understanding features such as the parasite's basic reproduction number (R 0) and critical community size that form the basis of disease ecology research to this day. Since the initial models of disease population dynamics, which primarily focused on human diseases, theoretical disease research has expanded hugely to encompass livestock and wildlife disease systems, and also to explore evolutionary questions such as the evolution of parasite virulence or drug resistance. More recently there have been efforts to broaden the field still further, to move beyond the standard 'one-host-one-parasite' paradigm of the original models, to incorporate many aspects of complexity of natural systems, including multiple potential host species and interactions among multiple parasite species. PMID:27027318

  16. [Epidemiological examples of infectious disease spread].

    PubMed

    Schlter, H; Kramer, M

    2001-08-01

    The globalisation of trade with animals and animal products and increase of travel transports are very important issues with respect to prevent and control animal diseases or epizootics respectively. The disease control concepts as a complex manner should be established on scientific basis and must be permanently evaluated and updated. Outbreak investigations in order to clarify the source of infection and/or the spread of animal diseases including zoonoses are important fields of activities of veterinary epidemiologists. The application of modern epidemiological methods is the precondition of a successful disease control. On selected examples of animal diseases, the use of these methods is demonstrated. It is urgently necessary to intensify the epidemiological work in applied research and practice. PMID:11560116

  17. [Infectious diseases in the ambulatory care setting].

    PubMed

    Zanetti, G

    2005-01-12

    Hot topics in infectiology mainly include emerging diseases, particularly those caused by antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Prudent use of antibiotics is therefore mandatory. Among new classes of antibiotics for outpatients therapy are linezolid (for resistant, Gram-positive bacterial, and telithromycine (for treatment of respiratory tract infections). This review also addresses the following topics: short course of doxycycline for treatment of early Lyme disease in adults, recommendations against the widespread use of fluoroquinolones for community-acquired pneumonia, prevention of Herpes simplex type 2 transmission with valacyclovir, management of acute, symptomatic hepatitis C, and the absence of an established link between vaccines and chronic diseases. PMID:15773214

  18. Infectious disease agents mediate interaction in food webs and ecosystems

    PubMed Central

    Selakovic, Sanja; de Ruiter, Peter C.; Heesterbeek, Hans

    2014-01-01

    Infectious agents are part of food webs and ecosystems via the relationship with their host species that, in turn, interact with both hosts and non-hosts. Through these interactions, infectious agents influence food webs in terms of structure, functioning and stability. The present literature shows a broad range of impacts of infectious agents on food webs, and by cataloguing that range, we worked towards defining the various mechanisms and their specific effects. To explore the impact, a direct approach is to study changes in food-web properties with infectious agents as separate species in the web, acting as additional nodes, with links to their host species. An indirect approach concentrates not on adding new nodes and links, but on the ways that infectious agents affect the existing links across host and non-host nodes, by influencing the ‘quality’ of consumer–resource interaction as it depends on the epidemiological state host involved. Both approaches are natural from an ecological point of view, but the indirect approach may connect more straightforwardly to commonly used tools in infectious disease dynamics. PMID:24403336

  19. Infectious disease agents mediate interaction in food webs and ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Selakovic, Sanja; de Ruiter, Peter C; Heesterbeek, Hans

    2014-02-22

    Infectious agents are part of food webs and ecosystems via the relationship with their host species that, in turn, interact with both hosts and non-hosts. Through these interactions, infectious agents influence food webs in terms of structure, functioning and stability. The present literature shows a broad range of impacts of infectious agents on food webs, and by cataloguing that range, we worked towards defining the various mechanisms and their specific effects. To explore the impact, a direct approach is to study changes in food-web properties with infectious agents as separate species in the web, acting as additional nodes, with links to their host species. An indirect approach concentrates not on adding new nodes and links, but on the ways that infectious agents affect the existing links across host and non-host nodes, by influencing the 'quality' of consumer-resource interaction as it depends on the epidemiological state host involved. Both approaches are natural from an ecological point of view, but the indirect approach may connect more straightforwardly to commonly used tools in infectious disease dynamics. PMID:24403336

  20. Emerging Infectious Diseases of Wildlife and Species Conservation.

    PubMed

    Medina-Vogel, G

    2013-12-01

    There has been an increase in the emergence and reemergence of human infectious diseases on a global scale, and zoonotic diseases in which wildlife serves as the reservoir are a large contributing factor. Faced with this situation, there is a necessity to create integrated prevention strategies and predictive models to determine the sites most vulnerable to the emergence of new zoonoses. Cases have been documented in which pathogens responsible for infectious diseases in wild species have been readily transmitted between hosts and have threatened vulnerable declining populations. Habitat destruction and man-made changes in the landscape together with the introduction of alien species are significant environmental variables that affect the ecology of infectious diseases. Thus, the loss of biodiversity is illustrated to be related to both the emergence of new or the exacerbation of existing vector-borne zoonotic diseases through mechanisms such as the loss of the dilution effect and ecological release and simplification. Hence, it is important to consider this factor when assessing disease risk and disease prevention in domestic animals and humans. Diseases like leptospirosis in which water plays an important role are ecosystem health diseases; in fact, the reported higher prevalence of Leptospira spp. in river otters in southern Chile compared with species less adapted to aquatic environments and with terrestrial domestic carnivores provides evidence that man-made landscape alterations, including the introduction of alien species, has exacerbated the transmission and prevalence of leptospirosis in wildlife and thus the risk of human infection. PMID:26184963

  1. Emerging infectious diseases in southeast Asia: regional challenges to control.

    PubMed

    Coker, Richard J; Hunter, Benjamin M; Rudge, James W; Liverani, Marco; Hanvoravongchai, Piya

    2011-02-12

    Southeast Asia is a hotspot for emerging infectious diseases, including those with pandemic potential. Emerging infectious diseases have exacted heavy public health and economic tolls. Severe acute respiratory syndrome rapidly decimated the region's tourist industry. Influenza A H5N1 has had a profound effect on the poultry industry. The reasons why southeast Asia is at risk from emerging infectious diseases are complex. The region is home to dynamic systems in which biological, social, ecological, and technological processes interconnect in ways that enable microbes to exploit new ecological niches. These processes include population growth and movement, urbanisation, changes in food production, agriculture and land use, water and sanitation, and the effect of health systems through generation of drug resistance. Southeast Asia is home to about 600 million people residing in countries as diverse as Singapore, a city state with a gross domestic product (GDP) of US$37,500 per head, and Laos, until recently an overwhelmingly rural economy, with a GDP of US$890 per head. The regional challenges in control of emerging infectious diseases are formidable and range from influencing the factors that drive disease emergence, to making surveillance systems fit for purpose, and ensuring that regional governance mechanisms work effectively to improve control interventions. PMID:21269678

  2. Diseases and Causes of Death in European Bats: Dynamics in Disease Susceptibility and Infection Rates

    PubMed Central

    Mühldorfer, Kristin; Speck, Stephanie; Kurth, Andreas; Lesnik, René; Freuling, Conrad; Müller, Thomas; Kramer-Schadt, Stephanie; Wibbelt, Gudrun

    2011-01-01

    Background Bats receive increasing attention in infectious disease studies, because of their well recognized status as reservoir species for various infectious agents. This is even more important, as bats with their capability of long distance dispersal and complex social structures are unique in the way microbes could be spread by these mammalian species. Nevertheless, infection studies in bats are predominantly limited to the identification of specific pathogens presenting a potential health threat to humans. But the impact of infectious agents on the individual host and their importance on bat mortality is largely unknown and has been neglected in most studies published to date. Methodology/Principal Findings Between 2002 and 2009, 486 deceased bats of 19 European species (family Vespertilionidae) were collected in different geographic regions in Germany. Most animals represented individual cases that have been incidentally found close to roosting sites or near human habitation in urban and urban-like environments. The bat carcasses were subjected to a post-mortem examination and investigated histo-pathologically, bacteriologically and virologically. Trauma and disease represented the most important causes of death in these bats. Comparative analysis of pathological findings and microbiological results show that microbial agents indeed have an impact on bats succumbing to infectious diseases, with fatal bacterial, viral and parasitic infections found in at least 12% of the bats investigated. Conclusions/Significance Our data demonstrate the importance of diseases and infectious agents as cause of death in European bat species. The clear seasonal and individual variations in disease prevalence and infection rates indicate that maternity colonies are more susceptible to infectious agents, underlining the possible important role of host physiology, immunity and roosting behavior as risk factors for infection of bats. PMID:22216354

  3. Traveler's guide to avoiding infectious diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... health care provider or local travel clinic. PREVENTING MALARIA Malaria is a serious disease that spreads by the ... It occurs mainly in tropical and subtropical climates. Malaria can cause high fevers, shaking chills, flu-like ...

  4. RNA Interference in Infectious Tropical Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Young S.

    2008-01-01

    Introduction of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) into some cells or organisms results in degradation of its homologous mRNA, a process called RNA interference (RNAi). The dsRNAs are processed into short interfering RNAs (siRNAs) that subsequently bind to the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC), causing degradation of target mRNAs. Because of this sequence-specific ability to silence target genes, RNAi has been extensively used to study gene functions and has the potential to control disease pathogens or vectors. With this promise of RNAi to control pathogens and vectors, this paper reviews the current status of RNAi in protozoans, animal parasitic helminths and disease-transmitting vectors, such as insects. Many pathogens and vectors cause severe parasitic diseases in tropical regions and it is difficult to control once the host has been invaded. Intracellularly, RNAi can be highly effective in impeding parasitic development and proliferation within the host. To fully realize its potential as a means to control tropical diseases, appropriate delivery methods for RNAi should be developed, and possible off-target effects should be minimized for specific gene suppression. RNAi can also be utilized to reduce vector competence to interfere with disease transmission, as genes critical for pathogenesis of tropical diseases are knockdowned via RNAi. PMID:18344671

  5. AAV Vectors Vaccines Against Infectious Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Nieto, Karen; Salvetti, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Since their discovery as a tool for gene transfer, vectors derived from the adeno-associated virus (AAV) have been used for gene therapy applications and attracted scientist to this field for their exceptional properties of efficiency of in vivo gene transfer and the level and duration of transgene expression. For many years, AAVs have been considered as low immunogenic vectors due to their ability to induce long-term expression of non-self-proteins in contrast to what has been observed with other viral vectors, such as adenovirus, for which strong immune responses against the same transgene products were documented. The perceived low immunogenicity likely explains why the use of AAV vectors for vaccination was not seriously considered before the early 2000s. Indeed, while analyses conducted using a variety of transgenes and animal species slowly changed the vision of immunological properties of AAVs, an increasing number of studies were also performed in the field of vaccination. Even if the comparison with other modes of vaccination was not systemically performed, the analyses conducted so far in the field of active immunotherapy strongly suggest that AAVs possess some interesting features to be used as tools to produce an efficient and sustained antibody response. In addition, recent studies also highlighted the potential of AAVs for passive immunotherapy. This review summarizes the main studies conducted to evaluate the potential of AAV vectors for vaccination against infectious agents and discusses their advantages and drawbacks. Altogether, the variety of studies conducted in this field contributes to the understanding of the immunological properties of this versatile virus and to the definition of its possible future applications. PMID:24478774

  6. Global climate and infectious disease: The cholera paradigm

    SciTech Connect

    Colwell, R.R.

    1996-12-20

    Historically, infectious diseases have had a profound effect on human populations, including their evolution and cultural development. Despite significant advances in medical science, infectious diseases continue to impact human populations in many parts of the world. Emerging diseases are considered to be those infections that either are newly appearing in the population or are rapidly increasing in incidence or expanding in geographic range. Emergence of disease is not a simple phenomenon, mainly because infectious diseases are dynamic. Most new infections are not caused by truly new pathogens but are microorganisms (viruses, bacteria, fungi, protozoa, and helminths) that find a new way to enter a susceptible host and are newly recognized because of recently developed, sensitive techniques. Human activities drive emergence of disease and a variety of social, economic, political, climatic, technological, and environmental factors can shape the pattern of a disease and influence its emergence into populations. For example, travel affects emergence of disease, and human migrations have been the main source of epidemics throughout history. Trade caravans, religious pilgrimage, and military campaigns facilitated the spread of plague, smallpox, and cholera. Global travel is a fact of modern life and, equally so, the continued evolution of microorganisms; therefore, new infections will continue to emerge, and known infections will change in distribution, frequency, and severity. 88 refs., 1 fig.

  7. 76 FR 30373 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-25

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases... Diseases Special Emphasis Panel; NIAID Investigator Initiated Program Project Applications (P01). Date..., Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research, National Institutes of Health, HHS) Dated: May 18,...

  8. Mobile infectious disease references: from the bedside to the beach.

    PubMed

    Burdette, Steven D; Trotman, Robin; Cmar, John

    2012-07-01

    Point-of-care access to current medical information is easily available to the practitioner through the use of smartphones, iPads, and other personal digital assistants. There are numerous mobile applications (apps) that provide easy-to-use and often well-referenced medical guidance for the infectious diseases practitioner. We reviewed 6 commonly utilized mobile apps available for handheld devices: the Emergency Medicine Residents' Association's (EMRA's) Antibiotic Guide, Epocrates Deluxe, Johns Hopkins Antibiotic Guide, Sanford Guide, the Medscape mobile app, and the Infectious Diseases Compendium. We evaluated several basic infectious diseases topics (including but not limited to endocarditis, vancomycin, and Acinetobacter infection) and attempted to objectively score them for metrics that would help the provider determine which mobile app would be most useful for his or her practice. The Johns Hopkins Antibiotic Guide and the Sanford Guide had the highest cumulative scores, whereas EMRA scored the lowest. We found that no single app will meet all of the needs of an infectious diseases physician. Each app delivers content in a unique way and would meet divergent needs for all practitioners, from the experienced clinician to the trainee. The ability to rapidly access trusted medical knowledge at the point of care can help all healthcare providers better treat their patients' infections. PMID:22679027

  9. Bacteriophage therapy: a revitalized therapy against bacterial infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Matsuzaki, Shigenobu; Rashel, Mohammad; Uchiyama, Jumpei; Sakurai, Shingo; Ujihara, Takako; Kuroda, Masayuki; Ikeuchi, Masahiko; Tani, Toshikazu; Fujieda, Mikiya; Wakiguchi, Hiroshi; Imai, Shosuke

    2005-10-01

    Bacteriophage (phage) therapy involves using phages or their products as bioagents for the treatment or prophylaxis of bacterial infectious diseases. Much evidence in support of the effectiveness of phage therapy against bacterial infectious diseases has accumulated since 1980 from animal model studies conducted in Western countries. Reports indicate that appropriate administration of living phages can be used to treat lethal infectious diseases caused by gram-negative bacteria, such as Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumannii, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Vibrio vulnificus, and Salmonella spp., and gram-positive bacteria, such as Enterococcus faecium and Staphylococcus aureus. The phage display system and genetically modified nonreplicating phages are also effective for treatment of Helicobacter pylori and P. aeruginosa, respectively. In addition to phage particles per se, purified phage-encoded peptidoglycan hydrolase (lysin) is also reported to be effective for the treatment of bacterial infectious diseases caused by gram-positive bacteria such as Streptococcus pyogenes, S. pneumoniae, Bacillus anthracis, and group B streptococci. All phage lysins that have been studied to date exhibit immediate and strong bacteriolytic activity when applied exogenously. Furthermore, phage-coded inhibitors of peptidoglycan synthesis (protein antibiotics), search methods for novel antibacterial agents using phage genome informatics, and vaccines utilizing phages or their products are being developed. Phage therapy will compensate for unavoidable complications of chemotherapy such as the appearance of multidrug resistance or substituted microbism. PMID:16258815

  10. [Seasonal rhythm of infectious eye disease in North Africa].

    PubMed

    Dolezalová, V

    1978-01-01

    The occurrence of infectious eye diseases in a hospital eye department on the island of Djerba in South Tunisia was analysed by mathematical-statistical methods. The seasonal influence was confirmed in accordance with the local traditional opinion and with previous research papers. PMID:714373

  11. Management of Chronic Infectious Diseases in School Children. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois State Board of Education, Springfield.

    This manual contains current guidelines for Illinois school personnel to follow when working with children who have infectious diseases. The first chapter focuses on school district development of policies and procedures and program implementation. The next chapter provides information on characteristics, mode of transmission, prevention, and…

  12. Aids and Infectious Diseases (aid) Pmp 2013 Report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buonaguro, Franco M.

    2014-07-01

    The AIDS and Infectious Diseases (AID) PMP of the WFS contributed this year with a session on August 22nd to the Plenary Sessions of the International Seminars on Planetary Emergencies and Associated Meetings--46th Session: The Role of Science in the Third Millennium (Erice, 19-24 August 2013). Furthermore a workshop on August 24th was organized...

  13. Genome Sequence of a Distinct Infectious Bursal Disease Virus

    PubMed Central

    Tomás, Gonzalo; Hernández, Martín; Marandino, Ana; Hernández, Diego; Techera, Claudia; Grecco, Sofía; Panzera, Yanina

    2015-01-01

    Infectious bursal disease virus is a relevant avian pathogen that affects poultry production. Here, we report the full-length coding sequence of the Uruguayan strain dIBDV/UY/2014/2202, isolated from a commercial broiler flock. The strain belongs to the distinct IBDV lineage that is widely distributed in South America. PMID:26430025

  14. RECENT ADVANCES IN OUR KNOWLEDGE OF THE INFECTIOUS DISEASES

    PubMed Central

    Arkin, Aaron

    1916-01-01

    This paper has been prepared for the busy man who, while interested in infectious diseases, has not the time to follow up the literature on the subject constantly. Professor Arkin's contribution will also serve to refresh the memory of those who are actively engaged in health department work of all kinds. PMID:18009432

  15. Network Television Evening News Coverage of Infectious Disease Events.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenberg, Michael; Wartenberg, Daniel

    1990-01-01

    Examines coverage of several infectious diseases and teenage suicide to see whether television news favors covering illness where it clusters or when it occurs near major news centers where it is easier to cover. Finds that television news did go to where the illness broke out but tended to favor reporting urban over rural suicides. (RS)

  16. The Infectious Diseases Institute at Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda.

    PubMed

    Ronald, Allan; Kamya, Moses; Katabira, Elly; Scheld, W Michael; Sewankambo, Nelson

    2011-06-01

    The Infectious Diseases Institute (IDI) at Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda, was created in 2001. This article outlines its origins, principles, clinical programs, training activities, research programs, organizational structure, leadership, and contributions to Makerere University and its College of Health Sciences. PMID:21628052

  17. FYI: Services to Poor Families; Controlling Infectious Diseases; Parent Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Children Today, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Discusses services and resources available for families, parents, and child care providers. Describes a National Resource Center for Children in Poverty; a guide for controlling infectious diseases among young children in day care; a directory of parent support groups; and reports of a link between household pesticides and childhood leukemia. (BB)

  18. Biotechnology in the diagnosis of infectious diseases and vaccine development

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Molecular biological methods have become increasingly applicable to the diagnosis of infectious diseases and vaccine development. To become widely used the methods need to be easy, safe, sensitive, reproducible and eventually automated to facilitate the evaluation of large number of samples. The p...

  19. [Application of artificial neural networks in infectious diseases].

    PubMed

    Xu, Jun-fang; Zhou, Xiao-nong

    2011-02-28

    With the development of information technology, artificial neural networks has been applied to many research fields. Due to the special features such as nonlinearity, self-adaptation, and parallel processing, artificial neural networks are applied in medicine and biology. This review summarizes the application of artificial neural networks in the relative factors, prediction and diagnosis of infectious diseases in recent years. PMID:21823326

  20. Infectious Disease and the Public Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crosson, James E.

    The paper examines policy options for schools regarding appropriate services for children with highly communicable, potentially life threatening diseases such as Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) and Herpes. Briefly considered are the school's legal responsibility, implied risk and inability, and actual risk and its control. General…

  1. Carcinoma of the Cervix: An Infectious Disease

    PubMed Central

    Mackel, J.V.; Krikke, E.H.

    1989-01-01

    Investigation of the viral types of sexually transmitted diseases has disclosed that they not only produce local infections but may also cause profound pathological changes. The authors of this article review several types of sexually transmitted viral infections and make suggestions for their investigation and management. Further research and development in this area of medicine would be valuable. PMID:21248972

  2. Vector-borne infectious diseases and influenza

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a serious viral disease of animals and humans in Africa and the Middle East that is transmitted by mosquitoes. First isolated in Kenya during an outbreak in 1930 subsequent outbreaks have had a significant impact on animal and human health and national economies, and it is...

  3. Mortality in East African shorthorn zebu cattle under one year: predictors of infectious-disease mortality

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Infectious livestock diseases remain a major threat to attaining food security and are a source of economic and livelihood losses for people dependent on livestock for their livelihood. Knowledge of the vital infectious diseases that account for the majority of deaths is crucial in determining disease control strategies and in the allocation of limited funds available for disease control. Here we have estimated the mortality rates in zebu cattle raised in a smallholder mixed farming system during their first year of life, identified the periods of increased risk of death and the risk factors for calf mortality, and through analysis of post-mortem data, determined the aetiologies of calf mortality in this population. A longitudinal cohort study of 548 zebu cattle was conducted between 2007 and 2010. Each calf was followed during its first year of life or until lost from the study. Calves were randomly selected from 20 sub-locations and recruited within a week of birth from different farms over a 45 km radius area centered on Busia in the Western part of Kenya. The data comprised of 481.1 calf years of observation. Clinical examinations, sample collection and analysis were carried out at 5 week intervals, from birth until one year old. Cox proportional hazard models with frailty terms were used for the statistical analysis of risk factors. A standardized post-mortem examination was conducted on all animals that died during the study and appropriate samples collected. Results The all-cause mortality rate was estimated at 16.1 (13.0-19.2; 95% CI) per 100 calf years at risk. The Cox models identified high infection intensity with Theileria spp., the most lethal of which causes East Coast Fever disease, infection with Trypanosome spp., and helminth infections as measured by Strongyle spp. eggs per gram of faeces as the three important infections statistically associated with infectious disease mortality in these calves. Analysis of post-mortem data identified East Coast Fever as the main cause of death accounting for 40% of all deaths, haemonchosis 12% and heartwater disease 7%. Conclusion The findings demonstrate the impact of endemic parasitic diseases in indigenous animals expected to be well adapted against disease pressures. Additionally, agreement between results of Cox models using data from simple diagnostic procedures and results from post-mortem analysis underline the potential use such diagnostic data to reduce calf mortality. The control strategies for the identified infectious diseases have been discussed. PMID:24010500

  4. [International health organizations facing the emergence of new infectious diseases].

    PubMed

    Fantini, B

    1993-01-01

    Throughout history, international health collaboration gradually came into being to counteract the emergence of new diseases. This process went through five stages.: 1) Quarantine regulations were established for maritime commerce to safeguard public health. 2) Scientific data were studied to understand the causes of infectious diseases and their modes of transmission; a single solution to the problem was not sufficient because of the diversities of the various factors triggering these diseases. Furthermore, defensive and protective measures adopted in Europe were inadequate after the colonial expansion of European countries. 3) If 19th century international health politics were defensive, the aim in the 20th century was to fight infectious diseases and to eradicate them. This third phase saw the rise of international institutions. These agencies aimed at favouring better health organization in individual countries. 4) The World Health Organization was founded, the aim being to fight existing epidemics, little importance being given to 'emerging diseases'. 5) A series of new infectious diseases and the reemergence of old diseases (a consequence of major ecological changes) that were thought to be eradicated revealed the need for continuous surveillance. PMID:7824690

  5. Rapid non-invasive tests for diagnostics of infectious diseases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malamud, Daniel

    2014-06-01

    A rapid test for an infectious disease that can be used at point-of-care at a physician's office, a pharmacy, or in the field is critical for the prompt and appropriate therapeutic intervention. Ultimately by treating infections early on will decrease transmission of the pathogen. In contrast to metabolic diseases or cancer where multiple biomarkers are required, infectious disease targets (e.g. antigen, antibody, nucleic acid) are simple and specific for the pathogen causing the disease. Our laboratory has focused on three major infectious disease; HIV, Tuberculosis, and Malaria. These diseases are pandemic in much of the world thus putting natives, tourists and military personnel at risk for becoming infected, and upon returning to the U.S., transmitting these diseases to their contacts. Our devices are designed to detect antigens, antibodies or nucleic acids in blood or saliva samples in less than 30 minutes. An overview describing the current status of each of the three diagnostic platforms is presented. These microfluidic point-of-care devices will be relatively inexpensive, disposable, and user friendly.

  6. Structured information exchange on infectious diseases for prisoners.

    PubMed

    Flühmann, Paul; Wassmer, Max; Schwendimann, René

    2012-07-01

    Infectious diseases such as HIV/AIDS, hepatitis C, and sexually transmitted diseases are more prevalent in prisoners than in the general population. In Western European prisons, inmates have HIV infection rates 25 times higher and hepatitis C infection rates 40 times higher than their national averages. To inform prisoners about the dangers of these diseases, a structured information exchange was developed. In a pre-/post- design with repeated measurement, 21 male prisoners' knowledge of infectious diseases was analyzed. A significant improvement of knowledge (p < .0001) was observed. One striking finding was that knowledge of hepatitis C was clearly lower than that of HIV and that prisoners enrolled in drug substitution programs were significantly better informed about hepatitis C than the other participating prisoners. PMID:22569902

  7. The Microbiome in Infectious Disease and Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Honda, Kenya; Littman, Dan R.

    2015-01-01

    The mammalian alimentary tract harbors hundreds of species of commensal microorganisms (microbiota) that intimately interact with the host and provide it with genetic, metabolic, and immunological attributes. Recent reports have indicated that the microbiota composition and its collective genomes (microbiome) are major factors in predetermining the type and robustness of mucosal immune responses. In this review, we discuss the recent advances in our understanding of host-microbiota interactions and their effect on the health and disease susceptibility of the host. PMID:22224764

  8. Molecular diagnosis of infectious diseases using cytological specimens.

    PubMed

    Canberk, Sule; Longatto-Filho, Adhemar; Schmitt, Fernando

    2016-02-01

    Pathologists have an important role in the diagnosis of infectious disease (ID). In many cases, a definitive diagnosis can be made using cytopathology alone. However, several ancillary techniques can be used on cytological material to reach a specific diagnosis by identifying the causative agent and consequently defining the management of the patient. This review aims to present the effectiveness of the application of molecular studies on cytological material to diagnose IDs and discuss the advantages and disadvantages of the various molecular techniques according to the type of cytological specimen and the infectious agents. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2016;44:156-164. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26620694

  9. Time series regression model for infectious disease and weather.

    PubMed

    Imai, Chisato; Armstrong, Ben; Chalabi, Zaid; Mangtani, Punam; Hashizume, Masahiro

    2015-10-01

    Time series regression has been developed and long used to evaluate the short-term associations of air pollution and weather with mortality or morbidity of non-infectious diseases. The application of the regression approaches from this tradition to infectious diseases, however, is less well explored and raises some new issues. We discuss and present potential solutions for five issues often arising in such analyses: changes in immune population, strong autocorrelations, a wide range of plausible lag structures and association patterns, seasonality adjustments, and large overdispersion. The potential approaches are illustrated with datasets of cholera cases and rainfall from Bangladesh and influenza and temperature in Tokyo. Though this article focuses on the application of the traditional time series regression to infectious diseases and weather factors, we also briefly introduce alternative approaches, including mathematical modeling, wavelet analysis, and autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) models. Modifications proposed to standard time series regression practice include using sums of past cases as proxies for the immune population, and using the logarithm of lagged disease counts to control autocorrelation due to true contagion, both of which are motivated from "susceptible-infectious-recovered" (SIR) models. The complexity of lag structures and association patterns can often be informed by biological mechanisms and explored by using distributed lag non-linear models. For overdispersed models, alternative distribution models such as quasi-Poisson and negative binomial should be considered. Time series regression can be used to investigate dependence of infectious diseases on weather, but may need modifying to allow for features specific to this context. PMID:26188633

  10. Estimating the probability of an extinction or major outbreak for an environmentally transmitted infectious disease.

    PubMed

    Lahodny, G E; Gautam, R; Ivanek, R

    2015-01-01

    Indirect transmission through the environment, pathogen shedding by infectious hosts, replication of free-living pathogens within the environment, and environmental decontamination are suspected to play important roles in the spread and control of environmentally transmitted infectious diseases. To account for these factors, the classic Susceptible-Infectious-Recovered-Susceptible epidemic model is modified to include a compartment representing the amount of free-living pathogen within the environment. The model accounts for host demography, direct and indirect transmission, replication of free-living pathogens in the environment, and removal of free-living pathogens by natural death or environmental decontamination. Based on the assumptions of the deterministic model, a continuous-time Markov chain model is developed. An estimate for the probability of disease extinction or a major outbreak is obtained by approximating the Markov chain with a multitype branching process. Numerical simulations illustrate important differences between the deterministic and stochastic counterparts, relevant for outbreak prevention, that depend on indirect transmission, pathogen shedding by infectious hosts, replication of free-living pathogens, and environmental decontamination. The probability of a major outbreak is computed for salmonellosis in a herd of dairy cattle as well as cholera in a human population. An explicit expression for the probability of disease extinction or a major outbreak in terms of the model parameters is obtained for systems with no direct transmission or replication of free-living pathogens. PMID:25198247

  11. Managing an Infectious Disease Outbreak in a School. Lessons Learned from School Crises and Emergencies. Volume 2, Issue 3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Education, 2007

    2007-01-01

    "Lessons Learned" is a series of publications that are a brief recounting of actual school emergencies and crises. This "Lessons Learned" issue focuses on an infectious disease incident, which resulted in the death of a student, closure of area schools and the operation of an on-site school vaccine clinic. The report highlights the critical need…

  12. Oral manifestations of allergic, infectious, and immune-mediated disease.

    PubMed

    Cowan, Gregory M; Lockey, Richard F

    2014-01-01

    Patients often have oral symptoms, and physicians frequently identify lesions during routine oral examination. Being able to associate these concerns and findings with systemic disease is important to providing effective management of these conditions. This review summarizes the etiology, presentation, and treatment of many oral lesions associated with systemic diseases and infections. The primary focus was on lesions associated with allergic, infectious, and immune-mediated disease; however, other common concerns are addressed as well as lesions that may be misinterpreted as disease and how to address unknown lesions. PMID:25439358

  13. Infectious diseases of fishes in the Salish Sea

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hershberger, Paul; Rhodes, Linda; Kurath, Gael; Winton, James

    2013-01-01

    As in marine regions throughout other areas of the world, fishes in the Salish Sea serve as hosts for many pathogens, including nematodes, trematodes, protozoans, protists, bacteria, viruses, and crustaceans. Here, we review some of the better-documented infectious diseases that likely contribute to significant losses among free-ranging fishes in the Salish Sea and discuss the environmental and ecological factors that may affect the population-level impacts of disease. Demonstration of these diseases and their impacts to critical and endangered resources provides justification to expand pathogen surveillance efforts and to incorporate disease forecasting and mitigation tools into ecosystem restoration efforts.

  14. Why We Need Crowdsourced Data in Infectious Disease Surveillance

    PubMed Central

    Chunara, Rumi; Smolinski, Mark S.; Brownstein, John S.

    2013-01-01

    In infectious disease surveillance, public health data such as environmental, hospital, or census data have been extensively explored to create robust models of disease dynamics. However, this information is also subject to its own biases, including latency, high cost, contributor biases, and imprecise resolution. Simultaneously, new technologies, including Internet and mobile phone based tools, now enable information to be garnered directly from individuals at the point of care. Here, we consider how these crowdsourced data offer the opportunity to fill gaps in and augment current epidemiological models. Challenges and methods for overcoming limitations of the data are also reviewed. As more new information sources become mature, incorporating these novel data into epidemiological frameworks will enable us to learn more about infectious disease dynamics. PMID:23689991

  15. Mobile phone-based infectious disease surveillance system, Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Robertson, Colin; Sawford, Kate; Daniel, Samson L A; Nelson, Trisalyn A; Stephen, Craig

    2010-10-01

    Because many infectious diseases are emerging in animals in low-income and middle-income countries, surveillance of animal health in these areas may be needed for forecasting disease risks to humans. We present an overview of a mobile phone-based frontline surveillance system developed and implemented in Sri Lanka. Field veterinarians reported animal health information by using mobile phones. Submissions increased steadily over 9 months, with ?4,000 interactions between field veterinarians and reports on the animal population received by the system. Development of human resources and increased communication between local stakeholders (groups and persons whose actions are affected by emerging infectious diseases and animal health) were instrumental for successful implementation. The primary lesson learned was that mobile phone-based surveillance of animal populations is acceptable and feasible in lower-resource settings. However, any system implementation plan must consider the time needed to garner support for novel surveillance methods among users and stakeholders. PMID:20875276

  16. Airline operating realities and the global spread of infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Webster, Cliff H

    2010-07-01

    The advent of long-haul travel in the past 10 years has considerably reduced the time of potential disease spread from one side of the world to the other. The implication for travelers is that they may unwittingly be in the prodromal phase of influenza and become symptomatic a few days after travel. Alternatively they may knowingly travel with an infectious disease by masking symptoms. This article outlines the myths that have abounded about the cabin environment being "unclean" and discusses the low likelihood of in-flight transmission with effective air-conditioning and filtration systems. The 2009 H1N1 pandemic highlighted the operational challenges of dealing with infectious disease, including the need for accurate passenger information to allow contact tracing, in contrast to futile measures such as thermal scanners. Containment attempts did not stop the rapid global spread of H1N1 influenza. PMID:20566546

  17. An integrated assessment framework for climate change and infectious diseases.

    PubMed Central

    Chan, N Y; Ebi, K L; Smith, F; Wilson, T F; Smith, A E

    1999-01-01

    Many potential human health effects have been hypothesized to result either directly or indirectly from global climate change. Changes in the prevalence and spread of infectious diseases are some of the most widely cited potential effects of climate change, and could have significant consequences for human health as well as economic and societal impacts. These changes in disease incidence would be mediated through biologic, ecologic, sociologic, and epidemiologic processes that interact with each other and which may themselves be influenced by climate change. Although hypothesized infectious disease effects have been widely discussed, there have not yet been thorough quantitative studies addressing the many processes at work. In part this is because of the complexity of the many indirect and feedback interactions or mechanisms that bear on all aspects of the climate issue. It also results from the difficulty of including the multitude of always-changing determinants of these diseases. This paper proposes a framework for an integrated assessment of the impacts of climate change on infectious diseases. The framework allows identification of potentially important indirect interactions or mechanisms, identification of important research gaps, and a means of integrating targeted research from a variety of disciplines into an enhanced understanding of the whole system. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:10210687

  18. An integrated assessment framework for climate change and infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Chan, N Y; Ebi, K L; Smith, F; Wilson, T F; Smith, A E

    1999-05-01

    Many potential human health effects have been hypothesized to result either directly or indirectly from global climate change. Changes in the prevalence and spread of infectious diseases are some of the most widely cited potential effects of climate change, and could have significant consequences for human health as well as economic and societal impacts. These changes in disease incidence would be mediated through biologic, ecologic, sociologic, and epidemiologic processes that interact with each other and which may themselves be influenced by climate change. Although hypothesized infectious disease effects have been widely discussed, there have not yet been thorough quantitative studies addressing the many processes at work. In part this is because of the complexity of the many indirect and feedback interactions or mechanisms that bear on all aspects of the climate issue. It also results from the difficulty of including the multitude of always-changing determinants of these diseases. This paper proposes a framework for an integrated assessment of the impacts of climate change on infectious diseases. The framework allows identification of potentially important indirect interactions or mechanisms, identification of important research gaps, and a means of integrating targeted research from a variety of disciplines into an enhanced understanding of the whole system. PMID:10210687

  19. Ocular syphilis: an alarming infectious eye disease

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Jie; Feng, Liguo; Li, Yumin

    2015-01-01

    Background: To describe the clinical manifestations and ancillary examination outcomes of ocular syphilis in Southeast China. Materials and methods: This is a retrospective, nonrandom case study. Demographic information, serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) test results, and findings of fundus fluorescein angiography (FFA), indocyanine green angiography (ICGA), and spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) were analyzed. Results: The study examined 21 eyes of 13 patients (average age 50.3 ± 5.9 (range 37-61) years). HIV co-infection was found in one patient. The most common manifestation was chorioretinitis (52.4%). Disc hyperfluorescence (66.7%) and persistent dark spots (91.7%) were the most common findings on FFA and ICGA, respectively. The inner segment/outer segment junction (IS/OS) loss was the most frequent manifestation (86.7%). Among the six patients with confirmed neurosyphilis, the average CSF protein level was 528.8 ± 327.1 mg/L. Visual acuity (VA) was improved in 8 of 13 eyes (61.5%) after treatment. Conclusions: The manifestations of ocular syphilis can mimic any eye disease. Chorioretinitis was the most common finding in this case series. “Leopard spots” was the characteristic manifestation on FFA. IS/OS loss was the most common finding in patients with posterior uveitis on SD-OCT. Lumbar puncture can contribute to the diagnosis of neurosyphilis. Treatment for ocular syphilis was effective in these patients. PMID:26221328

  20. Infectious diseases of gastrointestinal tract in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Marsh, W W

    2000-06-01

    This article reviews the following gastrointestinal infections: esophagitis, gastritis, duodenitis including duodenal ulcers, and enteritis (gastroenteritis). The epidemiology, risk factors, microbiology and pathogenesis, diagnosis, treatment, morbidity/mortality, and prevention are discussed in relation to the most important pathogens. The symptoms and pathogenesis of esophagitis caused by Candida albicans and herpes simplex are contrasted with the symptoms of esophagitis caused by Helicobacter pylori and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). The incidence of gastritis and gastric and duodenal ulcers caused by H. pylori is discussed. The treatment regimens of H. pylori infection recommended by the CDC are presented. Endoscopic findings in esophagitis, gastritis, and duodenal ulcers are presented and discussed. The difference in symptoms caused by viral agents (Norwalk virus), bacterial agents (enterotoxigenic E. coli), and parasites (Giardia lamblia and Cryptosporidium parvum) are compared and contrasted. The symptoms of infections of the terminal small bowel caused by Salmonella and Campylobacter jejuni and the symptoms of pure colonic infection, dysentery, caused by Shigella and enteroinvasive E. coli and Entamoeba histolytica are discussed. The treatment regimens for enteritis are presented. PMID:10916124

  1. Long-term measles-induced immunomodulation increases overall childhood infectious disease mortality

    PubMed Central

    Mina, Michael J.; Metcalf, C. Jessica E.; de Swart, Rik L.; Osterhaus, A. D. M. E.; Grenfell, Bryan T.

    2016-01-01

    Immunosuppression after measles is known to predispose people to opportunistic infections for a period of several weeks to months. Using population-level data, we show that measles has a more prolonged effect on host resistance, extending over 2 to 3 years. We find that nonmeasles infectious disease mortality in high-income countries is tightly coupled to measles incidence at this lag, in both the pre- and post-vaccine eras. We conclude that long-term immunologic sequelae of measles drive interannual fluctuations in nonmeasles deaths. This is consistent with recent experimental work that attributes the immunosuppressive effects of measles to depletion of B and T lymphocytes. Our data provide an explanation for the long-term benefits of measles vaccination in preventing all-cause infectious disease. By preventing measles-associated immune memory loss, vaccination protects polymicrobial herd immunity. PMID:25954009

  2. The landscape genetics of infectious disease emergence and spread

    PubMed Central

    Biek, Roman; Real, Leslie A.

    2011-01-01

    The spread of parasites is inherently a spatial process often embedded in physically complex landscapes. It is therefore not surprising that infectious disease researchers are increasingly taking a landscape genetics perspective to elucidate mechanisms underlying basic ecological processes driving infectious disease dynamics and to understand the linkage between spatially-dependent population processes and the geographic distribution of genetic variation within both hosts and parasites. The increasing availability of genetic information on hosts and parasites when coupled to their ecological interactions can lead to insights for predicting patterns of disease emergence, spread, and control. Here, we review research progress in this area based on four different motivations for the application of landscape genetics approaches: (1) assessing the spatial organization of genetic variation in parasites as a function of environmental variability, (2) using host population genetic structure as a means to parameterize ecological dynamics that indirectly influence parasite populations, e.g. gene flow and movement pathways across heterogeneous landscapes and the concurrent transport of infectious agents, (3) elucidating the temporal and spatial scales of disease processes, and (4) reconstructing and understanding infectious disease invasion. Throughout this review, we emphasise that landscape genetic principles are relevant to infection dynamics across a range of scales from within host dynamics to global geographic patterns and that they can also be applied to unconventional landscapes such as heterogeneous contact networks underlying the spread of human and livestock diseases. We conclude by discussing some general considerations and problems for inferring epidemiological processes from genetic data and try to identify possible future directions and applications for this rapidly expanding field. PMID:20618897

  3. 77 FR 70791 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

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    2012-11-27

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  4. 78 FR 58322 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

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  6. 75 FR 26760 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

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  10. 77 FR 29676 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

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  11. 78 FR 40755 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

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  13. 75 FR 49502 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

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  14. 76 FR 55074 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

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  16. 77 FR 64816 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

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    2012-10-23

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  17. 77 FR 23488 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

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  1. 77 FR 12605 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

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    2012-03-01

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  2. 78 FR 60294 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

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  3. 78 FR 63997 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

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  5. What You Should Know about Infectious Diseases: A Guide for Hemodialysis Patients and Their Families

    MedlinePlus

    ... Us You are here Home » What You Should Know About Infectious Diseases: A Guide for Hemodialysis Patients ... illegal drugs. Other Infectious Diseases Dialysis Patients Should Know About MRSA (Methicillin‑Resistant Staphylococci) —Staph germs are ...

  6. 78 FR 21960 - National Institute of Allergy And Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

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  7. 78 FR 16516 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

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  8. 75 FR 76478 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Meetings

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  9. 75 FR 49942 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Meeting

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    2010-08-16

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  10. 75 FR 1068 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Meeting

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  11. 78 FR 45541 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Meeting

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  13. 78 FR 78982 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Meetings

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    2013-12-27

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  14. 77 FR 76058 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Meeting

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    2012-12-26

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  15. 77 FR 19677 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Meeting

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    2012-04-02

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  16. 76 FR 75888 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Meetings

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    2011-12-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases... Infectious Diseases Research, National Institutes of Health, HHS) Dated: November 29, 2011. Jennifer...

  17. The Seattle Structural Genomics Center for Infectious Disease (SSGCID)

    PubMed Central

    Myler, P.J.; Stacy, R.; Stewart, L.; Staker, B.L.; Van Voorhis, W.C.; Varani, G.; Buchko, G.W.

    2010-01-01

    The NIAID-funded Seattle Structural Genomics Center for Infectious Disease (SSGCID) is a consortium established to apply structural genomics approaches to potential drug targets from NIAID priority organisms for biodefense and emerging and re-emerging diseases. The mission of the SSGCID is to determine ~400 protein structures over five years ending in 2012. In order to maximize biomedical impact, ligand-based drug-lead discovery campaigns will be pursued for a small number of high-impact targets. Here we review the center’s target selection processes, which include pro-active engagement of the infectious disease research and drug therapy communities to identify drug targets, essential enzymes, virulence factors and vaccine candidates of biomedical relevance to combat infectious diseases. This is followed by a brief overview of the SSGCID structure determination pipeline and ligand screening methodology. Finally, specifics of our resources available to the scientific community are presented. Physical materials and data produced by SSGCID will be made available to the scientific community, with the aim that they will provide essential groundwork benefiting future research and drug discovery. PMID:19594426

  18. Myalgic encephalomyelitis, chronic fatigue syndrome: An infectious disease.

    PubMed

    Underhill, R A

    2015-12-01

    The etiology of myalgic encephalomyelitis also known as chronic fatigue syndrome or ME/CFS has not been established. Controversies exist over whether it is an organic disease or a psychological disorder and even the existence of ME/CFS as a disease entity is sometimes denied. Suggested causal hypotheses have included psychosomatic disorders, infectious agents, immune dysfunctions, autoimmunity, metabolic disturbances, toxins and inherited genetic factors. Clinical, immunological and epidemiological evidence supports the hypothesis that: ME/CFS is an infectious disease; the causal pathogen persists in patients; the pathogen can be transmitted by casual contact; host factors determine susceptibility to the illness; and there is a population of healthy carriers, who may be able to shed the pathogen. ME/CFS is endemic globally as sporadic cases and occasional cluster outbreaks (epidemics). Cluster outbreaks imply an infectious agent. An abrupt flu-like onset resembling an infectious illness occurs in outbreak patients and many sporadic patients. Immune responses in sporadic patients resemble immune responses in other infectious diseases. Contagion is shown by finding secondary cases in outbreaks, and suggested by a higher prevalence of ME/CFS in sporadic patients' genetically unrelated close contacts (spouses/partners) than the community. Abortive cases, sub-clinical cases, and carrier state individuals were found in outbreaks. The chronic phase of ME/CFS does not appear to be particularly infective. Some healthy patient-contacts show immune responses similar to patients' immune responses, suggesting exposure to the same antigen (a pathogen). The chronicity of symptoms and of immune system changes and the occurrence of secondary cases suggest persistence of a causal pathogen. Risk factors which predispose to developing ME/CFS are: a close family member with ME/CFS; inherited genetic factors; female gender; age; rest/activity; previous exposure to stress or toxins; various infectious diseases preceding the onset of ME/CFS; and occupational exposure of health care professionals. The hypothesis implies that ME/CFS patients should not donate blood or tissue and usual precautions should be taken when handling patients' blood and tissue. No known pathogen has been shown to cause ME/CFS. Confirmation of the hypothesis requires identification of a causal pathogen. Research should focus on a search for unknown and known pathogens. Finding a causal pathogen could assist with diagnosis; help find a biomarker; enable the development of anti-microbial treatments; suggest preventive measures; explain pathophysiological findings; and reassure patients about the validity of their symptoms. PMID:26604026

  19. Alzheimer's Disease: The Death of the Disease.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McBroom, Lynn W.

    1987-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease, a form of dementia in middle-age and older adults is becoming more evident because of growing numbers of older people and better diagnosis and detection methods. Describes the behavioral and physical symptoms of the disease as well as specific suggestions for care of patients with Alzheimer's disease, including dealing with…

  20. Model of two infectious diseases in nettle caterpillar population

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Firdausi, F. Z.; Nuraini, N.

    2016-04-01

    Palm oil is a vital commodity to the economy of Indonesia. The area of oil palm plantations in Indonesia has increased from year to year. However, the effectiveness of palm oil production is reduced by pest infestation. One of the pest which often infests oil palm plantations is nettle caterpillar. The pest control used in this study is biological control, viz. biological agents given to oil palm trees. This paper describes a mathematical model of two infectious diseases in nettle caterpillar population. The two infectious diseases arise due to two biological agents, namely Bacillus thuringiensis bacterium and parasite which usually attack nettle caterpillars. The derivation of the model constructed in this paper is obtained from ordinary differential equations without time delay. The equilibrium points are analyzed. Two of three equilibrium points are stable if the Routh-Hurwitz criteria are fulfilled. In addition, this paper also presents the numerical simulation of the model which has been constructed.

  1. Research and Development of New Vaccines Against Infectious Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Kieny, Marie Paule; Excler, Jean-Louis; Girard, Marc

    2004-01-01

    Infectious diseases are responsible for approximately 25% of global mortality, especially in children aged younger than 5 years. Much of the burden of infectious diseases could be alleviated if appropriate mechanisms could be put in place to ensure access for all children to basic vaccines, regardless of geographical location or economic status. In addition, new safe and effective vaccines should be developed for a variety of infections against which no effective preventive intervention measure is either available or practical. The public, private, and philanthropic sectors need to join forces to ensure that these new or improved vaccines are fully developed and become accessible to the populations in need as quickly as possible. PMID:15514230

  2. Bats, emerging infectious diseases, and the rabies paradigm revisited

    PubMed Central

    Kuzmin, Ivan V.; Bozick, Brooke; Guagliardo, Sarah A.; Kunkel, Rebekah; Shak, Joshua R.; Tong, Suxiang; Rupprecht, Charles E

    2011-01-01

    The significance of bats as sources of emerging infectious diseases has been increasingly appreciated, and new data have been accumulated rapidly during recent years. For some emerging pathogens the bat origin has been confirmed (such as lyssaviruses, henipaviruses, coronaviruses), for other it has been suggested (filoviruses). Several recently identified viruses remain to be ‘orphan’ but have a potential for further emergence (such as Tioman, Menangle, and Pulau viruses). In the present review we summarize information on major bat-associated emerging infections and discuss specific characteristics of bats as carriers of pathogens (from evolutionary, ecological, and immunological positions). We also discuss drivers and forces of an infectious disease emergence and describe various existing and potential approaches for control and prevention of such infections at individual, populational, and societal levels. PMID:24149032

  3. Cyclodextrin complexes for treatment improvement in infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Imperiale, Julieta C; Sosnik, Alejandro D

    2015-05-01

    Infectious diseases are a heterogeneous group of maladies that represent a serious burden to healthcare systems worldwide. Most of the available antimicrobial drugs display poor biopharmaceutical properties that compromise their effectiveness. Cyclodextrins (CDs) are cyclic oligosaccharides of glucopyranose formed by a variable number of repeating units that combine a hydrophilic surface with a hydrophobic cavity. The production of drug/CD complexes has become one of the most extensively investigated technology approaches to improve the stability, solubility, dissolution rate and bioavailability of drugs. The present work overviews the applications of CDs for the formulation of anti-infective agents along with the most relevant administration routes. Finally, an update on the complexes with CDs available on the market to treat infectious diseases is presented. PMID:26008196

  4. Molecular Methods and Platforms for Infectious Diseases Testing

    PubMed Central

    Emmadi, Rajyasree; Boonyaratanakornkit, Jerry B.; Selvarangan, Rangaraj; Shyamala, Venkatakrishna; Zimmer, Barbara L.; Williams, Laurina; Bryant, Bonita; Schutzbank, Ted; Schoonmaker, Michele M.; Amos Wilson, Jean A.; Hall, Leslie; Pancholi, Preeti; Bernard, Kathryn

    2011-01-01

    The superior sensitivity and specificity associated with the use of molecular assays has greatly improved the field of infectious disease diagnostics by providing clinicians with results that are both accurate and rapidly obtained. Herein, we review molecularly based infectious disease diagnostic tests that are Food and Drug Administration approved or cleared and commercially available in the United States as of December 31, 2010. We describe specific assays and their performance, as stated in the Food and Drug Administration's Summary of Safety and Effectiveness Data or the Office of In Vitro Diagnostic Device Evaluation and Safety's decision summaries, product inserts, or peer-reviewed literature. We summarize indications for testing, limitations, and challenges related to implementation in a clinical laboratory setting for a wide variety of common pathogens. The information presented in this review will be particularly useful for laboratories that plan to implement or expand their molecular offerings in the near term. PMID:21871973

  5. Infectious cause of death determination using minimally invasive autopsies in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Martínez, Miguel J; Massora, Sergio; Mandomando, Inácio; Ussene, Esperança; Jordao, Dercio; Lovane, Lucilia; Muñoz-Almagro, Carmen; Castillo, Paola; Mayor, Alfredo; Rodriguez, Cristina; Lopez-Villanueva, Miriam; Ismail, Mamudo R; Carrilho, Carla; Lorenzoni, Cesaltina; Lacerda, Marcus V G; Bassat, Quique; Menéndez, Clara; Ordi, Jaume; Vila, Jordi

    2016-01-01

    In developing countries, the knowledge of the microorganisms causing fatal infections is critical and could help designing and implementing more effective preventive interventions and treatment guidelines. We aimed to develop and validate protocols for microbiological analysis in post-mortem samples obtained during minimally invasive autopsy (MIA) procedures and to assess their performance. Thirty MIAs performed in adults at Maputo Central Hospital in Southern Mozambique were included in the analysis. Microbiological tests included a universal screening for HIV, hepatitis B and C viruses, Plasmodium falciparum, and bacterial/fungal culture. In addition, a variety of molecular microbiology assays guided by the histological results were performed in blood, cerebrospinal fluid and a variety of tissue samples including liver, lung and central nervous system. The combination of culture-based methods together with molecular microbiological assays led to the identification of 17 out of 19 (89.5%) of the infectious deaths. Microorganisms identified included Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Toxoplasma gondii, Pneumocystis jiroveci, Cryptococcus neoformans, hepatitis B virus, human herpesvirus 8, cytomegalovirus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Streptococcus dysgalactiae, Ryzopus oryzae, and Acinetobacter baumannii. The combination of classical cultures, serological tests and molecular assays performed in samples obtained through MIA allows the identification of most infectious agents causing death. PMID:26508103

  6. Pediatric infectious disease: unusual head and neck infections.

    PubMed

    Moffett, Kathryn S

    2012-08-01

    Infections in children in the head and neck regions are common, leading to frequent use and overuse of antibiotics. This review includes common as well as diverse and unusual infectious diseases, such as PFAPA (Periodic Fever Aphthous stomatitis, Pharyngitis, Adenitis) syndrome, Lemierre Syndrome, Arcanobacterium infection, and tuberculous and nontuberculous adenitis, which occur in infants, children, and adolescents. In addition, the first pediatric vaccines available with the potential to prevent oropharyngeal cancers are reviewed. PMID:22739434

  7. Infectious prion diseases in humans: cannibalism, iatrogenicity and zoonoses.

    PubMed

    Haïk, Stéphane; Brandel, Jean-Philippe

    2014-08-01

    In contrast with other neurodegenerative disorders associated to protein misfolding, human prion diseases include infectious forms (also called transmitted forms) such as kuru, iatrogenic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease and variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. The transmissible agent is thought to be solely composed of the abnormal isoform (PrP(Sc)) of the host-encoded prion protein that accumulated in the central nervous system of affected individuals. Compared to its normal counterpart, PrP(Sc) is β-sheet enriched and aggregated and its propagation is based on an autocatalytic conversion process. Increasing evidence supports the view that conformational variations of PrP(Sc) encoded the biological properties of the various prion strains that have been isolated by transmission studies in experimental models. Infectious forms of human prion diseases played a pivotal role in the emergence of the prion concept and in the characterization of the very unconventional properties of prions. They provide a unique model to understand how prion strains are selected and propagate in humans. Here, we review and discuss how genetic factors interplay with strain properties and route of transmission to influence disease susceptibility, incubation period and phenotypic expression in the light of the kuru epidemics due to ritual endocannibalism, the various series iatrogenic diseases secondary to extractive growth hormone treatment or dura mater graft and the epidemics of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease linked to dietary exposure to the agent of bovine spongiform encephalopathy. PMID:24956437

  8. Effects of Global Climate on Infectious Disease: the Cholera Model

    PubMed Central

    Lipp, Erin K.; Huq, Anwar; Colwell, Rita R.

    2002-01-01

    Recently, the role of the environment and climate in disease dynamics has become a subject of increasing interest to microbiologists, clinicians, epidemiologists, and ecologists. Much of the interest has been stimulated by the growing problems of antibiotic resistance among pathogens, emergence and/or reemergence of infectious diseases worldwide, the potential of bioterrorism, and the debate concerning climate change. Cholera, caused by Vibrio cholerae, lends itself to analyses of the role of climate in infectious disease, coupled to population dynamics of pathogenic microorganisms, for several reasons. First, the disease has a historical context linking it to specific seasons and biogeographical zones. In addition, the population dynamics of V. cholerae in the environment are strongly controlled by environmental factors, such as water temperature, salinity, and the presence of copepods, which are, in turn, controlled by larger-scale climate variability. In this review, the association between plankton and V. cholerae that has been documented over the last 20 years is discussed in support of the hypothesis that cholera shares properties of a vector-borne disease. In addition, a model for environmental transmission of cholera to humans in the context of climate variability is presented. The cholera model provides a template for future research on climate-sensitive diseases, allowing definition of critical parameters and offering a means of developing more sophisticated methods for prediction of disease outbreaks. PMID:12364378

  9. The Guinea Pig as a Model of Infectious Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Padilla-Carlin, Danielle J; McMurray, David N; Hickey, Anthony J

    2008-01-01

    The words ‘guinea pig’ are synonymous with scientific experimentation, but much less is known about this species than many other laboratory animals. This animal model has been used for approximately 200 y and was the first to be used in the study of infectious diseases such as tuberculosis and diphtheria. Today the guinea pig is used as a model for a number of infectious bacterial diseases, including pulmonary, sexually transmitted, ocular and aural, gastrointestinal, and other infections that threaten the lives of humans. Most studies on the immune response to these diseases, with potential therapies and vaccines, have been conducted in animal models (for example, mouse) that may have less similarity to humans because of the large number of immunologic reagents available for these other species. This review presents some of the diseases for which the guinea pig is regarded as the premier model to study infections because of its similarity to humans with regard to symptoms and immune response. Furthermore, for diseases in which guinea pigs share parallel pathogenesis of disease with humans, they are potentially the best animal model for designing treatments and vaccines. Future studies of immune regulation of these diseases, novel therapies, and preventative measures require the development of new immunologic reagents designed specifically for the guinea pig. PMID:18724774

  10. 77 FR 30020 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-21

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  11. 77 FR 23488 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

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  12. 75 FR 30046 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

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    2010-05-28

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  13. 75 FR 62553 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

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  17. 76 FR 41806 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

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  19. 75 FR 1119 - Agency Information Collection (Survey of Appropriate and Timely Diagnosis of Infectious Diseases...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

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    ... AFFAIRS Agency Information Collection (Survey of Appropriate and Timely Diagnosis of Infectious Diseases... Timely Diagnosis of Infectious Diseases (Leishmaniasis), VA Form 10-0476. b. Survey of Appropriate and Timely Diagnosis of Infectious Diseases (Malaria), VA Form 10-0476a. OMB Control Number: 2900-New...

  20. 76 FR 35224 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

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  1. Children's Participation in a Virtual Epidemic in the Science Classroom: Making Connections to Natural Infectious Diseases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neulight, Nina; Kafai, Yasmin B.; Kao, Linda; Foley, Brian; Galas, Cathleen

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated students' understanding of a virtual infectious disease in relation to their understanding of natural infectious diseases. Two sixth-grade classrooms of students between the ages of 10 and 12 (46 students) took part in a participatory simulation of a virtual infectious disease, which was integrated into their science…

  2. 75 FR 48973 - Board of Scientific Counselors, Coordinating Center for Infectious Diseases: Notice of Charter...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-12

    ... Center for Infectious Diseases: Notice of Charter Amendment This gives notice under the Federal Advisory... Center for Infectious Diseases, Department of Health and Human Services, has amended their charter to... Counselors, Office of Infectious Diseases, CDC, 1600 Clifton Road, NE., Mailstop D10, Atlanta, Georgia...

  3. 78 FR 70065 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

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    2013-11-22

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  4. 75 FR 16816 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

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  5. 77 FR 58851 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

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    2012-09-24

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  14. 77 FR 76296 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Meetings

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    2012-12-27

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases.... App.), notice is hereby given of meetings of the National Advisory Allergy and Infectious Diseases... and Infectious Diseases Council. Date: February 4, 2013. Open: 10:30 a.m. to 11:40 a.m. Agenda:...

  15. Design and Evaluation of a Bacterial Clinical Infectious Diseases Ontology

    PubMed Central

    Gordon, Claire L.; Pouch, Stephanie; Cowell, Lindsay G.; Boland, Mary Regina; Platt, Heather L.; Goldfain, Albert; Weng, Chunhua

    2013-01-01

    With antimicrobial resistance increasing worldwide, there is a great need to use automated antimicrobial decision support systems (ADSSs) to lower antimicrobial resistance rates by promoting appropriate antimicrobial use. However, they are infrequently used mostly because of their poor interoperability with different health information technologies. Ontologies can augment portable ADSSs by providing an explicit knowledge representation for biomedical entities and their relationships, helping to standardize and integrate heterogeneous data resources. We developed a bacterial clinical infectious diseases ontology (BCIDO) using Protégé-OWL. BCIDO defines a controlled terminology for clinical infectious diseases along with domain knowledge commonly used in hospital settings for clinical infectious disease treatment decision-making. BCIDO has 599 classes and 2355 object properties. Terms were imported from or mapped to Systematized Nomenclature of Medicine, Unified Medical Language System, RxNorm and National Center for Bitechnology Information Organismal Classification where possible. Domain expert evaluation using the “laddering” technique, ontology visualization, and clinical notes and scenarios, confirmed the correctness and potential usefulness of BCIDO. PMID:24551353

  16. A qualitative study of infectious diseases fellowships in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Doi, Asako

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this research is to elucidate the actual status of Infectious Diseases (ID) Fellowship programs in Japan to improve them further. Methods We conducted qualitative interviews with infectious diseases fellows and his/her faculty consultants from 10 institutions providing ID Fellowships in Japan. We qualitatively analysed the data to delineate the actual status of each program and the fellowship program policies overall, and to identify measures for further improvement. Results The interviews revealed that there are largely two kinds of ID fellowships; ID programs entirely devoting full time to infectious diseases, and programs that are subordinate concepts of other subspecialties, where only a portion of hours were devoted to ID. Some institutions did not even have an ID department. Time spent by the faculty consultants on fellows also varied among programs. The desire for improvement also varied among interviewees; some being happy with the current system while others demanded radical reform. Conclusions Even though there are many ID fellowship programs in Japan, the content, quality, and concepts apparently vary among programs. The perceptions by interviewees on the educational system differed, depending on the standpoints they have on ID physicians. There probably needs to be a coherency in the provision of ID fellowship programs so that fellows acquire competency in the subspecialty with sufficient expertise to act as independent ID specialists. Further studies are necessary for the improvement of ID subspecialty training in Japan.  PMID:26896873

  17. Infectious Disease Management through Point-of-Care Personalized Medicine Molecular Diagnostic Technologies

    PubMed Central

    Bissonnette, Luc; Bergeron, Michel G.

    2012-01-01

    Infectious disease management essentially consists in identifying the microbial cause(s) of an infection, initiating if necessary antimicrobial therapy against microbes, and controlling host reactions to infection. In clinical microbiology, the turnaround time of the diagnostic cycle (>24 hours) often leads to unnecessary suffering and deaths; approaches to relieve this burden include rapid diagnostic procedures and more efficient transmission or interpretation of molecular microbiology results. Although rapid nucleic acid-based diagnostic testing has demonstrated that it can impact on the transmission of hospital-acquired infections, we believe that such life-saving procedures should be performed closer to the patient, in dedicated 24/7 laboratories of healthcare institutions, or ideally at point of care. While personalized medicine generally aims at interrogating the genomic information of a patient, drug metabolism polymorphisms, for example, to guide drug choice and dosage, personalized medicine concepts are applicable in infectious diseases for the (rapid) identification of a disease-causing microbe and determination of its antimicrobial resistance profile, to guide an appropriate antimicrobial treatment for the proper management of the patient. The implementation of point-of-care testing for infectious diseases will require acceptance by medical authorities, new technological and communication platforms, as well as reimbursement practices such that time- and life-saving procedures become available to the largest number of patients. PMID:25562799

  18. Host-directed therapies for infectious diseases: current status, recent progress, and future prospects.

    PubMed

    Zumla, Alimuddin; Rao, Martin; Wallis, Robert S; Kaufmann, Stefan H E; Rustomjee, Roxana; Mwaba, Peter; Vilaplana, Cris; Yeboah-Manu, Dorothy; Chakaya, Jeremiah; Ippolito, Giuseppe; Azhar, Esam; Hoelscher, Michael; Maeurer, Markus

    2016-04-01

    Despite extensive global efforts in the fight against killer infectious diseases, they still cause one in four deaths worldwide and are important causes of long-term functional disability arising from tissue damage. The continuing epidemics of tuberculosis, HIV, malaria, and influenza, and the emergence of novel zoonotic pathogens represent major clinical management challenges worldwide. Newer approaches to improving treatment outcomes are needed to reduce the high morbidity and mortality caused by infectious diseases. Recent insights into pathogen-host interactions, pathogenesis, inflammatory pathways, and the host's innate and acquired immune responses are leading to identification and development of a wide range of host-directed therapies with different mechanisms of action. Host-directed therapeutic strategies are now becoming viable adjuncts to standard antimicrobial treatment. Host-directed therapies include commonly used drugs for non-communicable diseases with good safety profiles, immunomodulatory agents, biologics (eg monoclonal antibodies), nutritional products, and cellular therapy using the patient's own immune or bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells. We discuss clinically relevant examples of progress in identifying host-directed therapies as adjunct treatment options for bacterial, viral, and parasitic infectious diseases. PMID:27036359

  19. Infectious diseases, non-zero-sum thinking, and the developing world.

    PubMed

    Folch, Erik; Hernandez, Isabel; Barragan, Maribel; Franco-Paredes, Carlos

    2003-08-01

    Despite some improvements in the health status of the world during the last few decades, major obstacles remain. Improvements in health outcomes have not been shared equally among countries and poverty is clearly the main reason. Infectious diseases, which remain the major cause of death worldwide, are an incalculable source of human misery and economic loss. In fact, 25% of all deaths and 30% of the global burden of disease are attributed to infectious diseases. Unfortunately, more than 95% of these deaths, most of which are preventable, occur in the developing world, where poverty is widespread. The 3 major infectious disease killers in these countries are HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, and malaria. The principles of social justice and health as a human right in the developing world have been advocated as the main justification for health assistance from rich to poor countries. Although we do not disagree with this, we argue that a strategy that emphasizes the shared benefit to rich and poor countries would facilitate this process. We propose that the accomplishment of these challenging tasks should be viewed from the perspective of game theory, where the interests of the parties (in this case rich and poor countries) overlap. As the world becomes increasingly integrated, economic development in resource-poor countries will increase the opportunities for richer countries to profit from investment in the developing world. Global health has political and international security implications for the developed world, as well. In view of the current health status of the developing world, we are not playing a game but facing a matter of life and death. "When health is absent, wisdom cannot reveal itself, art cannot become manifest, strength cannot fight, wealth becomes useless, and intelligence cannot be applied" --Herophilus, 325 BCE (Physician to Alexander the Great). The purpose of this article is to address the relationship between health, poverty, and development in the context of game theory. We will focus on the link between economic inequalities and health outcomes, exclusively concentrating our analysis on the impact of infectious diseases. Subsequently, we will outline the game, the players, and the potential win-win outcomes that may potentially result. PMID:12920437

  20. Crucial and Diverse Role of the Interleukin-33/ST2 Axis in Infectious Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Rostan, Octavie; Arshad, Muhammad Imran; Piquet-Pellorce, Claire; Robert-Gangneux, Florence; Gangneux, Jean-Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Interleukin-33 (IL-33) has now emerged as a cytokine with diverse and pleiotropic functions in various infectious and inflammatory diseases. IL-33 is expressed by epithelial cells, endothelial cells, fibroblasts, and hepatocytes. The target cells of IL-33 are Th2 cells, basophils, dendritic cells, mast cells, macrophages, NKT cells, and nuocytes, newly discovered natural helper cells/innate lymphoid cells bearing the ST2 receptor. IL-33 has dual functions, both as a traditional cytokine and as a nuclear factor that regulates gene transcription. IL-33 functions as an “alarmin” released following cell death, as a biomarker, and as a vaccine adjuvant, with proinflammatory and protective effects during various infections. The exacerbated or protective role of the IL-33/ST2 axis during different infections is dependent upon the organ involved, type of infectious agent, whether the infection is acute or chronic, the invasiveness of the infectious agent, the host immune compartment, and cellular and cytokine microenvironments. In this review, we focus on recent advances in the understanding of the role of the IL-33/ST2 axis in various viral, bacterial, fungal, helminth, and protozoal infectious diseases gained from animal models and studies in human patients. The functional role of IL-33 and ST2 during experimentally induced infections has been summarized by accumulating the data for IL-33- and ST2-deficient mice or for mice exogenously administered IL-33. In summary, exploring the crucial and diverse roles of the IL-33/ST2 axis during infections may help in the development of therapeutic interventions for a wide range of infectious diseases. PMID:25712928

  1. Guidelines to implement medical examiner/coroner-based surveillance for fatal infectious diseases and bioterrorism ("Med-X").

    PubMed

    Nolte, Kurt B; Fischer, Marc; Reagan, Sarah; Lynfield, Ruth

    2010-12-01

    Medical examiners and coroners investigate deaths that are sudden, unexplained, and violent. Oftentimes these deaths are a consequence of infections, many of which have public health consequences. Additionally, because deaths from bioterrorism are homicides, they fall under the jurisdiction of medical examiners and coroners. Surveillance for infectious disease-related deaths can enhance the opportunities to recognize these deaths. Beginning in 2000, the New Mexico Office of the Medical Investigator developed and tested a medical examiner surveillance model for bioterrorism and infectious disease mortality ("Med-X") using a set of symptoms to determine which cases should receive an autopsy and a set of pathology-based syndromes for early reporting of cases to public health authorities. This model demonstrated that many of the symptoms had a high predictive value for infections and were useful criteria for autopsy performance. The causative organism was identified for 81% of infections of which 58% were notifiable conditions by public health standards. Uniform criteria for performing autopsies and reporting cases to public health authorities enhance surveillance for notifiable infectious diseases and increase the probability of recognizing fatalities related to bioterrorism. We have developed guidelines for medical examiners, coroners and their public health partners to use in implementing Med-X surveillance in their jurisdictions. These guidelines encompass definitions of symptoms and syndromes, specimen collection and storage procedures, laboratory diagnostic approaches, and processes for case flow, case reporting, and data collection. We also suggest resources for autopsy biosafety information and funding. PMID:20683243

  2. Systems biology of infectious diseases: a focus on fungal infections.

    PubMed

    Santamara, Rodrigo; Rizzetto, Lisa; Bromley, Michael; Zelante, Teresa; Lee, Wanseon; Cavalieri, Duccio; Romani, Luigina; Miller, Brian; Gut, Ivo; Santos, Manuel; Pierre, Philippe; Bowyer, Paul; Kapushesky, Misha

    2011-11-01

    The study of infectious disease concerns the interaction between the host species and a pathogen organism. The analysis of such complex systems is improving with the evolution of high-throughput technologies and advanced computational resources. This article reviews integrative, systems-oriented approaches to understanding mechanisms underlying infection, immune response and inflammation to find biomarkers of disease and design new drugs. We focus on the systems biology process, especially the data gathering and analysis techniques rather than the experimental technologies or latest computational resources. PMID:21889228

  3. Immunotherapy for Infectious Diseases: Past, Present, and Future.

    PubMed

    Manohar, Akshay; Ahuja, Jasmine; Crane, John K

    2015-11-01

    Passive immunotherapy for established infections, as opposed to active immunization to prevent disease, remains a tiny niche in the world of antimicrobial therapies. Many of the passive immunotherapies currently available are directed against bacterial toxins, such as botulism, or are intended for agents of bioterrorism such as anthrax, which fortunately has remained rare. The emergence of Ebola virus and multi-drug resistant pathogens, however, may breathe new life into the immunotherapy field as researchers seek non-antibiotic interventions for infectious diseases. PMID:26575462

  4. Infectious diseases of animals and plants: an interdisciplinary approach

    PubMed Central

    Wilkinson, Katy; Grant, Wyn P.; Green, Laura E.; Hunter, Stephen; Jeger, Michael J.; Lowe, Philip; Medley, Graham F.; Mills, Peter; Phillipson, Jeremy; Poppy, Guy M.; Waage, Jeff

    2011-01-01

    Animal and plant diseases pose a serious and continuing threat to food security, food safety, national economies, biodiversity and the rural environment. New challenges, including climate change, regulatory developments, changes in the geographical concentration and size of livestock holdings, and increasing trade make this an appropriate time to assess the state of knowledge about the impact that diseases have and the ways in which they are managed and controlled. In this paper, the case is explored for an interdisciplinary approach to studying the management of infectious animal and plant diseases. Reframing the key issues through incorporating both social and natural science research can provide a holistic understanding of disease and increase the policy relevance and impact of research. Finally, in setting out the papers in this Theme Issue, a picture of current and future animal and plant disease threats is presented. PMID:21624914

  5. Infectious diseases of animals and plants: an interdisciplinary approach.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, Katy; Grant, Wyn P; Green, Laura E; Hunter, Stephen; Jeger, Michael J; Lowe, Philip; Medley, Graham F; Mills, Peter; Phillipson, Jeremy; Poppy, Guy M; Waage, Jeff

    2011-07-12

    Animal and plant diseases pose a serious and continuing threat to food security, food safety, national economies, biodiversity and the rural environment. New challenges, including climate change, regulatory developments, changes in the geographical concentration and size of livestock holdings, and increasing trade make this an appropriate time to assess the state of knowledge about the impact that diseases have and the ways in which they are managed and controlled. In this paper, the case is explored for an interdisciplinary approach to studying the management of infectious animal and plant diseases. Reframing the key issues through incorporating both social and natural science research can provide a holistic understanding of disease and increase the policy relevance and impact of research. Finally, in setting out the papers in this Theme Issue, a picture of current and future animal and plant disease threats is presented. PMID:21624914

  6. Iron and its relation to immunity and infectious disease.

    PubMed

    Oppenheimer, S J

    2001-02-01

    The continuing unresolved debate over the interaction of iron and infection indicates a need for quantitative review of clinical morbidity outcomes. Iron deficiency is associated with reversible abnormalities of immune function, but it is difficult to demonstrate the severity and relevance of these in observational studies. Iron treatment has been associated with acute exacerbations of infection, in particular, malaria. Oral iron has been associated with increased rates of clinical malaria (5 of 9 studies) and increased morbidity from other infectious disease (4 of 8 studies). In most instances, therapeutic doses of oral iron were used. No studies in malarial regions showed benefits. Knowledge of local prevalence of causes of anemia including iron deficiency, seasonal malarial endemicity, protective hemoglobinopathies and age-specific immunity is essential in planning interventions. A balance must be struck in dose of oral iron and the timing of intervention with respect to age and malaria transmission. Antimalarial intervention is important. No studies of oral iron supplementation clearly show deleterious effects in nonmalarious areas. Milk fortification reduced morbidity due to respiratory disease in two very early studies in nonmalarious regions, but this was not confirmed in three later fortification studies, and better morbidity rates could be achieved by breast-feeding alone. One study in a nonmalarious area of Indonesia showed reduced infectious outcome after oral iron supplementation of anemic schoolchildren. No systematic studies report oral iron supplementation and infectious morbidity in breast-fed infants in nonmalarious regions. PMID:11160594

  7. Nanoneuromedicines for degenerative, inflammatory, and infectious nervous system diseases.

    PubMed

    Gendelman, Howard E; Anantharam, Vellareddy; Bronich, Tatiana; Ghaisas, Shivani; Jin, Huajun; Kanthasamy, Anumantha G; Liu, Xinming; McMillan, JoEllyn; Mosley, R Lee; Narasimhan, Balaji; Mallapragada, Surya K

    2015-04-01

    Interest in nanoneuromedicine has grown rapidly due to the immediate need for improved biomarkers and therapies for psychiatric, developmental, traumatic, inflammatory, infectious and degenerative nervous system disorders. These, in whole or in part, are a significant societal burden due to growth in numbers of affected people and in disease severity. Lost productivity of the patient and his or her caregiver, and the emotional and financial burden cannot be overstated. The need for improved health care, treatment and diagnostics is immediate. A means to such an end is nanotechnology. Indeed, recent developments of health-care enabling nanotechnologies and nanomedicines range from biomarker discovery including neuroimaging to therapeutic applications for degenerative, inflammatory and infectious disorders of the nervous system. This review focuses on the current and future potential of the field to positively affect clinical outcomes. From the clinical editor: Many nervous system disorders remain unresolved clinical problems. In many cases, drug agents simply cannot cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB) into the nervous system. The advent of nanomedicines can enhance the delivery of biologically active molecules for targeted therapy and imaging. This review focused on the use of nanotechnology for degenerative, inflammatory, and infectious diseases in the nervous system. PMID:25645958

  8. MBL-associated serine proteases (MASPs) and infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Beltrame, Marcia H; Boldt, Angelica B W; Catarino, Sandra J; Mendes, Hellen C; Boschmann, Stefanie E; Goeldner, Isabela; Messias-Reason, Iara

    2015-09-01

    The lectin pathway of the complement system has a pivotal role in the defense against infectious organisms. After binding of mannan-binding lectin (MBL), ficolins or collectin 11 to carbohydrates or acetylated residues on pathogen surfaces, dimers of MBL-associated serine proteases 1 and 2 (MASP-1 and MASP-2) activate a proteolytic cascade, which culminates in the formation of the membrane attack complex and pathogen lysis. Alternative splicing of the pre-mRNA encoding MASP-1 results in two other products, MASP-3 and MAp44, which regulate activation of the cascade. A similar mechanism allows the gene encoding MASP-2 to produce the truncated MAp19 protein. Polymorphisms in MASP1 and MASP2 genes are associated with protein serum levels and functional activity. Since the first report of a MASP deficiency in 2003, deficiencies in lectin pathway proteins have been associated with recurrent infections and several polymorphisms were associated with the susceptibility or protection to infectious diseases. In this review, we summarize the findings on the role of MASP polymorphisms and serum levels in bacterial, viral and protozoan infectious diseases. PMID:25862418

  9. Spontaneous Generation of Infectious Prion Disease in Transgenic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Castilla, Joaquín; Pintado, Belén; Gutiérrez-Adan, Alfonso; Andréoletti, Olivier; Aguilar-Calvo, Patricia; Arroba, Ana-Isabel; Parra-Arrondo, Beatriz; Ferrer, Isidro; Manzanares, Jorge; Espinosa, Juan-Carlos

    2013-01-01

    We generated transgenic mice expressing bovine cellular prion protein (PrPC) with a leucine substitution at codon 113 (113L). This protein is homologous to human protein with mutation 102L, and its genetic link with Gerstmann–Sträussler–Scheinker syndrome has been established. This mutation in bovine PrPC causes a fully penetrant, lethal, spongiform encephalopathy. This genetic disease was transmitted by intracerebral inoculation of brain homogenate from ill mice expressing mutant bovine PrP to mice expressing wild-type bovine PrP, which indicated de novo generation of infectious prions. Our findings demonstrate that a single amino acid change in the PrPC sequence can induce spontaneous generation of an infectious prion disease that differs from all others identified in hosts expressing the same PrPC sequence. These observations support the view that a variety of infectious prion strains might spontaneously emerge in hosts displaying random genetic PrPC mutations. PMID:24274622

  10. Analysis of host- and strain-dependent cell death responses during infectious salmon anemia virus infection in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Schiøtz, Berit L; Bækkevold, Espen S; Poulsen, Lene C; Mjaaland, Siri; Gjøen, Tor

    2009-01-01

    Background Infectious salmon anemia virus (ISAV) is an aquatic orthomyxovirus and the causative agent of infectious salmon anemia (ISA), a disease of great importance in the Atlantic salmon farming industry. In vitro, ISAV infection causes cytophatic effect (CPE) in cell lines from Atlantic salmon, leading to rounding and finally detachment of the cells from the substratum. In this study, we investigated the mode of cell death during in vitro ISAV infection in different Atlantic salmon cell lines, using four ISAV strains causing different mortality in vivo. Results The results show that caspase 3/7 activity increased during the course of infection in ASK and SHK-1 cells, infected cells showed increased surface expression of phosphatidylserine and increased PI uptake, compared to mock infected cells; and morphological alterations of the mitochondria were observed. Expression analysis of immune relevant genes revealed no correlation between in vivo mortality and expression, but good correlation in expression of interferon genes. Conclusion Results from this study indicate that there is both strain and cell type dependent differences in the virus-host interaction during ISAV infection. This is important to bear in mind when extrapolating in vitro findings to the in vivo situation. PMID:19566966

  11. Emerging infectious diseases in the United States, 1993.

    PubMed

    Berkelman, R L

    1994-08-01

    Three outbreaks of disease in the United States in 1993 caused by Escherichia coli O157:H7, Cryptosporidium organisms, and a previously unrecognized hantavirus clearly illustrate the increasing challenges posed by emerging infectious diseases. The largest US outbreak of E. coli O157:H7 infection reported occurred as a result of contaminated hamburgers served at a fast-food restaurant chain. The largest recorded waterborne disease outbreak in US history was due to contamination of a municipal water supply with cryptosporidia. In the southwestern United States, hantavirus was first recognized as the cause of a pulmonary syndrome with a mortality rate exceeding 50%. The detection of and response to these outbreaks document the need for a strong partnership between the clinical and public health sectors to prevent and control diseases. Health care reform in the United States provides an opportunity to address critical needs, such as improved surveillance and diagnosis, to ensure timely detection of and rapid response to newly emerging infectious diseases. PMID:8035009

  12. Transmission Heterogeneity and Control Strategies for Infectious Disease Emergence

    PubMed Central

    Bolzoni, Luca; Real, Leslie; De Leo, Giulio

    2007-01-01

    Background The control of emergence and spread of infectious diseases depends critically on the details of the genetic makeup of pathogens and hosts, their immunological, behavioral and ecological traits, and the pattern of temporal and spatial contacts among the age/stage-classes of susceptible and infectious host individuals. Methods and Findings We show that failing to acknowledge the existence of heterogeneities in the transmission rate among age/stage-classes can make traditional eradication and control strategies ineffective, and in some cases, policies aimed at controlling pathogen emergence can even increase disease incidence in the host. When control strategies target for reduction in numbers those subsets of the population that effectively limit the production of new susceptible individuals, then control can produce a flush of new susceptibles entering the population. The availability of a new cohort of susceptibles may actually increase disease incidence. We illustrate these general points using Classical Swine Fever as a reference disease. Conclusion Negative effects of culling are robust to alternative formulations of epidemiological processes and underline the importance of better assessing transmission structure in the design of wildlife disease control strategies. PMID:17712403

  13. Nanoneuromedicines for Degenerative, Inflammatory, and Infectious Nervous System Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Gendelman, Howard E.; Anantharam, Vellareddy; Bronich, Tatiana; Ghaisas, Shivani; Jin, Huajun; Kanthasamy, Anumantha G.; Liu, Xinming; McMillan, JoEllyn; Mosley, R. Lee; Narasimhan, Balaji; Mallapragada, Surya K.

    2015-01-01

    Interest in nanoneuromedicine has grown rapidly due to the immediate need for improved biomarkers and therapies for psychiatric, developmental, traumatic, inflammatory, infectious and degenerative nervous system disorders. These, in whole or in part, are a significant societal burden due to growth in numbers of affected people and in disease severity. Lost productivity of the patient and his or her caregiver, and the emotional and financial burden cannot be overstated. The need for improved health care, treatment and diagnostics are immediate. A means to such an end is nanotechnology. Indeed, recent developments of health-care enabling nanotechnologies and nanomedicines range from biomarker discovery including neuroimaging to therapeutic applications for degenerative, inflammatory and infectious disorders of the nervous system. This review focuses on the current and future potential of the field to positively affect clinical outcomes. PMID:25645958

  14. Ramadan fasting and infectious diseases: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Bragazzi, Nicola Luigi; Briki, Walid; Khabbache, Hicham; Rammouz, Ismail; Mnadla, Sofiane; Demaj, Taned; Zouhir, Mohamed

    2015-11-01

    Ramadan represents the fourth of the five pillars of the Islamic creed. Although patients are exempted from observing this duty, they may be eager to share this moment of the year with their peers. However, there are no guidelines that can help physicians to address the concerns of patients with infectious diseases fasting during Ramadan. For this purpose, we performed a systematic review. of 51 articles. Our main findings are that: 1) patients suffering from diabetes at risk of developing infectious complications should not fast; 2) Ramadan fasting has little impact on diarrheal patients; 3) HIV represents a challenge, and ad hoc drug combinations should be recommended to patients, and the patients should be advised not to take fatty meals that could interfere with the treatment; 4) Ramadan has no effect on the effectiveness of anti-helminthic therapy; and 5) patients with active ulcers should not fast, as they have a higher probability of developing complications. PMID:26623627

  15. Biodegradable polymeric microsphere-based vaccines and their applications in infectious diseases

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Chi-Ying; Lin, Shih-Jie; Yang, Yi-Chen; Wang, Der-Yuan; Cheng, Hwei-Fang; Yeh, Ming-Kung

    2015-01-01

    Vaccination, which provides effective, safe infectious disease protection, is among the most important recent public health and immunological achievements. However, infectious disease remains the leading cause of death in developing countries because several vaccines require repeated administrations and children are often incompletely immunized. Microsphere-based systems, providing controlled release delivery, can obviate the need for repeat immunizations. Here, we review the function of sustained and pulsatile release of biodegradable polymeric microspheres in parenteral and mucosal single-dose vaccine administration. We also review the active-targeting function of polymeric particles. With their shield and co-delivery functions, polymeric particles are applied to develop single-dose and mucosally administered vaccines as well as to improve subunit vaccines. Because polymeric particles are easily surface-modified, they have been recently used in vaccine development for cancers and many infectious diseases without effective vaccines (e.g., human immunodeficiency virus infection). These polymeric particle functions yield important vaccine carriers and multiple benefits. PMID:25839217

  16. Gene expression profiling in autoimmune non-infectious uveitis disease

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhuqing; Liu, Baoying; Arvydas, Maminishkis; Mahesh, Sankaranarayana P.; Yeh, Steven; Lew, Julie; Lim, Wee Kiak; Sen, H. Nida; Clarke, Grace; Buggage, Ronald; Miller, Sheldon S.; Nussenblatt., Robert B.

    2008-01-01

    Non-infectious uveitis is a predominantly T cell mediated autoimmune, intraocular inflammatory disease. To characterize the gene expression profile from patients with non-infectious uveitis, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were isolated from 50 patients with clinically characterized non-infectious uveitis syndrome. A pathway-specific cDNA microarray was used for gene expression profiling and real time PCR array for further confirmation. Sixty-seven inflammation and autoimmune associated genes were found differentially expressed in uveitis patients with twenty-eight of those genes being validated by real-time PCR. Several genes previously unknown for autoimmune uveitis, including IL-22, IL-19, IL-20 and IL-25/IL-17E, were found to be highly expressed among uveitis patients compared to the normal subjects with IL-22 expression highly variable among the patients. Furthermore, we show that IL-22 can affect primary human retinal pigment epithelial cells by decreasing total tissue resistance and inducing apoptosis possibly by decreasing phospho-Bad level. In addition, the microarray data identified a possible uveitis-associated gene expression pattern, showed distinct gene expression profiles in patients during periods of clinical activity and quiescence, and demonstrated similar expression patterns in related patients with similar clinical phenotypes. Our data provides the first evidence that a sub-set of IL-10 family genes are implicated in non-infectious uveitis and that IL-22 can affect human retinal pigment epithelial cells. The results may facilitate further understanding of the molecular mechanisms of autoimmune uveitis and other autoimmune originated inflammatory diseases. PMID:18802119

  17. [Lyme borreliosis--an infectious disease with interdisciplinary demands].

    PubMed

    Maiwald, M

    1994-08-01

    Lyme borreliosis is an infectious disease with various clinical manifestations, caused by the bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi. Although symptoms of the disease have been described since more than 100 years ago, it was not until 1982 that the causative organism was discovered. In Europe, Lyme borreliosis is the most common tick-borne disease, and in endemic regions, a considerable number of clinical cases can be found. The course of the disease is in stages and involves various organ systems, such as skin, nervous system, heart, and joints. Laboratory diagnosis is considered to be difficult and relies mainly on the determination of antibodies. A vaccine for use in humans is not yet available, but experimental data support the feasibility of a vaccine development. PMID:7940504

  18. 78 FR 59707 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

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  1. On the Identifiability of Transmission Dynamic Models for Infectious Diseases.

    PubMed

    Lintusaari, Jarno; Gutmann, Michael U; Kaski, Samuel; Corander, Jukka

    2016-03-01

    Understanding the transmission dynamics of infectious diseases is important for both biological research and public health applications. It has been widely demonstrated that statistical modeling provides a firm basis for inferring relevant epidemiological quantities from incidence and molecular data. However, the complexity of transmission dynamic models presents two challenges: (1) the likelihood function of the models is generally not computable, and computationally intensive simulation-based inference methods need to be employed, and (2) the model may not be fully identifiable from the available data. While the first difficulty can be tackled by computational and algorithmic advances, the second obstacle is more fundamental. Identifiability issues may lead to inferences that are driven more by prior assumptions than by the data themselves. We consider a popular and relatively simple yet analytically intractable model for the spread of tuberculosis based on classical IS6110 fingerprinting data. We report on the identifiability of the model, also presenting some methodological advances regarding the inference. Using likelihood approximations, we show that the reproductive value cannot be identified from the data available and that the posterior distributions obtained in previous work have likely been substantially dominated by the assumed prior distribution. Further, we show that the inferences are influenced by the assumed infectious population size, which generally has been kept fixed in previous work. We demonstrate that the infectious population size can be inferred if the remaining epidemiological parameters are already known with sufficient precision. PMID:26739450

  2. 78 FR 46357 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

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  17. 76 FR 22112 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

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  1. 76 FR 75887 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases....855, Allergy, Immunology, and Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious...

  2. Compensation for work-related hematologic, liver, and infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jung-Won; Kang, Dong-Mug

    2014-06-01

    Occupational diseases may be defined only medically or scientifically, and even then, their definition is not simple. However, compensable occupational diseases involve the additional layer of legal systems and social welfare policies as well. Their multifaceted nature makes determining the work-relatedness of these diseases more complex. Korea has established standards for the recognition of occupational diseases in Schedule 5 of the Enforcement Decree of the Labor Standards Act, and specific criteria for the recognition of occupational diseases are listed in Schedule 3 of the Enforcement Decree of the Industrial Accident Compensation Insurance Act. The new list of compensable occupational diseases comprises 13 articles as an open-ended system. The newly added articles pertain to lymphohematopoietic (Article 5) and infectious diseases (Article 9), as well as diseases of other target organs. Furthermore, the article on liver diseases (Article 8) has been partially revised. The new act has been changed to clarify the meaning as it has been presented in recent research. It is necessary to achieve agreement among concerned parties, including experts from the legal, medical, and social domains to resolve the issues of work-relatedness, causation, notion of aggravation, and so on for preparing a list and a process that are more reasonable. PMID:25006327

  3. Infectious diseases in dogs rescued during dogfighting investigations.

    PubMed

    Cannon, S H; Levy, J K; Kirk, S K; Crawford, P C; Leutenegger, C M; Shuster, J J; Liu, J; Chandrashekar, R

    2016-05-01

    Dogs used for dogfighting often receive minimal preventive health care, and the potential for spread of infectious diseases is high. The purpose of this study was to describe the prevalence of infectious diseases in dogs rescued from fighting operations to guide medical protocols for their immediate and long-term care. A total of 269 pit bull-type dogs were seized in a multi-state investigation. Fleas were present on most dogs, but few ticks were observed. Testing performed at intake included packed cell volume (PCV), serology and PCR for vector-borne pathogens, and fecal analysis. The most common infections were Babesia gibsoni (39%), 'Candidatus Mycoplasma haematoparvum' (32%), Mycoplasma haemocanis (30%), Dirofilaria immitis (12%), and Ancylostoma (23%). Anemia was associated with B. gibsoni infection (63% of infected dogs, odds ratio = 2.5, P <0.001), but not with hemotropic mycoplasmas or Ancylostoma. Pit bull heritage and dogfighting are known risk factors for B. gibsoni infection, possibly via blood transmission from bites and vertical transmission. Hemotropic mycoplasmas have a similar risk pattern. Empirical care for dogs from dogfighting cases should include broad-spectrum internal and external parasiticides and monitoring for anemia. Dogfighting case responders should be prepared for mass screening and treatment of B. gibsoni and heartworm infections and should implement protocols to prevent transmission of infectious and zoonotic diseases in the shelter and following adoption. Former fighting dogs and dogs with possible dog bite scars should not be used as blood donors due to the risk of vector-borne pathogens that can escape detection and for which curative treatment is difficult to document. PMID:27056107

  4. Applications of luminescent systems to infectious disease methodology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Picciolo, G. L.; Chappelle, E. W.; Deming, J. W.; Mcgarry, M. A.; Nibley, D. A.; Okrend, H.; Thomas, R. R.

    1976-01-01

    The characterization of a clinical sample by a simple, fast, accurate, automatable analytical measurement is important in the management of infectious disease. Luminescence assays offer methods rich with options for these measurements. The instrumentation is common to each assay, and the investment is reasonable. Three general procedures were developed to varying degrees of completeness which measure bacterial levels by measuring their ATP, FMN and iron porphyrins. Bacteriuria detection and antibiograms can be determined within half a day. The characterization of the sample for its soluble ATP, FMN or prophyrins was also performed.

  5. Predicting and controlling infectious disease epidemics using temporal networks

    PubMed Central

    Holme, Petter

    2013-01-01

    Infectious diseases can be considered to spread over social networks of people or animals. Mainly owing to the development of data recording and analysis techniques, an increasing amount of social contact data with time stamps has been collected in the last decade. Such temporal data capture the dynamics of social networks on a timescale relevant to epidemic spreading and can potentially lead to better ways to analyze, forecast, and prevent epidemics. However, they also call for extended analysis tools for network epidemiology, which has, to date, mostly viewed networks as static entities. We review recent results of network epidemiology for such temporal network data and discuss future developments. PMID:23513178

  6. Epidemiology and Management of Infectious Diseases in International Adoptees

    PubMed Central

    Murray, Thomas S.; Groth, M. Elizabeth; Weitzman, Carol; Cappello, Michael

    2005-01-01

    International adoptees represent a group of children with unique health care needs. Data from published studies, along with the recent experience of the Yale International Adoption Clinic, suggest that the risk of serious infections in adoptees is low, although infections associated with institutionalization still occur commonly. Interpretation of these data must be undertaken with caution, however, since many, if not most, international adoptees are not evaluated in specialty clinics. Thus, prospective studies designed to minimize selection and referral bias are needed in order to accurately define the risk of infectious and noninfectious diseases in all international adoptees. PMID:16020687

  7. Infectious disease, the innate immune response, and fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Meneghin, Alessia; Hogaboam, Cory M.

    2007-01-01

    The unrelenting and destructive progression of most fibrotic responses in the pulmonary, cardiovascular, integumentary, and alimentary systems remains a major medical challenge for which therapies are desperately needed. The pathophysiology of fibrosis remains an enigma, but considerable research and debate surrounds the question of whether chronic inflammation is the key driver of unrestrained wound healing (i.e., the fibrotic response) in these and other organ systems. This Review describes how infectious pathogens, chronic inflammation, and unrestrained fibroproliferation are likely to be part of a dynamic, unrelenting process propelling human fibrotic diseases. PMID:17332880

  8. Infectious disease modeling and innate immune function in zebrafish embryos.

    PubMed

    Cui, Chao; Benard, Erica L; Kanwal, Zakia; Stockhammer, Oliver W; van der Vaart, Michiel; Zakrzewska, Anna; Spaink, Herman P; Meijer, Annemarie H

    2011-01-01

    The major cell types of the innate immune system, macrophages and neutrophils, develop during the first two days of zebrafish embryogenesis. The interaction of these immune cells with pathogenic microbes can excellently be traced in the optically transparent zebrafish embryos. Various tools and methods have recently been developed for visualizing and isolating the zebrafish embryonic innate immune cells, for establishing infections by different micro-injection techniques, and for analyzing the host innate immune response following microbial recognition. Here we provide practical guidelines for the application of these methodologies and review the current state of the art in zebrafish infectious disease research. PMID:21951535

  9. Office Microscopy in the Diagnosis of Infectious Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Elizabeth; Albritton, William

    1988-01-01

    Microscopy of clinical specimens is a rapid and inexpensive method for the presumptive diagnosis of certain infectious diseases. Early diagnosis permits the physician to initiate appropriate therapy without waiting for culture results. Examination of the Gramstained smear gives information on the inflammatory response, as well as the bacteria involved. Accurate interpretation of the smear, however, requires some training and experience. This article describes the microscopic methods commonly used in the laboratory and their application to office practice. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6Figure 7Figure 8Figure 9Figure 10 PMID:21253055

  10. Latent conditional individual-level models for infectious disease modeling.

    PubMed

    Deeth, Lorna E; Deardon, Rob

    2013-01-01

    Individual-level models (ILMs) have previously been used to model the spatiotemporal spread of infectious diseases. These models can incorporate individual-level covariate information, to account for population heterogeneity. However, incomplete or unreliable data are a common problem in infectious disease modeling, and models that are explicitly dependent on such information may not be robust to these inherent uncertainties. In this investigation, we assess an adaptation to a spatial ILM that incorporates a latent grouping structure based on some trait heterogeneous in the population. The resulting latent conditional ILM is then only dependent upon a discrete latent grouping variable, rather than precise covariate information. The posterior predictive ability of this proposed model is tested through a simulation study, in which the model is fitted to epidemic data simulated from a true model that utilizes explicit covariate information. In addition, the posterior predictive ability of the proposed ILM is also compared to that of an ILM that assumes population homogeneity. The application of these models to data from the 2001 UK foot-and-mouth disease epidemic is also explored. This study demonstrates that the use of a discrete latent grouping variable can be an effective alternative to utilizing covariate information, particularly when such information may be unreliable. PMID:23917477

  11. Infectious disease in animal metapopulations: the importance of environmental transmission

    PubMed Central

    Park, Andrew W

    2012-01-01

    Motivated by an array of infectious diseases that threaten wildlife populations, a simple metapopulation model (subpopulations connected by animal movement) is developed, which allows for both movement-based and environmental transmission. The model demonstrates that for a range of plausible parameterizations of environmental transmission, increased movement rate of animals between discrete habitats can lead to a decrease in the overall proportion of sites that are occupied. This can limit the ability of the rescue effect to ensure locally extinct populations become recolonized and can drive metapopulations down in size so that extinction by mechanisms other than disease may become more likely. It further highlights that, in the context of environmental transmission, the environmental persistence time of pathogens and the probability of acquiring infection by environmental transmission can affect host metapopulations both qualitatively and quantitatively. Additional spillover sources of infection from alternate reservoir hosts are also included in the model and a synthesis of all three types of transmission, acting alone or in combination, is performed revealing that movement-based transmission is the only necessary condition for a decline in the proportion of occupied sites with increasing movement rate, but that the presence of other types of transmission can reverse this qualitative result. By including the previously neglected role of environmental transmission, this work contributes to the general discussion of when dispersal by wild animals is beneficial or detrimental to populations experiencing infectious disease. PMID:22957148

  12. Determinants and Drivers of Infectious Disease Threat Events in Europe.

    PubMed

    Semenza, Jan C; Lindgren, Elisabet; Balkanyi, Laszlo; Espinosa, Laura; Almqvist, My S; Penttinen, Pasi; Rocklöv, Joacim

    2016-04-01

    Infectious disease threat events (IDTEs) are increasing in frequency worldwide. We analyzed underlying drivers of 116 IDTEs detected in Europe during 2008-2013 by epidemic intelligence at the European Centre of Disease Prevention and Control. Seventeen drivers were identified and categorized into 3 groups: globalization and environment, sociodemographic, and public health systems. A combination of >2 drivers was responsible for most IDTEs. The driver category globalization and environment contributed to 61% of individual IDTEs, and the top 5 individual drivers of all IDTEs were travel and tourism, food and water quality, natural environment, global trade, and climate. Hierarchical cluster analysis of all drivers identified travel and tourism as a distinctly separate driver. Monitoring and modeling such disease drivers can help anticipate future IDTEs and strengthen control measures. More important, intervening directly on these underlying drivers can diminish the likelihood of the occurrence of an IDTE and reduce the associated human and economic costs. PMID:26982104

  13. Public apprehension of emerging infectious diseases: are changes afoot?

    PubMed

    Joffe, Helene

    2011-07-01

    Using social representations theory this paper casts light on the pattern of content that characterises the public response to emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases (EID). The pattern is: distancing the disease from the self/ one's in-groups; blame of particular entities for the disease's origin and/or spread; and stigmatisation of those who have contracted it and/or who are represented as having intensified its spread. This pattern is not unique to EID but extends to many risks, making EID fruitful events for understanding public apprehension of potential dangers. This process may be driven by worry, fear and anxiety since when levels of these are low, as has arguably been the case with the 2009/10 "Swine Flu" pandemic, the pattern transforms. The distancing-blame-stigma pattern may also be transformed by growing reflexivity, a feature of late modern societies, as well as material features of the epidemic and "EID fatigue". PMID:21936260

  14. How urbanization affects the epidemiology of emerging infectious diseases

    PubMed Central

    Neiderud, Carl-Johan

    2015-01-01

    The world is becoming more urban every day, and the process has been ongoing since the industrial revolution in the 18th century. The United Nations now estimates that 3.9 billion people live in urban centres. The rapid influx of residents is however not universal and the developed countries are already urban, but the big rise in urban population in the next 30 years is expected to be in Asia and Africa. Urbanization leads to many challenges for global health and the epidemiology of infectious diseases. New megacities can be incubators for new epidemics, and zoonotic diseases can spread in a more rapid manner and become worldwide threats. Adequate city planning and surveillance can be powerful tools to improve the global health and decrease the burden of communicable diseases. PMID:26112265

  15. Determinants and Drivers of Infectious Disease Threat Events in Europe

    PubMed Central

    Lindgren, Elisabet; Balkanyi, Laszlo; Espinosa, Laura; Almqvist, My S.; Penttinen, Pasi; Rocklöv, Joacim

    2016-01-01

    Infectious disease threat events (IDTEs) are increasing in frequency worldwide. We analyzed underlying drivers of 116 IDTEs detected in Europe during 2008–2013 by epidemic intelligence at the European Centre of Disease Prevention and Control. Seventeen drivers were identified and categorized into 3 groups: globalization and environment, sociodemographic, and public health systems. A combination of >2 drivers was responsible for most IDTEs. The driver category globalization and environment contributed to 61% of individual IDTEs, and the top 5 individual drivers of all IDTEs were travel and tourism, food and water quality, natural environment, global trade, and climate. Hierarchical cluster analysis of all drivers identified travel and tourism as a distinctly separate driver. Monitoring and modeling such disease drivers can help anticipate future IDTEs and strengthen control measures. More important, intervening directly on these underlying drivers can diminish the likelihood of the occurrence of an IDTE and reduce the associated human and economic costs. PMID:26982104

  16. The Role of Macrophage Polarization in Infectious and Inflammatory Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Labonte, Adam C.; Tosello-Trampont, Annie-Carole; Hahn, Young S.

    2014-01-01

    Macrophages, found in circulating blood as well as integrated into several tissues and organs throughout the body, represent an important first line of defense against disease and a necessary component of healthy tissue homeostasis. Additionally, macrophages that arise from the differentiation of monocytes recruited from the blood to inflamed tissues play a central role in regulating local inflammation. Studies of macrophage activation in the last decade or so have revealed that these cells adopt a staggering range of phenotypes that are finely tuned responses to a variety of different stimuli, and that the resulting subsets of activated macrophages play critical roles in both progression and resolution of disease. This review summarizes the current understanding of the contributions of differentially polarized macrophages to various infectious and inflammatory diseases and the ongoing effort to develop novel therapies that target this key aspect of macrophage biology. PMID:24625576

  17. Sex Bias in Infectious Disease Epidemiology: Patterns and Processes

    PubMed Central

    Guerra-Silveira, Felipe; Abad-Franch, Fernando

    2013-01-01

    Background Infectious disease incidence is often male-biased. Two main hypotheses have been proposed to explain this observation. The physiological hypothesis (PH) emphasizes differences in sex hormones and genetic architecture, while the behavioral hypothesis (BH) stresses gender-related differences in exposure. Surprisingly, the population-level predictions of these hypotheses are yet to be thoroughly tested in humans. Methods and Findings For ten major pathogens, we tested PH and BH predictions about incidence and exposure-prevalence patterns. Compulsory-notification records (Brazil, 2006–2009) were used to estimate age-stratified ♂:♀ incidence rate ratios for the general population and across selected sociological contrasts. Exposure-prevalence odds ratios were derived from 82 published surveys. We estimated summary effect-size measures using random-effects models; our analyses encompass ∼0.5 million cases of disease or exposure. We found that, after puberty, disease incidence is male-biased in cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis, schistosomiasis, pulmonary tuberculosis, leptospirosis, meningococcal meningitis, and hepatitis A. Severe dengue is female-biased, and no clear pattern is evident for typhoid fever. In leprosy, milder tuberculoid forms are female-biased, whereas more severe lepromatous forms are male-biased. For most diseases, male bias emerges also during infancy, when behavior is unbiased but sex steroid levels transiently rise. Behavioral factors likely modulate male–female differences in some diseases (the leishmaniases, tuberculosis, leptospirosis, or schistosomiasis) and age classes; however, average exposure-prevalence is significantly sex-biased only for Schistosoma and Leptospira. Conclusions Our results closely match some key PH predictions and contradict some crucial BH predictions, suggesting that gender-specific behavior plays an overall secondary role in generating sex bias. Physiological differences, including the crosstalk between sex hormones and immune effectors, thus emerge as the main candidate drivers of gender differences in infectious disease susceptibility. PMID:23638062

  18. Global analysis for spread of infectious diseases via transportation networks.

    PubMed

    Nakata, Yukihiko; Röst, Gergely

    2015-05-01

    We formulate an epidemic model for the spread of an infectious disease along with population dispersal over an arbitrary number of distinct regions. Structuring the population by the time elapsed since the start of travel, we describe the infectious disease dynamics during transportation as well as in the regions. As a result, we obtain a system of delay differential equations. We define the basic reproduction number R(0) as the spectral radius of a next generation matrix. For multi-regional systems with strongly connected transportation networks, we prove that if R(0) ≤ 1 then the disease will be eradicated from each region, while if R(0) > 1 there is a globally asymptotically stable equilibrium, which is endemic in every region. If the transportation network is not strongly connected, then the model analysis shows that numerous endemic patterns can exist by admitting a globally asymptotically stable equilibrium, which may be disease free in some regions while endemic in other regions. We provide a procedure to detect the disease free and the endemic regions according to the network topology and local reproduction numbers. The main ingredients of the mathematical proofs are the inductive applications of the theory of asymptotically autonomous semiflows and cooperative dynamical systems. We visualise stability boundaries of equilibria in a parameter plane to illustrate the influence of the transportation network on the disease dynamics. For a system consisting of two regions, we find that due to spatial heterogeneity characterised by different local reproduction numbers, R(0) may depend non-monotonically on the dispersal rates, thus travel restrictions are not always beneficial. PMID:24948128

  19. Emerging infectious diseases in cetaceans worldwide and the possible role of environmental stressors.

    PubMed

    Van Bressem, Marie-Françoise; Raga, Juan Antonio; Di Guardo, Giovanni; Jepson, Paul D; Duignan, Padraig J; Siebert, Ursula; Barrett, Tom; Santos, Marcos César de Oliveira; Moreno, Ignacio B; Siciliano, Salvatore; Aguilar, Alex; Van Waerebeek, Koen

    2009-09-23

    We reviewed prominent emerging infectious diseases of cetaceans, examined their potential to impact populations, re-assessed zoonotic risk and evaluated the role of environmental stressors. Cetacean morbilliviruses and papillomaviruses as well as Brucella spp. and Toxoplasma gondii are thought to interfere with population abundance by inducing high mortalities, lowering reproductive success or by synergistically increasing the virulence of other diseases. Severe cases of lobomycosis and lobomycosis-like disease (LLD) may contribute to the death of some dolphins. The zoonotic hazard of marine mammal brucellosis and toxoplasmosis may have been underestimated, attributable to frequent misdiagnoses and underreporting, particularly in developing countries and remote areas where carcass handling without protective gear and human consumption of fresh cetacean products are commonplace. Environmental factors seem to play a role in the emergence and pathogenicity of morbillivirus epidemics, lobomycosis/LLD, toxoplasmosis, poxvirus-associated tattoo skin disease and, in harbour porpoises, infectious diseases of multifactorial aetiology. Inshore and estuarine cetaceans incur higher risks than pelagic cetaceans due to habitats often severely altered by anthropogenic factors such as chemical and biological contamination, direct and indirect fisheries interactions, traumatic injuries from vessel collisions and climate change. PMID:19902843

  20. Nutritional Risk, Micronutrient Status and Clinical Outcomes: A Prospective Observational Study in an Infectious Disease Clinic

    PubMed Central

    Dizdar, Oguzhan Sıtkı; Baspınar, Osman; Kocer, Derya; Dursun, Zehra Bestepe; Avcı, Deniz; Karakükcü, Cigdem; Çelik, İlhami; Gundogan, Kursat

    2016-01-01

    Malnutrition has been associated with increased morbidity and mortality. The objective of this study was to determine the nutritional status and micronutrient levels of hospitalized patients in an infectious disease clinic and investigate their association with adverse clinical outcomes. The nutritional status of the study participants was assessed using the Nutritional Risk Screening 2002 (NRS 2002) and micronutrient levels and routine biochemical parameters were tested within the first 24 h of the patient’s admission. The incidence of zinc, selenium, thiamine, vitamin B6, vitamin B12 deficiency were 66.7% (n = 40), 46.6% (n = 29), 39.7% (n = 27), 35.3% (n = 24), 14.1% (n = 9), respectively. Selenium levels were significantly higher in patients with urinary tract infections, but lower in soft tissue infections. Copper levels were significantly higher in patients with soft tissue infections. In the Cox regression models, lower albumin, higher serum lactate dehydrogenase levels and higher NRS-2002 scores were associated with increased death. Thiamine, selenium, zinc and vitamin B6 deficiencies but not chromium deficiencies are common in infectious disease clinics. New associations were found between micronutrient levels and infection type and their adverse clinical outcomes. Hypoalbuminemia and a high NRS-2002 score had the greatest accuracy in predicting death, systemic inflammatory response syndrome and sepsis on admission. PMID:26938553

  1. Nutritional Risk, Micronutrient Status and Clinical Outcomes: A Prospective Observational Study in an Infectious Disease Clinic.

    PubMed

    Dizdar, Oguzhan S?tk?; Basp?nar, Osman; Kocer, Derya; Dursun, Zehra Bestepe; Avc?, Deniz; Karakkc, Cigdem; elik, ?lhami; Gundogan, Kursat

    2016-01-01

    Malnutrition has been associated with increased morbidity and mortality. The objective of this study was to determine the nutritional status and micronutrient levels of hospitalized patients in an infectious disease clinic and investigate their association with adverse clinical outcomes. The nutritional status of the study participants was assessed using the Nutritional Risk Screening 2002 (NRS 2002) and micronutrient levels and routine biochemical parameters were tested within the first 24 h of the patient's admission. The incidence of zinc, selenium, thiamine, vitamin B6, vitamin B12 deficiency were 66.7% (n = 40), 46.6% (n = 29), 39.7% (n = 27), 35.3% (n = 24), 14.1% (n = 9), respectively. Selenium levels were significantly higher in patients with urinary tract infections, but lower in soft tissue infections. Copper levels were significantly higher in patients with soft tissue infections. In the Cox regression models, lower albumin, higher serum lactate dehydrogenase levels and higher NRS-2002 scores were associated with increased death. Thiamine, selenium, zinc and vitamin B6 deficiencies but not chromium deficiencies are common in infectious disease clinics. New associations were found between micronutrient levels and infection type and their adverse clinical outcomes. Hypoalbuminemia and a high NRS-2002 score had the greatest accuracy in predicting death, systemic inflammatory response syndrome and sepsis on admission. PMID:26938553

  2. Role of infectious agents in systemic rheumatic diseases.

    PubMed

    Amital, H; Govoni, M; Maya, R; Meroni, P L; Ori, B; Shoenfeld, Y; Tincani, A; Trotta, F; Sarzi-Puttini, P; Atzeni, F

    2008-01-01

    The relationship between infection and autoimmunity has been increasingly defined over the last twenty years or so. It is now quite clear that, in genetically susceptible individuals, environmental factors (mainly infections) play a critical role in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases. It is believed that infections contribute to the maturation of the immune system from the innate to adoptive phases, and that bacterial and viral infections are arthritogenic stimulants leading to various rheumatic conditions. A failure to isolate these microorganisms is probably due to the action of the immune system, but often casts doubt on their role in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases. Among bacteria, Helicobacter pylori has been associated with diseases such as autoimmune gastritis, Sjögren's syndrome, atherosclerosis, immune thrombocytopenia purpura, inflammatory bowel diseases and autoimmune pancreatitis, in each of which it seems to play a pathogenatic, but it has also been suggested that it may help to protect against the development of autoimmune gastritis, multiple sclerosis, systemic lupus erythemathosus and inflammatory bowel diseases. Infectious agents may play a dual role in the etiopathogenesis of antiphospholipid syndrome (APS): they may be the initial trigger of the production of antibodies cross-reacting with beta 2 glycoprotein I (Beta2GPI) and infectious peptides, and also induce an inflammatory response. According to the two-hit theory, pathogenetic anti-Beta2GPI antibodies act as the first hit whereas inflammatory responses may represent the second hit The slowly growing Propionibacterium acnes may be involved in the etiopathogenesis of SAPHO syndrome non-specific activation of cell-mediated immunity. Its ability to persist in bone lesions in a form that is incompatible with culturing suggests the possibility an arthritis that is secondary to a "persistent" infection. PMID:18570751

  3. The Pathogen- and Incidence-Based DALY Approach: An Appropriated Methodology for Estimating the Burden of Infectious Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Mangen, Marie-Josée J.; Plass, Dietrich; Havelaar, Arie H.; Gibbons, Cheryl L.; Cassini, Alessandro; Mühlberger, Nikolai; van Lier, Alies; Haagsma, Juanita A.; Brooke, R. John; Lai, Taavi; de Waure, Chiara; Kramarz, Piotr; Kretzschmar, Mirjam E. E.

    2013-01-01

    In 2009, the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control initiated the ‘Burden of Communicable Diseases in Europe (BCoDE)’ project to generate evidence-based and comparable burden-of-disease estimates of infectious diseases in Europe. The burden-of-disease metric used was the Disability-Adjusted Life Year (DALY), composed of years of life lost due to premature death (YLL) and due to disability (YLD). To better represent infectious diseases, a pathogen-based approach was used linking incident cases to sequelae through outcome trees. Health outcomes were included if an evidence-based causal relationship between infection and outcome was established. Life expectancy and disability weights were taken from the Global Burden of Disease Study and alternative studies. Disease progression parameters were based on literature. Country-specific incidence was based on surveillance data corrected for underestimation. Non-typhoidal Salmonella spp. and Campylobacter spp. were used for illustration. Using the incidence- and pathogen-based DALY approach the total burden for Salmonella spp. and Campylobacter spp. was estimated at 730 DALYs and at 1,780 DALYs per year in the Netherlands (average of 2005–2007). Sequelae accounted for 56% and 82% of the total burden of Salmonella spp. and Campylobacter spp., respectively. The incidence- and pathogen-based DALY methodology allows in the case of infectious diseases a more comprehensive calculation of the disease burden as subsequent sequelae are fully taken into account. Not considering subsequent sequelae would strongly underestimate the burden of infectious diseases. Estimates can be used to support prioritisation and comparison of infectious diseases and other health conditions, both within a country and between countries. PMID:24278167

  4. Fever as an important resource for infectious diseases research

    PubMed Central

    González Plaza, Juan José; Hulak, Nataša; Zhumadilov, Zhaxybay; Akilzhanova, Ainur

    2016-01-01

    Summary Fever or pyrexia is a process where normal body temperature is raised over homeostasis conditions. Although many effects of fever over the immune system have been known for a long time, it has not been until recent studies when these effects have been evaluated in several infection processes. Results have been promising, as they have reported new ways of regulation, especially in RNA molecules. In light of these new studies, it seems important to start to evaluate the effects of pyrexia in current research efforts in host-pathogen interactions. Viruses and bacteria are responsible for different types of infectious diseases, and while it is of paramount importance to understand the mechanisms of infection, potential effects of fever on this process may have been overlooked. This is especially relevant because during the course of many infectious diseases the organism develops fever. Due to the lack of specific treatments for many of those afflictions, experimental evaluation in fever-like conditions can potentially bring new insights into the infection process and can ultimately help to develop treatments. The aim of this review is to present evidence that the temperature increase during fever affects the way the infection takes place, for both the pathogen and the host. PMID:27195192

  5. [Sir Arthur Conan Doyle, Sherlock Holmes and infectious diseases].

    PubMed

    Ledermann D, Walter

    2010-10-01

    Besides a pleasant author of best sellers, Sir Arthur Conan Doyle was a medical doctor, writing excellent short stories about the exercise of his profession in England. However, even he mentions The British Medical Journal and The Lancet in the Sherlock Holmes's stories, when in the plot introduces infectious diseases, Conan Doyle ignores important discoveries in the field of tetanus. Anyway, the appearing of infectious diseases in the adventures of the detective are rare: one mention of tetanus, another of leprosy and- the most analyzed in medical literature a case of murder by inoculation of bacteria, probably the agent of melioidosis. Also he makes his hero discovers the toxic actions of a medusa and a transplant of solid organ. Little for a physician and less for an author who also wrote science fiction: it seems that the history of the great medical discoveries at the end of nineteenth century and beginning of the twentieth has passed by his side.., and he just couldn't see it. PMID:21186510

  6. [Sir Arthur Conan Doyle, Sherlock Holmes and infectious diseases].

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Ledermann D W

    2010-10-01

    Besides a pleasant author of best sellers, Sir Arthur Conan Doyle was a medical doctor, writing excellent short stories about the exercise of his profession in England. However, even he mentions The British Medical Journal and The Lancet in the Sherlock Holmes's stories, when in the plot introduces infectious diseases, Conan Doyle ignores important discoveries in the field of tetanus. Anyway, the appearing of infectious diseases in the adventures of the detective are rare: one mention of tetanus, another of leprosy and- the most analyzed in medical literature a case of murder by inoculation of bacteria, probably the agent of melioidosis. Also he makes his hero discovers the toxic actions of a medusa and a transplant of solid organ. Little for a physician and less for an author who also wrote science fiction: it seems that the history of the great medical discoveries at the end of nineteenth century and beginning of the twentieth has passed by his side.., and he just couldn't see it.

  7. Challenges in mucosal vaccines for the control of infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Azegami, Tatsuhiko; Yuki, Yoshikazu; Kiyono, Hiroshi

    2014-09-01

    The mucosal surface is the largest route through which pathogens enter the human body. To control the outbreak of mucosal infectious diseases, we must use our knowledge of the mucosal immune system to create vaccines that elicit protective mucosal and systemic immunity. Mucosal vaccines have advantages over traditional injectable vaccines in that they not only induce effective mucosal immune responses, but they also do not cause physical or psychological discomfort. Mucosal vaccines currently licensed for human use include oral vaccines against Vibrio cholerae, Salmonella typhi, poliovirus and rotavirus, and nasal vaccines against influenza virus. To further improve the existing vaccines, it will be necessary to develop novel vaccine production, storage and delivery systems through innovative strategies derived from interdisciplinary scientific research. Our accumulated knowledge of the innate and acquired arms of the mucosal immune system and the recent scientific and technical advancements in the fields of molecular biology, plant biology, bio-engineering and chemical engineering, genome biology and systems biology have created a unique research and development platform for the development of the next generation of mucosal vaccines. This review summarizes the current perspectives and future directions of mucosal vaccine development with emphasis on oral and nasal vaccines for the control of infectious diseases. PMID:24914172

  8. Recent Advances of Vaccine Adjuvants for Infectious Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Minh Trang

    2015-01-01

    Vaccines are the most effective and cost-efficient method for preventing diseases caused by infectious pathogens. Despite the great success of vaccines, development of safe and strong vaccines is still required for emerging new pathogens, re-emerging old pathogens, and in order to improve the inadequate protection conferred by existing vaccines. One of the most important strategies for the development of effective new vaccines is the selection and usage of a suitable adjuvant. Immunologic adjuvants are essential for enhancing vaccine potency by improvement of the humoral and/or cell-mediated immune response to vaccine antigens. Thus, formulation of vaccines with appropriate adjuvants is an attractive approach towards eliciting protective and long-lasting immunity in humans. However, only a limited number of adjuvants is licensed for human vaccines due to concerns about safety and toxicity. We summarize current knowledge about the potential benefits of adjuvants, the characteristics of adjuvants and the mechanisms of adjuvants in human vaccines. Adjuvants have diverse modes of action and should be selected for use on the basis of the type of immune response that is desired for a particular vaccine. Better understanding of current adjuvants will help exploring new adjuvant formulations and facilitate rational design of vaccines against infectious diseases. PMID:25922593

  9. Genetic characteristics of infectious bursal disease viruses from four continents.

    PubMed

    Jackwood, Daral J; Sommer-Wagner, Susan

    2007-09-01

    Following the initial discovery of very virulent infectious bursal disease virus (vvIBDV) strains in Europe, these viruses spread to many parts of the world. In this study, we examined the phylogenetic relationship of never-before-published IBDV from 18 countries on four continents. All the samples were collected between 1997 and 2005 and were reported to be from broiler flocks experiencing higher than expected mortality which is often associated with acute very virulent infectious bursal disease. A total of 113 samples were imported into the U.S. and viral genetic material was used to determine the nucleotide sequence of the VP2 gene hypervariable region. Although all the samples were reported to be associated clinically with high mortality, genetic analysis suggests that some were not vvIBDV strains. Two viruses from South Africa were genetically similar to U.S. variant viruses. A majority (71/113) of the viruses examined had the amino acid Alanine at position 222 and sixty-seven of these suspect vvIBDV also had amino acids I242, I256, I294 and S299 which are highly conserved among vvIBDV strains. Phylogenetic analysis placed putative vvIBDV strains from many different countries and geographic regions in a single clade with some minor non-significant branching. PMID:17488648

  10. Nanotechnology and pulmonary delivery to overcome resistance in infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Andrade, Fernanda; Rafael, Diana; Videira, Mafalda; Ferreira, Domingos; Sosnik, Alejandro; Sarmento, Bruno

    2013-11-01

    Used since ancient times especially for the local treatment of pulmonary diseases, lungs and airways are a versatile target route for the administration of both local and systemic drugs. Despite the existence of different platforms and devices for the pulmonary administration of drugs, only a few formulations are marketed, partly due to physiological and technological limitations. Respiratory infections represent a significant burden to health systems worldwide mainly due to intrahospital infections that more easily affect immune-compromised patients. Moreover, tuberculosis (TB) is an endemic infectious disease in many developing nations and it has resurged in the developed world associated with the human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) epidemic. Currently, medicine faces the specter of antibiotic resistance. Besides the development of new anti-infectious drugs, the development of innovative and more efficient delivery systems for drugs that went off patent appears as a promising strategy pursued by the pharmaceutical industry to improve the therapeutic outcomes and to prolong the utilities of their intellectual property portfolio. In this context, nanotechnology-based drug delivery systems (nano-DDS) emerged as a promising approach to circumvent the limitations of conventional formulations and to treat drug resistance, opening the hypothesis for new developments in this area. PMID:23932923

  11. Existing problems in the testing for infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Sazama, K

    1995-01-01

    Current methods for testing donated blood for presence of infectious viral agents in the USA differ from those used in other countries because of the USA Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) control which inhibits rapid introduction of testing methods or improvements. Delays in FDA approval may occur because of concerns about methodology or the state of knowledge about the disease it is intended to detect as well as due to variability between manufacturers. Despite strict FDA control, testing problems continue to occur in the USA. No approved method detects infectious agents during the "window period," and variations in detection, i.e., false positives and false negatives (even with confirmatory testing), continue to occur. The effect of physical and chemical changes (e.g., various anticoagulants) on samples has not been thoroughly evaluated. Test performance problems include lapses in sample identification, failure to use routine laboratory controls, improper calculation and reporting of results, improper acceptance of test runs and failure to properly detect and retest samples when carryover from very reactive samples occurs. For these reasons, transfusion-related disease transmission continues to occur. The current USA emphasis on good manufacturing practices should provide continuous improvements. PMID:7713577

  12. Synbiotic enhances immune responses against infectious bronchitis, infectious bursal disease, Newcastle disease and avian influenza in broiler chickens

    PubMed Central

    Talebi, Alireza; Amani, Amir; Pourmahmod, Masoud; Saghaei, Poya; Rezaie, Reza

    2015-01-01

    Increased susceptibility of birds to avian pathogens in intensive husbandry system has emphasized on necessity of improvement of innate and specific immune responses of birds by the fast establishment of a beneficial microflora and immune stimulator factors to guarantee healthy and low-price products. During this study, 192 one-day-old broiler chicks (Ross-380) in four groups with three replicates per group were used to investigate effectiveness of synbiotic Biomin Imbo on immune responses of the chickens following routine vaccination against Newcastle disease (ND), avian influenza (AI), infectious bronchitis (IB) and infectious bursal disease (IBD). The results of this study indicated that supplementation of Biomin Imbo in diet enhanced humoral immune responses significantly in the case of ND, IB, IBD (p = 0.049, p = 0.020, p = 0.036, respectively), but insignificantly in the case of AI (p = 0.160) following vaccination of the chickens against these most common important viral poultry diseases. It was more effective following vaccination with live than killed vaccines. In conclusion, application of synbiotic Biomin Imbo, as a feed-additive adjuvant promotes acquired humoral immune responses of broiler chickens. PMID:26893807

  13. Rapid infectious disease screening for field medical emergencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, Winston; Rao, Srivasta V.; Low, Peter W.; Hess, John R.

    2000-08-01

    Current blood tests cannot provide rapid support for field medical emergencies that require blood in excess of the tested supply, especially, when additional blood needs to be drawn from the available walking pool. A fluorescence-based rapid infectious disease screening system, based on a disposable disk with an array of wash-free, one-step, membrane strips and an array of optical probes can be used to quantify a panel of transmissible diseases in parallel with high specificity, high sensitivity, and operational simplicity. We have designed and constructed a sandwich membrane assay platform and a laboratory prototype optoelectronic measuring device and used this combined system to quantify hepatitis C antibody over the concentration range of 2 ng/ml to 100 ng/ml in 3 to 5 minutes.

  14. Estimating the per-exposure effect of infectious disease interventions.

    PubMed

    O'Hagan, Justin J; Lipsitch, Marc; Hernán, Miguel A

    2014-01-01

    The average effect of an infectious disease intervention (eg, a vaccine) varies across populations with different degrees of exposure to the pathogen. As a result, many investigators favor a per-exposure effect measure that is considered independent of the population level of exposure and that can be used in simulations to estimate the total disease burden averted by an intervention across different populations. However, while per-exposure effects are frequently estimated, the quantity of interest is often poorly defined, and assumptions in its calculation are typically left implicit. In this article, we build upon work by Halloran and Struchiner (Epidemiology. 1995;6:142-151) to develop a formal definition of the per-exposure effect and discuss conditions necessary for its unbiased estimation. With greater care paid to the parameterization of transmission models, their results can be better understood and can thereby be of greater value to decision-makers. PMID:24240656

  15. Environmental monitoring to enhance comprehension and control of infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Carver, Scott; Kilpatrick, A Marm; Kuenzi, Amy; Douglass, Richard; Ostfeld, Richard S; Weinstein, Philip

    2010-11-01

    In a world of emerging and resurging infectious diseases, dominated by zoonoses, environmental monitoring plays a vital role in our understanding their dynamics and their spillover to humans. Here, we critically review the ecology, epidemiology and need for monitoring of a variety of directly transmitted (Sin Nombre virus, Avian Influenza) and vector-borne (Ross River virus, West Nile virus, Lyme disease, anaplasmosis and babesiosis) zoonoses. We focus on the valuable role that existing monitoring plays in the understanding of these zoonoses, the demands for new monitoring, and how improvements can be made to existing monitoring. We also identify the fruitful outcomes which would result from implementation of the monitoring demands we have highlighted. This review aims to promote improvements in our understanding of zoonoses, their management, and public health by encouraging discussion among researchers and public health officials. PMID:20957286

  16. Mapping infectious disease landscapes: unmanned aerial vehicles and epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Fornace, Kimberly M; Drakeley, Chris J; William, Timothy; Espino, Fe; Cox, Jonathan

    2014-11-01

    The potential applications of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), or drones, have generated intense interest across many fields. UAVs offer the potential to collect detailed spatial information in real time at relatively low cost and are being used increasingly in conservation and ecological research. Within infectious disease epidemiology and public health research, UAVs can provide spatially and temporally accurate data critical to understanding the linkages between disease transmission and environmental factors. Using UAVs avoids many of the limitations associated with satellite data (e.g., long repeat times, cloud contamination, low spatial resolution). However, the practicalities of using UAVs for field research limit their use to specific applications and settings. UAVs fill a niche but do not replace existing remote-sensing methods. PMID:25443854

  17. Immunization Delivered by Lentiviral Vectors for Cancer and Infectious Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Biliang; Tai, April; Wang, Pin

    2011-01-01

    Summary The increasing level of understanding of the lentivirus biology has been instrumental in shaping the design strategy of creating therapeutic lentiviral delivery vectors. As a result, lentiviral vectors have become one of the most powerful gene transfer vehicles. They are widely used for therapeutic purposes as well as in studies of basic biology, due to their unique characteristics. Lentiviral vectors have been successfully employed to mediate durable and efficient antigen expression and presentation in dendritic cells both in vitro and in vivo, leading to the activation of cellular immunity and humoral responses. This capability makes the lentiviral vector an ideal choice for immunizations that target a wide range of cancers and infectious diseases. Further advances into optimizing the vector system and understanding the relationship between the immune system and diseases pathogenesis will only augment the potential benefits and utility of lentiviral vaccines for human health. PMID:21198664

  18. Modeling Importations and Exportations of Infectious Diseases via Travelers.

    PubMed

    Lopez, Luis Fernandez; Amaku, Marcos; Coutinho, Francisco Antonio Bezerra; Quam, Mikkel; Burattini, Marcelo Nascimento; Struchiner, Claudio José; Wilder-Smith, Annelies; Massad, Eduardo

    2016-02-01

    This paper is an attempt to estimate the risk of infection importation and exportation by travelers. Two countries are considered: one disease-free country and one visited or source country with a running endemic or epidemic infectious disease. Two models are considered. In the first model (disease importation), susceptible individuals travel from their disease-free home country to the endemic country and come back after some weeks. The risk of infection spreading in their home country is then estimated supposing the visitors are submitted to the same force of infection as the local population but do not contribute to it. In the second model (disease exportation), it is calculated the probability that an individual from the endemic (or epidemic) country travels to a disease-free country in the condition of latent infected and eventually introduces the infection there. The input of both models is the force of infection at the visited/source country, assumed known. The models are deterministic, but a preliminary stochastic formulation is presented as an appendix. The models are exemplified with two distinct real situations: the risk of dengue importation from Thailand to Europe and the risk of Ebola exportation from Liberia to the USA. PMID:26763222

  19. Creating a global dialogue on infectious disease surveillance: connecting organizations for regional disease surveillance (CORDS).

    PubMed

    Gresham, Louise S; Smolinski, Mark S; Suphanchaimat, Rapeepong; Kimball, Ann Marie; Wibulpolprasert, Suwit

    2013-01-01

    Connecting Organizations for Regional Disease Surveillance (CORDS) is an international non-governmental organization focused on information exchange between disease surveillance networks in different areas of the world. By linking regional disease surveillance networks, CORDS builds a trust-based social fabric of experts who share best practices, surveillance tools and strategies, training courses, and innovations. CORDS exemplifies the shifting patterns of international collaboration needed to prevent, detect, and counter all types of biological dangers - not just naturally occurring infectious diseases, but also terrorist threats. Representing a network-of-networks approach, the mission of CORDS is to link regional disease surveillance networks to improve global capacity to respond to infectious diseases. CORDS is an informal governance cooperative with six founding regional disease surveillance networks, with plans to expand; it works in complement and cooperatively with the World Health Organization (WHO), the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE), and the Food and Animal Organization of the United Nations (FAO). As described in detail elsewhere in this special issue of Emerging Health Threats, each regional network is an alliance of a small number of neighboring countries working across national borders to tackle emerging infectious diseases that require unified regional efforts. Here we describe the history, culture and commitment of CORDS; and the novel and necessary role that CORDS serves in the existing international infectious disease surveillance framework. PMID:23362412

  20. Creating a Global Dialogue on Infectious Disease Surveillance: Connecting Organizations for Regional Disease Surveillance (CORDS)

    PubMed Central

    Gresham, Louise S.; Smolinski, Mark S.; Suphanchaimat, Rapeepong; Kimball, Ann Marie; Wibulpolprasert, Suwit

    2013-01-01

    Connecting Organizations for Regional Disease Surveillance (CORDS) is an international non-governmental organization focused on information exchange between disease surveillance networks in different areas of the world. By linking regional disease surveillance networks, CORDS builds a trust-based social fabric of experts who share best practices, surveillance tools and strategies, training courses, and innovations. CORDS exemplifies the shifting patterns of international collaboration needed to prevent, detect, and counter all types of biological dangers – not just naturally occurring infectious diseases, but also terrorist threats. Representing a network-of-networks approach, the mission of CORDS is to link regional disease surveillance networks to improve global capacity to respond to infectious diseases. CORDS is an informal governance cooperative with six founding regional disease surveillance networks, with plans to expand; it works in complement and cooperatively with the World Health Organization (WHO), the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE), and the Food and Animal Organization of the United Nations (FAO). As described in detail elsewhere in this special issue of Emerging Health Threats, each regional network is an alliance of a small number of neighboring countries working across national borders to tackle emerging infectious diseases that require unified regional efforts. Here we describe the history, culture and commitment of CORDS; and the novel and necessary role that CORDS serves in the existing international infectious disease surveillance framework. PMID:23362412